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Sample records for cardiovascular risk prediction

  1. Subclinical organ damage and cardiovascular risk prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehestedt, Thomas; Olsen, Michael H

    2010-01-01

    measuring subclinical organ damage. We have (i) reviewed recent studies linking markers of subclinical organ damage in the heart, blood vessels and kidney to cardiovascular risk; (ii) discussed the evidence for improvement in cardiovascular risk prediction using markers of subclinical organ damage; (iii...

  2. Cardiovascular risk prediction in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dis, van S.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: In clinical practice, Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) risk prediction functions and charts are used to identify persons at high risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), who are considered eligible for drug treatment of elevated blood pressure and serum cholesterol. These funct

  3. Lipoprotein metabolism indicators improve cardiovascular risk prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Cardiovascular disease risk increases when lipoprotein metabolism is dysfunctional. We have developed a computational model able to derive indicators of lipoprotein production, lipolysis, and uptake processes from a single lipoprotein profile measurement. This is the first study to inves...

  4. Cardiovascular risk assessment - From individual risk prediction to estimation of global risk and change in risk in the population

    OpenAIRE

    Batsis John A; Lopez-Jimenez Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death and risk prediction formulae such as the Framingham Risk Score have been developed to easily identify patients at high risk that may require therapeutic interventions. Discussion Using cardiovascular risk formulae at a population level to estimate and compare average cardiovascular risk among groups has been recently proposed as a way to facilitate surveillance of net cardiovascular risk and target public health inte...

  5. Classical and Novel Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Risk Prediction in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Folsom, Aaron R.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk prediction models based on classical risk factors identified in epidemiologic cohort studies are useful in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in individuals. This article briefly reviews aspects of cardiovascular risk prediction in the United States and efforts to evaluate novel risk factors. Even though many novel risk markers have been found to be associated with cardiovascular disease, few appear to improve risk prediction beyond the powerful, classical risk f...

  6. Risk prediction of cardiovascular death based on the QTc interval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jonas B.; Graff, Claus; Rasmussen, Peter V.;

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Using a large, contemporary primary care population we aimed to provide absolute long-term risks of cardiovascular death (CVD) based on the QTc interval and to test whether the QTc interval is of value in risk prediction of CVD on an individual level. METHODS AND RESULTS: Digital electrocar......AIMS: Using a large, contemporary primary care population we aimed to provide absolute long-term risks of cardiovascular death (CVD) based on the QTc interval and to test whether the QTc interval is of value in risk prediction of CVD on an individual level. METHODS AND RESULTS: Digital...... electrocardiograms from 173 529 primary care patients aged 50-90 years were collected during 2001-11. The Framingham formula was used for heart rate-correction of the QT interval. Data on medication, comorbidity, and outcomes were retrieved from administrative registries. During a median follow-up period of 6...... interval resulted in the worst prognosis for men whereas in women, a very short QTc interval was equivalent in risk to a borderline prolonged QTc interval. The effect of the QTc interval on the absolute risk of CVD was most pronounced in the elderly and in those with cardiovascular disease whereas...

  7. In-treatment stroke volume predicts cardiovascular risk in hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønnebakken, Mai T; Gerdts, Eva; Boman, Kurt; Wachtell, Kristian; Dahlöf, Björn; Devereux, Richard B

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate whether lower stroke volume during antihypertensive treatment is a predictor of cardiovascular events independent of left ventricular geometric pattern. Methods: The association between left ventricular stroke volume and combined cardiovascular death, stroke and myocardial infarction...... peripheral resistance, more concentric left ventricular geometry and impaired diastolic relaxation (all P < 0.01). Baseline stroke volume did not predict outcome. However, in time-varying multivariable Cox regression analysis, lower in-treatment left ventricular stroke volume indexed for height2.04 was...... associated with higher risk of cardiovascular events {hazard ratio 1.69 per 1 SD (6 ml/m2.04) lower stroke volume [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.35–2.11], P < 0.001} independent of in-treatment left ventricular mass and concentric geometry and in a secondary model also independent of stress...

  8. Multi-parametric prediction for cardiovascular risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Jorge; de Carvalho, Paulo; Rocha, Teresa; Paredes, Simão; Morais, João

    2016-01-01

    The employment of personal health systems (pHealth) is a valuable concept in the management of chronic diseases, particularly in the context of cardiovascular diseases. By means of a continuous monitoring of the patient it is possible to seamless access multiple sources of data, including physiological signals, providing professionals with a global and reliable view of the patient's status. In practice, it is possible the prompt diagnosis of events, the early prediction of critical events and the implementation of personalized therapies. Furthermore, the information collected during long periods creates new opportunities in the diagnosis of a disease, in its evolution, and in the prediction of possible complications. The focus of this work is the research and implementation of multi-parametric algorithms for data analysis in pHealth context, including data mining techniques as well as physiological signal modelling and processing. In particular, fusion strategies for cardiovascular status evaluation (namely cardiovascular risk assessment and cardiac function estimation) and multi-parametric prediction algorithms for the early detection of cardiovascular events (such as hypertension, syncope and heart failure decompensation) will be addressed. PMID:27225547

  9. Extreme lipoprotein(a) levels and improved cardiovascular risk prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, Pia R; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2013-01-01

    The study tested whether extreme lipoprotein(a) levels and/or corresponding LPA risk genotypes improve myocardial infarction (MI) and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk prediction beyond conventional risk factors.......The study tested whether extreme lipoprotein(a) levels and/or corresponding LPA risk genotypes improve myocardial infarction (MI) and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk prediction beyond conventional risk factors....

  10. Cardiovascular risk prediction: the old has given way to the new but at what risk-benefit ratio?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeboah J

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Joseph Yeboah Heart and Vascular Center of Excellence, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA Abstract: The ultimate goal of cardiovascular risk prediction is to identify individuals in the population to whom the application or administration of current proven lifestyle modifications and medicinal therapies will result in reduction in cardiovascular disease events and minimal adverse effects (net benefit to society. The use of cardiovascular risk prediction tools dates back to 1976 when the Framingham coronary heart disease risk score was published. Since then a lot of novel risk markers have been identified and other cardiovascular risk prediction tools have been developed to either improve or replace the Framingham Risk Score (FRS. In 2013, the new atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk estimator was published by the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association to replace the FRS for cardiovascular risk prediction. It is too soon to know the performance of the new atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk estimator. The risk-benefit ratio for preventive therapy (lifestyle modifications, statin +/− aspirin based on cardiovascular disease risk assessed using the FRS is unknown but it was assumed to be a net benefit. Should we also assume the risk-benefit ratio for the new atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk estimator is also a net benefit? Keywords: risk prediction, prevention, cardiovascular disease

  11. Use of Chronic Kidney Disease to Enhance Prediction of Cardiovascular Risk in Those at Medium Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Chia, Yook Chin; Lim, Hooi Min; Ching, Siew Mooi

    2015-01-01

    Based on global cardiovascular (CV) risk assessment for example using the Framingham risk score, it is recommended that those with high risk should be treated and those with low risk should not be treated. The recommendation for those of medium risk is less clear and uncertain. We aimed to determine whether factoring in chronic kidney disease (CKD) will improve CV risk prediction in those with medium risk. This is a 10-year retrospective cohort study of 905 subjects in a primary care clinic s...

  12. Use of Chronic Kidney Disease to Enhance Prediction of Cardiovascular Risk in Those at Medium Risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yook Chin Chia

    Full Text Available Based on global cardiovascular (CV risk assessment for example using the Framingham risk score, it is recommended that those with high risk should be treated and those with low risk should not be treated. The recommendation for those of medium risk is less clear and uncertain. We aimed to determine whether factoring in chronic kidney disease (CKD will improve CV risk prediction in those with medium risk. This is a 10-year retrospective cohort study of 905 subjects in a primary care clinic setting. Baseline CV risk profile and serum creatinine in 1998 were captured from patients record. Framingham general cardiovascular disease risk score (FRS for each patient was computed. All cardiovascular disease (CVD events from 1998-2007 were captured. Overall, patients with CKD had higher FRS risk score (25.9% vs 20%, p = 0.001 and more CVD events (22.3% vs 11.9%, p = 0.002 over a 10-year period compared to patients without CKD. In patients with medium CV risk, there was no significant difference in the FRS score among those with and without CKD (14.4% vs 14.6%, p = 0.84 However, in this same medium risk group, patients with CKD had more CV events compared to those without CKD (26.7% vs 6.6%, p = 0.005. This is in contrast to patients in the low and high risk group where there was no difference in CVD events whether these patients had or did not have CKD. There were more CV events in the Framingham medium risk group when they also had CKD compared those in the same risk group without CKD. Hence factoring in CKD for those with medium risk helps to further stratify and identify those who are actually at greater risk, when treatment may be more likely to be indicated.

  13. Use of Chronic Kidney Disease to Enhance Prediction of Cardiovascular Risk in Those at Medium Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Yook Chin; Lim, Hooi Min; Ching, Siew Mooi

    2015-01-01

    Based on global cardiovascular (CV) risk assessment for example using the Framingham risk score, it is recommended that those with high risk should be treated and those with low risk should not be treated. The recommendation for those of medium risk is less clear and uncertain. We aimed to determine whether factoring in chronic kidney disease (CKD) will improve CV risk prediction in those with medium risk. This is a 10-year retrospective cohort study of 905 subjects in a primary care clinic setting. Baseline CV risk profile and serum creatinine in 1998 were captured from patients record. Framingham general cardiovascular disease risk score (FRS) for each patient was computed. All cardiovascular disease (CVD) events from 1998-2007 were captured. Overall, patients with CKD had higher FRS risk score (25.9% vs 20%, p = 0.001) and more CVD events (22.3% vs 11.9%, p = 0.002) over a 10-year period compared to patients without CKD. In patients with medium CV risk, there was no significant difference in the FRS score among those with and without CKD (14.4% vs 14.6%, p = 0.84) However, in this same medium risk group, patients with CKD had more CV events compared to those without CKD (26.7% vs 6.6%, p = 0.005). This is in contrast to patients in the low and high risk group where there was no difference in CVD events whether these patients had or did not have CKD. There were more CV events in the Framingham medium risk group when they also had CKD compared those in the same risk group without CKD. Hence factoring in CKD for those with medium risk helps to further stratify and identify those who are actually at greater risk, when treatment may be more likely to be indicated. PMID:26496190

  14. A novel risk score to predict cardiovascular disease risk in national populations (Globorisk)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajifathalian, Kaveh; Ueda, Peter; Lu, Yuan;

    2015-01-01

    , diabetes, and total cholesterol, and allowed the effects of sex and age on cardiovascular disease to vary between cohorts or countries. We developed risk equations for fatal cardiovascular disease and for fatal plus non-fatal cardiovascular disease. We validated the risk equations internally and also using...... regions (China, Czech Republic, Denmark, England, Iran, Japan, Malawi, Mexico, South Korea, Spain, and USA). FINDINGS: The risk score discriminated well in internal and external validations, with C statistics generally 70% or more. At any age and risk factor level, the estimated 10 year fatal....... Conversely, the proportion of people at high risk of fatal cardiovascular disease was largest in China and Mexico. In China, 33% of men and 28% of women had a 10-year risk of fatal cardiovascular disease of 10% or more, whereas in Mexico, the prevalence of this high risk was 16% for men and 11% for women...

  15. Body Composition Indices and Predicted Cardiovascular Disease Risk Profile among Urban Dwellers in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study aims to compare various body composition indices and their association with a predicted cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profile in an urban population in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, in 2012. Households were selected using a simple random-sampling method, and adult members were invited for medical screening. The Framingham Risk Scoring algorithm was used to predict CVD risk, which was t...

  16. Prediction of Cardiovascular Disease Risk among Low-Income Urban Dwellers in Metropolitan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Tin Tin Su; Mohammadreza Amiri; Farizah Mohd Hairi; Nithiah Thangiah; Awang Bulgiba; Hazreen Abdul Majid

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to predict the ten-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among low-income urban dwellers of metropolitan Malaysia. Participants were selected from a cross-sectional survey conducted in Kuala Lumpur. To assess the 10-year CVD risk, we employed the Framingham risk scoring (FRS) models. Significant determinants of the ten-year CVD risk were identified using General Linear Model (GLM). Altogether 882 adults (≥30 years old with no CVD history) were randomly selected. The classic FRS mode...

  17. A systematic review on the application of cardiovascular risk prediction models in pharmacoeconomics, with a focus on primary prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevanovic, Jelena; Postma, Maarten J.; Pechlivanoglou, Petros

    2012-01-01

    Background: Long-term trials on the effectiveness of pharmacological treatment for primary cardiovascular disease prevention are scant. For that reason risk prediction models are used as a tool to project changes in cardiovascular disease incidence due to changes in risk factor levels observed in sh

  18. Predictive Value of Cardiovascular Risk Factors for Risk Assessment in Cohort of Shiraz Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ ZibaeeNezhad

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Risk assessment for fast growing burden of cardiovascular diseases is very important and dif- ficult. As a response to this challenge, in particular, genetic risk factors which potentially modify risk, we conducted a survey of primary data registry of Shiraz Heart Study on integration and application of family history data in prevention of cardiovascular disorders.Method: This study is a longitudinal cohort project to be extended from subpopulations of different job groups to the community.Results: Parental family history of MI, diabetes mellitus (DM, hyperlipidemia (HPL, hypertension (HTN was reported more frequently among females than males. Histories of MI, DM, HPL, and HTN in both parents were respectively positive in 2.6%, 2%, 4.6%, and 7.9 % of the participants. Odd ratios (OR for risk of MI from family history of MI were 2.7; risk of DM from family history of DM 4.5; risk of HPL from family history of HPL 2.04; and risk of HTN from family history HTN 4.7. Also, family history of MI modifies risk of HPL (OR=1.7, P<0.0001; and family history of DM modifies risk of HPL (OR=2.04, P<0.0001.Conclusion: Our primary result shows potent application of family history data in risk assessment of cardiovascular outcome. In particular, HTN appears as a silent and leading risk modifier. In regard to the course of continuing Shiraz Heart Study integration of family history of risk factors crucial in public health we suggest to adopt a network of electronic health records from the “Health House” to the “Heart House”.

  19. Cardiovascular disease risk score prediction models for women and its applicability to Asians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh LGH

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Louise GH Goh,1 Satvinder S Dhaliwal,1 Timothy A Welborn,2 Peter L Thompson,2–4 Bruce R Maycock,1 Deborah A Kerr,1 Andy H Lee,1 Dean Bertolatti,1 Karin M Clark,1 Rakhshanda Naheed,1 Ranil Coorey,1 Phillip R Della5 1School of Public Health, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia; 2Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Perth, WA, Australia; 3School of Population Health, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia; 4Harry Perkins Institute for Medical Research, Perth, WA, Australia; 5School of Nursing and Midwifery, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia Purpose: Although elevated cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors are associated with a higher risk of developing heart conditions across all ethnic groups, variations exist between groups in the distribution and association of risk factors, and also risk levels. This study assessed the 10-year predicted risk in a multiethnic cohort of women and compared the differences in risk between Asian and Caucasian women. Methods: Information on demographics, medical conditions and treatment, smoking behavior, dietary behavior, and exercise patterns were collected. Physical measurements were also taken. The 10-year risk was calculated using the Framingham model, SCORE (Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation risk chart for low risk and high risk regions, the general CVD, and simplified general CVD risk score models in 4,354 females aged 20–69 years with no heart disease, diabetes, or stroke at baseline from the third Australian Risk Factor Prevalence Study. Country of birth was used as a surrogate for ethnicity. Nonparametric statistics were used to compare risk levels between ethnic groups. Results: Asian women generally had lower risk of CVD when compared to Caucasian women. The 10-year predicted risk was, however, similar between Asian and Australian women, for some models. These findings were

  20. Estimation of the Cardiovascular Risk Using World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH) Risk Prediction Charts in a Rural Population of South India

    OpenAIRE

    Arun Gangadhar Ghorpade; Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava; Sitanshu Sekhar Kar; Sonali Sarkar; Sumanth Mallikarjuna Majgi; Gautam Roy

    2015-01-01

    Background World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH) charts have been employed to predict the risk of cardiovascular outcome in heterogeneous settings. The aim of this research is to assess the prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) risk factors and to estimate the cardiovascular risk among adults aged >40 years, utilizing the risk charts alone, and by the addition of other parameters. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in two o...

  1. The contribution of educational class in improving accuracy of cardiovascular risk prediction across European regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrario, Marco M; Veronesi, Giovanni; Chambless, Lloyd E;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether educational class, an index of socioeconomic position, improves the accuracy of the SCORE cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction equation. METHODS: In a pooled analysis of 68 455 40-64-year-old men and women, free from coronary heart disease at baseline, from 47...... prospective population-based cohorts from Nordic countries (Finland, Denmark, Sweden), the UK (Northern Ireland, Scotland), Central Europe (France, Germany, Italy) and Eastern Europe (Lithuania, Poland) and Russia, we assessed improvements in discrimination and in risk classification (net reclassification......) to 2.1 (Eastern Europe and Russia). After adjustment for the SCORE risk, the association remained statistically significant overall, in the UK and Eastern Europe and Russia. Education significantly improved discrimination in all European regions and classification in Nordic countries (clinical NRI=5...

  2. Electrocardiographic Changes Improve Risk Prediction in Asymptomatic Persons Age 65 Years or Above Without Cardiovascular Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Godsk; Jensen, Jan S; Marott, Jacob L;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Risk prediction in elderly patients is increasingly relevant due to longer life expectancy. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to examine whether electrocardiographic (ECG) changes provide prognostic information incremental to current risk models and to the conventional risk factors. METHODS......: In all, 6,991 participants from the Copenhagen Heart Study attending an examination at age ≥65 years were included. ECG changes were defined as Q waves, ST-segment depression, T-wave changes, ventricular conduction defects, and left ventricular hypertrophy based on the Minnesota code. The primary...... endpoint was fatal cardiovascular disease (CVD) event and the secondary was fatal or nonfatal CVD event. In our study, 2,236 fatal CVD and 3,849 fatal or nonfatal CVD events occurred during a median of 11.9 and 9.8 years of follow-up. RESULTS: ECG changes were frequently present (30.6%) and associated with...

  3. Sex hormone-binding globulin levels predict insulin sensitivity, disposition index, and cardiovascular risk during puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Aksglaede, Lise; Munch-Andersen, Thor;

    2009-01-01

    Early puberty is associated with increased risk of subsequent cardiovascular disease. Low sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels are a feature of early puberty and of conditions associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The aim of the present study was to evaluate SHBG as a predictor of...

  4. Prediction of cardiovascular disease risk among low-income urban dwellers in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tin Tin; Amiri, Mohammadreza; Mohd Hairi, Farizah; Thangiah, Nithiah; Bulgiba, Awang; Majid, Hazreen Abdul

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to predict the ten-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among low-income urban dwellers of metropolitan Malaysia. Participants were selected from a cross-sectional survey conducted in Kuala Lumpur. To assess the 10-year CVD risk, we employed the Framingham risk scoring (FRS) models. Significant determinants of the ten-year CVD risk were identified using General Linear Model (GLM). Altogether 882 adults (≥30 years old with no CVD history) were randomly selected. The classic FRS model (figures in parentheses are from the modified model) revealed that 20.5% (21.8%) and 38.46% (38.9%) of respondents were at high and moderate risk of CVD. The GLM models identified the importance of education, occupation, and marital status in predicting the future CVD risk. Our study indicated that one out of five low-income urban dwellers has high chance of having CVD within ten years. Health care expenditure, other illness related costs and loss of productivity due to CVD would worsen the current situation of low-income urban population. As such, the public health professionals and policy makers should establish substantial effort to formulate the public health policy and community-based intervention to minimize the upcoming possible high mortality and morbidity due to CVD among the low-income urban dwellers. PMID:25821810

  5. Prediction of Cardiovascular Disease Risk among Low-Income Urban Dwellers in Metropolitan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tin Tin Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to predict the ten-year cardiovascular disease (CVD risk among low-income urban dwellers of metropolitan Malaysia. Participants were selected from a cross-sectional survey conducted in Kuala Lumpur. To assess the 10-year CVD risk, we employed the Framingham risk scoring (FRS models. Significant determinants of the ten-year CVD risk were identified using General Linear Model (GLM. Altogether 882 adults (≥30 years old with no CVD history were randomly selected. The classic FRS model (figures in parentheses are from the modified model revealed that 20.5% (21.8% and 38.46% (38.9% of respondents were at high and moderate risk of CVD. The GLM models identified the importance of education, occupation, and marital status in predicting the future CVD risk. Our study indicated that one out of five low-income urban dwellers has high chance of having CVD within ten years. Health care expenditure, other illness related costs and loss of productivity due to CVD would worsen the current situation of low-income urban population. As such, the public health professionals and policy makers should establish substantial effort to formulate the public health policy and community-based intervention to minimize the upcoming possible high mortality and morbidity due to CVD among the low-income urban dwellers.

  6. Application of cardiovascular disease risk prediction models and the relevance of novel biomarkers to risk stratification in Asian Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kanjilal

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available S Kanjilal1, VS Rao1, M Mukherjee1, BK Natesha1, KS Renuka1, K Sibi1, SS Iyengar1, Vijay V Kakkar1,21Tata Proteomics and Coagulation Department, Thrombosis Research Institute, Bangalore, Narayana Hrudayalaya Hospital, Bangalore, Karnataka, India; 2Thrombosis Research Institute, London, UKAbstract: The increasing pressure on health resources has led to the emergence of risk assessment as an essential tool in the management of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Concern exists regarding the validity of their generalization to all populations. Existing risk scoring models do not incorporate emerging ‘novel’ risk factors. In this context, the aim of the study was to examine the relevance of British, European, and Framingham predictive CVD risk scores to the asymptomatic high risk Indian population. Blood samples drawn from the participants were analyzed for various ‘traditional’ and ‘novel’ biomarkers, and their CVD risk factor profiling was also done. The Framingham model defined only 5% of the study cohort to be at high risk, which appears to be an underestimation of CVD risk in this genetically predisposed population. These subjects at high risk had significantly elevated levels of lipid, pro-inflammatory, pro-thrombotic, and serological markers. It is more relevant to develop risk predictive scores for application to the Indian population. This study substantiates the argument that alternative approaches to risk stratification are required in order to make them more adaptable and applicable to different populations with varying risk factor and disease patterns.Keywords: atherosclerosis, risk factors, risk score, Framingham, plasma biomarkers

  7. Application of cardiovascular disease risk prediction models and the relevance of novel biomarkers to risk stratification in Asian Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kanjilal

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available S Kanjilal1, VS Rao1, M Mukherjee1, BK Natesha1, KS Renuka1, K Sibi1, SS Iyengar1, Vijay V Kakkar1,21Tata Proteomics and Coagulation Department, Thrombosis Research Institute, Bangalore, Narayana Hrudayalaya Hospital, Bangalore, Karnataka, India; 2Thrombosis Research Institute, London, UKAbstract: The increasing pressure on health resources has led to the emergence of risk assessment as an essential tool in the management of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Concern exists regarding the validity of their generalization to all populations. Existing risk scoring models do not incorporate emerging ‘novel’ risk factors. In this context, the aim of the study was to examine the relevance of British, European, and Framingham predictive CVD risk scores to the asymptomatic high risk Indian population. Blood samples drawn from the participants were analyzed for various ‘traditional’ and ‘novel’ biomarkers, and their CVD risk factor profiling was also done. The Framingham model defined only 5% of the study cohort to be at high risk, which appears to be an underestimation of CVD risk in this genetically predisposed population. These subjects at high risk had significantly elevated levels of lipid, pro-inflammatory, pro-thrombotic, and serological markers. It is more relevant to develop risk predictive scores for application to the Indian population. This study substantiates the argument that alternative approaches to risk stratification are required in order to make them more adaptable and applicable to different populations with varying risk factor and disease patterns.Keywords: atherosclerosis, risk factors, risk score, Framingham, plasma biomarkers

  8. Use of Framingham risk score and new biomarkers to predict cardiovascular mortality in older people: population based observational cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    de Ruijter, Wouter; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.; Assendelft, Willem J J; Wendy P J den Elzen; Anton J M de Craen; le Cessie, Saskia; Gussekloo, Jacobijn

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the performance of classic risk factors, and of some new biomarkers, in predicting cardiovascular mortality in very old people from the general population with no history of cardiovascular disease. Design The Leiden 85-plus Study (1997-2004) is an observational prospective cohort study with 5 years of follow-up. Setting General population of the city of Leiden, the Netherlands. Participants Population based sample of participants aged 85 years (215 women and 87 men) ...

  9. Growth hormone deficiency predicts cardiovascular risk in young adults treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Katarina; Moëll, Christian; Garwicz, Stanislaw; Cavallin-Ståhl, Eva; Björk, Jonas; Thilén, Ulf; Ahrén, Bo; Erfurth, Eva Marie

    2004-10-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common childhood malignancy, and until recently prophylactic cranial radiotherapy (CRT) was important for achieving long-term survival. Hypothalamic-pituitary hormone insufficiency is a well-recognized consequence of CRT for childhood cancer. Another problem is increased cardiovascular risk, which has been shown in long-term survivors of other childhood cancers. In the only previously reported study on cardiovascular risk after childhood ALL, obesity and dyslipidemia were recorded in a small subgroup treated with CRT, compared with patients treated with chemotherapy. The mechanisms behind the increase in cardiovascular risk in survivors of childhood cancer are not clarified. The aim of the present study was to elucidate mechanisms of increased cardiovascular risk in former childhood ALL patients. A group of 44 ALL survivors (23 males, median age 25 yr, range 19-32 yr at the time of study) treated with CRT (median 24 Gy, 18-30 Gy) at a median age of 5 yr (1-18 yr) and chemotherapy were investigated for prevalence of GH deficiency and cardiovascular risk factors. Comparison was made with controls randomly selected from the general population and individually matched for sex, age, smoking habits, and residence. All patients and controls underwent a GHRH-arginine test, and patients with a peak GH 3.9 microg/liter or greater were further investigated with an additional insulin tolerance test. Significantly higher plasma levels of insulin (P = 0.002), blood glucose (P = 0.01), and serum levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein (Apo) B, triglycerides, fibrinogen, and leptin (all P childhood ALL patients, a significant increase in cardiovascular risk factors was recorded. We suggest that GH deficiency, induced by CRT, is a primary cause for this because strong correlations between the stimulated GH peak and several of the cardiovascular risk factors were observed. PMID:15472198

  10. Estimation of the Cardiovascular Risk Using World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH Risk Prediction Charts in a Rural Population of South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Gangadhar Ghorpade

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH charts have been employed to predict the risk of cardiovascular outcome in heterogeneous settings. The aim of this research is to assess the prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD risk factors and to estimate the cardiovascular risk among adults aged >40 years, utilizing the risk charts alone, and by the addition of other parameters. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in two of the villages availing health services of a medical college. Overall 570 subjects completed the assessment. The desired information was obtained using a pretested questionnaire and participants were also subjected to anthropometric measurements and laboratory investigations. The WHO/ISH risk prediction charts for the South-East Asian region was used to assess the cardiovascular risk among the study participants. Results The study covered 570 adults aged above 40 years. The mean age of the subjects was 54.2 (±11.1 years and 53.3% subjects were women. Seventeen percent of the participants had moderate to high risk for the occurrence of cardiovascular events by using WHO/ISH risk prediction charts. In addition, CVD risk factors like smoking, alcohol, low High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol were found in 32%, 53%, 56.3%, and 61.5% study participants, respectively. Conclusion Categorizing people as low (20% risk is one of the crucial steps to mitigate the magnitude of cardiovascular fatal/non-fatal outcome. This cross-sectional study indicates that there is a high burden of CVD risk in the rural Pondicherry as assessed by WHO/ISH risk prediction charts. Use of WHO/ISH charts is easy and inexpensive screening tool in predicting the cardiovascular event.

  11. Estimation of the cardiovascular risk using World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH) risk prediction charts in a rural population of South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorpade, Arun Gangadhar; Shrivastava, Saurabh RamBihariLal; Kar, Sitanshu Sekhar; Sarkar, Sonali; Majgi, Sumanth Mallikarjuna; Roy, Gautam

    2015-01-01

    Background: World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH) charts have been employed to predict the risk of cardiovascular outcome in heterogeneous settings. The aim of this research is to assess the prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) risk factors and to estimate the cardiovascular risk among adults aged >40 years, utilizing the risk charts alone, and by the addition of other parameters. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in two of the villages availing health services of a medical college. Overall 570 subjects completed the assessment. The desired information was obtained using a pre-tested questionnaire and participants were also subjected to anthropometric measurements and laboratory investigations. The WHO/ISH risk prediction charts for the South-East Asian region was used to assess the cardiovascular risk among the study participants. Results: The study covered 570 adults aged above 40 years. The mean age of the subjects was 54.2 (±11.1) years and 53.3% subjects were women. Seventeen percent of the participants had moderate to high risk for the occurrence of cardiovascular events by using WHO/ISH risk prediction charts. In addition, CVD risk factors like smoking, alcohol, low High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were found in 32%, 53%, 56.3%, and 61.5% study participants, respectively. Conclusion: Categorizing people as low (20%) risk is one of the crucial steps to mitigate the magnitude of cardiovascular fatal/non-fatal outcome. This cross-sectional study indicates that there is a high burden of CVD risk in the rural Pondicherry as assessed by WHO/ISH risk prediction charts. Use of WHO/ISH charts is easy and inexpensive screening tool in predicting the cardiovascular event PMID:26340393

  12. Circulating biomarkers for predicting cardiovascular disease risk; a systematic review and comprehensive overview of meta-analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thijs C van Holten

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is one of the major causes of death worldwide. Assessing the risk for cardiovascular disease is an important aspect in clinical decision making and setting a therapeutic strategy, and the use of serological biomarkers may improve this. Despite an overwhelming number of studies and meta-analyses on biomarkers and cardiovascular disease, there are no comprehensive studies comparing the relevance of each biomarker. We performed a systematic review of meta-analyses on levels of serological biomarkers for atherothrombosis to compare the relevance of the most commonly studied biomarkers. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Medline and Embase were screened on search terms that were related to "arterial ischemic events" and "meta-analyses". The meta-analyses were sorted by patient groups without pre-existing cardiovascular disease, with cardiovascular disease and heterogeneous groups concerning general populations, groups with and without cardiovascular disease, or miscellaneous. These were subsequently sorted by end-point for cardiovascular disease or stroke and summarized in tables. We have identified 85 relevant full text articles, with 214 meta-analyses. Markers for primary cardiovascular events include, from high to low result: C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, the apolipoprotein A/apolipoprotein B ratio, high density lipoprotein, and vitamin D. Markers for secondary cardiovascular events include, from high to low result: cardiac troponins I and T, C-reactive protein, serum creatinine, and cystatin C. For primary stroke, fibrinogen and serum uric acid are strong risk markers. Limitations reside in that there is no acknowledged search strategy for prognostic studies or meta-analyses. CONCLUSIONS: For primary cardiovascular events, markers with strong predictive potential are mainly associated with lipids. For secondary cardiovascular events, markers are more associated with ischemia. Fibrinogen is a

  13. Prevalence of cardiovascular risks factors and 10 year predictions of coronary heart disease in seafarers of Pertamina shipping (Indonesia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purnawarma, Irwin GNI; Jensen, Olaf Chresten; Canals, ML;

    2011-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease is (CVD) is becoming a major health problem in the world and they have to be taken into account in shipping companies. Employees and Company management should be aware of the dangers and implications, CVD can bring. Objectives To obtain the prevalence of...... cardiovascular risk factors and to evaluate the 10 year prediction of Coronary Heart Disease in both seafarers and onshore workers at Pertamina Shipping. Methods This is a cross sectional study using data of periodical Medical Fitness Examinations in 2009 among 348 active male seafarers and onshore workers......, between ages of 40 - 55 years old working at Pertamina Shipping. A 10 year coronary risk is also evaluated and comparison of the risk is made between the two groups using Fisher's exact values. Results Assessment cardiovascular risk factors of 348 male seafarers and onshore worker were done. The dominant...

  14. Implications of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment Using the WHO/ISH Risk Prediction Charts in Rural India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghu, Arvind; Praveen, Devarsetty; Peiris, David; Tarassenko, Lionel; Clifford, Gari

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in India is currently assessed using the World Health Organization/International Society for Hypertension (WHO/ISH) risk prediction charts since no population-specific models exist. The WHO/ISH risk prediction charts have two versions—one with total cholesterol as a predictor (the high information (HI) model) and the other without (the low information (LI) model). However, information on the WHO/ISH risk prediction charts including guidance on which version to use and when, as well as relative performance of the LI and HI models, is limited. This article aims to, firstly, quantify the relative performance of the LI and HI WHO/ISH risk prediction (for WHO-South East Asian Region D) using data from rural India. Secondly, we propose a pre-screening (simplified) point-of-care (POC) test to identify patients who are likely to benefit from a total cholesterol (TC) test, and subsequently when the LI model is preferential to HI model. Analysis was performed using cross-sectional data from rural Andhra Pradesh collected in 2005 with recorded blood cholesterol measurements (N = 1066). CVD risk was computed using both LI and HI models, and high risk individuals who needed treatment(THR) were subsequently identified based on clinical guidelines. Model development for the POC assessment of a TC test was performed through three machine learning techniques: Support Vector Machine (SVM), Regularised Logistic Regression (RLR), and Random Forests (RF) along with a feature selection process. Disagreement in CVD risk predicted by LI and HI WHO/ISH models was 14.5% (n = 155; p<0.01) overall and comprised 36 clinically relevant THR patients (31% of patients identified as THR by using either model). Using two patient-specific parameters (age, systolic blood pressure), our POC assessment can pre-determine the benefit of TC testing and choose the appropriate risk model (out-of-sample AUCs:RF-0.85,SVM-0.84,RLR:0.82 and maximum sensitivity-98%). The

  15. Implications of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment Using the WHO/ISH Risk Prediction Charts in Rural India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Raghu

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD risk in India is currently assessed using the World Health Organization/International Society for Hypertension (WHO/ISH risk prediction charts since no population-specific models exist. The WHO/ISH risk prediction charts have two versions-one with total cholesterol as a predictor (the high information (HI model and the other without (the low information (LI model. However, information on the WHO/ISH risk prediction charts including guidance on which version to use and when, as well as relative performance of the LI and HI models, is limited. This article aims to, firstly, quantify the relative performance of the LI and HI WHO/ISH risk prediction (for WHO-South East Asian Region D using data from rural India. Secondly, we propose a pre-screening (simplified point-of-care (POC test to identify patients who are likely to benefit from a total cholesterol (TC test, and subsequently when the LI model is preferential to HI model. Analysis was performed using cross-sectional data from rural Andhra Pradesh collected in 2005 with recorded blood cholesterol measurements (N = 1066. CVD risk was computed using both LI and HI models, and high risk individuals who needed treatment(THR were subsequently identified based on clinical guidelines. Model development for the POC assessment of a TC test was performed through three machine learning techniques: Support Vector Machine (SVM, Regularised Logistic Regression (RLR, and Random Forests (RF along with a feature selection process. Disagreement in CVD risk predicted by LI and HI WHO/ISH models was 14.5% (n = 155; p<0.01 overall and comprised 36 clinically relevant THR patients (31% of patients identified as THR by using either model. Using two patient-specific parameters (age, systolic blood pressure, our POC assessment can pre-determine the benefit of TC testing and choose the appropriate risk model (out-of-sample AUCs:RF-0.85,SVM-0.84,RLR:0.82 and maximum sensitivity-98%. The

  16. Novel Functional Risk Factors for the Prediction of Cardiovascular Events in Vulnerable Patients Following Acute Coronary Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Reriani, Martin K.; Flammer, Andreas J.; Jama, Abdi; Lerman, Lilach O.; Lerman, Amir

    2012-01-01

    Over the years there has been considerable improvement in the clinical outcomes of patients treated for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Despite a significant reduction in acute mortality, a large percentage of patients post ACS continue to experience adverse cardiovascular (CV) events, with high long-term mortality rates and overall suboptimal medical management. Long-term risk prediction tools rely on traditional CV risk factors and are developed and validated in specific populations. Establi...

  17. Risk Prediction of Cardiovascular Complications in Pregnant Women With Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Carvalho Martins

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Heart disease in pregnancy is the leading cause of non- obstetric maternal death. Few Brazilian studies have assessed the impact of heart disease during pregnancy. Objective: To determine the risk factors associated with cardiovascular and neonatal complications. Methods: We evaluated 132 pregnant women with heart disease at a High-Risk Pregnancy outpatient clinic, from January 2005 to July 2010. Variables that could influence the maternal-fetal outcome were selected: age, parity, smoking, etiology and severity of the disease, previous cardiac complications, cyanosis, New York Heart Association (NYHA functional class > II, left ventricular dysfunction/obstruction, arrhythmia, drug treatment change, time of prenatal care beginning and number of prenatal visits. The maternal-fetal risk index, Cardiac Disease in Pregnancy (CARPREG, was retrospectively calculated at the beginning of prenatal care, and patients were stratified in its three risk categories. Results: Rheumatic heart disease was the most prevalent (62.12%. The most frequent complications were heart failure (11.36% and arrhythmias (6.82%. Factors associated with cardiovascular complications on multivariate analysis were: drug treatment change (p = 0.009, previous cardiac complications (p = 0.013 and NYHA class III on the first prenatal visit (p = 0.041. The cardiovascular complication rates were 15.22% in CARPREG 0, 16.42% in CARPREG 1, and 42.11% in CARPREG > 1, differing from those estimated by the original index: 5%, 27% and 75%, respectively. This sample had 26.36% of prematurity. Conclusion: The cardiovascular complication risk factors in this population were drug treatment change, previous cardiac complications and NYHA class III at the beginning of prenatal care. The CARPREG index used in this sample composed mainly of patients with rheumatic heart disease overestimated the number of events in pregnant women classified as CARPREG 1 and > 1, and underestimated

  18. Predictive value of ovarian stroma measurement for cardiovascular risk in polycyctic ovary syndrome: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loverro Giuseppe

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To verify the feasibility of ovarian stromal evaluation and correlate ovarian parameteres (echogenicity and volume with hyperandrogenism, and both cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors in PCOS. Methods Twenty four young PCOS patients and twelve age-matched control women were enrolled. Diagnosis of PCOS was based on the Rotterdam criteria. Ultrasound ovarian study included ovarian volume, stromal volume, stromal area and stromal area/total ovarian area ratio (S/A. Concerning hormones, insulin, LH, FSH, estradiol, androstenedione, testosterone, DHEAS, 17-hydroxy-progesterone, and SHBG were measured during the early follicular phase (days 2-5. Cardiovascular risk factors were represented by fasting plasma levels of glucose, lipids (total and HDL-cholesterol, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1, von-Willebrand factor (vWF, and adiponectin. Carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT was measured as a parameter of cardiovascular risk. Results A positive correlation between the S/A ratio and plasma levels of testosterone (p Conclusions This study shows that the ultrasound measurement of ovarian stroma is a predicting factor of hyperandrogenism degree, prothrombotic factors and cardiovascular risk in patients with PCOS.

  19. Body Fat Equations and Electrical Bioimpedance Values in Prediction of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Eutrophic and Overweight Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciane Rocha Faria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze body fat anthropometric equations and electrical bioimpedance analysis (BIA in the prediction of cardiovascular risk factors in eutrophic and overweight adolescents. 210 adolescents were divided into eutrophic group (G1 and overweight group (G2. The percentage of body fat (% BF was estimated using 10 body fat anthropometric equations and 2 BIA. We measured lipid profiles, uric acid, insulin, fasting glucose, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, and blood pressure. We found that 76.7% of the adolescents exhibited inadequacy of at least one biochemical parameter or clinical cardiovascular risk. Higher values of triglycerides (TG (P=0.001, insulin, and HOMA-IR (P<0.001 were observed in the G2 adolescents. In multivariate linear regression analysis, the % BF from equation (5 was associated with TG, diastolic blood pressure, and insulin in G1. Among the G2 adolescents, the % BF estimated by (5 and (9 was associated with LDL, TG, insulin, and the HOMA-IR. Body fat anthropometric equations were associated with cardiovascular risk factors and should be used to assess the nutritional status of adolescents. In this study, equation (5 was associated with a higher number of cardiovascular risk factors independent of the nutritional status of adolescents.

  20. Hypertriglyceridemia and waist circumference predict cardiovascular risk among HIV patients: a cross-sectional study.

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    Peter M Janiszewski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although half of HIV-infected patients develop lipodystrophy and metabolic complications, there exists no simple clinical screening tool to discern the high from the low-risk HIV-infected patient. Thus, we evaluated the associations between waist circumference (WC combined with triglyceride (TG levels and the severity of lipodystrophy and cardiovascular risk among HIV-infected men and women. METHODS: 1481 HIV-infected men and 841 HIV-infected women were recruited between 2005 and 2009 at the metabolic clinic of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia in Italy. Within each gender, patients were categorized into 4 groups according to WC and TG levels. Total and regional fat and fat-free mass were assessed by duel-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and visceral adipose tissue (VAT and abdominal subcutaneous AT (SAT were quantified by computed tomography. Various cardiovascular risk factors were assessed in clinic after an overnight fast. RESULTS: The high TG/high WC men had the most VAT (208.0 ± 94.4 cm(2, as well as the highest prevalence of metabolic syndrome (42.2% and type-2 diabetes (16.2%, and the highest Framingham risk score (10.3 ± 6.5 in comparison to other groups (p<0.05 for all. High TG/high WC women also had elevated VAT (150.0 ± 97.9 cm(2 and a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (53.3%, hypertension (30.5% and type-2 diabetes (12.0%, and Framingham risk score(2.9 ± 2.8 by comparison to low TG/low WC women (p<0.05 for all. CONCLUSIONS: A simple tool combining WC and TG levels can discriminate high- from low-risk HIV-infected patients.

  1. Assessment of cardiovascular risk.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2010-10-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of death worldwide. Usually atherosclerosis is caused by the combined effects of multiple risk factors. For this reason, most guidelines on the prevention of CVD stress the assessment of total CVD risk. The most intensive risk factor modification can then be directed towards the individuals who will derive the greatest benefit. To assist the clinician in calculating the effects of these multiple interacting risk factors, a number of risk estimation systems have been developed. This review address several issues regarding total CVD risk assessment: Why should total CVD risk be assessed? What risk estimation systems are available? How well do these systems estimate risk? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the current systems? What are the current limitations of risk estimation systems and how can they be resolved? What new developments have occurred in CVD risk estimation?

  2. Age-specific performance of the revised cardiac risk index for predicting cardiovascular risk in elective noncardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Charlotte; Wissenberg, Mads; Jørgensen, Mads Emil;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The revised cardiac risk index (RCRI) holds a central role in preoperative cardiac risk stratification in noncardiac surgery. Its performance in unselected populations, including different age groups, has, however, not been systematically investigated. We assessed the relationship of...... November 30, 2011) for the 30-day risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, or cardiovascular death). There were 742 of 357,396 (0.2%), 755 of 74.889 (1.0%), 521 of 11,921 (4%), and 257 of 3146 (8%) major adverse cardiovascular events occurring in RCRI classes I......, II, III, and IV. Multivariable odds ratio estimates were as follows: ischemic heart disease 3.30 (95% confidence interval, 2.96-3.69), high-risk surgery 2.70 (2.46-2.96), congestive heart failure 2.65 (2.29-3.06), cerebrovascular disease 10.02 (9.08-11.05), insulin therapy 1.62 (1.37-1.93), and...

  3. Can Dental Pulp Calcification Predict the Risk of Ischemic Cardiovascular Disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Khojastepour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report the association of pulp calcification with that of cardiovascular disease (CVD using digital panoramic dental radiographs.Materials and Methods: Digital panoramic radiographs of patients referred from the angiography department were included if the patient was under 55 years old and had non-restored or minimally restored molars and canines. An oral and maxillofacial radiologist evaluated the images for pulpal calcifications in the selected teeth. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of panoramic radiography in predicting CVD were calculated.Results: Out of 122 patients who met the criteria, 68.2% of the patients with CVD had pulp chamber calcifications. Pulp calcification in panoramic radiography had a sensitivity of 68.9% to predict CVD.Conclusion: This study demonstrates that patients with CVD show an increased incidence of pulp calcification compared with healthy patients. The findings suggest that pulp calcification on panoramic radiography may have possibilities for use in CVD screening.

  4. Maternal smoking during pregnancy predicts adult offspring cardiovascular risk factors - evidence from a community-based large birth cohort study.

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    Abdullah A Mamun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with offspring obesity. However, little is known about whether maternal smoking in pregnancy predicts other offspring cardiovascular risk factors including waist circumference (WC, waist-hip-ratio (WHR, pulse rate (PR, systolic (SBP, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP. METHODS: We studied a sub-sample of 2038 (50% males young adults who were born in Brisbane, Australia to investigate the prospective association of maternal smoking during pregnancy with young adult cardiovascular risk factors. We compared offspring mean BMI, WC, WHR, SBP, DBP and PR and the risk of being overweight and obese at 21 years by three mutually exclusive categories of maternal smoking status defined as never smoked, smoked before and/or after pregnancy but not in pregnancy or smoked during pregnancy and other times. RESULTS: Offspring of mothers who smoked during pregnancy had greater mean BMI, WC, WHR and PR and they were at greater risk of being obese at 21 years compared to offspring of those mothers who never smoked. The mean of these risk factors among those adult offspring whose mothers stopped smoking during pregnancy, but who then smoked at other times in the child's life, were similar to those mothers who never smoked. These results were independent of a range of potential confounding factors. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study suggest a prospective association of maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring obesity as well as PR in adulthood, and reinforce the need to persuade pregnant women not to smoke.

  5. Computed Tomography Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring Review of Evidence Base and Cost-effectiveness in Cardiovascular Risk Prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Morris, Pamela B.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk factor-scoring algorithms may fall short in identifying asymptomatic individuals who will subsequently suffer a coronary event. It is generally thought that evaluation of the extent of the atherosclerotic plaque and total plaque burden can improve cardiovascular risk stratificati

  6. Cardiovascular risk prediction in the general population with use of suPAR, CRP, and Framingham Risk Score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngbæk, Stig; Marott, Jacob L; Sehestedt, Thomas;

    2013-01-01

    men (p=0.034) and borderline significant for women (p=0.054), while the integrated discrimination improvement was highly significant (P≤0.001) for both genders. CONCLUSIONS: suPAR provides prognostic information of CVD risk beyond FRS and improves risk prediction substantially when combined with CRP...

  7. Risk of cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, Michael; Starup-Linde, Jakob; Thomsen, Jan Lykke Scheel;

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Type 2 diabetes (DM) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effects of antidiabetic drugs on the composite endpoint (CE) of ischemic heart disease, heart failure or stroke in DM patients. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study. Cases were DM patients who......% CI: 16.88-24.12), neuropathy (OR=1.39, 95% CI: 1.05-1.85) and peripheral artery disease (OR=1.31, 95% CI: 1.02-1.69) increased the risk of CE. Biguanides (OR=0.62 95% CI; 0.54-0.71) and liraglutide (OR=0.48 95% CI; 0.38-0.62) significantly decreased the risk of CE as did statin treatment (OR=0.63, 95...

  8. Assessment of total cardiovascular risk using WHO/ISH risk prediction charts in three low and middle income countries in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Otgontuya, Dugee; Oum, Sophal; Buckley, Brian S; Bonita, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent research has used cardiovascular risk scores intended to estimate “total cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk” in individuals to assess the distribution of risk within populations. The research suggested that the adoption of the total risk approach, in comparison to treatment decisions being based on the level of a single risk factor, could lead to reductions in expenditure on preventive cardiovascular drug treatment in low- and middle-income countries. So that the patient bene...

  9. Laboratory approaches for predicting and managing the risk of cardiovascular disease: postanalytical opportunities of lipid and lipoprotein testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Michel R

    2012-07-01

    Abstract Lipoprotein-related risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) can be adequately predicted in subjects with elevated total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-)cholesterol using the available guidelines. However, individuals with dyslipidemia can have normal total- and LDL-cholesterol concentrations. Many statin-treated patients remain at high residual risk of CVD despite achieving LDL goals. The small dense LDL phenotype, frequently presenting with hypertriglyceridemia and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL-)cholesterol (lipid triad), may contribute to failure to identify and treat high-risk individuals. Therefore, calculated non-HDL-cholesterol is recommended as secondary therapeutic target to LDL-cholesterol in patients with hypertriglyceridemia and mixed dyslipidemia. On-treatment apolipoprotein B adds prognostic information to LDL- and non-HDL-cholesterol by indicating the total number of atherogenic lipoproteins, regardless of their cholesterol content. Risk may be higher than indicated in the risk estimation systems in additional subjects with elevated lipoprotein(a) and homocysteine concentrations. To improve the (post-)post-analytical phase of lipid tests, aiming for maximal health outcome effectiveness of test interpretation and utilization, laboratory professionals should deliver clinical added value services by providing readily interpreted and guideline-adjusted test reports, interpretative commenting, proactive reflex testing or recommending additional tests, and joining multidisciplinary cooperations in guideline development and cost/benefit studies. PMID:22850050

  10. Cheese and cardiovascular disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Currently, the effect of dairy products on cardiovascular risk is a topic with much debate and conflicting results. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the existing literature regarding the effect of cheese intake and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies included...

  11. Body fat distribution in the Finnish population: environmental determinants and predictive power for cardiovascular risk factor levels.

    OpenAIRE

    Marti, B; Tuomilehto, J; Salomaa, V.; Kartovaara, L.; Korhonen, H.J.; Pietinen, P.

    1991-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to examine (1) whether health habits are associated with body fat distribution, as measured by the waist/hip girth ratio, and (2) to what extent environmental factors, including anthropometric characteristics, explain the variability in levels of cardiovascular risk factors. DESIGN--The study was a population based cross sectional survey, conducted in the spring of 1987 as a part of an international research project on cardiovascular epidemiology. SETTING--The sur...

  12. Microalbuminuria: a Cardiovascular Risk Factor

    OpenAIRE

    ERCAN, Ertuğrul

    2010-01-01

    Albumin is a protein which is charged negatively. By correcting for the daily excretion of creatinine, the albumin creatinin ratio implicates the daily excretion of albumin in spot urine. Albuminuria is a cardiovascular risk factor in patients with diabetes, hypertension, and the general population. Urinary albumin excretion is independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events, even after adjustment for risk factors. Risk has been shown to increase continuously with inc...

  13. Prediction of absolute risk reduction of cardiovascular events with perindopril for individual patients with stable coronary artery disease - results from EUROPA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Leeuw, Joep; Oemrawsingh, Rohit M.; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Brugts, Jasper J.; Deckers, Jaap W.; Bertrand, Michel; Fox, Kim; Ferrari, Roberto; Remme, Willem J.; Simoons, Maarten L.; Boersma, Eric; Visseren, Frank L J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibition reduces the risk of cardiovascular events at a group level. Presumably, the absolute effect of treatment varies between individuals. We sought to develop multivariable prediction scores to estimate individual treatment effect of perindopril in pat

  14. An updated prediction model of the global risk of cardiovascular disease in HIV-positive persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Møller, Nina; Nielsen, Lene Ryom; Smith, Colette;

    2016-01-01

    of the D:A:D models were compared with a recent CVD prediction model from the Framingham study, which was assessed recalibrated to the D:A:D dataset. A total of 1010 CVD events occurred during 186,364.5 person-years. The full D:A:D CVD prediction model included age, gender, systolic blood pressure, smoking...... status, family history of CVD, diabetes, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, CD4 lymphocyte count, cumulative exposure to protease- and nucleoside reverse transcriptase-inhibitors, and current use of abacavir. A reduced model omitted antiretroviral therapies. The D:A:D models statistically...

  15. Role of γ-glutamyl transferase levels in prediction of high cardiovascular risk among patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benan Kasapoglu

    2016-01-01

    among patients with fatty liver disease should be regarded as a sign of increased cardiovascular disease risk. Larger studies are warranted to elucidate the role of GGT in prediction of cardiovascular risk.

  16. Waist circumference cut-off values for the prediction of cardiovascular risk factors clustering in Chinese school-aged children: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Ying

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Waist circumference has been identified as a valuable predictor of cardiovascular risk in children. The development of waist circumference percentiles and cut-offs for various ethnic groups are necessary because of differences in body composition. The purpose of this study was to develop waist circumference percentiles for Chinese children and to explore optimal waist circumference cut-off values for predicting cardiovascular risk factors clustering in this population. Methods Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured in 5529 children (2830 boys and 2699 girls aged 6-12 years randomly selected from southern and northern China. Blood pressure, fasting triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and glucose were obtained in a subsample (n = 1845. Smoothed percentile curves were produced using the LMS method. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis was used to derive the optimal age- and gender-specific waist circumference thresholds for predicting the clustering of cardiovascular risk factors. Results Gender-specific waist circumference percentiles were constructed. The waist circumference thresholds were at the 90th and 84th percentiles for Chinese boys and girls respectively, with sensitivity and specificity ranging from 67% to 83%. The odds ratio of a clustering of cardiovascular risk factors among boys and girls with a higher value than cut-off points was 10.349 (95% confidence interval 4.466 to 23.979 and 8.084 (95% confidence interval 3.147 to 20.767 compared with their counterparts. Conclusions Percentile curves for waist circumference of Chinese children are provided. The cut-off point for waist circumference to predict cardiovascular risk factors clustering is at the 90th and 84th percentiles for Chinese boys and girls, respectively.

  17. Marathon run: cardiovascular adaptation and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predel, Hans-Georg

    2014-11-21

    The first marathon run as an athletic event took place in the context of the Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens, Greece. Today, participation in a 'marathon run' has become a global phenomenon attracting young professional athletes as well as millions of mainly middle-aged amateur athletes worldwide each year. One of the main motives for these amateur marathon runners is the expectation that endurance exercise (EE) delivers profound beneficial health effects. However, with respect to the cardiovascular system, a controversial debate has emerged whether the marathon run itself is healthy or potentially harmful to the cardiovascular system, especially in middle-aged non-elite male amateur runners. In this cohort, exercise-induced increases in cardiac biomarkers-troponin and brain natriuretic peptide-and acute functional cardiac alterations have been observed and interpreted as potential cardiac damage. Furthermore, in the cohort of 40- to 65-year-old males engaged in intensive EE, a significant risk for the development of atrial fibrillation has been identified. Fortunately, recent studies demonstrated a normalization of the cardiac biomarkers and the functional alterations within a short time frame. Therefore, these alterations may be perceived as physiological myocardial reactions to the strenuous exercise and the term 'cardiac fatigue' has been coined. This interpretation is supported by a recent analysis of 10.9 million marathon runners demonstrating that there was no significantly increased overall risk of cardiac arrest during long-distance running races. In conclusion, intensive and long-lasting EE, e.g. running a full-distance Marathon, results in high cardiovascular strain whose clinical relevance especially for middle-aged and older athletes is unclear and remains a matter of controversy. Furthermore, there is a need for evidence-based recommendations with respect to medical screening and training strategies especially in male amateur runners over the age of

  18. Effects of nutrition and exercise health behaviors on predicted risk of cardiovascular disease among workers with different body mass index levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jui-Hua; Huang, Shu-Ling; Li, Ren-Hau; Wang, Ling-Hui; Chen, Yu-Ling; Tang, Feng-Cheng

    2014-05-01

    Workplace health promotion programs should be tailored according to individual needs and efficient intervention. This study aimed to determine the effects of nutrition and exercise health behaviors on predicted risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) when body mass index (BMI) is considered. In total, 3350 Taiwanese workers were included in this cross-sectional study. A self-reported questionnaire was used to measure their nutrition and exercise behaviors. Data on anthropometric values, biochemical blood determinations, and predicted CVD risk (using the Framingham risk score) were collected. In multiple regression analyses, the nutrition behavior score was independently and negatively associated with CVD risk. Exercise was not significantly associated with the risk. However, the interactive effect of exercise and BMI on CVD risk was evident. When stratified by BMI levels, associations between exercise and CVD risk were statistically significant for ideal weight and overweight subgroups. In conclusion, nutrition behavior plays an important role in predicting the CVD risk. Exercise behavior is also a significant predictor for ideal weight and overweight workers. Notably, for underweight or obese workers, maintaining health-promoting exercise seems insufficient to prevent the CVD. In order to improve workers' cardiovascular health, more specific health-promoting strategies should be developed to suit the different BMI levels. PMID:24785541

  19. Effects of Nutrition and Exercise Health Behaviors on Predicted Risk of Cardiovascular Disease among Workers with Different Body Mass Index Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Hua Huang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Workplace health promotion programs should be tailored according to individual needs and efficient intervention. This study aimed to determine the effects of nutrition and exercise health behaviors on predicted risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD when body mass index (BMI is considered. In total, 3350 Taiwanese workers were included in this cross-sectional study. A self-reported questionnaire was used to measure their nutrition and exercise behaviors. Data on anthropometric values, biochemical blood determinations, and predicted CVD risk (using the Framingham risk score were collected. In multiple regression analyses, the nutrition behavior score was independently and negatively associated with CVD risk. Exercise was not significantly associated with the risk. However, the interactive effect of exercise and BMI on CVD risk was evident. When stratified by BMI levels, associations between exercise and CVD risk were statistically significant for ideal weight and overweight subgroups. In conclusion, nutrition behavior plays an important role in predicting the CVD risk. Exercise behavior is also a significant predictor for ideal weight and overweight workers. Notably, for underweight or obese workers, maintaining health-promoting exercise seems insufficient to prevent the CVD. In order to improve workers’ cardiovascular health, more specific health-promoting strategies should be developed to suit the different BMI levels.

  20. Cardiovascular risk factors in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut;

    2001-01-01

    Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross...

  1. Effects of Nutrition and Exercise Health Behaviors on Predicted Risk of Cardiovascular Disease among Workers with Different Body Mass Index Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Jui-Hua Huang; Shu-Ling Huang; Ren-Hau Li; Ling-Hui Wang; Yu-Ling Chen; Feng-Cheng Tang

    2014-01-01

    Workplace health promotion programs should be tailored according to individual needs and efficient intervention. This study aimed to determine the effects of nutrition and exercise health behaviors on predicted risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) when body mass index (BMI) is considered. In total, 3350 Taiwanese workers were included in this cross-sectional study. A self-reported questionnaire was used to measure their nutrition and exercise behaviors. Data on anthropometric values, biochem...

  2. Glycated Hemoglobin Measurement and Prediction of Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Gao, Pei; Khan, Hassan; Butterworth, Adam S.; Wormser, David; Kaptoge, Stephen; Seshasai, Sreenivasa Rao Kondapally; Thompson, Alex; Sarwar, Nadeem; Willeit, Peter; Ridker, Paul M.; Barr, Elizabeth L. M.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Psaty, Bruce M.; Brenner, Hermann; Balkau, Beverley; Dekker, Jacqueline M.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Daimon, Makoto; Willeit, Johann; Njolstad, Inger; Nissinen, Aulikki; Brunner, Eric J.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Price, Jackie F.; Sundstrom, Johan; Knuiman, Matthew W.; Feskens, Edith J. M.; Verschuren, W. M. M.; Wald, Nicholas; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Whincup, Peter H.; Ford, Ian; Goldbourt, Uri; Gomez-de-la-Camara, Agustin; Gallacher, John; Simons, Leon A.; Rosengren, Annika; Sutherland, Susan E.; Bjorkelund, Cecilia; Blazer, Dan G.; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Onat, Altan; Ibanez, Alejandro Marin; Casiglia, Edoardo; Jukema, J. Wouter; Simpson, Lara M.; Giampaoli, Simona; Nordestgaard, Borge G.; Selmer, Randi; Wennberg, Patrik; Kauhanen, Jussi; Salonen, Jukka T.; Dankner, Rachel; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Kavousi, Maryam; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Evans, Denis; Wallace, Robert B.; Cushman, Mary; D'Agostino, Ralph B.; Umans, Jason G.; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Nakagawa, Hidaeki; Sato, Shinichi; Gillum, Richard F.; Folsom, Aaron R.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Moons, Karel G.; Griffin, Simon J.; Sattar, Naveed; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Selvin, Elizabeth; Thompson, Simon G.; Danesh, John

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The value of measuring levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) for the prediction of first cardiovascular events is uncertain. OBJECTIVE To determine whether adding information on HbA(1c) values to conventional cardiovascular risk factors is associated with improvement in prediction of ca

  3. Glycated Hemoglobin Measurement and Prediction of Cardiovascular Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Gao, Pei; Khan, Hassan;

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: The value of measuring levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) for the prediction of first cardiovascular events is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether adding information on HbA1c values to conventional cardiovascular risk factors is associated with improvement in prediction of c...

  4. Cardiovascular Update: Risk, Guidelines, and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Tamera

    2015-09-01

    This article provides an update of the current status of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the United States, including a brief review of the underlying pathophysiology and epidemiology. This article presents a discussion of the latest American Heart Association guidelines that introduce the concept of promoting ideal cardiovascular health, defined by seven identified metrics. Specific CVD risk factors and utilization of the 10-year CVD event prediction calculator are discussed. In addition, current management recommendations of health-related conditions that increase risk for CVD, such as hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, are provided. Finally, a discussion of detailed evidence-based lifestyle recommendations to promote cardiovascular health and reduce CVD risks concludes the update. PMID:26156147

  5. Psychological hardiness predicts cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartone, Paul T; Valdes, James J; Sandvik, Asle

    2016-09-01

    Many, but not all people experience diminished health, performance and well-being as a function of exposure to stress. However, the underlying neurophysiological processes which characterize hardy or resilient people are not well understood. This study examines psychological hardiness and several indicators of cardiovascular health, including body mass index (BMI) and blood cholesterol markers in a sample of 338 middle-aged adults enrolled in a national security education program. Hierarchical regression analyses reveal that after controlling for the influence of age and sex, high hardiness is related to higher HDL - high density lipoprotein and less body fat (BMI). Lower hardiness is associated with greater total cholesterol to HDL ratio, a cardiovascular disease risk factor. These results suggest that psychological hardiness confers resilience in part through an influence on cholesterol production and metabolism. PMID:26652199

  6. Fasting and nonfasting lipid levels: influence of normal food intake on lipids, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins, and cardiovascular risk prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, A.; Freiberg, J.J.; Nordestgaard, Børge

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lipid profiles are usually measured after fasting. We tested the hypotheses that these levels change only minimally in response to normal food intake and that nonfasting levels predict cardiovascular events. METHODS AND RESULTS: We cross-sectionally studied 33 391 individuals 20 to 95...... HDL cholesterol, and ratio of apolipoprotein B to apolipoprotein A1 did not change in response to normal food intake. The maximum changes after normal food and fluid intake from fasting levels were -0.2 mmol/L for total cholesterol, -0.2 mmol/L for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, -0.1 mmol/L for...... years of age from the Copenhagen General Population Study. We also studied 9319 individuals 20 to 93 years of age from the Copenhagen City Heart Study, 1166 of whom developed cardiovascular events during 14 years of follow-up. Compared with fasting levels, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein...

  7. Genetic risks for cardiovascular diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Zafarmand, M. H.

    2008-01-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), which involves the heart, brain, and peripheral circulation, is a major health problem world-wide. The development of atherosclerosis is a complex process, and several established risk factors are involved. Nevertheless, these established risk factors do not fully explain the occurrence of CVD and further insight is required in factors such as genetic determinants that may identify individuals at risk. In this thesis we worked on the genetic basis...

  8. Evaluation of Cardiovascular Risk Scores Applied to NASA's Astronant Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, I.; Charvat, J. M.; VanBaalen, M.; Lee, L.; Wear, M. L.

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to improve cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction, this analysis evaluates and compares the applicability of multiple CVD risk scores to the NASA Astronaut Corps which is extremely healthy at selection.

  9. Seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marti-Soler, Helena; Gubelmann, Cédric; Aeschbacher, Stefanie;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in a large set of population-based studies. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 24 population-based studies from 15 countries, with a total sample size of 237 979 subjects. CVRFs included Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist...

  10. [Psoriasis and cardiovascular risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Roy; Pavlovsky, Lev; David, Michael

    2012-10-01

    Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease which may dramatically affect patients' lives. This chronic disease is characterized by a protracted course of alternating remissions and relapses. In recent years, the attention of researchers has focused on the association between psoriasis and cardiovascular disease risk factors. This review summarizes the literature on this topic with an emphasis on research conducted in Israel. PMID:23316664

  11. Cardiovascular risk assessment in diabetes mellitus: comparison of the general Framingham risk profile versus the World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension risk prediction charts in Arabs--clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Lawati, Jawad A; Barakat, Mohammed N; Al-Lawati, Najla A; Al-Maskari, Masoud Y; Elsayed, Medhat K; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim S

    2013-07-01

    We estimated the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and its clinical implications among 1 110 Omani patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) using 2 different CVD risk tools: the general Framingham risk profile (GFRP) and the joint World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH) risk prediction charts. The GFRP tool identified higher proportion of patients compared with joint WHO/ISH tool at 10-year CVD risk 10% to GFRP identified almost double the number of men eligible for aspirin treatment at CVD risk thresholds of ≥10% (86% vs 43%). In women, the proportions were, 66% and 45%, respectively. For statins, the figures were, 60% and 37%, for men and 28% and 36%, for women. In conclusion, the GFRP overestimates the number of patients eligible for primary prevention of CVD compared with the joint WHO/ISH method. PMID:22942129

  12. Assessment of cardiovascular risk in diabetes: Risk scoresand provocative testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause ofmorbidity and mortality among patients with diabetesmellitus, who have a risk of cardiovascular mortalitytwo to four times that of people without diabetes. Anindividualised approach to cardiovascular risk estimationand management is needed. Over the past decades,many risk scores have been developed to predict CVD.However, few have been externally validated in adiabetic population and limited studies have examinedthe impact of applying a prediction model in clinicalpractice. Currently, guidelines are focused on testingfor CVD in symptomatic patients. Atypical symptomsor silent ischemia are more common in the diabeticpopulation, and with additional markers of vasculardisease such as erectile dysfunction and autonomicneuropathy, these guidelines can be difficult to interpret.We propose an algorithm incorporating cardiovascularrisk scores in combination with typical and atypical signsand symptoms to alert clinicians to consider furtherinvestigation with provocative testing. The modalities forinvestigation of CVD are discussed.

  13. Abacavir and cardiovascular risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.M.N. Behrens; P. Reiss

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review This review focuses on current studies addressing the association of abacavir (ABC) therapy and myocardial risk in HIV-infected patients, discusses potential pathogenetic mechanisms, and suggests a preliminary algorithm for decision making regarding ABC therapy in daily clinical pr

  14. Abacavir and cardiovascular risk

    OpenAIRE

    Behrens, G.M.N.; Reiss, P

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review This review focuses on current studies addressing the association of abacavir (ABC) therapy and myocardial risk in HIV-infected patients, discusses potential pathogenetic mechanisms, and suggests a preliminary algorithm for decision making regarding ABC therapy in daily clinical practise. Recent findings The D:A:D study was the first to reveal an increased rate of myocardial infarction in patients recently treated with ABC. Subsequent analyses of both cohort studies as well ...

  15. Framingham risk score with cardiovascular events in chronic kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-Chia Chen

    Full Text Available The Framingham Risk Score (FRS was developed to predict coronary heart disease in various populations, and it tended to under-estimate the risk in chronic kidney disease (CKD patients. Our objectives were to determine whether FRS was associated with cardiovascular events, and to evaluate the role of new risk markers and echocardiographic parameters when they were added to a FRS model. This study enrolled 439 CKD patients. The FRS is used to identify individuals categorically as "low" (4.7 cm, left ventricular hypertrophy or left ventricular ejection fraction<50% to the FRS model significantly improves the predictive values for cardiovascular events. In CKD patients, "high" risk categorized by FRS predicts cardiovascular events. Novel biomarkers and echocardiographic parameters provide additional predictive values for cardiovascular events. Future study is needed to assess whether risk assessment enhanced by using these biomarkers and echocardiographic parameters might contribute to more effective prediction and better care for patients.

  16. Cardiovascular risk assessment in type 2 diabetes mellitus: comparison of the World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension risk prediction charts versus UK Prospective Diabetes Study risk engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herath HMM

    2015-11-01

    having low cardiac risk than the UKPDS risk engine. Risk assessment by both assessment tools demonstrated poor sensitivity in identifying those with treatable levels of LDL cholesterol and diastolic blood pressure. Keywords: cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, risk assessment, WHO/ISH risk prediction charts, UKPDS risk engine

  17. Incidence of cardiovascular events after kidney transplantation and cardiovascular risk scores: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo-Aguiar Dolores

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the major cause of death after renal transplantation. Not only conventional CVD risk factors, but also transplant-specific risk factors can influence the development of CVD in kidney transplant recipients. The main objective of this study will be to determine the incidence of post-transplant CVD after renal transplantation and related factors. A secondary objective will be to examine the ability of standard cardiovascular risk scores (Framingham, Regicor, SCORE, and DORICA to predict post-transplantation cardiovascular events in renal transplant recipients, and to develop a new score for predicting the risk of CVD after kidney transplantation. Methods/Design Observational prospective cohort study of all kidney transplant recipients in the A Coruña Hospital (Spain in the period 1981-2008 (2059 transplants corresponding to 1794 patients. The variables included will be: donor and recipient characteristics, chronic kidney disease-related risk factors, pre-transplant and post-transplant cardiovascular risk factors, routine biochemistry, and immunosuppressive, antihypertensive and lipid-lowering treatment. The events studied in the follow-up will be: patient and graft survival, acute rejection episodes and cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, invasive coronary artery therapy, cerebral vascular events, new-onset angina, congestive heart failure, rhythm disturbances and peripheral vascular disease. Four cardiovascular risk scores were calculated at the time of transplantation: the Framingham score, the European Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE equation, and the REGICOR (Registre Gironí del COR (Gerona Heart Registry, and DORICA (Dyslipidemia, Obesity, and Cardiovascular Risk functions. The cumulative incidence of cardiovascular events will be analyzed by competing risk survival methods. The clinical relevance of different variables will be calculated using the ARR (Absolute Risk

  18. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Cardiovascular Hyperreactivity in Young Venezuelans

    OpenAIRE

    Sady Montes Amador; Mikhail Benet Rodríguez; Lenia Ramos Rodríguez; Esther Cano Andino; Erick Andrés Pérez Martín

    2015-01-01

    Background: cardiovascular hyperreactivity in young people has been associated with different risk factors and a family history of hypertension. Objective: to determine the association between a family history of hypertension and cardiovascular risk factors with cardiovascular hyperreactivity. Method: a correlational, cross-sectional study was conducted in a universe of 77 young individuals aged 18 to 40 years from the Churuguara parish of the Falcon State in Venezuela. The variables were: ag...

  19. FEATURE SELECTION USING PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION FOR PREDICTING THE RISK OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE IN TYPE-II DIABETIC PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Radha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is the most common disease nowadays in all populations and in all age groups. A wide range of computational methods and tools for data analysis are available to predict the T2D patients with CVD risk factors. Efficient predictive modelling is required for medical researchers and practitioners to improve the prediction accuracy of the classification methods .The aim of this research was to identify significant factors influencing type 2 diabetes control with CVD risk factors, by applying particle swarm optimization feature selection system to improve prediction accuracy and knowledge discovery. Proposed system consists of four major steps such as pre-processing and dimensionality reduction of type 2 diabetes with CVD factors, Attribute Value Measurement, Feature Selection, and Hybrid Prediction Model. In proposed methods the pre-processing and dimensionality reduction of the patients records is performed by using Kullback Leiber Divergence(KLD Principal component analysis (PCA, then attribute values measurement is performed using Fast Correlation-Based Filter Solution(FCBFS, feature selection is performed by using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO, finally hybrid prediction model which uses Improved Fuzzy C Means (IFCM clustering algorithm aimed at validating chosen class label of given data and subsequently applying Extreme Learning Machine(ELM classification algorithm to the result set.

  20. Feature Selection Using Particle Swarm Optimization for Predicting the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Type-II Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Radha

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is the most common disease nowadays in all populations and in all age groups. A wide range of computational methods and tools for data analysis are available to predict the T2D patients with CVD risk factors. Efficient predictive modelling is required for medical researchers and practitioners to improve the prediction accuracy of the classification methods .The aim of this research was to identify significant factors influencing type 2 diabetes control with CVD risk factors, by applying particle swarm optimization feature selection system to improve prediction accuracy and knowledge discovery. Proposed system consists of four major steps such as preprocessing and dimensionality reduction of type 2 diabetes with CVD factors, Attribute Value Measurement, Feature Selection, and Hybrid Prediction Model. In proposed methods the pre-processing and dimensionality reduction of the patients records is performed by using Kullback Leiber Divergence(KLD Principal component analysis (PCA, then attribute values measurement is performed using Fast Correlation-Based Filter Solution(FCBFS, feature selection is performed by using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO, finally hybrid prediction model which uses Improved Fuzzy C Means (IFCM clustering algorithm aimed at validating chosen class label of given data and subsequently applying Extreme Learning Machine(ELM classification algorithm to the result set.

  1. Assessment of total cardiovascular risk using WHO/ISH risk prediction charts in three low and middle income countries in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent research has used cardiovascular risk scores intended to estimate “total cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk” in individuals to assess the distribution of risk within populations. The research suggested that the adoption of the total risk approach, in comparison to treatment decisions being based on the level of a single risk factor, could lead to reductions in expenditure on preventive cardiovascular drug treatment in low- and middle-income countries. So that the patient benefit associated with savings is highlighted. Methods This study used data from national STEPS surveys (STEPwise Approach to Surveillance) conducted between 2005 and 2010 in Cambodia, Malaysia and Mongolia of men and women aged 40–64 years. The study compared the differences and implications of various approaches to risk estimation at a population level using the World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH) risk score charts. To aid interpretation and adjustment of scores and inform treatment in individuals, the charts are accompanied by practice notes about risk factors not included in the risk score calculations. Total risk was calculated amongst the populations using the charts alone and also adjusted according to these notes. Prevalence of traditional single risk factors was also calculated. Results The prevalence of WHO/ISH “high CVD risk” (≥20% chance of developing a cardiovascular event over 10 years) of 6%, 2.3% and 1.3% in Mongolia, Malaysia and Cambodia, respectively, is in line with recent research when charts alone are used. However, these proportions rise to 33.3%, 20.8% and 10.4%, respectively when individuals with blood pressure > = 160/100 mm/Hg and/or hypertension medication are attributed to “high risk”. Of those at “moderate risk” (10- < 20% chance of developing a cardio vascular event over 10 years), 100%, 94.3% and 30.1%, respectively are affected by at least one risk-increasing factor. Of all individuals, 44

  2. Urine albumin/creatinine ratio, high sensitivity C-reactive protein and N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide--three new cardiovascular risk markers--do they improve risk prediction and influence treatment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Michael H; Sehestedt, Thomas; Lyngbaek, Stig; Hansen, Tine W; Rasmussen, Susanne; Wachtell, Kristian; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Hildebrandt, Per R; Ibsen, Hans

    2010-01-01

    -proBNP), related to hemodynamic cardiovascular risk factors, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), related to metabolic cardiovascular risk factors and urine albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR), related to hemodynamic as well as metabolic risk factors. In healthy subjects with a 10-year risk of cardiovascular...

  3. Usefulness of imaging techniques and novel biomarkers in the prediction of cardiovascular risk in patients with chronic kidney disease in Spain: The NEFRONA project

    OpenAIRE

    Junyent, Mireia; Martínez Alonso, Montserrat; Borràs, Mercè; Betriu i Bars, M. Àngels; Coll,Blai; Craver Hospital, Lourdes; Marco Mayayo, M. Paz; Sarró, Felipe; Valdivielso Revilla, José Manuel; Fernández i Giráldez, Elvira

    2010-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Cardiovascular risk assessment in this population is hampered by the failure of traditional risk factors to fully account for the elevated CVD risk, mainly due to the reverse epidemiology effect, and the presence of risk factors specifically related to uraemia. Hereby, we present the protocol of a prospective study aimed to assess the ...

  4. Waist-to-height ratio and cardiovascular risk factors in elderly individuals at high cardiovascular risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Guasch-Ferré

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Several anthropometric measurements have been associated with cardiovascular disease, type-2 diabetes mellitus and other cardiovascular risk conditions, such as hypertension or metabolic syndrome. Waist-to-height-ratio has been proposed as a useful tool for assessing abdominal obesity, correcting other measurements for the height of the individual. We compared the ability of several anthropometric measurements to predict the presence of type-2 diabetes, hyperglycemia, hypertension, atherogenic dyslipidemia or metabolic syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In our cross-sectional analyses we included 7447 Spanish individuals at high cardiovascular risk, men aged 55-80 years and women aged 60-80 years, from the PREDIMED study. Logistic regression models were fitted to evaluate the odds ratio of presenting each cardiovascular risk factor according to various anthropometric measures. The areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC were used to compare the predictive ability of these measurements. RESULTS: In this relatively homogeneous cohort with 48.6% of type-2 diabetic individuals, the great majority of the studied anthropometric parameters were significantly and positively associated with the cardiovascular risk factors. No association was found between BMI and body weight and diabetes mellitus. The AUCs for the waist-to-height ratio and waist circumference were significantly higher than the AUCs for BMI or weight for type-2 diabetes, hyperglycemia, atherogenic dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome. Conversely, BMI was the strongest predictor of hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that measures of abdominal obesity showed higher discriminative ability for diabetes mellitus, high fasting plasma glucose, atherogenic dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome than BMI or weight in a large cohort of elderly Mediterranean individuals at high cardiovascular risk. No significant differences were found between the predictive

  5. Metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M Alshehri

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The constellation of dyslipidemia (hypertriglyceridemia and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, impaired glucose tolerance, and central obesity is now classified as metabolic syndrome, also called syndrome X. In the past few years, several expert groups have attempted to set forth simple diagnostic criteria for use in clinical practice to identify patients who manifest the multiple components of the metabolic syndrome. These criteria have varied somewhat in specific elements, but in general, they include a combination of multiple and metabolic risk factors. The most widely recognized of the metabolic risk factors are atherogenic dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and elevated plasma glucose. Individuals with these characteristics, commonly manifest a prothrombotic state as well as and a proinflammatory state. Atherogenic dyslipidemia consists of an aggregation of lipoprotein abnormalities including elevated serum triglyceride and apolipoprotein B (apoB, increased small LDL particles, and a reduced level of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C. The metabolic syndrome is often referred to as if it were a discrete entity with a single cause. Available data suggest that it truly is a syndrome, ie, a grouping of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD risk factors, that probably has more than one cause. Regardless of cause, the syndrome identifies individuals at an elevated risk for ASCVD. The magnitude of the increased risk can vary according to the components of the syndrome present as well as the other, non-metabolic syndrome risk factors in a particular person.

  6. Cardiovascular risk prediction by N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide and high sensitivity C-reactive protein is affected by age and sex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, M.H.; Hansen, T.W.; Christensen, M.K.; Gustafsson, F.; Rasmussen, S.; Wachtell, K.; Ibsen, H.; Torp-Pedersen, C.; Hildebrandt, P.R.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that the urine albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide (Nt-proBNP) predict cardiovascular events in a general population aged 41, 51, 61 or 71 years. This study investigated the...... factors, UACR, hsCRP and Nt-proBNP. The composite cardiovascular endpoint (CEP) of cardiovascular death and non-fatal stroke or myocardial infarction was assessed after 9.5 years. RESULTS: In Cox regression analyses predicting CEP, the effects of log(hsCRP) and log(Nt-proBNP) were modulated by sex (P < 0...

  7. Combined Value of Red Blood Cell Distribution Width and Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events Risk Score for Predicting Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Na; Mi, Lan; Liu, Xiaojun; Pan, Shuo; Xu, Jiaojiao; Xia, Dongyu; Liu, Zhongwei; Zhang, Yong; Xiang, Yu; Yuan, Zuyi; Guan, Gongchang; Wang, Junkui

    2015-01-01

    Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) risk score and red blood cell distribution width (RDW) content can both independently predict major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We investigated the combined predictive value of RDW and GRACE risk score for cardiovascular events in patients with ACS undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for the first time. We enrolled 480 ACS patients. During a median follow-up time of 37.2 months,...

  8. Total cardiovascular disease risk assessment: a review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2011-09-01

    The high risk strategy for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) requires an assessment of an individual\\'s total CVD risk so that the most intensive risk factor management can be directed towards those at highest risk. Here we review developments in the assessment and estimation of total CVD risk.

  9. Progestins and cardiovascular risk markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitruk-Ware, R

    2000-01-01

    Several risks are attributed to progestins as a class-effect; however, the progestins used in hormone replacement therapy (HRT) have varying pharmacologic properties and do not induce the same side effects. Natural progesterone (P) and some of its derivatives, such as the 19-norprogesterones, do not exert any androgenic effect and, hence, have no negative effect on the lipids. On the other hand, the 19-nortestosterone derivatives and even some 17-hydroxyprogesterones have a partial androgenic effect, which may explain some of the negative effects observed on surrogate markers of cardiovascular risk. The relevance of the lipid changes induced by sex steroids has been questioned, and studies in the female cynomolgous monkey have not shown a direct relationship to atherosclerosis. Results suggest that estrogens (E) have antiatherogenic effects and that P does not reverse the beneficial effect of estradiol. Also, sex hormones modulate the vasomotor response of the main arteries. E preserves the normal endothelium-mediated dilation of coronary arteries, and P does not reverse this potential cardioprotective mechanism. In the same animal model, the addition of cyclic or continuous medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) to E inhibited vasodilatation by 50%, while nomegestrol acetate did not diminish the E-induced vasodilatation. Not all progestins act similarly on vasomotion or affect cardiovascular risk factors in the same way. Progestins, such as MPA or norethisterone acetate (NETA), exert a partial detrimental effect on the beneficial actions of estrogens with regard to lipid changes, atheroma development, or vasomotion. In contrast, progesterone itself does not have this inhibitory effect on lipid changes and vascular reactivity in animal models or on exercise-induced myocardial ischemia in humans. Nonandrogenic molecules of P itself and of derivatives, such as 19-norprogesterones, would appear neutral on the vessels. Several ongoing randomized controlled trials of HRT are

  10. Cardiovascular Risk in Men Aged Over 40 in Boa Vista, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Mário Maciel de Lima; Emanuel Araújo Bezerra; José Geraldo Ticianeli

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of disease in the developed world. Early detection and risk prediction are a key component in reducing cardiovascular mortality. The Framingham Risk Score uses age, sex, cholesterol, blood pressure, diabetes, and smoking to calculate the 10-year risk probability of developing cardiovascular disease for a given patient. The aim of this study was to examine cardiovascular disease risk in men aged over 40 years in Boa Vista, Brazil and ...

  11. Cardiovascular risk factors among Chamorros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Phillis L

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known regarding the cardiovascular disease risk factors among Chamorros residing in the United States. Methods The Chamorro Directory International and the CDC's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Questionnaire (BRFSS were used to assess the health related practices and needs of a random sample of 228 Chamorros. Results Inactivity, hypertension, elevated cholesterol and diabetes mellitus were more prevalent in this Chamorro sample compared to the US average. Participants who were 50-and-older or unemployed were more likely to report hypertension, diabetes and inactivity, but they were also more likely to consume more fruits and vegetables than their younger and employed counterparts. Women were more likely to report hypertension and diabetes, whereas men were more likely to have elevated BMI and to have never had their blood cholesterol checked. Conclusion The study provides data that will help healthcare providers, public health workers and community leaders identify where to focus their health improvement efforts for Chamorros and create culturally competent programs to promote health in this community.

  12. Cardiovascular risk age: concepts and practicalities.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2012-06-01

    A young person with many risk factors may have the same level of risk as an older person with no risk factors. Thus a high-risk 40-year-old may have a risk age of 60 years or more. The aim of the study was to derive a generic equation for risk age, construct risk age charts, and explore the hypothesis that risk age is similar regardless of the cardiovascular disease (CVD) end point used.

  13. Insulin Resistance and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Postmenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, Michelle D; Hedlin, Haley; Stefanick, Marcia L;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance is associated with diabetes mellitus, but it is uncertain whether it improves cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction beyond traditional cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified 15,288 women from the Women's Health Initiative Biomarkers....../HDL-C, or impaired fasting glucose (serum glucose ≥110 mg/dL) to traditional risk factors in separate Cox multivariable analyses and assessed risk discrimination and reclassification. The study end point was major CVD events (nonfatal and fatal coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke) within 10 years, which...

  14. Cardiovascular risk assessment in women - an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, P; Webb, C M; de Villiers, T J; Stevenson, J C; Panay, N; Baber, R J

    2016-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in postmenopausal women. Although it is a disease of aging, vascular disease initiates much earlier in life. Thus, there is a need to be aware of the potential to prevent the development of the disease from an early age and continue this surveillance throughout life. The menopausal period and early menopause present an ideal opportunity to assess cardiovascular risk and plan accordingly. Generally in this period, women will be seen by primary health-care professionals and non-cardiovascular specialists. This review addresses female-specific risk factors that may contribute to the potential development of cardiovascular disease. It is important for all health-care professionals dealing with women in midlife and beyond to be cognisant of these risk factors and to initiate female-specific preventative measures or to refer to a cardiovascular specialist. PMID:27327421

  15. Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with Psoriatic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Y. Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoriatic arthritis (PsA is an inflammatory arthritis associated with psoriasis. In addition to skin and joint involvement, there is increasing evidence suggesting that patients with PsA also have an increase in risk of clinical and subclinical cardiovascular diseases, mostly due to accelerating atherosclerosis. Both conventional and nonconventional cardiovascular risk factors contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk in PsA. Chronic inflammation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in PsA, acting independently and/or synergistically with the conventional risk factors. In this paper, we discuss the current literature indicating that patients with PsA are at risk of cardiovascular diseases.

  16. Serum triglycerides and risk of cardiovascular disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boullart, I.; Graaf, J. de; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.

    2012-01-01

    Dyslipidemia, especially elevated serum levels of cholesterol, is causally related to cardiovascular disease. The specific role of triglycerides has long been controversial. In this article we discuss the role of serum triglycerides in relation to the risk of cardiovascular disease. First, the (path

  17. Coffee and cardiovascular risk; an epidemiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A.A. Bak (Annette)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis comprises several studies on the effect of coffee and caffeine on cardiovascular risk in general, and the effect on serum lipids, blood pressure and selected hemostatic variables in particular. The association between coffee use and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality was

  18. Psychological factors, including alexithymia, in the prediction of cardiovascular risk in HIV infected patients: results of a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giustino Parruti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psychological factors are known predictors of cardiovascular disease in many clinical settings, but data are lacking for HIV infection. We carried out a prospective cohort study to evaluate potential psychological predictors of preclinical and clinical vascular disease in HIV patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: HIV patients were consecutively enrolled. Demographics, viral and immune parameters and traditional cardiovascular predictors were considered; Intima-Media Thickness (c-IMT, continuous measure and Carotid Plaques (CPs, focal thickening ≥1.5 mm were investigated by B-mode ultrasonography; depressive symptoms by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II, Type D personality (Distressed Personality or Type D by the DS14, alexithymia by the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20. Vascular outcomes included transient ischemic attacks or stroke, acute coronary syndrome, myocardial or other organ infarction. We enrolled 232 HIV subjects, 73.9% males, aged 44.5±9.9 y, 38.2% with AIDS diagnosis, 18.3% untreated. Mean Nadir CD4 T-cell counts were 237.5±186.2/mmc. Of them, 224 (96.5% attended IMT measurements; 201 (86.6% attended both IMT assessment and psychological profiling. Mean follow-up was 782±308 days. Fifty-nine patients (29.4% had CPs at baseline. Nineteen patients (9.5% had ≥1 vascular event; 12 (6.0% died due to such events (n = 4 or any cause. At baseline cross-sectional multivariate analysis, increasing age, total cholesterol, current smoking and Alexithymia score≥50 were significantly associated with both increased cIMT (linear regression and CPs (logistic regression. At follow-up analysis, log-rank tests and Cox's regression revealed that only older age (p = 0.001, current smoking (p = 0.019 and alexithymia score≥50 (p = 0.013 were independently associated with vascular events. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In HIV-infected subjects, the Alexithymic trait emerges as a strong predictor of increased IMT, presence of CPs

  19. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Cardiovascular Hyperreactivity in Young Venezuelans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sady Montes Amador

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: cardiovascular hyperreactivity in young people has been associated with different risk factors and a family history of hypertension. Objective: to determine the association between a family history of hypertension and cardiovascular risk factors with cardiovascular hyperreactivity. Method: a correlational, cross-sectional study was conducted in a universe of 77 young individuals aged 18 to 40 years from the Churuguara parish of the Falcon State in Venezuela. The variables were: age, sex, skin color, family history of hypertension, medical history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, alcohol consumption, salt intake, physical activity and body mass index. The diastolic and systolic blood pressure before and after the pressor response elicited by an isometric exercise were determined as hemodynamic variables. Results: thirteen percent of the participants developed vascular reactivity after the hand-held weight test. Cardiovascular hyperreactivity is three times higher in individuals with a family history of hypertension. Sixty percent of those with a body mass index greater than or equal to 27 kg/m2 are hyperreactive. There is a higher cardiovascular response to the hand-held weight test as the consumption of alcohol increases. Thirty three point three percent of the participants who smoke are hyperreactive. Conclusions: there is a significant association between a family history of hypertension, obesity, salt intake, alcohol consumption and vascular hyperreactivity.

  20. Do Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, and Sleep Duration Predict Clustered Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Children?- A Part of the OPUS Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads F.; Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Tetens, Inge; Astrup, Arne V.; Sjödin, Anders M.

    Objective To investigate the single and combined associations of physical activity (PA), body mass index (BMI), and sleep duration with clustering of cardiovascular disease risk markers in healthy children. Methods We did a cross-sectional pilot-study of 74 Danish school children aged 8-11 years...

  1. Urine albumin/creatinine ratio, high sensitivity C-reactive protein and N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide--three new cardiovascular risk markers--do they improve risk prediction and influence treatment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Michael H; Sehestedt, Thomas; Lyngbaek, Stig; Hansen, Tine W; Rasmussen, Susanne; Wachtell, Kristian; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Hildebrandt, Per R; Ibsen, Hans

    2010-01-01

    In order to prioritize limited health resources in a time of increasing demands optimal cardiovascular risk stratification is essential. We tested the additive prognostic value of 3 relatively new, but established cardiovascular risk markers: N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide (Nt-proBNP), ......In order to prioritize limited health resources in a time of increasing demands optimal cardiovascular risk stratification is essential. We tested the additive prognostic value of 3 relatively new, but established cardiovascular risk markers: N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide (Nt...... death lower than 5% based on HeartScore and therefore not eligible for primary prevention, the actual 10-year risk of cardiovascular death exceeded 5% in a small subgroup of subjects with UACR higher than the 95-percentile of approximately 1.6 mg/mmol. Combined use of high UACR or high hsCRP identified...

  2. Cardiovascular risk assessment in Italy: the CUORE Project risk score and risk chart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Giampaoli

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Aim: Risk charts and risk score, based on the global absolute risk, are key tools for CVD risk assessment. When applied to the population from which they derive, they provide the best estimate of CVD risk. That is why the CUORE Project has among its objectives the assessment of the Italian population’s cardiovascular risk, identifying the model for the prediction of coronary and cerebrovascular events in 10 years.

    Methods: Data fromdifferent cohorts enrolled in the North, Centre and South of Italy between the 1980s and the 1990s were used. From the 7,056 men and 12,574 women aged 35-69 years, free of cardiovascular disease at base-line and followed up for a mean time of 10 years for total and cause-specific mortality and non fatal cerebrovascular and coronary events, 894 major cardiovascular events (596 coronary and 298 cerebrovascular were identified and validated. To assess 10-year cardiovascular risk, the risk score and risk chart were developed for men and women separately, considering the first major coronary or cerebrovascular event as the endpoint.

    Results: The risk score is applied tomen andwomen aged 35-69 years and includes age, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, smoking habit, diabetes and hypertension treatment using continuous values when possible. The risk chart is applied to persons aged 40-69 years and includes the same risk factors as risk score, except for HDL-cholesterol and hypertension treatment, and uses categorical values for all variables.

    Conclusions: The risk score and risk chart are easy-to-use tools which enable general practitioners and specialists to achieve an objective evaluation of the absolute global cardiovascular risk of middle-aged persons in primary prevention.

  3. Phase-rectified signal averaging for the detection of quasi-periodicities and the prediction of cardiovascular risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantelhardt, Jan W.; Bauer, Axel; Schumann, Aicko Y.; Barthel, Petra; Schneider, Raphael; Malik, Marek; Schmidt, Georg

    2007-03-01

    We present the phase-rectified signal averaging (PRSA) method as an efficient technique for the study of quasi-periodic oscillations in noisy, nonstationary signals. It allows the assessment of system dynamics despite phase resetting and noise and in relation with either increases or decreases of the considered signal. We employ the method to study the quasi-periodicities of the human heart rate based on long-term ECG recordings. The center deflection of the PRSA curve characterizes the average capacity of the heart to decelerate (or accelerate) the cardiac rhythm. It can be measured by a central wavelet coefficient which we denote as deceleration capacity (DC). We find that decreased DC is a more precise predictor of mortality in survivors of heart attack than left ventricular ejection fraction, the current "gold standard" risk predictor. In addition, we discuss the dependence of the DC parameter on age and on diabetes.

  4. Cardiovascular risk assessment in type 2 diabetes mellitus: comparison of the World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension risk prediction charts versus UK Prospective Diabetes Study risk engine

    OpenAIRE

    Herath HMM; Weerarathna TP; Umesha D

    2015-01-01

    Herath M Meththananda Herath, Thilak Priyantha Weerarathna, Dilini Umesha Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ruhuna, Galle, Sri Lanka Introduction: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at higher risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, and assessment of their cardiac risk is important for preventive strategies. Purpose: The Ministry of Health of Sri Lanka has recommended World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH) charts f...

  5. Space radiation and cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerma, Marjan; Nelson, Gregory A; Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Mao, Xiao-Wen; Koturbash, Igor; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2015-12-26

    Future long-distance space missions will be associated with significant exposures to ionizing radiation, and the health risks of these radiation exposures during manned missions need to be assessed. Recent Earth-based epidemiological studies in survivors of atomic bombs and after occupational and medical low dose radiation exposures have indicated that the cardiovascular system may be more sensitive to ionizing radiation than was previously thought. This has raised the concern of a cardiovascular disease risk from exposure to space radiation during long-distance space travel. Ground-based studies with animal and cell culture models play an important role in estimating health risks from space radiation exposure. Charged particle space radiation has dense ionization characteristics and may induce unique biological responses, appropriate simulation of the space radiation environment and careful consideration of the choice of the experimental model are critical. Recent studies have addressed cardiovascular effects of space radiation using such models and provided first results that aid in estimating cardiovascular disease risk, and several other studies are ongoing. Moreover, astronauts could potentially be administered pharmacological countermeasures against adverse effects of space radiation, and research is focused on the development of such compounds. Because the cardiovascular response to space radiation has not yet been clearly defined, the identification of potential pharmacological countermeasures against cardiovascular effects is still in its infancy. PMID:26730293

  6. Lifestyle dominates cardiovascular risks in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalib A. Latiff

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular problem is one of the leading cause of death in Malaysia and now invaded to the sub-urban and rural areas. To prevent and control of this problem, several main risk factors needed to be known and shall be reexamined and ranked according to the priority. The objectives of this research paper was to identify several dominant risk factor related to cardiovascular problem. A cross sectional study was carried out from March 2000 – June 2001 on a total of 8159 rural population aged 18 and above to measure the prevalence of the common cardiovascular risk factors. Those risk factors are systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, serum cholesterol level, obesity index, blood glucose level, smoking, physical activity and mental stress. Overall prevalence of common cardiovascular risk factors were higher, dominated by physical inactivity (65.7%, hypercholesterolemia – TC:HC (62.3%, mental stress (55.5% and obesity (53.7%. Smoking was also high at 49.9% especially among men. However systolic hypertension, diastolic hypertension and diabetes mellitus; although increased by age, its prevalence is relatively low at 23.7%, 19.2%, and 6.3% respectively. Cardiovascular risk factors related to lifestyle are much evidenced as compared to risk factors related to the biological influence. Therefore, all initiatives in community health intervention should be mobilized specifically on prevention and control of lifestyle-related risk factors. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 50-6Keywords: cardiovascular problem, community intervention, lifestyle-linked risk factors

  7. Estimation of Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkis Vicente Sánchez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: diabetes mellitus accelerates atherosclerotic changes throughout the vascular tree and consequently increases the risk of developing fatal acute events. Objective: to estimate the global cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Method: a cross-sectional study of a series of type 2 diabetic patients from the People's Council of Constancia, Abreus municipality, Cienfuegos province was conducted from July to December 2012. The universe comprised the 180 people with diabetes in the area. Variables studied were: age, sex, body mass index, nutritional assessment, blood pressure, toxic habits, associated chronic diseases, blood levels of glucose, lipids (total cholesterol and triglycerides and microalbuminuria. World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension prediction charts specific to the region of the Americas, in which Cuba is included, were used to estimate the cardiovascular risk. Results: mean age was 61.63 years and females predominated. Relevant risk factors were hypertension followed by obesity, smoking and dyslipidemia. Mean body mass index was 27.66kg/m2; waist circumference was 94.45 cm in women and 96.86 cm in men. Thirty point six percent had more than two uncontrolled risk factors and 28.3 % of the total presented a high to very high cardiovascular risk. Conclusions: cardiovascular risk prediction charts are helpful tools for making clinical decisions, but their interpretation must be flexible and allow the intervention of clinical reasoning.

  8. Credit scores, cardiovascular disease risk, and human capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Salomon; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W; Harrington, HonaLee; Hogan, Sean; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sanders, Seth; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2014-12-01

    Credit scores are the most widely used instruments to assess whether or not a person is a financial risk. Credit scoring has been so successful that it has expanded beyond lending and into our everyday lives, even to inform how insurers evaluate our health. The pervasive application of credit scoring has outpaced knowledge about why credit scores are such useful indicators of individual behavior. Here we test if the same factors that lead to poor credit scores also lead to poor health. Following the Dunedin (New Zealand) Longitudinal Study cohort of 1,037 study members, we examined the association between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and the underlying factors that account for this association. We find that credit scores are negatively correlated with cardiovascular disease risk. Variation in household income was not sufficient to account for this association. Rather, individual differences in human capital factors—educational attainment, cognitive ability, and self-control—predicted both credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and accounted for ∼45% of the correlation between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk. Tracing human capital factors back to their childhood antecedents revealed that the characteristic attitudes, behaviors, and competencies children develop in their first decade of life account for a significant portion (∼22%) of the link between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk at midlife. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy debates about data privacy, financial literacy, and early childhood interventions. PMID:25404329

  9. Blood pressure and control of cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith A Whitworth

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Judith A WhitworthJohn Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, AustraliaAbstract: Two key early 20th century notions, the first the primacy of diastolic pressure in determining risk, and the second that hypertension is a discrete disorder, have proved to be incorrect. We now recognize the primacy of systolic pressure as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and that hypertension is an arbitrary definition. In the early 21st century, we are moving away from a dichotomous approach to risk classification, and away from notions of hypertension and normotension towards an appreciation that blood pressure-related risk is continuous. In parallel, there has been a paradigm shift from a single risk factor approach to comprehensive cardiovascular disease risk prevention. Accordingly, prevention of cardiovascular disease requires a focus on lowering of blood pressure and modification of associated risk factors rather than simply treatment of hypertension. This emphasis is reflected in the World Health Organization (WHO – International Society of Hypertension (ISH 2003 statement on management of hypertension.Keywords: blood pressure, hypertension, cardiovascular risk, treatment

  10. Cardiovascular risk, effectiveness and mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gérvas

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Dice la Ley de Hierro de la Epidemiología que todo el que nace muere. Por ello el fin de la Medicina no es evitar la muerte en sí, sino evitar las muertes, las enfermedades y el sufrimiento médicamente evitables.Al final, todos nuestros pacientes morirán – y nosotros mismos moriremos también, obviamente. “Los cuerpos encuentran una forma de morir” y si la causa no es el hambre ni la deshidratación, ni es congénita, ni infecciosa, ni por lesiones, ni por cáncer, ni por suicidio, tenemos que esperar que sea por ‘causa cardiovascular’, enfermedad pulmonar, insuficiencia renal o hepática, demencia u otras enfermedades degenerativas. Pero de algo tenemos que morir.Morir por causa cardiovascular ni es deshonroso, ni implica defectuosa atención clínica. Que la primera causa de muerte sea la cardiovascular no dice nada respecto a los cuidados clínicos, ni debería asustar.Sin embargo, son evitables muchas muertes de causa cardiovascular. Así, se puede evitar mucha mortalidad cardiovascular disminuyendo la desigualdad social, por ejemplo (con mejor re-distribución de la riqueza, mejor educación y demás. Los médicos saben que los factores adversos psicosociales asociados a la pertenencia a la clase baja responden del 35% del riesgo atribuible a la hipertensión en la incidencia del infarto de miocardio (en otra formulación, que pertenecer a la clase baja multiplica por 2,7 dicho riesgo1.También deberíamos saber que contra las muertes cardiovasculares no hay nada como las políticas de salud pública sobre el tabaquismo (restricciones de lugares en los que fumar, aumento del precio del tabaco, campañas de información, y demás.En lo clínico, las muertes cardiovasculares evitables se deben ver en perspectiva, según lo que se puede lograr2. Así, por 100.000 habitantes y año, el tratamiento con inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina (IECA en la insuficiencia cardíaca puede evitar 308 muertes; el consejo m

  11. Lipid-related markers and cardiovascular disease prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Gao, Pei; Pennells, Lisa;

    2012-01-01

    The value of assessing various emerging lipid-related markers for prediction of first cardiovascular events is debated.......The value of assessing various emerging lipid-related markers for prediction of first cardiovascular events is debated....

  12. Predicted Changes in Fatty Acid Intakes, Plasma Lipids, and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Following Replacement of trans Fatty Acid-Containing Soybean Oil with Application-Appropriate Alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Lefevre, Michael; Mensink, Ronald P.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; Petersen, Barbara; Smith, Kim; Flickinger, Brent D.

    2012-01-01

    The varied functional requirements satisfied by trans fatty acid (TFA)—containing oils constrains the selection of alternative fats and oils for use as potential replacements in specific food applications. We aimed to model the effects of replacing TFA-containing partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSBO) with application-appropriate alternatives on population fatty acid intakes, plasma lipids, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2...

  13. Cardiovascular Reactivity and its Association with the Risk of Cardiovascular Morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Lisset León Regal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: there are no studies that confirm the association between cardiovascular hyperreactivity and the risk of cardiovascular morbidity. Objective: to determine the association between cardiovascular hyperreactivity and the risk of cardiovascular morbidity in normotensive individuals. Methods: a cross-sectional, correlational study was conducted. The universe consisted of the population aged 15 to 74 years in Cienfuegos municipality; the sample included 644 people. The variables were: sex, skin color, age, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, smoking, baseline systolic blood pressure, cardiovascular reactivity, and risk of cardiovascular morbidity. The risk of cardiovascular morbidity was calculated by applying the Framingham Risk Functions. The Pearson’s Chi-square test and the prevalence ratio were used with a 95 % confidence interval. The direction of the relationship between cardiovascular reactivity, age, and systolic blood pressure was analyzed considering the Eta value. Results: the prevalence of cardiovascular hyperreactivity was higher among people aged 65 to 74 years and males. A higher risk of cardiovascular morbidity was observed in cardiovascular hyperreactive individuals. There is an association between non-optimal systolic blood pressure, increasing age, and high risk of cardiovascular morbidity in cardiovascular hyperreactive people. Conclusions: the risk of cardiovascular morbidity is higher in cardiovascular hyperreactive individuals than in normoreactive people. Age and systolic blood pressure showed greater association with high risk of cardiovascular morbidity.

  14. Does IQ predict total and cardiovascular disease mortality as strongly as other risk factors? Comparison of effect estimates using the Vietnam Experience Study

    OpenAIRE

    Batty, G D; Shipley, M J; Gale, C R; Mortensen, L. H.; Deary, I J

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To compare the strength of the relation of two measurements of IQ and 11 established risk factors with total and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. Methods: Cohort study of 4166 US male former army personnel with data on IQ test scores (in early adulthood and middle age), a range of established risk factors and 15-year mortality surveillance. Results: When CVD mortality (n = 61) was the outcome of interest, the relative index of inequality (RII: hazard ratio; 95% CI) for the m...

  15. Lifestyle dominates cardiovascular risks in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Khalib A. Latiff; Khairul H. Yusof

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular problem is one of the leading cause of death in Malaysia and now invaded to the sub-urban and rural areas. To prevent and control of this problem, several main risk factors needed to be known and shall be reexamined and ranked according to the priority. The objectives of this research paper was to identify several dominant risk factor related to cardiovascular problem. A cross sectional study was carried out from March 2000 – June 2001 on a total of 8159 rural population aged 1...

  16. Emerging Risk Biomarkers in Cardiovascular Diseases and Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi Kant Upadhyay

    2015-01-01

    Present review article highlights various cardiovascular risk prediction biomarkers by incorporating both traditional risk factors to be used as diagnostic markers and recent technologically generated diagnostic and therapeutic markers. This paper explains traditional biomarkers such as lipid profile, glucose, and hormone level and physiological biomarkers based on measurement of levels of important biomolecules such as serum ferritin, triglyceride to HDLp (high density lipoproteins) ratio, l...

  17. Cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Thyssen, Jacob P; Zachariae, Claus;

    2012-01-01

    Background Epidemiological data have established an association between cardiovascular disease and psoriasis. Only one general population study has so far compared prevalences of cardiovascular risk factors among subjects with psoriasis and control subjects. We aimed to determine the prevalence of...... cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with and without psoriasis in the general population. Methods During 2006-2008, a cross-sectional study was performed in the general population in Copenhagen, Denmark. A total of 3471 subjects participated in a general health examination that included assessment of current...... smoking status, weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, resting heart rate, and plasma lipids, hemoglobin A1c, fasting glucose, and insulin levels. Results Physician-diagnosed psoriasis was reported by 238 (7.1%) of 3374 participants. There were no differences...

  18. Cardiovascular risk assessment in type 2 diabetes mellitus: comparison of the World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension risk prediction charts versus UK Prospective Diabetes Study risk engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, Herath M Meththananda; Weerarathna, Thilak Priyantha; Umesha, Dilini

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at higher risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, and assessment of their cardiac risk is important for preventive strategies. Purpose The Ministry of Health of Sri Lanka has recommended World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH) charts for cardiac risk assessment in individuals with T2DM. However, the most suitable cardiac risk assessment tool for Sri Lankans with T2DM has not been studied. This study was designed to evaluate the performance of two cardiac risk assessments tools; WHO/ISH charts and UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) risk engine. Methods Cardiac risk assessments were done in 2,432 patients with T2DM attending a diabetes clinic in Southern Sri Lanka using the two risk assessment tools. Validity of two assessment tools was further assessed by their ability to recognize individuals with raised low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and raised diastolic blood pressure in a cohort of newly diagnosed T2DM patients (n=332). Results WHO/ISH charts identified 78.4% of subjects as low cardiac risk whereas the UKPDS risk engine categorized 52.3% as low cardiac risk (P20%. Agreement between the two tools was poor (κ value =0.144, P<0.01). Approximately 82% of individuals categorized as low cardiac risk by WHO/ISH had higher LDL cholesterol than the therapeutic target of 100 mg/dL. Conclusion There is a significant discrepancy between the two assessment tools with WHO/ISH risk chart recognizing higher proportions of patients having low cardiac risk than the UKPDS risk engine. Risk assessment by both assessment tools demonstrated poor sensitivity in identifying those with treatable levels of LDL cholesterol and diastolic blood pressure. PMID:26622181

  19. Lifestyle factors and risk of cardiovascular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoevenaar-Blom, M.P.

    2013-01-01

     Background Evidence is accumulating that lifestyle factors influence the incidence of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular diseases (CVD). A healthy diet, being physically active, moderate alcohol consumption and not smoking are associated with a lower CVD risk. In addition to

  20. AGE, ARTERIAL STIFFNESS AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋雄京; 刘国仗; 刘力生

    2001-01-01

    The recent researches on the structure and function of large artery find that increasing pulse pressure is associated with greater cardiovascular risk, especially risk of coronary events. Such risk is not explicable on the basis of increasing systolic pressure with age, and is apparent even when the major reason for increased pulse pressure is a relative decrease of diastolic pressure. The finding challenges the conventional approach to arterial pressure where diastolic pressure is traditionally viewed as the most robust indicator of caridovascular risk. An explanation is available. This is based on the perception of Harriet Dustan that hypertension in the older popula-

  1. New Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Their Use for an Accurate Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Hypertensive Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    TAUTU, Oana-Florentina; DARABONT, Roxana; ONCIUL, Sebastian; DEACONU, Alexandru; COMANESCU, Ioana; ANDREI, Radu Dan; DRAGOESCU, Bogdan; CINTEZA, Mircea; DOROBANTU, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze the predictive value of new cardiovascular (CV) risk factors for CV risk assessment in the adult Romanian hypertensive (HT) population. Methods: Hypertensive adults aged between 40-65 years of age, identified in national representative SEPHAR II survey were evaluated by anthropometric, BP and arterial stiffness measurements: aortic pulse wave velocity (PWVao), aortic augmentation index (AIXao), revers time (RT) and central systolic blood pressure (SBPao), 12 lead ECGs and laboratory workup. Values above the 4th quartile of mean SBP' standard deviation (s.d.) defined increased BP variability. Log(TG/HDL-cholesterol) defined atherogenic index of plasma (AIP). Serum uric acid levels above 5.70 mg/dl for women and 7.0 mg/dl for males defined hyperuricemia (HUA). CV risk was assessed based on SCORE chart for high CV risk countries. Binary logistic regression using a stepwise likelihood ratio method (adjustments for major confounders and colliniarity analysis) was used in order to validate predictors of high and very high CV risk class. Results: The mean SBP value of the study group was 148.46±19.61 mmHg. Over forty percent of hypertensives had a high and very high CV risk. Predictors of high/very high CV risk category validated by regression analysis were: increased visit-to-visit BP variability (OR: 2.49; 95%CI: 1.67-3.73), PWVao (OR: 1.12; 95%CI: 1.02-1.22), RT (OR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.93-0.98), SBPao (OR: 1.01; 95%CI: 1.01-1.03) and AIP (OR: 7.08; 95%CI: 3.91-12.82). Conclusion: The results of our study suggests that the new CV risk factors such as increased BP variability, arterial stiffness indices and AIP are useful tools for a more accurate identification of hypertensives patients at high and very high CV risk. PMID:25705267

  2. Hypertriglyceridemia and Cardiovascular Risk Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated triglyceride (TG) levels are prevalent among the US population, often occurring in persons who are overweight or obese, or who have type 2 diabetes or the metabolic syndrome. Meta-analysis indicates that elevated TG levels may be a significant independent risk factor for coronary heart dise...

  3. Childhood cardiovascular risk factors in South Asians: A cause of concern for adult cardiovascular disease epidemic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiovascular risk factors in children are increasing at an alarming rate in the western world. However, there is limited information regarding these in the South Asian children. This review attempts at summarizing such evidence. South Asians are remarkable for the earlier onset of adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) by almost a decade compared to the Caucasians. We identified published literature, mainly on PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library using specific search terms such as lipid abnormalities, high blood pressure, hyperglycemia, tobacco use, obesity, physical inactivity, and unhealthy dietary practices. Atherosclerotic CVD processes begin early in childhood and are influenced over the life course by genetic and potentially modifiable risk factors and environmental exposure. 80% of adult CVD burden will fall on the developing nations by 2020. The concept of primordial prevention is fast emerging as a necessary prevention tool to curb adult CVD epidemic. Established guidelines and proven preventive strategies on cardiovascular health exist; however, are always implemented half-heartedly. Composite screening and prediction tools for adults can be adapted and validated in children tailored to South Asian population. South Asian children could be at a greater risk of developing cardiovascular risk factors at an earlier stage, thus, timely interventions are imperative

  4. Cardiovascular Outcomes in the Outpatient Kidney Transplant Clinic: The Framingham Risk Score Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Kiberd, Bryce; Panek, Romuald

    2008-01-01

    Background and objectives: Cardiovascular disease is an important cause of morbidity and death in kidney transplant recipients. This study examines the Framingham risk score's ability to predict cardiac and stroke events. Because cyclosporine and tacrolimus have different cardiovascular risk profiles, these agents were also examined.

  5. Risk of cardiovascular disease following radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excess radiation-induced cardiac mortalities have been reported among radiotherapy patients. Many case reports describe the occurrence of atherosclerosis following radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease and breast cancer. Some case reports describe the cerebral infarction following radiotherapy to neck region, and of peripheral vascular disease of the lower extremities following radiotherapy to the pelvic region. The association of atomic bomb radiation and cardiovascular disease has been examined recently by incidence studies and prevalence studies of various endpoints of atherosclerosis; all endpoints indicated an increase of cardiovascular disease in the exposed group. It is almost certain that the cardiovascular disease is higher among atomic bomb survivors. However, since a heavy exposure of 10-40 Gy is delivered in radiotherapy and the bomb survivors were exposed to radiation at high dose and dose-rate, the question is whether the results can be extrapolated to individuals exposed to lower levels of radiation. Some recent epidemiological studies on occupationally exposed workers and population living near Chernobyl have provided the evidence for cardiovascular disease being a significant late effect at relatively low doses of radiation. However, the issue of non-cancer mortality from radiation is complicated by lack of adequate information on doses, and many other confounding factors (e.g., smoking habits or socio-economic status). This presentation will evaluate possible radiobiological mechanisms for radiation-induced cardiovascular disease, and will address its relevance to radiation protection management at low doses and what the impact might be on future radiation risk assessments. (authors)

  6. Cardiovascular risk in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manali, Effrosyni D; Papadaki, Georgia; Konstantonis, Dimitrios; Tsangaris, Iraklis; Papaioannou, Andriana I; Kolilekas, Likurgos; Schams, Andrea; Kagouridis, Konstantinos; Karakatsani, Anna; Orfanos, Stylianos; Griese, Matthias; Papiris, Spyros A

    2016-02-01

    We hypothesized that cardiovascular events and/or indices of cardiac dysfunction may be increased in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). Systemic and pulmonary arterial hypertension, arrhythmias, pulmonary embolism, stroke and ischemic heart attack were reported. Patients underwent serum anti-GM-CSF antibodies, disease severity score (DSS), Doppler transthoracic echocardiograph, glucose, thyroid hormones, lipids, troponin and pro-Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) examination. Thirteen patients (8 female) were studied, median age of 47. Pro-BNP inversely related to DLCO% and TLC%; troponin directly related to DSS, age, P(A-a)O2, left atrium-, left ventricle-end-diastole diameter and BMI. On multiple regression analysis DSS was the only parameter significantly and strongly related with troponin (R(2) = 0.776, p = 0.007). No cardiovascular event was reported during follow-up. In PAP cardiovascular risk indices relate to lung disease severity. Therefore, PAP patients could be at increased risk for cardiovascular events. Quantitation of its magnitude and potential links to lungs' physiologic derangement will be addressed in future studies. PMID:26558331

  7. Combined Value of Red Blood Cell Distribution Width and Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events Risk Score for Predicting Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Na; Mi, Lan; Liu, Xiaojun; Pan, Shuo; Xu, Jiaojiao; Xia, Dongyu; Liu, Zhongwei; Zhang, Yong; Xiang, Yu; Yuan, Zuyi; Guan, Gongchang; Wang, Junkui

    2015-01-01

    Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) risk score and red blood cell distribution width (RDW) content can both independently predict major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We investigated the combined predictive value of RDW and GRACE risk score for cardiovascular events in patients with ACS undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for the first time. We enrolled 480 ACS patients. During a median follow-up time of 37.2 months, 70 (14.58%) patients experienced MACEs. Patients were divided into tertiles according to the baseline RDW content (11.30–12.90, 13.00–13.50, 13.60–16.40). GRACE score was positively correlated with RDW content. Multivariate Cox analysis showed that both GRACE score and RDW content were independent predictors of MACEs (hazard ratio 1.039; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.024–1.055; p < 0.001; 1.699; 1.294–2.232; p < 0.001; respectively). Furthermore, Kaplan–Meier analysis demonstrated that the risk of MACEs increased with increasing RDW content (p < 0.001). For GRACE score alone, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for MACEs was 0.749 (95% CI: 0.707–0.787). The area under the ROC curve for MACEs increased to 0.805 (0.766–0.839, p = 0.034) after adding RDW content. The incremental predictive value of combining RDW content and GRACE risk score was significantly improved, also shown by the net reclassification improvement (NRI = 0.352, p < 0.001) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI = 0.023, p = 0.002). Combining the predictive value of RDW and GRACE risk score yielded a more accurate predictive value for long-term cardiovascular events in ACS patients who underwent PCI as compared to each measure alone. PMID:26468876

  8. Combined Value of Red Blood Cell Distribution Width and Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events Risk Score for Predicting Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Zhao

    Full Text Available Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE risk score and red blood cell distribution width (RDW content can both independently predict major adverse cardiac events (MACEs in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS. We investigated the combined predictive value of RDW and GRACE risk score for cardiovascular events in patients with ACS undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI for the first time. We enrolled 480 ACS patients. During a median follow-up time of 37.2 months, 70 (14.58% patients experienced MACEs. Patients were divided into tertiles according to the baseline RDW content (11.30-12.90, 13.00-13.50, 13.60-16.40. GRACE score was positively correlated with RDW content. Multivariate Cox analysis showed that both GRACE score and RDW content were independent predictors of MACEs (hazard ratio 1.039; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.024-1.055; p < 0.001; 1.699; 1.294-2.232; p < 0.001; respectively. Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that the risk of MACEs increased with increasing RDW content (p < 0.001. For GRACE score alone, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve for MACEs was 0.749 (95% CI: 0.707-0.787. The area under the ROC curve for MACEs increased to 0.805 (0.766-0.839, p = 0.034 after adding RDW content. The incremental predictive value of combining RDW content and GRACE risk score was significantly improved, also shown by the net reclassification improvement (NRI = 0.352, p < 0.001 and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI = 0.023, p = 0.002. Combining the predictive value of RDW and GRACE risk score yielded a more accurate predictive value for long-term cardiovascular events in ACS patients who underwent PCI as compared to each measure alone.

  9. Predictive Value of Beat-to-Beat QT Variability Index across the Continuum of Left Ventricular Dysfunction: Competing Risks of Non-cardiac or Cardiovascular Death, and Sudden or Non-Sudden Cardiac Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereshchenko, Larisa G.; Cygankiewicz, Iwona; McNitt, Scott; Vazquez, Rafael; Bayes-Genis, Antoni; Han, Lichy; Sur, Sanjoli; Couderc, Jean-Philippe; Berger, Ronald D.; de Luna, Antoni Bayes; Zareba, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    Background The goal of this study was to determine the predictive value of beat-to-beat QT variability in heart failure (HF) patients across the continuum of left ventricular dysfunction. Methods and Results Beat-to-beat QT variability index (QTVI), heart rate variance (LogHRV), normalized QT variance (QTVN), and coherence between heart rate variability and QT variability have been measured at rest during sinus rhythm in 533 participants of the Muerte Subita en Insuficiencia Cardiaca (MUSIC) HF study (mean age 63.1±11.7; males 70.6%; LVEF >35% in 254 [48%]) and in 181 healthy participants from the Intercity Digital Electrocardiogram Alliance (IDEAL) database. During a median of 3.7 years of follow-up, 116 patients died, 52 from sudden cardiac death (SCD). In multivariate competing risk analyses, the highest QTVI quartile was associated with cardiovascular death [hazard ratio (HR) 1.67(95%CI 1.14-2.47), P=0.009] and in particular with non-sudden cardiac death [HR 2.91(1.69-5.01), P<0.001]. Elevated QTVI separated 97.5% of healthy individuals from subjects at risk for cardiovascular [HR 1.57(1.04-2.35), P=0.031], and non-sudden cardiac death in multivariate competing risk model [HR 2.58(1.13-3.78), P=0.001]. No interaction between QTVI and LVEF was found. QTVI predicted neither non-cardiac death (P=0.546) nor SCD (P=0.945). Decreased heart rate variability (HRV) rather than increased QT variability was the reason for increased QTVI in this study. Conclusions Increased QTVI due to depressed HRV predicts cardiovascular mortality and non-sudden cardiac death, but neither SCD nor excracardiac mortality in HF across the continuum of left ventricular dysfunction. Abnormally augmented QTVI separates 97.5% of healthy individuals from HF patients at risk. PMID:22730411

  10. [Helicobacter pylori: a new cardiovascular risk factor?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Torres, Alejandra; Martínez Gaensly, Miguel

    2002-06-01

    There is increasing evidence that certain microbial agents may have an etiopathogenic role in the development of atherothrombosis. Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium that causes peptic ulcer disease, has been suggested as one of the microbes involved in the development of atherothrombosis. This hypothesis is based on the following observations: a) a higher prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, or cerebrovascular disease; b) the coincidence of Helicobacter pylori infection and cardiovascular risk factors, such as serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations and plasma fibrinogen; c) Helicobacter pylori seropositivity correlates with acute-phase proteins associated with higher risk of coronary disease, such as C-reactive protein, and d) controversial PCR studies indicating the presence of Helicobacter pylori in atheromas. Analysis of the scientific evidence suggests that Helicobacter pylori infection could indirectly contribute to the development and severity of atherothrombosis and cardiovascular disease. PMID:12113724

  11. Affluence and the Worldwide Distribution of Cardiovascular Disease Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Ezzati, Majid; Vander Hoorn, Stephen; Lawes, Carlene M.M.; Leach, Rachel; James, W.Philip T.; Alan D Lopez; Rodgers, Anthony; Christopher J L Murray

    2005-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases and their nutritional risk factors—including overweight and obesity, elevated blood pressure, and cholesterol—are among the leading causes of global mortality and morbidity, and have been predicted to rise with economic development. Methods and Findings We examined age-standardized mean population levels of body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure, and total cholesterol in relation to national income, food share of household expenditure, and urbanizati...

  12. Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in an Aging HIV Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin-Iguacel, R; Llibre, J M; Friis-Moller, N

    2015-01-01

    With more effective and widespread antiretroviral treatment, the overall incidence of AIDS- or HIV-related death has decreased dramatically. Consequently, as patients are aging, cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the HIV population. The...... incidence of CVD overall in HIV is relatively low, but it is approximately 1.5-2-fold higher than that seen in age-matched HIV-uninfected individuals. Multiple factors are believed to explain this excess in risk such as overrepresentation of traditional cardiovascular risk factors (particularly smoking......), toxicities associated with cumulative exposure to some antiretroviral agents, together with persistent chronic inflammation, and immune activation associated with HIV infection. Tools are available to calculate an individual's predicted risk of CVD and should be incorporated in the regular follow-up of HIV...

  13. Toxic urban waste's assault on cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. De Rosa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A cardiovascular health survey of 1203 persons in households located near the hazardous waste disposal sites and in a reference community, was conducted from 2009 until today to assess whether rates of adverse cardiovascular health outcomes were elevated among persons living near the sites. Data included medical records of reported cardiovascular disease certificates and hospital admission for cardiovascular diseases from hospital database. The study areas appeared similar with respect to mortality, cancer incidence, and pregnancy outcomes. In contrast, rate ratios were greater than 1.5 for 2 of 19 reported diseases, i.e., angina pectoris, and strokes. The apparent broad-based elevation in reported diseases and symptoms may reflect increased perception or recall of conditions by respondents living near the sites. Our study found that cardiovascular risk is associated only with PM2.5 concentrations, derived from uncontrolled burning of municipal solid waste in particular sites of our country. Their analysis demonstrated a relationship between increased levels of eventual fine particulate pollution and higher rates of death and complications from cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Management of solid waste releases a number of toxic substances, most in small quantities and at extremely low levels. Because of the wide range of pollutants, the different pathways of exposure, long-term low-level exposure, and the potential for synergism among the pollutants, concerns remain about potential health effects but there are many uncertainties involved in the assessment. Future community-based health studies should include medical and psychosocial assessment instruments sufficient to distinguish between changes in health status and effects of resident reporting tendency.

  14. Periodontitis and Calculated Risk of Cardiovascular Mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Boutouyrie, P.; P. Bouchard; C. Mattout; Bourgeois, D.

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported associations between periodontitis and vascular disease in Europe. The aim of this multi-centric study was to evaluate the relationship between periodontitis and the calculated risk of cardiovascular death in the French adult population. The survey employed 2144 dentate adult subjects of the First National Periodontal and Systemic Examination Survey (NPASES I). This nationally representative sample was obtained by a quota method. The subjects had a compl...

  15. Epigenetic Changes in Diabetes and Cardiovascular Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Samuel T; Plutzky, Jorge; El-Osta, Assam

    2016-05-27

    Cardiovascular complications remain the leading causes of morbidity and premature mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus. Studies in humans and preclinical models demonstrate lasting gene expression changes in the vasculopathies initiated by previous exposure to high glucose concentrations and the associated overproduction of reactive oxygen species. The molecular signatures of chromatin architectures that sensitize the genome to these and other cardiometabolic risk factors of the diabetic milieu are increasingly implicated in the biological memory underlying cardiovascular complications and now widely considered as promising therapeutic targets. Atherosclerosis is a complex heterocellular disease where the contributing cell types possess distinct epigenomes shaping diverse gene expression. Although the extent that pathological chromatin changes can be manipulated in human cardiovascular disease remains to be established, the clinical applicability of epigenetic interventions will be greatly advanced by a deeper understanding of the cell type-specific roles played by writers, erasers, and readers of chromatin modifications in the diabetic vasculature. This review details a current perspective of epigenetic mechanisms of macrovascular disease in diabetes mellitus and highlights recent key descriptions of chromatinized changes associated with persistent gene expression in endothelial, smooth muscle, and circulating immune cells relevant to atherosclerosis. Furthermore, we discuss the challenges associated with pharmacological targeting of epigenetic networks to correct abnormal or deregulated gene expression as a strategy to alleviate the clinical burden of diabetic cardiovascular disease. PMID:27230637

  16. Estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria for prediction of cardiovascular outcomes : a collaborative meta-analysis of individual participant data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matsushita, Kunihiro; Coresh, Josef; Sang, Yingying; Chalmers, John; Fox, Caroline; Guallar, Eliseo; Jafar, Tazeen; Jassal, Simerjot K.; Landman, Gijs W. D.; Muntner, Paul; Roderick, Paul; Sairenchi, Toshimi; Schoettker, Ben; Shankar, Anoop; Shlipak, Michael; Tonelli, Marcello; Townend, Jonathan; van Zuilen, Arjan; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Yamashita, Kentaro; Gansevoort, Ron; Sarnak, Mark; Warnock, David G.; Woodward, Mark; Arnlov, Johan; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2015-01-01

    Background The usefulness of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria for prediction of cardiovascular outcomes is controversial. We aimed to assess the addition of creatinine-based eGFR and albuminuria to traditional risk factors for prediction of cardiovascular risk with a meta-

  17. Estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria for prediction of cardiovascular outcomes: a collaborative meta-analysis of individual participant data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matsushita, K.; Coresh, J.; Sang, Y.; Chalmers, J.; Fox, C.; Guallar, E.; Jafar, T.; Jassal, S.K.; Landman, G.W.; Muntner, P.; Roderick, P.; Sairenchi, T.; Schottker, B.; Shankar, A.; Shlipak, M.; Tonelli, M.; Townend, J.; Zuilen, A. van; Yamagishi, K.; Yamashita, K.; Gansevoort, R.; Sarnak, M.; Warnock, D.G.; Woodward, M.; Arnlov, J.; Wetzels, J.F.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The usefulness of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria for prediction of cardiovascular outcomes is controversial. We aimed to assess the addition of creatinine-based eGFR and albuminuria to traditional risk factors for prediction of cardiovascular risk with a meta

  18. Physical inactivity : A cardiovascular risk factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad D

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence regarding health benefits of physical activity is overwhelming and plays a critical role in both the primary and secondary prevention of coronary artery disease (CAD. Epidemiological investigations show approximately half the incidence of CAD in active compared to sedentary persons. A sedentary lifestyle is considered by various national and international organizations to be one of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Fortunately, a moderate level of occupational or recreational activity appears to confer a significant protective effect. Once coronary artery disease has become manifest, exercise training can clearly improve the functional capacity of patients and reduce overall mortality by decreasing the risk of sudden death. Well-designed clinical investigations, supported by basic animal studies, have demonstrated that the beneficial effects of exercise are related to direct and indirect protective mechanisms. These benefits may result from an improvement in cardiovascular risk factors, enhanced fibrinolysis, improved endothelial function, decreased sympathetic tone, and other as-yet-undetermined factors. Hence physical fitness, more than the absence of ponderosity or other factors, is the major determinant of cardiovascular and metabolic risk and long-term disease-free survival, in effect linking health span to life span. It is obviously in every individual′s interest to assume the responsibility for his or her own health and embrace this extremely effective, safe, and inexpensive treatment modality. The need for a comprehensive review of this particular topic has arisen in view of the high prevalence of physical inactivity and overwhelming evidence regarding CVD risk reduction with regular physical activity.

  19. Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk in Collegiate Football Players and Nonathletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrosielski, Devon A.; Rosenbaum, Daryl; Wooster, Benjamin M.; Merrill, Michael; Swanson, John; Moore, J. Brian; Brubaker, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    Collegiate American football players may be at risk for cardiovascular disease. Objective: To compare cardiovascular disease risk factors and cardiovascular structure and function parameters of football players, stratified by position, to a group of sedentary, nonathletes. Participants: Twenty-six collegiate football players and 13 nonathletes…

  20. Association Between Leisure Time Physical Activity, Cardiopulmonary Fitness, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and Cardiovascular Workload at Work in Firefighters

    OpenAIRE

    Clare C. W. Yu; Au, Chun T.; Lee, Frank Y.F.; So, Raymond C.H.; Wong, John P.S.; Mak, Gary Y.K.; Chien, Eric P.; Alison M. McManus

    2015-01-01

    Background Overweight, obesity, and cardiovascular disease risk factors are prevalent among firefighters in some developed countries. It is unclear whether physical activity and cardiopulmonary fitness reduce cardiovascular disease risk and the cardiovascular workload at work in firefighters. The present study investigated the relationship between leisure-time physical activity, cardiopulmonary fitness, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and cardiovascular workload at work in firefighters i...

  1. Does IQ predict total and cardiovascular disease mortality as strongly as other risk factors? Comparison of effect estimates using the Vietnam Experience Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batty, George David; Shipley, Martin J; Gale, Catharine R;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the strength of the relation of two measurements of IQ and eleven established risk factors with total and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. METHODS: Cohort study of 4166 US male former army personnel with data on IQ test scores (in early adulthood and middle-age), a...... age-adjusted analyses) was: 6.58 (2.54, 17.1) for family income; 5.55 (2.16, 14.2) for total cholesterol; 5.12 (2.01, 13.0) for body mass index; 4.70 (1.89, 11.7) for IQ in middle-age; 4.29 (1.70, 10.8) for blood glucose; and 4.08 (1.63, 10.2) for HDL cholesterol (the RII for IQ in early adulthood was...... ranked tenth: 2.88; 1.19, 6.97). In analyses featuring all deaths (N=233), the RII for risk factors most strongly related to this outcome was: 7.46 (4.54, 12.3) for family income; 4.41 (2.77, 7.03) for IQ in middle-age; 4.02 (2.37, 6.83) for smoking; 3.81 (2.35, 6.17) for educational attainment; 3.40 (2...

  2. Individualizing fracture risk prediction

    OpenAIRE

    van Geel, Tineke A. C. M.; van den Bergh, Joop P. W.; Dinant, Geert Jan; Geusens, Piet

    2010-01-01

    Low bone mineral density (BMD) and clinical factors (CRF) have been identified as factors associated with an increased relative risk of fractures. From this observation and for clinical decision making, the concept of prediction of the individual absolute risk of fractures has emerged. It refers to the individual's risk for fractures over a certain time period, e.g. the next 5 and 10 years. Two individualized fracture risk calculation tools that are increasingly used and are available on the ...

  3. C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, and cardiovascular disease prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaptoge, Stephen; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Pennells, Lisa;

    2012-01-01

    There is debate about the value of assessing levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and other biomarkers of inflammation for the prediction of first cardiovascular events.......There is debate about the value of assessing levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and other biomarkers of inflammation for the prediction of first cardiovascular events....

  4. Cardiovascular disease prediction: do pulmonary disease-related chest CT features have added value?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jairam, Pushpa M. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Jong, Pim A. de; Mali, Willem P.T.M. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Isgum, Ivana [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute, Utrecht (Netherlands); Graaf, Yolanda van der [University Medical Center Utrecht, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht (Netherlands); Collaboration: PROVIDI study-group

    2015-06-01

    Certain pulmonary diseases are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore we investigated the incremental predictive value of pulmonary, mediastinal and pleural features over cardiovascular imaging findings. A total of 10,410 patients underwent diagnostic chest CT for non-cardiovascular indications. Using a case-cohort approach, we visually graded CTs from the cases and from an approximately 10 % random sample of the baseline cohort (n = 1,203) for cardiovascular, pulmonary, mediastinal and pleural findings. The incremental value of pulmonary disease-related CT findings above cardiovascular imaging findings in cardiovascular event risk prediction was quantified by comparing discrimination and reclassification. During a mean follow-up of 3.7 years (max. 7.0 years), 1,148 CVD events (cases) were identified. Addition of pulmonary, mediastinal and pleural features to a cardiovascular imaging findings-based prediction model led to marginal improvement of discrimination (increase in c-index from 0.72 (95 % CI 0.71-0.74) to 0.74 (95 % CI 0.72-0.75)) and reclassification measures (net reclassification index 6.5 % (p < 0.01)). Pulmonary, mediastinal and pleural features have limited predictive value in the identification of subjects at high risk of CVD events beyond cardiovascular findings on diagnostic chest CT scans. (orig.)

  5. Cardiovascular disease prediction: do pulmonary disease-related chest CT features have added value?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certain pulmonary diseases are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore we investigated the incremental predictive value of pulmonary, mediastinal and pleural features over cardiovascular imaging findings. A total of 10,410 patients underwent diagnostic chest CT for non-cardiovascular indications. Using a case-cohort approach, we visually graded CTs from the cases and from an approximately 10 % random sample of the baseline cohort (n = 1,203) for cardiovascular, pulmonary, mediastinal and pleural findings. The incremental value of pulmonary disease-related CT findings above cardiovascular imaging findings in cardiovascular event risk prediction was quantified by comparing discrimination and reclassification. During a mean follow-up of 3.7 years (max. 7.0 years), 1,148 CVD events (cases) were identified. Addition of pulmonary, mediastinal and pleural features to a cardiovascular imaging findings-based prediction model led to marginal improvement of discrimination (increase in c-index from 0.72 (95 % CI 0.71-0.74) to 0.74 (95 % CI 0.72-0.75)) and reclassification measures (net reclassification index 6.5 % (p < 0.01)). Pulmonary, mediastinal and pleural features have limited predictive value in the identification of subjects at high risk of CVD events beyond cardiovascular findings on diagnostic chest CT scans. (orig.)

  6. Cardiovascular Risk Factors of Taxi Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshatarat, Rami Azmi; Burgel, Barbara J

    2016-06-01

    In the United States (U.S.), cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major leading cause of death. Despite the high mortality rate related to CVD, little is known about CVD risk factors among urban taxi drivers in the U.S. A cross-sectional design was used to identify the predictors of high cardiovascular risk factors among taxi drivers. Convenience sampling method was used to recruit 130 taxi drivers. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain the data. The sample was male (94 %), age mean (45 ± 10.75) years, married (54 %), born outside of the USA (55 %), had some college or below (61.5 %), night drivers (50.8 %), and driving on average 9.7 years and 41 h/week. About 79 % of them were eligible for CVD prevention, and 35.4 % had high CVD risk factors (4-9 risk factors). A CVD high-risk profile had a significant relationship with the subjects who were ≥55 years old; had hypertension, diabetes, or hyperlipidemia; were drinking alcohol ≥2 times/week; and had insufficient physical activity. Subjects who worked as a taxi driver for more than 10 years (OR 4.37; 95 % CI 1.82, 10.50) and had mental exertion from cab driving >5 out of 10 (OR 2.63; 95 % CI 1.05, 6.57) were more likely to have a CVD high-risk profile. As a conclusion, system-level or worksite interventions include offering healthy food at taxi dispatching locations, creating a work culture of frequent walking breaks, and interventions focusing on smoking, physical activity, and weight management. Improving health insurance coverage for this group of workers is recommended. PMID:27151321

  7. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography predicts cardiovascular events after TIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transient ischemic attack (TIA) patients are at high vascular risk. We assessed the value of extracranial (ECD) and transcranial (TCD) Doppler and duplex ultrasonography to predict clinical outcome after TIA. 176 consecutive TIA patients admitted to the Stroke Unit were recruited in the study. All patients received diffusion-weighted imaging, standardized ECD and TCD. At a median follow-up of 27 months, new vascular events were recorded. 22 (13.8%) patients experienced an ischemic stroke or TIA, 5 (3.1%) a myocardial infarction or acute coronary syndrome, and 5 (3.1%) underwent arterial revascularization. ECD revealed extracranial ≥ 50% stenosis or occlusions in 34 (19.3%) patients, TCD showed intracranial stenosis in 15 (9.2%) and collateral flow patterns due to extracranial stenosis in 5 (3.1%) cases. Multivariate analysis identified these abnormal ECD and TCD findings as predictors of new cerebral ischemic events (ECD: hazard ratio (HR) 4.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.75 to 10.57, P = 0.01; TCD: HR 4.73, 95% CI 1.86 to 12.04, P = 0.01). Abnormal TCD findings were also predictive of cardiovascular ischemic events (HR 18.51, 95% CI 3.49 to 98.24, P = 0.001). TIA patients with abnormal TCD findings are at high risk to develop further cerebral and cardiovascular ischemic events

  8. Lifestyle Decreases Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Slavíček, Jaroslav; Kittnar, Otomar; Fraser, Gary E.; Medová, Eva; Konečná, Jana; Žižka, Robert; Dohnalová, Alena; Novák, Vladimír

    2008-01-01

    The morbidity and mortality of the cardiovascular diseases is high in the developed countries. The lifestyle changes are capable to decrease it by 50%. The aim of the present study was to measure the parameters of some risk factors before and after a one-week NEW START rehabilitative retreat. 1,349 volunteers, 320 men, 1,029 woman, mean age 51±14.5 (SD) years participated in 30 rehabilitative retreats from 1999–2006 in the Czech Republic, using a low-fat, low-energy, lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet...

  9. Calibration plots for risk prediction models in the presence of competing risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerds, Thomas A; Andersen, Per K; Kattan, Michael W

    2014-01-01

    A predicted risk of 17% can be called reliable if it can be expected that the event will occur to about 17 of 100 patients who all received a predicted risk of 17%. Statistical models can predict the absolute risk of an event such as cardiovascular death in the presence of competing risks such as...

  10. Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors as Predictors of Cardiovascular Events in the U.S. Astronaut Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halm, M. K.; Clark, A.; Wear, M. L.; Murray, J. D.; Polk, J. D.; Amirian, E.

    2009-01-01

    Risk prediction equations from the Framingham Heart Study are commonly used to predict the absolute risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and coronary heart disease (CHD) related death. Predicting CHD-related events in the U.S. astronaut corps presents a monumental challenge, both because astronauts tend to live healthier lifestyles and because of the unique cardiovascular stressors associated with being trained for and participating in space flight. Traditional risk factors may not hold enough predictive power to provide a useful indicator of CHD risk in this unique population. It is important to be able to identify individuals who are at higher risk for CHD-related events so that appropriate preventive care can be provided. This is of special importance when planning long duration missions since the ability to provide advanced cardiac care and perform medical evacuation is limited. The medical regimen of the astronauts follows a strict set of clinical practice guidelines in an effort to ensure the best care. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of the Framingham risk score (FRS), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein levels, blood pressure, and resting pulse as predictors of CHD-related death and MI in the astronaut corps, using Cox regression. Of these factors, only two, LDL and pulse at selection, were predictive of CHD events (HR(95% CI)=1.12 (1.00-1.25) and HR(95% CI)=1.70 (1.05-2.75) for every 5-unit increase in LDL and pulse, respectively). Since traditional CHD risk factors may lack the specificity to predict such outcomes in astronauts, the development of a new predictive model, using additional measures such as electron-beam computed tomography and carotid intima-media thickness ultrasound, is planned for the future.

  11. Cardiovascular disease risk models and longitudinal changes in cognition: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie L Harrison

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease and its risk factors have consistently been associated with poor cognitive function and incident dementia. Whether cardiovascular disease prediction models, developed to predict an individual's risk of future cardiovascular disease or stroke, are also informative for predicting risk of cognitive decline and dementia is not known.The objective of this systematic review was to compare cohort studies examining the association between cardiovascular disease risk models and longitudinal changes in cognitive function or risk of incident cognitive impairment or dementia.Medline, PsychINFO, and Embase were searched from inception to March 28, 2014. From 3,413 records initially screened, 21 were included.The association between numerous different cardiovascular disease risk models and cognitive outcomes has been tested, including Framingham and non-Framingham risk models. Five studies examined dementia as an outcome; fourteen studies examined cognitive decline or incident cognitive impairment as an outcome; and two studies examined both dementia and cognitive changes as outcomes. In all studies, higher cardiovascular disease risk scores were associated with cognitive changes or risk of dementia. Only four studies reported model prognostic performance indices, such as Area Under the Curve (AUC, for predicting incident dementia or cognitive impairment and these studies all examined non-Framingham Risk models (AUC range: 0.74 to 0.78.Cardiovascular risk prediction models are associated with cognitive changes over time and risk of dementia. Such models are easily obtainable in clinical and research settings and may be useful for identifying individuals at high risk of future cognitive decline and dementia.

  12. Mediterranean Diet and Cardiovascular Risk: Beyond Traditional Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Lista, Javier; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Perez-Caballero, Ana I; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco; Lopez-Miranda, Jose

    2016-04-01

    A strict adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) has repeatedly been linked to a low risk of cardiovascular disease in several situations. Initially, the mechanisms considered as possible causes of this were based on the effects of this dietary pattern on the so-called traditional risk factors (especially lipids and blood pressure). However, the high relative reduction in the prevalence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality were not proportional to the limited findings about regulation of those traditional risk factors. In addition to several studies confirming the above effects, current research on the MedDiet is being focused on defining its effects on non-traditional risk factors, such as endothelial function, inflammation, oxidative stress, or on controlling the conditions which predispose people to cardiovascular events, such as obesity, metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the current article, after briefly reviewing the known effects of the MedDiet on the traditional risk factors, we will mainly focus on reviewing the current evidence about the effects that this dietary pattern exerts on alternative factors, including postprandial lipemia or coagulation, among others, as well as providing a short review on future directions. PMID:25118147

  13. Visualizing Risk Prediction Models

    OpenAIRE

    Vanya Van Belle; Ben Van Calster

    2015-01-01

    Objective Risk prediction models can assist clinicians in making decisions. To boost the uptake of these models in clinical practice, it is important that end-users understand how the model works and can efficiently communicate its results. We introduce novel methods for interpretable model visualization. Methods The proposed visualization techniques are applied to two prediction models from the Framingham Heart Study for the prediction of intermittent claudication and stroke after atrial fib...

  14. Lifestyle decreases risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavícek, Jaroslav; Kittnar, Otomar; Fraser, Gary E; Medová, Eva; Konecná, Jana; Zizka, Robert; Dohnalová, Alena; Novák, Vladimir

    2008-12-01

    The morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases is high in the developed countries. The lifestyle changes are capable to decrease it by 50%. The aim of the present study was to measure the parameters of some risk factors before and after a one-week NEW START rehabilitative retreat. 1349 volunteers, 320 men, 1029 woman, mean age 51 +/- 14.5 (SD) years participated in 30 rehabilitative retreats from 1999-2006 in the Czech Republic, using a low-fat, low-energy, lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and exercise, in a stress-free environment. Body weight, height, BMI, blood pressure, heart rate, serum cholesterol and blood glucose were measured. Body weight decreased in 1223 measured persons from 71.2 +/- 14.38 (SD) to 70.6 +/- 14.02 kg (placto-ovo vegetarians and Seventh-day Adventists than in controls who never observed the diet and avail the lifestyle programs. The parameters were nonsignificantly changed one year after finishing the retreat in the sample of 68 persons showing the positive effect of retreats. Our results showed, that the intake of a low-fat, low-energy diet, over the course of one week in a stress-free environment, had positive impact on the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:19256282

  15. Patients with psoriasis have an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlehoff, Ole; Gislason, Gunnar; Lindhardsen, Jesper; Skov, Lone; Hansen, Peter Riis

    2012-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic immunoinflammatory disease that affects 2-3% of the population and shares pathophysiologic mechanisms and risk factors with cardiovascular diseases. Studies have suggested psoriasis as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and Danish guidelines on...... cardiovascular risk factor modification in patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis have recently been published. We provide a short review of the current evidence and the Danish guidelines....

  16. The new concept of total cardiovascular risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Gino Seravalle; Guido Grassi; Giuseppe Mancia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus, often cluster together and can also be seen with other pathophysiological conditions that greatly increase an individual’s risk for cardiovascular morbidity and death. Aim of the study: This article emphasizes the importance of assessing and managing the total cardiovascular risk in an individual patient. Materials and methods: Suggestions and recommendations from the most current hyp...

  17. Epigenetics and cardiovascular risk in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Francesco; Magenta, Alessandra; Pannarale, Giuseppe; Martino, Eliana; Zanoni, Cristina; Perla, Francesco M; Puddu, Paolo E; Barillà, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) can arise at the early stages of development and growth. Genetic and environmental factors may interact resulting in epigenetic modifications with abnormal phenotypic expression of genetic information without any change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA. Maternal dietary imbalance, inadequate to meet the nutritional needs of the fetus can lead to intrauterine growth retardation, decreased gestational age, low birth weight, excessive post-natal growth and metabolic alterations, with subsequent appearance of CVD risk factors. Fetal exposure to high cholesterol, diabetes and maternal obesity is associated with increased risk and progression of atherosclerosis. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and exposure to various environmental pollutants induce epigenetic alterations of gene expression relevant to the onset or progression of CVD. In children with hypercholesterolemia and/or obesity, oxidative stress activates platelets and monocytes, which release proinflammatory and proatherogenic substances, inducing endothelial dysfunction, decreased Doppler flow-mediated dilation and increased carotid intima-media thickness. Primary prevention of atherosclerosis should be implemented early. It is necessary to identify, through screening, high-risk apparently healthy children and take care of them enforcing healthy lifestyle (mainly consisting of Mediterranean diet and physical activity), prescribing nutraceuticals and eventual medications, if required by a high-risk profile. The key issue is the restoration of endothelial function in the reversible stage of atherosclerosis. Epigenetics may provide new markers for an early identification of children at risk and thereby develop innovative therapies and specific nutritional interventions in critical times. PMID:27367935

  18. Coronary Artery Calcium Screening: Does it Perform Better than Other Cardiovascular Risk Stratification Tools?

    OpenAIRE

    Irfan Zeb; Matthew Budoff

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery calcium (CAC) has been advocated as one of the strongest cardiovascular risk prediction markers. It performs better across a wide range of Framingham risk categories (6%–10% and 10%–20% 10-year risk categories) and also helps in reclassifying the risk of these subjects into either higher or lower risk categories based on CAC scores. It also performs better among population subgroups where Framingham risk score does not perform well, especially young subjects, women, family his...

  19. Ezetimibe, cardiovascular risk and atherogenic dyslipidaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Manfredi; Battista Rini, Giovam

    2011-02-01

    Ezetimibe is a selective cholesterol absorption inhibitor with an excellent side-effect profile, able to reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol by 15-25% from baseline in monotherapy and on top of statins and fibrates. Yet, it seems that ezetimibe produces quantitative rather than qualitative changes in LDL, with small net effects on atherogenic dyslipidaemia. This is supported by findings from the Ezetimibe and Simvastatin in Hypercholesterolemia Enhances Atherosclerosis Regression (ENHANCE) study on atherosclerosis progression, where the addition of ezetimibe to simvastatin in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia did not affect the mean change in carotid intima-media thickness, although a significant reduction in LDL cholesterol levels was observed. The Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis (SEAS) study has further shown that combination treatment with simvastatin significantly reduced LDL cholesterol levels in patients with aortic stenosis, but did not affect the primary end point of aortic valve and cardiovascular events, although a significant reduction in the risk of ischaemic events was reported. Formal cardiovascular outcome trials are underway and these will provide additional insights into the long-term effects of ezetimibe on clinical events as well as on atherogenic dyslipidaemia, beyond LDL cholesterol levels. PMID:22291726

  20. Hyperhomocysteinemia and cardiovascular risks in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagheb, Mohammad Mahdi; Ostovan, Mohammad Ali; Sohrabi, Zahra; Atabati, Elham; Raisjalai, Ghanbar Ali; Roozbeh, Jamshid

    2010-09-01

    The risk of premature and progressive occlusive vascular disease is high in chronic uremic patients, and it accounts for more than 40% of the mortality in dialysis patients. End stage renal failure (ESRF) patients exhibit elevated plasma homocystein levels, about four fold as much as those in the controls, and it is now considered as a causative factor for increased risk of cardiovascular death among these patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of total plasma homocysteine level and echocardiographic abnormalities as a surrogate of cardiac disease outcome in hemodialysis patients. 123 adult patients on maintenance hemodialysis and having echocardiography done during January till November 2006 were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Plasma homocysteine level was directly related to the presence of aortic regurgitation r= 0.27 P= 0.009. There were negative correlations between ejection fraction (EF), left ventricular systolic dimension (LV.S) (r= - 0.71, P= 0.0001), left ventricular diastolic dimension (LV.D) (r= -0.23 p= 0.01) and age (r= - 0.021 P= 0.02). In conclusion we did not find the paradoxical reverse epidemiology in our patients and plasma total homocysteine level was in direct correlation with cardiac risk factors such as left ventricular mass index and aortic regurgitation. PMID:20814121

  1. Hyperhemocysteinemia and cardiovascular risks in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagheb Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of premature and progressive occlusive vascular disease is high in chronic uremic patients, and it accounts for more than 40% of the mortality in dialysis patients. End stage renal failure (ESRF patients exhibit elevated plasma homocystein levels, about four fold as much as those in the controls, and it is now considered as a causative factor for increased risk of cardiovascular death among these patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of total plasma homocysteine level and echocardiographic abnormalities as a surrogate of cardiac disease outcome in hemodialysis patients. 123 adult patients on maintenance hemodialysis and having echocardiography done during January till November 2006 were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Plasma homocysteine level was directly related to the presence of aortic regur-gitation r= 0.27 P= 0.009. There were negative correlations between ejection fraction (EF, left ventricular systolic dimension (LV.S (r= - 0.71, P= 0.0001, left ventricular diastolic dimension (LV.D (r= -0.23 p= 0.01 and age (r= - 0.021 P= 0.02. In conclusion we did not find the para-doxical reverse epidemiology in our patients and plasma total homocysteine level was in direct correlation with cardiac risk factors such as left ventricular mass index and aortic regurgitation.

  2. Special Diabetes Program for Indians: Retention in Cardiovascular Risk Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Spero M.; Jiang, Luohua; Zhang, Lijing; Beals, Janette; Acton, Kelly J.; Roubideaux, Yvette

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the associations between participant and site characteristics and retention in a multisite cardiovascular disease risk reduction project. Design and Methods: Data were derived from the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Healthy Heart Demonstration Project, an intervention to reduce cardiovascular risk among American…

  3. Quantifying cardiovascular disease risk factors in patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, I M; Skaaby, T; Ellervik, C;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In a previous meta-analysis on categorical data we found an association between psoriasis and cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors. OBJECTIVES: To quantify the level of cardiovascular disease risk factors in order to provide additional data for the clinical management...

  4. Association of sympathovagal imbalance with cardiovascular risks in overt hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avupati Naga Syamsunder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular morbidities have been reported in hypothyroidism. Aims: The objective of this study is to investigate the link of sympathovagal imbalance (SVI to cardiovascular risks (CVRs and the plausible mechanisms of CVR in hypothyroidism. Materials and Methods: Age-matched 104 females (50 controls, 54 hypothyroids were recruited and their body mass index (BMI, cardiovascular parameters, autonomic function tests by spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV, heart rate response to standing, deep breathing and blood pressure response to isometric handgrip were studied. Thyroid profile, lipid profile, immunological and inflammatory markers were estimated and their association with low-frequency to the high-frequency ratio (LF-HF of HRV, the marker of SVI was assessed by multivariate regression. Results: Increased diastolic pressure, decreased HRV, increased LF-HF, dyslipidemia and increased high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP were observed in hypothyroid patients and all these parameters had significant correlation with LF-HF. BMI had no significant association with LF-HF. Atherogenic index (β 1.144, P = 0.001 and hsCRP (b 0.578, P = 0.009 had independent contribution to LF-HF. LF-HF could significantly predict hypertension status (odds ratio 2.05, confidence interval 1.110-5.352, P = 0.008 in hypothyroid subjects. Conclusions: SVI due to sympathetic activation and vagal withdrawal occurs in hypothyroidism. Dyslipidemia and low-grade inflammation, but not obesity contribute to SVI and SVI contributes to cardiovascular risks.

  5. [New populations at increased cardiovascular risk: Cardiovascular disease in dermatological diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy-Gijón, Elena; Meseguer-Yebra, Carmen; Palacio-Aller, Lucía; Godoy-Rocati, Diego Vicente; Lahoz-Rallo, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The increased cardiovascular risk in some dermatological diseases has been demonstrated in recent decades. Diseases such as psoriasis and systemic lupus erythematosus are currently included in the guidelines for prevention of cardiovascular disease. Other diseases such as androgenic alopecia, polycystic ovary syndrome, hidradenitis suppurativa or lichen planus have numerous studies that point to an increased risk, however, they have not been included in these guidelines. In this article we review the evidence supporting this association, in order to alert the clinician to the need for greater control in cardiovascular risk factors in these patients. PMID:26383179

  6. A four-year cardiovascular risk score for type 2 diabetic inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Ramírez-Prado

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As cardiovascular risk tables currently in use were constructed using data from the general population, the cardiovascular risk of patients admitted via the hospital emergency department may be underestimated. Accordingly, we constructed a predictive model for the appearance of cardiovascular diseases in patients with type 2 diabetes admitted via the emergency department. We undertook a four-year follow-up of a cohort of 112 adult patients with type 2 diabetes admitted via the emergency department for any cause except patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction, stroke, cancer, or a palliative status. The sample was selected randomly between 2010 and 2012. The primary outcome was time to cardiovascular disease. Other variables (at baseline were gender, age, heart failure, renal failure, depression, asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, insulin, smoking, admission for cardiovascular causes, pills per day, walking habit, fasting blood glucose and creatinine. A cardiovascular risk table was constructed based on the score to estimate the likelihood of cardiovascular disease. Risk groups were established and the c-statistic was calculated. Over a mean follow-up of 2.31 years, 39 patients had cardiovascular disease (34.8%, 95% CI [26.0–43.6%]. Predictive factors were gender, age, hypertension, renal failure, insulin, admission due to cardiovascular reasons and walking habit. The c-statistic was 0.734 (standard error: 0.049. After validation, this study will provide a tool for the primary health care services to enable the short-term prediction of cardiovascular disease after hospital discharge in patients with type 2 diabetes admitted via the emergency department.

  7. Inflammation, Infection, and Future Cardiovascular Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Myocardial Infarction; Venous Thromboembolism; Heart Diseases; Infection; Chlamydia Infections; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Helicobacter Infections; Herpesviridae Infections; Inflammation

  8. Cardiovascular disease risk in adults with spastic bilateral cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Slot, Wilma; Roebroeck, Marij; Nieuwenhuijsen, Channah; Bergen, Michael; Stam, Henk; Burdorf, Alex; Berg-Emons, Rita

    2013-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To explore: (i) cardiovascular disease risk factors and the 10-year clustered risk of a fatal cardiovascular event in adults with spastic bilateral cerebral palsy; and (ii) relationships between the 10-year risk and body fat, aerobic fitness and physical activity. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects: Forty-three adults with spastic bilateral cerebral palsy without severe cognitive impairment (mean age 36.6 years (standard deviation 6); 27 men). Methods: Biological a...

  9. Cardiovascular Risk in Malaysia: causes, consequences and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Selvarajah, S.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease forms the highest morbidity and mortality worldwide and disproportionately affects low and middle-income developing countries. In developing countries, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality tend to affect the (younger) working adults. This poses a significant burden to the economy. This thesis attempts to investigate the burden of cardiovascular risk factors and disease, and its’ prevention in Malaysia, a middle-income developing country. We described the clustering of...

  10. 30. Cardiovascular risk factors burden in Saudi Arabia: The africa middle east cardiovascular epidemiological (ace study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ahmed

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Limited data exit on the epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors in Saudi Arabia particularly in relation to the differences between local citizens and expatriates. The aim of this analysis is to describe the current prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among patients attending general practice clinics in Saudi Arabia. In a cross- sectional epidemiological study, the presence of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, obesity, smoking, and abdominal obesity was evaluated in stable adult outpatients attending primary care clinics in Saudi Arabia. Groups comparison were made between local Saudi patients and expatriates. A total of 550 participant were enrolled form different clinics in Saudi Arabia (71% were male, mean age was 43 ± 10 years. Nearly half of the study cohort had more than two cardiovascular risk factors (49.6%. Dyslipidemia had the highest prevalence (68.4%. Furthermore, prevalence of hypertension (47.5% vs. 31.4%, dyslipidaemia (75.2% vs. 55.1% and abdominal obesity (63.9% vs. 52.2% were higher among expatriates compare to Saudis (p-value < 0.001. This analysis clearly shows that there is a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors prevalence in Saudi population. In addition, a significant proportion of patients with risk factors have poor overall control. Programmed community based screening is needed for all cardiovascular risk factors in Saudi Arabia. Increased awareness and improved primary care services may decrease incidence of coronary artery disease and improve overall quality of life.

  11. Circulating soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor predicts cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and mortality in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugen-Olsen, J; Andersen, O; Linneberg, A; Ladelund, S; Hansen T, W; Langkilde, A; Petersen, Janne; Pielak, T; Møller, N. L.; Jeppesen, J; Lyngbæk, S; Fenger, M; Olsen M, H; Borch-Johnsen, K; Jørgensen, Torben; Haugaard S, B; Hildebrandt, P. R.

    2010-01-01

    Low-grade inflammation is thought to contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), cancer and mortality. Biomarkers of inflammation may aid in risk prediction and enable early intervention and prevention of disease.......Low-grade inflammation is thought to contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), cancer and mortality. Biomarkers of inflammation may aid in risk prediction and enable early intervention and prevention of disease....

  12. The new concept of total cardiovascular risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gino Seravalle

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus, often cluster together and can also be seen with other pathophysiological conditions that greatly increase an individual’s risk for cardiovascular morbidity and death. Aim of the study: This article emphasizes the importance of assessing and managing the total cardiovascular risk in an individual patient. Materials and methods: Suggestions and recommendations from the most current hypertension management guidelines have been integrated with results from the major clinical trials published in the last decade. Results: Based on a review of the epidemiological data on cardiovascular disease, this paper expands the concept of stratification of hypertensive patients according to the approximate added risk of major cardiovascular events in the next 10 years and stresses the importance of subclinical target-organ damage. Conclusions: Although common in clinical practice, high-risk patients are often undiagnosed. Intensive hypertensive therapy is recommended for high-risk patients, and this treatment strategy will require combination therapy to control or reverse subclinical organ damage and prevent the progression of cardiovascular risk in subjects at low risk or medium risk.

  13. Simplifying cardiovascular risk estimation using resting heart rate.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2010-09-01

    Elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is a known, independent cardiovascular (CV) risk factor, but is not included in risk estimation systems, including Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE). We aimed to derive risk estimation systems including RHR as an extra variable and assess the value of this addition.

  14. Moderate alcohol consumption and cardiovascular risk reduction: open issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Costanzo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The inverse relationship between low to moderate alcohol consumption and several favorable health outcomes has been well established in many epidemiological studies and meta-analyses. However, several questions still remain controversial.

    Aims: To discuss a number of open questions relating to the healthy effect of a moderate intake of alcohol (especially wine on cardiovascular disease and total mortality. This will be based on findings from the literature, with a particular emphasis on meta-analyses.

    Results and Conclusion: The role of different alcoholic beverages, age and sex, confounding, former drinkers and study design has been discussed. Whether wine is better than beer or spirits, though suggestive, remains to be established. Cardiovascular morbidity and total mortality is significantly reduced both in men and women who are regular drinkers of low amounts of alcohol; however, the predicted protection in women disappears at lower doses than in men. The primary protection of alcohol decreases after adjustment for known variables, thus confirming the importance of confounding in assessing drinking effects, but it remains significant and of undoubted public health value. As the cardiovascular protection by moderate alcohol consumption might have been unduly overestimated by inclusion in control groups of former drinkers, we compared studies that used as a reference group the category of no alcohol intake and/or formally excluded former drinkers with studies which did not: the protection was indeed somewhat lower in the former than in the latter studies, but was still statistically significant. We conclude that the dose-response relationship between alcohol intake and cardiovascular risk or total mortality, consistently described by J-shaped curves, can be reasonably attributed to a combination of both real beneficial (at lower doses and harmful (at higher doses

  15. Yoga, Anxiety, and Some Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim CENGIZ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the effects of a yoga program on anxiety, and some cardiovascular risk factors. Forty - six elderly participants aged 40 – 51 years women. The yoga program was based on 3 times/week for 10 weeks a set of yoga techniques, in the form of asana (postures and deep relaxation technique, pranayama (breathing techniques and meditation three for 60 minutes three times a week. The level of anxiety and decreased the risk factors for cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVD. The yoga program reduced the level of anxiety and decreased the risk factors for cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVD in the experimental group. After 8 weeks of the yoga program. SBP, DBP, B MI, HR and WC values were improved. It is likely that the yoga practices of controlling body, mind, and spirit combine to provide useful physiological effects for healthy people and for people compromised by cardiovascular disease.

  16. Cardiovascular risk during hormonal treatment in patients with prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this review is to provide information on cardiovascular risk following androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) in prostate cancer patients and to suggest potential prevention and management strategies. Androgen deprivation therapy can cause peripheral insulin resistance, increase fat mass and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and induce type 2 diabetes. While recent studies have reported an association in patients with prostate cancer between ADT and increased risk of cardiovascular events, other studies have not detected the association. However, at this time, it is plausible that ADT could increase cardiovascular risk because of the adverse effect of ADT on risk factors for cardiovascular disease. It is advisable that prostate cancer patients in whom ADT is initiated be referred to their physician, who will carefully monitor them for potential metabolic effects. Therefore, physicians should be informed about these potential side effects. This especially applies to men aged >65 years and those with pre-existing cardiovascular comorbidities. Adopting a healthy lifestyle including a balanced diet and regular physical activity is recommended. Patients with cardiovascular disease should receive appropriate preventive therapies, including lipid-lowering, antihypertensive, glucose-lowering, and antiplatelet therapy. ADT should preferably not be unnecessarily administered to prostate cancer patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease, certainly not to those in whom the risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality is low. The physician should carefully weigh the potential benefits of ADT against the possible risks in individual patients with prostate cancer

  17. Emerging Risk Biomarkers in Cardiovascular Diseases and Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kant Upadhyay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Present review article highlights various cardiovascular risk prediction biomarkers by incorporating both traditional risk factors to be used as diagnostic markers and recent technologically generated diagnostic and therapeutic markers. This paper explains traditional biomarkers such as lipid profile, glucose, and hormone level and physiological biomarkers based on measurement of levels of important biomolecules such as serum ferritin, triglyceride to HDLp (high density lipoproteins ratio, lipophorin-cholesterol ratio, lipid-lipophorin ratio, LDL cholesterol level, HDLp and apolipoprotein levels, lipophorins and LTPs ratio, sphingolipids, Omega-3 Index, and ST2 level. In addition, immunohistochemical, oxidative stress, inflammatory, anatomical, imaging, genetic, and therapeutic biomarkers have been explained in detail with their investigational specifications. Many of these biomarkers, alone or in combination, can play important role in prediction of risks, its types, and status of morbidity. As emerging risks are found to be affiliated with minor and microlevel factors and its diagnosis at an earlier stage could find CVD, hence, there is an urgent need of new more authentic, appropriate, and reliable diagnostic and therapeutic markers to confirm disease well in time to start the clinical aid to the patients. Present review aims to discuss new emerging biomarkers that could facilitate more authentic and fast diagnosis of CVDs, HF (heart failures, and various lipid abnormalities and disorders in the future.

  18. Emerging risk biomarkers in cardiovascular diseases and disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Ravi Kant

    2015-01-01

    Present review article highlights various cardiovascular risk prediction biomarkers by incorporating both traditional risk factors to be used as diagnostic markers and recent technologically generated diagnostic and therapeutic markers. This paper explains traditional biomarkers such as lipid profile, glucose, and hormone level and physiological biomarkers based on measurement of levels of important biomolecules such as serum ferritin, triglyceride to HDLp (high density lipoproteins) ratio, lipophorin-cholesterol ratio, lipid-lipophorin ratio, LDL cholesterol level, HDLp and apolipoprotein levels, lipophorins and LTPs ratio, sphingolipids, Omega-3 Index, and ST2 level. In addition, immunohistochemical, oxidative stress, inflammatory, anatomical, imaging, genetic, and therapeutic biomarkers have been explained in detail with their investigational specifications. Many of these biomarkers, alone or in combination, can play important role in prediction of risks, its types, and status of morbidity. As emerging risks are found to be affiliated with minor and microlevel factors and its diagnosis at an earlier stage could find CVD, hence, there is an urgent need of new more authentic, appropriate, and reliable diagnostic and therapeutic markers to confirm disease well in time to start the clinical aid to the patients. Present review aims to discuss new emerging biomarkers that could facilitate more authentic and fast diagnosis of CVDs, HF (heart failures), and various lipid abnormalities and disorders in the future. PMID:25949827

  19. Hormone therapy and cardiovascular risk markers and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susan H; Lokkegaard, Ellen; Ottesen, Bent

    2006-01-01

    cardiovascular outcomes. Recent, large-scale, randomized clinical studies did not confirm a beneficial cardiovascular effect of HT. On the contrary, an increased risk was found with continuous combined estrogen-progestagen regimens. The progestagen used in these trials was medroxyprogesterone acetate and other...

  20. Multiple Biomarkers for the Prediction of First Major Cardiovascular Events and Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few investigations have evaluated the incremental usefulness of multiple biomarkers from distinct biologic pathways for predicting the risk of cardiovascular events. We measured 10 biomarkers in 3209 participants attending a routine examination cycle of the Framingham Heart Study: the levels of C-r...

  1. Abdominal obesity is associated with microalbuminuria and an elevated cardiovascular risk profile in patients with hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Thoenes, Martin; Reil, Jan-Christian; Khan, Bobby Varkey; Bramlage, Peter; Volpe, Massimo; Kirch, Wilhelm; Böhm, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity are frequently associated with preventable death and have emerged as a major challenge to public health. There is an ongoing debate on the role of abdominal obesity and its value in predicting cardiovascular and renal outcomes. The present analysis evaluates the prevalence of microalbuminuria (MAU) and conventional cardiovascular risk factors in relation to measures of general and abdominal obesity. Methods In this multinational, observational study, 20828 hy...

  2. Melanoma risk prediction models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The lack of effective therapy for advanced stages of melanoma emphasizes the importance of preventive measures and screenings of population at risk. Identifying individuals at high risk should allow targeted screenings and follow-up involving those who would benefit most. The aim of this study was to identify most significant factors for melanoma prediction in our population and to create prognostic models for identification and differentiation of individuals at risk. Methods. This case-control study included 697 participants (341 patients and 356 controls that underwent extensive interview and skin examination in order to check risk factors for melanoma. Pairwise univariate statistical comparison was used for the coarse selection of the most significant risk factors. These factors were fed into logistic regression (LR and alternating decision trees (ADT prognostic models that were assessed for their usefulness in identification of patients at risk to develop melanoma. Validation of the LR model was done by Hosmer and Lemeshow test, whereas the ADT was validated by 10-fold cross-validation. The achieved sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and AUC for both models were calculated. The melanoma risk score (MRS based on the outcome of the LR model was presented. Results. The LR model showed that the following risk factors were associated with melanoma: sunbeds (OR = 4.018; 95% CI 1.724- 9.366 for those that sometimes used sunbeds, solar damage of the skin (OR = 8.274; 95% CI 2.661-25.730 for those with severe solar damage, hair color (OR = 3.222; 95% CI 1.984-5.231 for light brown/blond hair, the number of common naevi (over 100 naevi had OR = 3.57; 95% CI 1.427-8.931, the number of dysplastic naevi (from 1 to 10 dysplastic naevi OR was 2.672; 95% CI 1.572-4.540; for more than 10 naevi OR was 6.487; 95%; CI 1.993-21.119, Fitzpatricks phototype and the presence of congenital naevi. Red hair, phototype I and large congenital naevi were

  3. [Association of influenza, influenza vaccination and cardiovascular risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y M; Zhang, Y

    2016-02-01

    Cardiovascular risk and related medical burden due to influenza in patients with chronic disease were higher than those of healthy subjects. As a result, influenza vaccination is recommended as a strategy for secondary prevention in cardiovascular disease by major cardiovascular organizations, but the prevalence of influenza vaccination in these population is still low. Whether influenza vaccine can prevent cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction and death is still controversial based on current evidences from observational studies and case-control studies, which may result from study desion,subjects selection,outcome definition and sample size issues. Recent meta-analysis showed that influenza vaccination may reduce cardiovascular risk, but large-scale random controlled trials with adequately power should be conducted to confirm these findings as well as the target population for this strategy further. PMID:26926716

  4. Imaging of cardiovascular risk in patients with Turner's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, A; Weir-McCall, J R; Webb, D J; van Beek, E J R; Mirsadraee, S

    2015-08-01

    Turner's syndrome is a disorder defined by an absent or structurally abnormal second X chromosome and affects around 1 in 2000 newborn females. The standardised mortality ratio in Turner's syndrome is around three-times higher than in the general female population, mainly as a result of cardiovascular disorders. Most striking is the early age at which Turner's syndrome patients develop the life-threatening complications of cardiovascular disorders compared to the general population. The cardiovascular risk stratification in Turner's syndrome is challenging and imaging is not systematically used. The aim of this article is to review cardiovascular risks in this group of patients and discuss a systematic imaging approach for early identification of cardiovascular disorders in these patients. PMID:25917542

  5. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and the Relationship of Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Çakır

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a common endocrine disorder affecting at least 5-10% of women of reproductive age. PCOS is characterized by hyperandrogenism, menstrual disturbance, anovulation, infertility and obesity and, also associated with increased number of cardiovascular risk factors and early atherosclerosis. Hyperinsulinemia is a frequent finding in PCOS patients and has cause-and-effect relationship with low-grade chronic inflammation and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 33-7

  6. Characterisation of cardiovascular risk in adults with Turner Syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Ostberg, J. E.

    2006-01-01

    Turner Syndrome (TS) results from the complete or partial absence of one X chromosome in females. Short stature and gonadal dysgenesis are characteristic, with increased risks of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and obesity. This thesis investigates the prevalence and pathogenesis of factors contributing to cardiovascular risk. Because women with TS differ from normals in terms of their X-chromosome defect and oestrogen deficiency, they were compared to similarly-aged normal women, and a seco...

  7. RED AND PROCESSED MEAT AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Atalić, Bruno; TOTH, JURICA; ATALIĆ, VLASTA; RADANOVIĆ, DANIJELA; Miškulin, Maja; LUČIN, ANA

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The British National Diet and Nutrition 2000/1 Survey data set records on 1,724 respondents (766 males and 958 females) were analyzed in order to assess the potential influences of red and processed meat intakes on cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: Linear regression of the associations of the red, processed, combination of red and processed, and total meat intakes with body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure and plasma total cholesterol as cardiovascular risk factors was cond...

  8. Guidelines for managing cardiovascular risk: an evolving area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Currier, Judith S; Lundgren, Jens

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To reflect on the need for guidelines to assist clinicians in the management of cardiovascular risk in HIV-infected patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Over the past eight years guidelines for the management of dyslipidemia and metabolic complications of HIV infection have been developed...... and revised as new information becomes available. SUMMARY: Current guidelines for managing cardiovascular risk in HIV patients are limited by the currently available data, but nonetheless provide a useful approach to assist clinicians....

  9. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and the Relationship of Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Evrim Çakır; Erman Çakal; Mustafa Özbek; Mustafa Şahin; Tuncay Delibaşı

    2013-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder affecting at least 5-10% of women of reproductive age. PCOS is characterized by hyperandrogenism, menstrual disturbance, anovulation, infertility and obesity and, also associated with increased number of cardiovascular risk factors and early atherosclerosis. Hyperinsulinemia is a frequent finding in PCOS patients and has cause-and-effect relationship with low-grade chronic inflammation and increased risk of cardiovascular disease...

  10. Cardiovascular risk and hippocampal thickness in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donix, Markus; Scharf, Maria; Marschner, Kira; Werner, Annett; Sauer, Cathrin; Gerner, Antje; Nees, Josef A; Meyer, Shirin; Donix, Katharina L; Von Kummer, Rüdiger; Holthoff, Vjera A

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors influence onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease. Among cognitively healthy people, changes in brain structure and function associated with high blood pressure, diabetes, or other vascular risks suggest differential regional susceptibility to neuronal damage. In patients with Alzheimer's disease, hippocampal and medial temporal lobe atrophy indicate early neuronal loss preferentially in key areas for learning and memory. We wanted to investigate whether this regional cortical thinning would be modulated by cardiovascular risk factors. We utilized high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and a cortical unfolding technique to determine the cortical thickness of medial temporal subregions in 30 patients with Alzheimer's disease. Cardiovascular risk was assessed using a sex-specific multivariable risk score. Greater cardiovascular risk was associated with cortical thinning in the hippocampus CA2/3/dentate gyrus area but not other hippocampal and medial temporal subregions. APOE genotype, a family history of Alzheimer's disease, and age did not influence cortical thickness. Alzheimer's disease-related atrophy could mask the influence of genetic risk factors or age on regional cortical thickness in medial temporal lobe regions, whereas the impact of vascular risk factors remains detectable. This highlights the importance of cardiovascular disease prevention and treatment in patients with Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24228185

  11. Cardiovascular Risk and Hippocampal Thickness in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Donix

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular risk factors influence onset and progression of Alzheimer’s disease. Among cognitively healthy people, changes in brain structure and function associated with high blood pressure, diabetes, or other vascular risks suggest differential regional susceptibility to neuronal damage. In patients with Alzheimer’s disease, hippocampal and medial temporal lobe atrophy indicate early neuronal loss preferentially in key areas for learning and memory. We wanted to investigate whether this regional cortical thinning would be modulated by cardiovascular risk factors. We utilized high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and a cortical unfolding technique to determine the cortical thickness of medial temporal subregions in 30 patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Cardiovascular risk was assessed using a sex-specific multivariable risk score. Greater cardiovascular risk was associated with cortical thinning in the hippocampus CA2/3/dentate gyrus area but not other hippocampal and medial temporal subregions. APOE genotype, a family history of Alzheimer’s disease, and age did not influence cortical thickness. Alzheimer’s disease-related atrophy could mask the influence of genetic risk factors or age on regional cortical thickness in medial temporal lobe regions, whereas the impact of vascular risk factors remains detectable. This highlights the importance of cardiovascular disease prevention and treatment in patients with Alzheimer’s disease.

  12. Fetal cardiovascular dysfunction in intrauterine growth restriction as a predictive marker of perinatal outcome and cardiovascular disease in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz Lemini, Mónica Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Most risk factors leading to cardiovascular disease are already present in childhood and the importance of early identification of pediatric cardiovascular risk factors is now well recognized. Hypertension in the child has been associated with substantial long-term health risks and considered an indication for lifestyle modifications. Current clinical guidelines contemplate screening for hypertension in children over 3 years of age, in order to provide strategies for promoting cardiovascular ...

  13. The predictive value of arterial and valvular calcification for mortality and cardiovascular events

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoll, Rachel; Michael Y. Henein

    2014-01-01

    A review of the predictive ability of arterial and valvular calcification has shown an additive effect of calcification in more than 1 location in predicting mortality and coronary heart disease, with mitral annual calcification being a particularly strong predictor. In individual arteries and valves there is a clear association between calcification presence, extent and progression and future cardiovascular events and mortality in asymptomatic, symptomatic and high risk patients, although ad...

  14. The Impact of NSAID Treatment on Cardiovascular Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, A. M. S.; Fosbol, E. L.; Gislason, Gunnar H.

    2014-01-01

    This MiniReview describes the present evidence for the relationship between cardiovascular risk and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with special focus using Danish register-based data. NSAIDs are among the most widely used drugs worldwide and mainly used for management of pain...... and inflammatory conditions. Through the past decade, much attention has been given to the cardiovascular safety of these drugs, and several studies have shown increased risk of adverse cardiovascular effects associated with NSAID use. Current guidelines discourage any use of NSAIDs in patients with...... cardiovascular disease, yet over a period of 8-10 years, 35-44% of patients with myocardial infarction or heart failure were exposed to NSAIDs in Denmark. Furthermore, NSAID use was associated with an increased risk of death or myocardial infarction by up to 5 times that of non-users. There was also a clear...

  15. Childhood cardiovascular risk factors in South Asians: A cause of concern for adult cardiovascular disease epidemic

    OpenAIRE

    Duggirala Sivaram Prasad; Zubair Kabir; Ashok Kumar Dash; Bhagabati Charan Das

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors in children are increasing at an alarming rate in the western world. However, there is limited information regarding these in the South Asian children. This review attempts at summarizing such evidence. South Asians are remarkable for the earlier onset of adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) by almost a decade compared to the Caucasians. We identified published literature, mainly on PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library using specific search terms such as lipid abnorma...

  16. Modified Treatment Approach Using Cardiovascular Disease Risk Calculator for Primary Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Himanshu; Schiros, Chun G; Denney, Thomas S.

    2014-01-01

    Background The recent guidelines for preventing atherosclerotic cardiovascular events are an important advancement. For primary prevention, statins are recommended if the ten-year risk is ≥ 5% (consideration for therapy) or ≥ 7.5% (definitive treatment unless contraindication after discussion). We rationalized that a significant cohort with ten-year risk below the treatment thresholds would predictably surpass them within the recommended 4–6 year window for reassessing the ten-year risk. As a...

  17. Plasma levels of resistin predict cardiovascular events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida-Simiti Luminița

    2014-03-01

    .0616, p=0.0299 au fost independent asociate cu noi evenimente cardiovasculare. Concluzii: La pacienţi cu ateroscleroză clinic manifestă nivelele plasmatice ale resistinei pot prezice noi evenimente ischemice.

  18. Congenital cerebral palsy, child sex and parent cardiovascular risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elani Streja

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Genes associated with cardiovascular disease may also be risk factors for congenital cerebral palsy (CP and these associations may be modified by sex, since there is an increased risk of CP in male children. We investigated the association between CP of the child with cardiovascular disease in parents, taking sex of the child into consideration. METHODS: All parents of non-adopted singletons born in Denmark between 1973 and 2003 were included. Parents of a child with CP, confirmed by the Danish National CP registry, were considered exposed. Cox proportional hazards regressions were used to model risk of cardiovascular outcomes for exposed parents compared to all other parents beginning at the child's 10(th birthday. RESULTS: We identified 733,730 mothers and 666,652 fathers among whom 1,592 and 1,484, respectively, had a child with CP. The mean age for mothers at end of follow up was 50 ± 8 years. After adjustment for maternal age, parental education, child's sex, child's residence, child being small for gestational age and maternal hypertensive disorder during pregnancy, mothers of CP male children had an excess risk of cardiovascular disease (HR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.16-2.00, attributable mostly to an increased incidence of hypertension and cerebrovascular disease. After additional adjustment for preterm birth, the association was markedly attenuated for cardiovascular disease (1.34, 95%CI: 1.02 - 1.76, became nonsignificant for hypertension, but remained significant for cerebrovascular disease (HR: 2.73, 95% CI: 1.45- 5.12. There was no increased risk of cardiovascular events in mothers of female CP children, or fathers of CP children of any sex. CONCLUSIONS: Women that have a male child with CP are at increased risk for premature cardiovascular disease. Part of this association may be related to risk factors for preterm births.

  19. Lowering triglycerides to modify cardiovascular risk: will icosapent deliver?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherer DJ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Daniel J Scherer,1 Stephen J Nicholls2 1Cardiovascular Investigation Unit, Royal Adelaide Hospital, 2South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia Abstract: Despite the clinical benefits of lowering levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, many patients continue to experience cardiovascular events. This residual risk suggests that additional risk factors require aggressive modification to result in more effective prevention of cardiovascular disease. Hypertriglyceridemia has presented a considerable challenge with regard to understanding its role in the promotion of cardiovascular risk. Increasing evidence has established a clear causal role for elevated triglyceride levels in vascular risk. As a result, there is increasing interest in the development of specific therapeutic strategies that directly target hypertriglyceridemia. This has seen a resurgence in the use of omega-3 fatty acids for the therapeutic lowering of triglyceride levels. The role of these agents and other emerging strategies to reduce triglyceride levels in order to decrease vascular risk are reviewed. Keywords: hypertriglyceridemia, omega-3 fatty acid, fish oil, cardiovascular risk, lipids

  20. Diabetes Mellitus and Cardiovascular Risk : epidemiology, etiology and intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Rautio, Aslak

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Framingham Study from 1988 showed a heavy impact of diabetes mellitus (DM) on the risk and prognosis of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Several other studies have confirmed that DM is an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD) and that patients with DM have a poor prognosis. However, the strength of DM as a risk factor is debated. Some studies indicate that DM, as a risk factor for a coronary event, is comparable to already known or established CHD. Also, mechan...

  1. Novel risk factors for cardiovascular disease in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya-Amaya, Jenny; Sarmiento-Monroy, Juan Camilo; Mantilla, Ruben-Dario; Pineda-Tamayo, Ricardo; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana; Anaya, Juan-Manuel

    2013-07-01

    Since cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of mortality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), we aimed to determine factors associated with such a complication in a large series of Colombian patients. This was a cross-sectional analytical study in which 800 consecutive Colombian patients with RA were assessed for variables associated with CVD. Furthermore, a systematic literature review was performed to address the state of the art about non-traditional risk factors for CVD in RA. The preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines were followed in data extraction, analysis, and reporting of articles selected. Hypercholesterolemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, abnormal body mass index, abdominal obesity, and current smoking were all traditional risk factors significantly associated with CVD in Colombians. As non-traditional risk factors, familial autoimmunity, more than 10 years of duration of the disease, patients working on household duties, use of systemic steroids, and low education level were associated with CVD in the studied population. Out of a total of 9,812 articles identified in PubMed and Scopus databases, 140 fulfilled the eligibility criteria and were included. Through this systematic review, several factors and outcomes related to CVD were confirmed and identified. These were categorized into genetics, RA-related, and others. Traditional risk factors do not completely explain the high rates of CVD in patients with RA; thus, novel risk factors related to autoimmunity are now recognized predicting the presence of CVD as strong as traditional risk factors. Our results may assist health professionals and policymakers in making decisions about CVD in patients with RA. PMID:23584985

  2. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality risk factors in peritoneal dialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Dijana B.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular (CVS morbidity and mortality in the endstage renal disease (ESRD patients on peritoneal dialysis therapy is 10-30 folds higher than in general population. The prevalence of well known traditional risk factors such as age, sex, race, arterial hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, smoking, physical inactivity is higher in the uraemic patients. Besides these, there are specific, nontraditional risk factors for dialysis patients. Mild inflammation present in peritoneal dialysis (PD patients which can be confirmed by specific inflammatory markers is the cause of CVS morbidity and mortality in these patients. Hypoalbuminaemia, hyperhomocysteinaemia and a higher level of leptin are important predictors of vascular complications as well as CVS events in the PD patients. Plasma norepinephrine, an indicator of sympathetic activity, is high in the ESRD patients and higher in the PD patients than in the patients on haemodialysis (HD. Therefore, norepinephrine may be a stronger risk factor in the PD patients. The same applies to asymmetric dimethylargine (ADMA, an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, which is an important risk factor of CVS morbidity and mortality 15 % higher in the PD than the HD patients. Hyperphosphataemia, secondary hyperparathyroidism and high calcium x phosphate product have been associated with the progression of the coronary artery calcification and valvular calcifications and predict all-cause CVS mortality in the PD patients. Residual renal function (RRF declines with time on dialysis but is slower in the PD than the HD patients. RRF decline is associated with the rise of proinflammatory cytokines and the onset of hypervolaemia and hypertension which increase the risk of CVS diseases, mortality in general and CVS mortality. In conclusion, it is very important to establish all CVS risk factors in the PD patients to prevent CVS diseases and CVS mortality in this population.

  3. Cancer therapy and cardiovascular risk: focus on bevacizumab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recognition and management of treatment-related cardiovascular toxicity, defined as either an acute cardiac event or a chronic condition, has been tightly integrated into routine cancer care and has become an important component in treatment selection. Several chemotherapeutic agents, such as anthracyclines, are traditionally characterized as cardiotoxic, but cardiovascular adverse events are also associated with commonly used molecular targeted therapies. In the past decade, bevacizumab, a monoclonal humanized antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor, has been introduced in the treatment of a variety of metastatic malignancies. Despite its efficacy, bevacizumab has been associated with significant risk of cardiovascular complications, such as hypertension, cardiac ischemia, and congestive heart failure. This review will focus on the cardiovascular toxicity of bevacizumab, providing the latest evidence on the incidence, clinical spectrum, risk factors, and responsible mechanisms

  4. Diabetes Mellitus, Arterial Wall, and Cardiovascular Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozakova, Michaela; Palombo, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor for atherothrombotic cardiovascular disease. Adults with diabetes are two to four times more likely to develop heart disease or stroke than adults without diabetes. The two major features of diabetes, i.e., hyperglycemia and insulin-resistance, trigger arterial stiffening and increase the susceptibility of the arterial wall to atherosclerosis at any given age. These pathological changes in the arterial wall may provide a functional and structural background for cardiovascular events. The present paper provides a critical overview of the clinical evidence linking diabetes-related metabolic abnormalities to cardiovascular risk, debates the pathophysiologic mechanisms through which insulin resistance and hyperglycemia may affect the arterial wall, and discusses the associations between vascular biomarkers, metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular events. PMID:26861377

  5. Risk of bleeding related to antithrombotic treatment in cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rikke; Olesen, Jonas B; Charlot, Mette;

    2012-01-01

    Antithrombotic therapy is a cornerstone of treatment in patients with cardiovascular disease with bleeding being the most feared complication. This review describes the risk of bleeding related to different combinations of antithrombotic drugs used for cardiovascular disease: acute coronary...... syndrome (ACS), atrial fibrillation (AF), cerebrovascular (CVD) and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Different risk assessment schemes and bleeding definitions are compared. The HAS-BLED risk score is recommended in patients with AF and in ACS patients with AF. In patients with ACS with or without...

  6. Management of Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardsen, Jesper; Kristensen, Søren Lund; Ahlehoff, Ole

    2016-01-01

    An increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been observed in a range of chronic inflammatory diseases (CID), including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriasis, inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The increased risk of CVDs and reduced life expectancy in...... gained considerable interest in recent years. We briefly summarize the current level of evidence of the association between CIDs and CVD and cardiovascular risk management recommendations. Perspectives of ongoing and planned trials are discussed in consideration of potential ways to improve primary and...

  7. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Emerging Adults in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, Demetrius Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to examine factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among emerging adults in college aged 18-25 years. CVD risks that develop during this period often persist into adulthood making it an ideal time to target CVD prevention. The specific aims of this dissertation were to 1) explore perceptions…

  8. Apolipoprotein E genotype, cardiovascular biomarkers and risk of stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Tauseef A; Shah, Tina; Prieto, David;

    2013-01-01

    At the APOE gene, encoding apolipoprotein E, genotypes of the ε2/ε3/ε4 alleles associated with higher LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are also associated with higher coronary risk. However, the association of APOE genotype with other cardiovascular biomarkers and risk of ischaemic stroke is less c...

  9. Dietary epicatechin intake and 25-y risk of cardiovascular mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dower, James I.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Hollman, Peter C.H.; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S.; Kromhout, Daan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prospective cohort studies have shown that the consumption of cocoa and tea is associated with lower risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), and cocoa and tea have been shown to improve CVD risk factors in randomized controlled trials. Cocoa and tea are major dietary sources of the fl

  10. Krill oil for cardiovascular risk prevention: is it for real?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, James M; Howard, Patricia A

    2014-11-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids play an important role in cardiovascular health. Although it is suggested that individuals obtain these nutrients through diet, many prefer to rely on supplements. Fish oil supplements are widely used, yet large capsule sizes and tolerability make them less than ideal. Recently, krill oil has emerged as a potential alternative for omega-3 supplementation. This article will discuss what is known about krill oil and its potential use in cardiovascular risk prevention. PMID:25477562

  11. Krill Oil for Cardiovascular Risk Prevention: Is It for Real?

    OpenAIRE

    Backes, James M; Howard, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids play an important role in cardiovascular health. Although it is suggested that individuals obtain these nutrients through diet, many prefer to rely on supplements. Fish oil supplements are widely used, yet large capsule sizes and tolerability make them less than ideal. Recently, krill oil has emerged as a potential alternative for omega-3 supplementation. This article will discuss what is known about krill oil and its potential use in cardiovascular risk prevention.

  12. Paternal Metabolic and Cardiovascular Risk Factors for Fetal Growth Restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Hillman, Sara; Peebles, Donald M.; Williams, David J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Fathers of low–birth weight offspring are more likely to have type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in later life. We investigated whether paternal insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors were evident at the time that fetal growth–restricted offspring were born. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We carried out a case-control study of men who fathered pregnancies affected by fetal growth restriction, in the absence of recognized fetal disease (n = 42), compared with men who...

  13. Rosuvastatin: Role in Cardiovascular High-risk Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E Feliciano-Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Statins are the lipid-lowering drug family of first choice in situations of hypercholesterolemia or mixed dyslipidemia with predominant increase in cholesterol. The evidence shows conclusively that each one of the commercially available statins have proven benefits on outcomes of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, rosuvastatin has certain pharmacokinetic efficacy and cost-effectiveness characteristics that make it an attractive molecule to be the statin of choice in patients at high cardiovascular risk.

  14. Type 2 diabetes: postprandial hyperglycemia and increased cardiovascular risk

    OpenAIRE

    Aryangat, Ajikumar V; Gerich, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Ajikumar V Aryangat, John E GerichUniversity of Rochester, Rochester, New York, USAAbstract: Hyperglycemia is a major risk factor for both the microvascular and macrovascular complications in  patients with type 2 diabetes. This review summarizes the cardiovascular results of large outcomes trials in diabetes and presents new evidence on the role of hyperglycemia, with particular emphasis on postprandial hyperglycemia, in adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabet...

  15. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Older People with Intellectual Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, Channa

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Chapter 1 General introduction There is an increasing group of older people with intellectual disability in The Netherlands, reaching almost the same life expectancy as the general population. Age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, cancer and dementia are now the most encountered diseases and causes of death in older people with intellectual disabilities. Although cardiovascular disease is a major risk for older people with intellectual disabilities...

  16. 10-Year cardiovascular event risks for women who experienced hypertensive disorders in late pregnancy: the HyRAS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponjee Gabrielle

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease is the cause of death in 32% of women in the Netherlands. Prediction of an individual's risk for cardiovascular disease is difficult, in particular in younger women due to low sensitive and specific tests for these women. 10% to 15% of all pregnancies are complicated by hypertensive disorders, the vast majority of which develop only after 36 weeks of gestation. Preeclampsia and cardiovascular disease in later life show both features of "the metabolic syndrome" and atherosclerosis. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and cardiovascular disease may develop by common pathophysiologic pathways initiated by similar vascular risk factors. Vascular damage occurring during preeclampsia or gestational hypertension may contribute to the development of future cardiovascular disease, or is already present before pregnancy. At present clinicians do not systematically aim at the possible cardiovascular consequences in later life after a hypertensive pregnancy disorder at term. However, screening for risk factors after preeclampsia or gestational hypertension at term may give insight into an individual's cardiovascular risk profile. Methods/Design Women with a history of preeclampsia or gestational hypertension will be invited to participate in a cohort study 2 1/2 years after delivery. Participants will be screened for established modifiable cardiovascular risk indicators. The primary outcome is the 10-year cardiovascular event risk. Secondary outcomes include differences in cardiovascular parameters, SNP's in glucose metabolism, and neonatal outcome. Discussion This study will provide evidence on the potential health gains of a modifiable cardiovascular risk factor screening program for women whose pregnancy was complicated by hypertension or preeclampsia. The calculation of individual 10-year cardiovascular event risks will allow identification of those women who will benefit from primary prevention by tailored

  17. Impact of cardiovascular risk factors on the outcome of renal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moghimi Mehrdad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are common in renal transplant recipients and renal insuf-ficiency has been shown to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Some studies have reported that cardiovascular risk factors may contribute to the outcome of renal transplantation. This study was performed to determine the impact of cardiovascular risk factors on the outcome of renal transplantation in Iranian subjects. This is a retrospective, observational study including patients of 20-85 years of age who had undergone renal transplantation. Parameters documented and analyzed included demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, past medical history, date of last transplan-tation, the outcome of transplant, last measured serum creatinine, cause of graft failure, rejection, and death. A total of 192 patients were analyzed including 152 in the case group (with identifiable cardiovascular risk factors and 40 controls (transplant recipients without identifiable risk factors. The mean serum creatinine in the case and control groups were 1.33 ± 0.13 and 1.29 ± 0.36 mg/dL respectively (P= 0.493. Response to transplantation was categorized based on a report from the World Health Organization. Complete response to grafting occurred in the control group more than the case group (P= 0.009, while frequency of partial response to grafting was higher in the case group (0.008. A history of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD could significantly predict the outcome of grafting (P= 0.008 as could the occurrence of renal failure (P= 0.022. Results were consistently reproduced using multivariate cumulative log it model. Our study indicates that the measured cardiovascular risk factors do not significantly influence the outcome of renal transplantation.

  18. Prediction of First Cardiovascular Disease Event in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Dorte; Andersen, Gregers Stig; Hansen, Christian Stevns;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD), but they are currently undertreated. There are no risk scores used on a regular basis in clinical practice for assessing the risk of CVD in type 1 diabetes mellitus. METHODS...... AND RESULTS: From 4306 clinically diagnosed adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, we developed a prediction model for estimating the risk of first fatal or nonfatal CVD event (ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, heart failure, and peripheral artery disease). Detailed clinical data including...... lifestyle factors were linked to event data from validated national registers. The risk prediction model was developed by using a 2-stage approach. First, a nonparametric, data-driven approach was used to identify potentially informative risk factors and interactions (random forest and survival tree...

  19. Expanding the definition of hypertension to incorporate global cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Nitin; Black, Henry R

    2006-10-01

    Recent epidemiologic analyses have changed the way that hypertension is viewed. Cardiovascular risk has been found to be elevated at levels of blood pressure previously believed to be normal and not imparting additional risk. Furthermore, the approach to hypertension has been shifted from viewing and treating it in isolation to a more comprehensive approach that incorporates a focus on global cardiovascular risk and the risk factors commonly associated with having an elevated blood pressure. However, control rates not only for hypertension but also for associated risk factors, such as hyperlipidemia and diabetes, remain abysmal, providing an even greater challenge to providers of care. To change this alarming trend, physicians must become aggressive in using the available armamentarium of lifestyle modifications and drugs in treating hypertension and other risk factors that increase the burden of atherosclerosis. PMID:16965724

  20. Congenital cerebral palsy, child sex and parent cardiovascular risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Streja, Elani; Wu, Chunsen; Uldall, Peter Vilhelm;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Genes associated with cardiovascular disease may also be risk factors for congenital cerebral palsy (CP) and these associations may be modified by sex, since there is an increased risk of CP in male children. We investigated the association between CP of the child with cardiovascular...... disease in parents, taking sex of the child into consideration. METHODS: All parents of non-adopted singletons born in Denmark between 1973 and 2003 were included. Parents of a child with CP, confirmed by the Danish National CP registry, were considered exposed. Cox proportional hazards regressions were...... used to model risk of cardiovascular outcomes for exposed parents compared to all other parents beginning at the child's 10(th) birthday. RESULTS: We identified 733,730 mothers and 666,652 fathers among whom 1,592 and 1,484, respectively, had a child with CP. The mean age for mothers at end of follow...

  1. Olive oil intake and risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality in the PREDIMED Study

    OpenAIRE

    Guasch-Ferre, M. (Marta); Hu, F.B.; Martinez-Gonzalez, M. A.; Fito, M. (Montserrat); Bullo, M. (Mónica); Estruch, R.; Ros, E.; D. Corella; Recondo, J. (Javier); Gomez-Gracia, E. (Enrique); Fiol, M; Lapetra, J.; L. Serra-Majem; Muñoz, M. A.; Pinto, X. (Xavier)

    2014-01-01

    Background It is unknown whether individuals at high cardiovascular risk sustain a benefit in cardiovascular disease from increased olive oil consumption. The aim was to assess the association between total olive oil intake, its varieties (extra virgin and common olive oil) and the risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. Methods We included 7,216 men and women at high cardiovascular risk, aged 55 to 80 years, from the PREvención ...

  2. Olive oil intake and risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality in the PREDIMED Study

    OpenAIRE

    Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Hu, Frank B; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Fitó, Montserrat; Bulló, Mònica; Estruch, Ramon; Ros, Emilio; Corella, Dolores; Recondo, Javier; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Muñoz, Miguel A.; Pintó, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is unknown whether individuals at high cardiovascular risk sustain a benefit in cardiovascular disease from increased olive oil consumption. The aim was to assess the association between total olive oil intake, its varieties (extra virgin and common olive oil) and the risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. Methods: We included 7,216 men and women at high cardiovascular risk, aged 55 to 80 years, from the PREvenció...

  3. Patients’ experiences managing cardiovascular disease and risk factors in prison

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Emily H.; Wang, Emily A.; Curry, Leslie A.; Chen, Peggy G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite greater risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in patients with a history of incarceration, little is known about how prisons manage CVD risk factors (CVD-RF) to mitigate this risk. Methods We conducted in-depth interviews with individuals with CVD-RF who had been recently released from prison (n = 26). These individuals were recruited through community flyers and a primary care clinic in Connecticut. Using a grounded theory approach and the constant comparative met...

  4. Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes and Cardiovascular Risk Factor Management

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Puja K.; Minissian, Margo; Merz, C. Noel Bairey

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading health threat to American women. In addition to established risk factors for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, smoking, and obesity, adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) including pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, and gestational diabetes are now recognized as factors that increase a woman’s risk for future CVD. CVD risk factor burden is disproportionately higher in those of low socioeconomic status and in ethnic/racial minority women. Since younger wome...

  5. Assessment of Cardiovascular Disease Risk in South Asian Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Monira Hussain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although South Asian populations have high cardiovascular disease (CVD burden in the world, their patterns of individual CVD risk factors have not been fully studied. None of the available algorithms/scores to assess CVD risk have originated from these populations. To explore the relevance of CVD risk scores for these populations, literature search and qualitative synthesis of available evidence were performed. South Asians usually have higher levels of both “classical” and nontraditional CVD risk factors and experience these at a younger age. There are marked variations in risk profiles between South Asian populations. More than 100 risk algorithms are currently available, with varying risk factors. However, no available algorithm has included all important risk factors that underlie CVD in these populations. The future challenge is either to appropriately calibrate current risk algorithms or ideally to develop new risk algorithms that include variables that provide an accurate estimate of CVD risk.

  6. 衡阳市城区老年人群心血管事件风险预测及评估管理%Prediction,Assessment and Management of Risk of Cardiovascular Events in Urban Older Adults in Hengyang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘赞; 曾颖

    2014-01-01

    目的了解衡阳市城区老年人心血管疾病危险因素及心血管事件10年风险情况,为老年人心血管疾病预防提供依据。方法采取方便抽样法,于2011年10月5日~2012年3月30日抽取在衡阳市南华大学附一、附二医院进行健康体检的1200名城区老年人为调查对象,有效问卷1120份,采用自行设计的老年人社会人口学及体检一般项目问卷进行调查与分析,采用WHO/ISH《心血管疾病预防指南》进行心血管风险评估(心血管事件10年风险评估)。结果衡阳市城区老年人心血管疾病危险因素的控制不理想:高血压、高血脂、高血糖患病率分别为37.5%、36.2%、18.9%,服药率分别为:43.6%、7.6%、16.4%;冠心病、脑卒中等心血管疾病发病率男性高于女性;衡阳市城区老年人心血管事件10年风险较高:心血管风险<10%222人(19.8%),心血管风险10%~40%的510人(45.5%),心血管风险≥40%388人(34.6%)。结论衡阳市城区老年人心血管疾病危险因素控制不理想,心血管风险水平较高,应针对老年人群积极开展心血管疾病预防与干预。%Objective To describe the current situation of cardiovascular risk factors and assess the 10 years'risk of car-diovascular events in older adults in Hengyang city. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was made. 1 200 older adults were included by a cluster random sampling method,who were consecutively admitted to the health examination centers of the first and the second affiliated hospitals of University of South China. Socio-demographic data and cardiovascular risk factors of disease were collected by face-to-face interviews using two self-designed questionnaires. The cardiovascular risk of the older adults was assessed using the 2008 WHO/ISH Pocket Guide for cardiovascular risk assessment and management. Results The control of CVD risk factors of the older adults was not ideal in Hengyang City. The prevalence of

  7. Hypoglycemia and Cardiovascular Risk: Is There a Major Link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanefeld, Markolf; Frier, Brian M; Pistrosch, Frank

    2016-08-01

    Severe hypoglycemia is recognized to be one of the strongest predictors of macrovascular events, adverse clinical outcomes, and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, it is uncertain whether a direct pathophysiological link exists or whether hypoglycemia is primarily a marker of vulnerability to these events. Large clinical trials have reported an increased hazard ratio for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes and severe hypoglycemia, but such an association has not been demonstrated in prospective trials of people with type 1 diabetes. Several cardiovascular effects occur during hypoglycemia either as a result of low blood glucose levels per se or through activation of the sympathoadrenal response: hemodynamic changes with an increase in cardiac work load and potential attenuation of myocardial perfusion, electrophysiological changes that may be arrhythmogenic, induction of a prothrombotic state, and release of inflammatory markers. Although the potential for a causal relationship has been demonstrated in mechanistic studies, the evidence from large prospective studies that hypoglycemia is a major causal contributor to cardiovascular events is limited to date. Other preexisting cardiovascular risk factors in addition to hypoglycemia may be the major link to the final cardiovascular event, but a low blood glucose level can trigger these events in patients with a high cardiovascular risk. PMID:27440834

  8. Should We Use PPAR Agonists to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer G. Robinson

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Trials of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR agonists have shown mixed results for cardiovascular prevention. Fibrates are PPAR- agonists that act primarily to improve dyslipidemia. Based on low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL and HDL effects, gemfibrozil may be of greater cardiovascular benefit than expected, fenofibrate performed about as expected, and bezafibrate performed worse than expected. Increases in both cardiovascular and noncardiovascular serious adverse events have been observed with some fibrates. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs are PPAR- agonists used to improve impaired glucose metabolism but also influence lipids. Pioglitazone reduces atherosclerotic events in diabetic subjects, but has no net cardiovascular benefit due to increased congestive heart failure risk. Rosiglitazone may increase the risk of atherosclerotic events, and has a net harmful effect on the cardiovascular system when congestive heart failure is included. The primary benefit of TZDs appears to be the prevention of diabetic microvascular complications. Dual PPAR-/ agonists have had unacceptable adverse effects but more selective agents are in development. PPAR- and pan-agonists are also in development. It will be imperative to prove that future PPAR agonists not only prevent atherosclerotic events but also result in a net reduction on total cardiovascular events without significant noncardiovascular adverse effects with long-term use.

  9. Cardiovascular risk factors in workers at Health Centre in Beočin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Biljana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Most cardiovascular diseases are caused by atherosclerosis, which is a result of interactions between risk factors such as gender, age, blood lipid concentrations, blood pressure, glucose tolerance, adiposity, physical activity and cigarette smoking. Identification of risk factors is the first step in cardiovascular disease prevention. As health workers contribute significantly to cardiovascular morbidity, the aim of our study was to analyze prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and to assess the level of mentioned risk in health workers employed in Health Centre Beočin. The study group consisted of 50 health workers. Obesity was evaluated according to BMI and body fat (BF% values, while central obesity was defined using waist circumference. Serum lipid concentrations and glycaemia were used in metabolic profile definition. The level of physical activity was assessed using IPAQ, and information about smoking status and family history of cardiovascular diseases was obtained from self-report. Framingham point-scoring system was used to predict the risk for development of coronary heart disease in the 10-year period. Overweight was found in 36%, and obesity in 18% subjects. 42% of examined subjects had higher fat mass, while 24% of them had obesity. Central fat accumulation was observed in 50% subjects. We registered 56% smokers, 70% subjects with positive family history, 28% subjects with hypertension, and 56% subjects with dyslipidemia. According to IPAQ results 20% of exanimate subjects were minimally active and 70% were insufficiently active. Estimated risk of coronary heart disease was 7.38%, and 10% subjects had risk over 20%. In spite of lower cardiovascular risk level, our results showed high prevalence of overweight, smoking and physical inactivity in health workers, which suggests the importance of their own lifestyle modification. It should be the first step in increasing motivation of their patients.

  10. Cardiovascular risk profile: Cross-sectional analysis of motivational determinants, physical fitness and physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiers Henri

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular risk factors are associated with physical fitness and, to a lesser extent, physical activity. Lifestyle interventions directed at enhancing physical fitness in order to decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases should be extended. To enable the development of effective lifestyle interventions for people with cardiovascular risk factors, we investigated motivational, social-cognitive determinants derived from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB and other relevant social psychological theories, next to physical activity and physical fitness. Methods In the cross-sectional Utrecht Police Lifestyle Intervention Fitness and Training (UP-LIFT study, 1298 employees (aged 18 to 62 were asked to complete online questionnaires regarding social-cognitive variables and physical activity. Cardiovascular risk factors and physical fitness (peak VO2 were measured. Results For people with one or more cardiovascular risk factors (78.7% of the total population, social-cognitive variables accounted for 39% (p In addition to the prediction of intention to engage in physical activity and physical active behavior, we explored the impact of the intensity of physical activity. The intentsity of physical activity was only significantly related to physical active behavior (beta = .253, p 2 = .06, p 2 = .23, p For people with one or more cardiovascular risk factors, 39.9% had positive intentions to engage in physical activity and were also physically active, and 10.5% had a low intentions but were physically active. 37.7% had low intentions and were physically inactive, and about 11.9% had high intentions but were physically inactive. Conclusions This study contributes to our ability to optimize cardiovascular risk profiles by demonstrating an important association between physical fitness and social-cognitive variables. Physical fitness can be predicted by physical active behavior as well as by self-efficacy and the intensity of

  11. Blood pressure management in cardiovascular risk stratification : procedure, progression, process

    OpenAIRE

    Adiyaman, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we have explored different aspects of blood pressure measurement and related it to the risk of cardiovascular disease. In the first part we showed that when the arm is positioned under heart level, for example when the arm is placed on a desk or a chair support, the blood pressure and the cardiovascular risk is overstimated. We demonstrated that crossing the legs at the level of the knee, but not at the level of the ankle, causes a rise of blood pressure. We proved that the phy...

  12. The role of traditional cardiovascular risk factors among patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brady, Sharmayne R E; de Courten, Barbora; Reid, Christopher M; Cicuttini, Flavia M; de Courten, Maximilian; Liew, Danny

    2009-01-01

    People with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared with the general population. We investigated the relative contribution of traditional cardiovascular risk factors to this elevated risk.......People with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared with the general population. We investigated the relative contribution of traditional cardiovascular risk factors to this elevated risk....

  13. The Finnish Cardiovascular Study (FINCAVAS: characterising patients with high risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niemi Mari

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the Finnish Cardiovascular Study (FINCAVAS is to construct a risk profile – using genetic, haemodynamic and electrocardiographic (ECG markers – of individuals at high risk of cardiovascular diseases, events and deaths. Methods and design All patients scheduled for an exercise stress test at Tampere University Hospital and willing to participate have been and will be recruited between October 2001 and December 2007. The final number of participants is estimated to reach 5,000. Technically successful data on exercise tests using a bicycle ergometer have been collected of 2,212 patients (1,400 men and 812 women by the end of 2004. In addition to repeated measurement of heart rate and blood pressure, digital high-resolution ECG at 500 Hz is recorded continuously during the entire exercise test, including the resting and recovery phases. About 20% of the patients are examined with coronary angiography. Genetic variations known or suspected to alter cardiovascular function or pathophysiology are analysed to elucidate the effects and interactions of these candidate genes, exercise and commonly used cardiovascular medications. Discussion FINCAVAS compiles an extensive set of data on patient history, genetic variation, cardiovascular parameters, ECG markers as well as follow-up data on clinical events, hospitalisations and deaths. The data enables the development of new diagnostic and prognostic tools as well as assessments of the importance of existing markers.

  14. Risco cardiovascular, efetividade e mortalidade Cardiovascular risk, effectiveness and mortality Riesgo cardiovascular, efectividad y mortalidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gérvas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available

    A Lei de Ferro da Epidemiologia (Ley de Hierro de La Epidemiología diz que todos que nascem, morrem. Por isso, o propósito da Medicina não é evitar a morte por si só, mas evitar as mortes, as doenças e o sofrimento que podem ser medicamente evitáveis.

    No final, todos nossos pacientes morrerão – e nós também, obviamente, morreremos. “Os corpos encontram uma forma de morrer”, e se a causa não for por fome ou desidratação, por motivo congênito e infeccioso, por lesões, câncer ou suicídio, temos que esperar que seja por ‘motivo cardiovascular’, doença pulmonar, insuficiência renal ou hepática, demência ou outras doenças degenerativas. Mas temos que morrer por alguma coisa.

    Morrer por causa cardiovascular não é desonroso, nem refere-se à atenção clínica imperfeita. O fato de a primeira causa de morte ser a cardiovascular não tem nenhuma relação com os cuidados clínicos e nem deveria assustar.

    Entretanto, muitas das mortes por motivo cardiovascular poderiam ser evitadas. Assim, poder-se-ia evitar mortalidade cardiovascular, diminuindo a desigualdade social, por exemplo, com melhor redistribuição da riqueza, melhor educação etc. Os médicos sabem que os fatores adversos psicossociais associados ao fato de pertencer à classe baixa correspondem a 35% do risco atribuído à hipertensão na incidência do infarto do miocárdio (em outra hipótese, pertencer à classe baixa duplica 2,7 tal risco1.

    Também deve-se saber que, contra as mortes cardiovasculares, não há nada como as políticas de saúde pública quanto ao tabagismo (restrições dos lugares onde fumar, aumento do preço do tabaco, campanhas de informação, entre outras.

    Na parte clínica, as mortes cardiovasculares evitáveis devem ser vistas em perspectiva, de acordo com o que seja possível conseguir2. Portanto, por 100.000 habitantes ao ano, o tratamento com inibidores da enzima conversora de angiotensina (IECA

  15. Improving prediction of ischemic cardiovascular disease in the general population using apolipoprotein B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Marianne; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Jensen, Gorm Boje;

    2007-01-01

    Apolipoprotein B (apoB) levels predict fatal myocardial infarction. Whether apoB also predicts nonfatal ischemic cardiovascular events is unclear. We tested the following hypotheses: apoB predicts ischemic cardiovascular events, and apoB is a better predictor of ischemic cardiovascular events tha...

  16. Effects of the Multidisciplinary Risk Assessment and Management Program for Patients with Diabetes Mellitus (RAMP-DM) on biomedical outcomes, observed cardiovascular events and cardiovascular risks in primary care: a longitudinal comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Jiao, Fang Fang; Fung, Colman Siu Cheung; Wong, Carlos King Ho; Wan, Yuk Fai; Dai, Daisy; Kwok, Ruby; Lam, Cindy Lo Kuen

    2014-01-01

    Background To assess whether the Multidisciplinary Risk Assessment and Management Program for Patients with Diabetes Mellitus (RAMP-DM) led to improvements in biomedical outcomes, observed cardiovascular events and predicted cardiovascular risks after 12-month intervention in the primary care setting. Methods A random sample of 1,248 people with diabetes enrolled to RAMP-DM for at least 12 months was selected and 1,248 people with diabetes under the usual primary care were matched by age, sex...

  17. Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Using Framingham Risk Score in Korean Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Ji-Hyun; Shin, Jin-Young; Park, Wan

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer survivors. The aim of this study was to investigate the modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors and 10-year probability of the disease based on the Framingham risk score in cancer survivors, compared with the general population. Methods A total of 1,225 cancer survivors and 5,196 non-cancer controls who participated in the 2007–2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were enrolled. We assessed modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors including smoking, body mass index, physical inactivity, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and elevated blood glucose level. The 10-year probability of cardiovascular disease was determined by applying the Framingham cardiovascular disease risk equation among cancer survivors and non-cancer controls, ranging from 30 to 74 years old who had no overt cardiovascular diseases. Results The proportion of subjects who had higher fasting glucose levels, hemoglobin A1c levels, systolic blood pressure, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and those who had lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels was significantly higher in the cancer survivors than in the non-cancer controls. The average 10-year probability of cardiovascular disease among the cancer survivors was higher than that in the non-cancer controls in both men and women. The average 10-year probability of cardiovascular disease in relation to the cancer type was significantly higher in patients with hepatic, colon, lung, breast, and gastric cancer. Conclusion Cancer survivors have a higher cardiovascular disease risk and 10-year probability of cardiovascular disease than non-cancer controls. Control of cardiovascular disease risk factors and implementation of a well-defined cardiovascular disease prevention program are needed for treating cancer survivors. PMID:27468342

  18. Melanoma Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing melanoma cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  19. Adiponectin, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Søren; Jensen, Jan Skov; Bjerre, Mette;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adiponectin is viewed as an insulin-sensitizing hormone with anti-inflammatory effects. In accordance, plasma adiponectin is decreased in metabolic disorders including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, in spite of the apparently beneficially effects, recent data from large...... prospective studies have consistently linked high adiponectin levels with increased cardiovascular (CV) disease and mortality, thus questioning the positive view on adiponectin. Accordingly, we investigated the relationship between adiponectin, incident T2DM and subsequently CV events. METHODS: We...... prospectively followed 5349 randomly selected men and women from the community, without T2DM or CV disease. Plasma adiponectin was measured at study entry. Median follow-up time was 8.5 years (IQR 8.0-9.1 years). During follow up, 136 participants developed T2DM. Following their diagnosis, 36 of the 136...

  20. Cancer Risk Prediction and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer prediction models provide an important approach to assessing risk and prognosis by identifying individuals at high risk, facilitating the design and planning of clinical cancer trials, fostering the development of benefit-risk indices, and enabling estimates of the population burden and cost of cancer.

  1. Relationship between Anthropometric Measures and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Children and Adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgos, Miria Suzana [Universidade de Santa Cruz do Sul - UNISC, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pós-graduação - Mestrado em Promoção da Saúde - UNISC, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); Burgos, Leandro Tibiriçá; Camargo, Marcelo Dias [Grupo de Pesquisa em Cardiologia do Exercício HCPA/UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Franke, Silvia Isabel Rech; Prá, Daniel [Universidade de Santa Cruz do Sul - UNISC, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pós-graduação - Mestrado em Promoção da Saúde - UNISC, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); Silva, Antônio Marcos Vargas da [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria - UFSM, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Borges, Tássia Silvana; Todendi, Pâmela Ferreira [Universidade de Santa Cruz do Sul - UNISC, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pós-graduação - Mestrado em Promoção da Saúde - UNISC, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); Reckziegel, Miriam Beatris [Universidade de Santa Cruz do Sul - UNISC, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); Reuter, Cézane Priscila, E-mail: cpreuter@hotmail.com [Universidade de Santa Cruz do Sul - UNISC, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pós-graduação - Mestrado em Promoção da Saúde - UNISC, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil)

    2013-10-15

    Obesity has been identified as an important risk factor in the development of cardiovascular diseases; however, other factors, combined or not with obesity, can influence cardiovascular risk and should be considered in cardiovascular risk stratification in pediatrics. To analyze the association between anthropometry measures and cardiovascular risk factors, to investigate the determinants to changes in blood pressure (BP), and to propose a prediction equation to waist circumference (WC) in children and adolescents. We evaluated 1,950 children and adolescents, aged 7 to 18 years. Visceral fat was assessed by WC and waist hip relationship, BP and body mass index (BMI). In a randomly selected subsample of these volunteers (n = 578), total cholesterol, glucose and triglycerides levels were evaluated. WC was positively correlated with BMI (r = 0.85; p < 0.001) and BP (SBP r = 0.45 and DBP = 0.37; p < 0.001). Glycaemia and triglycerides showed a weak correlation with WC (r = 0.110; p = 0.008 e r = 0.201; p < 0.001, respectively). Total cholesterol did not correlate with any of the variables. Age, BMI and WC were significant predictors on the regression models for BP (p < 0.001). We propose a WC prediction equation for children and adolescents: boys: y = 17.243 + 0.316 (height in cm); girls: y = 25.197 + 0.256 (height in cm). WC is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and presents itself as a risk factor predictor of hypertension in children and adolescents. The WC prediction equation proposed by us should be tested in future studies.

  2. Relationship between Anthropometric Measures and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Children and Adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obesity has been identified as an important risk factor in the development of cardiovascular diseases; however, other factors, combined or not with obesity, can influence cardiovascular risk and should be considered in cardiovascular risk stratification in pediatrics. To analyze the association between anthropometry measures and cardiovascular risk factors, to investigate the determinants to changes in blood pressure (BP), and to propose a prediction equation to waist circumference (WC) in children and adolescents. We evaluated 1,950 children and adolescents, aged 7 to 18 years. Visceral fat was assessed by WC and waist hip relationship, BP and body mass index (BMI). In a randomly selected subsample of these volunteers (n = 578), total cholesterol, glucose and triglycerides levels were evaluated. WC was positively correlated with BMI (r = 0.85; p < 0.001) and BP (SBP r = 0.45 and DBP = 0.37; p < 0.001). Glycaemia and triglycerides showed a weak correlation with WC (r = 0.110; p = 0.008 e r = 0.201; p < 0.001, respectively). Total cholesterol did not correlate with any of the variables. Age, BMI and WC were significant predictors on the regression models for BP (p < 0.001). We propose a WC prediction equation for children and adolescents: boys: y = 17.243 + 0.316 (height in cm); girls: y = 25.197 + 0.256 (height in cm). WC is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and presents itself as a risk factor predictor of hypertension in children and adolescents. The WC prediction equation proposed by us should be tested in future studies

  3. Percent body fat is a better predictor of cardiovascular risk factors than body mass index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the predictive values of percent body fat (PBF) and body mass index (BMI) for cardiovascular risk factors, especially when PBF and BMI are conflicting. BMI was calculated by the standard formula and PBF was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. A total of 3859 ambulatory adult Han Chinese subjects (2173 males and 1686 females, age range: 18-85 years) without a history of cardiovascular diseases were recruited from February to September 2009. Based on BMI and PBF, they were classified into group 1 (normal BMI and PBF, N = 1961), group 2 (normal BMI, but abnormal PBF, N = 381), group 3 (abnormal BMI, but normal PBF, N = 681), and group 4 (abnormal BMI and PBF, N = 836). When age, gender, lifestyle, and family history of obesity were adjusted, PBF, but not BMI, was correlated with blood glucose and lipid levels. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for cardiovascular risk factors in groups 2 and 4 were 1.88 (1.45-2.45) and 2.06 (1.26-3.35) times those in group 1, respectively, but remained unchanged in group 3 (OR = 1.32, 95%CI = 0.92-1.89). Logistic regression models also demonstrated that PBF, rather than BMI, was independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors. In conclusion, PBF, and not BMI, is independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors, indicating that PBF is a better predictor

  4. [Assessment of cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients: comparison among scores].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Colle, Sara; Rabbia, Franco; Mulatero, Paolo; Veglio, Franco

    2004-09-01

    At present, a correct and thorough risk evaluation represents the best prognostic and therapeutic approach for hypertensive patients. Recent European and American guidelines recommend a global stratification of the cardiovascular risk of hypertensive patients, based on the evaluation of risk factors, organ damage, and the clinical conditions associated with hypertension. A similar approach uses numerical risk scores that transform the percentage risk, calculated from large populations, into absolute values. These scores have been calculated by different research groups and scientific organizations with the aim of better defining the real risk of a given population over time. Many of these risk scores have been conceived by American and European scientific groups on the basis of the epidemiology of different risk variables in the respective populations; in general, north American hypertensives are exposed to a higher cardiovascular risk compared to Europeans and some European countries have a higher risk than others. The present review underlines the pivotal role of a correct risk evaluation of hypertension as reported in the guidelines. We briefly analyze the principal studies on risk scores: we compare the advantages and disadvantages of the different scores, as well as the similarities and differences, in order to demonstrate not only their utility, but also the possible equivalence of the different parameters considered. PMID:15568607

  5. Copeptin, a surrogate marker for arginine vasopressin, is associated with cardiovascular risk in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Karbek, Basak; Ozbek, Mustafa; Karakose, Melia; Topaloglu, Oya; Bozkurt, Nujen Colak; Cakır, Evrim; Aslan, Muyesser Sayki; Delibasi, Tuncay

    2014-01-01

    Background Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have higher risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Copeptin has been found to be predictive for myocardial ischemia. We tested whether copeptin is the predictor for CVD in PCOS patients, who have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Methods This was a cross sectional controlled study conducted in a training and research hospital. The study population consisted of 40 reproductive-age PCOS women and 43 control subjects. We evaluated...

  6. Cardiovascular Risk Surveillance to Develop a Nationwide Health Promotion Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansilal, Sameer; Vedanthan, Rajesh; Woodward, Mark; Iyengar, Rupa; Hunn, Marilyn; Lewis, Marcelle; Francis, Lesley; Charney, Alexander; Graves, Claire; Farkouh, Michael E.; Fuster, Valentin

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The Grenada Heart Project aims to study the clinical, biological, and psychosocial determinants of the cardiovascular health in Grenada in order to develop and implement a nationwide cardiovascular health promotion program. METHODS We recruited 2,827 adults randomly selected from the national electronic voter list. The main outcome measures were self-reported cardiovascular disease and behavioral risk factors, anthropometric measures, blood pressure, point-of-care testing for glucose and lipids, and ankle-brachial index. Risk factors were also compared with the U.S. National Health and Nutritional Survey data. RESULTS Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors were: overweight and obesity—57.7% of the population, physical inactivity—23.4%, diabetes—13.3%, hypertension—29.7%, hypercholesterolemia—8.6%, and smoking—7%. Subjects who were physically active had a significantly lower 10-year Framingham risk score (p < 0.001). Compared with the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Survey data, Grenadian women had higher rates of adiposity, diabetes, hypertension, and elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, whereas Grenadian men had a higher rate of diabetes, a similar rate of hypertension, and lower rates of the other risk factors. Prevalence of peripheral arterial disease was 7.6%; stroke and coronary heart disease were equally prevalent at ~2%. CONCLUSION This randomly selected adult sample in Grenada reveals prevalence rates of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes significantly exceeding those seen in the United States. The contrasting, paradoxically low levels of prevalent cardiovascular disease support the concept that Grenada is experiencing an obesity-related “risk transition.” These data form the basis for the implementation of a pilot intervention program based on the Institute of Medicine recommendations and may serve as a model for other low- and middle-income countries. PMID:25691303

  7. Poor predictive ability of the risk chart SCORE in a Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saidj, Madina; Jørgensen, Torben; Prescott, Eva;

    2013-01-01

    In Denmark, the European risk chart Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) from the European Society of Cardiology is recommended for use in cardiovascular prevention. Nevertheless, its predictive ability in a Danish population has never been investigated. The purpose of this study was...... therefore to assess the predictive ability of the SCORE risk chart with regard to fatal cardiovascular risk according to the socio-demographic factors of age, sex, income and education in a Danish population....

  8. Family history of premature death and risk of early onset cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranthe, Mattis Flyvholm; Carstensen, Lisbeth; Oyen, Nina; Tfelt-Hansen, Jacob; Christiansen, Michael; McKenna, William J; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Melbye, Mads; Boyd, Heather A

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a family history of premature death, cardiovascular death in particular, on the risk of early cardiovascular disease.......The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a family history of premature death, cardiovascular death in particular, on the risk of early cardiovascular disease....

  9. Accumulating Brisk Walking for Fitness, Cardiovascular Risk, and Psychological Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Marie; Nevill, Alan; Neville, Charlotte; Biddle, Stuart; Hardman, Adrianne

    2002-01-01

    Compared the effects of different patterns of regular brisk walking on fitness, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and psychological well-being in previously sedentary adults. Data on adults who completed either short-bout or long-bout walking programs found that three short bouts of brisk walking accumulated throughout the day were as effective…

  10. Vitamin D status and changes in cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Pisinger, Charlotta;

    2012-01-01

    A low vitamin D level has been associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk but possible mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated the association between vitamin D levels and 5-year changes in blood pressure, lipid profile and incidence of the metabolic syndrome, hypertension and hyper...... hypercholesterolemia....

  11. Estimation of cardiovascular risk severity in chronic periodontitis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousumi Kundu Kundu

    2015-02-01

    CONCLUSION: Chronic periodontitis (CPD is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease as evidenced by increased hsCRP and radiological parameters. Successful periodontal therapy could decrease serum inflammatory parameters. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(1.000: 49-54

  12. Hardiness and cardiovascular risk in the Czech sample

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šolcová, Iva; Kebza, V.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2007), s. 97-97. ISSN 1743-7199. [Conference of the EHPS /21./ "Health Psychology and Society". 15.08.2007-18.08.2007, Maastricht] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA700250701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : Hardiness * Cardiovascular Risks Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  13. Cardiovascular risk management in diabetes in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Sanjay; Gupta, Yashdeep

    2015-08-01

    This communication describes simple targets and interventions, aimed at cardiovascular risk reduction in diabetes mellitus, which are feasible at primary care level. It summarizes therapeutic goals and strategies for management of high blood pressure, dyslipidaemia, and anti-platelet therapy. PMID:26228345

  14. Prognostic Importance of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Myocardial Infarction Patients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Monhart, Z.; Grünfeldová, H.; Zvárová, Jana; Janský, P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 2 (2010), e253. ISSN 0009-7322. [World Congress of Cardiology. 16.06.2010-19.06.2010, Beijing] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : cardiology * risk factors * myocardioal infarction Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery

  15. RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE IN PRISON POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Soares de OliveiraI

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to make a reflection about the risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease in the prison population, as well as the performance of the health care team in these spaces. It is a reflective approach, literature that included e-journal articles, published in the year 2003 to 2011, indexed at LILACS, Scielo, MEDLINE, and available in full. Textbooks were also consulted and ordinances of Ministry of health and Justice of Brazil. Used the descriptors "risk factors," "cardiovascular disease" and "Prisoners". It was noted that the current situation of overcrowding in prisons is, with unhealthy environment, which imposes risks the health of prisoners. The living habits, such as use of alcohol and drugs (cocaine, marijuana, tranquillizers and tobacco, increases the risk for cardiovascular disease. In addition, the authors emphasize, a priori, the low level of schooling of the detainees. The performance of the health care team must be based on educational practices for promoting and monitoring the health, with multidisciplinary support. Further studies need to be done in order to investigate the incidence of cardiovascular diseases, as well as evidence of the effectiveness of health care for this population.

  16. Dietary Risk Factors and Their Modification in Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    Provides an overview of dietary risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including diet sodium intake for hypertension and dietary fat and cholesterol for hypercholesterolemia, exacerbation of these conditions by obesity, and intervention strategies for their modification. Describes clinical strategies for modifying diet: education, skills…

  17. Assessing Framingham cardiovascular risk scores in subjects with diabetes and their correlation with diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepali R Damkondwar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the Framingham cardiovascular risk assessment scores in subjects with diabetes and their association with diabetic retinopathy in subjects with diabetes. Materials and Methods: In this population-based prospective study, subjects with diabetes were recruited (n=1248; age ≥40 years. The Framingham cardiovascular risk scores were calculated for 1248 subjects with type 2 diabetes. The scores were classified as high risk (>10%, and low risk (<10%. Results: Out of the 1248 subjects, 830 (66.5% patients had a low risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD in 10 years and 418 (33.5% had a high risk of developing CVD in 10 years. The risk of developing CVD was more in males than females (56.8% vs. 7% The prevalence of both diabetic retinopathy and sight-threatening retinopathy was more in the high-risk group (21% and 4.5%, respectively. The risk factors for developing diabetic retinopathy were similar in both the groups (low vs. high - duration of diabetes (OR 1.14 vs. 1.08, higher HbA1c (OR 1.24 vs. 1.22, presence of macro- and microalbuminuria (OR 10.17 vs. 6.12 for macro-albuminuria and use of insulin (OR 2.06 vs. 4.38. The additional risk factors in the high-risk group were presence of anemia (OR 2.65 and higher serum high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol (OR 1.05. Conclusion: Framingham risk scoring, a global risk assessment tool to predict the 10-year risk of developing CVD, can also predict the occurrence and type of diabetic retinopathy. Those patients with high CVD scores should be followed up more frequently and treated adequately. This also warrants good interaction between the treating physician/cardiologist and the ophthalmologist.

  18. Nitric oxide and cardiovascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livio Dai Cas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The endothelium is a dynamic organ with many properties that takes part in the regulation of the principal mechanisms of vascular physiology. Its principal functions include the control of blood-tissue exchange and permeability, the vascular tonus, and the modulation of inflammatory or coagulatory mechanisms. Many vasoactive molecules, produced by the endothelium, are involved in the control of these functions. The most important is nitric oxide (NO, a gaseous molecule electrically neutral with an odd number of electrons that gives the molecule chemically reactive radical properties. Already known in the twentieth century, NO, sometimes considered as a dangerous molecule, recently valued as an important endogenous vasodilator factor. Recently, it was discovered that it is involved in several physiological mechanisms of endothelial protection (Tab. I. In 1992, Science elected it as “molecule of the year”; 6 yrs later three American researchers (Louis Ignarro, Robert Furchgott and Fried Murad obtained a Nobel Prize for Medicine and Physiology “for their discoveries about NO as signal in the cardiovascular system”.

  19. Marine Carotenoids and Cardiovascular Risk Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Speranza

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine carotenoids are important bioactive compounds with physiological activities related to prevention of degenerative diseases.found principally in plants, with potential antioxidant biological properties deriving from their chemical structure and interaction with biological membranes. They are substances with very special and remarkable properties that no other groups of substances possess and that form the basis of their many, varied functions and actions in all kinds of living organisms. The potential beneficial effects of marine carotenoids have been studied particularly in astaxanthin and fucoxanthin as they are the major marine carotenoids. Both these two carotenoids show strong antioxidant activity attributed to quenching singlet oxygen and scavenging free radicals. The potential role of these carotenoids as dietary anti-oxidants has been suggested to be one of the main mechanisms for their preventive effects against cancer and inflammatory diseases. The aim of this short review is to examine the published studies concerning the use of the two marine carotenoids, astaxanthin and fucoxanthin, in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  20. Cardiovascular Risk and Hippocampal Thickness in Alzheimer’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Donix; Maria Scharf; Kira Marschner; Annett Werner; Cathrin Sauer; Antje Gerner; Nees, Josef A.; Shirin Meyer; Donix, Katharina L.; Rüdiger Von Kummer; Holthoff, Vjera A.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors influence onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease. Among cognitively healthy people, changes in brain structure and function associated with high blood pressure, diabetes, or other vascular risks suggest differential regional susceptibility to neuronal damage. In patients with Alzheimer's disease, hippocampal and medial temporal lobe atrophy indicate early neuronal loss preferentially in key areas for learning and memory. We wanted to investigate whether this ...

  1. CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN CHILDREN WITH TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS

    OpenAIRE

    Z ABDEYASDAN; N. Sadeghi; M HASANPOOR; M Maaroofi; A HASAN ZADEH

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: Diabetes melliuts is a chronic, metabolic disease that involves the macro and micro vascular complications and one of its maer ascular cowplications is the cardio vascular disease, as ,the risk of cardiovascular disease is 2-4 folds in diabetic patients in comparison with non diabetic individuals. The researches have demonstrated that the risk factors of the cardio vascular disease are formed at childhood. Therefore the preventive measures must begin from early childhood. S...

  2. Trans fatty acids – A risk factor for cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Mohammad Perwaiz

    2014-01-01

    Trans fatty acids (TFA) are produced either by hydrogenation of unsaturated oils or by biohydrogenation in the stomach of ruminant animals. Vanaspati ghee and margarine have high contents of TFA. A number of studies have shown an association of TFA consumption and increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This increased risk is because TFA increase the ratio of LDL cholesterol to HDL cholesterol. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and World Health Organization have ...

  3. Racial/ethnic residential segregation and cardiovascular disease risk

    OpenAIRE

    Kershaw, Kiarri N.; Albrecht, Sandra S.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research has examined whether racial/ethnic residential segregation contributes to health disparities, but recent findings in the literature, particularly with respect to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, have not been summarized. This review provides an overview of findings from studies of racial/ethnic residential segregation of non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics with CVD risk published between January 2011 and July 2014. The majority of studies of black segregation showed...

  4. Breast Arterial Calcification: a New Marker of Cardiovascular Risk?

    OpenAIRE

    Iribarren, Carlos; Molloi, Sabee

    2013-01-01

    Mammographically-detected breast arterial calcifications (BAC) are considered to be an incidental finding without clinical importance since they are not associated with increased risk of breast cancer. The goal of this article is to review existing evidence that the presence of BAC on mammography correlates with several (but not all) traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and with prevalent and incident CVD. Thus, BAC detected during routine mammography is a noteworthy finding ...

  5. HIV infection does not contribute to increased cardiovascular risk as assessed by Framingham risk score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ramsay

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1-infected patients are thought to be at higher risk of cardiovascular events. Measures of arterial stiffness are independently associated with cardiovascular risk [1]. The aim of our study was to determine if higher Framingham risk is associated with higher carotid femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV in HIV-infected volunteers (HIV cohort and to establish whether there is a difference in cfPWV between the HIV cohort and age- and gender-matched controls. We recruited 47 males (HIV cohort on antiretroviral treatment, from a UK HIV clinic between October 2010 and March 2012 (31 low Framingham risk <10% and 16 high risk >20%. This group was matched with 46 healthy subjects from a contemporaneous study performed by our group. The inclusion criteria were: age 35–75 years with Framingham risk >20% or <10%, on antiretroviral treatment with undetectable viral load, no previous coronary heart disease, stroke or insulin therapy. Subjects underwent cfPWV measurement using Complior® (Artech, France. Student's t-test was used to evaluate differences between high- and low-risk groups and also between cases and controls. The mean age of the HIV cohort was 49.43±9.35 years (mean±SD and in the control group 52.20±8.80 years (p=0.15. Mean duration of HIV infection was 13.83±7.25 years, mean CD4 count was 728.81±312.62×106/L and all viral loads were undetectable. In the HIV cohort, cfPWV was 8.39±1.09 m/s in the low-risk group and 10.43±2.93 m/s in the high-risk group (p=0.02. Multivariate analysis with cfPWV as dependent variable, and age, systolic blood pressure, cholesterol, smoking history, duration of HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy, zenith viral loads and nadir CD4 counts as independent variables was performed in the high- and low-risk groups. This showed age alone to be a significant predictive factor (p=0.002. With Framingham risk as dependent variable and using the above factors as independent variables, no HIV-related factors were

  6. Managing Cardiovascular Risk in the Post Solid Organ Transplant Recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munagala, Mrudula R; Phancao, Anita

    2016-05-01

    Solid organ transplantation is an effective treatment for patients with end-stage organ disease. The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) has increased in recipients. CVD remains a leading cause of mortality among recipients with functioning grafts. The pathophysiology of CVD recipients is a complex interplay between preexisting risk factors, metabolic sequelae of immunosuppressive agents, infection, and rejection. Risk modification must be weighed against the risk of mortality owing to rejection or infection. Aggressive risk stratification and modification before and after transplantation and tailoring immunosuppressive regimens are essential to prevent complications and improve short-term and long-term mortality and graft survival. PMID:27095643

  7. Method and apparatus for assessing cardiovascular risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Paul (Inventor); Bigger, J. Thomas (Inventor); Cohen, Richard J. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The method for assessing risk of an adverse clinical event includes detecting a physiologic signal in the subject and determining from the physiologic signal a sequence of intervals corresponding to time intervals between heart beats. The long-time structure of fluctuations in the intervals over a time period of more than fifteen minutes is analyzed to assess risk of an adverse clinical event. In a preferred embodiment, the physiologic signal is an electrocardiogram and the time period is at least fifteen minutes. A preferred method for analyzing the long-time structure variability in the intervals includes computing the power spectrum and fitting the power spectrum to a power law dependence on frequency over a selected frequency range such as 10.sup.-4 to 10.sup.-2 Hz. Characteristics of the long-time structure fluctuations in the intervals is used to assess risk of an adverse clinical event.

  8. Cardiovascular Disease in CKD in Children: Update on Risk Factors, Risk Assessment, and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Amy C.; Mitsnefes, Mark M.

    2009-01-01

    In young adults with onset of chronic kidney disease in childhood, cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death. The likely reason for increased cardiovascular disease in these patients is high prevalence of traditional and uremia-related cardiovascular disease risk factors during childhood chronic kidney disease. Early markers of cardiomyopathy, such as left ventricular hypertrophy and left ventricular dysfunction and early markers of atherosclerosis, such as increased carotid ar...

  9. Cardiovascular risk and cardiometabolic protection: role of glitazones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrazzi, Luisa; Grassi, Davide; Polidoro, Lorella; D'Aurelio, Azzurra; Croce, Giuseppe; Properzi, Giuliana; Tiberti, Sergio; Desideri, Giovambattista; Ferri, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are widely used in the type 2 diabetes mellitus (DMT2) treatment but have also been tested in cardiovascular prevention. DMT2 is associated with a marked increment in cardiovascular risk, and its prevention represents a main target in cardiometabolic protection. Both Troglitazone (Troglitazone in Prevention of Diabetes study) and Rosiglitazone (Diabetes Reduction Assessment with Ramipril and Rosiglitazone Medication study) significantly reduced new-onset diabetes. A similar topic will be investigated with pioglitazone (Actos Now for Prevention of Diabetes). In the Prospective Pioglitazone Clinical Trial in Macrovascular events the primary end point (all-cause mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, acute coronary syndromes, endovascular or surgical intervention in the coronary/leg arteries and amputation above ankles) was unaffected, whereas the secondary one (all-cause mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction and stroke) was reduced by pioglitazone (-16%, p=0.027) compared to placebo in 5,238 patients with DMT2 and macrovascular disease. In contrast, a meta-analysis (Nissen and Wolski, N Engl J Med. 2007;356:2457-2471) reported that rosiglitazone treatment is associated with a significant increase in myocardial infarction risk (p=0.03) and a borderline significant increase in the risk of death from cardiovascular causes (p=0.06). Nevertheless, the possibility that rosiglitazone might affect cardiovascular events should be evaluated by the ongoing trial Rosiglitazone Evaluated for Cardiac Outcomes and Regulation of Glycemia in Diabetes (RECORD). Interim findings early from RECORD did not show significant differences between the rosiglitazone and the control group regarding myocardial infarction and death from cardiovascular and any cause. Additional large-scale trials are awaited to clarify the of role TZDs in cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:19034866

  10. CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. D. Bazdyrev

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to detect previously undiagnosed arterial hypertension in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD as a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality.Materials and methods. 43 patients with stage I–II of COPD and the absence of clinical signs of cardiovascular diseases were examined. Spirometry, body plethysmography and diffusing lung capacity (DLCO were included in the respiratory system assessment. The cardiovascular system was assessed with echocardiography and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM.Results. Despite the absence of obvious signs of cardiovascular lesions (an increase of office blood pressure, intracardiac hemodynamic changes, the following cardiovascular risk factors were identified: age (58.2 ± 2.0 years, male gender, smoking, hypercholesterolemia and dyslipidemia (total cholesterol 5.9 ± 0.9 mmol / l, low density lipoproteins 3.8 ± 0.5 mmol / l, triglycerides 1.8 ± 0.2 mmol / l. Correlation analysis has revealed the relation between several respiratory parameters and the severity of dyspnea and quality of life in patients with COPD, as well as its relation with lipid levels.Conclusion. The patients with COPD have a large number of risk factors for CVD. According to ABPM data, arterial hypertension was verified in 18 (41.9 % of 43 patients with COPD at normal level of office blood pressure; moreover, 51.2 % of patients demonstrated low reduction of blood pressure during the night-time that nowadays, is considered to be a predictor of cardiovascular disease and sudden death.

  11. Risk prediction for invasive candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over past few years, treatment of invasive candidiasis (IC has evolved from targeted therapy to prophylaxis, pre-emptive and empirical therapy. Numerous predisposing factors for IC have been grouped together in various combinations to design risk prediction models. These models in general have shown good negative predictive value, but poor positive predictive value. They are useful in selecting the population which is less likely to benefit from empirical antifungal therapy and thus prevent overuse of antifungal agents. Current article deals with various risk prediction models for IC and their external validation studies.

  12. [Hypertension, endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitenberg, A

    2006-10-01

    Increased blood pressure induces functional and structural changes of the vascular endothelium. Depression of endothelium-dependant vasodilatation is an early manifestation of endothelial dysfunction due to hypertension. It can be demonstrated by pharmacological or physiological tests. Decreased availability of nitric oxide (NO) is a major determinant of the depression of vasodilatation. It may be caused by a reduction in the activity of NO-endothelial synthase (NOSe) related to: 1) a deficit in substrate (L-arginine), 2) an inhibition by asymmetrical dimethylarginine, 3) a deficit in the cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4). However, the increase in oxidative stress, a producer of superoxide radicals which combine with NO to form peroxynitrates (ONOO-), is the determining factor. It is related to activation of membranous NAD(P)H oxidases initiated by the stimulation of activating mecanosensors of protein C kinase. The message is amplified by oxidation of BH4 which transforms the NOSe into a producer of superoxide radicals. A cascade of auto-amplification loops leading to atherosclerosis and its complications is then triggered. The superoxide radicals and the peroxynitrates oxidise the LDL-cholesterol. They activate the nuclear factor-kappaB which controls the genes stimulating the expression of many proteins: angiotensinogen and AT1 receptors which stimulate the sympathetic system, receptors of oxidised LDL, adhesion and migration factors (ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin and MCP-1), pro-inflammatory cytokins (interleukines and TNF-alpha), growth factors (MAP kinases), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1. The monocytes and smooth muscle cells produce metalloproteinases and pro-inflammatory cytokins which destabilise the atheromatous plaque and favourise vascular remodelling. Inshort, the endothelial dysfunction due to hypertension plays a role in a complex physiopathological process and is a marker of future cardiovascular events. PMID:17100143

  13. Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Force Recommendations Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index in Adults The ... Recommendation | 1 Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index in Adults Potential ...

  14. Insulin resistance and risk of incident cardiovascular events in adults without diabetes: meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin B Gast

    glucose or fasting insulin concentration. It may be useful to add HOMA-IR to a cardiovascular risk prediction model.

  15. Are There Genetic Paths Common to Obesity, Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes, and Cardiovascular Risk Factors?

    OpenAIRE

    Rankinen, Tuomo; Sarzynski, Mark A; Ghosh, Sujoy; Bouchard, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Clustering of obesity, coronary artery disease, and cardiovascular disease risk factors is observed in epidemiological studies and clinical settings. Twin and family studies have provided some supporting evidence for the clustering hypothesis. Loci nearest a lead single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) showing genome-wide significant associations with coronary artery disease, body mass index, C-reactive protein, blood pressure, lipids, and type 2 diabetes mellitus were selected for pathway and n...

  16. Does present use of cardiovascular medication reflect elevated cardiovascular risk scores estimated ten years ago? A population based longitudinal observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straand Jørund

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is desirable that those at highest risk of cardiovascular disease should have priority for preventive measures, eg. treatment with prescription drugs to modify their risk. We wanted to investigate to what extent present use of cardiovascular medication (CVM correlates with cardiovascular risk estimated by three different risk scores (Framingham, SCORE and NORRISK ten years ago. Methods Prospective logitudinal observational study of 20 252 participants in The Hordaland Health Study born 1950-57, not using CVM in 1997-99. Prescription data obtained from The Norwegian Prescription Database in 2008. Results 26% of men and 22% of women aged 51-58 years had started to use some CVM during the previous decade. As a group, persons using CVM scored significantly higher on the risk algorithms Framingham, SCORE and NORRISK compared to those not treated. 16-20% of men and 20-22% of women with risk scores below the high-risk thresholds for the three risk scores were treated with CVM, while 60-65% of men and 25-45% of women with scores above the high-risk thresholds received no treatment. Among women using CVM, only 2.2% (NORRISK, 4.4% (SCORE and 14.5% (Framingham had risk scores above the high-risk values. Low education, poor self-reported general health, muscular pains, mental distress (in females only and a family history of premature cardiovascular disease correlated with use of CVM. Elevated blood pressure was the single factor most strongly predictive of CVM treatment. Conclusion Prescription of CVM to middle-aged individuals by large seems to occur independently of estimated total cardiovascular risk, and this applies especially to females.

  17. Circadian misalignment increases cardiovascular disease risk factors in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher J; Purvis, Taylor E; Hu, Kun; Scheer, Frank A J L

    2016-03-01

    Shift work is a risk factor for hypertension, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease. This increased risk cannot be fully explained by classic risk factors. One of the key features of shift workers is that their behavioral and environmental cycles are typically misaligned relative to their endogenous circadian system. However, there is little information on the impact of acute circadian misalignment on cardiovascular disease risk in humans. Here we show-by using two 8-d laboratory protocols-that short-term circadian misalignment (12-h inverted behavioral and environmental cycles for three days) adversely affects cardiovascular risk factors in healthy adults. Circadian misalignment increased 24-h systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) by 3.0 mmHg and 1.5 mmHg, respectively. These results were primarily explained by an increase in blood pressure during sleep opportunities (SBP, +5.6 mmHg; DBP, +1.9 mmHg) and, to a lesser extent, by raised blood pressure during wake periods (SBP, +1.6 mmHg; DBP, +1.4 mmHg). Circadian misalignment decreased wake cardiac vagal modulation by 8-15%, as determined by heart rate variability analysis, and decreased 24-h urinary epinephrine excretion rate by 7%, without a significant effect on 24-h urinary norepinephrine excretion rate. Circadian misalignment increased 24-h serum interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, resistin, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels by 3-29%. We demonstrate that circadian misalignment per se increases blood pressure and inflammatory markers. Our findings may help explain why shift work increases hypertension, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:26858430

  18. Vascular function assessed with cardiovascular magnetic resonance predicts survival in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steedman Tracey

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased arterial stiffness is associated with mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR permits assessment of the central arteries to measure aortic function. Methods We studied the relationship between central haemodynamics and outcome using CMR in 144 chronic kidney disease patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate Results Median follow up after the scan was 24 months. There were no significant differences in aortic distensibilty or aortic volumetric arterial strain between pre-dialysis and dialysis patients. Aortic distensibilty and volumetric arterial strain negatively correlated with age. Aortic distensibilty and volumetric arterial strain were lower in diabetics, patients with ischaemic heart disease and peripheral vascular disease. During follow up there were 20 deaths. Patients who died had lower aortic distensibilty than survivors. In a survival analysis, diabetes, systolic blood pressure and aortic distensibilty were independent predictors of mortality. There were 12 non-fatal cardiovascular events during follow up. Analysing the combined end point of death or a vascular event, diabetes, aortic distensibilty and volumetric arterial strain were predictors of events. Conclusion Deranged vascular function measured with CMR correlates with cardiovascular risk factors and predicts outcome. CMR measures of vascular function are potential targets for interventions to reduce cardiovascular risk.

  19. Cardiovascular risks and benefits of moderate and heavy alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Solà, Joaquim

    2015-10-01

    The heart and vascular system are susceptible to the harmful effects of alcohol. Alcohol is an active toxin that undergoes widespread diffusion throughout the body, causing multiple synchronous and synergistic effects. Alcohol consumption decreases myocardial contractility and induces arrhythmias and dilated cardiomyopathy, resulting in progressive cardiovascular dysfunction and structural damage. Alcohol, whether at binge doses or a high cumulative lifetime consumption-both of which should be discouraged-is clearly deleterious for the cardiovascular system, increasing the incidence of total and cardiovascular mortality, coronary and peripheral artery disease, heart failure, stroke, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, and diabetes mellitus. However, epidemiological, case-control studies and meta-analyses have shown a U-type bimodal relationship so that low-to-moderate alcohol consumption (particularly of wine or beer) is associated with a decrease in cardiovascular events and mortality, compared with abstention. Potential confounding influences-alcohol-dose quantification, tobacco use, diet, exercise, lifestyle, cancer risk, accidents, and dependence-can affect the results of studies of both low-dose and high-dose alcohol consumption. Mendelian methodological approaches have led to doubts regarding the beneficial cardiovascular effects of alcohol, and the overall balance of beneficial and detrimental effects should be considered when making individual and population-wide recommendations, as reductions in alcohol consumption should provide overall health benefits. PMID:26099843

  20. Risk of cardiovascular disease in inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nynne; Nyboe; Andersen; Tine; Jess

    2014-01-01

    Abundant scientific evidence supporting an association between inflammatory bowel disease(IBD) and venous thromboembolic events, caused by an IBD related hypercoagulability, is acknowledged and thromboprophylactic treatment strategies are now implemented in the management of IBD patients. In contrary, the risk of arterial thromboembolic disease, as ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular events, and mesenteric ischemia in patients with IBD remains uncertain and the magnitude of a potentially increased risk is continuously debated, with ambiguous risk estimates among studies. The evident role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis forms the basis of a biological plausible link; the chronic systemic inflammation in IBD patients increases the risk of atherosclerosis and thereby the risk of thrombotic events. Further, studies have shown that the burden of traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia is lower in IBD populations, thus further strengthen the role of non-traditional risk factors, as chronic inflammation in the linking of the two disease entities. Likewise, mortality from cardiovascular disease in IBD remains questioned. The aim of the current review is to give an up-date on the existing evidence of the possible association between IBD and cardiovascular disease and to discuss traditional and non-traditional risk factors.

  1. [Socioeconomic class as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Ch; Ackermann-Liebrich, U

    2005-09-01

    It's been known for a long time, that certain diseases are more frequent in lower socioeconomic classes. But knowledge about the nature of this association, its main risk factors and how to improve health outcomes in lower social groups is still limited. Social class has been defined by different indicators by e.g. occupation and job position or the highest school qualification achieved. For international comparisons different classifications such as "The Registrar General's Social Class Classification " or the "International Standard Classification of Education" have been used. Several European Studies show a higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and cardiovascular risk factors including smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia in lower socioeconomic classes. But this studies also show that all socioeconomic groups have access to medical services. The Data from the Swiss Health Survey show the distribution of cardiovascular risk factors and diseases by three levels of education: Behaviouralfactors such as smoking, obesity and physical inactivity are more commonly present in the lower socioeconomic groups. People with a lower educational level visit their GP more often, whereas people with a higher level of educational consult specialists more frequently. Medical services are often used to check of blood pressure, blood sugar and cholesterol. An indication of state of health may be shown by medication and treatment for cardiovascular disease which is more prevalent in lower socioeconomic groups. The present discussion of explanations of the poorer state of health in lower socioeconomic groups goes beyond the classical risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Studies have shown that after the correction for risk factors a correlation remains between social class and state of health. It is believed, that psychosocial factors such as self-esteem, control in the workplace or coping-strategies play an additional important role

  2. Chronic hyperuricemia, uric acid deposit and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Davide; Ferri, Livia; Desideri, Giovambattista; Di Giosia, Paolo; Cheli, Paola; Del Pinto, Rita; Properzi, Giuliana; Ferri, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Hyperuricemia is commonly associated with traditional risk factors such as dysglicemia, dyslipidemia, central obesity and abnormal blood pressure, i.e. the metabolic syndrome. Concordantly, recent studies have revived the controversy over the role of circulating uric acid, hyperuricemia, and gout as an independent prognostic factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In this regard, different studies also evaluated the possible role of xanthine inhibitors in inducing blood pressure reduction, increment in flow-mediated dilation, and improved cardiovascular prognosis in various patient settings. The vast majority of these studies have been conducted with either allopurinol or its active metabolite oxypurinol, i.e. two purine-like non-selective inhibitors of xanthine oxidase. More recently, the role of uric acid as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and the possible protective role exerted by reduction of hyperuricemia to normal level have been evaluated by the use of febuxostat, a selective, non purine-like xanthine oxidase inhibitor. In this review, we will report current evidence on hyperuricemia in cardiovascular disease. The value of uric acid as a biomarker and as a potential therapeutic target for tailored old and novel "cardiometabolic" treatments will be also discussed. PMID:23173592

  3. Prospective validation and assessment of cardiovascular and offspring risk models for pregnant women with congenital heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balci, A.; Sollie-Szarynska, K.M.; Bijl, A.G. van der; Ruys, T.P.; Mulder, B.J.; Roos-Hesselink, J.W.; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Wajon, E.M.; Vliegen, H.W.; Drenthen, W.; Hillege, H.L.; Aarnoudse, J.G.; Veldhuisen, D.J. van; Pieper, P.G.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Adequate prepregnancy prediction of maternal cardiovascular and offspring risk is important for counselling and management of pregnancy in women with congenital heart disease (CHD). Therefore we performed a study to identify the optimal assessment strategy for estimating the risk of preg

  4. Prospective validation and assessment of cardiovascular and offspring risk models for pregnant women with congenital heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balci, Ali; Sollie-Szarynska, Krystyna M.; van der Bijl, Antoinette G. L.; Ruys, Titia P. E.; Mulder, Barbara J. M.; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.; van Dijk, Arie P. J.; Wajon, Elly M. C. J.; Vliegen, Hubert W.; Drenthen, Willem; Hillege, Hans L.; Aarnoudse, Jan G.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Pieper, Petronella G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Adequate prepregnancy prediction of maternal cardiovascular and offspring risk is important for counselling and management of pregnancy in women with congenital heart disease (CHD). Therefore we performed a study to identify the optimal assessment strategy for estimating the risk of pregn

  5. [Screening for cardiovascular risk factors in a large workplace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agner, E; Jacobsen, K; Mahnfeldt, M S; Jensen, S E; Baastrup, A; Stene, G M; Bech, J; Kjaer, A

    1990-11-01

    A screening investigation was carried out in a large industry in the Copenhagen region and 1,472 of the employees were offered examination of blood cholesterol and measurement of blood pressure. At this examination the employees completed a one-page questionnaire about other cardiovascular risk factors. 45% of those invited participated in the investigation, the poorest participation was among women and the greatest among the male officials. On account of the limited number of female employees, the majority of results were only calculated for men. Over 1/3 of these had hypercholesteremia (greater than or equal to 7.0 mmol/l) and nearly 1/3 had, simultaneously, at least two cardiovascular risk factors in addition to age and male sex. Extensive occupational investigations under the auspices of WHO have demonstrated that energetic intervention at the place of work aimed at the cardiovascular risk factors can reduce the risk of development of coronary heart disease and death within a six-year follow-up period. It is therefore emphasized that similar interventions are very necessary also in Denmark. PMID:2238226

  6. Metabolic syndrome and other cardiovascular risk factors among police officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakrishnan Thayyil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Police force constitutes a special occupational group. They have been shown to be at high risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases. A multitude of factors may be responsible for this. There is very limited documentation of their health status and health surveillance activities are inadequate. Aim: The present study was designed to measure the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and other cardiovascular risk factors among police officers. Materials and Methods: The design was cross-sectional and spanned 900 policemen ( n = 900. A pre-tested questionnaire was used for collecting historical data. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements were carried out using standard techniques. MS was diagnosed using the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS 16.0 software. Results: MS was observed in 16.8% of the study population. High blood pressure and hyper-triglyceridemia were the commonest abnormalities. The prevalence of other cardiovascular risk factors were high body mass index (65.6%, hypertension (37.7%, diabetes (7%, smoking (10%, and alcohol use (48%. Conclusion: Our study identified police officers as a high-risk group for developing CVDs. The findings underscore the need for regular surveillance and lifestyle interventions in this important occupational group.

  7. DETERMINING CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE RISK IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate E. Reed

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available At least 50% of children have one or more cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factor. We aimed to 1 determine the prevalence of CVD risk factors in a sample of Canadian children, and 2 create a Healthy Heart Score that could be used in a school setting, to identify children with a greater number and severity of CVD risk factors. Children (n = 242, 122M, 120F, aged 9-11 years were assessed for cardiovascular fitness, physical activity, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, and body mass index (BMI. Biological values were converted to age and sex specific percentiles and allocated a score. Healthy Heart Scores could range between 5 and 18, with lower scores suggesting a healthier cardiovascular profile. Seventy-seven children volunteered for blood samples in order to assess the relationship between the Healthy Heart Score and (total cholesterol (TC, high and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL, LDL and triglycerides (TG. Fifty eight percent of children had elevated scores for at least 1 risk factor. The group mean Healthy Heart Score was 8 (2.2. The mean score was significantly higher in boys (9 (2.2 compared with girls (8 (2.1, p < 0.01. A high score was significantly associated with a low serum HDL, a high TC:HDL and a high TG concentration. Our results support other studies showing a high prevalence of CVD risk factors in children. Our method of allocation of risk score, according to percentile, allows for creation of an age and sex specific CVD risk profile in children, which takes into account the severity of the elevated risk factor

  8. Central versus peripheral cardiovascular risk in metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.KevinShoemaker

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS; i.e. 3 of 5 of the following risk factors (RFs: elevated blood pressure, waist circumference, triglycerides, blood glucose or reduced HDL are thought to be prone to serious cardiovascular disease and there is debate as to whether the disease begins in the peripheral vasculature or centrally. This study investigates hemodynamics, cardiac function/morphology, as well as mechanical properties of the central (heart, carotid artery and peripheral (total peripheral resistance, forearm vascular bed vasculature in individuals without (1-2 RFs; n=28, or with (≥3 RFs; n=46 MetS. After adjustments for statin and blood pressure medication use, those with MetS had lower mitral valve E/A ratios (<3 RFs: 1.24±0.07; ≥3 RFs: 1.01±0.04; P=0.025, and higher total peripheral resistance index (<3 RFs: 48±2 mmHg/L/min/m2; ≥3 RFs: 53±2 mmHg/L/min/m2; P=0.04. There were no differences in heart size, carotid artery measurements, cardiovagal baroreflex sensitivity, pulse wave velocity, stroke volume index, or cardiac output index due to MetS after adjustments for statin and blood pressure medication use. In a separate analysis, the use of statins was associated with increased inertia in the brachial vascular bed, increased HbA1c and decreased LDL cholesterol. The independent use of anti-hypertensive medication was associated with decreased predicted VO2max, triglycerides, diastolic blood pressure, interventricular septum thickness, calculated left ventricle mass, left ventricle posterior wall thickness, and left ventricle pre-ejection period, but increased carotid stiffness, HDL cholesterol, and heart rate. These data imply that both a central cardiac effect and a peripheral effect of vascular resistance are expressed in MetS. These data also indicate that variance in between-group responses due to pharmacological treatments are important factors to consider in studying cardiovascular changes in these individuals.

  9. Retinal vascular calibres are significantly associated with cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Hanno, T.; Bertelsen, G.; Sjølie, Anne K.;

    2014-01-01

    . Association between retinal vessel calibre and the cardiovascular risk factors was assessed by multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses. Results: Retinal arteriolar calibre was independently associated with age, blood pressure, HbA1c and smoking in women and men, and with HDL cholesterol in men......Purpose: To describe the association between retinal vascular calibres and cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: Population-based cross-sectional study including 6353 participants of the TromsO Eye Study in Norway aged 38-87years. Retinal arteriolar calibre (central retinal artery equivalent) and...... retinal venular calibre (central retinal vein equivalent) were measured computer-assisted on retinal photographs. Data on blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and smoking were collected...

  10. [Cardiovascular risk in polycystic kidney disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Adelaide; Stallone, Giovanni; Infante, Barbara; Grandaliano, Giuseppe; Schena, Francesco Paolo

    2015-09-01

    Hypertension is common and occurs in the majority of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patients prior to loss of kidney function. Hypertension relates to progressive kidney enlargement, and is a significant independent risk factor for progression to end-stage renal disease. The pathogenesis of hypertension in ADPKD is complex and depends on many factors that influence each other. High expression of PKD1 and PKD2 genes is present in the cilia of tubular epithelial cells, in endothelial cells and in vascular smooth muscle cells. Decreased or absent polycystin-1 or -2 expression is associated with abnormal vascular structure and function. PKD1/PKD2 deficiency results in reduced nitric oxide levels, altered endothelial response to shear stress with attenuation in vascular relaxation. Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system occurs in ADPKD due to decreased nitric oxide production as well as bilateral cyst expansion and intra-renal ischemia. With increasing cyst size, further activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system occurs, blood pressure increases and a vicious cycle ensues with enhanced cyst growth and hypertension ultimately leading to end-stage renal disease. Inhibition of the angiotensin-aldosterone system is possible with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and seems to be the first-line treatment for hypertension in these subjects. As suggested by the HALT-PKD study, an aggressive blood pressure control is safe and recommended and is associated with preservation of kidney function and a reduction in total kidney volume over time. A collaborative multidisciplinary approach between nephrologists and cardiologists is necessary for the monitoring of kidney and heart complications. PMID:26418387

  11. Neck circumference as predictor of excess body fat and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Vivian Siqueira Santos Gonçalves; Eliane Rodrigues de Faria; Sylvia Do Carmo Castro Franceschini; Silvia Eloiza Priore

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To verify whether neck circumference can predict cardiovascular risk factors and excess body fat in adolescents. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included male and female adolescents aged 10 to 14 years from Viçosa, Minas Gerais. The following data were collected: anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, percentage of body fat according to dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and levels of fasting glucose, fasting insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipop...

  12. MR-proANP improves prediction of mortality and cardiovascular events in patients with STEMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Søren; Jensen, Jan Skov; Pedersen, Sune H; Galatius, Søren; Goetze, Jens P; Mogelvang, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    stroke or heart failure. RESULTS: During 5-year follow-up, MR-proANP was associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality and MACE (both p < 0.001). After adjustment for confounding risk factors (age, gender, hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolaemia, smoking, previous MI, BMI, eGFR, CRP, peak...... elevated in cardiovascular disease and predicts outcome in heart failure. However, knowledge of the prognostic value in acute myocardial infarction remains limited. METHODS: We prospectively included 680 patients with STEMI treated with primary-PCI, from September 2006 to December 2008. Blood samples were...... in MR-proANP. MR-proANP significantly increased C-statistics and reclassified 26% of the patients for all-cause mortality and 34% for MACE into higher or lower risk categories, matching actual event rates more accurately. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma MR-proANP independently predicts all-cause mortality and...

  13. Family history of vascular disease and the risk of cardiovascular events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijmans, M.

    2015-01-01

    A positive family history of cardiovascular disease is an established risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. In clinical practice, this evident relation between the presence of cardiovascular disease in families and first cardiovascular events has resulted in family history being

  14. Associations between cardiovascular risk factors and psoriasis in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshchian M

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mahmoud Farshchian, Akram Ansar, Mohammadreza Sobhan Psoriasis Research Center, Department of Dermatology, Farshchian Hospital, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran Background: Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease. There is overwhelming evidence on the higher risk of cardiovascular diseases in patients with psoriasis as a result of hyperlipidemia, which is more common in these patients. Objectives: The aim of this study was to elucidate the association between the cardiovascular risk factors and psoriasis. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 55 patients with psoriasis and 55 matched (sex and age controls were entered the study at the Department of Dermatology between March 2011 and March 2013. Blood samples were obtained following 14 hours fasting status and serum levels of triglyceride, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein were determined using standard laboratory methods, and other variables such as sex, age, smoking, alcohol consumption, and the type of disease were recorded. Results: Our findings showed that levels of triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein, and smoking were significantly higher in psoriatic patients when compared with controls, whereas the level of high-density lipoprotein and cholesterol was not significantly different between two groups. Body mass index of psoriatic patients was not significantly higher than controls. Patients with psoriasis also had an increased prevalence of hypertension. Conclusion: Our findings further verify lipid abnormalities in psoriatic patients. Psoriasis is associated with higher rate of hypertension, which may be resulted in increasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases in these patients. Thus, serum lipid profile and blood pressure in all patients with psoriasis, regardless of disease severity, deserve consideration to be checked. Keywords: cardiovascular disease, risk factors, psoriasis, lipid profile

  15. Chronic Hyperuricemia, Uric Acid Deposit and Cardiovascular Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Grassi, Davide; Ferri, Livia; Desideri, Giovambattista; Giosia, Paolo Di; Cheli, Paola; Pinto, Rita Del; Properzi, Giuliana; Ferri, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Hyperuricemia is commonly associated with traditional risk factors such as dysglicemia, dyslipidemia, central obesity and abnormal blood pressure, i.e. the metabolic syndrome. Concordantly, recent studies have revived the controversy over the role of circulating uric acid, hyperuricemia, and gout as an independent prognostic factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In this regard, different studies also evaluated the possible role of xanthine inhibitors in inducing blood pressure re...

  16. Snacking patterns, diet quality, and cardiovascular risk factors in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Nicklas, Theresa A.; O’Neil, Carol E; Victor L. Fulgoni III

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship of snacking patterns on nutrient intake and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in adults is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of snacking patterns with nutrient intake, diet quality, and a selection of CVRF in adults participating in the 2001-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods 24-hour dietary recalls were used to determine intake and cluster analysis was used to identify the snacking patterns. Height and weig...

  17. Cardiovascular risk and fitness in veteran football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, M; Steffen, A; Pütz, K; Würtz, N; Such, U; Faude, O; Bohm, P; Meyer, T

    2016-01-01

    Veteran football players above 40 years have rarely been subject to scientific investigations. This is worrisome because their number is considerable and their cardiovascular risk probably increased. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 100 football players between 40 and 63 years of age. This included a medical history and physical examination, venous blood sampling, measurement of resting blood pressure, a resting electrocardiogram (ECG), an exhaustive cycle ergometry and a multistage field test. Also, measurements of heart rate and blood lactate concentration were carried out during one typical training session and one match. Participants trained 1.0 ± 0.6 sessions per week and played 27 ± 8 matches per season. Of them, 19% were smokers. Resting blood pressure was 138 ± 15/88 ± 8 mmHg. Hypertension prevalence (WHO definition) was 66%. Total cholesterol averaged 220 ± 41 mg . dl(-1), HDL 46 ± 13 mg . dl(-1) and LDL 134 ± 33 mg . dl(-1). The average 10-year risk for cardiovascular events (Framingham score) was 6%. Mean maximal power output on the cycle ergometer was 2.8 ± 0.6 W . kg(-1), mean VO2peak 40.0 ± 7.3 ml . min(-1) . kg(-1). Comparing training and competition, no significant differences in cardiovascular and metabolic load were found. In summary, their cardiovascular risk was similar to age-adjusted reference values. However, they showed slightly better ergometric performance. More frequent training stimuli might be necessary to reach more favourable risk factor profiles. Training and competition lead to similar cardiocirculatory and metabolic stress which is considerably high and might put players into danger who have pre-existing cardiac disease. PMID:26691390

  18. Oral contraception and cardiovascular risk factors during adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Paulus, Dominique; Saint-Remy, Annie; JeanJean, Michel

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyze the pattern of oral contraceptive (OC) use in teenagers and to examine the relationship between OC use and other cardiovascular risk factors. The study was conducted in 24 Belgian secondary schools. Most students (1526 adolecents aged 12-17 years) agreed to participate (participation rate: 83.6%). Smoking, physical activity habits, menarche, and OC use were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Total cholesterol level, blood press...

  19. Gastrointestinal and Cardiovascular Risk of Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulwahed Al-Saeed

    2011-01-01

     Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) confer a gastrointestinal (GI) side effect profile and concerns regarding adverse cardiovascular effects have emerged associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. NSAIDs are highly effective in treating pain and inflammation, but it is well recognized that these agents are associated with substantial gastrointestinal toxicity. Cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors may also reduce the risk for gastrointestinal events, although they may increase ca...

  20. Risk factors of atheromatous aorta in cardiovascular surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando A. Atik; Silva, Isaac Azevedo; da Cunha, Claudio Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence and profile of ascending aorta or aortic arch atheromatous disease in cardiovascular surgery patients, its risk factors and its prognostic implication early after surgery. Methods Between January 2007 and June 2011, 2042 consecutive adult patients were analyzed, with no exclusion criteria. Atheromatous aorta diagnosis was determined intraoperatively by surgeon palpation of the aorta. Determinants of atheromatous aorta, as well as its prognostic implicatio...

  1. Diabetes Mellitus, ArterialWall, and Cardiovascular Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Michaela Kozakova; Carlo Palombo

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor for atherothrombotic cardiovascular disease. Adults with diabetes are two to four times more likely to develop heart disease or stroke than adults without diabetes. The two major features of diabetes, i.e., hyperglycemia and insulin-resistance, trigger arterial stiffening and increase the susceptibility of the arterial wall to atherosclerosis at any given age. These pathological changes in the arterial wall may provide a functional and structura...

  2. Socioeconomic disparities in risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Wielgosz, A T; Spasoff, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Despite a general decline in mortality rates in recent decades, these rates are substantially higher among lower socioeconomic groups. To determine target groups for preventive health promotion programs, the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease by socioeconomic group in Canadian adults aged 20 to 69 years was examined through comparison of estimates from the 1978-79 Canada Health Survey, the 1981 Canada Fitness Survey and the labour force smoking surveys of 1975 and 1983. Lev...

  3. Hypoglycemia as a driver of cardiovascular risk in diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Moheet, Amir; Seaquist, Elizabeth R.

    2013-01-01

    Severe hypoglycemia in patients with diabetes is associated with increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events and death. Recent large randomized clinical trials in individuals with type 2 diabetes have shown that intensive glycemic control may result in increased mortality and hypoglycemia has been investigated as a possible cause. Acute hypoglycemia is a pro-arrhythmic, pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic state and several mechanisms have been proposed to explain how hypoglycemia might in...

  4. Automatic prediction of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events using heart rate variability analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Melillo

    Full Text Available There is consensus that Heart Rate Variability is associated with the risk of vascular events. However, Heart Rate Variability predictive value for vascular events is not completely clear. The aim of this study is to develop novel predictive models based on data-mining algorithms to provide an automatic risk stratification tool for hypertensive patients.A database of 139 Holter recordings with clinical data of hypertensive patients followed up for at least 12 months were collected ad hoc. Subjects who experienced a vascular event (i.e., myocardial infarction, stroke, syncopal event were considered as high-risk subjects. Several data-mining algorithms (such as support vector machine, tree-based classifier, artificial neural network were used to develop automatic classifiers and their accuracy was tested by assessing the receiver-operator characteristics curve. Moreover, we tested the echographic parameters, which have been showed as powerful predictors of future vascular events.The best predictive model was based on random forest and enabled to identify high-risk hypertensive patients with sensitivity and specificity rates of 71.4% and 87.8%, respectively. The Heart Rate Variability based classifier showed higher predictive values than the conventional echographic parameters, which are considered as significant cardiovascular risk factors.Combination of Heart Rate Variability measures, analyzed with data-mining algorithm, could be a reliable tool for identifying hypertensive patients at high risk to develop future vascular events.

  5. Alcohol intake and cardiovascular risk factors: A Mendelian randomisation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yoonsu; Shin, So-Youn; Won, Sungho; Relton, Caroline L; Davey Smith, George; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Mendelian randomisation studies from Asia suggest detrimental influences of alcohol on cardiovascular risk factors, but such associations are observed mainly in men. The absence of associations of genetic variants (e.g. rs671 in ALDH2) with such risk factors in women - who drank little in these populations - provides evidence that the observations are not due to genetic pleiotropy. Here, we present a Mendelian randomisation study in a South Korean population (3,365 men and 3,787 women) that 1) provides robust evidence that alcohol consumption adversely affects several cardiovascular disease risk factors, including blood pressure, waist to hip ratio, fasting blood glucose and triglyceride levels. Alcohol also increases HDL cholesterol and lowers LDL cholesterol. Our study also 2) replicates sex differences in associations which suggests pleiotropy does not underlie the associations, 3) provides further evidence that association is not due to pleiotropy by showing null effects in male non-drinkers, and 4) illustrates a way to measure population-level association where alcohol intake is stratified by sex. In conclusion, population-level instrumental variable estimation (utilizing interaction of rs671 in ALDH2 and sex as an instrument) strengthens causal inference regarding the largely adverse influence of alcohol intake on cardiovascular health in an Asian population. PMID:26687910

  6. Prevalence of stroke/cardiovascular risk factors in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodo, M.; Sipos, K.; Thuroczy, G.; Panczel, G.; Ilias, L.; Szonyi, P.; Bodo, M., Jr.; Nebella, T.; Banyasz, A.; Nagy, Z.

    2010-04-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Hungary using the Cerberus system which includes: 1) a questionnaire addressing the risk factors for stroke/cardiovascular disease; 2) amplifiers to record the pulse waves of cerebral arteries (rheoencephalography) and peripheral arteries, electrocardiogram and electroencephalogram. Additionally, subjects were measured for carotid stenosis by Doppler ultrasound and 12-lead electrocardiogram; subjects were also screened for blood cholesterol, glucose, and triglyceride levels. Prevalence of the following stroke risk factors was identified: overweight, 63.25%; sclerotic brain arteries (by rheoencephalogram), 54.29%; heart disease, 37.92%; pathologic carotid flow, 34.24%; smoking, 30.55%; high blood cholesterol, 28.70%; hypertension, 27.83%; high triglyceride, 24.35%; abnormality in electrocardiogram, 20%; high glucose, 15.95%; symptoms of transient ischemic attack, 16.07%; alcohol abuse, 6.74%; and diabetes, 4.53%. The study demonstrates a possible model for primary cardiovascular disease/stroke prevention. This method offers a standardizable, cost effective, practical technique for mass screenings by identifying the population at high risk for cardiovascular disturbances, especially cerebrovascular disease (primary prevention). In this model, the rheoencephalogram can detect cerebrovascular arteriosclerosis in the susceptibility/presymptomatic phase, earlier than the Doppler ultrasound technique. The method also provides a model for storing analog physiological signals in a computer-based medical record and is a first step in applying an expert system to stroke prevention.

  7. Obesity and cardiovascular risk in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Raj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The global prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents has increased substantially over the past several decades. These trends are also visible in developing economies like India. Childhood obesity impacts all the major organ systems of the body and is well known to result in significant morbidity and mortality. Obesity in childhood and adolescence is associated with established risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and accelerated atherosclerotic processes, including elevated blood pressure (BP, atherogenic dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, type II diabetes mellitus, cardiac structural and functional changes and obstructive sleep apnea. Probable mechanisms of obesity-related hypertension include insulin resistance, sodium retention, increased sympathetic nervous system activity, activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and altered vascular function. Adiposity promotes cardiovascular risk clustering during childhood and adolescence. Insulin resistance has a strong association with childhood obesity. A variety of proinflammatory mediators that are associated with cardiometabolic dysfunction are also known to be influenced by obesity levels. Obesity in early life promotes atherosclerotic disease in vascular structures such as the aorta and the coronary arteries. Childhood and adolescent adiposity has strong influences on the structure and function of the heart, predominantly of the left ventricle. Obesity compromises pulmonary function and increases the risk of sleep-disordered breathing and obstructive sleep apnea. Neglecting childhood and adolescent obesity will compromise the cardiovascular health of the pediatric population and is likely to result in a serious public health crisis in future.

  8. Neck circumference as predictor of excess body fat and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Siqueira Santos Gonçalves

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify whether neck circumference can predict cardiovascular risk factors and excess body fat in adolescents. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included male and female adolescents aged 10 to 14 years from Viçosa, Minas Gerais. The following data were collected: anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, percentage of body fat according to dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and levels of fasting glucose, fasting insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein. The anthropometric measurements were used for calculating indices and assessing nutritional status. The receiver operating characteristic curve tested whether neck circumference could predict cardiovascular risk. We also investigated how neck circumference related to the study parameters. The significance level was set at 5% (p0.5; p<0.05, varying from 0.610 for high-density lipoprotein to 0.817 for blood pressure. CONCLUSION: Neck circumference was capable of predicting excess fat and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents.

  9. Cytokines and clustered cardiovascular risk factors in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Müller, Klaus; Eiberg, Stig;

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate the possible role of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), low fitness, and fatness in the early development of clustering of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and insulin resistance. Subjects for this cross...... pronounced in fat and unfit children based on the association with CRP levels. The association between fitness and fatness variables, insulin resistance, and clustered risk could be caused by other mechanisms related to these exposures. The role of IL-6 remains unclear....... between CVD risk scores and TNF-alpha and IL-6. C-reactive protein was associated with fitness, fatness, and CVD risk score. This study does not support an association between plasma IL-6 or TNF-alpha and low insulin sensitivity or clustering of CVD risk factors in a young cohort. Inflammation was more...

  10. Cardiovascular Risks Factors and their Relationship with Disorders of Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Lilian Leguen Gulgar; Maricel Castellanos; María de Jesús Sánchez Bouza; Mikhail Benet Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    Background: cardiovascular disease has been the leading cause of death in Cuba, where studies on emerging cardiovascular risk factors as predictors of cardiovascular risk are scarce. Objective: to determine the association between cardiovascular risk factors and disorders of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Methods: a correlational study was conducted with a sample of 105 men and women selected from a total of 346 workers of the University of Medical Sciences of Cienfuegos from June 2011 th...

  11. Neuroanatomy predicts individual risk attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Tymula, Agnieszka; Cooper, Nicole; Kable, Joseph W; Glimcher, Paul W; Levy, Ifat

    2014-09-10

    Over the course of the last decade a multitude of studies have investigated the relationship between neural activations and individual human decision-making. Here we asked whether the anatomical features of individual human brains could be used to predict the fundamental preferences of human choosers. To that end, we quantified the risk attitudes of human decision-makers using standard economic tools and quantified the gray matter cortical volume in all brain areas using standard neurobiological tools. Our whole-brain analysis revealed that the gray matter volume of a region in the right posterior parietal cortex was significantly predictive of individual risk attitudes. Participants with higher gray matter volume in this region exhibited less risk aversion. To test the robustness of this finding we examined a second group of participants and used econometric tools to test the ex ante hypothesis that gray matter volume in this area predicts individual risk attitudes. Our finding was confirmed in this second group. Our results, while being silent about causal relationships, identify what might be considered the first stable biomarker for financial risk-attitude. If these results, gathered in a population of midlife northeast American adults, hold in the general population, they will provide constraints on the possible neural mechanisms underlying risk attitudes. The results will also provide a simple measurement of risk attitudes that could be easily extracted from abundance of existing medical brain scans, and could potentially provide a characteristic distribution of these attitudes for policy makers. PMID:25209279

  12. The plasma leptin/adiponectin ratio predicts first cardiovascular event in men : A prospective nested case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappelle, Paul J. W. H.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; van Beek, Andre P.; Hillege, Hans L.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The plasma leptin/adiponectin (L/A) ratio has been proposed as a preferential marker of atherosclerosis susceptibility compared to leptin and adiponectin alone. We determined the extent to which the L/A ratio predicts incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) taking account of clinical risk f

  13. Hypertension in Pregnancy and Future Cardiovascular Event Risk in Siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissgerber, Tracey L; Turner, Stephen T; Mosley, Thomas H; Kardia, Sharon L R; Hanis, Craig L; Milic, Natasa M; Garovic, Vesna D

    2016-03-01

    Hypertension in pregnancy is a risk factor for future hypertension and cardiovascular disease. This may reflect an underlying familial predisposition or persistent damage caused by the hypertensive pregnancy. We sought to isolate the effect of hypertension in pregnancy by comparing the risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in women who had hypertension in pregnancy and their sisters who did not using the dataset from the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy study, which examined the genetics of hypertension in white, black, and Hispanic siblings. This analysis included all sibships with at least one parous woman and at least one other sibling. After gathering demographic and pregnancy data, BP and serum analytes were measured. Disease-free survival was examined using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards regression. Compared with their sisters who did not have hypertension in pregnancy, women who had hypertension in pregnancy were more likely to develop new onset hypertension later in life, after adjusting for body mass index and diabetes (hazard ratio 1.75, 95% confidence interval 1.27-2.42). A sibling history of hypertension in pregnancy was also associated with an increased risk of hypertension in brothers and unaffected sisters, whereas an increased risk of cardiovascular events was observed in brothers only. These results suggest familial factors contribute to the increased risk of future hypertension in women who had hypertension in pregnancy. Further studies are needed to clarify the potential role of nonfamilial factors. Furthermore, a sibling history of hypertension in pregnancy may be a novel familial risk factor for future hypertension. PMID:26315531

  14. Prognostic Value of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Measured in the First-Trimester on the Severity of Preeclampsia

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Po-Jen; Huang, Shang-Yu; Su, Sheng-Yuan; Hsiao, Ching-Hwa; Peng, Hsiu-Huei; Duan, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recent studies have suggested that preeclampsia and cardiovascular disease may share common mechanisms. The purpose of this prospective nested case-controlled study was to characterize a variety of cardiovascular disease risk factors measured during the first trimester of pregnancy in predicting subsequent outcomes and the severity of preeclampsia. We ascertained the severity of preeclampsia at the onset of the disease, and the presence of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). We c...

  15. G-CSF Predicts Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Stable Coronary Artery Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina M Katsaros

    Full Text Available Granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor (G-CSF induces mobilization of progenitor cells but may also exert pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic effects. Treatment with recombinant G-CSF after acute myocardial infarction is currently under examination and has been associated with in-stent restenosis. However, it is not known whether plasma levels of endogenous G-CSF are also associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. Therefore we included 280 patients with angiographically proven stable coronary artery disease. G-CSF was measured by specific ELISA and patients were followed for a median of 30 months for the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE: death, myocardial infarction, re-hospitalization. Those with cardiac events during follow-up showed significant higher G-CSF levels (32.3 pg/mL IQR 21.4-40.5 pg/mL vs. 24.6 pg/mL IQR 16.4-34.9 pg/mL; p<0.05 at baseline. Patients with G-CSF plasma levels above the median had a 2-fold increased risk for MACE (p<0.05. This was independent from established cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, G-CSF above the median was a predictor of clinical in-stent restenosis after implantation of bare-metal stents (6.6% vs. 19.4%; p<0.05 but not of drug-eluting stents (7.7% vs. 7.6%; p = 0.98. This data suggests that endogenous plasma levels of G-CSF predict cardiovascular events independently from established cardiac risk factors and are associated with increased in-stent restenosis rates after implantation of bare metal stents.

  16. Iron: Protector or Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease? Still Controversial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio García-Rodríguez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Iron is the second most abundant metal in the Earth’s crust. Despite being present in trace amounts, it is an essential trace element for the human body, although it can also be toxic due to oxidative stress generation by the Fenton reaction, causing organic biomolecule oxidation. This process is the basis of numerous pathologies, including cardiovascular diseases (CVD. The relationship between iron and cardiovascular disease was proposed in 1981 by Jerome Sullivan. Since then, numerous epidemiological studies have been conducted to test this hypothesis. The aim of this review is to present the main findings of the chief epidemiological studies published during the last 32 years, since Sullivan formulated his iron hypothesis, suggesting that this element might act as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We have analyzed 55 studies, of which 27 supported the iron hypothesis, 20 found no evidence to support it and eight were contrary to the iron hypothesis. Our results suggest that there is not a high level of evidence which supports the hypothesis that the iron may be associated with CVD. Despite the large number of studies published to date, the role of iron in cardiovascular disease still generates a fair amount of debate, due to a marked disparity in results.

  17. [Civilization stress, cardiovascular risk, evidence-based medicine, guidelines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Kornél

    2009-05-10

    Cardiovascular diseases have the pole-position on the list of morbidity and mortality statistics. Despite the great advances have been made in management of cardiovascular diseases, prevalence of these disorders increases worldwide, and even younger and younger ages are threatened. This phenomenon is strongly related to obesity and type 2 diabetes pandemic, which shows an unequivocal association with expansion of modernized life-style. The pathomechanism proposed to have central role is the chronic stress induced by civilized life-conduct. The authors criticizes the everyday practice suggested for management of cardiovascular diseases, focusing on normalization of cardiovascular risk factors, instead of fighting against the primary cause ie. chronic stress. There is growing evidence, that achieving the target values defined in guide-lines will not necessarily result in improvement of patient related clinical outcomes. The statistical approach generally practiced in randomized clinical trials is primarily striving for the drug-sale, instead of discovering novel pathophysiological relations. Pharmaceutical industry having decisive role in research and patient-care is mainly interested in profit-sharing, therefore patients' interest can not be optimally realized, and costs are unnecessarily augmented. Separation of patient-, and business-oriented medical care is an ethical question of fundamental importance. PMID:19403433

  18. Socioeconomic position in childhood and adult cardiovascular risk factors, vascular structure, and function: cardiovascular risk in Young Finns study

    OpenAIRE

    Kivimäki, M; Davey Smith, G.; Juonala, M; Ferrie, J. E.; Keltikangas-Järvinen, L; Elovainio, M; Pulkki-Råback, L; Vahtera, J.; Leino, M.; Viikari, J. S. A.; Raitakari, O. T.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association of childhood socioeconomic position (SEP) with adult cardiovascular risk factors, vascular structure, and vascular function in a contemporary population of young adults. Design: Population based prospective cohort study with baseline assessment in 1980. Setting: Finland. Participants: 856 men and 1066 women whose childhood SEP was determined by parental occupational status (manual, lower non-manual, upper non-manual) at age 3–18 years. Mai...

  19. National differences in screening programmes for cardiovascular risks could obstruct understanding of cardiovascular prevention studies in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Thio; T.B. Twickler; M.J. Cramer; P. Giral

    2011-01-01

    Introduction In North-West Europe, cardiovascular disease is still a major cause of death and despite several efforts (e.g. European guidelines and conferences) cardiovascular risk factors are still inconsistently diagnosed and treated. Methods We evaluated the first consultations of patients in two

  20. Cardiac risk factors: environmental, sociodemographic, and behavioral cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, David; George, Paul; Eaton, Charles B

    2014-06-01

    Several environmental exposures are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Exposure to secondhand smoke may increase the risk by as much as 25% to 30%. Exposure to third hand smoke, residual components of tobacco smoke that remain in the environment after a cigarette is extinguished, also appears to increase risk. These residual components can remain in rooms and automobiles for up to 30 years and enter the body through the skin or via inhalation or ingestion. Exposure to particulate matter air pollution from automobile emissions, power plants, and other sources is yet another environmental risk factor for CHD, resulting in tens of thousands of deaths annually in the United States. Exposure to other environmental toxins, particularly bisphenol A and phthalates, also has been linked to CHD. There are sociodemographic risks for CHD, with numerous studies showing that lower socioeconomic status is associated with higher risk. Behavioral risk factors include poor diet, such as frequent consumption of fast food and processed meals; sleep disturbance; and psychological stress, particularly related to marital or work issues. Finally, although high alcohol consumption is associated with increased CHD risk, moderate alcohol consumption (ie, less than 1 to 2 drinks/day), particularly of wine and possibly beer, appears to reduce the risk. PMID:24936715

  1. Are There Genetic Paths Common to Obesity, Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes, and Cardiovascular Risk Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankinen, Tuomo; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Ghosh, Sujoy; Bouchard, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Clustering of obesity, coronary artery disease, and cardiovascular disease risk factors is observed in epidemiological studies and clinical settings. Twin and family studies have provided some supporting evidence for the clustering hypothesis. Loci nearest a lead single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) showing genome-wide significant associations with coronary artery disease, body mass index, C-reactive protein, blood pressure, lipids, and type 2 diabetes mellitus were selected for pathway and network analyses. Eighty-seven autosomal regions (181 SNPs), mapping to 56 genes, were found to be pleiotropic. Most pleiotropic regions contained genes associated with coronary artery disease and plasma lipids, whereas some exhibited coaggregation between obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors. We observed enrichment for liver X receptor (LXR)/retinoid X receptor (RXR) and farnesoid X receptor/RXR nuclear receptor signaling among pleiotropic genes and for signatures of coronary artery disease and hepatic steatosis. In the search for functionally interacting networks, we found that 43 pleiotropic genes were interacting in a network with an additional 24 linker genes. ENCODE (Encyclopedia of DNA Elements) data were queried for distribution of pleiotropic SNPs among regulatory elements and coding sequence variations. Of the 181 SNPs, 136 were annotated to ≥1 regulatory feature. An enrichment analysis found over-representation of enhancers and DNAse hypersensitive regions when compared against all SNPs of the 1000 Genomes pilot project. In summary, there are genomic regions exerting pleiotropic effects on cardiovascular disease risk factors, although only a few included obesity. Further studies are needed to resolve the clustering in terms of DNA variants, genes, pathways, and actionable targets. PMID:25722444

  2. Relation between Childhood Obesity and Adult Cardiovascular Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren M. Allcock

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of overweight and obesity is rising at an alarming pace in the pediatric population, just as in the adult population. The adult comorbidities associated with this risk factor are well-recognized and are being further elucidated continually. Additionally, we are gradually developing a better understanding of the risks of overweight and obesity among children while they are still young. However, there is now a growing body of evidence showing that childhood obesity not only leads all too frequently to adult obesity, but is in itself a risk factor for cardiometabolic syndrome and resultant cardiovascular risk in adulthood. If current trends continue, the problem of pediatric overweight and obesity will become of unmanageable proportions once these individuals reach adulthood. Future research efforts toward understanding this complex problem will need to focus on those overweight and obese children who later went on to change their metabolic course and become normal-weight adults.

  3. Coconut oil consumption and cardiovascular risk factors in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyres, Laurence; Eyres, Michael F; Chisholm, Alexandra; Brown, Rachel C

    2016-04-01

    Coconut oil is being heavily promoted as a healthy oil, with benefits that include support of heart health. To assess the merits of this claim, the literature on the effect of coconut consumption on cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes in humans was reviewed. Twenty-one research papers were identified for inclusion in the review: 8 clinical trials and 13 observational studies. The majority examined the effect of coconut oil or coconut products on serum lipid profiles. Coconut oil generally raised total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to a greater extent than cis unsaturated plant oils, but to a lesser extent than butter. The effect of coconut consumption on the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was often not examined. Observational evidence suggests that consumption of coconut flesh or squeezed coconut in the context of traditional dietary patterns does not lead to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. However, due to large differences in dietary and lifestyle patterns, these findings cannot be applied to a typical Western diet. Overall, the weight of the evidence from intervention studies to date suggests that replacing coconut oil with cis unsaturated fats would alter blood lipid profiles in a manner consistent with a reduction in risk factors for cardiovascular disease. PMID:26946252

  4. Inflammatory cardiovascular risk markers in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Silke

    2012-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) represents a highly prevalent disease and is recognized as a major public health burden. Large-scale epidemiological studies have demonstrated an independent relationship between OSAS and various cardiovascular disorders. The pathogenesis of cardiovascular complications in OSAS is not completely understood, but given the complexity of the disorder, a multifactorial etiology is likely. Inflammatory processes have emerged as critical in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in general and they mediate many of the stages of atheroma formation. Circulating levels of several markers of inflammation have been associated with future cardiovascular risk. These markers include cell adhesion molecules such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and selectins, cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), chemokines such as IL-8, and C-reactive protein (CRP). There is increasing evidence that inflammatory processes also play a central role in the cardiovascular pathophysiology of OSAS. This is supported by cell culture and animal studies identifying a preferential activation of inflammatory pathways by intermittent hypoxia (IH), the hallmark of OSAS. A number of studies have selectively examined the expression of inflammatory factors in OSAS patients with different conclusions. These different findings may have been contributed to by a number of methodological factors such as small subject numbers, inadequately matched study populations, particularly in terms of body mass index (BMI), and inclusion of patients with pre-existing cardiovascular or metabolic diseases. This review will focus on the potential role of various inflammatory markers in OSAS with a critical analysis of the current literature.

  5. Abdominal obesity is associated with microalbuminuria and an elevated cardiovascular risk profile in patients with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Thoenes

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Martin Thoenes1,2, Jan-Christian Reil3, Bobby Varkey Khan4, Peter Bramlage1, Massimo Volpe5,6, Wilhelm Kirch1,  Michael Böhm31Institute for Clinical Pharmacology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Technical University Dresden, Germany; 2Sanofi Aventis, Global Medical Affairs, Paris, France; 3Klinik für Innere Medizin III, Kardiologie, Angiologie and Internistische Intensivmedizin, Universität des Saarlandes, Homburg, Saar, Germany; 4Department of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, USA; 5University of Rome “Sapienza”, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, S. Andrea Hospital, Rome; 6IRCCS Neuromed, Pozzilli, italyBackground: Overweight and obesity are frequently associated with preventable death and have emerged as a major challenge to public health. There is an ongoing debate on the role of abdominal obesity and its value in predicting cardiovascular and renal outcomes. The present analysis evaluates the prevalence of microalbuminuria (MAU and conventional cardiovascular risk factors in relation to measures of general and abdominal obesity.Methods: In this multinational, observational study, 20,828 hypertensive out-patients from 26 countries including Europe, North and Latin America, Middle East, and Asia were analyzed. Urinary dipstick screening for MAU was performed as well as data on patient demographics, anthropometric measures, cardiovascular risk factors, comorbid conditions, and cardiovascular drug therapy collected. MAU prevalence was determined by a stepwise logistic regression analysis with cardiovascular risk factors as univariate.Results: In the univariate analysis, MAU prevalence systematically increased with body mass index (BMI from 54.4% (1st tertial to 62.1% (3rd tertial (p < 0.0001, an increase which was also observed for waist circumference (WC. At any level of BMI, MAU increased with WC from 53.5%, 54.8%, and 55.0% (1st tertial of WC in all three BMI tertials to 61.4%, 62.1%, and 64.0% (3rd tertial of WC in

  6. Nontraditional Cardiovascular Biomarkers and Estimation of Cardiovascular Risk in Predialysis Chronic Kidney Disease Patients and Their Correlations With Carotid Intima Media Thickness

    OpenAIRE

    Sathi, Satyanand; Mahapatra, Himanshu; Sunder, Sham; Jayaraman, Rajesh; Sharma, Neera; Verma, Himanshu; Krishnamoorthy, Venkataramanan; Gupta, Anurag; Kanchi, Prabhu; Daksh, Sunil; Pursnani, Lalit; Shadab, Faisal; Singh, Manveer

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular biomarkers such as N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), cardiac troponin T (cTnT), hs-CRP (high sensitivity C-reactive protein), and albuminuria predict underlying heart disease in the general population as well as CKD patients. Objectives: We aimed to study the association of NT-proBNP, cTnT, hs-CRP, and spot urine albumin creatinine ratio with carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) for cardiovascular risk estimation in predialysis CKD (chronic kid...

  7. Effects of customized risk reduction program on cardiovascular risk in males with spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Myers, PhD; Ramya Gopalan, MS, MPH; Troy Shahoumian, MPH; Jenny Kiratli, PhD

    2012-01-01

    Persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) have heightened risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Multidisciplinary risk reduction programs using case management models have been effective in reducing CVD risk in nondisabled persons, but little is known regarding the effects of such programs in SCI. Twenty-six persons with SCI underwent a pilot 2 yr risk intervention program including frequent telephone contact by a case manager and in-person visits by a dietitian, physical therapist, and exercise...

  8. SISTEMA ENDOCANABINOIDE: MODIFICANDO LOS FACTORES DE RIESGO CARDIOVASCULAR Endocannabinoid system: modifying cardiovascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Edwin Feliciano Alfonso

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available La necesidad de alcanzar un tratamiento óptimo para el tabaquismo, la obesidad y sus comorbilidades, conocidos factores de riesgo cardiovascular, ha fomentado la búsqueda de objetivos terapéuticos novedosos. Es el caso del sistema endocanabinoide, involucrado en diversos fenómenos fisiológicos entre los que se encuentran el refuerzo de ciertos comportamientos y la regulación del apetito. La sobreactivación de este sistema altera la homeostasis corporal predisponiendo a dependencias o a un aumento en la ingesta alimentaria, lo que puede traducirse en tabaquismo u obesidad. La intervención farmacológica sobre el sistema endocanabinoide puede contribuir al manejo de estos factores de riesgo cardiovascular, teniendo en cuenta que a tales beneficios se suman otros independientes de la suspensión del tabaquismo o la reducción de peso, como el aumento del colesterol de alta densidad, la disminución de triglicéridos y la mejoría del control glucémico en pacientes con diabetes. Ensayos clínicos controlados aleatorizados adelantados en poblaciones con diferentes características, han evaluado la utilidad de la regulación farmacológica del sistema endocanabinoide; confirmando su eficacia en personas con factores de riesgo cardiovascular establecidos.The need for an optimal treatment for smoking, obesity and their comorbidities, well-known cardiovascular risk factors; has prompted the search for novel therapeutic targets. This is the case of the endocannabinoid system, involved in several physiological phenomena including the reinforcement of certain behaviors and the regulation of appetite.

  9. Quantitative characterization of myocardial infarction by cardiovascular magnetic resonance predicts future cardiovascular events in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauly John M

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR can provide quantitative data of the myocardial tissue utilizing high spatial and temporal resolution along with exquisite tissue contrast. Previous studies have correlated myocardial scar tissue with the occurrence of ventricular arrhythmia. This study was conducted to evaluate whether characterization of myocardial infarction by CMR can predict cardiovascular events in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM. Results We consecutively studied 86 patients with ICM (LVEF Conclusion Quantification of the scar volume and scar percentage by CMR is superior to LVEDV, LVESV, and LVEF in prognosticating the future likelihood of the development of cardiovascular events in patients with ICM.

  10. Pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lucia Pacifico; Valerio Nobili; Caterina Anania; Paola Verdecchia; Claudio Chiesa

    2011-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a range of liver histology severity and outcomes in the absence of chronic alcohol use. The mildest form is simple steatosis in which triglycerides accumulate within hepatocytes. A more advanced form of NAFLD, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, includes inflammation and liver cell injury, progressive to cryptogenic cirrhosis. NAFLD has become the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children and adolescents. The recent rise in the prevalence rates of overweight and obesity likely explains the NAFLD epidemic worldwide. NAFLD is strongly associated with abdominal obesity, type 2 diabetes, and dyslipidemia, and most patients have evidence of insulin resistance. Thus, NAFLD shares many features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), a highly atherogenic condition, and this has stimulated interest in the possible role of NAFLD in the development of atherosclerosis. Accumulating evidence suggests that NAFLD is associated with a significantly greater overall mortality than in the general population, as well as with increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), independently of classical atherosclerotic risk factors. Yet, several studies including the pediatric population have reported independent associations between NAFLD and impaired flow-mediated vasodilatation and increased carotid artery intimal medial thickness-two reliable markers of subclinical atherosclerosis-after adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors and MetS. Therefore, the rising prevalence of obesity-related MetS and NAFLD in childhood may lead to a parallel increase in adverse cardiovascular outcomes. In children, the cardiovascular system remains plastic and damage-reversible if early and appropriate interventions are established effectively. Therapeutic goals for NAFLD should address nutrition, physical activity, and avoidance of smoking to prevent not only end-stage liver disease but also CVD.

  11. Cardiovascular risk factors in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helal Imed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD. The aim of our investigation was the evaluation of an extensive cardiovascular profile in hemodialysis (HD and peritoneal dialysis (PD patients. We studied 74 patients with ESRD (38 males, 36 females, maintained either on chronic HD (n= 50 or chronic PD (n= 24 and age and sex matched 20 healthy subjects as controls. The lipid profile, homo-cysteine (Hcy and C reactive protein (CRP were measured. When compared to a healthy popu-lation, HD patients displayed a marked atherogenic profile, as attested by increased levels of total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, apolipoprotein A (Apo A, CRP, Hcy and lower concentrations of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C, Apo B, albumin (ALB. A significant difference was noted concerning the rates of Apo B, HDL-C, TC, ALB and Hcy. Same biological disorders that those found at HD patients were noted in these PD patients. One also noted lower concentration in Apo A. there were a significant diffe-rence with the reference group concerning the rates of albumin, Apo A, HDL-Cl and Hcy. When compared to PD patients, HD patients had significantly decreased concentration of LDL-C. The peculiar metabolic changes observed in the present study confirm the marked tendency of patients with impaired renal function for developing cardiovascular diseases, irrespectively of the type of dialysis. We suggest including uremia-related risk factors in the panel for evaluation of cardio-vascular risk in dialysis patients.

  12. Prediabetes and cardiovascular risk alert programs - useful tools for preventing diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular events in primary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgolici, Horia; Virgolici, Bogdana; Purcarea, Victor

    2015-01-01

    We propose alert programs, made in Excel using VBA, for general practitioners, in order not to miss the diagnosis of prediabetes and cardiovascular risk factors for their patients and to improve their management. PMID:25991138

  13. Cardiovascular risk during early adult life. Risk markers among participants in "Live for Life" health promotion programme in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, L. G.; Lindstrom, K.; Lingfors, H; Bengtsson, C; Lissner, L

    1998-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To study differences in cardiovascular lifestyle risk factors and biological risk markers in early adult life, with special attention to age and sex differences. Lifestyle cardiovascular risk factors included dietary habits, physical inactivity, smoking, alcohol habits, psychosocial strain, and mental stress. Biological risk markers included anthropometric variables, arterial blood pressure, and serum cholesterol concentration. DESIGN: A combined individual and communit...

  14. Assessment of high cardiovascular risk profiles for the clinician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whayne, Thomas F

    2013-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major cardiovascular (CV) risk factor. General Framingham Risk Profile (GFRP) and World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH) charts were used to assess CV risk in DM in Oman. The GFRP identified more patients with medium-risk DM; GFRP and WHO/ISH identified essentially equal numbers at very high risk. These were then used to evaluate statin usage in Oman, including economics. Google lists innumerable tools from organizations, hospitals, practitioners, magazines, societies, clinics, and medical associations. The GFRP and WHO/ISH calculations provided useful DM assessment of populations in Oman. Other major risk models are Adult Treatment Panel III, based on Framingham, and Reynolds Risk Score; the latter incorporates other factors such as family history, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and hemoglobin A(1c) (in DM). These models are useful in assessing specific populations. Individual practitioners with limited time may just evaluate patients as low, medium, and high CV risk based on general knowledge and then treat. PMID:23299171

  15. Basic fibroblast growth factor predicts cardiovascular disease occurrence in participants from the Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark B Zimering

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of the present study was to test whether plasma basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF levels predict future cardiovascular disease (CVD occurrence in adults from the Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial. Methods: Nearly four- hundred veterans, 40 years of age or older, having a mean baseline diabetes duration of 11.4 years were recruited from outpatient clinics at six geographically distributed sites in the Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial (VADT. Within the VADT, they were randomly assigned to intensive or standard glycemic treatment, with follow-up as much as seven and one-half years. Cardiovascular disease occurrence was examined at baseline in the patient population and during randomized treatment. Plasma bFGF was determined with a sensitive, specific two-site enzyme-linked immunoassay at the baseline study visit in all 399 subjects. Results: One hundred-five first cardiovascular events occurred in these 399 subjects. The best fit model of risk factors associated with the time to first cardiovascular disease occurrence (in the study over a seven and one-half year period had as significant predictors: prior cardiovascular event, (hazard ratio [HR] 3.378; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 3.079- 3.807; P < .0001, baseline plasma bFGF (HR 1.008; 95% CI 1.002-1.014; P =.01, age, (HR 1.027; 95% CI 1.004-1.051; P =.019, baseline plasma triglycerides, (HR 1.001; 95% CI 1.000-1.002; P =.02 and diabetes duration-treatment interaction (P =.03. Intensive glucose-lowering was associated with significantly decreased hazard ratios for CVD occurrence (0.38-0.63 in patients with known diabetes duration of 0-10 years, and non-significantly increased hazard ratios for CVD occurrence (0.82-1.78 in patients with longer diabetes duration. Conclusion: High level ofplasma basic fibroblast growth factor is a predictive biomarker of future cardiovascular

  16. Diabetic Retinopathy Is Strongly Predictive of Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy in Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Cheng Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A well-established, comprehensive, and simple test battery was used here to re-evaluate risk factors for cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN in type 2 diabetes. One hundred and seventy-four patients with type 2 diabetes were evaluated through the methods of deep breathing and Valsalva maneuver for correlation with factors that might influence the presence and severity of CAN. The Composite Autonomic Scoring Scale (CASS was used to grade the severity of autonomic impairment, and CAN was defined as a CASS score ≥2. Results showed that nephropathy, duration of diabetes, blood pressure, uric acid, and the presence of retinopathy and metabolic syndrome significantly correlated with the CASS score. Age may not be a risk factor for diabetic CAN. However, the effects of diabetes on CAN are more prominent in younger patients than in older ones. Diabetic retinopathy is the most significant risk factor predictive of the presence of CAN in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  17. A novel programme to evaluate and communicate 10-year risk of CHD reduces predicted risk and improves patients' modifiable risk factor profile

    OpenAIRE

    Benner, J S; Erhardt, L.; Flammer, M; Moller, R A; Rajicic, N; Changela, K; Yunis, C; Cherry, S B; Gaciong, Z; Johnson, E. S.; Sturkenboom, M.C.J.M.; García-Puig, J; Girerd, X

    2008-01-01

    Aims We assessed whether a novel programme to evaluate/communicate predicted coronary heart disease (CHD) risk could lower patients' predicted Framingham CHD risk vs. usual care. Methods The Risk Evaluation and Communication Health Outcomes and Utilization Trial was a prospective, controlled, cluster-randomised trial in nine European countries, among patients at moderate cardiovascular risk. Following baseline assessments, physicians in the intervention group calculated patients' predicted CH...

  18. Factores de riesgo cardiovascular en estudiantes universitarios chilenos Cardiovascular risk factors in Chilean university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Chiang-Salgado

    1999-12-01

    cardiovasculares en la vida adulta de los jóvenes.OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in asymptomatic university students of both sexes, aged 18 to 25 years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Serum lipid levels were measured in a subsample of 293 subjects, using a Hitachi 717 chemical analyzer. Obesity was classified using Body Mass Index (BMI measurements. A self-applied questionnaire was used to collect data on sedentary life style, family history of cardiovascular disease and cigarette smoking. Statistical associations of lipid levels with lipidic and non-lipidic risk factors were assessed using Pearson´s chi² test and multiple regression. RESULTS: We found lipid risk levels in 29.2% for Total Cholesterol (CT, 16.2% for Low Density Lipoproteins (C-LDL and 5% for High Density Lipoproteins (C-HDL. The main non-lipidic factors were smoking (46.1% and sedentarism (60.8%. Obesity, hypertension and parental history of myocardial infarction were present in 1.9%, 4.6% and 11%, respectively. We observed an association of a lipid risk profile with obesity, cigarette smoking and family history. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that sedentarism and smoking are associated with a lipid risk profile. These results call for the need to develop appropriate behavior strategies for the successful prevention of cardiovascular disease.

  19. Cardiovascular risk factors in a population of Brazilian schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Rodrigues

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and clinical evidence suggests that a judicious diet, regular physical activity and blood pressure (BP monitoring must start in early childhood to minimize the impact of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. This study was designed to evaluate BP and metabolic parameters of schoolchildren from Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil, and correlate them with cardiovascular risk factors. The study was conducted on 380 students aged 10-14 years (177 boys, 203 girls enrolled in public schools. Baseline measurements included body mass index, BP and heart rate. The students were submitted to exercise spirometry on a treadmill. VO2max was obtained from exercise testing to voluntary exhaustion. Fasting serum total cholesterol (TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides (TG, and glucose were measured. Nine point nine percent of the boys and 11.7% of the girls were hypertensive or had pre-hypertensive levels. There was no significant correlation between VO2max and TC, LDL-C, or TG in prepubertal children, but a slight negative correlation was detected in post-pubertal boys for HDL-C and TG. In addition, children with hypertension (3.4% or pre-hypertensive levels (6.6% also had comorbidity for overweight and blood lipid abnormalities (14% for triglycerides, 44.7% for TC, 25.9% for LDL-C, 52% for low HDL-C. The present study shows for the first time high correlations between prehypertensive blood pressure levels and the cardiovascular risk factors high TC, high LDL-C, low HDL-C in schoolchildren. These are important for the formulation of public health policies and strategies.

  20. Cardiovascular Risk Screening Options in Diabetes: Framework for Selective Adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezekiel Uba Nwose

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available "Background: There exist several models for assessment of risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD, including different criteria for diag-nosis of obesity, of which a major disparity is and lsquo;definition of waist circumference'. Case reports and comparative reviews are hereby presented to exemplify that one cap and lsquo;model' does not fit all. Cases: First case illustrates how very slim person with BMI of 17 may possess cardiovascular risk and #8805;22.7% compared to an obese in-dividual who has a BMI of 39 with CVD risk and #8804;8.0%. Second case review illustrates how the same BMI and lipid models vary in outcomes depending on gender. Third case report shows how different and lsquo;definitions of waist circumference' impacts on identification of obesity, which in turn affect decision about metabolic syndrome. Conclusion: The needs for paradigm shift and 5-step framework are briefly highlighted. [Natl J Community Med 2016; 7(6.000: 540-544

  1. Obesity and the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthew J. Sorrentino

    2006-01-01

    @@ The increasing prevalence of obesity worldwide has many experts concerned about the worsening health of a large proportion of the population. It is well recognized that obesity is associated with a higher mortality, an increased risk of hypertension and hyperlipidemia, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, osteoarthritis, gall bladder disease and possibly some cancers. Currently it is estimated that over two thirds of adults in the United States are overweight and nearly one third are clinically obese.1 Of special concern is the rapid increase in obesity among children. Other countries both developed and developing are experiencing similar trends.

  2. Albuminuria: Prevalence, associated risk factors and relationship with cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Fang; Yang, Wenying; Weng, Jianping; Jia, Weiping; Ji, Linong; Xiao, Jianzhong; Shan, Zhongyan; Liu, Jie; Tian, Haoming; Ji, Qiuhe; Zhu, Dalong; Ge, Jiapu; Lin, Lixiang; Chen, Li; Guo, Xiaohui

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aims/Introduction To investigate the prevalence and associated risk factors of microalbuminuria, and to explore the relationship between albuminuria and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Materials and Methods A nationally representative sample of 38,203 Chinese participants was categorized by different levels of urinary albumin‐to‐creatinine ratio (ACR; 0 –10 mg/g, 10 –20 mg/g, 20 –30 mg/g, 30 –300 mg/g). The prevalence of albuminuria was compared by using a single urinary ACR cut‐off po...

  3. Neuroanatomy Predicts Individual Risk Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Tymula, Agnieszka; Cooper, Nicole; Kable, Joseph W.; Glimcher, Paul W.; Levy, Ifat

    2014-01-01

    Over the course of the last decade a multitude of studies have investigated the relationship between neural activations and individual human decision-making. Here we asked whether the anatomical features of individual human brains could be used to predict the fundamental preferences of human choosers. To that end, we quantified the risk attitudes of human decision-makers using standard economic tools and quantified the gray matter cortical volume in all brain areas using standard neurobiologi...

  4. Hipotiroidismo subclínico y factores de riesgo cardiovascular Subclinical hypothyroidism and cardiovascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.ª C. Frías López

    2011-12-01

    center and describe the clinical characteristics and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. Methods: An observational study, retrospective, reviewing the medical histories of patients sampled from June 2005 until July 2007. We analyzed the following variables; facts: age and sex. Family history thyroid disease and other diseases. Personal history: cardiovascular pulmonary autoimmune, alterations gynecology obstetric diabetes, hypertension (HT dislipemia, obesity, psychiatric alterations and haematological. Laboratory data: novel TSH, free T4, antiperoxidase antibodies, total cholesterol and its fractions. Results: The prevalence of the sample of 100 patients collected over 8 months was 3.8% in the general population over 14 years, of which 79 were women and 21 were men. 13% were type 2 diabetics, 23% had HT and 40% had dyslipidemia. Overweight and obesity were present in 26%. The average level of TSH was 6.92 ± 2.29 μU/ml and the average level of free T4 was 1.16 ± 0.16 ng/ml. Conclusions: Prevalence subclinical hypothyroidism was 3.8%. especially in women with a mean age of 46. The incidence of cardiovascular risk factors in the subjects studied is higher in DM (13%, similar to general population in terms of dyslipidemia (40% and obesity (23% and lowest in hypertension (23%. In our study we observed a common pattern in the management of subclinical hypothyroidism, requiring the implementation and promotion of practice guidelines in primary care.

  5. Cardiovascular risk factors and risk of venous thromboembolism

    OpenAIRE

    Brækkan, Sigrid Kufaas

    2010-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, is a common disease, with serious short- and long-term complications and a potential fatal outcome. Despite the knowledge of several inherited and acquired risk factors for VTE, still 30-50 % of the VTE events occur in the absence of obvious predisposing factors. Traditionally, arterial and venous thrombosis has been considered as separate disease entities with different pathology, epidemiology and treatments...

  6. ROLE OF VARIOUS RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranay Wal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Coronary Artery Disease (CAD is the leading cause of cardiovascular mortality world wide. Increasing rate of CAD mortality and projected rise in CAD mortality for 2020 in the developing world necessitates immediate prevention and control measures. Cardiovascular disease (CVD is generally due to reduced blood flow to the heart, brain or body caused by atheroma or thrombosis. It is increasingly common after the age of 60, but rare below the age of 30. Plaques (plates of fatty atheroma build up in different arteries during adult life. These can eventually cause narrowing of the arteries, or trigger a local thrombosis (blood clot which completely blocks the blood flow. Despite scientific evidence that evidence based drug therapy reduce mortality in patients with established CAD, these therapies continue to be underutilized in patients receiving conventional care. It is essential to identify and manage risk factors for coronary artery diseases and to implement unique and creative approaches to stimulate better adherence to practice guidelines, to improve the quality of care given to patients with CAD. Reduction of SBP, DBP, heart rate, and body fat%, total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL after regular yogic practices is beneficial for cardiac and hypertensive patients. Emphasis focusing on conventional risk factors, lifestyle modifications, smoking cessation, reduction of central obesity through dietary modification and exercise, can be proved to be the key interventions for preventing CAD.

  7. Cardiovascular risk assessment in rheumatoid arthritis – controversies and the new approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głuszko, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The current methods of cardiovascular (CV) risk assessment in the course of inflammatory connective tissue diseases are a subject of considerable controversy. Comparing different methods of CV risk assessment in current rheumatoid arthritis (RA) guidelines, only a few of them recommend the use of formal risk calculators. These are the EULAR guidelines suggesting the use of SCORE and the British Society for Rheumatology guidelines performed in collaboration with NICE preferring the use of QRISK-2. Analyzing the latest American and British reports, two main concepts could be identified. The first one is to focus on risk calculators developed for the general population taking into account RA, and the calculator that might fulfill this role is the new QRISK-2 presented by NICE in 2014. The second concept is to create RA-specific risk calculators, such as the Expanded Cardiovascular Risk Prediction Score for RA. In this review we also discuss the efficiency of a new Pooled Cohort Equation and other calculators in the general and RA population. PMID:27504023

  8. Cardiovascular risk assessment in rheumatoid arthritis - controversies and the new approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonek, Krzysztof; Głuszko, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The current methods of cardiovascular (CV) risk assessment in the course of inflammatory connective tissue diseases are a subject of considerable controversy. Comparing different methods of CV risk assessment in current rheumatoid arthritis (RA) guidelines, only a few of them recommend the use of formal risk calculators. These are the EULAR guidelines suggesting the use of SCORE and the British Society for Rheumatology guidelines performed in collaboration with NICE preferring the use of QRISK-2. Analyzing the latest American and British reports, two main concepts could be identified. The first one is to focus on risk calculators developed for the general population taking into account RA, and the calculator that might fulfill this role is the new QRISK-2 presented by NICE in 2014. The second concept is to create RA-specific risk calculators, such as the Expanded Cardiovascular Risk Prediction Score for RA. In this review we also discuss the efficiency of a new Pooled Cohort Equation and other calculators in the general and RA population. PMID:27504023

  9. Cigarette use and cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease: an unappreciated modifiable lifestyle risk factor.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stack, Austin G

    2012-01-31

    Tobacco use is a major modifiable cardiovascular risk factor in the general population and contributes to excess cardiovascular risk. Emerging evidence from large-scale observational studies suggests that continued tobacco use is also an independent cardiovascular risk factor among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The benefits of smoking cessation programs on improving the heath status of patients and reducing mortality are unequivocal in the general population. Despite this, there has been little effort in pursuing tobacco cessation programs in dialysis cohorts or those with lesser degrees of kidney impairment. Most of our attention to date has focused on the development of "kidney-specific" interventions that reduce rates of renal disease progression and improve dialysis outcomes. The purpose of this current review is to describe the epidemiology of tobacco use among patients with CKD, draw attention to its negative impact on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and finally highlight potential strategies for successful intervention. We hope that this study heightens the importance of tobacco use in CKD, stimulates renewed interest in the barriers and challenges that exist in achieving smoking cessation, and endorses the efficacy of intervention strategies and the immeasurable benefits of quitting on cardiovascular and noncardiovascular outcomes.

  10. Work Stress as a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivimäki, Mika; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-09-01

    The role of psychosocial work stress as a risk factor for chronic disease has been the subject of considerable debate. Many researchers argue in support of a causal connection while others remain skeptical and have argued that the effect on specific health conditions is either negligible or confounded. This review of evidence from over 600,000 men and women from 27 cohort studies in Europe, the USA and Japan suggests that work stressors, such as job strain and long working hours, are associated with a moderately elevated risk of incident coronary heart disease and stroke. The excess risk for exposed individuals is 10-40 % compared with those free of such stressors. Differences between men and women, younger versus older employees and workers from different socioeconomic backgrounds appear to be small, indicating that the association is robust. Meta-analyses of a wider range of health outcomes show additionally an association between work stress and type 2 diabetes, though not with common cancers or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, suggesting outcome specificity. Few studies have addressed whether mitigation of work stressors would reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. In view of the limited interventional evidence on benefits, harms and cost-effectiveness, definitive recommendations have not been made (e.g. by the US Preventive Services Taskforce) for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease via workplace stress reduction. Nevertheless, governments are already launching healthy workplace campaigns, and preventing excessive work stress is a legal obligation in several countries. Promoting awareness of the link between stress and health among both employers and workers is an important component of workplace health promotion. PMID:26238744

  11. Association between Birth Weight and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Maria Amenaide Carvalho Alves de, E-mail: amenaidecarvalho@gmail.com [Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Guimarães, Isabel Cristina Britto; Daltro, Carla [Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Guimarães, Armênio Costa [Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2013-07-15

    Birth weight (BW) is a medium- and long-term risk determinant of cardiovascular risk factors. To assess the association between BW and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents of the city of Salvador, Bahia state. Cross-sectional study with comparison of BW groups. Sample comprising 250 adolescents classified according to the BMI as follows: high-normal (≥ 50th percentile and < 85th percentile); overweight (≥ 85th percentile and < 95th percentile); and obesity (≥ 95th percentile). The risk variables compared were as follows: waist circumference (WC); arterial blood pressure; lipid profile; glycemia; serum insulin; HOMA-IR; and metabolic syndrome. The BW was informed by parents and classified as follows: low (BW ≤ 2,500g); normal (BW > 2,500g and < 4,000g); and high (BW ≥ 4,000g). One hundred and fifty-three (61.2%) girls, age 13.74 ± 2.03 years, normal BW 80.8%, low BW 8.0%, and high BW 11.2%. The high BW group as compared with the normal BW group showed a higher frequency of obesity (42.9%, p=0.005), elevated SBP and DBP (42.9%, p=0.000 and 35.7%, p=0.007, respectively), and metabolic syndrome (46.4%, p=0.002). High BW adolescents as compared with normal BW adolescents had a prevalence ratio for high SBP 3.3 (95% CI: 1.7-6.4) and obesity 2.6 (95% CI: 1.3-5.2). The WC of high BW adolescents was 83.3 ± 10.1 (p=0.038). The lipid profile showed no statistically significant differences. Our findings suggest that obesity, elevated SBP and DBP, and metabolic syndrome during adolescence might be associated with high BW.

  12. Association between Birth Weight and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birth weight (BW) is a medium- and long-term risk determinant of cardiovascular risk factors. To assess the association between BW and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents of the city of Salvador, Bahia state. Cross-sectional study with comparison of BW groups. Sample comprising 250 adolescents classified according to the BMI as follows: high-normal (≥ 50th percentile and < 85th percentile); overweight (≥ 85th percentile and < 95th percentile); and obesity (≥ 95th percentile). The risk variables compared were as follows: waist circumference (WC); arterial blood pressure; lipid profile; glycemia; serum insulin; HOMA-IR; and metabolic syndrome. The BW was informed by parents and classified as follows: low (BW ≤ 2,500g); normal (BW > 2,500g and < 4,000g); and high (BW ≥ 4,000g). One hundred and fifty-three (61.2%) girls, age 13.74 ± 2.03 years, normal BW 80.8%, low BW 8.0%, and high BW 11.2%. The high BW group as compared with the normal BW group showed a higher frequency of obesity (42.9%, p=0.005), elevated SBP and DBP (42.9%, p=0.000 and 35.7%, p=0.007, respectively), and metabolic syndrome (46.4%, p=0.002). High BW adolescents as compared with normal BW adolescents had a prevalence ratio for high SBP 3.3 (95% CI: 1.7-6.4) and obesity 2.6 (95% CI: 1.3-5.2). The WC of high BW adolescents was 83.3 ± 10.1 (p=0.038). The lipid profile showed no statistically significant differences. Our findings suggest that obesity, elevated SBP and DBP, and metabolic syndrome during adolescence might be associated with high BW

  13. Better risk assessment with glycated hemoglobin instead of cholesterol in CVD risk prediction charts

    OpenAIRE

    Faeh, David; Rohrmann, Sabine; Braun, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Traditional risk charts for the prediction of cardiovascular disease (CVD) include cholesterol parameters. We evaluated how models predict fatal CVD when cholesterol is replaced by glucose parameters. We used data from NHANES III, a US survey conducted 1988-1994 (follow-up until 2006); 15,454 participants (1,716 CVD deaths) were included. Based on the ESC SCORE method, we used age, sex, blood pressure, smoking and either of the following: (1) total cholesterol, (2) total-to-HDL-cholesterol, (...

  14. Assessment of Cardiovascular Disease Risk by using Framingham Risk Equation amongst the Residents of Ahmedabad City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal Parikh, Manish Patel, Hemant Tiwari, D V Bala, Bhavin Joshi

    2013-01-01

    Results: The median 10-year probability of CHD was 2.9% (5.6% for men and 1.8% for women. One third (33.4% population above 30 years had CVD risk 20% or more. Males had significantly higher CVD risk as compared to females (20% of males & 4.5% of female had high CVD risk. Cardiovascular disease risk was also person with inadequate sleep & in executives. Conclusion- Higher risk in males & unskilled worker was mainly due to tobacco addiction while in executives it was mainly due to diabetes & obesity.

  15. Bayesian network modeling: A case study of an epidemiologic system analysis of cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster-Parra, P; Tauler, P; Bennasar-Veny, M; Ligęza, A; López-González, A A; Aguiló, A

    2016-04-01

    An extensive, in-depth study of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) seems to be of crucial importance in the research of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in order to prevent (or reduce) the chance of developing or dying from CVD. The main focus of data analysis is on the use of models able to discover and understand the relationships between different CVRF. In this paper a report on applying Bayesian network (BN) modeling to discover the relationships among thirteen relevant epidemiological features of heart age domain in order to analyze cardiovascular lost years (CVLY), cardiovascular risk score (CVRS), and metabolic syndrome (MetS) is presented. Furthermore, the induced BN was used to make inference taking into account three reasoning patterns: causal reasoning, evidential reasoning, and intercausal reasoning. Application of BN tools has led to discovery of several direct and indirect relationships between different CVRF. The BN analysis showed several interesting results, among them: CVLY was highly influenced by smoking being the group of men the one with highest risk in CVLY; MetS was highly influence by physical activity (PA) being again the group of men the one with highest risk in MetS, and smoking did not show any influence. BNs produce an intuitive, transparent, graphical representation of the relationships between different CVRF. The ability of BNs to predict new scenarios when hypothetical information is introduced makes BN modeling an Artificial Intelligence (AI) tool of special interest in epidemiological studies. As CVD is multifactorial the use of BNs seems to be an adequate modeling tool. PMID:26777431

  16. Assessment of cardiovascular risks and overall risks for noncardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, O Y; Beattie, C; Friesinger, G C

    1999-02-01

    Appropriate care of the elderly patient requires a concerted multi-disciplinary approach before, during, and after surgery to optimize functional outcomes, with the principal focus placed on improving quality of life and strategies for risk reduction. Perioperative physicians must be able to assess the biologic, not the chronologic, age of geriatric patients and their capacity for independent function. Physicians need to understand alterations in the physiology of elderly patients attributable to the normal aging process as well as the prevalence of concurrent pathologic conditions that necessitate special precautions. Maintaining autonomy and function as a result of an acute surgical intervention may be the most important outcome to the elderly patient. Most of the data available and guidelines promulgated do not specifically address the elderly population. It is important to collect data prospectively and use sophisticated methods for analyses to develop better management algorithms for these (often complicated) clinical issues in the elderly. PMID:10093774

  17. Nonfasting hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, B G; Langsted, A; Freiberg, J J

    2009-01-01

    , total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 all associate with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. These new data open the possibility that nonfasting rather than fasting lipid profiles can be used for cardiovascular risk prediction. If implemented, this would...... of cardiovascular disease and early death....

  18. Assessment of cardiovascular risk in rheumatoid arthritis: impact of the new EULAR recommendations on the score cardiovascular risk index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Vaquero, Carmen; Robustillo, Montserrat; Narváez, Javier; Rodríguez-Moreno, Jesús; González-Juanatey, Carlos; Llorca, Javier; Nolla, Joan Miquel; González-Gay, Miguel Angel

    2012-01-01

    To assess the impact of the application of the European League against Rheumatism (EULAR) task force recommendations in the cardiovascular (CV) risk of a series of Spanish patients diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Two hundred consecutive RA patients seen at the rheumatology outpatient clinics of Bellvitge Hospital, Barcelona, were studied. Information on clinical features of the disease, classic CV risk factors, and history of CV events was assessed. Both the systematic coronary risk evaluation (SCORE) CV risk index and the modified SCORE (mSCORE) according to the last EULAR recommendations were calculated. Based on the classic CV risk factors, the mean ± standard deviation SCORE was 2.1 ± 2.3% (median, 2; interquartile range [IQR], 1-3). Twenty-three (11%) patients were above the threshold of high CV risk for the Spanish population (≥5%). Following the EULAR recommendations, a change in the score was required in 119 (59%) patients. Therefore, the mean mSCORE was 2.7 ± 2.9% (median, 2; IQR, 1-3) and, due to this, 28 (14%) patients were above the threshold of high CV risk. Nine (5%) had at least one ischemic CV event. Patients with CV events were older and had more CV risk factors and higher SCORE and mSCORE than those without CV events. Although a large proportion of patients from this series fulfilled the criteria for the application of the EULAR recommendations, the final impact on the calculated CV risk was low and clinically significant in only a few patients. However, an association between the mSCORE and the presence of ischemic CV events was observed. PMID:21567119

  19. p-Cresol and Cardiovascular Risk in Mild-to-Moderate Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Meijers, Björn K.I.; Claes, Kathleen; Bammens, Bert; De Loor, Henriette; Viaene, Liesbeth; Verbeke, Kristin; Kuypers, Dirk; Vanrenterghem, Yves; Evenepoel, Pieter

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: Cardiovascular disease is highly prevalent in chronic kidney disease. Traditional risk factors are insufficient to explain the high cardiovascular disease prevalence. Free p-cresol serum concentrations, mainly circulating as its derivative p-cresyl sulfate, are associated with cardiovascular disease in hemodialysis patients. It is not known if p-cresol is associated with cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease not yet on dialysis.

  20. Rationale - Trial to Reduce Cardiovascular Events with Aranesp Therapy (TREAT) : Evolving the management of cardiovascular risk in patients with chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mix, TCH; Brenner, RM; Cooper, ME; de Zeeuw, D; Ivanovich, P; Levey, AS; McGill, JB; McMurray, JJV; Parfrey, PS; Parving, HH; Pereira, BJG; Remuzzi, G; Singh, AK; Solomon, SD; Stehman-Breen, C; Toto, RD; Pfeffer, MA

    2005-01-01

    Background Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a high burden of mortality and cardiovascular morbidity. Additional strategies to modulate cardiovascular risk in this population are needed. Data suggest that anemia is a potent and potentially modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular dise

  1. Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Obese Adolescent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Manal; Nassef, Yasser E.; Shady, Mones Abu; Aziz, Ali Abdel; Malt, Heba A. El

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood and adolescent obesity is associated with insulin resistance, abnormal glucose metabolism, hypertension, dyslipidemia, inflammation, liver disease, and compromised vascular function. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factor abnormalities and metabolic syndrome in a sample of obese adolescent as prevalence data might be helpful in improving engagement with obesity treatment in future. The high blood lipid levels and obesity are the main risk factors for cardio vascular diseases. Atherosclerotic process begins in childhood. AIM: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between obesity in adolescent and their blood lipids levels and blood glucose level. METHODS: This study was conducted with 100 adolescents of both gender age 12-17 years and body mass index (BMI) greater than 95th percentiles and 100 normal adolescents as control group. The blood samples were collected from all adolescents after overnight fasting (10 hours) to analyze blood lipids (Total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein) and hematological profile (Hemoglobin, platelets and red blood cell, C reactive protein and fasting blood glucose. RESULTS: There were statistical difference between the two groups for red blood cells (P<0.001), Hemoglobin (P < 0.001) and platelets (P = 0.002), CRP (P = 0.02). Positive correlation was found between the two groups as regards total cholesterol (P = 0.0001), P value was positive for HDL (P = 0.005 and Atherogenic index P value was positive (P = 0.002). Positive correlation was found between the two group as regards fasting blood glucose (P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Saturated fat was associated with elevated lipid levels in obese children. These results reinforce the importance of healthy dietary habits since child-hood in order to reduce the risks of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood.

  2. Circadian Role in Daily Pattern of Cardiovascular Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Hu, Kun; Chen, Zhi; Hilton, Michael F.; Stanley, H. Eugene; Shea, Steven A.

    2004-03-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies demonstrate that sudden cardiac death, pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, and stroke have a 24-hour daily pattern with a broad peak between 9-11am. Such a daily pattern in cardiovascular risk could be attributable to external factors, such as the daily behavior patterns, including sleep-wake cycles and activity levels, or internal factors, such as the endogenous circadian pacemaker. Findings of significant alternations in the temporal organization and nonlinear properties of heartbeat fluctuations with disease and with sleep-wake transitions raise the intriguing possibility that changes in the mechanism of control associated with behavioral sleep-wake transition may be responsible for the increased cardiac instability observed in particular circadian phases. Alternatively, we hypothesize that there is a circadian clock, independent of the sleep-wake cycle, which affects the cardiac dynamics leading to increased cardiovascular risk. We analyzed continuous recordings from healthy subjects during 7 cycles of forced desynchrony routine wherein subjects' sleep-wake cycles are adjusted to 28 hours so that their behaviors occur across all circadian phases. Heartbeat data were divided into one-hour segments. For each segment, we estimated the correlations and the nonlinear properties of the heartbeat fluctuations at the corresponding circadian phase. Since the sleep and wake contributions are equally weighted in our experiment, a change of the properties of the heartbeat dynamics with circadian phase suggest a circadian rhythm. We show significant circadian-mediated alterations in the correlation and nonlinear properties of the heartbeat resembling those observed in patients with heart failure. Remarkably, these dynamical alterations are centered at 60 degrees circadian phase, coinciding with the 9-11am window of cardiac risk.

  3. Relationship between Sarcopenic Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease Risk as Estimated by the Framingham Risk Score

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jeong-Hyeon; Cho, Jung Jin; Park, Yong Soon

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the association between sarcopenic obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in Korean adults (n=3,320; ≥40 yr) who participated in the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2010. The appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by body weight was calculated for each participant; participants with values

  4. Evidence Report: Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Other Degenerative Tissue Effects from Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Zarana; Huff, Janice; Saha, Janapriya; Wang, Minli; Blattnig, Steve; Wu, Honglu; Cucinotta, Francis

    2015-01-01

    (SI unit for ionizing radiation dosage, i.e. one joule of radiation energy per one kilogram of matter)) to facilitate risk prediction. This risk has considerable uncertainty associated with it, and no acceptable model for projecting degenerative tissue risk is currently available. In particular, risk factors such as obesity, alcohol, and tobacco use can act as confounding factors that contribute to the large uncertainties. The PELs could be violated under certain scenarios, including following a large SPE (solar proton event) or long-term GCR (galactic cosmic ray) exposure. Specifically, for a Mars mission, the accumulated dose is sufficiently high that epidemiology data and preliminary risk estimates suggest a significant risk for cardiovascular disease. Ongoing research in this area is intended to provide the evidence base for accurate risk quantification to determine criticality for extended duration missions. Data specific to the space radiation environment must be compiled to quantify the magnitude of this risk to decrease the uncertainty in current PELs and to determine if additional protection strategies are required. New research results could lead to estimates of cumulative radiation risk from CNS and degenerative tissue diseases that, when combined with the cancer risk, may have major negative impacts on mission design, costs, schedule, and crew selection. The current report amends an earlier report (Human Research Program Requirements Document, HRP-47052, Rev. C, dated Jan 2009) in order to provide an update of evidence since 2009.

  5. Race/Ethnic Differences in the Associations of the Framingham Risk Factors with Carotid IMT and Cardiovascular Events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystel M Gijsberts

    Full Text Available Clinical manifestations and outcomes of atherosclerotic disease differ between ethnic groups. In addition, the prevalence of risk factors is substantially different. Primary prevention programs are based on data derived from almost exclusively White people. We investigated how race/ethnic differences modify the associations of established risk factors with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events.We used data from an ongoing individual participant meta-analysis involving 17 population-based cohorts worldwide. We selected 60,211 participants without cardiovascular disease at baseline with available data on ethnicity (White, Black, Asian or Hispanic. We generated a multivariable linear regression model containing risk factors and ethnicity predicting mean common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT and a multivariable Cox regression model predicting myocardial infarction or stroke. For each risk factor we assessed how the association with the preclinical and clinical measures of cardiovascular atherosclerotic disease was affected by ethnicity.Ethnicity appeared to significantly modify the associations between risk factors and CIMT and cardiovascular events. The association between age and CIMT was weaker in Blacks and Hispanics. Systolic blood pressure associated more strongly with CIMT in Asians. HDL cholesterol and smoking associated less with CIMT in Blacks. Furthermore, the association of age and total cholesterol levels with the occurrence of cardiovascular events differed between Blacks and Whites.The magnitude of associations between risk factors and the presence of atherosclerotic disease differs between race/ethnic groups. These subtle, yet significant differences provide insight in the etiology of cardiovascular disease among race/ethnic groups. These insights aid the race/ethnic-specific implementation of primary prevention.

  6. Proof of concept in cardiovascular risk: the paradoxical findings in blood pressure and lipid abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Flavio Danni; Fuchs, Sandra Costa; Moreira, Leila Beltrami; Gus, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    High blood pressure and lipoprotein abnormalities were identified by many cohort studies as the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Laboratory experiments apparently confirmed their role in the causation of atherosclerosis, but a proof of concept requires the corroboration by clinical trials in human beings. The size of benefit in clinical trials regarding the control of high blood pressure was within the estimations of risk provided by cohort studies. For a reduction of 10 mmHg in systolic blood pressure or 5 mmHg in diastolic blood pressure, the relative risk reduction of coronary heart disease was 22% (95% confidence interval 27%-17%) in a meta-analysis of clinical trials, close to the estimation of reduction of 25% (95% confidence interval 23%-27%) provided by a meta-analysis of cohort studies. The corresponding values for stroke were 41% (95% confidence interval 33%-48%) in clinical trials compared to a cohort risk prediction of 36% (95% confidence interval 34%-38%). This efficacy was shared by all blood pressure-lowering drugs. The same figure has not paradoxically happened with drugs that act over abnormalities of cholesterol and lipoproteins. Only statins, which have other beneficial actions as well, have consistently lowered the incidence of cardiovascular diseases, an efficacy that was not reproduced by older and newer quite potent lipid drugs. The adverse effects of these drugs may nullify their beneficial effects over lipoproteins and abnormalities of lipoproteins may only be surrogate markers of the underlying real risks. PMID:22870036

  7. Cardiovascular Risk Reduction in Diabetes in Sub-Saharan Africa: What should the Priorities be in the Absence of Global Risk Evaluation Tools?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Pascal Kengne

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The growing burden of type 2 diabetes in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA and related cardiovascular complications call for vigorous actions into prevention. Comprehensive cardiovascular risk evaluation is important for the success of such actions.Methods: We have reviewed 3 currently existing sets of recommendations for cardiovascular prevention in diabetes in SSA. Distribution of major risk factors and patterns of reported cardiovascular outcomes are used to suggest orientations for cardiovascular prevention in diabetes in this region. Papers and reports published over the period 1990 to 2007 were used.Results: Existing guidelines share some similarities, but also have areas of inconsistencies. They are generally adaptations of existing guidelines, focused more on individual risk factors, and are not usually backed-up by local evidence. They all have a projection on blood pressure lowering. This focus is supported by the high prevalence of hypertension among people with diabetes in SSA. Blood pressure and tobacco smoking are the modifiable risk factors accessible to evaluation and interventions on a wide scale in SSA. Appropriate blood pressure control will have a major impact on stroke (the commonest cardiovascular disease through a reduction of the cerebrovascular risk, and to a lesser extent on coronary heart disease and total deaths in diabetes in this region.Conclusions: In the absence of global risk evaluation tools, the use of blood pressure lowering as a primary focus of cardiovascular prevention strategies is relevant for SSA. However, there is a need to set-up diabetes and stroke registers to monitor outcomes and generate tools for accurate risk prediction and management in diabetes in this region.

  8. Management of High Blood Pressure in Those without Overt Cardiovascular Disease Utilising Absolute Risk Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Nelson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing blood pressure has a continuum of adverse risk for cardiovascular events. Traditionally this single measure was used to determine who to treat and how vigorously. However, estimating absolute risk rather than measurement of a single risk factor such as blood pressure is a superior method to identify who is most at risk of having an adverse cardiovascular event such as stroke or myocardial infarction, and therefore who would most likely benefit from therapeutic intervention. Cardiovascular disease (CVD risk calculators must be used to estimate absolute risk in those without overt CVD as physician estimation is unreliable. Incorporation into usual practice and limitations of the strategy are discussed.

  9. Cardiovascular Risk Factors Increase the Risks of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Chun-Pai; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Li, Chia-Ing; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Lin, Wen-Yuan; Hwang, Kai-Lin; Yang, Sing-Yu; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Li, Tsai-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to examine whether poor glycemic control, measured by glycated hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) and other cardiovascular risk factors, can predict diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Patients aged ≥30 years with type 2 DM, enrolled in the National Diabetes Care Management Program, and free of DPN (n = 37,375) in the period 2002 to 2004 were included and followed up until 2011. The related factors were analyzed using Cox proporti...

  10. Trends in the Risk for Cardiovascular Disease among Adults with Diabetes in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawad Al-Lawati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to investigate trends in the estimated 10-year risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD among adults with diagnosed diabetes in Oman. In addition, the effect of hypothetical risk reductions in this population was examined. Methods: Data from 1,077 Omani adults aged ≥40 years with diagnosed diabetes were collected and analysed from three national surveys conducted in 1991, 2000 and 2008 across all regions of Oman. The estimated 10-year CVD risk and hypothetical risk reductions were calculated using risk prediction algorithms from the Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE, Diabetes Epidemiology Collaborative Analysis of Diagnostic Criteria in Europe (DECODE and World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH risk tools. Results: Between 1991 and 2008, the estimated 10-year risk of CVD increased significantly in the total sample and among both genders, regardless of the risk prediction algorithm that was used. Hypothetical risk reduction models for three scenarios (eliminating smoking, controlling systolic blood pressure and reducing total cholesterol identified that reducing systolic blood pressure to ≤130 mmHg would lead to the largest reduction in the 10-year risk of CVD in subjects with diabetes. Conclusion: The estimated 10-year risk for CVD among adults with diabetes increased significantly between 1991 and 2008 in Oman. Focused public health initiatives, involving recognised interventions to address behavioural and biological risks, should be a national priority. Improvements in the quality of care for diabetic patients, both at the individual and the healthcare system level, are required.

  11. Obesity-related cardiovascular risk factors: intervention recommendations to decrease adolescent obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Kristine S.; Yucha, Carolyn B.; Schaffer, Susan D.

    2005-01-01

    The incidence of adolescent obesity is increasing dramatically in the United States with associated risks of hypertension, adverse lipid profiles, and Type II diabetes. Unless reversed, this trend predicts an epidemic of adult cardiovascular disease. Interventions at home, at school, and in the community are required to empower teens to increase physical activity and to modify eating habits. This article describes assessment for obesity-related health problems as well as scientific guidelines and research-based intervention strategies to decrease obesity in adolescents.

  12. Number of steps per day and the screening of cardiovascular disease risk factors in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Júlio Brugnara Mello; Vinícius Martins Farias; Mauren Lúcia de Araújo Bergmann; Gabriel Gustavo Bergmann

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pedometers have been used in some studies to measure physical activity in adolescents. However, cutoff points of steps per day that classify physical activity levels are not yet fully established. The aims of this study were to identify the possibility the number of steps/day to predict cardiovascular disease risk factors in adolescents and to propose cutoff points to the number of steps/day for adolescents. Method: 1,045 adolescents (51.7 % girls) aged 11-17 were randomly selected...

  13. BMI or BIA: Is Body Mass Index or Body Fat Mass a Better Predictor of Cardiovascular Risk in Overweight or Obese Children and Adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Bohn

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body fat (BF percentiles for German children and adolescents have recently been published. This study aims to evaluate the association between bioelectrical impedance analysis(BIA-derived BF and cardiovascular risk factors and to investigate whether BF is better suited than BMI in children and adolescents. Methods: Data of 3,327 children and adolescents (BMI > 90th percentile were included. Spearman's correlation and receiver operating characteristics (ROCs were applied determining the associations between BMI or BF and cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, dyslipidemia, elevated liver enzymes, abnormal carbohydrate metabolism. Area under the curve (AUC was calculated to predict cardiovascular risk factors. Results: A significant association between both obesity indices and hypertension was present (all p Conclusion: BIA-derived BF was not superior to BMI to predict cardiovascular risk factors in overweight or obese children and adolescents.

  14. Certain cardiovascular indices predict syncope in the postural tachycardia syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandroni, P.; Opfer-Gehrking, T. L.; Benarroch, E. E.; Shen, W. K.; Low, P. A.

    1996-01-01

    Patients with postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) represent a patient population with orthostatic intolerance; some are prone to syncope, others are not. The underlying neurocardiovascular mechanisms are not completely understood. The current study was undertaken to assess if certain cardiovascular indices are predictive of syncope in POTS. We compared the response to tilt-up and the Valsalva maneuver in four groups: POTS patients who fainted (POTS-f; n = 11;31 +/- 11 years): POTS patients who did not faint (POTS-nf; n = 9; 29 +/- 9 years); normal controls (NLS; n = 13; 39 +/- 11 years); patients with generalized autonomic failure with orthostatic hypotension and syncope (n = 10; 59 +/- 14 years). Beat-to-beat heart rate (HR), systolic arterial pressure, diastolic arterial pressure (DAP) and pulse pressure (PP) were monitored using Finapres. Cardiac output, stroke volume (SV) and end-diastolic volume (EDV), and calculated total peripheral resistance (TPR) were recorded using thoracic electrical bioimpedance. An autonomic reflex screen which quantitates the distribution and severity of autonomic failure was also done. With the patient supine, all POTS patients (POTS-nf; POTS-f) had increased HR (p EDV (p < 0.001) when compared with NLS. On tilt-up, POTS-f patients were significantly different from both NLS and POTS-nf patients; the most consistent alteration was a fall instead of an increase in TPR; other changes were a greater reduction in PP, a reduction (instead of an increment) in DAP, and a different pattern of changes during the Valsalva maneuver (excessive early phase II, attenuated or absent late phase II). Our results suggest alpha-adrenergic impairment with increased pooling or hypovolemia in POTS-f patients. We conclude that it is possible to identify the mechanism of syncope in POTS patients, and perhaps other patients with orthostatic intolerance and an excessive liability to syncope.

  15. Certain cardiovascular indices predict syncope in the postural tachycardia syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandroni, P.; Opfer-Gehrking, T. L.; Benarroch, E. E.; Shen, W. K.; Low, P. A.

    1996-01-01

    Patients with postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) represent a patient population with orthostatic intolerance; some are prone to syncope, others are not. The underlying neurocardiovascular mechanisms are not completely understood. The current study was undertaken to assess if certain cardiovascular indices are predictive of syncope in POTS. We compared the response to tilt-up and the Valsalva maneuver in four groups: POTS patients who fainted (POTS-f; n = 11;31 +/- 11 years): POTS patients who did not faint (POTS-nf; n = 9; 29 +/- 9 years); normal controls (NLS; n = 13; 39 +/- 11 years); patients with generalized autonomic failure with orthostatic hypotension and syncope (n = 10; 59 +/- 14 years). Beat-to-beat heart rate (HR), systolic arterial pressure, diastolic arterial pressure (DAP) and pulse pressure (PP) were monitored using Finapres. Cardiac output, stroke volume (SV) and end-diastolic volume (EDV), and calculated total peripheral resistance (TPR) were recorded using thoracic electrical bioimpedance. An autonomic reflex screen which quantitates the distribution and severity of autonomic failure was also done. With the patient supine, all POTS patients (POTS-nf; POTS-f) had increased HR (p < 0.001) and reduced SV/EDV (p < 0.001) when compared with NLS. On tilt-up, POTS-f patients were significantly different from both NLS and POTS-nf patients; the most consistent alteration was a fall instead of an increase in TPR; other changes were a greater reduction in PP, a reduction (instead of an increment) in DAP, and a different pattern of changes during the Valsalva maneuver (excessive early phase II, attenuated or absent late phase II). Our results suggest alpha-adrenergic impairment with increased pooling or hypovolemia in POTS-f patients. We conclude that it is possible to identify the mechanism of syncope in POTS patients, and perhaps other patients with orthostatic intolerance and an excessive liability to syncope.

  16. Cardiovascular event-free survival after adjuvant radiation therapy in breast cancer patients stratified by cardiovascular risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to estimate the risk of a cardiovascular event or death associated with modern radiation in a population of elderly female breast cancer patients with varying baseline cardiovascular risk. The data used for this analysis are from the linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results (SEER)-Medicare database. The retrospective cohort study included women aged 66 years and older with stage 0–III breast cancer diagnosed between 2000 and 2005. Women were grouped as low, intermediate, or high cardiovascular risk based on the presence of certain clinical diagnoses. The risk for the combined outcome of a hospitalization for a cardiovascular event or death within 6 months and 24 months of diagnosis was estimated using a multivariable Cox model. The median follow-up time was 24 months. Among the 91,612 women with American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage 0–III breast cancer: 39,555 (43.2%) were treated with radiation therapy and 52,057 (56.8%) were not. The receipt of radiation therapy in the first 6 months was associated with a statistically significant increased risk for the combined outcome in women categorized as high risk (HR = 1.510; 95% CI, 1.396–1.634) or intermediate risk (HR = 1.415; 95% CI, 1.188–1.686) but not low risk (HR = 1.027; 95% CI, 0.798–1.321). Women with a prior medical history of cardiovascular disease treated with radiation therapy are at increased risk for an event and should be monitored for at least 6 months following treatment with radiation therapy

  17. Gender differences in genetic risk profiles for cardiovascular disease.

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    Kaisa Silander

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD incidence, complications and burden differ markedly between women and men. Although there is variation in the distribution of lifestyle factors between the genders, they do not fully explain the differences in CVD incidence and suggest the existence of gender-specific genetic risk factors. We aimed to estimate whether the genetic risk profiles of coronary heart disease (CHD, ischemic stroke and the composite end-point of CVD differ between the genders. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied in two Finnish population cohorts, using the case-cohort design the association between common variation in 46 candidate genes and CHD, ischemic stroke, CVD, and CVD-related quantitative risk factors. We analyzed men and women jointly and also conducted genotype-gender interaction analysis. Several allelic variants conferred disease risk for men and women jointly, including rs1801020 in coagulation factor XII (HR = 1.31 (1.08-1.60 for CVD, uncorrected p = 0.006 multiplicative model. Variant rs11673407 in the fucosyltransferase 3 gene was strongly associated with waist/hip ratio (uncorrected p = 0.00005 in joint analysis. In interaction analysis we found statistical evidence of variant-gender interaction conferring risk of CHD and CVD: rs3742264 in the carboxypeptidase B2 gene, p(interaction = 0.009 for CHD, and rs2774279 in the upstream stimulatory factor 1 gene, p(interaction = 0.007 for CHD and CVD, showed strong association in women but not in men, while rs2069840 in interleukin 6 gene, p(interaction = 0.004 for CVD, showed strong association in men but not in women (uncorrected p-values. Also, two variants in the selenoprotein S gene conferred risk for ischemic stroke in women, p(interaction = 0.003 and 0.007. Importantly, we identified a larger number of gender-specific effects for women than for men. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A false discovery rate analysis suggests that we may expect half of the reported

  18. SCORE underestimates cardiovascular risk (CVR of HIV+ patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Ramírez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The new European Guidelines of Dislipidemia Management of the European Societies of Cardiology and Arteriosclerosis consider HIV+ as patients at high risk of developing cardiovascular events and deaths. The objective of the study was to evaluate cardiovascular events and deaths in a series of HIV+ patients. Observational, cross-sectional study, including a cohort of HIV+ and HIV− patients from 2008. CVR was calculated using the SCORE-CVR chart. Variation on lipid profile and incidence of cardiovascular events, cardiovascular death or death related to any cause were recorded. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 for MAC. 154 HIV+ and 155 HIV− patients were included. Mean age: 44.8±9.5 vs 55.2±14.3 y and 69.5% vs 49% males respectively (p<0.01. Mean time since HIV+ diagnosis was 11±6.2 y. Mean BMI and systolic blood pressure were lower in HIV+ (25.1±6.7 kg/m2 vs 28.7±5.1 kg/m2, (p<0.01 and 119.6±19.4 vs 124.7±14.7 mmHg, (p=0.044; respectively. A lower proportion of hypertense, diabetic and obese patients was observed in HIV+ (25.5% vs 6.5%; 20.6% vs 3.9% and 36.8% vs 12.3% but a larger proportion of smokers (68.8% vs 29.7% was observed (p<0.01 in all cases. Mean cholesterol and LDLc were lower in HIV+ (191.2±41.4 vs 218.5±44.6 mg/dl and 109.5±33.9 vs 134.6±37.7 mg/dl; p<0.01; respectively but with a lower mean HDLc and higher TG (50.3±19 mg/dl vs 55.2±14.9 mg/dl; p=0.013 and 156.7±85.7 vs 135.8±66.2 mg/dl; p=0.017; respectively. There was no significant difference in mean CVR-SCORE (3.5±3.6% vs 4.4±3.8%; p=0.091. With this SCORE, 5.2±5.3 and 6.7±5.8 cardiovascular events or deaths should be expected in HIV+ and HIV− respectively at 10 y. Four years later cholesterol, LDLc, HDLc, TG in HIV+ and HIV− patients did not vary compared with those obtained 4 y before. 5 events and 1 death were seen at 4 y follow-up in HIV+, and in HIV− patients. The incidence of events in HIV+ patients is similar to the expected according

  19. BENEFICIAL IMPACT ON CARDIOVASCULAR RISK PROFILE OF WATER BUFFALO MEAT CONSUMPTION

    OpenAIRE

    Biondi Zoccai, Giuseppe; Giordano, Gabriele; Guarini, Pasquale; Ferrari, Patrizio; Schiavone, Beniamino; Giordano, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES : Meat is a good source of proteins and irons, yet its consumption has been associated with unfavorable cardiovascular effects. Whether this applies to all types of meat is unclear. We thus aimed to appraise the impact of water buffalo meat consumption on car?diovascular risk profile with an observational longitudinal study. METHODS: Several key cardiovascular risk features were appraised at baseline and at 12-month follow-up in 300 adult subjects ...

  20. Modifiable Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Indigenous Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam A. Lucero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify modifiable cardio-metabolic and lifestyle risk factors among indigenous populations from Australia (Aboriginal Australians/Torres Strait Islanders, New Zealand (Māori, and the United States (American Indians and Alaska Natives that contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD. Methods. National health surveys were identified where available. Electronic databases identified sources for filling missing data. The most relevant data were identified, organized, and synthesized. Results. Compared to their non-indigenous counterparts, indigenous populations exhibit lower life expectancies and a greater prevalence of CVD. All indigenous populations have higher rates of obesity and diabetes, hypertension is greater for Māori and Aboriginal Australians, and high cholesterol is greater only among American Indians/Alaska Natives. In turn, all indigenous groups exhibit higher rates of smoking and dangerous alcohol behaviour as well as consuming less fruits and vegetables. Aboriginal Australians and American Indians/Alaska Natives also exhibit greater rates of sedentary behaviour. Conclusion. Indigenous groups from Australia, New Zealand, and the United States have a lower life expectancy then their respective non-indigenous counterparts. A higher prevalence of CVD is a major driving force behind this discrepancy. A cluster of modifiable cardio-metabolic risk factors precede CVD, which, in turn, is linked to modifiable lifestyle risk factors.

  1. Cardiovascular diseases and risk factors among Chinese immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhizhong; Zhao, Dong

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and major CVD risk factors, including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and smoking among Chinese immigrants by a systematic review of studies from various countries. PubMed and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were searched for studies of the prevalence of major CVDs and risk factors, and of CVD mortality among Chinese immigrants. The search identified 386 papers, 16 of which met the inclusion criteria for this review. In mainland China, there is a pattern of high stroke prevalence but low coronary heart disease (CHD) prevalence. Among Chinese immigrants, there is a much lower prevalence and mortality of stroke, but a higher prevalence and mortality of CHD, even though these are lower than the rates in immigrants of other ethnicities in the host country. The prevalence of CVD risk factors is also markedly different in immigrants. Compared with mainland Chinese, Chinese immigrants have a higher prevalence of diabetes and hypertension, higher serum cholesterol, poorer dietary patterns, and higher prevalence of obesity and smoking. Thus, the epidemiological pattern of CVD among Chinese immigrants changes compared with resident mainland Chinese. The less healthy environmental factor after immigration may be a major trigger in the adverse CVD status of Chinese immigrants. It is important for policy-makers to pay more attention to specific minority immigrant groups, and to implement more effective preventive measures to improve the health of immigrant populations. PMID:26350421

  2. Arterial stiffness, central hemodynamics, and cardiovascular risk in hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palatini P

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Paolo Palatini1, Edoardo Casiglia1, Jerzy Gąsowski2, Jerzy Głuszek3, Piotr Jankowski4, Krzysztof Narkiewicz5, Francesca Saladini1, Katarzyna Stolarz-Skrzypek4, Valérie Tikhonoff1, Luc Van Bortel6, Wiktoria Wojciechowska4, Kalina Kawecka-Jaszcz41Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Padova, Padua, Italy; 2Department of Internal Medicine and Gerontology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland; 3Department of Arterial Hypertension, University Hospital, Poznan, Poland; 4First Department of Cardiology and Hypertension, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland; 5Department of Hypertension and Diabetology, Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland; 6Heymans Institute of Pharmacology, Ghent University, Ghent, BelgiumAbstract: This review summarizes several scientific contributions at the recent Satellite Symposium of the European Society of Hypertension, held in Milan, Italy. Arterial stiffening and its hemodynamic consequences can be easily and reliably measured using a range of noninvasive techniques. However, like blood pressure (BP measurements, arterial stiffness should be measured carefully under standardized patient conditions. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity has been proposed as the gold standard for arterial stiffness measurement and is a well recognized predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcome. Systolic BP and pulse pressure in the ascending aorta may be lower than pressures measured in the upper limb, especially in young individuals. A number of studies suggest closer correlation of end-organ damage with central BP than with peripheral BP, and central BP may provide additional prognostic information regarding cardiovascular risk. Moreover, BP-lowering drugs can have differential effects on central aortic pressures and hemodynamics compared with brachial BP. This may explain the greater beneficial effect provided by newer antihypertensive drugs beyond peripheral BP

  3. Adiposity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors in 9–10-year-old Indian children: relationships with birth size and postnatal growth

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnaveni, G V; Veena, S. R.; Wills, A K; Hill, J.C.; Karat, S. C.; Fall, C H D

    2010-01-01

    Lower birthweight, and rapid childhood weight gain predict elevated cardiovascular risk factors in children. We examined associations between serial, detailed, anthropometric measurements from birth to 9.5 years of age and cardiovascular risk markers in Indian children. Children (n = 663) born at the Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore, India were measured at birth and 6–12 monthly thereafter. At 9.5 years, 539 (255 boys) underwent a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test, and blood pressure (BP) a...

  4. Metabolic syndrome definitions and components in predicting major adverse cardiovascular events after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, G V Ramesh; Huang, Michael; Silver, Samuel A; Al-Lawati, Ali I; Rapi, Lindita; Nash, Michelle M; Zaltzman, Jeffrey S

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) associates with cardiovascular risk post-kidney transplantation, but its ambiguity impairs understanding of its diagnostic utility relative to components. We compared five MetS definitions and the predictive value of constituent components of significant definitions for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in a cohort of 1182 kidney transplant recipients. MetS definitions were adjusted for noncomponent traditional Framingham risk factors and relevant transplant-related variables. Kaplan-Meier, logistic regression, and Cox proportional hazards analysis were utilized. There were 143 MACE over 7447 patient-years of follow-up. Only the World Health Organization (WHO) 1998 definition predicted MACE (25.3 vs 15.5 events/1000 patient-years, P = 0.019). Time-to-MACE was 5.5 ± 3.5 years with MetS and 6.8 ± 3.9 years without MetS (P hazard ratio (HR) for MACE (1.814 [95% confidence interval 1.26-2.60]), increased successively by microalbuminuria (HR 1.946 [1.37-2.75]), dyslipidemia (3.284 [1.72-6.26]), hypertension (4.127 [2.16-7.86]), and central obesity (4.282 [2.09-8.76]). MetS did not affect graft survival. In summary, although the WHO 1998 definition provides greatest predictive value for post-transplant MACE, most of this is conferred by dysglycemia and is overshadowed by age and previous cardiac disease. PMID:25207680

  5. Psychosocial stress and cardiovascular risk: what is the role of daily experience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarck, Thomas W; Schwartz, Joseph E; Shiffman, Saul; Muldoon, Matthew F; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Janicki, Denise L

    2005-12-01

    We describe an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) protocol designed to measure daily life experiences along several psychosocial dimensions (Social Conflict, Task Demand, Decisional Control, Negative Affect, and Arousal) hypothesized to be relevant for cardiovascular disease risk. In a large community sample, these assessments have been administered in conjunction with ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitoring and measures of subclinical cardiovascular disease. Several results have emerged that support the promise of this approach. First of all, each of these dimensions of experience appears to be a trigger for cardiovascular activation, with movement on each scale being associated with significant within-person changes in heart rate and blood pressure in the natural environment. Second, there appear to be individual differences in physiological responsiveness to these dimensions of daily experience, with such differences being associated in some cases with laboratory-based assessments of cardiovascular reactivity, as might be expected. Third, EMA ratings are associated in several instances with (between-person) stable individual differences in ABP readings. And finally, we have found that some of the characteristics defined by our EMA ratings are related to measures of subclinical atherosclerosis. Such effects appear to be mediated, in part, by ABP. The advantages of using EMA measures for capturing the effects of psychosocial stressors are highlighted by comparing the predictive validity of these daily life assessments to traditional global self-reports. We conclude by describing future plans for use of this type of assessment protocol for helping us to characterize psychosocial characteristics relevant to cardiovascular disease risk. Personality and social processes during daily living may have an important impact not only on psychological functioning but also on physical health and disease. In this article we review our recent work involving the assessment

  6. Metabolic Risk: Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Patient’s Guide The number of people at risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) ... lifestyle therapies because studies suggest it will reduce cardiovascular risk. Medications to lower LDL cholesterol may be added ...

  7. Associations between pre-kidney-transplant risk factors and post-transplant cardiovascular events and death.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalten, J.; Hoogeveen, E.K.; Roodnat, J.I.; Weimar, W.; Borm, G.F.; Fijter, J.W. de; Hoitsma, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in renal transplant candidates is high. A better understanding of the relation between these risk factors and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is mandatory to improve transplantation outcome. In this retrospective cohort study 2187 adult patients w

  8. Psoriasis is associated with clinically significant cardiovascular risk: a Danish nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlehoff, Ole; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar; Charlot, Mette Gitz;

    2011-01-01

    Objective. The magnitude of the cardiovascular risk from psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis is debated. We therefore investigated the psoriasis-related risk of adverse cardiovascular events and mortality. Design, setting and subjects. We conducted a cohort study of the entire Danish population aged...

  9. Cardiovascular Risk in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), the CKD- Mineral Bone Disorder (CKD- MBD)

    OpenAIRE

    Hruska, Keith A; Choi, Eric T.; Memon, Imran; Davis, T. Keefe; Mathew, Suresh

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in our understanding of the excess mortality of chronic kidney disease (CKD) due to cardiovascular complications demonstrate through observational studies that vascular calcification and hyperphosphatemia are major cardiovascular risk factors. Mechanistic studies demonstrate that these two risk factors are related, and that hyperphosphatemia directly stimulates vascular calcification. The role of hyperphosphatemia in stimulating vascular calcification in CKD is associated with...

  10. Low muscle mass in older men: the role of lifestyle, diet and cardiovascular risk factors.

    OpenAIRE

    Atkins, J. L.; Whincup, P. H.; Morris, R. W.; Wannamethee, S.G.

    2014-01-01

    To explore associations between low muscle mass and a wide range of lifestyle, dietary and cardiovascular risk factors in older men including metabolic risk factors, markers of inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and coagulation.

  11. How artificial intelligence tools can be used to assess individual patient risk in cardiovascular disease: problems with the current methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grossi Enzo

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years a number of algorithms for cardiovascular risk assessment has been proposed to the medical community. These algorithms consider a number of variables and express their results as the percentage risk of developing a major fatal or non-fatal cardiovascular event in the following 10 to 20 years Discussion The author has identified three major pitfalls of these algorithms, linked to the limitation of the classical statistical approach in dealing with this kind of non linear and complex information. The pitfalls are the inability to capture the disease complexity, the inability to capture process dynamics, and the wide confidence interval of individual risk assessment. Artificial Intelligence tools can provide potential advantage in trying to overcome these limitations. The theoretical background and some application examples related to artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic have been reviewed and discussed. Summary The use of predictive algorithms to assess individual absolute risk of cardiovascular future events is currently hampered by methodological and mathematical flaws. The use of newer approaches, such as fuzzy logic and artificial neural networks, linked to artificial intelligence, seems to better address both the challenge of increasing complexity resulting from a correlation between predisposing factors, data on the occurrence of cardiovascular events, and the prediction of future events on an individual level.

  12. Early cardiovascular risk markers and cardiac function in children with chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Tranæus Lindblad, Ylva

    2016-01-01

    Children with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an increased risk of premature death, foremost due to cardiovascular disease (CVD). The cardiovascular (CV) morbidity starts early in the disease process and renal transplanted children (CKD-T) are also at risk. Aims: The overall aim of this thesis was to study CV morbidity and potential risk factors in pediatric CKD and CKD-T patients. The prevalence of various known biomarkers associated with increased risk of CVD was assessed ...

  13. Primary care patients' recognition of their own risk for cardiovascular disease: implications for risk communication in practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijden, T.T. van der; Bos, L.B.; Loon, MS Koelewijn-van

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Guidelines on primary prevention of cardiovascular disease emphasize identifying high-risk patients for intensive risk-reducing management. These guidelines recommend the identification of individuals with high risk using risk score sheets or risk tables. Patients' misperceptions

  14. Autonomic Nervous System Dysfunction and Inflammation Contribute to the Increased Cardiovascular Mortality Risk Associated With Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kop, Willem J.; Stein, Phyllis K.; Tracy, Russell P.; Barzilay, Joshua I.; Schulz, Richard; Gottdiener, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate prospectively whether autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction and inflammation play a role in the increased cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related mortality risk associated with depression. Methods Participants in the Cardiovascular Health Study (n = 907; mean age, 71.3 ± 4.6 years; 59.1% women) were evaluated for ANS indices derived from heart rate variability (HRV) analysis (frequency and time domain HRV, and nonlinear indices, including detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA1) and heart rate turbulence). Inflammation markers included C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, fibrinogen, and white blood cell count). Depressive symptoms were assessed, using the 10-item Centers for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate the mortality risk associated with depression, ANS, and inflammation markers, adjusting for demographic and clinical covariates. Results Depression was associated with ANS dysfunction (DFA1, p = .018), and increased inflammation markers (white blood cell count, p = .012, fibrinogen p = .043) adjusting for covariates. CVD-related mortality occurred in 121 participants during a median follow-up of 13.3 years. Depression was associated with an increased CVD mortality risk (hazard ratio, 1.88; 95% confidence interval, 1.23–2.86). Multivariable analyses showed that depression was an independent predictor of CVD mortality (hazard ratio, 1.72; 95% confidence interval, 1.05–2.83) when adjusting for independent HRV and inflammation predictors (DFA1, heart rate turbulence, interleukin-6), attenuating the depression-CVD mortality association by 12.7% (p < .001). Conclusion Autonomic dysfunction and inflammation contribute to the increased cardiovascular mortality risk associated with depression, but a large portion of the predictive value of depression remains unexplained by these neuroimmunological measures. PMID:20639389

  15. Cardiovascular risk factors among Bangladeshi ready-made garment workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaniz Fatema

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To estimate the prevalence and identify correlates of anthropometry and clinical risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs among ready-made garment (RMG of workers, majority are females, come from low-socioeconomics conditions. Population-based cross-sectional study with 614 individuals aged ≥18 years were recruited from six different RMG factories. In total, of 313 male (46% and 301 of female (56% workers had body mass index (BMI in the overweight and obese range as per Asian cut off values with corresponding reflection in waist hip ratio (WHR. High proportion of male 84% (95% confidence interval 81-87 had smoking habits. The prevalence of hypertension (HTN, dyslipidemia were 24% vs 15%; 56% vs 43% among males and females respectively. Prevalence of diabetes was 7.3% (5.3-9.4 and pre-diabetes was 10.6% (8.2-13 and it showed female preponderance (4.5% male vs 10.3% female. In multivariable logistic regression HTN showed significant association with age, gender, BMI; glycemic status with age, genderand WHR; dyslipidemia with BMI and WHR. A substantial proportion of RMG workers are at an increased risk of CVDs which need focused attention to reduce smoking (among males and body-weight and central obesity, particularly in females.

  16. Cardiovascular Diseases and Mental Disorders: Bidirectional Risk Factors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Vollenweider

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases (CVD, their well-established risk factors (CVRF and mental disorders are common and co-occur more frequently than would be expected by chance. However, potential causal mechanisms underlying their association still need to be elucidated. Several non-mutually exclusive hypotheses have been suggested to explain this association: a mental disorders could increase vulnerability to CVD through poor health behaviour including smoking, unbalanced diet, sedentary lifestyle or the side effects of psychotropic drugs; b CVD or their treatment could favour the development of mental disorders; or c mental disorders and CVD/CVRF could share risk factors such as common metabolic processes or common genes. Disentangling some of these mechanisms will require studying the temporal relationship of the appearance of CVD and mental disorders.Herein we review the existing epidemiological evidence of an association between these two types of disorders, and describe several mechanisms potentially involved. We will briefly describe the CoLaus/PsyCoLaus study cohort, a population-based in Lausanne, Switzerland designed to address some of these questions.

  17. The CAIDE Dementia Risk Score App: The development of an evidence-based mobile application to predict the risk of dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Sindi, Shireen; Calov, Elisabeth; Fokkens, Jasmine; Ngandu, Tiia; Soininen, Hilkka; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Kivipelto, Miia

    2015-01-01

    Background The CAIDE (Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging, and Incidence of Dementia) Dementia Risk Score is a validated tool to predict late-life dementia risk (20 years later), based on midlife vascular risk factors. The goal was to render this prediction tool widely accessible. Methods The CAIDE Risk Score (mobile application) App was developed based on the CAIDE Dementia Risk Score, involving information on age, educational level, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, and physical i...

  18. Causal beliefs and perceptions of risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease, The Netherlands, 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Claassen, E.A.M.; Henneman, L.; Nijpels, G; Dekker, J.M.; Marteau, T.; Timmermans, D R M

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Understanding people's perceptions of disease risk and how these perceptions compare with actual risk models may improve the effectiveness of risk communication. This study examined perceived disease risk and causal beliefs for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD), the relationship between self-reported risk factors and perceived disease risk, and the influence of causal beliefs on perceived disease risk in people at increased risk. Methods The sample (n = 255) consis...

  19. Preterm delivery and risk of subsequent cardiovascular morbidity and type-II diabetes in the mother

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, J A; Paidas, M J; Damm, P; Triche, E W; Kuczynski, E; Langhoff-Roos, J

    2010-01-01

    Preterm delivery has been shown to be associated with subsequent maternal cardiovascular morbidity. However, the impact of the severity and recurrence of preterm delivery on the risk of specific cardiovascular events and the metabolic syndrome in the mother, have not been investigated.......Preterm delivery has been shown to be associated with subsequent maternal cardiovascular morbidity. However, the impact of the severity and recurrence of preterm delivery on the risk of specific cardiovascular events and the metabolic syndrome in the mother, have not been investigated....

  20. Tail Risk Premia and Return Predictability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Todorov, Viktor; Xu, Lai

    The variance risk premium, defined as the difference between actual and risk-neutralized expectations of the forward aggregate market variation, helps predict future market returns. Relying on new essentially model-free estimation procedure, we show that much of this predictability may be......-varying economic uncertainty and changes in risk aversion, or market fears, respectively....

  1. Contribution of Individual Risk Factor Changes to Reductions in Population Absolute Cardiovascular Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Cochrane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Few studies have investigated individual risk factor contributions to absolute cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. Even fewer have examined changes in individual risk factors as components of overall modifiable risk change following a CVD prevention intervention. Design. Longitudinal study of population CVD risk factor changes following a health screening and enhanced support programme. Methods. The contribution of individual risk factors to the estimated absolute CVD risk in a population of high risk patients identified from general practice records was evaluated. Further, the proportion of the modifiable risk attributable to each factor that was removed following one year of enhanced support was estimated. Results. Mean age of patients (533 males, 68 females was 63.7 (6.4 years. High cholesterol (57% was most prevalent, followed by smoking (53% and high blood pressure (26%. Smoking (57% made the greatest contribution to the modifiable population CVD risk, followed by raised blood pressure (26% and raised cholesterol (17%. After one year of enhanced support, the modifiable population risk attributed to smoking (56%, high blood pressure (68%, and high cholesterol (53% was removed. Conclusion. Approximately 59% of the modifiable risk attributable to the combination of high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and current smoking was removed after intervention.

  2. When does cardiovascular risk start? Past and present socioeconomic circumstances and risk factors in adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Brunner, E; Shipley, M J; Blane, D.; Smith, G.D.; Marmot, M. G.

    1999-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To compare associations of childhood and adult socioeconomic position with cardiovascular risk factors measured in adulthood. To estimate the effects of adult socioeconomic position after adjustment for childhood circumstances. DESIGN: Cross sectional survey, using the relative index of inequality method to compare socioeconomic differences at different life stages. SETTING: The Whitehall II longitudinal study of men and women employed in London offices of the Civil S...

  3. Risk factors of cardiovascular diseases in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T V Popkova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular complications (CVC including myocardial infarction (MI, sudden death and stroke (ST are the main cause of premature mortality in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Chronic inflammation plays the key role in the development of CVC in RA. Objective. To analyze prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD, significance of traditional risk factors (Rf, DMARDs and RA features in the development of clinical and subclinical signs of atherosclerosis (AT. To compare results with data of QUEST-RA. Material and methods. Traditional Rf and CVD frequency in RA pts were assessed with a questionnaire. Coronary heart disease, MI and ST were diagnosed according to medical documents. Subclinical signs of atherosclerosis were evaluated with carotid artery sonography. Results. Traditional CVD Rf were evaluated in 563 pts (496 female, 93 male aged 54 (44-54 years with disease duration 72 (24-144 months. Clinical signs of AT were revealed in5,6%, subclinical – in 11% of RA pts. Hyperlipidemia was present in 82%, increase of intima-media thickness – in 51%, family strain of CVD – in 44%, hypertension – in 38% of pts with RA. Traditional Rf, extra-articular features of RA, CVC and early AT signs weremore frequent in men than in women (p<0,005. Thickness of intima-media complex in 11men exceed that in women (p<0,005. RA pts were divided into two groups (I – with CVD and II – without CVD to assess relationship between traditional Rf and CVC. Frequency of traditional Rf (hypertension and increased intima-media thickness in group I was higher than in group II. Relative risk of their development was 4,78 and 2,09 respectively (p<0,05. 38% of RA pts had extra-articular features of RA (OR=2,02; p=0,04. Thickness of intima-media complex correlated with duration of treatment with hydroxichloroquine and sulfasalazine (r=0,34; p=0,0002 and r=0,28; p=0,008 respectively. CVC were not associated with administration of other DMARDs.

  4. p-Cresol and Cardiovascular Risk in Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligabue, G; Damiano, F; Cuoghi, A; De Biasi, S; Bellei, E; Granito, M; Aldo, T; Cossarizza, A; Cappelli, G

    2015-09-01

    p-Cresol Sulphate (pCS) is a uremic toxin that originates exclusively from dietary sources and has a high plasma level related to chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of our study was to evaluate the plasma levels of pCS in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) related to estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), traditional risk factors, cardiovascular clinical events and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), bone marrow-derived cells for the vascular repair system. We considered 51 KTRs and 25 healthy blood donors (HBDs). pCs levels were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with mass spectrometry with an electrospray ionization (ESI) (LC/ESI-MS/MS) on a triple-quadrupole; EPCs were analyzed using flow cytometric analysis. eGFR was 52.61 ± 19.9 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in KTRs versus 94 ± 21 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in HBDs. We did not find differences in pCS levels between KTRs and HBDs. Levels of pCS were inversely related with eGFR in KTRs and pCS levels were significantly lower in KTRs with eGFR 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Furthermore, there was a difference in pCS levels between eGFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m(2) of KTRs compared with HBDs. Levels of pCS were almost significantly influenced by the presence of a previous vascular event and were inversely related with mature EPCs. These findings suggest that KTRs should not have higher CVD risk than HBDs and their physiological vascular repair system appears to be intact. In KTRs the reduction of eGFR also increased pCS levels and reduced EPCs numbers and angiogenesis capacity. In summary, pCS acts as an emerging marker of a uremic state, helping assess the global vascular competence in KTRs. PMID:26361658

  5. A Web-Based Intervention for Health Professionals and Patients to Decrease Cardiovascular Risk Attributable to Physical Inactivity: Development Process

    OpenAIRE

    Sassen, Barbara; Kok, Gerjo; Mesters, Ilse; Crutzen, Rik; Cremers, Anita; Vanhees, Luc

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients with cardiovascular risk factors can reduce their risk of cardiovascular disease by increasing their physical activity and their physical fitness. According to the guidelines for cardiovascular risk management, health professionals should encourage their patients to engage in physical activity. Objective In this paper, we provide insight regarding the systematic development of a Web-based intervention for both health professionals and patients with cardiovascular risk fact...

  6. Endothelial Progenitor Cells Predict Cardiovascular Events after Atherothrombotic Stroke and Acute Myocardial Infarction. A PROCELL Substudy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Cuadrado-Godia

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine prognostic factors for the risk of new vascular events during the first 6 months after acute myocardial infarction (AMI or atherothrombotic stroke (AS. We were interested in the prognostic role of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC and circulating endothelial cells (CEC.Between February 2009 and July 2012, 100 AMI and 50 AS patients were consecutively studied in three Spanish centres. Patients with previously documented coronary artery disease or ischemic strokes were excluded. Samples were collected within 24h of onset of symptoms. EPC and CEC were studied using flow cytometry and categorized by quartiles. Patients were followed for up to 6 months. NVE was defined as new acute coronary syndrome, transient ischemic attack (TIA, stroke, or any hospitalization or death from cardiovascular causes. The variables included in the analysis included: vascular risk factors, carotid intima-media thickness (IMT, atherosclerotic burden and basal EPC and CEC count. Multivariate survival analysis was performed using Cox regression analysis.During follow-up, 19 patients (12.66% had a new vascular event (5 strokes; 3 TIAs; 4 AMI; 6 hospitalizations; 1 death. Vascular events were associated with age (P = 0.039, carotid IMT≥0.9 (P = 0.044, and EPC count (P = 0.041 in the univariate analysis. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed an independent association with EPC in the lowest quartile (HR: 10.33, 95%CI (1.22-87.34, P = 0.032] and IMT≥0.9 [HR: 4.12, 95%CI (1.21-13.95, P = 0.023].Basal EPC and IMT≥0.9 can predict future vascular events in patients with AMI and AS, but CEC count does not affect cardiovascular risk.

  7. Hypertriglyceridemia: a too long unfairly neglected major cardiovascular risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Alexander; Klempfner, Robert; Fisman, Enrique Z

    2014-01-01

    The existence of an independent association between elevated triglyceride (TG) levels, cardiovascular (CV) risk and mortality has been largely controversial. The main difficulty in isolating the effect of hypertriglyceridemia on CV risk is the fact that elevated triglyceride levels are commonly associated with concomitant changes in high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and other lipoproteins. As a result of this problem and in disregard of the real biological role of TG, its significance as a plausible therapeutic target was unfoundedly underestimated for many years. However, taking epidemiological data together, both moderate and severe hypertriglyceridaemia are associated with a substantially increased long term total mortality and CV risk. Plasma TG levels partially reflect the concentration of the triglyceride-carrying lipoproteins (TRL): very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), chylomicrons and their remnants. Furthermore, hypertriglyceridemia commonly leads to reduction in HDL and increase in atherogenic small dense LDL levels. TG may also stimulate atherogenesis by mechanisms, such excessive free fatty acids (FFA) release, production of proinflammatory cytokines, fibrinogen, coagulation factors and impairment of fibrinolysis. Genetic studies strongly support hypertriglyceridemia and high concentrations of TRL as causal risk factors for CV disease. The most common forms of hypertriglyceridemia are related to overweight and sedentary life style, which in turn lead to insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome (MS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Intensive lifestyle therapy is the main initial treatment of hypertriglyceridemia. Statins are a cornerstone of the modern lipids-modifying therapy. If the primary goal is to lower TG levels, fibrates (bezafibrate and fenofibrate for monotherapy, and in combination with statin; gemfibrozil only for monotherapy) could be the preferable drugs. Also ezetimibe has mild positive effects in lowering TG

  8. Blood glucose may be an alternative to cholesterol in CVD risk prediction charts

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Julia; Bopp, Matthias; Faeh, David

    2013-01-01

    Background Established risk models for the prediction of cardiovascular disease (CVD) include blood pressure, smoking and cholesterol parameters. The use of total cholesterol for CVD risk prediction has been questioned, particularly for primary prevention. We evaluated whether glucose could be used instead of total cholesterol for prediction of fatal CVD using data with long follow-up. Methods We followed-up 6,095 men and women aged ≥16 years who participated 1977-79 in a community based heal...

  9. Glycated hemoglobin and its spinoffs: Cardiovascular disease markers or risk factors?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jumana; Saleh

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a major complication of diabetes, increasing the risk of cardiovascular related morbidities and mortalities. The hallmark of diabetes is hyperglycemia which duration is best predicted by elevated glycated haemoglobin A1C(Hb A1C) levels. Diabetic complications are usually attributed to oxidative stress associated with glycation of major structural and functional proteins. This non-enzymatic glycation of long lived proteins such as collagen, albumin, fibrinogen, liver enzymes and globulins result in the formation of early and advanced glycation end products(AGEs) associated with the production of myriads of free radicles and oxidants that have detrimental effects leading to diabetic complications. AGEs have been extensively discussed in the literature as etiological factors in the advancement of atherogenic events. Mechanisms described include the effects of glycation on protein structure and function that lead to defective receptor binding, impairment of immune system and enzyme function and alteration of basement membrane structural integrity. Hemoglobin(Hb) is a major circulating protein susceptible to glycation. Glycated Hb, namely Hb A1 C is used as a useful tool in the diagnosis of diabetes progression. Many studies have shown strong positive associations between elevated Hb A1 C levels and existing cardiovascular disease and major risk factors. Also, several studies presented Hb A1 C as an independent predictor of cardiovascular risk. In spite of extensive reports on positive associations, limited evidence is available considering the role of glycated Hb in the etiology of atherosclerosis. This editorial highlights potential mechanisms by which glycated hemoglobin may contribute, as a causative factor, to the progression of atherosclerosis in diabetics.

  10. Oral hygiene status of individuals with cardiovascular diseases and associated risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Divya Shetty; Mahima Dua; Kiran Kumar; Raghu Dhanpal; Madhusudan Astekar; Devi Charan Shetty

    2012-01-01

    Dentist and oral health screening may be the latest weapon in identifying persons at risk of cardiovascular disease. Oral infections, specifically periodontitis, may confer independent risks for different systemic conditions. The risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases also suggest that the relationship between periodontal disease and diabetes works in both ways. The aim of this study was to support and strengthen the association and relationship between oral hygiene status of in...

  11. A new Web-based medical tool for assessment and prevention of comprehensive cardiovascular risk

    OpenAIRE

    Daniele Franchi; Davide Cini; Giorgio Iervasi

    2011-01-01

    Daniele Franchi1,2, Davide Cini1, Giorgio Iervasi11Istituto di Fisiologia Clinica, CNR, Pisa, Italy; 2Dipartimento di Oncologia, dei Trapianti e delle Nuove Tecnologie in Medicina, Università di Pisa, Pisa, ItalyBackground: Multifactor cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death; besides well-known cardiovascular risk factors, several emerging factors such as mental stress, diet type, and physical inactivity, have been associated to cardiovascular disease. To date, prevent...

  12. Movement and circulation: Population studies on physical activitiy and cardiovascular disease risk.

    OpenAIRE

    Mensink, G. B. M.

    1997-01-01

    The relationship of leisure-time physical activity with cardiovascular risk factors and mortality was determined using data from the German Cardiovascular Prevention Study, conducted from 1984-1991. Three nationally representative crosssectional samples, with a total of 7 689 men and 7 747 women, ages 25-69, were part of this study, originally designed to estimate the impact of community intervention on cardiovascular health. Additionally we analyzed regional cross-sectional and follow-up sam...

  13. CARDIO-VASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH DISEASES OF THE STOMATOGNATHIC SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Botez C; Brujbu Isabella Cristina; V.R. Murariu

    2011-01-01

    The association between dental and cardio-vascular diseases is essential as both are highly prevalent. Finding a possible causal relation between cardiovascular disease and chronic periodontal pathology, known to cause tooth loss, is therefore essential. The existence of some risk factors, such as smoking, bacterial infections, malnutrition and nutritional deficiencies, may explain the associations observed between cardio-vascular and oral pathologies. In the case of d...

  14. Rate of Atherosclerotic Plaque Formation Predicts Cardiovascular Events in ESRD

    OpenAIRE

    Benedetto, Francesco Antonio; Tripepi, Giovanni; Mallamaci, Francesca; Zoccali, Carmine

    2008-01-01

    Carotid intima media thickness (IMT) is a strong, independent predictor of cardiovascular events in both the general population and among those with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), but it is unknown whether changes in IMT or other ultrasound-measured indicators of atherosclerosis over time provide additional prognostic information. The progression of atherosclerosis with carotid ultrasound was followed in a cohort of 135 ESRD patients, 103 of whom had a repeat ultrasound after 15 mo of follow...

  15. Hypothesis: Metalloproteinase Inhibitors Decrease Risks of Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizotte-Waniewski, Michelle; Brew, Keith; Hennekens, Charles H

    2016-07-01

    The hypothesis that matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitors reduce risks of cardiovascular disease in humans is plausible, unproven, and difficult to test, due, in part, to differences in specificity and route of administration. Endogenous tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are tight-binding, protein inhibitors that function in vivo and can be engineered to enhance specificity for desired targets. Nonetheless, TIMPs have been difficult to test, in part, because their secondary functions, including cell growth promotion and angiogenesis, raise concerns about side effects and they cannot be delivered orally. In contrast, doxycycline and other chemically modified tetracyclines are broad-spectrum, reversible MMP inhibitors with lower affinity but can be taken orally and have US Food and Drug Administration approval. The completed phase 2 randomized trials in humans of MMP inhibitors have methodologic limitations but generally show no significant benefits with adverse effects. At present, the principal research challenge is to achieve a better understanding of the complexities of biological functions of MMPs and subsequently to conduct large-scale phase 3 trials. PMID:26703451

  16. The effect of different cardiovascular risk presentation formats on intentions, understanding and emotional affect: a randomised controlled trial using a web-based risk formatter (protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newcombe Robert

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The future risk of heart disease can be predicted with increasing precision. However, more research is needed into how this risk is conveyed and presented. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of presenting cardiovascular risk in different formats on individuals' intention to change behaviour to reduce risk, understanding of risk information and emotional affect. Methods/design A randomised controlled trial comprising four arms, with a between subjects design will be performed. There will be two intervention groups and two control groups. The first control comprises a pre-intervention questionnaire and presents risk in a bar graph format. The second control presents risk in a bar graph format without pre-intervention questionnaire. These two control groups are to account for the potential Hawthorne effect of thinking about cardiovascular risk before viewing actual risk. The two intervention groups comprise presenting risk in either a pictogram or metonym format (image depicting seriousness of having a myocardial infarction. 800 individuals' aged between 45 and 64 years, who have not been previously diagnosed with heart disease and have access to a computer with internet, will be given a link to a website comprising a risk calculator and electronic questionnaires. 10-year risk of having a coronary heart disease event will be assessed and presented in one of the three formats. A post-intervention questionnaire will be completed after viewing the risk format. Main outcome measures are (i intention to change behaviour, (ii understanding of risk information, (iii emotional affect and (iv worry about future heart disease. Secondary outcomes are the sub-components of the theory of planned behaviour: attitudes, perceived behavioural control and subjective norms. Discussion Having reviewed the literature, we are not aware of any other studies which have used the assessment of actual risk, in a trial to compare different

  17. [Diet as a cardiovascular risk factor in family medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman Marković, Biserka; Katić, Milica; Vrdoljak, Davorka; Kranjcević, Ksenija; Jasna, Vucak; Ivezić Lalić, Dragica

    2010-05-01

    Although Mediterranean country by its geographic position, according to cardiovascular mortality (CVM) rate, Croatia belongs to Central-East European countries with high CV mortality. Prevention by changing nutritional habits is population (public health programmes) or individually targeted. General practitioner (GP) provides care for whole person in its environment and GP's team plays a key role in achieving lifestyle changes. GPs intervention is individually/group/family targeted by counselling or using printed leaflets (individual manner, organized programmes). Adherence to lifestyle changes is not an easy task; it is higher when recommendations are simple and part of individually tailored programme with follow- ups included. Motivation is essential, but obstacles to implementation (by patient and GPs) are also important. Nutritional intervention influences most important CV risk factors: cholesterol level, blood pressure (BP), diabetes. Restriction in total energy intake with additional nutritional interventions is recommended. Lower animal fat intake causes CVM reduction by 12%, taking additional serving of fruit/day by 7% and vegetables by 4%. Restriction of dietary salt intake (3 g/day) lowers BP by 2-8 mm Hg, CVM by 16%. Nutritional intervention gains CHD and stroke redact in healthy adults (12%, 11% respectively). Respecting individual lifestyle and nutrition, GP should suggest both home cooking and careful food declaration reading and discourage salt adding. Recommended daily salt intake is < or =6 g. In BP lowering, salt intake restriction (10-12 to 5-6 g/day) is as efficient as taking one antihypertensive drug. Lifestyle intervention targeting nutritional habits and pharmacotherapy is the most efficient combination in CV risk factors control. PMID:20649077

  18. Cardiovascular disease risk in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Guleria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a common disorder in women of reproductive age group. Insulin resistance and the consequent hyperinsulinemia seem to be the central pathophysiological mechanism that links PCOS to its associated metabolic derangements. Women with PCOS exhibit a number of risk factors for coronary artery disease. We studied risk of CVD using two surrogate markers, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD. Aims and objectives: To study cardiovascular disease risk in young women (18-35 years age with PCOS using CIMT and FMD. Materials and Methods: Sixty women with PCOS (age: 23.8 ± 4.5 years; body mass index [BMI]: 23.5 ± 4.2 kg/m 2 were compared with 30 age- and BMI-matched healthy controls (age: 26.3 ± 5.4 years; BMI: 22.6 ± 3.8 kg/m 2 . Diagnosis of PCOS was made using the Rotterdam criteria. Fasting blood sample was analyzed for glucose, insulin, lipid profile, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP, high molecular weight adiponectin (HMWADP, and interleukin 6 (IL6. CIMT and FMD were performed. Results: PCOS patients had a higher waist to hip ratio (W/H [0.86 ± .07 vs. 0.80 ± .05] and free testosterone index (FTI [6.6 ± 6.5 vs. 2.0 ± 1.0] in comparison to controls. There was no difference in the two groups in lipid profile parameters and HOMA IR. CIMT was significantly higher (0.59 ± .1 mm vs. 0.50 ± .05 mm, P value <.001 and FMD lower (10.3 ± 3.9% vs. 15.2 ± 5.5%, P value < .001 in cases when compared to controls. FMD negatively correlated with W/H ratio (r: -0.257 and hsCRP (r: -0.347, while IMT showed positive correlation with IL6 (r: 0.325 and hsCRP (r: 0.303 and a negative correlation with high-density lipoprotein (HDL [r: -0.224], all P values < .05. Conclusions: Patients with PCOS have evidence for increased CVD risk as shown by endothelial dysfunction manifested by increased CIMT and a lower FMD.

  19. CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN CHILDREN WITH TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z ABDEYASDAN

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes melliuts is a chronic, metabolic disease that involves the macro and micro vascular complications and one of its maer ascular cowplications is the cardio vascular disease, as ,the risk of cardiovascular disease is 2-4 folds in diabetic patients in comparison with non diabetic individuals. The researches have demonstrated that the risk factors of the cardio vascular disease are formed at childhood. Therefore the preventive measures must begin from early childhood. So the present study was planned with the goals to determine and compare the cardia-vascular risk factors in the diabetic children with type 1 of diabetes mellitus. Method: This was an analytic, cross sectional study that has been done in two groups (case-control. In this research, 148 children, suffering from the typel diabetes mellitus being supported by the metabolism and endocrine research center, were chosen in the continues case manner and for the control group, 148 children, matched with the study group (according to the age and the sex, at 6-18 years old from the schools in Isfahan city randomly and at 2-6 years from the neiborhoods of the case group. The data-gathering tool was the questionnaires includes lipid profile, blood pressure, weight and height. To analyze the data we used the analytic (t student and logistic regression and descriptive (mean and standard deviation statistic methods and SPSS. Results: Findings revealed that the means of Lipid profile, systolic blood pressure and body mass index had not statistically significant differences in the two groups. But the mean of diastolic blood pressure and the mean arterial blood pressure in the control group were more than the case group and this difference was significant. The mean, 75 and 95 percentiles for cholesterol and LDL in all the age groups, mean, 75 and 95 percentile for triglyceride in all the age groups except the age group of 1-4 years in the diabetic and non diabetic groups were

  20. Reduction of cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease by mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Murray

    2015-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and morbidity in people with chronic kidney disease, but there are few evidence-based treatments for reducing cardiovascular events in these patients. The failure of novel drug candidates to delay progression to end-stage renal disease and limit or abrogate cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has led to increased interest in a mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist-based treatment model to reduce cardiovascular risk in patients with chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. Aldosterone concentrations and MR signalling are associated with an enhanced risk of cardiovascular injury and the incidence of sudden death, and MR blockade decreases the risk of cardiovascular events and sudden death in patients with reduced glomerular filtration rate. Since evidence from clinical trials shows that treatment with MR antagonists confers a morbidity and mortality advantage for patients with cardiovascular disorders, similar benefits might also accrue in patients with chronic kidney disease. Large prospective trials are urgently needed to answer this question. In this Review, I argue that despite differences in the pathophysiology and clinical features of cardiovascular disease in patients with and without chronic kidney disease, MR antagonists could provide cardiovascular benefit in patients with chronic kidney disease. PMID:26429402

  1. Lifetime risk factors and arterial pulse wave velocity in adulthood: the cardiovascular risk in young Finns study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aatola, Heikki; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Juonala, Markus; Viikari, Jorma S A; Hulkkonen, Janne; Laitinen, Tomi; Taittonen, Leena; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli T; Kähönen, Mika

    2010-03-01

    Limited and partly controversial data are available regarding the relationship of arterial pulse wave velocity and childhood cardiovascular risk factors. We studied how risk factors identified in childhood and adulthood predict pulse wave velocity assessed in adulthood. The study cohort consisted of 1691 white adults aged 30 to 45 years who had risk factor data available since childhood. Pulse wave velocity was assessed noninvasively by whole-body impedance cardiography. The number of conventional childhood and adulthood risk factors (extreme quintiles for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, and smoking) was directly associated with pulse wave velocity in adulthood (P=0.005 and P<0.0001, respectively). In multivariable regression analysis, independent predictors of pulse wave velocity were sex (P<0.0001), age (P<0.0001), childhood systolic blood pressure (P=0.002) and glucose (P=0.02), and adulthood systolic blood pressure (P<0.0001), insulin (P=0.0009), and triglycerides (P=0.003). Reduction in the number of risk factors (P<0.0001) and a favorable change in obesity status (P=0.0002) from childhood to adulthood were associated with lower pulse wave velocity in adulthood. Conventional risk factors in childhood and adulthood predict pulse wave velocity in adulthood. Favorable changes in risk factor and obesity status from childhood to adulthood are associated with lower pulse wave velocity in adulthood. These results support efforts for a reduction of conventional risk factors both in childhood and adulthood in the primary prevention of atherosclerosis. PMID:20083727

  2. Cardiovascular Risk in Malaysia: causes, consequences and prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selvarajah, S.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease forms the highest morbidity and mortality worldwide and disproportionately affects low and middle-income developing countries. In developing countries, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality tend to affect the (younger) working adults. This poses a significant burden to the ec

  3. Prevalência de fatores de risco cardiovascular em adolescentes Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Romanzini

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar a prevalência de fatores de risco cardiovasculares biológicos e comportamentais em adolescentes e verificar sua associação com idade e sexo. Participaram do estudo 644 escolares da rede pública de ensino de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil. A seleção da amostra foi realizada em dois estágios. Fatores de risco comportamentais (inatividade física, consumo inadequado de frutas e verduras, e tabagismo e biológicos (excesso de peso corporal e pressão arterial elevada foram investigados. Quase 90% dos adolescentes apresentaram pelo menos um fator de risco. O consumo inadequado de frutas (56,7% e verduras (43,9% e, a inatividade física (39,2% foram os fatores de risco mais prevalentes. A prevalência de pressão arterial alta e excesso de peso foram de 18,6 e 12,7%, respectivamente. Os fatores de risco cardiovascular foram mais prevalentes entre os rapazes (RP = 1,20; IC95%: 1,01-1,42. Concluiu-se que os fatores de risco cardiovascular representam um problema de saúde com alta prevalência entre os escolares de Londrina.The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents and to verify its association with age and gender. 644 high school students from public schools in the city of Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil, participated in the study. A two-step sampling process was used. Behavioral risk factors (physical inactivity, inadequate consumption of fruits and vegetables, and smoking and biological risk factors (overweight and high blood pressure were investigated. Nearly 90% of adolescents showed at least one risk factor. Inadequate consumption of fruits (56.7% and vegetables (43.9% and physical inactivity (39.2% were the most prevalent risk factors. Prevalence rates for high blood pressure and overweight were 18.6 and 12.7%, respectively. Cardiovascular risk factors were more frequent among boys (PR = 1.20; 95%CI = 1.01-1.42. In conclusion, cardiovascular risk

  4. Psoriasis is associated with clinically significant cardiovascular risk: a Danish nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlehoff, O; Gislason, G H; Charlot, M;

    2011-01-01

    Southern Denmark, Copenhagen; Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte, Hellerup; University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark) Psoriasis is associated with clinically significant cardiovascular risk: a Danish nationwide cohort study. J Intern Med 2010; doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2796.2010.02310.x. Objective. The...... magnitude of the cardiovascular risk from psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis is debated. We therefore investigated the psoriasis-related risk of adverse cardiovascular events and mortality. Design, setting and subjects. We conducted a cohort study of the entire Danish population aged =18 years followed from...

  5. Telehealth for patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease: pragmatic randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Salisbury, Chris; O’Cathain, Alicia; Thomas, Clare; Edwards, Louisa; Gaunt, Daisy; Dixon, Padraig; Hollinghurst, Sandra; Nicholl, Jon; Large, Shirley; Yardley, Lucy; Fahey, Tom; Foster, Alexis; Garner, Katy; Horspool, Kimberley; Man, Mei-See

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess whether non-clinical staff can effectively manage people at high risk of cardiovascular disease using digital health technologies. Design Pragmatic, multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Setting 42 general practices in three areas of England. Participants Between 3 December 2012 and 23 July 2013 we recruited 641 adults aged 40 to 74 years with a 10 year cardiovascular disease risk of 20% or more, no previous cardiovascular event, at least one modifiable risk factor (sy...

  6. Changing trends of cardiovascular risk factors among Indians: a review of emerging risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The global burden of disease due to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs is escalating, and the changing trends of CVD risk factors are identified among Indians experiencing rapid health transition. Contributory causes include: growing population with demographic shifts and altered age profile, socio-economic factors, lifestyle changes due to urbanization. Indians are also having genetic predisposition to cardiovascular diseases and adult are susceptible to vascular disease linking possible gene-environment interactions influencing ethnic diversity. Altered diets with more of junk foods along with diminished physical activity are additive factors contributing to the acceleration of CVD epidemics, along with all form of tobacco use. The pace of health transition, however, varies across geographical regions from urban to rural population with consequent variations in the relative burdens of the dominant CVDs. A comprehensive public health response must be looked to plan over all strategies to integrate policies and programs that effectively impact on the multiple determinants of CVDs to provide protection over the life span through primordial, primary and secondary prevention. Populations as well as individuals at risk must be protected through initiatives, enable nutrition-based preventive strategies to protect and promote cardiovascular health.

  7. Changing trends of cardiovascular risk factors among Indians:a review of emerging risks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arun; Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The global burden of disease due to cardiovascular diseases(CVDs) is escalating,and the changing trends of CVD risk factors are identified among Indians experiencing rapid health transition.Contributory causes include:growing population with demographic shifts and altered age profile,socio-economic factors,lifestyle changes due to urbanization.Indians are also having genetic predisposition to cardiovascular diseases and adult are susceptible to vascular disease linking possible gene-environment interactions influencing ethnic diversity.Altered diets with more of junk foods along with diminished physical activity are additive factors contributing to the acceleration of CVD epidemics,along with all form of tobacco use.The pace of health transition,however,varies across geographical regions from urban to rural population with consequent variations in the relative burdens of the dominant CVDs.A comprehensive public health response must be looked to plan over all strategies to integrate policies and programs that effectively impact on the multiple determinants of CVDs to provide protection over the life span through primordial,primary and secondary prevention.Populations as well as individuals at risk must be protected through initiatives,enable nutritionbased preventive strategies to protect and promote cardiovascular health.

  8. Changing trends of cardiovascular risk factors among Indians:a review of emerging risks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arun Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The global burden of disease due to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is escalating, and the changing trends of CVD risk factors are identified among Indians experiencing rapid health transition. Contributory causes include: growing population with demographic shifts and altered age profile, socio-economic factors, lifestyle changes due to urbanization. Indians are also having genetic predisposition to cardiovascular diseases and adult are susceptible to vascular disease linking possible gene-environment interactions influencing ethnic diversity. Altered diets with more of junk foods along with diminished physical activity are additive factors contributing to the acceleration of CVD epidemics, along with all form of tobacco use. The pace of health transition, however, varies across geographical regions from urban to rural population with consequent variations in the relative burdens of the dominant CVDs. A comprehensive public health response must be looked to plan over all strategies to integrate policies and programs that effectively impact on the multiple determinants of CVDs to provide protection over the life span through primordial, primary and secondary prevention. Populations as well as individuals at risk must be protected through initiatives, enable nutrition-based preventive strategies to protect and promote cardiovascular health.

  9. Does change in hip circumference predict cardiovascular disease and overall mortality in Danish and Swedish women?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanfer, Anne; Mehlig, Kirsten; Heitmann, Berit L; Lissner, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence consistently shows that small hip circumference (HC) is related to increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary heart disease, diabetes, and premature death in women. This study aims to clarify whether this inverse association can be found in both normal- and ove...... overweight individuals and if change in HC over time relates to morbidity and mortality risk....

  10. Describing an Academic and Nonprofit Organization Partnership to Educate At-Risk Adolescents about Cardiovascular Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, Steven J.; Skager, Cherie; Kraiger, Anneliese

    2014-01-01

    There is emerging evidence to suggest community-based interventions can change community-wide behaviors and attitudes toward cardiovascular health. This article describes a partnership between an academic institution and a community nonprofit organization to develop and implement a cardiovascular health promotion program targeting at risk high…

  11. Movement and circulation: Population studies on physical activitiy and cardiovascular disease risk.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, G.B.M.

    1997-01-01

    The relationship of leisure-time physical activity with cardiovascular risk factors and mortality was determined using data from the German Cardiovascular Prevention Study, conducted from 1984-1991. Three nationally representative crosssectional samples, with a total of 7 689 men and 7 747 women, ag

  12. Correlation between Progetto Cuore risk score and early cardiovascular damage in never treated subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertolini Stefano

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Global cardiovascular risk is a new approach which allows the physicians to quantitate the prognosis of the patients. It is therefore possible that a score, based on the major cardiovascular risk factors, is correlated with some degree of cardiovascular anatomic damage. Since this hypothesis has been demonstrated with the Framingham risk score, we decided to verify it using another score (Progetto Cuore risk score, which is probably more precise in a european low-risk population, such as the italian one. Methods We studied 84 italian caucasian subjects (50 males and 34 females with elevated blood pressure and/or dyslipidemia plus other possible cardiovascular risk factors. The subjects have never been treated for these reasons. The following evaluations were performed: history, clinical and laboratory determinations, echocardiogram, carotid echodoppler. Results The recruited people were on the whole characterized by a low cardiovascular risk, as confirmed by the low scores of the Progetto Cuore. Simple linear regression analysis showed significant associations between some parameters of early cardiovascular damage (left ventricular mass, intima-media thickness, and an integrated measure of both the carotid wall thickness and the presence of a plaque, called Carotid score and some predictors. The highest significance was found between the cardiovascular structural results and the Progetto Cuore score. In a multivariate regression analysis our model, which included factors potentially linked to the cardiovascular anatomic changes, demonstrated that the Carotid score was significantly associated with age, sex and pulse pressure; intima-media thickness with the same factors and, in addition, with the body mass index; left ventricular mass with sex, pulse pressure and body mass index. Conclusion Our paper confirms previous studies about the association between a comprehensive risk score and signs of early cardiovascular damage. A

  13. 74. Cardiovascular risk assessment for Saudi university employees and their families: Developing a framework for provision of an evidence-based cardiovascular disease preventative programme

    OpenAIRE

    R. Alzeidan; F. Rabiee; A. Hersi; A. Mandil

    2016-01-01

    In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the primary cause of death among adults, representing 46% of total mortality in 2014. This study’s objectives were to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs), and calculate the cardiovascular risk (CVR) among King Saud University employees and their families. Moreover, it aimed at assessing the possible effects of living in KSA on the heart health of expatriate employees and their families. A cross-s...

  14. 26. Cardiovascular risk assessment for Saudi university employees and their families: developing a framework for provision of an evidence-based cardiovascular disease preventative programme.

    OpenAIRE

    R. Alzeidan; F. Rabiee; A. Hersi; A. Mandil

    2016-01-01

    In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the primary cause of death among adults, representing 46% of total mortality in 2014. This study’s objectives were to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs), and calculate the cardiovascular risk (CVR) among King Saud University employees and their families. Moreover, it aimed at assessing the possible effects of living in KSA on the heart health of expatriate employees and their families.A cross-se...

  15. Overweight in Childhood, Adolescence and Adulthood and Cardiovascular Risk in Later Life: Pooled Analysis of Three British Birth Cohorts

    OpenAIRE

    Park, MH; Sovio, U.; Viner, RM; Hardy, RJ; Kinra, S.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Overweight and obesity in adulthood are established risk factors for adverse cardiovascular outcomes, but the contribution of overweight in childhood to later cardiovascular risk is less clear. Evidence for a direct effect of childhood overweight would highlight early life as an important target for cardiovascular disease prevention. The aim of this study was to assess whether overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence contribute to excess cardiovascular risk in adults. ...

  16. Cardiovascular risk assessment in hypertensive patients Evaluación del riesgo cardiovascular en hipertensos Avaliação do risco cardiovascular em hipertensos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Amaral de Paula

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to assess cardiovascular risk by means of the traditional Framingham score and the version modified through the incorporation of emerging risk factors, such as family history of acute myocardial infarction, metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease. METHOD: participants were 50 hypertensive patients under outpatient treatment. The clinical data were collected through a semi-structured interview and the laboratory data from patients' histories. RESULTS: it was verified that the traditional Framingham score was predominantly low (74%, with 14% showing medium risk and 12% high risk. After the inclusion of emerging risk factors, the chance of a coronary event was low in 22% of the cases, medium in 56% and high in 22%. CONCLUSIONS: the comparison between the traditional Framingham risk score and the modified version demonstrated a significant difference in the cardiovascular risk classification, whose correlation shows discreet agreement between the two scales. Lifestyle elements seem to play a determinant role in the increase in cardiovascular risk levels. OBJETIVO: evaluar el riesgo cardiovascular utilizando el puntaje de Framingham tradicional y el modificado por la incorporación de factores de riesgo emergentes como historia familiar de infarto agudo del miocardio, síndrome metabólico y enfermedad renal crónica. MÉTODO: participaron 50 hipertensos que hacen tratamiento en ambulatorio. Los datos clínicos fueron obtenidos por medio de entrevista semiestructurada y los de laboratorio fueron obtenidos de fichas. RESULTADOS: se verificó que el puntaje de Framingham tradicional fue predominantemente bajo (74%, 14% presentó riesgo medio y 12% riesgo alto. Tras la inclusión de factores de riesgo emergentes, la probabilidad de ocurrir un evento coronario fue baja en 22% de los casos, media en 56% y alta en 22% de los casos. CONCLUSIONES: la comparación entre el puntaje de riesgo de Framingham tradicional y el modificado demostr

  17. Can a statin neutralize the cardiovascular risk of unhealthy dietary choices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferenczi, Emily A; Asaria, Perviz; Hughes, Alun D; Chaturvedi, Nishi; Francis, Darrel P

    2010-08-15

    The cardiovascular risk reduction associated with different statins for the prevention of cardiovascular disease and the cardiovascular risk increase associated with excess dietary intake of fat have been quantified. However, these relative risks have never been directly juxtaposed to determine whether an increase in relative risk by 1 activity could be neutralized by an opposing change in relative risk from a second activity. The investigators compared the increase in relative risk for cardiovascular disease associated with the total fat and trans fat content of fast foods against the relative risk decrease provided by daily statin consumption from a meta-analysis of statins in primary prevention of coronary artery disease (7 randomized controlled trials including 42,848 patients). The risk reduction associated with the daily consumption of most statins, with the exception of pravastatin, is more powerful than the risk increase caused by the daily extra fat intake associated with a 7-oz hamburger (Quarter Pounder) with cheese and a small milkshake. In conclusion, statin therapy can neutralize the cardiovascular risk caused by harmful diet choices. In other spheres of human activity, individuals choosing risky pursuits (motorcycling, smoking, driving) are advised or compelled to use measures to minimize the risk (safety equipment, filters, seatbelts). Likewise, some individuals eat unhealthily. Routine accessibility of statins in establishments providing unhealthy food might be a rational modern means to offset the cardiovascular risk. Fast food outlets already offer free condiments to supplement meals. A free statin-containing accompaniment would offer cardiovascular benefits, opposite to the effects of equally available salt, sugar, and high-fat condiments. Although no substitute for systematic lifestyle improvements, including healthy diet, regular exercise, weight loss, and smoking cessation, complimentary statin packets would add, at little cost, 1 positive

  18. New measure of insulin sensitivity predicts cardiovascular disease better than HOMA estimated insulin resistance.

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    Kavita Venkataraman

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Accurate assessment of insulin sensitivity may better identify individuals at increased risk of cardio-metabolic diseases. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether a combination of anthropometric, biochemical and imaging measures can better estimate insulin sensitivity index (ISI and provide improved prediction of cardio-metabolic risk, in comparison to HOMA-IR. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: Healthy male volunteers (96 Chinese, 80 Malay, 77 Indian, 21 to 40 years, body mass index 18-30 kg/m(2. Predicted ISI (ISI-cal was generated using 45 randomly selected Chinese through stepwise multiple linear regression, and validated in the rest using non-parametric correlation (Kendall's tau τ. In an independent longitudinal cohort, ISI-cal and HOMA-IR were compared for prediction of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD, using ROC curves. SETTING: The study was conducted in a university academic medical centre. OUTCOME MEASURES: ISI measured by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic glucose clamp, along with anthropometric measurements, biochemical assessment and imaging; incident diabetes and CVD. RESULTS: A combination of fasting insulin, serum triglycerides and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR provided the best estimate of clamp-derived ISI (adjusted R(2 0.58 versus 0.32 HOMA-IR. In an independent cohort, ROC areas under the curve were 0.77±0.02 ISI-cal versus 0.76±0.02 HOMA-IR (p>0.05 for incident diabetes, and 0.74±0.03 ISI-cal versus 0.61±0.03 HOMA-IR (p<0.001 for incident CVD. ISI-cal also had greater sensitivity than defined metabolic syndrome in predicting CVD, with a four-fold increase in the risk of CVD independent of metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Triglycerides and WHR, combined with fasting insulin levels, provide a better estimate of current insulin resistance state and improved identification of individuals with future risk of CVD, compared to HOMA-IR. This may be useful for estimating insulin sensitivity and cardio-metabolic risk in clinical and

  19. Role of Cystatin-C in assessing the cardiovascular risk among overweight and obese individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Krishna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cystatin C is a naturally occurring protease inhibitor that protects the host tissue from Cysteine protease Cathepsins, which is a pro-atherogenic factor. Cystatin C is a reliable marker of renal functions and its plasma concentration is dependent completely on Glomerular Filtration Rate, and has emerged as a biomarker of cardiovascular risk . The main objective of present study is to estimate the serum levels of Cystatin C in individuals with normal BMI, overweight and obese, aged between 20 and 39 years and to correlate the levels of serum Cystatin C with cardiovascular risk factors. Materials and Methods: The study population was taken from healthy volunteers of Mysore city, aged between 20 and 39 years of either sex. The study population was divided into three groups based on BMI. The sample size in each group was 20. Fasting serum sample was analyzed for glucose, HDL cholesterol, creatinine by enzymatic method and serum Cystatin C by immunoturbidimetric method using autoanalyser. Results: The serum Cystatin C levels was significantly increased in overweight and obese groups, P value <0.001. The mean serum Cystatin C levels in normal BMI group was 0.7 ± 0.03, in overweight group 0.91 ± 0.009 and in obese group was 1.15 ± 0.09. In the study, serum Cystatin C showed a positive correlation with serum total cholesterol ( r = 0.71, LDL cholesterol ( r = 0.69, total CHOL: HDL ( r = 0.77, HDL: LDL ( r = 0.75, serum glucose ( r = 0.61 and negative correlation with serum HDL ( r = -0.52. Conclusion: Serum Cystatin C can serve as a good predictive marker of preclinical cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease in overweight and obese individuals.

  20. Ambient temperature and risk of cardiovascular hospitalization: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Dung; Thai, Phong K; Guo, Yuming; Morawska, Lidia; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia

    2016-04-15

    The association between temperatures and risk of cardiovascular mortality has been recognized but the association drawn from previous meta-analysis was weak due to the lack of sufficient studies. This paper presented a review with updated reports in the literature about the risk of cardiovascular hospitalization in relation to different temperature exposures and examined the dose-response relationship of temperature-cardiovascular hospitalization by change in units of temperature, latitudes, and lag days. The pooled effect sizes were calculated for cold, heat, heatwave, and diurnal variation using random-effects meta-analysis, and the dose-response relationship of temperature-cardiovascular admission was modelled using random-effect meta-regression. The Cochrane Q-test and index of heterogeneity (I(2)) were used to evaluate heterogeneity, and Egger's test was used to evaluate publication bias. Sixty-four studies were included in meta-analysis. The pooled results suggest that for a change in temperature condition, the risk of cardiovascular hospitalization increased 2.8% (RR, 1.028; 95% CI, 1.021-1.035) for cold exposure, 2.2% (RR, 1.022; 95% CI, 1.006-1.039) for heatwave exposure, and 0.7% (RR, 1.007; 95% CI, 1.002-1.012) for an increase in diurnal temperature. However no association was observed for heat exposure. The significant dose-response relationship of temperature - cardiovascular admission was found with cold exposure and diurnal temperature. Increase in one-day lag caused a marginal reduction in risk of cardiovascular hospitalizations for cold exposure and diurnal variation, and increase in latitude was associated with a decrease in risk of cardiovascular hospitalizations for diurnal temperature only. There is a significant short-term effect of cold exposure, heatwave and diurnal variation on cardiovascular hospitalizations. Further research is needed to understand the temperature-cardiovascular relationship for different climate areas. PMID:26871555

  1. Effects of customized risk reduction program on cardiovascular risk in males with spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Myers, PhD

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Persons with spinal cord injury (SCI have heightened risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD. Multidisciplinary risk reduction programs using case management models have been effective in reducing CVD risk in nondisabled persons, but little is known regarding the effects of such programs in SCI. Twenty-six persons with SCI underwent a pilot 2 yr risk intervention program including frequent telephone contact by a case manager and in-person visits by a dietitian, physical therapist, and exercise physiologist. At 6 mo intervals, measurements were made of dietary intake, glucose and lipids, physical activity patterns, and exercise capacity. Of the 26 participants, 10 remained in the program for the full 2 yr; medical issues unrelated to the program were the major reasons for dropping out. Significant improvements were observed in weight, plasma insulin, homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance, and total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein ratio, although these changes were not consistent across visits. No differences in estimates of physical activity patterns were demonstrated, nor were differences in dietary macronutrient intake observed. Thus, modest changes in some CVD risk markers can be achieved by a multidisciplinary risk reduction program in SCI. Such programs present more challenges than in ambulatory persons, and more intensive risk intervention may be required to appreciably reduce CVD risk in SCI.

  2. Cardiovascular Risk Behavior among Sedentary Female Smokers and Smoking Cessation Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terwal Donna

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined female sedentary smokers' additional cardiovascular disease (CVD risk behaviors and their associations to smoking cessation. Methods This study was part of a randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness of exercise and nicotine gum in smoking cessation. Included in the analyses were 148 participants. Dietary habits and alcohol consumption were measured as additional CVD risk behaviors. High-fat diet and heavy alcohol use were considered those risk behaviors. Nicotine dependence, length of the longest quit attempt, depressive symptoms, self-efficacy, and education were examined as other baseline variables. Abstinence from tobacco was recorded through 12 months. Results Diet was related to depressive symptoms at baseline. Alcohol use was related to nicotine dependence and education level. Heavy alcohol use alone and accumulation of two added risk behaviors predicted poorer smoking cessation outcome. Although diet alone was not associated with cessation outcome the high-fat diet interacted with depressive symptoms, such that the depressed women with high-fat diet were significantly more likely to relapse in their quit attempt compared to other subgroups. Conclusion Non-moderate alcohol use alone and accumulation of multiple CVD risk behaviors seem to be associated with lower success in smoking cessation.

  3. Cardiovascular and Neonatal Outcomes in Pregnant Women With High-Risk Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillutla, Priya; Nguyen, Tina; Markovic, Daniela; Canobbio, Mary; Koos, Brian J; Aboulhosn, Jamil A

    2016-05-15

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) increases the risk of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. However, previous studies have included mainly women with low-risk features. A single-center, retrospective analysis of pregnant women with CHD was performed. Inclusion criteria were the following high-risk congenital lesions and co-morbidities: maternal cyanosis; New York Heart Association (NHYA) functional class >II; severe ventricular dysfunction; maternal arrhythmia, single ventricle (SV) physiology, severe left-sided heart obstruction and severe pulmonary arterial hypertension. Multivariate analyses for predictors of adverse maternal cardiovascular and neonatal outcomes were performed. Forty-three women reported 61 pregnancies. There were no maternal or neonatal deaths. Maternal cardiac (31%) and neonatal (54%) complications were frequent. The most frequent cardiac events were pulmonary edema, arrhythmia, and reduced NYHA class. Previous arrhythmia conferred a 12-fold increase in the odds of experiencing at least one major cardiac complication. Maternal SV physiology was an independent risk factor for low birth weight, risk of neonatal intensive care unit admission and lower gestational age. Maternal cyanosis and severe pulmonary arterial hypertension also predicted adverse neonatal outcomes. In conclusion, mothers without antepartum arrhythmia or functional incapacity are unlikely to experience arrhythmias or a decrease in NYHA class during pregnancy. In addition, SV physiology is a robust predictor of neonatal complications. Antepartum counseling and assessment of maternal fitness are crucial for the woman with CHD. PMID:27055756

  4. Cardiovascular Risk Behavior among Sedentary Female Smokers and Smoking Cessation Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quiles Zandra

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined female sedentary smokers' additional cardiovascular disease (CVD risk behaviors and their associations to smoking cessation. Methods This study was part of a randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness of exercise and nicotine gum in smoking cessation. Included in the analyses were 148 participants. Dietary habits and alcohol consumption were measured as additional CVD risk behaviors. High-fat diet and heavy alcohol use were considered those risk behaviors. Nicotine dependence, length of the longest quit attempt, depressive symptoms, self-efficacy, and education were examined as other baseline variables. Abstinence from tobacco was recorded through 12 months. Results Diet was related to depressive symptoms at baseline. Alcohol use was related to nicotine dependence and education level. Heavy alcohol use alone and accumulation of two added risk behaviors predicted poorer smoking cessation outcome. Although diet alone was not associated with cessation outcome the high-fat diet interacted with depressive symptoms, such that the depressed women with high-fat diet were significantly more likely to relapse in their quit attempt compared to other subgroups. Conclusion Non-moderate alcohol use alone and accumulation of multiple CVD risk behaviors seem to be associated with lower success in smoking cessation.

  5. Relating Education, Brain Structure, and Cognition: The Role of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moyra E. Mortby

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The protective effect of education on cognitive and brain health is well established. While the direct effects of individual cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors (i.e., hypertension, smoking, diabetes, and obesity on cerebral structure have been investigated, little is understood about the possible interaction between the protective effect of education and the deleterious effects of CVD risk factors in predicting brain ageing and cognition. Using data from the PATH Through Life study (N=266, we investigated the protective effect of education on cerebral structure and function and tested a possible mediating role of CVD risk factors. Higher education was associated with larger regional grey/white matter volumes in the prefrontal cortex in men only. The association between education and cognition was mediated by brain volumes but only for grey matter and only in relation to information processing speed. CVD risk factors did not mediate the association between regional volumes and cognition. This study provides additional evidence in support for a protective effect of education on cerebral structures and cognition. However, it does not provide support for a mediating role of CVD risk factors in these associations.

  6. Predicting adolescents’ health risk behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Kalebić Maglica, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore factors of adolescents’ health risk behaviors regarding smoking and alcohol consumption in the framework of the prototype/willingness model and approach connecting personality traits and health risk behaviors. The sample consisted of 341 high school students. Their task was to complete several questionnaires measuring relevant risk factors (attitudes, subjective norms, prototypes and willingness), frequency of smoking/drinking, and personality traits (BFI)...

  7. Cardiovascular risk factors among the inhabitants of an urban Congolese community: results of the VITARAA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal M. Bayauli

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Our findings highlight the staggering rates of cardiovascular risk factors in sub-Saharan Africa and underscore the pressing need to move their prevention and control higher on the political agenda.

  8. Estimating the value of information in strategies for identifying patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Marshall

    2006-06-01

    Conclusions Because strategies prioritising patients by estimated cardiovascular risk dominate alternative strategies, it is possible to estimate the value of information in terms of reduced resources to achieve the same results. These resource savings largely represent savings in staff time.

  9. Population prevalence and control of cardiovascular risk factors: What electronic medical records tell us

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arantxa Catalán-Ramos

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Hypertension was the most prevalent cardiovascular risk factor in the Catalan population attended at primary care centers. About two thirds of individuals with hypertension or DM2 were adequately controlled; hypercholesterolemia control was particularly low.

  10. Mercury exposure and risk of cardiovascular disease in two U.S. cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mozaffarian, Dariush; Shi, Peilin; Morris, J Steven; Spiegelman, Donna; Grandjean, Philippe; Siscovick, David S; Willett, Walter C; Rimm, Eric B

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to methylmercury from fish consumption has been linked to a potentially increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but evidence from prior studies is equivocal. Beneficial effects of the ingestion of fish and selenium may also modify such effects....

  11. Mercury exposure and risk of cardiovascular disease in two U.S. cohorts

    OpenAIRE

    Mozaffarian, Dariush; Shi, Peilin; Morris, J. Steven; Spiegelman, Donna; Grandjean, Philippe; Siscovick, David S.; Willett, Walter C; Rimm, Eric B

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to methylmercury from fish consumption has been linked to a potentially increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but evidence from prior studies is equivocal. Beneficial effects of the ingestion of fish and selenium may also modify such effects.

  12. Effects of contraceptive steroids on cardiovascular risk factors in women with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, K R; Skouby, S O; Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen;

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We evaluated established cardiovascular risk factors within lipoprotein metabolism, hemostasis, and endothelial function in women with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus who were using oral contraceptives. STUDY DESIGN: Twenty-five women with uncomplicated insulin-dependent diabetes m...

  13. A clinical approach to obstructive sleep apnea as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeder, Micha T; Schoch, Otto D; Rickli, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with cardiovascular risk factors, cardiovascular diseases, and increased mortality. Epidemiological studies have established these associations, and there are now numerous experimental and clinical studies which have provided information on the possible underlying mechanisms. Mechanistic proof-of-concept studies with surrogate endpoints have been performed to demonstrate that treatment of OSA by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has the potential to reverse or at least to attenuate not only OSA but also the adverse cardiovascular effects associated with OSA. However, no randomized studies have been performed to demonstrate that treatment of OSA by CPAP improves clinical outcomes in patients with cardiovascular risk factors and/or established cardiovascular disease and concomitant OSA. In the present review, we summarize the current knowledge on the role of OSA as a potential cardiovascular risk factor, the impact of OSA on cardiac function, the role of OSA as a modifier of the course of cardiovascular diseases such as coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, and heart failure, and the insights from studies evaluating the impact of CPAP therapy on the cardiovascular features associated with OSA. PMID:27051291

  14. Relationships between body mass index, cardiovascular mortality, and risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dudina, Alexandra; Cooney, Marie Therese; Bacquer, Dirk De; Backer, Guy De; Ducimetière, Pierre; Jousilahti, Pekka; Keil, Ulrich; Menotti, Alessandro; Njølstad, Inger; Oganov, Rafael; Sans, Susana; Thomsen, Troels; Tverdal, Aage; Wedel, Hans; Whincup, Peter; Wilhelmsen, Lars; Conroy, Ronan; Fitzgerald, Anthony; Graham, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Although cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the biggest global cause of death, CVD mortality is falling in developed countries. There is concern that this trend may be offset by increasing levels of obesity.......Although cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the biggest global cause of death, CVD mortality is falling in developed countries. There is concern that this trend may be offset by increasing levels of obesity....

  15. Imaging of cardiovascular risk in patients with Turner's syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Marin, A.; Weir-McCall, J.R.; Webb, D J; van Beek, E J R; Mirsadraee, S.

    2015-01-01

    Turner's syndrome is a disorder defined by an absent or structurally abnormal second X chromosome and affects around 1 in 2000 newborn females. The standardised mortality ratio in Turner's syndrome is around three-times higher than in the general female population, mainly as a result of cardiovascular disorders. Most striking is the early age at which Turner's syndrome patients develop the life-threatening complications of cardiovascular disorders compared to the general population. The cardi...

  16. Imaging of cardiovascular risk in patients with Turner's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner's syndrome is a disorder defined by an absent or structurally abnormal second X chromosome and affects around 1 in 2000 newborn females. The standardised mortality ratio in Turner's syndrome is around three-times higher than in the general female population, mainly as a result of cardiovascular disorders. Most striking is the early age at which Turner's syndrome patients develop the life-threatening complications of cardiovascular disorders compared to the general population. The cardiovascular risk stratification in Turner's syndrome is challenging and imaging is not systematically used. The aim of this article is to review cardiovascular risks in this group of patients and discuss a systematic imaging approach for early identification of cardiovascular disorders in these patients

  17. Meta-Analysis of Anxiety as a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emdin, Connor A; Odutayo, Ayodele; Wong, Christopher X; Tran, Jenny; Hsiao, Allan J; Hunn, Benjamin H M

    2016-08-15

    Whether anxiety is a risk factor for a range of cardiovascular diseases is unclear. We aimed to determine the association between anxiety and a range of cardiovascular diseases. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for cohort studies that included participants with and without anxiety, including subjects with anxiety, worry, posttraumatic stress disorder, phobic anxiety, and panic disorder. We examined the association of anxiety with cardiovascular mortality, major cardiovascular events (defined as the composite of cardiovascular death, stroke, coronary heart disease, and heart failure), stroke, coronary heart disease, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation. We identified 46 cohort studies containing 2,017,276 participants and 222,253 subjects with anxiety. Anxiety was associated with a significantly elevated risk of cardiovascular mortality (relative risk [RR] 1.41, CI 1.13 to 1.76), coronary heart disease (RR 1.41, CI 1.23 to 1.61), stroke (RR 1.71, CI 1.18 to 2.50), and heart failure (RR 1.35, CI 1.11 to 1.64). Anxiety was not significantly associated with major cardiovascular events or atrial fibrillation although CIs were wide. Phobic anxiety was associated with a higher risk of coronary heart disease than other anxiety disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder was associated with a higher risk of stroke. Results were broadly consistent in sensitivity analyses. Anxiety disorders are associated with an elevated risk of a range of different cardiovascular events, including stroke, coronary heart disease, heart failure, and cardiovascular death. Whether these associations are causal is unclear. PMID:27324160

  18. Recreational physical activity as an independent predictor of multivariable cardiovascular disease risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satvinder S Dhaliwal

    Full Text Available The role of physical activity in preventing CVD has been highlighted by Professor Jerry Morris in the 1950's. We report outcome of a 15-year prospective study with the aim to identify whether physical activity showed cardiovascular benefit independent of common risk factors and of central obesity. Baseline data of 8662 subjects, with no previous history of heart disease, diabetes or stroke, were obtained from an age- and gender- stratified sample of adults in Australian capital cities and were linked with the National Death Index to determine the causes of death of 610 subjects who had died to 31 December 2004. The study consisted of 4175 males (age 42.3 ± 13.1 years and 4487 females (age 42.8 ± 13.2 years. Fasting serum lipid levels, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and smoking habits at baseline were recorded. The Framingham Risk Scores of 15-year mortality due to CHD and CVD were calculated using established equations. Subjects were also asked if they engaged in vigorous exercise, less vigorous exercise or walk for recreation and exercise in the past 2 weeks. Subjects in the high recreational physical activity category were 0.16 (0.06-0.43; p<0.001 and 0.12 (0.03-0.48; p = 0.003 times as likely as subjects in the low category for CVD and CHD mortality respectively. After adjusting for both the Framingham Risk Score and central obesity (Waist circumference to Hip circumference Ratio, those in the high recreational physical activity group were 0.35 (0.13-0.98 times less likely compared to the low category for CVD mortality. Recreational physical activity independently predicted reduced cardiovascular mortality over fifteen years. A public health focus on increased physical activity and preventing obesity is required to reduce the risk of CVD and CHD.

  19. DYSLIPIDEMIA IN PREECLAMPSIA – RISK FACTOR FOR FUTU RE MATERNAL CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine Latha

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Preeclampsia is still one of the leading causes of m aternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. It is associated with insulin resistance & increase in Free Fatty Acids and plasma Triglycerides well above that seen in normal pregnan cy . The pattern of dyslipidemia seen in preeclampsia may predispose these women to future cardi ovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to compare the alteration in lipid profile and also the calculated risk ratios of women who developed Preeclampsia with normotensive pregnant women. This cross sectional study was carried out in Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Governme nt Hospital, Trichy, Tamilnadu.100 women with preeclampsia and 100 normotensive pregnant women as controls were included in the study after obtaining their informed consent. T he diagnosis of Preeclampsia was done as per the norms of American college of Obstetrics and Gyn ecologists. Fasting blood samples were collected. Serum glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride s, and HDL-C were estimated by standard methods using standard kits. LDL-C was calculated b y Friedwald’s equation. All the results were analyzed statistically using ANOVA technique. There was significant elevation of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, VLDL and risk rati os TC/HDL and TGL/HDL and decrease in HDL in Preeclamptic group compared to normotensives (p<0.00 01. The dyslipidemic pattern of elevated TGL and reduced HDL which was also reflect ed in highly elevated TGL/HDL seen in preeclamptic patients is definitely atherogenic and ma y lead to future maternal cardiovascular disease. Hence simple measurement of lipid profile at 20 weeks of gestation can help in preventing the complications of PIH and future cardio vascular risk of the mother. Further studies in larger population in various ethnic groups are required to predict maternal future cardiovascular risk and its prevention by lifestyle modifications and therapy

  20. Clinical values dataset processing through cluster analysis to find cardiovascular risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, C. M.; Legnani, W. E.; Armentano, R. L.

    2016-04-01

    The scope of this work is to show another way to grouping population with clinical variables measured in health centres and to assign a cardiovascular risk indicator. To do this, two different datasets were used, one coming from France and another coming from Uruguay. The well proved Framingham index was used to validate the results. The preliminary results are very auspicious to encourage the research and get deeper knowledge of the cardiovascular risk indicators.

  1. Prevalence of Cardiovascular disease risk among Medical Students in South India

    OpenAIRE

    Biswajit Paul; Vidhyaa Nayaaki; Mousumi Sen; Rita Isaac

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are global epidemic and contribute to double burden in developing countries. Individual’s dietary habits and risk behavior influence the onset and progression of CVDs. Medical students are future role models of the society and their knowledge, habits and behavior can influence their practice in prevention of CVDs in general population. Aims & Objectives: To assess the prevalence of common cardiovascular risk factors among a sample of medical stud...

  2. Does pulmonary rehabilitation address cardiovascular risk factors in patients with COPD?

    OpenAIRE

    Shale Dennis J; Cockcroft John R; Enright Stephanie; Duckers James M; Gale Nichola S; Bolton Charlotte E

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Patients with COPD have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Whilst pulmonary rehabilitation has proven benefit for exercise tolerance and quality of life, any effect on cardiovascular risk has not been fully investigated. We hypothesised that pulmonary rehabilitation, through the exercise and nutritional intervention, would address these factors. Methods Thirty-two stable patients with COPD commenced rehabilitation, and were compared with 20 age and gender matched...

  3. Effect of Weight Reduction on Cardiovascular Risk Factors and CD34-positive Cells in Circulation

    OpenAIRE

    Nina A Mikirova, Joseph J Casciari, Ronald E Hunninghake, Margaret M Beezley

    2011-01-01

    Being overweight or obese is associated with an increased risk for the development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Dyslipidemia of obesity is characterized by elevated fasting triglycerides and decreased high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations. Endothelial damage and dysfunction is considered to be a major underlying mechanism for the elevated cardiovascular risk associated with increased adiposity. Alterations in endothelial c...

  4. Major dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors among young Brazilian adults

    OpenAIRE

    Olinto, Maria Teresa A.; Gigante, Denise P.; Horta, Bernardo; Silveira, Vera; OLIVEIRA, ISABEL; Willett, Walter C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Diet is one of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. The scientific literature has consistently shown the effects of certain diets on health; however, given the variety of cultures and dietary habits across the world, it is likely that much remains to be learned about dietary patterns and health outcomes. We assessed the associations between main dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors among 4,202 young Brazilian adults in a cross-sectional ...

  5. The Effect of Exercise on the Cardiovascular Risk Factors Constituting the Metabolic Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Pattyn, Nele; Cornelissen, Véronique A; Eshghi, Saeed R. Toghi; Vanhees, Luc

    2012-01-01

    Background Numerous meta-analyses have investigated the effect of exercise in different populations and for single cardiovascular risk factors, but none have specifically focused on the metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients and the concomitant effect of exercise on all associated cardiovascular risk factors. Objective The aim of this article was to perform a systematic review with a meta-analysis of randomized and clinical controlled trials (RCTs, CTs) investigating the effect of exercise on car...

  6. Dietary Patterns and Cardiovascular Disease–Related Risks in Chinese Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Jing eSun; Nicholas Jan Buys; Shu-Ying eShen

    2013-01-01

    AbstractStudies of Western populations demonstrate a relationship between dietary patterns and cardiovascular-related risk factors. Simiar research regarding Chinese populations is limited. This study explored the dietary patterns of Chinese older adults and their association with cardiovascular-related risk factors, including hypertension, obesity and metabolic syndrome. Data were collected using a 34-item Chinese food frequency questionnaire from 750 randomly selected older adults aged 50–8...

  7. Dietary Patterns and Cardiovascular Disease-Related Risks in Chinese Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas; Shen, Shuying

    2013-01-01

    Studies of Western populations demonstrate a relationship between dietary patterns and cardiovascular-related risk factors. Similar research regarding Chinese populations is limited. This study explored the dietary patterns of Chinese older adults and their association with cardiovascular-related risk factors, including hypertension, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Data were collected using a 34-item Chinese food frequency questionnaire from 750 randomly selected older adults aged 50–88 who ...

  8. Effects of Smokeless Tobacco “Maras Powder” Use on Nitric Oxide and Cardiovascular Risk Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Guven, Aytekin; Tolun, Fatma

    2012-01-01

    Background: Smokeless tobacco use is common in various parts of the world. In Turkey a type of smokeless tobacco called “Maras powder” is widely used in southeastern region. Smoking is known to have an adverse effect on nitric oxide and cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there is difference between the effects of Maras powder and cigarette smoking on the cardiovascular risk factors and nitric oxide levels. Methods: In the study, participants were 48 Mar...

  9. Associations between socioeconomic status and cardiovascular risk factors in an urban population in China.

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In developed countries socioeconomic status has been proven to be an important factor in the progression of cardiovascular disease. The present article reports the results of a cross-sectional assessment to investigate the association between socioeconomic status and cardiovascular risk factors in a Chinese urban population. METHODS: In 1996, a behavioural risk factor survey was carried out in Tianjin, the third largest city in China. A sample of 4000 people aged 15-69 years, st...

  10. The level of grammar school students’ knowledge on cardiovascular disease risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Jaraković Milana; Mihajlović Bojan; Čemerlić Snežana; Ađić Filip; Sladojević Miroslava; Mihajlović Bogoljub

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Cardiovascular diseases are one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The atherosclerotic process in the aorta starts in childhood, while atheroclerotic changes of coronary heart vessels start in adolescence. The aim of the study was to evaluate the knowledge of the students attending all four grades of grammar school about the risk factors for cardiovascular disease, with special attention to the risk factors that can be...

  11. Effects of Smokeless Tobacco “Maras Powder” Use on Nitric Oxide and Cardiovascular Risk Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Aytekin Guven, Fatma Tolun

    2012-01-01

    Background: Smokeless tobacco use is common in various parts of the world. In Turkey a type of smokeless tobacco called “Maras powder” is widely used in southeastern region. Smoking is known to have an adverse effect on nitric oxide and cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there is difference between the effects of Maras powder and cigarette smoking on the cardiovascular risk factors and nitric oxide levels.Methods: In the study, participants ...

  12. Assessing perinatal depression as an indicator of risk for pregnancy-associated cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Lauren; Lecour, Sandrine; Wedegärtner, Sonja; Kindermann, Ingrid; Böhm, Michael; Sliwa, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular conditions associated with pregnancy are serious complications. In general, depression is a well-known risk indicator for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Mental distress and depression are associated with physiological responses such as inflammation and oxidative stress. Both inflammation and oxidative stress have been implicated in the pathophysiology of CVDs associated with pregnancy. This article discusses whether depression could represent a risk indicator for CVDs in pregnancy, in particular in pre-eclampsia and peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM). PMID:27213860

  13. Fatty Acid Oxidation and Cardiovascular Risk during Menopause: A Mitochondrial Connection?

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Paulo J; Carvalho, Rui A.; Piero Portincasa; Leonilde Bonfrate; Sardao, Vilma A.

    2012-01-01

    Menopause is a consequence of the normal aging process in women. This fact implies that the physiological and biochemical alterations resulting from menopause often blur with those from the aging process. It is thought that menopause in women presents a higher risk for cardiovascular disease although the precise mechanism is still under discussion. The postmenopause lipid profile is clearly altered, which can present a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Due to the role of mitochondria in...

  14. Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Singapore: Its Implications to Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Bi, Xinyan; Tey, Siew Ling; Leong, Claudia; Quek, Rina; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2016-01-01

    Objective Vitamin D deficiency is a global health challenge and has been linked to type 2 diabetes and other chronic diseases. However, the relationship between vitamin D status, body composition, and cardiovascular risks has not been well characterized in Asian populations. The objectives of this study were to examine the factors associated with the low vitamin D levels in a sunny tropical region and to assess the role of vitamin D status in cardiovascular risk factors. Design and Methods Th...

  15. Gene polymorphisms in association with emerging cardiovascular risk markers in adult women

    OpenAIRE

    Dowling Nicole F; Hayes Donald; Ned Renée; Fang Jing; House Meaghan; Chang Man-huei; Yesupriya Ajay; Fan Amy Z; Mokdad Ali H

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Evidence on the associations of emerging cardiovascular disease risk factors/markers with genes may help identify intermediate pathways of disease susceptibility in the general population. This population-based study is aimed to determine the presence of associations between a wide array of genetic variants and emerging cardiovascular risk markers among adult US women. Methods The current analysis was performed among the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NH...

  16. Fatty Acid Desaturase Gene Variants, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and Myocardial Infarction in the Costa Rica Study

    OpenAIRE

    Aslibekyan, S.; Jensen, M K; Campos, H.; Linkletter, C. D.; Loucks, E. B.; Ordovas, J. M.; Deka, R.; Rimm, E. B.; Baylin, A

    2012-01-01

    Genetic variation in fatty acid desaturases (FADS) has previously been linked to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in adipose tissue and cardiovascular risk. The goal of our study was to test associations between six common FADS polymorphisms (rs174556, rs3834458, rs174570, rs2524299, rs174589, rs174627), intermediate cardiovascular risk factors, and non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) in a matched population based case–control study of Costa Rican adults (n = 1756). Generalized...

  17. Importance of cardiovascular disease risk management in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorber, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is commonly accompanied by other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, such as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia. Furthermore, CVD is the most common cause of death in people with T2DM. It is therefore of critical importance to minimize the risk of macrovascular complications by carefully managing modifiable CVD risk factors in patients with T2DM. Therapeutic strategies should include lifestyle and pharmacological interventions targeting hyperglycemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, cigarette smoking, physical inactivity, and prothrombotic factors. This article discusses the impact of modifying these CVD risk factors in the context of T2DM; the clinical evidence is summarized, and current guidelines are also discussed. The cardiovascular benefits of smoking cessation, increasing physical activity, and reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and blood pressure are well established. For aspirin therapy, any cardiovascular benefits must be balanced against the associated bleeding risk, with current evidence supporting this strategy only in certain patients who are at increased CVD risk. Although overweight, obesity, and hyperglycemia are clearly associated with increased cardiovascular risk, the effect of their modification on this risk is less well defined by available clinical trial evidence. However, for glucose-lowering drugs, further evidence is expected from several ongoing cardiovascular outcome trials. Taken together, the evidence highlights the value of early intervention and targeting multiple risk factors with both lifestyle and pharmacological strategies to give the best chance of reducing macrovascular complications in the long term. PMID:24920930

  18. Lung Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing lung cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  19. Prostate Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing prostate cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  20. Breast Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing breast cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  1. Developmental Dyslexia: Predicting Individual Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Paul A.; Hulme, Charles; Nash, Hannah M.; Gooch, Debbie; Hayiou-Thomas, Emma; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Causal theories of dyslexia suggest that it is a heritable disorder, which is the outcome of multiple risk factors. However, whether early screening for dyslexia is viable is not yet known. Methods: The study followed children at high risk of dyslexia from preschool through the early primary years assessing them from age 3 years and 6…

  2. Ovarian Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing ovarian cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  3. Cervical Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing cervical cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  4. Liver Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing liver cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  5. Pancreatic Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing pancreatic cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  6. Colorectal Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing colorectal cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  7. Audit of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Supported Adults with Intellectual Disability Attending an Ageing Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Robyn A.; Schluter, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor profile for older adults with intellectual disability (ID). As many CVD risk factors are treatable by lifestyle changes, confirmation of the risk factor profile for older adults with ID could substantially impact upon preventive health practices for this group. Method:…

  8. One risk assessment tool for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Alssema (Marjan); R.S. Newson (Rachel); S.J.L. Bakker (Stephan); C.D. Stehouwer (Coen); M.W. Heymans (Martijn); M.G.A.A.M. Nijpels (Giel); H.L. Hillege (Hans); A. Hofman (Albert); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); R.T. Gansevoort; J.M. Dekker (Jacqueline)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE - Individuals at high risk for chronic cardiometabolic disease (cardiovascular disease [CVD], type 2 diabetes, and chronic kidney disease [CKD]) share many risk factors and would benefit from early intervention. We developed a nonlaboratory-based risk-assessment tool for identi

  9. One Risk Assessment Tool for Cardiovascular Disease, Type 2 Diabetes, and Chronic Kidney Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alssema, Marjan; Newson, Rachel S.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Stehouwer, Coen D. A.; Heymans, Martijn W.; Nijpels, Giel; Hillege, Hans L.; Hofman, Albert; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Dekker, Jacqueline M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE-Individuals at high risk for chronic cardiometabolic disease (cardiovascular disease [CVD], type 2 diabetes, and chronic kidney disease [CKDD]) share many risk factors and would benefit from early intervention. We developed a nonlaboratory-based risk-assessment tool for identification of p

  10. [Risk assessment and management of exodontia perioperative patients with cardiovascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W Y

    2016-07-01

    The number of tooth extraction patients with cardiovascular disease in our country is increasing year by year. Safety is essential for those patients and there is no uniform standard of risk assessment and management for tooth extraction patients with cardiovascular disease during perioperative period. By referring to literatures and with the clinical experience, the author summarized the risk assessment methods for tooth extraction patients with cardiovascular disease during perioperative period. Blood pressure control, cardiac function determination, arrhythmia recognition, blood glucose management, oral antiplatelet or anticoagulant medicine use, etc, were proposed in this article. PMID:27480428

  11. Hemorheological and Glycemic Parameters and HDL Cholesterol for the Prediction of Cardiovascular Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Woo Cho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Hemorheological and glycemic parameters and high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol are used as biomarkers of atherosclerosis and thrombosis. Objective: To investigate the association and clinical relevance of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, fibrinogen, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, and HDL cholesterol in the prediction of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE and coronary heart disease (CHD in an outpatient population. Methods: 708 stable patients who visited the outpatient department were enrolled and followed for a mean period of 28.5 months. Patients were divided into two groups, patients without MACE and patients with MACE, which included cardiac death, acute myocardial infarction, newly diagnosed CHD, and cerebral vascular accident. We compared hemorheological and glycemic parameters and lipid profiles between the groups. Results: Patients with MACE had significantly higher ESR, fibrinogen, fasting glucose, and HbA1c, while lower HDL cholesterol compared with patients without MACE. High ESR and fibrinogen and low HDL cholesterol significantly increased the risk of MACE in multivariate regression analysis. In patients with MACE, high fibrinogen and HbA1c levels increased the risk of multivessel CHD. Furthermore, ESR and fibrinogen were significantly positively correlated with HbA1c and negatively correlated with HDL cholesterol, however not correlated with fasting glucose. Conclusion: Hemorheological abnormalities, poor glycemic control, and low HDL cholesterol are correlated with each other and could serve as simple and useful surrogate markers and predictors for MACE and CHD in outpatients.

  12. Variation in GYS1 interacts with exercise and gender to predict cardiovascular mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Fredriksson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The muscle glycogen synthase gene (GYS1 has been associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D, the metabolic syndrome (MetS, male myocardial infarction and a defective increase in muscle glycogen synthase protein in response to exercise. We addressed the questions whether polymorphism in GYS1 can predict cardiovascular (CV mortality in a high-risk population, if this risk is influenced by gender or physical activity, and if the association is independent of genetic variation in nearby apolipoprotein E gene (APOE. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Polymorphisms in GYS1 (XbaIC>T and APOE (-219G>T, epsilon2/epsilon3/epsilon4 were genotyped in 4,654 subjects participating in the Botnia T2D-family study and followed for a median of eight years. Mortality analyses were performed using Cox proportional-hazards regression. During the follow-up period, 749 individuals died, 409 due to CV causes. In males the GYS1 XbaI T-allele (hazard ratio (HR 1.9 [1.2-2.9], T2D (2.5 [1.7-3.8], earlier CV events (1.7 [1.2-2.5], physical inactivity (1.9 [1.2-2.9] and smoking (1.5 [1.0-2.3] predicted CV mortality. The GYS1 XbaI T-allele predicted CV mortality particularly in physically active males (HR 1.7 [1.3-2.0]. Association of GYS1 with CV mortality was independent of APOE (219TT/epsilon4, which by its own exerted an effect on CV mortality risk in females (2.9 [1.9-4.4]. Other independent predictors of CV mortality in females were fasting plasma glucose (1.2 [1.1-1.2], high body mass index (BMI (1.0 [1.0-1.1], hypertension (1.9 [1.2-3.1], earlier CV events (1.9 [1.3-2.8] and physical inactivity (1.9 [1.2-2.8]. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Polymorphisms in GYS1 and APOE predict CV mortality in T2D families in a gender-specific fashion and independently of each other. Physical exercise seems to unmask the effect associated with the GYS1 polymorphism, rendering carriers of the variant allele less susceptible to the protective effect of exercise on the risk of CV death

  13. Impact of psychological and social factors on cardiovascular risk in an adult population at high cardiovascular risk

    OpenAIRE

    Mejía Lancheros, Cília

    2015-01-01

    Antecedentes: Las enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV) siguen siendo la principal causa de morbi-mortalidad y discapacidad en el mundo. Aunque España tiene una de las tasas de morbimortalidad cardiovascular más bajas, las ECV continúan siendo la principal causa de muerte. Así mismo, la prevalencia de factores de riesgo cardiovascular clásicos, como la hipertensión, la diabetes, la dislipemia y la obesidad en la población general es alta. Las causas que conducen a padecer una ECV son multifa...

  14. Unrequested information from routine diagnostic chest CT predicts future cardiovascular events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An increase in the number of CT investigations will likely result in a an increase in unrequested information. Clinical relevance of these findings is unknown. This is the first follow-up study to investigate the prognostic relevance of subclinical coronary (CAC) and aortic calcification (TAC) as contained in routine diagnostic chest CT in a clinical care population. The follow-up of 10,410 subjects (>40 years) from a multicentre, clinical care-based cohort of patients included 240 fatal to 275 non-fatal cardiovascular disease (CVD) events (mean follow-up 17.8 months). Patients with a history of CVD were excluded. Coronary (0-12) and aortic calcification (0-8) were semi-quantitatively scored. We used Cox proportional-hazard models to compute hazard ratios to predict CVD events. CAC and TAC were significantly and independently predictive of CVD events. Compared with subjects with no calcium, the adjusted risk of a CVD event was 3.7 times higher (95% CI, 2.7-5.2) among patients with severe coronary calcification (CAC score ≥6) and 2.7 times higher (95% CI, 2.0-3.7) among patients with severe aortic calcification (TAC score ≥5). Subclinical vascular calcification on CT is a strong predictor of incident CVD events in a routine clinical care population. (orig.)

  15. Clinical utility of rosuvastatin and other statins for cardiovascular risk reduction among the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger S Blumenthal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sydney B Long, Michael J Blaha, Roger S Blumenthal, Erin D MichosJohns Hopkins Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Heart Disease, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: Age is one of the strongest predictors of cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. Treatment with statins can significantly reduce CVD events and mortality in both primary and secondary prevention. Yet despite the high CVD risk among the elderly, there is underutilization of statins in this population (ie, the treatment-risk paradox. Few studies have investigated the use of statins in the elderly, particularly for primary prevention and, as a result, guidelines for treating the elderly are limited. This is likely due to: uncertainties of risk assessment in older individuals where the predictive value of individual risk factors is decreased; the need to balance the benefits of primary prevention with the risks of polypharmacy, health care costs, and adverse medication effects in a population with decreased life expectancy; the complexity of treating patients with many other comorbidities; and increasingly difficult social and economic concerns. As life expectancy increases and the total elderly population grows, these issues become increasingly important. JUPITER (Justification for the Use of statins in Prevention: an Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin is the largest primary prevention statin trial to date and enrolled a substantial number of elderly adults. Among the 5695 JUPITER participants ≥70 years of age, the absolute CVD risk reduction associated with rosuvastatin was actually greater than for younger participants. The implications of this JUPITER subanalysis and the broader role of statins among older adults is the subject of this review.Keywords: JUPITER, rosuvastatin, elderly, risk

  16. Abdominal obesity in Japanese-Brazilians: which measure is best for predicting all-cause and cardiovascular mortality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marselle Rodrigues Bevilacqua

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify which anthropometric measure of abdominal obesity was the best predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in Japanese-Brazilians. The study followed 1,581 subjects for 14 years. Socio-demographic, lifestyle, metabolic, and anthropometric data were collected. The dependent variable was vital status (alive or dead at the end of the study, and the independent variable was presence of abdominal obesity according to different baseline measures. The mortality rate was estimated, and Poisson regression was used to obtain mortality rate ratios with abdominal obesity, adjusted simultaneously for the other variables. The mortality rate was 10.68/thousand person-years. Male gender, age > 60 years, and arterial hypertension were independent risk factors for mortality. The results indicate that prevalence of abdominal obesity was high among Japanese-Brazilians, and that waist/hip ratio was the measure with the greatest capacity to predict mortality (especially cardiovascular mortality in this group.

  17. Developmental dyslexia: predicting individual risk

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, PA; Hulme, C; Nash, HM; Gooch, Van D.; Hayiou-Thomas, E; Snowling, MJ

    2015-01-01

    Background: Causal theories of dyslexia suggest that it is a heritable disorder, which is the outcome of multiple risk factors. However, whether early screening for dyslexia is viable is not yet known. Methods: The study followed children at high risk of dyslexia from preschool through the early primary years assessing them from age 3 years and 6 months (T1) at approximately annual intervals on tasks tapping cognitive, language, and executive-motor skills. The children were recruited to three...

  18. C-Reactive protein predicts acute myocardial infarction during high-risk noncardiac and vascular surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar M. Martins; Fonseca, Vicente F; Ivan Borges; Vaierio Martins; Vera Lucia Portal; Lucia Campos Pellanda

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High-sensitivity C-reactive protein predicts cardiovascular events in a wide range of clinical contexts. However, the role of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein as a predictive marker for perioperative acute myocardial infarction during noncardiac surgery is not yet clear. The present study investigated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels as predictors of acute myocardial infarction risk in patients undergoing high-risk noncardiac surgery. METHODS: This concurrent cohort s...

  19. Risk assessment as a prediction of recidivism

    OpenAIRE

    Zavackis, Anvars

    2014-01-01

    Risk assessment and management is one of the key organising frameworks of crime control in modern society. The aim of the thesis is to research risk assessment practices in predicting crime recidivism and to assess the consequences of implementing these practices, also providing for description of historical, social, cultural and political aspects of their development and maintenance. The initial analysis of risk is a theoretical one, employing insights from different risk sociology theories....

  20. Caries risk assessment models in caries prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Amila Zukanović

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this research was to assess the efficiency of different multifactor models in caries prediction. Material and methods. Data from the questionnaire and objective examination of 109 examinees was entered into the Cariogram, Previser and Caries-Risk Assessment Tool (CAT) multifactor risk assessment models. Caries risk was assessed with the help of all three models for each patient, classifying them as low, medium or high-risk patients. The development of new caries lesions ...