Research described in this thesis is based on clinical data obtained through diabetes cardiovascular risk management (DIACARM) project. A clinical protocol founded on the co-operation of the departments of endocrinology, cardiology, nephrology, radiology and nuclear medicine at the Leiden University
Roos, Cornelis Jacobus
Cardiovascular risk assessment in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) remains challenging. Risk scores to predict cardiovascular risk are widely used, but are developed in the general population and tend to underestimate the cardiovascular risk of DM patients. Risk scores developed in diabetic
Roos, Cornelis Jacobus
Cardiovascular risk assessment in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) remains challenging. Risk scores to predict cardiovascular risk are widely used, but are developed in the general population and tend to underestimate the cardiovascular risk of DM patients. Risk scores developed in diabetic populations to estimate cardiovascular risk have demonstrated good calibration and discriminations indices. However, external validation is still needed. A recent meta-analysis showed that the predicti...
Keating, Samuel T; Plutzky, Jorge; El-Osta, Assam
Cardiovascular complications remain the leading causes of morbidity and premature mortality in patients with diabetes. Studies in humans and preclinical models demonstrate lasting gene expression changes in the vasculopathies initiated by previous exposure to high glucose concentrations and the associated overproduction of reactive oxygen species. The molecular signatures of chromatin architectures that sensitize the genome to these and other cardiometabolic risk factors of the diabetic milieu are increasingly implicated in the biologic memory underlying cardiovascular complications and now widely considered as promising therapeutic targets. Atherosclerosis is a complex heterocellular disease where the contributing cell types possess distinct epigenomes shaping diverse gene expression. While the extent that pathological chromatin changes can be manipulated in human cardiovascular disease remains to be established, the clinical applicability of epigenetic interventions will be greatly advanced by a deeper understanding of the cell type-specific roles played by writers, erasers, and readers of chromatin modifications in the diabetic vasculature. This review details a current perspective of epigenetic mechanisms of macrovascular disease in diabetes, and highlights recent key descriptions of chromatinized changes associated with persistent gene expression in endothelial, smooth muscle, and circulating immune cells relevant to atherosclerosis. Furthermore we discuss the challenges associated with pharmacological targeting of epigenetic networks to correct abnormal or deregulated gene expression as a strategy to alleviate the clinical burden of diabetic cardiovascular disease. PMID:27230637
Slurink, Isabel A.L.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.
Patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease
compared to non-diabetic populations. Improved dietary quality is essential to
control risk factors and can prevent or delay cardiovascular disease in diabetic
patients. Higher dietary fibre intake was
BACKGROUND: Studies on cardiovascular risk factors among diabetic persons in Ethiopia are lacking. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of the cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, obesity, physical inactivity, dyslipidemia and smoking) among diabetic patients at the diabetic clinic of Jimma ...
Weight loss to reduce cardiovascular risk is encouraged in both healthy overweight individuals and those at high cardiovascular risk, including patients with diabetes. However, a large body of studies suggest that, in comparison to overweight and even obese subjects, cardiovascular events may be more common among ...
BACKGROUND: Studies on cardiovascular risk factors among diabetic ... Age ≥ 45 years, type 2 diabetes and obesity were predictors of hypertension. ... worldwide; two thirds of whom are in developing countries. By the year 2030, ... Ethiop J Health Sci. Vol. ... In the west, up to 25% of diabetic patients ..... Since overweight.
Ajikumar V Aryangat; John E Gerich
Ajikumar V Aryangat, John E GerichUniversity of Rochester, Rochester, New York, USAAbstract: Hyperglycemia is a major risk factor for both the microvascular and macrovascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes. This review summarizes the cardiovascular results of large outcomes trials in diabetes and presents new evidence on the role of hyperglycemia, with particular emphasis on postprandial hyperglycemia, in adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabet...
Sánchez-Quesada, José Luis; Pérez, Antonio
Prevention of high incidence of cardiovascular disease in diabetes is one of the challenges of endocrinology. Validation of new biomarkers that may contribute to a better assessment of cardiovascular risk and help implement treatment strategies is one of the promising approaches in research on prevention and reduction of cardiovascular risk. Modification of low density lipoprotein (LDL) is a key element in development of atherosclerotic lesions. Several pathophysiological characteristics of diabetes are crucial for the LDL of these patients to have higher modification rates as compared to the healthy population. Diabetic dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and oxidative stress synergistically promote the occurrence of lipoperoxidation, glycosylation and glycoxidation processes, which will generate modified lipoproteins that stimulate development of atherosclerosis. This article reviews the role of different types of modified LDL in development of atherosclerosis in diabetes, as well as the possibility of using its quantification in cardiovascular risk prediction. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Objectives: To determine the proportion of specific cardiovascular risk factors in ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes and the levels of control achieved in them. Design: Prospective, cross-sectional study over a six month period. Setting: Out-patient diabetic clinic of the Kenyatta National Hospital. Subjects: Two hundred ...
Frijling, B.D.; Lobo, C.M.; Keus, I.M.; Jenks, K.M.; Akkermans, R.P.; Hulscher, M.E.J.L.; Prins, A.; Wouden, J.C. van der; Grol, R.P.T.M.
We aimed to examine risk perceptions among patients at moderate to high cardiovascular risk. A questionnaire about perceived absolute risk of myocardial infarction and stroke was sent to 2424 patients with hypertension or diabetes. Response rate was 86.3% and 1557 patients without atherosclerotic
Lindberg, Søren; Jensen, Jan Skov; Bjerre, Mette
participants experienced a CV event (myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, or CV death). RESULTS: Participants with increasing adiponectin had reduced risk of developing T2DM (p risk factors (including age, gender, body mass index, physical activity, alcohol......) for each doubling of adiponectin 0.55 (95% CI 0.41-0.74; p risk of a CV event more than doubled. Increasing adiponectin (adjusted for the confounding risk factors mentioned) was associated with reduced risk of CV events: HR 0.34 (95% CI 0.16-0.72; p = 0...... prospective studies have consistently linked high adiponectin levels with increased cardiovascular (CV) disease and mortality, thus questioning the positive view on adiponectin. Accordingly, we investigated the relationship between adiponectin, incident T2DM and subsequently CV events. METHODS: We...
Segura, Julián; de la Sierra, Alejandro; Fernández, Sandra; Ruilope, Luis M
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare the prevalence of target organ damage (TOD) and established cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a cohort of nondiabetic hypertensive patients with 3 or more cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) against a group of hypertensives with type 2 diabetes. We included 4,725 hypertensive patients, 62% male, mean age 64 (SD 12) years, with type 2 diabetes mellitus, independently of the number of associated CVRF (N=2,608), or non-diabetics, in which case we required the presence of 3 CVRF (N=2,117). The prevalence of established CVD (clinical interview) and TOD (left ventricular hypertrophy by electrocardiogram, microalbuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate) were estimated. Hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes had an older age and more marked obesity. Furthermore, these patients showed a higher prevalence of micro- and macroalbuminuria, renal failure, left ventricular hypertrophy, atherosclerotic plaques in carotid arteries and CVD compared with nondiabetic hypertensive patients with 3 or more CVRF. Multivariate analysis showed that the risk of TOD or established CVD were associated independently with the presence of diabetes. Hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes have a higher prevalence of LOD and CVD compared to nondiabetic hypertensive patients with 3 or more CVRF. Although both situations are included in the high cardiovascular risk stratum, it would be expected an increased incidence of cardiovascular complications in hypertensive diabetic patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Schroeder, Emily B; Bayliss, Elizabeth A; Daugherty, Stacie L; Steiner, John F
Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality for women and men with diabetes. Previous cross-sectional studies of prevalent diabetes have found that women are less likely to meet American Diabetes Association (ADA) and American Heart Association guidelines for control of cardiovascular risk factors (hemoglobin A1c, low-density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol, and blood pressure), but have not studied the critical period immediately after diagnosis. To assess gender differences in cardiovascular risk factors at the time of diabetes diagnosis (baseline) and 1 year later (follow-up), we conducted a retrospective cohort study of 6,547 individuals with incident diabetes in an integrated care delivery system. We assessed mean cardiovascular risk factor values by gender and adjusted odds ratios of attaining ADA goals. Compared with men, at baseline women had lower hemoglobin A1c (7.9% vs. 8.2%; p LDL cholesterol (118.9 vs. 111.5 mg/dL; p LDL cholesterol (104.0 vs. 98.2 mg/dL; p risk factor control at the time of diabetes diagnosis. These differences varied by age and decreased over time. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Belkis Vicente Sánchez
Full Text Available Background: diabetes mellitus accelerates atherosclerotic changes throughout the vascular tree and consequently increases the risk of developing fatal acute events. Objective: to estimate the global cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Method: a cross-sectional study of a series of type 2 diabetic patients from the People's Council of Constancia, Abreus municipality, Cienfuegos province was conducted from July to December 2012. The universe comprised the 180 people with diabetes in the area. Variables studied were: age, sex, body mass index, nutritional assessment, blood pressure, toxic habits, associated chronic diseases, blood levels of glucose, lipids (total cholesterol and triglycerides and microalbuminuria. World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension prediction charts specific to the region of the Americas, in which Cuba is included, were used to estimate the cardiovascular risk. Results: mean age was 61.63 years and females predominated. Relevant risk factors were hypertension followed by obesity, smoking and dyslipidemia. Mean body mass index was 27.66kg/m2; waist circumference was 94.45 cm in women and 96.86 cm in men. Thirty point six percent had more than two uncontrolled risk factors and 28.3 % of the total presented a high to very high cardiovascular risk. Conclusions: cardiovascular risk prediction charts are helpful tools for making clinical decisions, but their interpretation must be flexible and allow the intervention of clinical reasoning.
Herrero, A; Garzón, G; Gil, A; García, I; Vargas, E; Torres, N
There is evidence that cardiovascular goals are beneficial in diabetes. To determine the distribution of cardiovascular risk levels in patients with diabetes and the clinical interventions they have received. Descriptive cross-sectional study. SERMAS (Madrid) 2010. All patients with diabetes. (n=41,096). Patients in primary or secondary prevention, metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors control, pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. Patient and professional variables. Around one-fifth (21.5%) (95%CI: 21.1% -21.9%) in secondary prevention (very high cardiovascular risk). HbA1c was under control in 31% (95%CI: 30.1%-32%), with 49.9% (95%CI: 48.8%-50.9%) with BP under control, and 39.4% (95% CI: 38.4%-40.4%) with LDL controlled. Only 8.9% (95%CI: 8.3%-9.5%) had a well-controlled HdA1c, BP and LDL, and in 19.8% (95%CI: 19%-20.6%) none of these were under control. Of those with an uncontrolled BP, 23.6% (95% CI: 23.2%-24%) had antihypertensive drugs. There was better control in patients older than 70 years, and those who lived in an urban center, or a lower number of patients per day. In diabetic patients with very high cardiovascular risk (secondary prevention), just half of them had good control of cardiovascular risk factors (BP and LDL). An association was found between better control and older than 70, urban center or lower number of patients per day. This suggests developing strategies to promote a comprehensive control of cardiovascular risk factors in diabetic patients in secondary prevention. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Deepali R Damkondwar
Full Text Available Aim: To study the Framingham cardiovascular risk assessment scores in subjects with diabetes and their association with diabetic retinopathy in subjects with diabetes. Materials and Methods: In this population-based prospective study, subjects with diabetes were recruited (n=1248; age ≥40 years. The Framingham cardiovascular risk scores were calculated for 1248 subjects with type 2 diabetes. The scores were classified as high risk (>10%, and low risk (<10%. Results: Out of the 1248 subjects, 830 (66.5% patients had a low risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD in 10 years and 418 (33.5% had a high risk of developing CVD in 10 years. The risk of developing CVD was more in males than females (56.8% vs. 7% The prevalence of both diabetic retinopathy and sight-threatening retinopathy was more in the high-risk group (21% and 4.5%, respectively. The risk factors for developing diabetic retinopathy were similar in both the groups (low vs. high - duration of diabetes (OR 1.14 vs. 1.08, higher HbA1c (OR 1.24 vs. 1.22, presence of macro- and microalbuminuria (OR 10.17 vs. 6.12 for macro-albuminuria and use of insulin (OR 2.06 vs. 4.38. The additional risk factors in the high-risk group were presence of anemia (OR 2.65 and higher serum high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol (OR 1.05. Conclusion: Framingham risk scoring, a global risk assessment tool to predict the 10-year risk of developing CVD, can also predict the occurrence and type of diabetic retinopathy. Those patients with high CVD scores should be followed up more frequently and treated adequately. This also warrants good interaction between the treating physician/cardiologist and the ophthalmologist.
Archundia Herrera, M Carolina; Subhan, Fatheema B; Chan, Catherine B
The primary objective of this review is to identify dietary patterns with beneficial effects on cardiovascular health of adults with type 2 diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes is increasing globally. People with diabetes have a greater risk for cardiovascular disease. Mediterranean diet, dietary approaches to stop hypertension diet, vegetarian diet, traditional Korean diet, Japanese diet, and low-glycemic-index diet can reduce cardiovascular disease risk in people with diabetes. Dietary intake is a key modifiable factor in the management of diabetes and plays a significant role in limiting the incidence of cardiovascular diseases.
Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes melliuts is a chronic, metabolic disease that involves the macro and micro vascular complications and one of its maer ascular cowplications is the cardio vascular disease, as ,the risk of cardiovascular disease is 2-4 folds in diabetic patients in comparison with non diabetic individuals. The researches have demonstrated that the risk factors of the cardio vascular disease are formed at childhood. Therefore the preventive measures must begin from early childhood. So the present study was planned with the goals to determine and compare the cardia-vascular risk factors in the diabetic children with type 1 of diabetes mellitus. Method: This was an analytic, cross sectional study that has been done in two groups (case-control. In this research, 148 children, suffering from the typel diabetes mellitus being supported by the metabolism and endocrine research center, were chosen in the continues case manner and for the control group, 148 children, matched with the study group (according to the age and the sex, at 6-18 years old from the schools in Isfahan city randomly and at 2-6 years from the neiborhoods of the case group. The data-gathering tool was the questionnaires includes lipid profile, blood pressure, weight and height. To analyze the data we used the analytic (t student and logistic regression and descriptive (mean and standard deviation statistic methods and SPSS. Results: Findings revealed that the means of Lipid profile, systolic blood pressure and body mass index had not statistically significant differences in the two groups. But the mean of diastolic blood pressure and the mean arterial blood pressure in the control group were more than the case group and this difference was significant. The mean, 75 and 95 percentiles for cholesterol and LDL in all the age groups, mean, 75 and 95 percentile for triglyceride in all the age groups except the age group of 1-4 years in the diabetic and non diabetic groups were
Prystupiuk, O M
The content of glycated hemoglobin, a biomarker of diabetes in patients with type 2 diabetes correlates with risk factors for cardiovascular disease: hypertension, BMI and ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol. Therefore, increase in glycosylated hemoglobin should be considered a predictor of cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Alvarez, C A; Lingvay, I; Vuylsteke, V; Koffarnus, R L; McGuire, D K
Cardiovascular disease is the principal complication and the leading cause of death for patients with diabetes (DM). The efficacy of antihyperglycemic treatments on cardiovascular disease risk remains uncertain. Cardiovascular risk factors are affected by antihyperglycemic medications, as are many intermediate markers of cardiovascular disease. Here we summarize the evidence assessing the cardiovascular effects of antihyperglycemic medications with regard to risk factors, intermediate markers of disease, and clinical outcomes. © 2015 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.
Nadal, Josep Franch; Gutiérrez, Pedro Conthe
Diabetes mellitus, especially type 2, is a metabolic disease involving the coexistence of several cardiovascular risk factors. Affected patients are therefore at high cardiovascular risk (2-3 times higher than that of men in the general population and 2-6 times higher than that of women). Cardiovascular disease is the main cause of death in the diabetic population, followed by cancer. Cardiovascular risk cannot be compared between diabetic patients and persons who have already shown one or more manifestations of cardiovascular disease (such as myocardial infarction). Single risk factors should be evaluated in combination with other risk factors and a person's cardiovascular risk should be individually assessed. Cardiovascular risk assessment in patients with diabetes through current calculations methods is complex because their ability to predict risk in individuals is very low. Studies such as that by Steno have demonstrated the validity of a comprehensive strategy to control all the risk factors present in persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus, which can reduce the development of micro- and macrovascular complications and mortality by almost 50%. The present article reviews each of the classical cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking, obesity, sedentariness) in relation to diabetes, as well as their recommended targets and the benefits of their control. In view of the above, a comprehensive approach is recommended to control the multiple risk factors that can coexist in persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Marshall, Grant N; Schell, Terry L; Wong, Eunice C; Berthold, S Megan; Hambarsoomian, Katrin; Elliott, Marc N; Bardenheier, Barbara H; Gregg, Edward W
To determine rates of diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia in Cambodian refugees, and to assess the proportion whose conditions are satisfactorily managed in comparison to the general population. Self-report and laboratory/physical health assessment data obtained from a household probability sample of U.S.-residing Cambodian refugees (N = 331) in 2010-2011 were compared to a probability sample of the adult U.S. population (N = 6,360) from the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Prevalence of diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia in Cambodian refugees greatly exceeded rates found in the age- and gender-adjusted U.S. Cambodian refugees with diagnosed hypertension or hyperlipidemia were less likely than their counterparts in the general U.S. population to have blood pressure and total cholesterol within recommended levels. Increased attention should be paid to prevention and management of diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk factors in the Cambodian refugee community. Research is needed to determine whether this pattern extends to other refugee groups.
Simmons, Rebecca K; Griffin, Simon J; Witte, Daniel R
-based screening for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors on mortality rates and cardiovascular events. METHODS: This register-based, non-randomised, controlled trial included men and women aged 40-69 years without known diabetes who were registered with a general practice in Denmark (n = 1......-screening group (HR 0.99 [0.96, 1.02], p = 0.49). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: A population-based stepwise screening programme for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors among all middle-aged adults in Denmark was not associated with a reduction in rate of mortality or cardiovascular events between 2001...... were invited to visit their GP for assessment of diabetes status and cardiovascular risk (screening group). The 1,759,285 individuals registered with all other general practices in Denmark constituted the retrospectively constructed no-screening (control) group. Outcomes were mortality rate...
Martín-Timón, Iciar; Sevillano-Collantes, Cristina; Segura-Galindo, Amparo; del Cañizo-Gómez, Francisco Javier
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition that occurs when the body cannot produce enough or effectively use of insulin. Compared with individuals without diabetes, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have a considerably higher risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and are disproportionately affected by cardiovascular disease. Most of this excess risk is it associated with an augmented prevalence of well-known risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidaemia and obesity in these patients. However the improved cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients can not be attributed solely to the higher prevalence of traditional risk factors. Therefore other non-traditional risk factors may be important in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cardiovascular disease is increased in type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects due to a complex combination of various traditional and non-traditional risk factors that have an important role to play in the beginning and the evolution of atherosclerosis over its long natural history from endothelial function to clinical events. Many of these risk factors could be common history for both diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, reinforcing the postulate that both disorders come independently from “common soil”. The objective of this review is to highlight the weight of traditional and non-traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the setting of type 2 diabetes mellitus and discuss their position in the pathogenesis of the excess cardiovascular disease mortality and morbidity in these patients. PMID:25126392
Alexander, Nadine; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Sang, Yingying; Ballew, Shoshana; Mahmoodi, Bakhtawar K.; Astor, Brad C.; Coresh, Josef
Background: Whether the association of chronic kidney disease (CKD) with cardiovascular risk differs based on diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HTN) status remains unanswered. Methods: We investigated 11,050 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (fourth examination
Tamiru, Solomon; Alemseged, Fessahaye
Background Studies on cardiovascular risk factors among diabetic persons in Ethiopia are lacking. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of the cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, obesity, physical inactivity, dyslipidemia and smoking) among diabetic patients at the diabetic clinic of Jimma University Specialized Hospital. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from October to December 2007. Three hundred one individuals were randomly selected from 950 patie...
Erkens, JA; Herings, RMC; Stolk, RP; Spoelstra, JA; Grobbee, DE; Leufkens, HGM
Although patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease share common risk factors, the link between these diseases remains largely unexplained. In this case-control study, the earlier use of cardiovascular drugs (before the diagnosis of diabetes) was investigated among cases with
Uitewaal, PJM; Goudswaard, AN; Ubnik-Veltmaat, LJ; Bruijnzeels, MA; Hoes, AW; Thomas, S
Background: Based on recent epidemiological studies the need for a similar approach towards management of cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetics with different ethnic background can be questioned. We compared the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and 10-year absolute risk for a
Petersen, K R; Skouby, S O; Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated established cardiovascular risk factors within lipoprotein metabolism, hemostasis, and endothelial function in women with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus who were using oral contraceptives. STUDY DESIGN: Twenty-five women with uncomplicated insulin-dependent diabetes...... the cardiovascular risk profile in women with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, but our study indicates a risk of disturbances of the endothelial integrity, which needs further investigation....... evaluation. RESULTS: No statistical differences in the biochemical risk markers were noted between the two groups at the start of the study. In the treatment group serum levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased, whereas the concentrations of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein...
Basa, Amelita L. P.; Garber, Alan J.
Patients with type 2 diabetes have a significantly increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerosis kills more diabetic patients than all other causes combined. Multiple risk factors tend to cluster in some patients in a syndrome termed insulin resistance syndrome or “Syndrome X.” Increasing evidence has changed the recommended management of diabetes from simple glucose control to aggressive lipid management and control of the other components of the metabolic syndrome to ...
Gimeno Orna, José Antonio; Blasco Lamarca, Yolanda; Campos Gutierrez, Belén; Molinero Herguedas, Edmundo; Lou Arnal, Luis Miguel
This study was aimed to assess the prognostic importance of diabetes duration to predict cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetic patients. Prospective cohort study with inclusion of type 2 diabetic patients. Follow-up lasted until the appearance of a cardiovascular event, until death or until 2012. Patients were classified into 5 groups in accordance to diabetes duration and baseline cardiovascular disease (CVD): group 1: ≤ 5 years without CVD; group 2: 6-10 years without CVD; group 3: 11-15 years without CVD; group 4: >15 years without CVD; group 5: baseline CVD independently of diabetes duration. CVD rates were expressed per 1000 patients-year and compared by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Log Rank Test. The predictive power of diabetes duration was evaluated by Cox regression. 457 patients, aged 64.9 (DE 9.3) years (38.9% males), were included. Diabetes duration was 10.5 (DE 7.6) years. 125 cardiovascular events occurred during 12.3 years follow-up. Cardiovascular event rates were progressively increased from groups 1 to 5 (group 1: 14.1; group 2: 18.3; group 3: 19.6; group 4: 32.9; group 5: 53.5; p<0.0001, linear tendency). Diabetes duration superior to 15 years significantly increased cardiovascular risk of the patients (HR=1.97; 95%CI: 1.23-3.15; P=.004). It could be useful to consider diabetes duration in order to stratify cardiovascular risk of type 2 diabetic patients. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Cardiovascular risk factors were compared in two groups based on the median year duration of DM. A further 6 sub-grouping was done to look at pattern of increase of the different CVD risk factors. Results: duration of DM range from 1-30 years, median of 5 years and modal of 1 year. There was a difference in the means of ...
Full Text Available Objective: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is one of the fatal complications of diabetes mellitus. The mortality of CVD is higher in diabetic persons. Women are at a higher risk for CVD. The purpose of this study is to determine the perception of CVD risk among women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 58 diabetic women with type 2 diabetes in a Diabetes clinic in Qaen, South Khorasan province, Iran. The attitude of participants towards CVD was assessed by a modified RPS-DD questionnaire. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 20. Results: The participants aged from 31 to 66 years old. The mean duration of diabetic diagnosis was 7±4.88 years. Majority of them were literate (56.9%, married (89.7%, had low income (52% and were housekeepers (94.8%. Almost half the participants believed they had personal control over cardiovascular risk. 69% had optimistic attitude towards not getting CVD and 60.3% had a moderate level of concerns about cardiovascular risks. Also 80% had knowledge about the cardiovascular risks. Conclusion: Risk perception plays an important role in preventing CVD. A comprehensive educational program for changing the attitude toward CVD is recommended.
Wang, Y; Katzmarzyk, P T; Horswell, R; Zhao, W; Li, W; Johnson, J; Ryan, D H; Hu, G
To investigate the race-specific trend in attainment of the American Diabetes Association cardiovascular risk factor control goals (HbA1c LDL cholesterol LDL cholesterol levels. Logistic regression was used to test the difference between African-American and white patients. The percentage of patients who met all three American Diabetes Association goals increased from 8.2% in 2001 to 10.2% in 2009 (increased by 24.4%) in this cohort. Compared with African-American patients, white patients had better attainment of the following American Diabetes Association goals: HbA1c (61.4 vs. 55.1%), blood pressure (25.8 vs. 20.4%), LDL cholesterol (40.1 vs. 37.7%) and all three goals (7.3 vs. 5.1%). African-American and white patients generally had a better cardiovascular disease risk factor profile during follow-up when we assessed attainment of the American Diabetes Association goals by means of HbA1c , blood pressure and LDL cholesterol. During 2001-2009, the present low-income cohort of people with Type 2 diabetes generally experienced improved control of cardiovascular disease risk factors. White patients had better attainment of the American Diabetes Association cardiovascular risk factor control goals than their African-American counterparts. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.
Dejgaard, Thomas F; Johansen, Nanna B; Frandsen, Christian S
We investigated the short-term effect of adding liraglutide 1.8 mg once daily to insulin treatment on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 1 diabetes. In total, 100 overweight (BMI ≥25 kg/m(2) ) adult patients (age ≥18 years) with type 1 diabetes and HbA1c ≥ 8% (64 mmol/mol) were....... In conclusion, in patients with long-standing type 1 diabetes, liraglutide as add-on to insulin increased heart rate and did not improve other cardiovascular risk factors after 24 weeks of treatment....
Alssema, M.; Newson, R.S.; Bakker, S.J.L.; Stehouwer, C.D.; Heijmans, M.W.; Nijpels, G.; Hillege, H.L.; Hofman, A.; Witteman, J.C.M.; Gansevoort, R.T.; Dekker, J.M.
OBJECTIVE - Individuals at high risk for chronic cardiometabolic disease (cardiovascular disease [CVD], type 2 diabetes, and chronic kidney disease [CKD]) share many risk factors and would benefit from early intervention. We developed a nonlaboratory-based risk-assessment tool for identification of
M. Alssema (Marjan); R.S. Newson (Rachel); S.J.L. Bakker (Stephan); C.D. Stehouwer (Coen); M.W. Heymans (Martijn); M.G.A.A.M. Nijpels (Giel); H.L. Hillege (Hans); A. Hofman (Albert); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); R.T. Gansevoort (Ron); J.M. Dekker (Jacqueline)
textabstractOBJECTIVE - Individuals at high risk for chronic cardiometabolic disease (cardiovascular disease [CVD], type 2 diabetes, and chronic kidney disease [CKD]) share many risk factors and would benefit from early intervention. We developed a nonlaboratory-based risk-assessment tool for
Fleischer, Jesper; Yderstraede, Knud; Gulichsen, Elisabeth
The objective was to identify the presence of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in a cohort of individuals with diabetes in outpatient clinics from 4 different parts of Denmark and to explore the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes in relation to CAN. The DAN-Study is a Danish m......, whereas in type 2 CAN was associated with macrovascular risk factors.......The objective was to identify the presence of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in a cohort of individuals with diabetes in outpatient clinics from 4 different parts of Denmark and to explore the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes in relation to CAN. The DAN-Study is a Danish...... by performing 3 cardiovascular reflex tests (response to standing, deep breathing, and valsalva). To describe possible associations, multivariate analysis with CAN as the dependent variable was performed. The prevalence of CAN was higher among patients with type 2 diabetes (35%) compared to patients with type 1...
Arrieta, Francisco; Iglesias, Pedro; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Tébar, Francisco Javier; Ortega, Emilio; Nubiola, Andreu; Pardo, Jose Luis; Maldonado, Gonzálo Fernando; Obaya, Juan Carlos; Matute, Pablo; Petrecca, Romina; Alonso, Nuria; Sarabia, Elena; Sánchez-Margalet, Victor; Alemán, José Juan; Navarro, Jorge; Becerra, Antonio; Duran, Santiago; Aguilar, Manuel; Escobar-Jiménez, Fernando
The present paper updates the Clinical Practice Recommendations for the management of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in diabetes mellitus. This is a medical consensus agreed by an independent panel of experts from the Spanish Society of Diabetes (SED). Several consensuses have been proposed by scientific and medical Societies to achieve clinical goals. However, the risk score for general population may lack sensitivity for individual assessment or for particular groups at risk, such as diabetics. Traditional risk factors together with non-traditional factors are reviewed throughout this paper. Intervention strategies for managing CVRF in the diabetic patient are reviewed in detail: balanced food intake, weight reduction, physical exercise, smoking cessation, reduction in HbA1c, therapy for high blood pressure, obesity, lipid disorders, and platelet anti-aggregation. It is hoped that these guidelines can help clinicians in the decisions of their clinical activity. This regular update by the SED Cardiovascular Disease Group of the most relevant concepts, and of greater practical and realistic clinical interest, is presented in order to reduce CVR of diabetics. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Arrieta, Francisco; Iglesias, Pedro; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Tébar, Francisco Javier; Ortega, Emilio; Nubiola, Andreu; Pardo, Jose Luis; Maldonado, Gonzálo Fernando; Obaya, Juan Carlos; Matute, Pablo; Petrecca, Romina; Alonso, Nuria; Sarabia, Elena; Sánchez-Margalet, Victor; Alemán, José Juan; Navarro, Jorge; Becerra, Antonio; Duran, Santiago; Aguilar, Manuel; Escobar-Jiménez, Fernando
The present paper updates the Clinical Practice Recommendations for the management of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in diabetes mellitus. This is a medical consensus agreed by an independent panel of experts from the Spanish Society of Diabetes (SED). Several consensuses have been proposed by scientific and medical Societies to achieve clinical goals. However, the risk score for general population may lack sensitivity for individual assessment or for particular groups at risk, such as diabetics. Traditional risk factors together with non-traditional factors are reviewed throughout this paper. Intervention strategies for managing CVRF in the diabetic patient are reviewed in detail: balanced food intake, weight reduction, physical exercise, smoking cessation, reduction in HbA1c, therapy for high blood pressure, obesity, lipid disorders, and platelet anti-aggregation. It is hoped that these guidelines can help clinicians in the decisions of their clinical activity. This regular update by the SED Cardiovascular Disease Group of the most relevant concepts, and of greater practical and realistic clinical interest, is presented in order to reduce CVR of diabetics. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.
Full Text Available Guntram Schernthaner,1 Sarah Jarvis,2 Chaim Lotan,3 Martin Prázný,4 Christoph Wanner,5 Thomas C Wascher6 1Department of Medicine, Rudolfstiftung Hospital, Vienna, Austria; 2Richford Gate Medical Practice, London, UK; 3Cardiovascular Division, Heart Institute, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel; 4First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic; 5Department of Medicine, University Hospital, Würzburg, Germany; 6First Medical Department, Hanusch-Krankenhaus, Vienna, Austria Abstract: Diabetes is a global health emergency projected to affect 642 million people by 2040. Type 2 diabetes (T2D represents 90% of diabetes cases and is associated with a range of cardiovascular (CV risk factors that are more than double the incidence of CV disease and significantly increase mortality rates. Diabetes treatments have typically focused on improving glycemic control but their effect on CV outcomes has remained uncertain. In 2008, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA looked to address this knowledge gap and mandated CV outcome trials (CVOTs for all new antidiabetic therapies. In 2015, EMPA-REG OUTCOME® became the first CVOT to present results for a sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2; also known as SLC5A2 inhibitor, empagliflozin. Subsequently, a regional meeting of the Academy for Cardiovascular Risk, Outcomes and Safety Studies in Type 2 Diabetes (ACROSS T2D brought together a respected faculty of international experts and 150 physicians from 14 countries to discuss the current unmet medical needs of patients with T2D, the results from the EMPA-REG OUTCOME study and the implications of these results for clinical practice. This article summarizes the current scientific evidence and the discussions that took place at the ACROSS T2D regional meeting, which was held in Vienna, Austria, on May 30, 2016. Keywords: type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular risk, SGLT2 inhibitor, CVOTs, empagliflozin
Green, A.; Sortso, C.; Jensen, Peter Bjødstrup
We present an investigation of the occurrence of cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes in Denmark 2000 through 2011. The Diabetes Impact Study 2013 is based on all registrants in the Danish National Diabetes Register as of July 3rd 2013 (n=497,232). Record linkage with the Danish...... of diabetes has been rather constant at higher level in males (around 16-18%) than in females (around 12-14%) during 2000-2011 (incl.). In contrast, the incidence rate of CVD after having diabetes diagnosis has declined from about 4.5 to less than 3 during the same period, with higher declining level...... for males than for females. Efforts to detect diabetes at an earlier stage have not resulted in a reduced occurrence of CVD at the diagnosis of diabetes in Denmark. However, the risk of developing CVD after the diagnosis of diabetes has been declining, possibly reflecting benefits of intensified treatment...
Safar, Michel E; Gnakaméné, Jean-Barthélémy; Bahous, Sola Aoun; Yannoutsos, Alexandra; Thomas, Frédérique
Despite adequate glycemic and blood pressure control, treated type 2 diabetic hypertensive subjects have a significantly elevated overall/cardiovascular risk. We studied 244 816 normotensive and 99 720 hypertensive subjects (including 7480 type 2 diabetics) attending medical checkups between 1992 and 2011. We sought to identify significant differences in overall/cardiovascular risk between hypertension with and without diabetes mellitus. Mean follow-up was 12.7 years; 14 050 all-cause deaths were reported. From normotensive to hypertensive populations, a significant progression in overall/cardiovascular mortality was observed. Mortality was significantly greater among diabetic than nondiabetic hypertensive subjects (all-cause mortality, 14.05% versus 7.43%; and cardiovascular mortality, 1.28% versus 0.7%). No interaction was observed between hemodynamic measurements and overall/cardiovascular risk, suggesting that blood pressure factors, even during drug therapy, could not explain the differences in mortality rates between diabetic and nondiabetic hypertensive patients. Using cross-sectional regression models, a significant association was observed between higher education levels, lower levels of anxiety and depression, and reduced overall mortality in diabetic hypertensive subjects, while impaired renal function, a history of stroke and myocardial infarction, and increased alcohol and tobacco consumption were significantly associated with increased mortality. Blood pressure and glycemic control alone cannot reverse overall/cardiovascular risk in diabetics with hypertension. Together with cardiovascular measures, overall prevention should include recommendations to reduce alcohol and tobacco consumption and improve stress, education levels, and physical activity. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Nasrallah, Rania; Hassouneh, Ramzi
An important measure of cardiovascular health is obtained by evaluating the global cardiovascular risk, which comprises a number of factors, including hypertension and type 2 diabetes, the leading causes of illness and death in the world, as well as the metabolic syndrome. Altered immunity, inflammation, and oxidative stress underlie many of the changes associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome, and recent efforts have begun to elucidate the contribution of PGE2 in these events. This review summarizes the role of PGE2 in kidney disease outcomes that accelerate cardiovascular disease, highlights the role of cyclooxygenase-2/microsomal PGE synthase 1/PGE2 signaling in hypertension and diabetes, and outlines the contribution of PGE2 to other aspects of the metabolic syndrome, particularly abdominal adiposity, dyslipidemia, and atherogenesis. A clearer understanding of the role of PGE2 could lead to new avenues to improve therapeutic options and disease management strategies. PMID:26319242
Hopmans, Tara-Eileen J P; van Houten, Chantal B; Kasius, Annemieke; Kouznetsova, Ouliana I; Nguyen, Ly A; Rooijmans, Sanne V; Voormolen, Daphne N; van Vliet, Elvira O G; Franx, Arie; Koster, M P H Wendy
To determine the long-term risk of developing type II diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) for women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Two search strategies were used in PubMed and Embase to determine the long-term risks of developing T2D and CVD after a pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus. After critical appraisal of the papers found, 11 papers were included, involving a total of 328,423 patients. Absolute and relative risks (RRs) were calculated. Eight studies (n=276,829) reported on the long-term risk of T2D and 4 (n=141,048) on the long-term risk of CVD. Follow-up ranged from 3.5 to 11.5 years for T2D and from 1.2 to 74.0 years for CVD. Women with gestational diabetes had a risk of T2D varying between 9.5% and 37.0% and a risk of CVD of between 0.28% and 15.5%. Women with gestational diabetes were at increased risk of T2D (weighted RR: 13.2; 95% CI: 8.5-20.7) and CVD (weighted RR: 2.0; 95% CI: 1.1-3.7) compared to women without gestational diabetes. Women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus have a significantly increased risk of developing T2D and CVD. It is very important that gestational diabetes is recognised as a cardiovascular risk factor in daily practice. It would be desirable to screen this group of women for the presence of hyperglycaemia and other cardiovascular risk factors. Further research is required to be able to specify the long-term risk of T2D and CVD and to demonstrate whether such screening is cost-effective.
Kobylecki, Camilla J; Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, Børge G
BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress is one mechanism believed to underlie diabetic vascular disease. We tested the hypothesis that diabetic subjects heterozygous for extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3) R213G, which entails lower antioxidant capacity in tissues, have increased...... risk of cardiovascular disease and heart failure. METHODS: We used the prospective Copenhagen General Population Study and Copenhagen City Heart Study and genotyped 95,871 individuals for the rs1799895 R213G variation in the SOD3 gene, of which 4498 had diabetes. We used national hospitalization...... and death registers to assess cardiovascular disease and heart failure. FINDINGS: Out of 95,871 individuals, we identified 93,521 R213G non-carriers (213RR, 97.5%), 2336 heterozygotes (213RG, 2.4%) and 14 homozygotes (213GG, 0.01%). In diabetic subjects, the hazard ratio for cardiovascular disease in R213G...
El Eter, E. [Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Cardiovascular Research Group, Faculty of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria (Egypt); Al-Masri, A.A. [Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Cardiovascular Research Group, Faculty of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)
The production of oxygen free radicals in type 2 diabetes mellitus contributes to the development of complications, especially the cardiovascular-related ones. Peroxiredoxins (PRDXs) are antioxidant enzymes that combat oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between the levels of PRDX isoforms (1, 2, 4, and 6) and cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Fifty-three patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (28F/25M) and 25 healthy control subjects (7F/18M) were enrolled. We measured the plasma levels of each PRDX isoform and analyzed their correlations with cardiovascular risk factors. The plasma PRDX1, -2, -4, and -6 levels were higher in the diabetic patients than in the healthy control subjects. PRDX2 and -6 levels were negatively correlated with diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, and hemoglobin A1c. In contrast, PRDX1 levels were positively correlated with low-density lipoprotein and C-reactive protein levels. PRDX4 levels were negatively correlated with triglycerides. In conclusion, PRDX1, -2, -4, and -6 showed differential correlations with a variety of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. These results should encourage further research into the crosstalk between PRDX isoforms and cardiovascular risk factors.
Singh, Jasvinder A; Ramachandaran, Rekha; Yu, Shaohua; Curtis, Jeffrey R
Few studies, if any, have examined cardiovascular outcomes in patients with diabetes and gout. Both diabetes and gout are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of allopurinol on the risk of incident acute cardiovascular events in patients with gout and diabetes. We used the 2007-2010 Multi-Payer Claims Database (MPCD) that linked health plan data from national commercial and governmental insurances, representing beneficiaries with United Healthcare, Medicare, or Medicaid coverage. In patients with gout and diabetes, we assessed the current allopurinol use, defined as a new filled prescription for allopurinol, as the main predictor of interest. Our outcome of interest was the occurrence of the first Incident hospitalized myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke (composite acute cardiovascular event), after which observations were censored. We employed multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models that simultaneously adjusted for patient demographics, cardiovascular risk factors and other medical comorbidities. We calculated hazard ratios [HR] (95% confidence intervals [CI]) for incident composite (MI or stroke) acute cardiovascular events. We performed sensitivity analyses that additionally adjusted for the presence of immune diseases and colchicine use, as potential confounders. There were 2,053,185 person days (5621.3 person years) of current allopurinol use and 1,671,583 person days (4576.5 person years) of prior allopurinol use. There were 158 incident MIs or strokes in current and 151 in prior allopurinol users, respectively. Compared to previous allopurinol users, current allopurinol users had significantly lower adjusted hazard of incident acute cardiovascular events (incident stroke or MI), with an HR of 0.67 (95% CI, 0.53, 0.84). Sensitivity analyses, additionally adjusted for immune diseases or colchicine use, confirmed this association. Current allopurinol use protected against the occurrence
Full Text Available As cardiovascular risk tables currently in use were constructed using data from the general population, the cardiovascular risk of patients admitted via the hospital emergency department may be underestimated. Accordingly, we constructed a predictive model for the appearance of cardiovascular diseases in patients with type 2 diabetes admitted via the emergency department. We undertook a four-year follow-up of a cohort of 112 adult patients with type 2 diabetes admitted via the emergency department for any cause except patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction, stroke, cancer, or a palliative status. The sample was selected randomly between 2010 and 2012. The primary outcome was time to cardiovascular disease. Other variables (at baseline were gender, age, heart failure, renal failure, depression, asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, insulin, smoking, admission for cardiovascular causes, pills per day, walking habit, fasting blood glucose and creatinine. A cardiovascular risk table was constructed based on the score to estimate the likelihood of cardiovascular disease. Risk groups were established and the c-statistic was calculated. Over a mean follow-up of 2.31 years, 39 patients had cardiovascular disease (34.8%, 95% CI [26.0–43.6%]. Predictive factors were gender, age, hypertension, renal failure, insulin, admission due to cardiovascular reasons and walking habit. The c-statistic was 0.734 (standard error: 0.049. After validation, this study will provide a tool for the primary health care services to enable the short-term prediction of cardiovascular disease after hospital discharge in patients with type 2 diabetes admitted via the emergency department.
Masson, Walter; Epstein, Teo; Huerín, Melina; Lobo, Lorenzo Martín; Molinero, Graciela; Angel, Adriana; Masson, Gerardo; Millán, Diana; De Francesca, Salvador; Vitagliano, Laura; Cafferata, Alberto; Losada, Pablo
The estimated cardiovascular risk determined by the different risk scores, could be heterogeneous in patients with metabolic syndrome without diabetes or vascular disease. This risk stratification could be improved by detecting subclinical carotid atheromatosis. To estimate the cardiovascular risk measured by different scores in patients with metabolic syndrome and analyze its association with the presence of carotid plaque. Non-diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome (Adult Treatment Panel III definition) without cardiovascular disease were enrolled. The Framingham score, the Reynolds score, the new score proposed by the 2013 ACC/AHA Guidelines and the Metabolic Syndrome Severity Calculator were calculated. Prevalence of carotid plaque was determined by ultrasound examination. A Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis was performed. A total of 238 patients were enrolled. Most patients were stratified as "low risk" by Framingham score (64%) and Reynolds score (70.1%). Using the 2013 ACC/AHA score, 45.3% of the population had a risk ≥7.5%. A significant correlation was found between classic scores but the agreement (concordance) was moderate. The correlation between classical scores and the Metabolic Syndrome Severity Calculator was poor. Overall, the prevalence of carotid plaque was 28.2%. The continuous metabolic syndrome score used in our study showed a good predictive power to detect carotid plaque (area under the curve 0.752). In this population, the calculated cardiovascular risk was heterogenic. The prevalence of carotid plaque was high. The Metabolic Syndrome Severity Calculator showed a good predictive power to detect carotid plaque.
Miele, Luca; Giorgio, Valentina; Alberelli, Maria Adele; De Candia, Erica; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Grieco, Antonio
Gut microbiota has been recently established to have a contributory role in the development of cardiometabolic disorders, such as atherosclerosis, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. Growing interest has focused on the modulation of gut microbiota as a therapeutic strategy in cardiovascular diseases and metabolic disorders. In this paper, we have reviewed the impact of gut microbiota on metabolic disorders and cardiovascular disease risk, focusing on the newest findings in this field.
Al-Lawati, Jawad; Morsi, Magdi; Al-Riyami, Asya; Mabry, Ruth; El-Sayed, Medhat; El-Aty, Mahmoud Abd; Al-Lawati, Hawra
This study aimed to investigate trends in the estimated 10-year risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) among adults with diagnosed diabetes in Oman. In addition, the effect of hypothetical risk reductions in this population was examined. Data from 1,077 Omani adults aged ≥40 years with diagnosed diabetes were collected and analysed from three national surveys conducted in 1991, 2000 and 2008 across all regions of Oman. The estimated 10-year CVD risk and hypothetical risk reductions were calculated using risk prediction algorithms from the Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE), Diabetes Epidemiology Collaborative Analysis of Diagnostic Criteria in Europe (DECODE) and World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH) risk tools. Between 1991 and 2008, the estimated 10-year risk of CVD increased significantly in the total sample and among both genders, regardless of the risk prediction algorithm that was used. Hypothetical risk reduction models for three scenarios (eliminating smoking, controlling systolic blood pressure and reducing total cholesterol) identified that reducing systolic blood pressure to ≤130 mmHg would lead to the largest reduction in the 10-year risk of CVD in subjects with diabetes. The estimated 10-year risk for CVD among adults with diabetes increased significantly between 1991 and 2008 in Oman. Focused public health initiatives, involving recognised interventions to address behavioural and biological risks, should be a national priority. Improvements in the quality of care for diabetic patients, both at the individual and the healthcare system level, are required.
Bonds, Denise E; Kurashige, Ella Mae; Bergenstal, Richard; Brillon, David; Domanski, Michael; Felicetta, James V; Fonseca, Vivian A; Hall, Kathleen; Hramiak, Irene; Miller, Michael E; Osei, Kwame; Simons-Morton, Denise G
Hypoglycemia is a potentially serious side effect of blood glucose lowering in diabetes mellitus. The intensive glycemia treatment arm of the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial is designed to treat patients with type 2 diabetes with target glycemia within the normal range (ie, glycosylated hemoglobin principles behind the monitoring of severe hypoglycemia in ACCORD into feasible strategies for use in clinical practice will be needed.
Borch, Daniel; Juul-Hindsgaul, Nicole; Veller, Mette
BACKGROUND: Potatoes have been related to increased risks of obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mainly because of their high glycemic index. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the relation between intake of potatoes and risks of obesity, T2D......, and measured adiposity (body weight, body mass index, or waist circumference), cases of T2D, cases of cardiovascular events, or risk markers thereof. RESULTS: In total, 13 studies were deemed eligible; 5 studies were related to obesity, 7 studies were related to T2D, and one study was related to CVD. Only...
Zannad, Faiez; Stough, Wendy Gattis; Lipicky, Raymond J.; Tamargo, Juan; Bakris, George L.; Borer, Jeffrey S.; Alonso García, Maria de los Angeles; Hadjadj, Samy; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kupfer, Stuart; McCullough, Peter A.; Mosenzon, Ofri; Pocock, Stuart; Scheen, André J.; Sourij, Harald; Van der Schueren, Bart; Stahre, Christina; White, William B.; Calvo, Gonzalo
The Food and Drug Administration issued guidance for evaluating the cardiovascular risk of new diabetes mellitus drugs in 2008. Accumulating evidence from several completed trials conducted within this framework raises questions as to whether requiring safety outcome studies for all new diabetes mellitus therapies remains justified. Given the burden of cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes, the focus should shift towards cardiovascular outcome studies designed to evaluate efficacy (i.e. to determine the efficacy of a drug over placebo or standard care) rather than demonstrating that risk is not increased by a pre-specified safety margin. All stakeholders are responsible for ensuring that new drug approvals occur under conditions of appropriate safety and effectiveness. It is also a shared responsibility to avoid unnecessary hurdles that may compromise access to useful drugs and threaten the sustainability of health systems. It is critical to renew this debate so that stakeholders can collectively determine the optimal approach for developing new drugs to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:27418973
Tsujimoto, Tetsuro; Sugiyama, Takehiro; Shapiro, Martin F; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Kajio, Hiroshi
Although the use of β-blockers may help in achieving maximum effects of intensive glycemic control because of a decrease in the adverse effects after severe hypoglycemia, they pose a potential risk for the occurrence of severe hypoglycemia. This study aimed to evaluate whether the use of β-blockers is effective in patients with diabetes mellitus and whether its use is associated with the occurrence of severe hypoglycemia. Using the ACCORD trial (Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes) data, we performed Cox proportional hazards analyses with a propensity score adjustment. The primary outcome was the first occurrence of a cardiovascular event during the study period, which included nonfatal myocardial infarction, unstable angina, nonfatal stroke, and cardiovascular death. The mean follow-up periods (±SD) were 4.6±1.6 years in patients on β-blockers (n=2527) and 4.7±1.6 years in those not on β-blockers (n=2527). The cardiovascular event rate was significantly higher in patients on β-blockers than in those not on β-blockers (hazard ratio, 1.46; 95% confidence interval, 1.24-1.72; P diabetes mellitus was associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular events. © 2017 The Authors.
Vadstrup, Eva Soelberg; Frølich, Anne; Perrild, Hans Jørgen Duckert
To compare the effectiveness of a group-based rehabilitation programme with an individual counselling programme at improving glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk factors among patients with type 2 diabetes.......To compare the effectiveness of a group-based rehabilitation programme with an individual counselling programme at improving glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk factors among patients with type 2 diabetes....
Williams, Paul T; Franklin, Barry A
Exercise may be an important treatment for hypercholesterolemic patients, particularly in statin users who are at increased diabetes risk. We therefore used Cox proportional hazard analyses to compare running and walking dose (metabolic equivalent hours/day [MET-h/d]) to diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in hypercholesterolemic patients. There were 60 diabetic- and 373 CVD-related deaths during a 10.1-year mortality surveillance of 6,688 hypercholesterolemic patients. In addition, there were 177 incident nonfatal diabetes, 815 incident nonfatal hypertensions, and 323 incident nonfatal CVD events during a 6.4-year follow-up of 6,971 hypercholesterolemic patients who supplied follow-up questionnaires. Fatal and nonfatal diabetes risk decreased 26% (p = 0.002) and 19% (p ≤0.0001) per MET-h/d, respectively, and relative to hypertension risk decreased 4% (p = 0.01) per MET-h/d, and relative to diabetes, hypertension, and CVD risk in hypercholesterolemic patients and should more than compensate for the purported 9% increase in diabetes risk from statin use. By preventing morbidity and mortality for a specific existing medical condition, some exercise expenses may qualify for flexible spending account expenditures in hypercholesterolemic patients when prescribed by a physician. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is commonly accompanied by other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, such as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia. Furthermore, CVD is the most common cause of death in people with T2DM. It is therefore of critical importance to minimize the risk of macrovascular complications by carefully managing modifiable CVD risk factors in patients with T2DM. Therapeutic strategies should include lifestyle and pharmacological interventions targeting hyperglycemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, cigarette smoking, physical inactivity, and prothrombotic factors. This article discusses the impact of modifying these CVD risk factors in the context of T2DM; the clinical evidence is summarized, and current guidelines are also discussed. The cardiovascular benefits of smoking cessation, increasing physical activity, and reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and blood pressure are well established. For aspirin therapy, any cardiovascular benefits must be balanced against the associated bleeding risk, with current evidence supporting this strategy only in certain patients who are at increased CVD risk. Although overweight, obesity, and hyperglycemia are clearly associated with increased cardiovascular risk, the effect of their modification on this risk is less well defined by available clinical trial evidence. However, for glucose-lowering drugs, further evidence is expected from several ongoing cardiovascular outcome trials. Taken together, the evidence highlights the value of early intervention and targeting multiple risk factors with both lifestyle and pharmacological strategies to give the best chance of reducing macrovascular complications in the long term.
Daniel Lorber Division of Endocrinology, New York Hospital Queens, Department of Medicine, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is commonly accompanied by other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, such as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia. Furthermore, CVD is the most common cause of death in people with T2DM. It is therefore of critical importance to minimize the risk of macrovascular complications by carefully...
Savory, L A; Griffin, S J; Williams, K M; Prevost, A T; Kinmonth, A-L; Wareham, N J; Simmons, R K
Aims To describe change in self-reported diet and plasma vitamin C, and to examine associations between change in diet and cardiovascular disease risk factors and modelled 10-year cardiovascular disease risk in the year following diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes. Methods Eight hundred and sixty-seven individuals with screen-detected diabetes underwent assessment of self-reported diet, plasma vitamin C, cardiovascular disease risk factors and modelled cardiovascular disease risk at baseline and 1 year (n = 736) in the ADDITION-Cambridge trial. Multivariable linear regression was used to quantify the association between change in diet and cardiovascular disease risk at 1 year, adjusting for change in physical activity and cardio-protective medication. Results Participants reported significant reductions in energy, fat and sodium intake, and increases in fruit, vegetable and fibre intake over 1 year. The reduction in energy was equivalent to an average-sized chocolate bar; the increase in fruit was equal to one plum per day. There was a small increase in plasma vitamin C levels. Increases in fruit intake and plasma vitamin C were associated with small reductions in anthropometric and metabolic risk factors. Increased vegetable intake was associated with an increase in BMI and waist circumference. Reductions in fat, energy and sodium intake were associated with reduction in HbA1c, waist circumference and total cholesterol/modelled cardiovascular disease risk, respectively. Conclusions Improvements in dietary behaviour in this screen-detected population were associated with small reductions in cardiovascular disease risk, independently of change in cardio-protective medication and physical activity. Dietary change may have a role to play in the reduction of cardiovascular disease risk following diagnosis of diabetes. PMID:24102972
Zinman, Bernard; Inzucchi, Silvio E; Lachin, John M; Wanner, Christoph; Fitchett, David; Kohler, Sven; Mattheus, Michaela; Woerle, Hans J; Broedl, Uli C; Johansen, Odd Erik; Albers, Gregory W; Diener, Hans Christoph
In the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial (Empagliflozin Cardiovascular Outcome Event Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients), empagliflozin added to standard of care in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and high cardiovascular risk reduced the risk of 3-point major adverse cardiovascular events, driven by a reduction in cardiovascular mortality, with no significant difference between empagliflozin and placebo in risk of myocardial infarction or stroke. In a modified intent-to-treat analysis, the hazard ratio for stroke was 1.18 (95% confidence interval, 0.89-1.56; P =0.26). We further investigated cerebrovascular events. Patients were randomized to empagliflozin 10 mg, empagliflozin 25 mg, or placebo; 7020 patients were treated. Median observation time was 3.1 years. The numeric difference in stroke between empagliflozin and placebo in the modified intent-to-treat analysis was primarily because of 18 patients in the empagliflozin group with a first event >90 days after last intake of study drug (versus 3 on placebo). In a sensitivity analysis based on events during treatment or ≤90 days after last dose of drug, the hazard ratio for stroke with empagliflozin versus placebo was 1.08 (95% confidence interval, 0.81-1.45; P =0.60). There were no differences in risk of recurrent, fatal, or disabling strokes, or transient ischemic attack, with empagliflozin versus placebo. Patients with the largest increases in hematocrit or largest decreases in systolic blood pressure did not have an increased risk of stroke. In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and high cardiovascular risk, there was no significant difference in the risk of cerebrovascular events with empagliflozin versus placebo. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01131676. © 2017 The Authors.
Kornelius, Edy; Chiou, Jeng-Yuan; Yang, Yi-Sun; Lu, Ying-Li; Peng, Chiung-Huei; Huang, Chien-Ning
.... The efficacy of this program is unknown. Therefore, we evaluated whether participating patients had reduced risks of cardiovascular events, including coronary heart disease, stroke, and all-cause mortality...
Hunt, Kelly J; Kistner-Griffin, Emily; Spruill, Ida; Teklehaimanot, Abeba A; Garvey, W Timothy; Sale, Michèle; Fernandes, Jyotika
To determine the prevalence of cardiovascular disease, levels of cardiovascular risk factors, and extent of preventive care in Gullah African Americans with a high familial risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Between 1995 and 2003, 1321 Gullah African Americans with a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus from the South Carolina Sea Islands consented to and enrolled in the Sea Islands Genetic African American Registry (Project SuGAR). A cross-sectional analysis of cardiometabolic risk, preventive care, and self-reported cardiovascular disease was conducted. Cardiometabolic risk factor levels were high and vascular disease was prevalent. Among the subjects with diabetes mellitus, the mean disease duration was 10.5 years; approximately one-third reported reduced vision or blindness; and >80% reported numbness, pain, or burning in their feet. Preventive diabetes care was limited, with <60%, <25%, and <40% seeing an ophthalmologist, podiatrist, and dentist, respectively, within the past year. Only 54.4% of women and 39.3% of men reported daily glucose monitoring. As the largest existing study of Gullah individuals, our study offers insight into not only the level of cardiovascular risk in this population but also the pathophysiological mechanisms central to ancestral differences in cardiometabolic risk in the broader African American population.
Sarmento, Roberta Aguiar; Silva, Flávia Moraes; Sbruzzi, Graciele; Schaan, Beatriz D'Agord; Almeida, Jussara Carnevale de
Inverse associations between micronutrient intake and cardiovascular outcomes have been previously shown, but did not focus on diabetic patients. To systematically review the role of micronutrients in the development/presence of cardiovascular outcomes in patients with diabetes. We searched Medline, Embase, and Scopus (January/1949-March/2012) for observational studies that evaluated micronutrients and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with diabetes, and then selected and extracted the data (two independent reviewers). From the 15 658 studies identified, five were included, comprising three case-control and two cohorts, with a follow-up of 7-15 years. A meta-analysis was not performed due to the different antioxidant micronutrients (types and measurement methods) and outcomes evaluated. The micronutrients assessed were vitamin C intake in diet and/or supplementation, chromium and selenium in toenail samples, and α-tocopherol and zinc in serum levels. Intake of >300 mg of vitamin C through supplementation was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, coronary artery disease (CAD), and stroke (RR 1.69-2.37). High levels of α-tocopherol in serum were associated with 30% lower CAD risk in another study (HR 0.71; 95%CI 0.53-0.94). Among minerals (zinc, selenium, and chromium), an inverse association between zinc and CAD was observed; levels lower than 14.1 µmol/L were associated with an increased risk for CAD (RR 1.70; 95%CI 1.21-2.38). The information available on this issue is scarce. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate the role of these nutrients in the cardiovascular risk of patients with diabetes.
Sarmento, Roberta Aguiar [Instituto de Cardiologia do Rio Grande do Sul - Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Serviço de Endocrinologia do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre - Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Silva, Flávia Moraes [Serviço de Endocrinologia do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre - Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Sbruzzi, Graciele [Instituto de Cardiologia do Rio Grande do Sul - Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Schaan, Beatriz D' Agord [Instituto de Cardiologia do Rio Grande do Sul - Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Serviço de Endocrinologia do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre - Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Departamento de Medicina Interna - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Almeida, Jussara Carnevale de, E-mail: email@example.com [Serviço de Endocrinologia do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre - Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Departamento de Medicina Interna - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)
Inverse associations between micronutrient intake and cardiovascular outcomes have been previously shown, but did not focus on diabetic patients. To systematically review the role of micronutrients in the development/presence of cardiovascular outcomes in patients with diabetes. We searched Medline, Embase, and Scopus (January/1949-March/2012) for observational studies that evaluated micronutrients and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with diabetes, and then selected and extracted the data (two independent reviewers). From the 15 658 studies identified, five were included, comprising three case-control and two cohorts, with a follow-up of 7-15 years. A meta-analysis was not performed due to the different antioxidant micronutrients (types and measurement methods) and outcomes evaluated. The micronutrients assessed were vitamin C intake in diet and/ or supplementation, chromium and selenium in toenail samples, and α-tocopherol and zinc in serum levels. Intake of > 300 mg of vitamin C through supplementation was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, coronary artery disease (CAD), and stroke (RR 1.69-2.37). High levels of α-tocopherol in serum were associated with 30% lower CAD risk in another study (HR 0.71; 95%CI 0.53-0.94). Among minerals (zinc, selenium, and chromium), an inverse association between zinc and CAD was observed; levels lower than 14.1 μmol/L were associated with an increased risk for CAD (RR 1.70; 95%CI 1.21-2.38). The information available on this issue is scarce. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate the role of these nutrients in the cardiovascular risk of patients with diabetes.
Després, J P
The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes is showing a rapid progression worldwide, a phenomenon largely resulting from the epidemic proportions reached by obesity in various populations of the world. However, physicians have been puzzled by the heterogeneity of obesity as not every obese patient is characterized by chronic complications. In this regard, body fat distribution, especially intra-abdominal adipose tissue accumulation, has been found to be a key correlate of a cluster of diabetogenic, atherogenic, prothrombotic and inflammatory metabolic abnormalities increasing the risk of Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In this regard, it has been recently demonstrated that abdominal obesity was independently associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and Type 2 diabetes independently of overall adiposity. Lifestyle modification programs have shown the benefits on cardiometabolic risk variables of a moderate weight loss as it has been found to be associated with a substantial loss of intra-abdominal fat in viscerally obese patients. However, to be successful, such programs require the support of a multidisciplinary team not available to most clinicians. In this context, it is proposed that pharmacotherapy of obesity should target abdominally obese patients at high risk of Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, such risk being encompassed by the notion of "cardiometabolic risk". The recent discovery of the endocannabinoid-cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 receptor) system and of its impact on the regulation of energy metabolism represents a significant advance which could help physicians to target abdominal obesity and its related metabolic complications. In this regard, studies have shown that rimonabant (the first CB1 blocker developed) therapy could be useful for the management of clustering cardiovascular disease risk factors in high-risk abdominally obese patients through its marked effects on both abdominal adiposity and related
Spallone, Vincenza; Ziegler, Dan; Freeman, Roy
Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy (CAN) Subcommittee of Toronto Consensus Panel on Diabetic Neuropathy worked to update CAN guidelines, with regard to epidemiology, clinical impact, diagnosis, usefulness of CAN testing, and management. CAN is the impairment of cardiovascular autonomic control...... in type 2 diabetes. CAN is a risk marker of mortality and cardiovascular morbidity, and possibly a progression promoter of diabetic nephropathy. Criteria for CAN diagnosis and staging are: 1. one abnormal cardio-vagal test identifies possible or early CAN; 2. at least two abnormal cardio-vagal tests....... diagnosis of CAN clinical forms, 2. detection and tailored treatment of CAN clinical correlates (e.g. tachycardia, OH, nondipping, QT interval prolongation), 3. risk stratification for diabetic complications and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and 4. modulation of targets of diabetes therapy...
Alcohol users were less likely to be dyslipidemic. (OR =4.25, 3.5, 3.56 and 0.39, respectively). CONCLUSION: Hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia and physical inactivity were common while smoking was uncommon among diabetic patients in Jimma University Specialized Hospital. Type 2 DM was a predictor of.
Full Text Available Patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM have increased cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. The use of statins significantly reduces the rate of CVD events but many T2DM patients, especially those with mixed dyslipidaemia (MD, have residual CVD risk. The use of fibrates, which improve triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, is beneficial for the treatment of patients with MD. Evidence from the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD Lipid study showed a possible beneficial effect on CVD events of the addition of fenofibrate (FF to statin treatment in patients with T2DM and atherogenic MD. Furthermore, FF has been associated with slowing of the progression of early diabetic retinopathy. The combination of statin with a fibrate may improve the residual CVD risk and microvascular complications of patients with T2DM. However, trials specifically designed to assess the effects of fibrate-statin combination on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with T2DM are missing.
Canas, Jose A; Gidding, Samuel S; Mauras, Nelly
Despite recent advances in improved glycemic control, the magnitude of lifetime risk from premature cardiovascular disease in individuals with type 1 diabetes remains at least 10 fold higher than in the general population. The availability of lipoprotein fractionation has allowed the spotlight for this increased risk to shift from dysglycemia to diabetes-induced dyslipidemia associated with insulin resistance. Interventions designed to simultaneously improve both factors can have distinct and additive effects on slowing the initiation and progression of atherosclerotic lesions. As fullblown cardiovascular disease is not evident during childhood, there is a critical need to identify the most predictable surrogate markers that could assign elevated risk, as well as the design of safe and targeted interventions that could improve outcomes in this population. This review will examine the evidence supporting the notion that cardiovascular disease in type 1 diabetes is associated with significant insulin resistance and it begins in childhood, making it necessary to design rational clinical trials that will significantly reduce risk in this population. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available Daniel Lorber Division of Endocrinology, New York Hospital Queens, Department of Medicine, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is commonly accompanied by other cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors, such as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia. Furthermore, CVD is the most common cause of death in people with T2DM. It is therefore of critical importance to minimize the risk of macrovascular complications by carefully managing modifiable CVD risk factors in patients with T2DM. Therapeutic strategies should include lifestyle and pharmacological interventions targeting hyperglycemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, cigarette smoking, physical inactivity, and prothrombotic factors. This article discusses the impact of modifying these CVD risk factors in the context of T2DM; the clinical evidence is summarized, and current guidelines are also discussed. The cardiovascular benefits of smoking cessation, increasing physical activity, and reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and blood pressure are well established. For aspirin therapy, any cardiovascular benefits must be balanced against the associated bleeding risk, with current evidence supporting this strategy only in certain patients who are at increased CVD risk. Although overweight, obesity, and hyperglycemia are clearly associated with increased cardiovascular risk, the effect of their modification on this risk is less well defined by available clinical trial evidence. However, for glucose-lowering drugs, further evidence is expected from several ongoing cardiovascular outcome trials. Taken together, the evidence highlights the value of early intervention and targeting multiple risk factors with both lifestyle and pharmacological strategies to give the best chance of reducing macrovascular complications in the long term. Keywords: cardiovascular risk, hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia
Freak-Poli, Rosanne; Wolfe, Rory; Backholer, Kathryn
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether participation in a four-month, pedometer-based, physical activity, workplace health programme results in an improvement in risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Adults employed within Australia in primarily sedentary occupations.......1(0.0, 0.1) mmol/L). CONCLUSION: Completion of this four-month, pedometer-based, physical activity, workplace programme was associated with improvements in behavioural and anthropometric risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Long-term evaluation is required to evaluate the potential...... and voluntarily enrolled in a workplace programme, the Global Corporate Challenge®, aimed at increasing physical activity were recruited. Data included demographic, behavioural, anthropometric and biomedical measurements. Measures were compared between baseline and four-months. RESULTS: 762 participants were...
Full Text Available Paris Roach, David MarreroDepartment of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USAAbstract: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD, and many patients are inadequately treated for risk factors such as hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and smoking. Providing individualized risk information in a clear and engaging manner may serve to encourage both patients and their physicians to intensify risk-reducing behaviors and therapies. This review outlines simple and effective methods for making CVD risk infomation understandable to persons of all levels of literacy and mathematical ability. To allow the patient to understand what might happen and how, personal risk factors should be clearly communicated and the potential consequences of a CVD event should be presented in a graphic but factual manner. Risk calculation software can provide CVD risk estimates, and the resulting information can be made understandable by assigning risk severity (eg, “high” by comparing clinical parameters with accepted treatment targets and by comparing the individual’s risk with that of the “average” person. Patients must also be informed about how they might reduce their CVD risk and be supported in these efforts. Thoughtful risk communication using these techniques can improve access to health information for individuals of low literacy, especially when interactive computer technology is employed. Research is needed to find the best methods for communicating risk in daily clinical practice.Keywords: cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular risk, risk communication
Danaei, Goodarz; Lu, Yuan; Singh, Gitanjali M.; Carnahan, Emily; Stevens, Gretchen A.; Cowan, Melanie J.; Farzadfar, Farshad; Lin, John K.; Finucane, Mariel M.; Rao, Mayuree; Khang, Young-Ho; Riley, Leanne M.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Lim, Stephen S.; Ezzati, Majid; Aamodt, Geir; Abdeen, Ziad; Abdella, Nabila A.; Rahim, Hanan F. Abdul; Addo, Juliet; Aekplakorn, Wichai; Afifi, Mustafa M.; Agabiti-Rosei, Enrico; Salinas, Carlos A. Aguilar; Agyemang, Charles; Ali, Mohammed K.; Ali, Mohamed M.; Al-Nsour, Mohannad; Al-Nuaim, Abdul R.; Ambady, Ramachandran; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Aro, Pertti; Azizi, Fereidoun; Babu, Bontha V.; Bahalim, Adil N.; Barbagallo, Carlo M.; Barbieri, Marco A.; Barceló, Alberto; Barreto, Sandhi M.; Barros, Henrique; Bautista, Leonelo E.; Benetos, Athanase; Bjerregaard, Peter; Björkelund, Cecilia; Bo, Simona; Bobak, Martin; Bonora, Enzo; Botana, Manuel A.; Bovet, Pascal; Breckenkamp, Juergen; Breteler, Monique M.; Broda, Grazyna; Brown, Ian J.; Bursztyn, Michael; de León, Antonio Cabrera; Campos, Hannia; Cappuccio, Francesco P.; Capuano, Vincenzo; Casiglia, Edoardo; Castellano, Maurizio; Castetbon, Katia; Cea, Luis; Chang, Chih-Jen; Chaouki, Noureddine; Chatterji, Somnath; Chen, Chien-Jen; Chen, Zhengming; Choi, Jin-Su; Chua, Lily; Cífková, Renata; Cobiac, Linda J.; Cooper, Richard S.; Corsi, Anna Maria; Costanza, Michael C.; Craig, Cora L.; Dankner, Rachel S.; Dastgiri, Saeed; Delgado, Elias; Dinc, Gonul; Doi, Yasufumi; Dong, Guang-Hui; Dorsi, Eleonora; Dragano, Nico; Drewnowski, Adam; Eggertsen, Robert; Elliott, Paul; Engeland, Anders; Erem, Cihangir; Esteghamati, Alireza; Fall, Caroline H. D.; Fan, Jian-Gao; Ferreccio, Catterina; Fezeu, Leopold; Firmo, Josélia O.; Florez, Hermes J.; Fornés, Nélida S.; Fowkes, F. Gerry R.; Franceschini, Guido; Frisk, Fredrik; Fuchs, Flávio D.; Fuller, Eva L.; Getz, Linn; Giampaoli, Simona; Gómez, Luis F.; Gomez-Zumaquero, Juan M.; Graff-Iversen, Sidsel; Grant, Janet F.; Carvajal, Ramiro Guerrero; Gulliford, Martin C.; Gupta, Rajeev; Gupta, Prakash C.; Gureje, Oye; Gutierrez, Hialy R.; Hansen, Tine W.; Hata, Jun; He, Jiang; Heim, Noor; Heinrich, Joachim; Hemmingsson, Tomas; Hennis, Anselm; Herman, William H.; Herrera, Victor M.; Ho, Suzanne; Holdsworth, Michelle; Frisman, Gunilla Hollman; Hopman, Wilma M.; Hussain, Akhtar; Husseini, Abdullatif; Ibrahim, M. Mohsen; Ikeda, Nayu; Jacobsen, Bjarne K.; Jaddou, Hashem Y.; Jafar, Tazeen H.; Janghorbani, Mohsen; Jasienska, Grazyna; Joffres, Michel R.; Jonas, Jost B.; Kadiki, Othman A.; Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra; Kamadjeu, Raoul M.; Kaptoge, Stephen; Karalis, Ioannis; Kastarinen, Mika J.; Katz, Joanne; Keinan-Boker, Lital; Kelly, Paul; Khalilzadeh, Omid; Kiechl, Stefan; Kim, Ki Woong; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Kobayashi, Junji; Krause, Maressa P.; Kubínová, Růžena; Kurjata, Pawel; Kusuma, Yadlapalli S.; Lam, Tai H.; Langhammer, Arnulf; Lawes, Carlene M. M.; Le, Cai; Lee, Jeannette; Lévy-Marchal, Claire; Lewington, Sarah; Li, Yanping; Li, Yuqiu; Lim, T. O.; Lin, Xu; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Lin, Hsien-Ho; Lind, Lars; Lissner, Lauren; Liu, Xiaoqing; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Lorbeer, Roberto; Ma, Guansheng; Ma, Stefan; Macià, Francesc; MacLean, David R.; Maggi, Stefania; Magliano, Dianna J.; Makdisse, Marcia; Mancia, Giuseppe; Mannami, Toshifumi; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Mbanya, Jean Claude N.; McFarlane-Anderson, Norma; Miccoli, Roberto; Miettola, Juhani; Minh, Hoang V.; Miquel, Juan F.; Miranda, J. Jaime; Mohamed, Mostafa K.; Mohan, V.; Mohanna, Salim; Mokdad, Ali; Mollentze, Willem F.; Morales, Dante D.; Morgan, Karen; Muiesan, Lorenza M.; Muntoni, Sergio; Nabipour, Iraj; Nakagami, Tomoko; Nangia, Vinay; Nemesure, Barbara; Neovius, Martin; Nerhus, Kjersti A.; Nervi, Flavio; Neuhauser, Hannelore; Nguyen, Minh; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Noale, Marianna; Oh, Sang W.; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Olivieri, Oliviero; Önal, Ayse Emel; Onat, Altan; Oróstegui, Myriam; Ouedraogo, Hermann; Pan, Wen-Harn; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B.; Panza, Francesco; Park, Yongsoo; Passos, Valeria M. A.; Pednekar, Mangesh S.; Pelizzari, Pamela M.; Peres, Marco A.; Pérez, Cynthia; Pérez-Fernández, Román; Pichardo, Rafael; Phua, Hwee Pin; Pistelli, Francesco; Plans, Pedro; Polakowska, Maria; Poulter, Neil; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Qiao, Qing; Rafiei, Masoud; Raitakari, Olli T.; Ramos, Luiz R.; Rampal, Sanjay; Rampal, Lekhraj; Rasmussen, Finn; Reddy, Kanala K. R.; Redon, Josep; Revilla, Luis; Reyes-García, Victoria; Roaeid, Ragab B.; Robinson, Carolyn A.; Rodriguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Rojas-Martinez, Rosalba; Ronkainen, Kimmo; Rosero-Bixby, Luis; Roth, Gregory A.; Sachdev, Harshpal S.; Sánchez, José R.; Sanisoglu, Selim Y.; Sans, Susana; Sarraf-Zadegan, Nizal; Scazufca, Marcia; Schaan, Beatriz D.; Schapochnik, Norberto; Schelleman, Hedi; Schneider, Ione J. C.; Schooling, C. Mary; Schwarz, Bernhard; Sekuri, Cevad; Sereday, Martha S.; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Shaw, Jonathan; Shera, Abdul S.; Shi, Zumin; Shiri, Rahman; Shu, Xiao Ou; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Silva, Eglé; Simons, Leon A.; Smith, Margaret; Söderberg, Stefan; Soebardi, Suharko; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Sonestedt, Emily; Soysal, Ahmet; Stattin, Pär; Stein, Aryeh D.; Stergiou, George S.; Stessman, Jochanan; Sudo, Akihiro; Suka, Machi; Sundh, Valter; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundström, Johan; Swai, Andrew B.; Tai, E. Shyong; Tambs, Kristian; Tesfaye, Fikru; Thomas, George N.; Thorogood, Margaret; Tilvis, Reijo S.; Tobias, Martin; Torheim, Liv E.; Trenkwalder, Peter; Tuomilehto, Jaakko O.; Tur, Josep A.; Tzourio, Christophe; Uhernik, Ana I.; Ukoli, Flora A.; Unwin, Nigel; Hoorn, Stephen Vander; Vanderpump, Mark P.; Varo, Jose Javier; Veierød, Marit B.; Velásquez-Meléndez, Gustavo; Verschuren, Monique; Viet, Lucie; Villalpando, Salvador; Vioque, Jesus; Vollenweider, Peter; Volpato, Stefano; Wang, Ningli; Wang, Ya X.; Ward, Mark; Waspadji, Sarwono; Welin, Lennart X.; Whitlock, Gary; Wilhelmsen, Lars; Willeit, Johann; Woodward, Mark; Wormser, David; Xavier, André J.; Xu, Fei; Xu, Liang; Yamamoto, Akira; Yang, Gonghuan; Yang, Xiaoguang; Yeh, Li-Chia; Yoon, Jin-Sang; You, Qisheng; Yu, Zhijie; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Lei; Zheng, Wei; Zhou, Maigeng
Background High blood pressure, blood glucose, serum cholesterol, and BMI are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and some of these factors also increase the risk of chronic kidney disease and diabetes. We estimated mortality from cardiovascular diseases, chronic kidney disease, and diabetes
Jennifer Rachel Law; Shipra ePatel; Anna eSpagnoli
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a well-known complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), and patients with DM are at an increased risk for early onset of CVD. Hyperglycemia is believed to be the primary mediator in premature development of atherosclerosis in patients with DM, but there are also derangements in cholesterol levels and inflammatory markers beyond the explanation of hyperglycemia. Although clinicians often screen for dyslipidemia as part of routine care for children and adolescents w...
Wulsin, Lawson R; Horn, Paul S; Perry, Jennifer L; Massaro, Joseph M; D'Agostino, Ralph B
Identifying novel early predictors of metabolic disorders is essential to improving effective primary prevention. The objectives were to examine the contribution of two measures of autonomic imbalance, resting heart rate (RHR) and heart rate variability (HRV), on the development of five metabolic risk outcomes, and on cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and early mortality. This study was a secondary analysis of prospective data from Offspring Cohort participants (N = 1882) in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS). Participants at FHS Exam 3 (1983-1987) with 1) age years 18 or older, and 2) data on RHR, HRV, and five measures of metabolic risk (blood pressure, fasting glucose, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein [HDL] cholesterol, and body mass index [BMI]) at three follow-up visits over 12 years. We conducted a backward elimination variable selection procedure on a logistic regression model, using baseline RHR, HRV, age, sex, and smoking status to predict the odds of developing a specific metabolic risk. Measures included hyperglycemia, high blood pressure, high triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, and high BMI over 12 years; incident diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and early mortality over 20 years. RHR and HRV, along with sex, age, and smoking were significant predictors of high blood pressure, hyperglycemia, and a diagnosis of diabetes within 12 years. RHR and HRV also predicted the development of cardiovascular disease and early mortality for most of the sample. In this community sample two measures of autonomic imbalance predicted multiple poor metabolic outcomes and mortality, making autonomic imbalance a potentially worthy target for intervention studies to reduce risks for cardiovascular disorders, diabetes, and early death.
Vinagre, Irene; Mata-Cases, Manel; Hermosilla, Eduard; Morros, Rosa; Fina, Francesc; Rosell, Magdalena; Castell, Conxa; Franch-Nadal, Josep; Bolíbar, Bonaventura; Mauricio, Didac
The objective of this study was to analyze the clinical characteristics and levels of glycemic and cardiovascular risk factor control in patients with type 2 diabetes that are in primary health care...
van der Leeuw, J; van Dieren, S; Beulens, J W J; Boeing, H; Spijkerman, A M W; van der Graaf, Y; van der A, D L; Nöthlings, U; Visseren, F L J; Rutten, G E H M; Moons, K G M; van der Schouw, Y T; Peelen, L M
Various cardiovascular prediction models have been developed for patients with type 2 diabetes. Their predictive performance in new patients is mostly not investigated. This study aims to quantify the predictive performance of all cardiovascular prediction models developed specifically for diabetes patients. Follow-up data of 453, 1174 and 584 type 2 diabetes patients without pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the EPIC-NL, EPIC-Potsdam and Secondary Manifestations of ARTerial disease cohorts, respectively, were used to validate 10 prediction models to estimate risk of CVD or coronary heart disease (CHD). Discrimination was assessed by the c-statistic for time-to-event data. Calibration was assessed by calibration plots, the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistic and expected to observed ratios. There was a large variation in performance of CVD and CHD scores between different cohorts. Discrimination was moderate for all 10 prediction models, with c-statistics ranging from 0.54 (95% CI 0.46 to 0.63) to 0.76 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.84). Calibration of the original models was poor. After simple recalibration to the disease incidence of the target populations, predicted and observed risks were close. Expected to observed ratios of the recalibrated models ranged from 1.06 (95% CI 0.81 to 1.40) to 1.55 (95% CI 0.95 to 2.54), mainly driven by an overestimation of risk in high-risk patients. All 10 evaluated models had a comparable and moderate discriminative ability. The recalibrated, but not the original, prediction models provided accurate risk estimates. These models can assist clinicians in identifying type 2 diabetes patients who are at low or high risk of developing CVD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Beltramello, Giampietro; Manicardi, Valeria; Mazzuoli, Francesco; Rivellese, Angela
Diabetes mellitus and hyperglycaemia are both independent risk factors (RF) for cardiovascular (CV) events and increased general and CV mortality. Type 2 diabetes, which is often associated with obesity, hypertension and dyslipidaemia, is accompanied by an up to fourfold increase in the incidence of acute coronary heart disease compared to normoglycaemia, even when other CV RF are equal. In the diabetic population, acute CV events are more likely to have associated cardiac complications, such as heart failure, and CV mortality is increased by twofold–fourfold. Several patients, hospitalised in medical, cardiology and intensive care departments, have undiagnosed diabetes mellitus or elevated glucose levels at the time of admission. These conditions require intensive care in the acute phase and dedicated follow-up at discharge. The Trialogue Plus project was created with the goal of providing good clinical practice guidelines and recommendations for the management of CV risk in patients with diabetes/hyperglycaemia at discharge from hospital. The aim is developing a document that defines timing, diagnostics, targets and therapeutic strategy for the management of CV risk, both in primary and in secondary prevention of patients with diabetes/hyperglycaemia who have experienced an event, involving the Diabetologist, Cardiologist, Internist, GP and area Specialists. This document concerns the implementation of existing guidelines and consensus statements, and as such, the recommendations have not been classified on the basis of scientific evidence and strength.
Mukamal, K J; Kizer, J R; Djoussé, L; Ix, J H; Zieman, S; Siscovick, D S; Sibley, C T; Tracy, R P; Arnold, A M
We sought to derive and validate a cardiovascular disease (CVD) prediction algorithm for older adults with diabetes, and evaluate the incremental benefit of adding novel circulating biomarkers and measures of subclinical atherosclerosis. As part of the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), a population-based cohort of adults aged ≥65 years, we examined the 10 year risk of myocardial infarction, stroke and cardiovascular death in 782 older adults with diabetes, in whom 265 events occurred. We validated predictive models in 843 adults with diabetes, who were followed for 7 years in a second cohort, the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA); here 71 events occurred. The best fitting standard model included age, smoking, systolic blood pressure, total and HDL-cholesterol, creatinine and the use of glucose-lowering agents; however, this model had a C statistic of 0.64 and poorly classified risk in men. Novel biomarkers did not improve discrimination or classification. The addition of ankle-brachial index, electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy and internal carotid intima-media thickness modestly improved discrimination (C statistic 0.68; p = 0.002) and classification (net reclassification improvement [NRI] 0.12; p = 0.01), mainly in those remaining free of CVD. Results were qualitatively similar in the MESA, with a change in C statistic from 0.65 to 0.68 and an NRI of 0.09 upon inclusion of subclinical disease measures. Standard clinical risk factors and novel biomarkers poorly discriminate and classify CVD risk in older adults with diabetes. The inclusion of subclinical atherosclerotic measures modestly improves these features, but to develop more robust risk prediction, a better understanding of the pathophysiology and determinants of CVD in this patient group is needed.
Wakabayashi, Ichiro; Marumo, Mikio; Nonaka, Daisuke; Lee, Lyang-Ja; Mukai, Jun; Ohki, Makoto; Tanaka, Kenji; Uchida, Kagehiro
The cysteine residue on transthyretin (TTR) is susceptible to be oxidized, and serum cysteinylated TTR (Cys-TTR) level is thought to reflect oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the relationship between Cys-TTR and arterial stiffness, a known predictor of cardiovascular disease, in patients with type 2 diabetes. The subjects were 105 male outpatients with type 2 diabetes. Arterial stiffness was evaluated by measuring cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI). The relationship between CAVI and ratio of Cys-TTR to total TTR (Cys-TTR ratio) was analyzed. Cys-TTR ratio was significantly correlated with CAVI (Pearson's correlation coefficient: 0.316, pdiabetes and is proposed as a new discriminator of cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jun 3, 2014 ... (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2), had a 20-30% lower risk of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction or non-fatal stroke.14. Kennedy and colleagues reviewed data from 3 large studies of patients with prior acute myocardial infarction. (AMI) or stable CAD, namely Optimal Trial in Myocardial. Infarction with the Angiotensin II ...
van der Leeuw, J.; van Dieren, S.; Beulens, J. W. J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304815381; Boeing, H.; Spijkerman, A. M. W.; van der Graaf, Y.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072825847; van der A, D. L.; Noethlings, U.; Visseren, F. L. J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/166267678; Rutten, G. E. H. M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074622781; Moons, K. G. M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/152483519; van der Schouw, Y. T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073449253; Peelen, L. M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314038426
Objective Various cardiovascular prediction models have been developed for patients with type 2 diabetes. Their predictive performance in new patients is mostly not investigated. This study aims to quantify the predictive performance of all cardiovascular prediction models developed specifically for
Ingaramo, Roberto A
Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death in both developed and developing countries. In South America, the native population comprises a great number of different ethnic groups. The cardiovascular risk factors observed in these groups have proved similar to and even higher than those found in general non-native populations. Relatively recent epidemiologic information reveals that many native communities have healthy habits with low prevalence of risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes, while their prevalence is higher in those who have kept close contact with non-native populations and have westernized their habits. The differences in the presence of risk factors in these populations have been explained as the result of several interacting factors including genetic to environmental, socioeconomic, and cultural causes.
Zamora-Ginez, Irma; Pérez-Fuentes, Ricardo; Baez-Duarte, Blanca G; Revilla-Monsalve, Cristina; Brambila, Eduardo
Independent of obesity, family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (FHT2DM) is another important risk factor for developing diabetes. To establish the association among FHT2DM, risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease in subjects from central Mexico. Clinical and biochemical studies were performed in 383 first-degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes and 270 subjects unrelated to patients with type 2 diabetes-all subjects were from the city of Puebla in central Mexico. Logistic regressions were used to assess the association between FHT2DM and metabolic parameters. Cardiovascular risk was classified by dyslipidemia and the Framingham Risk Score (FRS). FHT2DM was associated with risk factors for diabetes, such as increased fasting insulin levels (OR = 1.731, 95% CI = 1.041-2.877), decreased insulin sensitivity (OR = 1.951, 95% CI = 1.236-3.080) and pre-diabetes (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.14-2.33). FHT2DH was not associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as dyslipidemia (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.70-1.79) and FRS (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.40-1.36) when adjusted for gender, age, smoking and obesity. Diabetic risk factors, but not cardiovascular disease risk factors, are associated with a positive family history of diabetes in subjects from central Mexico, independent of the presence of obesity.
Full Text Available Background: Over the past few years, there has been a worldwide significant increase in the incidence of type II diabetes (T2DM with both increase in morbidity and mortality. Controlling diabetes through life style modifications, including diet and exercise has always been the cornerstone in diabetes management. As a matter of fact, a number of studies addressed the potential protective role of Mediterranean diet in diabetic patients. Increasing evidence suggests that the Mediterranean diet could be of benefit in diseases associated with chronic inflammation, including metabolic syndrome, diabetes, obesity as well as atherosclerosis, cancer, pulmonary diseases, and cognition disorders. Methods: A systematic review was conducted on the effect of Mediterranean diet in diabetes control and cardiovascular risk modification as well as the possible mechanism through which this diet might exhibit its beneficial role. We did a comprehensive search of multiple electronic databases such as Medline, Google Scholars, PubMed, and the Cochrane central register data until May 2014. We included cross-sectional, prospective and controlled clinical trials that looked at the associations between Mediterranean diet and indices of diabetes control such HbA1c, fasting glucose, and HOMA, in addition to cardiovascular and peripheral vascular outcomes.Outcome/Conclusion: Most of the studies showed favorable effects of Mediterranean diet on glycemic control and CVD, although a certain degree of controversy remains regarding some issues, such as obesity. Important methodological differences and limitations in the studies make it difficult to compare results, thus further longer term studies are needed to evaluate the long-term efficacy of the Mediterranean diet along with the possibility of explaining its mechanism.
Llamazares Iglesias, Ofelia; Sastre Marcos, Julia; Peña Cortés, Virginia; Luque Pazos, Alessandra; Cánovas Gaillemin, Bárbara; Vicente Delgado, Almudena; Marco Martínez, Amparo; López López, José
To assess control of blood glucose and other cardiovascular risk factors in diabetic patients monitored at an outpatient endocrinology clinic. To ascertain treatment used and its changes over time. A cohort of 424 randomly selected diabetic patients (both type 1 and type 2) was monitored from 2004 to 2008. Final cohort size was 343 patients. Data were collected about epidemiological characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors, chronic complications, glycemic, lipid and blood pressure control, and treatment at baseline and 4 years. After 4 years, the proportion of patients achieving glycosylated hemoglobin levels less than 7% remained stable (type 1: 18.5% in 2004 vs 21.7% in 2008, type 2: 26.6% vs 26.5%). The degree of achievement of lipid and blood pressure (BP) control levels increased in both groups. The complexity of treatment schemes used to achieve these results significantly increased. Stabilization of glycemic control after 4 years of follow-up was a positive result, considering the long course of diabetes, progressive pancreatic function impairment, and complexity of our cohort. Treatment optimization significantly improved BP and lipid control in the study group. Copyright Â© 2011 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Daly, Barbara; Kenealy, Timothy; Arroll, Bruce; Sheridan, Nicolette; Scragg, Robert
To identify factors associated with assessment and nursing management of blood pressure, smoking and other major cardiovascular risk factors by primary health care nurses in Auckland, New Zealand. Primary health care nurses (n = 287) were randomly sampled from the total (n=1091) identified throughout the Auckland region and completed a self-administered questionnaire (n = 284) and telephone interview. Nurses provided details for 86% (n =265) of all diabetes patients they consulted on a randomly selected day. The response rate for nurses was 86%. Of the patients sampled, 183 (69%) patients had their blood pressure measured, particularly if consulted by specialist (83%) and practice (77%) nurses compared with district (23%, p = 0.0003). After controlling for demographic variables, multivariate analyses showed patients consulted by nurses who had identified stroke as a major diabetes-related complication were more likely to have their blood pressure measured, and those consulted by district nurses less likely. Sixteen percent of patients were current smokers. Patients consulted by district nurses were more likely to smoke while, those >66 years less likely. Of those who wished to stop, only 50% were offered nicotine replacement therapy. Patients were significantly more likely to be advised on diet and physical activity if they had their blood pressure measured (p nursing workforce is essential to ensure cardiovascular risk management becomes integrated into diabetes management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hero, C; Svensson, A-M; Gidlund, P; Gudbjörnsdottir, S; Eliasson, B; Eeg-Olofsson, K
LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) is considered an important cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor. Less is known in Type 1 diabetes. We assessed LDL-C and total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio (TC/HDL-C) as predictors of CVD in Type 1 diabetes. The study monitored 30 778 people with Type 1 diabetes, baseline 2003-2006, to 31 December 2011. Cox regression analyses were performed with LDL-C and TC/HDL-C as predictors of fatal/non-fatal CVD. Models were adjusted for traditional CVD risk factors. Hazard ratios (HR) (with 95% CI) per 1 mmol/l increase in LDL-C for CVD were 1.09 (1.01-1.18) in people without lipid-lowering medication and 1.02 (0.95-1.09) in people with lipid-lowering medication (P = 0.02 and 0.65). In people aged 40 years or older having a CVD risk factor, and in people with a history of CVD, HR was 1.07 (0.99-1.16) and 1.02 (0.92-1.13) (P = 0.07 and 0.66). HR per 1 unit increase in TC/HDL-C was 1.12 (1.05-1.20) in people without lipid-lowering medication and 1.08 (1.02-1.15) in people with lipid-lowering medication (P LDL-C was not a significant predictor of CVD in any group. Higher octiles of TC/HDL-C were significant predictors for CVD in people without lipid-lowering medication and in those aged 40 years or older. In this study of people with Type 1 diabetes in clinical practice, LDL-C was not a good predictor of CVD. We found no support for an LDL-C cut-off point risk when considering primary prevention. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2015 Diabetes UK.
Williamson, Jeff D; Miller, Michael E; Bryan, R Nick; Lazar, Ronald M; Coker, Laura H; Johnson, Janice; Cukierman, Tali; Horowitz, Karen R; Murray, Anne; Launer, Lenore J
Type 2 diabetes mellitus and cognitive impairment are 2 of the most common chronic conditions found in persons aged > or = 60 years. Clinical studies have shown a greater prevalence of global cognitive impairment, incidence of cognitive decline, and incidence of Alzheimer disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. To date, there have been no randomized trials of the effects of long-term glycemic control on cognitive function and structural brain changes in patients with type 2 diabetes. The primary aim of the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) Memory in Diabetes Study (ACCORD-MIND) is to test whether there is a difference in the rate of cognitive decline and structural brain change in patients with diabetes treated with standard-care guidelines compared with those treated with intensive-care guidelines. This comparison will be made in a subsample of 2,977 patients with diabetes participating in the ongoing ACCORD trial, a clinical trial sponsored by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) with support from the National Institute on Aging (NIA). Data from this ACCORD substudy on the possible beneficial or adverse effects of intensive treatment on cognitive function will be obtained from a 30-minute test battery, administered at baseline and 20-month and 40-month visits. In addition, full-brain magnetic resonance imaging will be performed on 630 participants at baseline and at 40 months to assess the relation between the ACCORD treatments and structural brain changes. The general aim of ACCORD-MIND is to determine whether the intensive treatment of diabetes, a major risk factor for Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia, can reduce the early decline in cognitive function that could later evolve into more cognitively disabling conditions. This report presents the design, rationale, and methods of the ACCORD-MIND substudy.
Laugesen, Esben; Høyem, Pernille; Fleischer, Jesper; Kumarathas, Indumathi; Knudsen, Søren T; Hansen, Klavs W; Christiansen, Jens Sandahl; Hansen, Troels K; Poulsen, Per L
The pathophysiological perturbations underlying the unfavorable cardiovascular prognosis in women with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) remain elusive. Low subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR), an index of myocardial oxygen supply and demand, has been associated with intermediate cardiovascular risk markers and cardiovascular mortality in various populations. However, whether SEVR is associated with sex and cardiovascular risk markers in patients with T2DM remains to be clarified. We examined 86 T2DM patients (mean age 59±10 years, 47% women, median diabetes duration 1.9 (range 0.2-5.0) years) and 86 sex- and age-matched control subjects in a cross-sectional study. SEVR was noninvasively assessed by tonometry and markers of cardiovascular risk by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR), C-reactive protein, urinary albumin/creatinine ratio, and heart rate variability. Women with diabetes had significantly lower SEVR compared to both men with diabetes (161% ± 26% vs. 178% ± 32%, P < 0.01), women without diabetes (185% ± 24%, P < 0.001), and men without diabetes (188% ± 28%, P < 0.001). The differences remained significant after adjustment for age, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, diabetes, and smoking. SEVR was associated with PWV, HOMA2-IR, C-reactive protein, and reduced heart rate variability in patients and control subjects, but the associations became nonsignificant after adjustment for heart rate. SEVR is reduced in women with short duration of T2DM and associated with cardiovascular risk markers. The latter association seems to be at least partly mediated via heart rate. We hypothesize that reduced SEVR may contribute to the unfavorable cardiovascular prognosis in women with diabetes. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2016. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Robson, Roy; Kundur, Avinash R; Singh, Indu
Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most prevalent and progressive metabolic conditions affecting approximately 8.5% of the global population. Individuals with T2DM have a significantly increased risk of developing chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its associated complications, therefore, it is of great importance to establish strategies for combatting T2DM and its associated chronic conditions. Current literature has identified several biomarkers that are known to play a key role in the pathogenesis of CVD. Many of these biomarkers affecting CVD are influenced by an increase in oxidative stress as seen in T2DM. The purpose of this review is to analyse and correlate the oxidative stress-related biomarkers that have been identified in the literature to provide an updated summary of their significance in CVD risk factors. This review has analysed current research on T2DM, CVD, and oxidative stress. Four key cardiovascular risk factors: thrombosis, inflammation, vascular homeostasis and cellular proliferation were searched to identify potential biomarkers for this review. These biomarkers stem from seven major cellular pathways; NF-κB, Keap1-Nrf2, protein kinase-C, macrophage activation, arachidonic acid mobilisation, endothelial dysfunction and advanced glycation end products. The pathways and biomarkers were analysed to show their role as contributing factors to CVD development and a summary is made regarding the assessment of cardiovascular risk in T2DM individuals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Liese, Angela D; Bortsov, Andrey; Günther, Anke L B; Dabelea, Dana; Reynolds, Kristi; Standiford, Debra A; Liu, Lenna; Williams, Desmond E; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Bell, Ronny; Marcovina, Santica
We have shown that adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet is related to blood pressure in youth with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. We explored the impact of the DASH diet on other cardiovascular disease risk factors. Between 2001 and 2005, data on total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein particle density, apolipoprotein B, body mass index, waist circumference, and adipocytokines were ascertained in 2130 youth aged 10 to 22 years with physician-diagnosed diabetes mellitus. Dietary intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire, categorized into the DASH food groups, and assigned an adherence score. Among youth with type 1 diabetes mellitus, higher adherence to the DASH diet was significantly and inversely associated with low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein ratio and A(1c) in multivariable-adjusted models. Youth in the highest adherence tertile had an estimated 0.07 lower low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein ratio and 0.2 lower A(1c) levels than those in the lowest tertile adjusted for confounders. No significant associations were observed with triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein particle density, adipocytokines, apolipoprotein B, body mass index Z score, or waist circumference. Among youth with type 2 diabetes mellitus, associations were observed with low-density lipoprotein particle density and body mass index Z score. The DASH dietary pattern may be beneficial in the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease risk in youth with diabetes mellitus.
Adams, Ted D; Davidson, Lance E; Litwin, Sheldon E; Hunt, Steven C
Whereas the initial focus of bariatric surgery primarily focused on weight loss and was considered by many clinicians and the public as a cosmetic-driven procedure, this surgical therapy is now recognized as a successful approach to reducing cardiovascular disease risk and the only substantial and sustainable weight loss treatment for most severely obese patients. In addition, as a result of the multiple metabolic-related benefits associated with bariatric surgery, efforts to understand physiologic and biochemical mechanisms have led to a dramatic increase in scientific discovery. This review focuses on bariatric research conducted during the past two decades in relation to cardiovascular disease risk and the effects of this surgical therapy on diabetes. Cardiovascular and diabetes mortality and morbidity associated with bariatric surgery are reviewed. The opportunity for bariatric (and/or metabolic) surgery to provide a preventive strategy for cardiovascular disease and diabetes as well as treatment therapy is presented for clinical consideration.
Christou, Georgios A; Rizos, Evangelos C; Mpechlioulis, Aris; Penzo, Carlo; Pacchioni, Andrea; Nikas, Dimitrios N
Diabetics are regarded a special category of patients known to experience higher rates of cardiovascular complications as compared to the non-diabetic ones. Despite substantial efforts to minimize these risks, with aggressive antiplatelet and lipid lowering therapy, some of the diabetic patients still have a considerable residual risk for cardiovascular adverse events. Important preclinical data with potent lipid-lowering agents, like fibrates, omega-3-fatty acids, and niacin, have shown that they can provide sufficient help in reducing rates of cardiovascular events. In the present review, we are aim to explain their basic mechanisms of action, to present all the available clinical data regarding the efficacy of those agents, and to identify specific diabetic patients' subsets, in whom supplementary therapy with those agents could provide substantial benefit in terms of clinical outcome and not only lipid profile improvement.
Gaede, Peter; Pedersen, Oluf
The risk of cardiovascular disease is markedly increased in patients with type 2 diabetes with a prevalence twice as high compared to the background population. With the recognition of multiple concomitant risk factors for both microvascular as well as cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetic...... patients, treatment strategies have changed during recent years. This review focuses on the many recent drug trials that have set the course for an effective multifactorial treatment of the disease. Thus, the Steno-2 Study has shown that an intensified multifactorial intervention targeting several risk...
David E. Laaksonen
Full Text Available Consumption of sugar has been relatively high in the Nordic countries; the impact of sugar intake on metabolic risk factors and related diseases has been debated. The objectives were to assess the effect of sugar intake (sugar-sweetened beverages, sucrose and fructose on association with type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and related metabolic risk factors (impaired glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, dyslipidemia, blood pressure, uric acid, inflammation markers, and on all-cause mortality, through a systematic review of prospective cohort studies and randomised controlled intervention studies published between January 2000 and search dates. The methods adopted were as follows: the first search was run in PubMed in October 2010. A second search with uric acid as risk marker was run in April 2011. The total search strategy was rerun in April 2011 in SveMed+. An update was run in PubMed in January 2012. Two authors independently selected studies for inclusion from the 2,743 abstracts according to predefined eligibility criteria. The outcome was that out of the 17 studies extracted, 15 were prospective cohort studies and two were randomised controlled crossover trials. All of the studies included only adults. With respect to incident type 2 diabetes (nine studies, four of six prospective cohort studies found a significant positive association for sugar-sweetened beverage intake. In general, larger cohort studies with longer follow-up more often reported positive associations, and BMI seemed to mediate part of the increased risk. For other metabolic or cardiovascular risk factors or outcomes, too few studies have been published to draw conclusions. In conclusion, data from prospective cohort studies published in the years 2000–2011 suggest that sugar-sweetened beverages probably increase the risk of type 2 diabetes. For related metabolic risk factors, cardiovascular disease or all-cause mortality and other types of sugars, too few studies
Miele, Emily M; Headley, Samuel A E
Aerobic exercise training is a component of diabetes mellitus (DM) care guidelines due to its favorable effects on glycemic control and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. The purpose of this review is to outline the recent evidence regarding the clinical effects of chronic aerobic exercise on CVD risk factors in persons with DM and to compare the effects of varying intensities and types of exercise. Among individuals with DM, all types of aerobic exercise training can impact positively on some traditional and non-traditional risk factors for CVD. Training programs with a higher volume or intensity induce greater improvements in vascular function, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and lipid profiles. The beneficial outcomes of aerobic training include improvements in glycemic control, endothelial function, oxidative stress, dyslipidemia, myocardial function, adiposity, and CRF. Findings regarding markers of inflammation are discrepant and further research should focus on the role of exercise to impact upon the chronic inflammation associated with DM.
Jahangiri-Noudeh, Younes; Akbarpour, Samaneh; Lotfaliany, Mojtaba; Zafari, Neda; Khalili, Davood; Tohidi, Maryam; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Azizi, Fereidoun; Hadaegh, Farzad
To investigate secular trends in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors during a decade of follow-up in a Middle Eastern cohort, and to compare observed trends between diabetic and non-diabetic populations. In a population of 6181 participants (2622 males and 3559 females), diabetes status and CVD risk factors were evaluated in 4 study phases from 1999-2011. 1045 subjects had type 2 diabetes mellitus at baseline and 5136 participants were diabetes-free. To examine the trends of CVD risk factors, generalized estimation equation models were constructed. The interaction between the diabetes status and each phase of the study was checked in a separate model. During the follow-up period diabetic females significantly gained better control of their blood pressure, serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol and general and central obesity measures compared to non-diabetic counterparts, although 60% of them had high BP and 64% had high serum LDL-C levels till the end of the study. Diabetic males however, experienced significantly better control on their serum LDL-C and general and central obesity measures compared to their non-diabetic controls; but 24% of them were still smoker, 63% had high BP and 60% had high serum LDL-C levels at the end of the follow-up (all Ps interaction risk factors have been controlled to some extent among diabetic population in Iran, still high numbers of people with diabetes have uncontrolled CVD risk factors that prompt more attention.
Mbaye, A; Yaméogo, N V; Ndiaye, M B; Kane, A D; Diack, B; Dioum, M; Hakim, R; Diagne, D; Kane, M; Diao, M; Diallo, A; Diop, S N; Kane, A
Diabetes is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease witch may develop insidiously. Several non-invasive methods are used to detect silent myocardial ischaemia, especially in diabetic patients at high cardiovascular risk. We project to screen, by dobutamine stress echocardiography, silent myocardial ischaemia in type 2 diabetics in Senegal. We randomly recruited in hospital in Senegal type 2 diabetics aged at least 40 years and a dobutamine stress echocardiography was performed in those selected according to the French Society of Cardiology and the French Language Association for the Study of Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases. Dobutamine stress echocardiography was performed in 79 diabetics at high cardiovascular risk, including 56 women. The average age was 58.8±11.8 years. The exam was positive in 67.1% of cases (53/79), with a predominance of motion abnormalities in anterior territory (83%). Cardiovascular risk factors associated with positivity of test were microalbuminuria (p=0.0001), inactivity (p=0.0001), dyslipidemia (p=0.0002), arterial hypertension (p=0.001), smoking (0.003) and male sex (p=0.004). In Africa, dobutamine stress echocardiography has the advantage of its accessibility and its feasibility. Early detection of silent myocardial ischaemia in diabetics at high risk could optimize their care. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Nelaj, E; Gjata, M; Lilaj, I; Burazeri, G; Sadiku, E; Collaku, L; Bare, O; Tase, M
Microalbuminuria was originally established as a predictor of renal failure and an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes mellitus as well as in general population. The aim of our study is to assess the relationship between microalbuminuria and the other risk factors in diabetics and their prevalence. Sixty five patients, 22 men and 43 women with mean age 58.6+/-10.09, with type 2 diabetes, were hospitalized in the Department of Internal Medicine in the University Hospital Center "Mother Teresa" in Tirana, Albania, between March 2007 and February 2008. These patients with a mean duration of diabetes 6.09+/-5.41 were divided in two groups: with (Group A: 24 patients) and without (Group B: 41 patients) microalbuminuria and each group was evaluated for left ventricular mass index (LVMI), body mass index (BMI), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C), lipid profile and intima media thickness (IMT). The prevalence of microalbuminuria in our study was 32.3%. The prevalence of microalbuminuria in males was 37.5 and in females 62.5%. The microalbuminuric patients were older ( 59.71+/-9.87 vs 57.07+/-10.32) and had a longer duration of diabetes (7.74+/-5.74 vs 4.45+/-5.08) compared with normoalbuminuric patients (p=0.01). The Group A had significantly higher LVMI compared with Group B ( p=0.02). The prevalence of obesity (BMI>30 kg/m2) in our sample was 44.6%. In Group A the mean BMI (30.13+/-4.98) was significantly higher compared with Group B (28.00+/-3.72, p=0.04). Diabetic retinopathy was more frequent in Group A compared with Group B ( 33.3% vs 14.6%, p=0.05). The mean value of IMT was higher in Group A compared with Group B (1.28+/-0.35 vs 1.09+/-0.28, p=0.03). In patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria LVMI, IMT, BMI, duration of diabetes was significantly higher compared with patients with type 2 diabetes and normoalbuminuria.
Mogensen, C E
Several observational studies document a considerably increased risk of advanced renal disease, cardiovascular disease, and early mortality in persons with diabetes. Both epidemiologic and observational studies indicate that progression of cardiovascular disease and renal disease is associated not only with high blood glucose levels, but also with hypertension and dyslipidemia. In persons with type 1 diabetes, hypoglycemic and antihypertensive therapy are important in the prevention of cardiovascular and renal disease. In those with type 2 diabetes, hypoglycemic therapy can help to prevent microvascular disease in the retina and in the kidney, and recent studies show that antihypertensive treatment is important in preventing cardiovascular disease. Thus, a multifactorial intervention program is key to preventing complications of hyperglycemia and, equally important, elevated blood pressure and dyslipidemia.
Gellen, Barnabas; Thorin-Trescases, Nathalie; Sosner, Philippe; Gand, Elise; Saulnier, Pierre-Jean; Ragot, Stéphanie; Fraty, Mathilde; Laugier, Stéphanie; Ducrocq, Grégory; Montaigne, David; Llaty, Pierre; Rigalleau, Vincent; Zaoui, Philippe; Halimi, Jean-Michel; Roussel, Ronan; Thorin, Eric; Hadjadj, Samy
A high serum angiopoietin-like 2 (ANGPTL2) concentration is an independent risk factor for developing diabetes and is associated with insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. In this work, we have examined the impact of serum ANGPTL2 on improving cardiovascular (CV) risk stratification in patients with type 2 diabetes. A prospective, monocentric cohort of consecutive type 2 diabetes patients (the SURDIAGENE cohort; total of 1353 type 2 diabetes patients; 58% men, mean ± SD age 64 ± 11 years) was followed for a median of 6.0 years for death as primary endpoint and major adverse CV events (MACE; i.e. CV death, myocardial infarction or stroke) as a secondary endpoint. Patients with end-stage renal disease, defined as a requirement for dialysis or a history of kidney transplantation, were excluded. Patients were grouped into quartiles according to ANGPTL2 concentrations at inclusion: 19.5 (Q4) ng/ml. During follow up, 367 patients (representing 4.5% of the total person-years) died and 290 patients (representing 3.7% of the total person-years) presented with MACE. Both the survival and MACE-free survival rates were significantly different between ANGPTL2 quartiles (logrank 82.12, p < 0.0001 for death; and logrank 65.14, p < 0.0001 for MACE). Patients with ANGPTL2 concentrations higher than 19.5 ng/ml (Q4) had a significantly higher risk of death and MACE than those with ANGPTL2 levels of 19.5 ng/ml or less (Q1-3) (HR for death 2.44 [95% CI 1.98, 3.00], p < 0.0001; HR for MACE 2.43 [95% CI 1.92, 3.06], p < 0.0001) after adjustment for sex, age and established CV risk factors. Using ANGPTL2 concentrations, prediction of the risk of mortality, as assessed by integrated discrimination improvement (IDI), was significantly improved (IDI 0.006 ± 0.002, p = 0.0002). In patients with type 2 diabetes, serum ANGPTL2 concentrations were independently associated with death and MACE. Therefore, ANGPTL2 is a promising candidate biomarker for
Jönsson, Tommy; Granfeldt, Yvonne; Ahrén, Bo; Branell, Ulla-Carin; Pålsson, Gunvor; Hansson, Anita; Söderström, Margareta; Lindeberg, Staffan
Our aim was to compare the effects of a Paleolithic ('Old Stone Age') diet and a diabetes diet as generally recommended on risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes not treated with insulin...
Della-Morte, David; Palmirotta, Raffaele; Rehni, Ashish K; Pastore, Donatella; Capuani, Barbara; Pacifici, Francesca; De Marchis, Maria Laura; Dave, Kunjan R; Bellia, Alfonso; Fogliame, Giuseppe; Ferroni, Patrizia; Donadel, Giulia; Cacciatore, Francesco; Abete, Pasquale; Dong, Chuanhui; Pileggi, Antonello; Roselli, Mario; Ricordi, Camillo; Sbraccia, Paolo; Guadagni, Fiorella; Rundek, Tatjana; Lauro, Davide
The most important goal in the treatment of patients with diabetes is to prevent the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the first cause of mortality in these subjects. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs), a class of antidiabetic drugs, act as insulin sensitizers increasing insulin-dependent glucose disposal and reducing hepatic glucose output. TZDs including pioglitazone, rosiglitazone and troglitazone, by activating PPAR-γ have shown pleiotropic effects in reducing vascular risk factors and atherosclerosis. However, troglitazone was removed from the market due to its hepatoxicity, and rosiglitazone and pioglitazone both have particular warnings due to being associated with heart diseases. Specific genetic variations in genes involved in the pathways regulated by TDZs have demonstrated to modify the variability in treatment with these drugs, especially in their side effects. Therefore, pharmacogenomics and pharmacogenetics are an important tool in further understand intersubject variability per se but also to assess the therapeutic potential of such variability in drug individualization and therapeutic optimization.
Zibadi, Sherma; Rohdewald, Peter J; Park, Danna; Watson, Ronald Ross
Patients with type 2 diabetes are at considerable risk of excessive morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD). We investigated the clinical effectiveness of Pycnogenol, a flavonoid-rich dietary supplement, in reducing antihypertensive medication use and CVD risk factors in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Forty-eight individuals were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with parallel-group design. Patients were diagnosed with both type 2 diabetes and mild to moderate hypertension and were undergoing treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either Pycnogenol pill (125 mg daily) or matched placebo for 12 weeks. According to the values of blood pressure (BP) measured at 2-week intervals, the pretrial ACE inhibitor dosage was left unchanged, reduced by 50%, or brought back to the pretrial dosage until a stable BP was obtained. Fasting plasma glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), serum endothelin-1, and urinary albumin were evaluated monthly. Pycnogenol treatment achieved BP control in 58.3% of subjects at the end of the 12 weeks with 50% reduction in individual pretrial dose of ACE-inhibitors (P Pycnogenol-treated group vs 0.5 pg/mL increase in control group (P Pycnogenol-treated group (P Pycnogenol-treated group vs 5.7 mg/dL in control group (P Pycnogenol-treated group, declining by 12.7 mg/dL (P Pycnogenol resulted in improved diabetes control, lowered CVD risk factors, and reduced antihypertensive medicine use vs controls.
Martin, W P; Sharif, F; Flaherty, G
Taxi drivers are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), something which persists after correcting for the overrepresentation of traditional risk factors for CVD in this cohort. The contribution of lifestyle risk factors to this residually elevated CVD risk remains under-evaluated. We aimed to determine the prevalence of lifestyle risk factors for CVD, self-reported medical risk factors for CVD, and future risk of type 2 diabetes amongst Irish taxi drivers. Male taxi drivers with no history of CVD and type 2 diabetes and working in Galway city in the west of Ireland were invited to participate. Physical activity levels, dietary patterns, anthropometry, smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, and Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) values were recorded in a cross-sectional manner. 41 taxi drivers (mean age 56.7 ± 9.8 years) participated. 37 % were insufficiently active based on self-report, although only 8 % objectively achieved 10, 000 steps per day. Mean modified Mediterranean diet score (mMDS) was 4.6 ± 2.2, and only 13 % of participants had a normal body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC). Those who worked for taxi companies tended to have a higher BMI (p = .07) and WC (p = .04) by multivariable regression. 22 % were current smokers, although a quit rate of 72 % was observed amongst the 78 % of taxi drivers who had ever smoked. 25 % were at high or very high risk of future type 2 diabetes. Lifestyle risk factors for CVD and dysglycaemia are prevalent amongst Irish taxi drivers.
El-Lebedy, Dalia; Raslan, Hala M; Mohammed, Asmaa M
Lipoprotein-related mechanisms have been associated with damage to the cardiovascular system in diabetic patients. Apolipoprotein E gene which affects the clearance of lipoproteins and consequently the lipid profile in our body is one of the most studied candidate genes and recently has been reported to be associated with T2DM and CAD. In this work, we studied the association of apoE gene polymorphism with T2DM and CVD and its effect on plasma lipids profile. Our study was conducted on 284 subjects categorized into 100 patients with T2DM, 100 patients with T2DM complicated with CVD and 84 normal control subjects. ApoE gene polymorphism was genotyped by real-time PCR using TaqMan(®) SNP Genotyping Assay. ApoE E3/E3 genotype was the most common in our subjects. The frequencies of E3/E4 genotype and ε4 allele were increased in both T2DM patients and CVD patients as compared with controls, but were significant only in CVD patients (p = 0.004 and 0.007, respectively). Diabetic patients who carried E3/E4 genotype were at 2.4-fold increased risk to develop CVD (95 % CI 1.14-5.19, P = 0.02) and the ε4 allele associated with 2.23-fold higher CVD risk (95 % CI 1.09-4.59, P = 0.02). After adjustment for other established risk factors, E3/E4 genotype was an independent risk factor for CVD (OR = 2.3, p = 0.009) but not for T2DM (OR = 1.7, p = 0.28), while ε4 allele was an independent risk factor for both T2DM (OR = 2.2, p = 0.04) and CVD (OR = 3.0, p = 0.018) with 5.9-fold increased risk to develop CVD in T2DM patients (p = 0.019). E3/E4 genotype associated with significantly higher levels of TC and non HDL-C in all groups and with significantly higher levels of LDL-C in both T2DM and CVD patients. ApoE gene polymorphisms associate with CVD and affect the lipid profile. The ε4 allele is an independent risk factor for both T2DM and CVD. Further genetic studies to add information beyond the traditional cardiovascular risk factors in T2DM and to identify risk genotypes will
Schramm, Tina Ken; Gislason, Gunnar H; Køber, Lars
BACKGROUND: Previous studies reveal major differences in the estimated cardiovascular risk in diabetes mellitus, including uncertainty about the risk in young patients. Therefore, large studies of well-defined populations are needed. METHODS AND RESULTS: All residents in Denmark > or = 30 years o...... exhibited a cardiovascular risk comparable to nondiabetics with a prior myocardial infarction, regardless of sex and diabetes type. Therefore, requirement for glucose-lowering therapy should prompt intensive prophylactic treatment for cardiovascular diseases....
Full Text Available Many studies showed that obesity was associated with high level of serum leptin, hyperhomocysteinemia, and insulin resistance in general population. Obesity is associated with various cardiovascular and metabolic complications. However, in end stage renal failure, it has been reported that obesity is associated with a favorable survival of patients. The purpose of this observational study was to investigate the relationship between serum leptin level increased at obesity and cardiovascular, nutritional traditional markers, and the comparison of patient’s survival for 5 years according to obesity in non-diabetic hemodialysis. A cross-sectional study was performed in obese and non-obese subjects according to body mass index. Fifteen obese patients (BMI≥25 kg/m2 and 29 non-obese patients (BMI<25 kg/m2 were studied. For each subject, blood was sampled for measurement of serum leptin, insulin resistance, C-reactive protein (CRP and nutritional parameters before hemodialysis. Insulin resistance was calculated by HOMA-IR. Linear regression analysis was performed to determine the relationship among insulin resistance, serum leptin level and nutritional parameters. In results, serum leptin level was significant positive correlated with BMI, nPCR, pre-albumin and HOMA-IR (p<0.05. Serum leptin level was significant negative correlated with tCO2 and CRP (p<0.05. Five years survival by Kaplan-Meier analysis was more favorable in obese group but did not show statistical significance (p=0.053. In conclusion, serum leptin level was associated with obesity and good nutrition status. But in view of positive correlation of HOMA-IR, serum leptin level may be associated with cardiovascular complication in non-diabetic hemodialysis patients. Therefore, we thought that serum leptin level may be a good nutritional marker and a cardiovascular risk factor. We thought that the further study for the proper leptin level will be needed and help the improvement of
Gomes Marilia B
Full Text Available Abstract According to Brazilian National Data Survey diabetes is the fifth cause for hospitalization and is one of the ten major causes of mortality in this country. Aims to stratify the estimated cardiovascular risk (eCVR in a population of type 2 diabetics (T2DM according to the Framingham prediction equations as well as to determine the association between eCVR with metabolic and clinical control of the disease. Methods From 2000 to 2001 a cross-sectional multicenter study was conducted in 13 public out-patients diabetes/endocrinology clinics from 8 Brazilian cities. The 10-year risk of developing coronary heart disease (CHD was estimated by the prediction equations described by Wilson et al (Circulation 1998. LDL equations were preferably used; when patients missed LDL data we used total cholesterol equations instead. Results Data from 1382 patients (59.0% female were analyzed. Median and inter-quartile range (IQ of age and duration of diabetes were 57.4 (51-65 and 8.8 (3-13 years, respectively without differences according to the gender. Forty-two percent of these patients were overweight and 35.4% were obese (the prevalence of higher BMI and obesity in this T2DM group was significantly higher in women than in men; p 20% in 738 (53.4%, intermediate in 202 (14.6% and low in 442 (32% patients. Men [25.1(15.4-37.3] showed a higher eCVR than women [18.8 (12.4-27.9 p
Sazlina, Shariff-Ghazali; Mastura, Ismail; Ahmad, Zaiton; Cheong, Ai-Theng; Adam, Bujang-Mohamad; Jamaiyah, Haniff; Lee, Ping-Yein; Syed-Alwi, Syed-Abdul-Rahman; Chew, Boon-How; Sriwahyu, Taher
The aims of the present study were to assess the control of glycemia and other cardiovascular disease risk factors, and the association between age and these controls among older adults with type 2 diabetes in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was carried out using cases notified to the Adult Diabetes Control and Management database between 1 January and 31 December 2009. A total of 10 363 people aged over 60 years with type 2 diabetes mellitus were included in the analyses. A standard online case report form was used to record demographic data, clinical factors (diabetes duration, comorbid condition and treatment modalities), cardiovascular disease risk factors, diabetes complications and laboratory assessments. The cardiovascular disease risk factors controls assessed included glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) control of cardiovascular disease risk factors was suboptimal in older adults with type 2 diabetes. The oldest elderly were more likely to achieve target HbA(1c) (<7.0%) and triglycerides (<1.7 mmol/L) than older adults aged 60-69 years. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Li, Tricia Y; Brennan, Aoife M.; Wedick, Nicole M; Mantzoros, Christos; Rifai, Nader; Hu, Frank B
Higher nut consumption has been associated with lower risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) events in several epidemiologic studies. The study examined the association between intake of nuts and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a cohort of women with type 2 diabetes. For the primary analysis, there were 6309 women with type 2 diabetes who completed a validated FFQ every 2–4 y between 1980 and 2002 and were without CVD or cancer at study entry. Major CVD events included incident myocard...
Ahmad Afaghi; Amir Ziaee; Mahsa Afaghi
Background: One dietary strategy aimed at improving both diabetes control and control of cardiovascular risk factors is the use of low glycemic index diets. These diets have been reported to be beneficial in controlling diabetes, and also increase high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), lower serum triglyceride, and reduce glycated protein. Aim: Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect of a low glycemic index-low glycemic load (GL = 67-77) diet on lipids and blood glucose of poorly...
Chew, Boon How; Ghazali, Sazlina Shariff; Ismail, Mastura; Haniff, Jamaiyah; Bujang, Mohd Adam
Providing effective medical care for older patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) that may contribute to their active aging has always been challenging. We examined the independent effect of age ≥ 60 years on disease control and its relationship with diabetes-related complications in patients with T2D in Malaysia. This was a cross-sectional study using secondary data from the electronic diabetes registry database Adult Diabetes Control and Management (ADCM). A total of 303 centers participated and contributed a total of 70,889 patients from May 2008 to the end of 2009. Demographic data, details on diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and their treatment modalities, various risk factors and complications were updated annually. Independent associated risk factors were identified using multivariate regression analyses. Fifty-nine percent were female. Malay comprised 61.9%, Chinese 19% and Indian 18%. There were more Chinese, men, longer duration of diabetes and subjects that were leaner or had lower BMI in the older age group. Patients aged ≥ 60 years achieved glycemic and lipid targets but not the desired blood pressure. After adjusting for duration of diabetes, gender, ethnicity, body mass index, disease control and treatment, a significantly higher proportion of patients ≥ 60 years suffered from reported diabetes-related complications. Age ≥ 60 years was an independent risk factor for diabetes-related complications despite good control of cardiovascular risk factors. Our findings caution against the currently recommended control of targets in older T2D patients with more longstanding diseases and complications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mendoza-Romo, Miguel Angel; Montes-Acuña, Juan Felipe; Zavala-Cruz, Gad Gamed; Nieva-de Jesús, Rafael Natividad; Ramírez-Arreola, María Cleofas; Andrade-Rodríguez, Héctor Jesús
The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effect of the DiabetIMSS program on cardiovascular risk, blood pressure and HDL cholesterol in patients with metabolic syndrome. Quasi-experimental intervention study. Non-probabilistic convenience sampling. 35 subjects in the educational strategy one year were included. The following variables were collected: age, gender, smoking, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure; cardiovascular risk calculator based on Framingham is calculated. Descriptive and inferential statistical percentages with Student t test was used. There was an increase in the proportion of subjects increased their subsequent figures HDL cholesterol intervention, there by generating an increase of protective factor (p < 0.05). Because of the blood pressure a marked improvement in all ranges of blood pressure (p < 0.05) was presented. The educational strategy for the control of diabetic patients presented a favorable performance in HDL-cholesterol and blood pressure, reducing the risk of cardiovascular patients.
Full Text Available AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: To investigate secular trends in cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors during a decade of follow-up in a Middle Eastern cohort, and to compare observed trends between diabetic and non-diabetic populations. METHODS: In a population of 6181 participants (2622 males and 3559 females, diabetes status and CVD risk factors were evaluated in 4 study phases from 1999-2011. 1045 subjects had type 2 diabetes mellitus at baseline and 5136 participants were diabetes-free. To examine the trends of CVD risk factors, generalized estimation equation models were constructed. The interaction between the diabetes status and each phase of the study was checked in a separate model. RESULTS: During the follow-up period diabetic females significantly gained better control of their blood pressure, serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol and general and central obesity measures compared to non-diabetic counterparts, although 60% of them had high BP and 64% had high serum LDL-C levels till the end of the study. Diabetic males however, experienced significantly better control on their serum LDL-C and general and central obesity measures compared to their non-diabetic controls; but 24% of them were still smoker, 63% had high BP and 60% had high serum LDL-C levels at the end of the follow-up (all Ps interaction <0.05. Use of lipid-lowering and antihypertensive medications increased consistently in both diabetic and non-diabetic populations. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Although CVD risk factors have been controlled to some extent among diabetic population in Iran, still high numbers of people with diabetes have uncontrolled CVD risk factors that prompt more attention.
Winter, C. F.; Hermans, H.; Evenhuis, H. M.; Echteld, M. A.
Background: Depression, anxiety, diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors are frequent health problems among older people with intellectual disability (ID). These conditions may be bidirectionally related. Depression and anxiety may have biological effects causing glucose intolerance, fat accumulation and also lifestyle changes causing metabolic…
van der Heyden, Josine C.; Birnie, Erwin; Bovenberg, Sarah A.; Cabezas, Manuel Castro; van der Meulen, Noelle; Mul, Dick; Veeze, Henk J.; Aanstoot, Henk-Jan
Aims: The aim of this study was to assess age-specific carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes and to investigate associations between cIMT, age, classical cardiovascular disease (CVD) and other risk factors. Methods: This study included a
Ree, M.A. van de; Maat, M.P. de; Kluft, C.; Meinders, A.E.; Princen, H.M.; Huisman, M.V.
BACKGROUND: Patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus have increased levels of hemostatic risk variables for cardiovascular disease, such as fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor (VWF), factor (F)VIIa, d-dimer and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of aggressive
Overweight and obese individuals are encouraged to lose 5–10% of their body weight to improve cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, but data supporting this recommendation are limited, particularly for individuals with type 2 diabetes. We conducted an observational analysis of participants in the Look ...
Möllsten, A; Jorsal, Anders; Lajer, Maria Stenkil
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Hyperglycaemia increases oxidative stress and may thereby increase the risk of diabetic complications, including diabetic nephropathy. Cells are protected from oxidative damage by, for example, the manganese superoxide dismutase enzyme (MnSOD), but the functional polymorphism V16A...... affects the localisation of MnSOD and therefore its ability to scavenge superoxide radicals. In a Danish cohort of type 1 diabetes patients, we sought to confirm previous findings of association between the V allele and the risk of diabetic nephropathy and to investigate the influence of this polymorphism...... on the development of cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Type 1 diabetes patients attending the Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark, between 1993 and 2001 were enrolled in this study. A total of 441 cases with diabetic nephropathy (albumin excretion > or =300 mg/24 h) and 314 controls with persistent...
Ingrid Yao Mattisson
Conclusion: The present study demonstrates an association between several cardiovascular risk factors and elevated levels of circulating markers of apoptotic cell death. It also shows that subjects with high levels of these biomarkers have increased risk of diabetes and CVD. This implies that soluble death receptors are markers of β-cell and vascular injury and potentially could be used as surrogate markers of therapeutic efficiency in risk factor interventions.
Gómez-García, A; Rangel-García, L; Alvarez-Aguilar, C
Cardiovascular disease in adults is the first cause of death, and in adolescents under 15 years old, it is the third cause of death. The purpose of this study was to investigate which risk factors for cardiovascular disease have the children of parents with diabetes or hypertension. In a cross-sectional study conducted in the Family Medicine Unit No. 80 in Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico, were included 156 patients with diabetes mellitus, hypertension and without diabetes or hypertension (10 years of disease progression), and a biological child (age 7-15 years) to form pairs. Three groups were formed: child-parent with Diabetes; child-parent with Hypertension and child-parent without Diabetes or Hypertension. Medical history, body mass index, blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, c-LDL, c-HDL and signs of metabolic syndrome were recorded. The frequency of signs of metabolic syndrome was higher in parents with Diabetes (28.8%), and in children of parents without either diabetes or hypertension (11.5%). In binomial children-parents with Diabetes, serum glucose (OR=4.50: 95% CI; 2.32-8.73, PDiabetes or Hypertension, the abdominal circumference (OR=3.429: 95% CI; 1.621-7.251, Pdiabetes mellitus or hypertension are at increased risk for developing cardiovascular disease. Longitudinal studies are required using non-pharmacological and pharmacological strategies that will have an impact on the most important risk factors for preventing cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEMERGEN. All rights reserved.
Fekih, Ons; Triki, Hamdi; Triki, Sonia; Neffati, Fadoua; Chouchane, Slaheddine; Guediche, Mohamed Neji; Najjar, Mohamed Fadhel
Elevated osteoprotegerin (OPG) levels have been reported in patients with diabetes complications. We investigated whether plasma OPG levels can be used as a marker of cardiovascular risk in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Plasma blood samples were obtained from 243 subjects (143 children and adolescents with T1D and 100 healthy controls). OPG concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. All data were analyzed by using PASW statistics 18. A significant higher plasma OPG level was found in children with T1D compared to controls (p < 0.001). A significant increase of OPG levels has been related to the glucose level ≥ 7 mmol/L (2.44 [0.01-6.22] vs. 2.16 [0.13-6.22] pmol/L, p = 0.019), microalbuminuria ≥ 30 mg/24 h (3.71 [0.160-6.03] vs. 2.26 [0.01-6.22] pmol/L, p < 0.001), and cystatin-C ≥ 0.789 mg/L (2.64 [0.37-6.22] vs. 2.11 [0.01-5.82] pmol/L, p < 0.001). We noted a significant higher frequency of children with increased cystatin-C levels in the group with elevated plasma level of OPG compared with those with normal levels (49 vs. 18%, respectively) with an odds ratio (OR) = 4.42 [1.41-13.84] (p = 0.006). We showed a significant increase of OPG levels when the number of cardiovascular risk factors exceeds 3 (p = 0.001). OPG may be a potential biomarker of cardiovascular risk in T1D. Implementation of OPG determination in the clinical laboratory setting would be useful in order to better stratify patients and to assess the most adequate treatment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kaizu, Shinako; Kishimoto, Hiro; Iwase, Masanori; Fujii, Hiroki; Ohkuma, Toshiaki; Ide, Hitoshi; Jodai, Tamaki; Kikuchi, Yohei; Idewaki, Yasuhiro; Hirakawa, Yoichiro; Nakamura, Udai; Kitazono, Takanari
The effects of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) on glycemia and cardiovascular risk factors are not fully understood in Asian type 2 diabetic patients, who are typically non-obese. We studied associations between LTPA and glycemia and cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. A total of 4,870 Japanese type 2 diabetic patients aged ≥ 20 years were divided into eight groups according to their LTPA. We investigated associations between the amount and intensity levels of physical activity (PA) and glycemic control, insulin sensitivity, cardiovascular risk factors, and low-grade systemic inflammation in a cross-sectional study. LTPA was dose-dependently associated with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, and prevalence of metabolic syndrome, but not with blood pressure, low density lipoprotein cholesterol or adiponectin. The amount of PA required to lower HbA1c was greater than that required to improve cardiovascular risk factors. LTPA was inversely associated with HbA1c in non-obese participants but not in obese participants after multivariate adjustments for age, sex, duration of diabetes, current smoking, current drinking, energy intake, cardiovascular diseases, depressive symptoms, and treatment of diabetes. Higher-intensity LTPA, not lower-intensity LTPA was associated with HbA1c after multivariate adjustments with further adjustment including BMI. LTPA was dose-dependently associated with better glycemic control and amelioration of some cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. In addition, increased higher-intensity LTPA may be appropriate for glycemic control.
Law, Jennifer Rachel; Patel, Shipra; Spagnoli, Anna
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a well-known complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), and patients with DM are at an increased risk for early onset of CVD. Hyperglycemia is believed to be the primary mediator in premature development of atherosclerosis in patients with DM, but there are also derangements in cholesterol levels and inflammatory markers beyond the explanation of hyperglycemia. Although clinicians often screen for dyslipidemia as part of routine care for children and adolescents with DM, many do not feel comfortable treating this condition. Multiple guidelines exist to help clinicians with the prevention, screening, and treatment of CVD risk factors in pediatric patients with DM, but the guidelines do not always agree on screening intervals or medical treatment. Furthermore, the cost-effectiveness of medication use in this population has not been established. Research has advanced our understanding of the role of other biomarkers and radiologic studies of CVD risk, but these studies do not currently have a place in routine clinical practice. It is evident that the increased CVD risk in pediatric patients with DM is complex in origin and the optimal approach to managing dyslipidemia remains unclear. Therefore, an algorithm designed at the University of North Carolina (UNC), Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, is presented to help guide clinicians through screening and treatment of dyslipidemia in youth with DM.
Jennifer Rachel Law
Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is a well-known complication of diabetes mellitus (DM, and patients with DM are at an increased risk for early onset of CVD. Hyperglycemia is believed to be the primary mediator in premature development of atherosclerosis in patients with DM, but there are also derangements in cholesterol levels and inflammatory markers beyond the explanation of hyperglycemia. Although clinicians often screen for dyslipidemia as part of routine care for children and adolescents with DM, many do not feel comfortable treating this condition. Multiple guidelines exist to help clinicians with the prevention, screening, and treatment of CVD risk factors in pediatric patients with DM, but the guidelines do not always agree on screening intervals or medical treatment. Furthermore, the cost-effectiveness of medication use in this population has not been established. Research has advanced our understanding of the role of other biomarkers and radiologic studies of CVD risk, but these studies do not currently have a place in routine clinical practice. It is evident that the increased CVD risk in pediatric patients with DM is complex in origin and the optimal approach to managing dyslipidemia remains unclear. Therefore, an algorithm designed at the University of North Carolina, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, is presented to help guide clinicians through screening and treatment of dyslipidemia in youth with DM.
Alteraciones electrocardiográficas y factores de riesgo cardiovascular en pacientes con diabetes tipo 2 Electrocardiographic abnormalities and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes
Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar cuáles son las alteraciones del ritmo y la conducción cardiaca más frecuentes en pacientes con diabetes tipo 2 sin cardiopatía previa y establecer su asociación con los factores de riesgo cardiovascular. Material y métodos. Se incluyeron pacientes con diabetes tipo 2 sin presencia o antecedentes de cardiopatía. Se determinaron los factores de riesgo cardiovascular, el índice de masa corporal y los niveles séricos de glucosa, colesterol y triglicéridos. Se registró electrocardiograma convencional en reposo. La asociación de las variables en estudio con la ocurrencia de arritmias se calculó con un modelo de análisis multivariado ajustado por sexo. Resultados. Se integraron 199 pacientes: 113 mujeres (56.8% y 86 hombres (43.2%, y se identificó algún tipo de alteración electrocardiográfica en 29.1% de los sujetos. El hemibloqueo fascicular anterior (HFA y el bloqueo completo de rama derecha del Haz de His (BRDHH, constituyeron 75.9% de las alteraciones identificadas. Los pacientes con trastornos del ritmo y la conducción tienen niveles más elevados de colesterol y triglicéridos. La aparición de arritmias se relaciona directamente con el incremento de la edad (r= 0.75, p= 0.01. En el análisis multivariado ajustado por sexo la hipercolesterolemia y la edad se asociaron significativamente con las alteraciones del ritmo y la conducción: RM 1.5, IC95% 1.1-4.6, pObjective. To determine the most frequent alterations in rhythm and cardiac conduction in patients with type 2 diabetes without previous cardiopathy, and to establish the association of this disease with cardiovascular risk factors. Material and methods. Subjects with type 2 diabetes, without cardiopathy antecedents were included in the study. Cardiovascular risk factors, body mass index and serum glucose, cholesterol and trygliceride levels were determined. A resting electrocardiogram was recorded. The association between the variables under study and
Patel, Tushar P; Rawal, Komal; Bagchi, Ashim K; Akolkar, Gauri; Bernardes, Nathalia; Dias, Danielle da Silva; Gupta, Sarita; Singal, Pawan K
Sedentary life style and high calorie dietary habits are prominent leading cause of metabolic syndrome in modern world. Obesity plays a central role in occurrence of various diseases like hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, which lead to insulin resistance and metabolic derangements like cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) mediated by oxidative stress. The mortality rate due to CVDs is on the rise in developing countries. Insulin resistance (IR) leads to micro or macro angiopathy, peripheral arterial dysfunction, hampered blood flow, hypertension, as well as the cardiomyocyte and the endothelial cell dysfunctions, thus increasing risk factors for coronary artery blockage, stroke and heart failure suggesting that there is a strong association between IR and CVDs. The plausible linkages between these two pathophysiological conditions are altered levels of insulin signaling proteins such as IR-β, IRS-1, PI3K, Akt, Glut4 and PGC-1α that hamper insulin-mediated glucose uptake as well as other functions of insulin in the cardiomyocytes and the endothelial cells of the heart. Reduced AMPK, PFK-2 and elevated levels of NADP(H)-dependent oxidases produced by activated M1 macrophages of the adipose tissue and elevated levels of circulating angiotensin are also cause of CVD in diabetes mellitus condition. Insulin sensitizers, angiotensin blockers, superoxide scavengers are used as therapeutics in the amelioration of CVD. It evidently becomes important to unravel the mechanisms of the association between IR and CVDs in order to formulate novel efficient drugs to treat patients suffering from insulin resistance-mediated cardiovascular diseases. The possible associations between insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases are reviewed here.
Full Text Available Daria Roccatagliata1, Fausto Avanzini1, Lara Monesi1, Vittorio Caimi2, Davide Lauri1, Paolo Longoni3, Roberto Marchioli4, Massimo Tombesi2, Gianni Tognoni1, Maria Carla Roncaglioni1, on behalf of the Collaborative Group Risk and Prevention Study*1Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche “Mario Negri”, Milano, Italy; 2CSeRMEG Centro Studi e Ricerca in Medicina Generale, Monza, Italy; 3CoS Consorzio Sanità, Milano, Italy; 4Consorzio Mario Negri Sud, S. Maria Imbaro, Italy *A full list of investigators is reported in the AppendixObjectives: To assess the pharmacological treatment and the control of major modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in everyday practice according to the patients’ cardiovascular risk level.Methods: In a cross-sectional study general practitioners (GPs had to identify a random sample of their patients with cardiovascular risk factors or diseases and collect essential data on the pharmacological treatment and control of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes according to the patients’ cardiovascular risk level and history of cardiovascular disease. Participants were subjects of both sexes, aged 40–80 years, with at least one known cardiovascular risk factor or a history of cardiovascular diseases.Results: From June to December 2000, 162 Italian GPs enrolled 3120 of their patients (2470 hypertensives, 1373 hyperlipidemics, and 604 diabetics. Despite the positive association between the perceived level of global cardiovascular risk and lipid-lowering drug prescriptions in hyperlipidemic subjects (from 26% for lowest risk to 56% for highest risk p < 0.0001 or the prescription of combination therapy in hypertensives (from 41% to 70%, p < 0.0001 and diabetics (from 24% to 43%, p = 0.057, control was still inadequate in 48% of diabetics, 77% of hypertensives, and 85% of hyperlipidemics, with no increase in patients at highest risk. Trends for treatment and control were similar in patients with cardiovascular diseases
Andersson, C; van Gaal, L; Caterson, I D
The optimal HbA(1c) concentration for prevention of macrovascular complications and deaths in obese cardiovascular high-risk patients with type 2 diabetes remains to be established and was therefore studied in this post hoc analysis of the Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes (SCOUT) trial, which...
Fujii, Hiroki; Iwase, Masanori; Ohkuma, Toshiaki; Ogata-Kaizu, Shinako; Ide, Hitoshi; Kikuchi, Yohei; Idewaki, Yasuhiro; Joudai, Tamaki; Hirakawa, Yoichiro; Uchida, Kazuhiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Nakamura, Udai; Kitazono, Takanari
Background Dietary fiber is beneficial for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, although it is consumed differently in ethnic foods around the world. We investigated the association between dietary fiber intake and obesity, glycemic control, cardiovascular risk factors and chronic kidney disease in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Methods A total of 4,399 patients were assessed for dietary fiber intake using a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire. The associations betwee...
Lykke, J A; Paidas, M J; Damm, P
Preterm delivery has been shown to be associated with subsequent maternal cardiovascular morbidity. However, the impact of the severity and recurrence of preterm delivery on the risk of specific cardiovascular events and the metabolic syndrome in the mother, have not been investigated.......Preterm delivery has been shown to be associated with subsequent maternal cardiovascular morbidity. However, the impact of the severity and recurrence of preterm delivery on the risk of specific cardiovascular events and the metabolic syndrome in the mother, have not been investigated....
... factors, including high blood pressure. Lack of physical activity Physical inactivity is another modifiable major risk factor for insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. Exercising and losing weight can prevent or delay ...
Full Text Available Background. The aim of present study is to observe the association between the levels of ankle-brachial index (ABI and cardiovascular risk factors among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus in north India. A cross-sectional study was carried out at a centre for heart and diabetic clinic in the state of Punjab on 1121 subjects (671 males and 450 females with type 2 diabetes mellitus. History of symptoms related to cardiovascular diseases was noted, and blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were recorded. Ankle-brachial index (ABI was measured using ultrasonic Doppler flow detector. Subjects with ABI ≤0.9 and ≥1.30 were classified as having low and high ABI, respectively. Females had a higher BMI and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (<0.001. Whereas, males had higher diastolic blood pressure and duration of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The differences of systolic blood pressure and ankle-brachial index were not found significant between the sexes. The prevalence of low ABI (<0.9 was 4.47% in men and 4.67% in women and high ABI (≥1.30 was prevalent in 14% of men and 10.45% of women. Age, BMI, baPWV, and blood pressures were significantly associated with ABI value in both sexes. The results suggested that the ABI might be used as a strong indicator for cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetic subjects.
Oguoma, Victor M; Nwose, Ezekiel U; Ulasi, Ifeoma I; Akintunde, Adeseye A; Chukwukelu, Ekene E; Bwititi, Phillip T; Richards, Ross S; Skinner, Timothy C
Diabetes is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and there are reports of increasing prevalence of prediabetes in Nigeria. This study therefore characterised CVDs risk factors in subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and diabetes. Data from 4 population-based cross-sectional studies on 2447 apparently healthy individuals from 18 - 89 years were analysed. Anthropometric, blood pressure and biochemical parameters were collected and classified. Individuals with IFG (prediabetes) and diabetes were merged each for positive cases of dyslipidaemia, high blood pressure (HBP) or obesity. Optimal Discriminant and Hierarchical Optimal Classification Tree Analysis (HO-CTA) were employed. Overall prevalence of IFG and diabetes were 5.8% (CI: 4.9 - 6.7%) and 3.1% (CI: 2.4 - 3.8%), respectively. IFG co-morbidity with dyslipidaemia (5.0%; CI: 4.1 - 5.8%) was the highest followed by overweight/obese (3.1%; CI: 2.5 - 3.8%) and HBP (1.8%; CI: 1.3 - 2.4%). The predicted age of IFG or diabetes and their co-morbidity with other CVD risk factors were between 40 - 45 years. Elevated blood level of total cholesterol was the most predictive co-morbid risk factor among IFG and diabetes subjects. Hypertriglyceridaemia was an important risk factor among IFG-normocholesterolaemic-overweight/obese individuals. The higher prevalence of co-morbidity of CVD risk factors with IFG than in diabetes plus the similar age of co-morbidity between IFG and diabetes highlights the need for risk assessment models for prediabetes and education of individuals at risk about factors that mitigate development of diabetes and CVDs.
Perreault, Leigh; Færch, Kristine; Gregg, Edward W
advocating CV risk factor management in prediabetes have not been widely adopted, subsequently leading to comparable coronary heart disease risk between people with prediabetes (HR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.7-2.1 vs normoglycemia) and diabetes itself (HR=2.0, 95% CI 1.8-2.2 vs no diabetes). This review highlights...
Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD in later life, but the mechanism remains unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate indices of glucose metabolism, dyslipidemia, and arterial stiffness (as measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV, in women with and without a history of GDM, using both the old WHO and new IADPSG diagnostic criteria, at 5 years after the index pregnancy. Dyslipidemia and PWV were used as surrogate markers for CVD risk. The population-based prospective cohort included 300 women from the original STORK study. All participants had an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT during pregnancy. Five years later, the OGTT was repeated along with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, lipid analysis, and PWV analysis. Measurements were compared between those women who did and did not have GDM based on both the WHO and IADPSG criteria. We found that women with GDM based on the old WHO criteria had higher CVD risk at 5 years than those without GDM, with markedly elevated PWV and more severe dyslipidemia (higher triglycerides (TG/HDL cholesterol ratio. After adjusting for known risk factors, the most important predictors for elevated PWV and TG/HDL-C ratio at 5-year follow-up were maternal age, BMI, GDM, systolic blood pressure, and indices of glucose metabolism in the index pregnancy. In conclusion, we found a higher risk for CVD, based on the surrogate markers PWV and TG/HDL-C ratio, at 5-year follow-up in women diagnosed with GDM in the index pregnancy when using the old WHO diagnostic criteria.
Black, J A; Sharp, S J; Wareham, N J; Sandbaek, A; Rutten, G E H M; Lauritzen, T; Khunti, K; Davies, M J; Borch-Johnsen, K; Griffin, S J; Simmons, R K
Little is known about the long-term effects of intensive multifactorial treatment early in the diabetes disease trajectory. In the absence of long-term data on hard outcomes, we described change in 10-year modelled cardiovascular risk in the 5 years following diagnosis, and quantified the impact of intensive treatment on 10-year modelled cardiovascular risk at 5 years. In a pragmatic, cluster-randomized, parallel-group trial in Denmark, the Netherlands and the UK, 3057 people with screen-detected Type 2 diabetes were randomized by general practice to receive (1) routine care of diabetes according to national guidelines (1379 patients) or (2) intensive multifactorial target-driven management (1678 patients). Ten-year modelled cardiovascular disease risk was calculated at baseline and 5 years using the UK Prospective Diabetes Study Risk Engine (version 3β). Among 2101 individuals with complete data at follow up (73.4%), 10-year modelled cardiovascular disease risk was 27.3% (sd 13.9) at baseline and 21.3% (sd 13.8) at 5-year follow-up (intensive treatment group difference -6.9, sd 9.0; routine care group difference -5.0, sd 12.2). Modelled 10-year cardiovascular disease risk was lower in the intensive treatment group compared with the routine care group at 5 years, after adjustment for baseline cardiovascular disease risk and clustering (-2.0; 95% CI -3.1 to -0.9). Despite increasing age and diabetes duration, there was a decline in modelled cardiovascular disease risk in the 5 years following diagnosis. Compared with routine care, 10-year modelled cardiovascular disease risk was lower in the intensive treatment group at 5 years. Our results suggest that patients benefit from intensive treatment early in the diabetes disease trajectory, where the rate of cardiovascular disease risk progression may be slowed. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.
Lykke, J A; Paidas, M J; Damm, P
Preterm delivery has been shown to be associated with subsequent maternal cardiovascular morbidity. However, the impact of the severity and recurrence of preterm delivery on the risk of specific cardiovascular events and the metabolic syndrome in the mother, have not been investigated....
Ley, Chit Moy; Ni, Qing; Liao, Xing; Gao, Huai-Lin; Robinson, Nicola
To assess whether the dietary supplement (bromelain) has the potential to reduce plasma fibrinogen and other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in patients with diabetes. This randomized placebo controlled, double blind, parallel design, efficacy study was carried out in China and investigated the effect of 12 weeks of bromelain (1,050 mg/day) on plasma fibrinogen. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) recruited 68 Chinese diabetic patients [32 males and 36 females; Han origin, mean age of 61.26 years (standard deviation (SD), 12.62 years)] with at least one CVD risk factor. Patients were randomized into either bromelain or placebo group. While bromelain group received bromelain capsule, the placebo group received placebo capsule which consisted inert ingredient and has no treatment effect. Subjects were required to take 1,050 mg (3×350 mg) of either bromelain or starch-filled placebo capsules, two to be taken (2×350 mg) after breakfast and another (350 mg) after dinner, daily for 12 weeks. Plasma fibrinogen, CVD risk factors and anthropometric indicators were determined at baseline and at 12 weeks. The change in the fibrinogen level in the bromelain group at the end of the study showed a mean reduction of 0.13 g/L (standard deviation (SD) 0.86g/L) compared with the mean reduction of 0.36 g/L (SD 0.96 g/L) for the placebo group. However, there was no significant difference in the mean change in fibrinogen between the placebo and bromelain groups (mean difference=0.23g/L (SD 0.22 g/L), =0.291). Similarly, the difference in mean change in other CVD risk factors (blood lipids, blood pressure), blood glucose, C-reactive protein and anthropometric measures between the bromelain and placebo groups was also not statistically significant. Statistical differences in fibrinogen between bromelain and placebo groups before the trial despite randomization may have influenced the results of this study. This RCT failed to show a beneficial effect in reducing fibrinogen
Anti-diabetic drugs have, in addition to their well-known glucose lowering-effect, different effects in the rest of cardiovascular factors that are associated with diabetes mellitus. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists have recently been incorporated to the therapeutic arsenal of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The objective of this review is to summarize the available evidence on the effect of the GLP-1 receptor agonists on different cardiovascular risk factors, mediated by the effect of GLP-1 receptor agonists on the control of hyperglycaemia and the GLP-1 receptor agonists effect on other cardiovascular risk factors (weight control, blood pressure control, lipid profile and all other cardiovascular risk biomarkers). In addition, we present the emerging evidence with regards to the impact that GLP-1 receptor agonists therapy could have in the reduction of cardiovascular events and the currently ongoing studies addressing this issue. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Fuller, J.H.; Mulnier, H.E.; Raleigh, V.S.; Lawrenson, R.A.; Colhoun, H.M.
OBJECTIVE—To estimate the absolute and relative risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with type 1 diabetes in the U.K. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Subjects with type 1 diabetes (n = 7,479) and five age- and sex-matched subjects without diabetes (n = 38,116) and free of CVD at baseline
Moglia, Cristina; Calvo, Andrea; Canosa, Antonio; Bertuzzo, Davide; Cugnasco, Paolo; Solero, Luca; Grassano, Maurizio; Bersano, Enrica; Cammarosano, Stefania; Manera, Umberto; Pisano, Fabrizio; Mazzini, Letizia; Dalla Vecchia, Laura A; Mora, Gabriele; Chiò, Adriano
To assess the prognostic influence of pre-morbid type 2 diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension and cardiovascular (CV) risk profile on ALS phenotype and outcome in a population-based cohort of Italian patients. A total of 650 ALS patients from the Piemonte/Valle d'Aosta Register for ALS, incident in the 2007-2011 period, were recruited. Information about premorbid presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension was collected at the time of diagnosis. Patients' CV risk profile was calculated according to the Joint British Societies' guidelines on prevention of cardiovascular disease in clinical practice (JBS2). At the univariate analysis, the presence of pre-morbid arterial hypertension was associated with a higher age at onset of ALS and a shorter survival, and patients with a high CV risk profile had a worse prognosis than those with a low CV risk profile. The Cox multivariable analysis did not confirm such findings. Type 2 diabetes mellitus did not modify either the phenotype or the prognosis of ALS patients. This study performed on a large population-based cohort of ALS patients has demonstrated that arterial hypertension, type 2 diabetes and CV risk factors, calculated using the Framingham equation, do not influence ALS phenotype and prognosis.
Orio, Francesco; Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Nese, Cinar; Palomba, Stefano; Savastano, Silvia; Tafuri, Domenico; Colarieti, Giorgio; La Sala, Giovanbattista; Colao, Annamaria; Yildiz, Bulent O
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in reproductive aged women and is characterized by two of the following three features: oligoovulation or anovulation, clinical and/or biochemical signs of hyperandrogenism, or polycystic ovaries. It has been demonstrated that PCOS includes a complex number of systemic symptoms in addition to symptoms related to the reproductive apparatus. It has been associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Several clinical and basic studies have investigated the link between PCOS and the cardiovascular disease risk, which seems to be due to blunted lipid/glucose metabolism, hypertension, and systemic inflammatory and coagulation disorders. Therefore, the current manuscript aims to review the main findings on PCOS and obesity/obesity-related disease (glucose derangements and cardiovascular disease risk factors). Although there are no long-term data on the morbidity and mortality for cardiovascular disease in PCOS, it is advisable to perform a careful metabolic and cardiovascular assessment in women with PCOS in order to tailor the most suitable strategy to prevent cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wong-McClure, Roy; Gregg, Edward W; Barcelo, Alberto; Sanabria-Lopez, Laura; Lee, Kahye; Abarca-Gomez, Leandra; Cervantes-Loaiza, Marvin; Luman, Elizabeth T
The projected rising prevalence of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in developing countries warrants careful monitoring. The aim of this study was to present the results of the Costa Rican National Cardiovascular Risk Factors Surveillance System, which provides the first national estimates of diabetes and IFG prevalence among adults in Costa Rica. A cross-sectional survey of 3653 non-institutionalized adults aged ≥20 years (87.8% response rate) following the World Health Organization STEPwise approach was built on a probabilistic sample of the non-institutionalized population during 2010. Known diabetes was defined as self-reported diagnosis, the use of insulin, or hypoglycemic oral treatment as consequence of diabetes during at least the previous 2 weeks before the survey. Unknown diabetes was defined no self-reported diabetes but with venous blood concentrations of fasting glucose >125 mg/dL determined by laboratory testing. Impaired fasting glucose was defined as fasting glucose between 100 and 125 mg/dL among those without diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes and IFG prevalence was estimated according gender, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), educational level, and physical activity level. Overall diabetes prevalence was 10.8% (9.5% known and 1.3% unknown diabetes) and IFG prevalence was 16.5%. The prevalence of known diabetes was higher among women >65 years compared with men of the same age group. Both known and unknown diabetes were significantly associated with higher BMI, increased WC, and low education level (P = 0.01). The prevalence of diabetes and IFG in Costa Rica is comparable to that in developed countries and indicates an urgent need for effective preventive interventions. © 2015 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Brugnara, Laura; Goday Arno, Alberto; Ortega, Emilio
Low physical activity (PA), or sedentary lifestyle, is associated with the development of several chronic diseases. We aimed to investigate current prevalence of sedentariness and its association with diabetes and other cardiovascular risk factors. PA was evaluated in a population-based, cross-sectional, randomly sampled study conducted in 2009-2010 in Spain. International Physical Activity Questionnaire (SF-IPAQ) was used to assess PA. 4991 individuals (median age 50 years, 57% women) were s...
Katz, Michelle; Giani, Elisa; Laffel, Lori
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in persons with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Specific risk factors associated with diabetes, such as hyperglycemia and kidney disease, have been demonstrated to increase the incidence and progression of CVD. Nevertheless, few data exist on the effects of traditional risk factors such as dyslipidemia, obesity, and hypertension on CVD risk in youth with T1D. Improvements in understanding and approaches to the evaluation and management of CVD risk factors, specifically for young persons with T1D, are desirable. Recent advances in noninvasive techniques to detect early vascular damage, such as the evaluation of endothelial dysfunction and aortic or carotid intima-media thickness, provide new tools to evaluate the progression of CVD in childhood. In the present review, current CVD risk factor management, challenges, and potential therapeutic interventions in youth with T1D are described.
Katz, Michelle; Giani, Elisa; Laffel, Lori
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in persons with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Specific risk factors associated with diabetes, such as hyperglycemia and kidney disease, have been demonstrated to increase the incidence and progression of CVD. Nevertheless, few data exist on the effects of traditional risk factors such as dyslipidemia, obesity and hypertension on CVD risk in youth with T1D. Improvements in understanding and approaches to the evaluation and management of CVD risk factors, specifically for young persons with T1D, are desirable. Recent advances in non-invasive techniques to detect early vascular damage, such as the evaluation of endothelial dysfunction and aortic or carotid intima media thickness, provide new tools to evaluate the progression of CVD in childhood. In the present review, current CVD risk factor management, challenges, and potential therapeutic interventions in youth with T1D are described. PMID:26520142
Fang, Xuexian; Wang, Kai; Han, Dan; He, Xuyan; Wei, Jiayu; Zhao, Lu; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Ping, Zhiguang; Li, Yusheng; Xu, Yuming; Min, Junxia; Wang, Fudi
.... Here, we conducted a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies in order to investigate the correlation between magnesium intake and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes (T2D...
Choon Sik Seon
Full Text Available BackgroundPatients with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Few studies have evaluated the cardiovascular disease (CVD risk simultaneously using the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS risk engine and non-invasive vascular tests in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.MethodsParticipants (n=380; aged 20 to 81 years with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes were free of clinical evidence of CVD. The 10-year coronary heart disease (CHD and stroke risks were calculated for each patient using the UKPDS risk engine. Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT, flow mediated dilation (FMD, pulse wave velocity (PWV and augmentation index (AI were measured. The correlations between the UKPDS risk engine and the non-invasive vascular tests were assessed using partial correlation analysis, after adjusting for age, and multiple regression analysis.ResultsThe mean 10-year CHD and 10-year stroke risks were 14.92±11.53% and 4.03±3.95%, respectively. The 10-year CHD risk correlated with CIMT (P<0.001, FMD (P=0.017, and PWV (P=0.35 after adjusting for age. The 10-year stroke risk correlated only with the mean CIMT (P<0.001 after adjusting for age. FMD correlated with age (P<0.01 and systolic blood pressure (P=0.09. CIMT correlated with age (P<0.01, HbA1c (P=0.05, and gender (P<0.01.ConclusionThe CVD risk is increased at the onset of type 2 diabetes. CIMT, FMD, and PWV along with the UKPDS risk engine should be considered to evaluate cardiovascular disease risk in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.
Full Text Available Objective: This review examines the use of exenatide twice daily in managing changes in markers of cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes. Background: Type 2 diabetes is a progressive metabolic disorder, which results from defects in insulin secretion and/or insulin action leading to chronic hyperglycaemia and associated cardiovascular complications. Despite the use of diet, exercise, oral antihyperglycaemic agents and insulin, the progressive nature of the condition means that the levels of the preventive and treatment measures would have to be increased and/or new therapies have to be developed in order to address the long term impact of type 2 diabetes. The advent of exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist provides a useful basis for managing type 2 diabetes and related cardiovascular complications without the side effects of regular diabetes therapies. However, exenatide twice daily is often used in combination with other therapies, although the mechanism of exenatide in managing diabetes and and associated cardiovascular risks and complications remain complex and still evolving. Method: A range of databases including EBSCOhost online research database were used to access articles based on PICO (Population, Interventions, Comparative Interventions, Outcomes framework and Boolean operators. Results: Eleven randomised controlled studies which met the inclusion criteria were selected for this review. Nine of the eleven studies showed significant decrease in body weight among participants in the exenatide group compared with placebo or control group while the other two studies did not report statistically significant differences in body weight. In adition, all the studies showed statistically significant decrease in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c in the exenatide group compared to controls except in one study. In the present review, the seven studies, which looked at the effect of exenatide twice daily on lipid profile
Marco, Laura J.; McCloskey, Kate; Vuillermin, Peter J.; Burgner, David; Said, Joanne; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise
The incidence of gestational diabetes is increasing worldwide, exposing large numbers of infants to hyperglycaemia whilst in utero. This exposure may have a long-term negative impact on the cardiovascular health of the offspring. Novel methods to assess cardiovascular status in the neonatal period are now available—including measuring arterial intima-media thickness and retinal photography. These measures will allow researchers to assess the relative impact of intrauterine exposures, distinguishing these from genetic or postnatal environmental factors. Understanding the long-term impact of the intrauterine environment should allow the development of more effective health policy and interventions to decrease the future burden of cardiovascular disease. Initiating disease prevention aimed at the developing fetus during the antenatal period may optimise community health outcomes. PMID:23133443
Ana Paula Silva
Full Text Available Aims. To evaluate the association of different apelin levels with cardiovascular mortality, hospitalization, renal function, and cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetic patients with mild to moderate CKD. Methods. An observational, prospective study involving 150 patients divided into groups according to baseline apelin levels: 1≤98 pg/mL, 2 = 98–328 pg/mL, and 3≥329 pg/mL. Baseline characteristics were analyzed and compared. Multivariate Cox regression was used to find out predictors of cardiovascular mortality, and multivariate logistic regression was used to find out predictors of hospitalization and disease progression. Simple linear regressions and Pearson correlations were used to investigate correlations between apelin and renal disease and cardiovascular risk factors. Results. Patients’ survival at 83 months in groups 1, 2, and 3 was 39%, 40%, and 71.2%, respectively (P=0.046. Apelin, age, and eGFR were independent predictors of mortality, and apelin, creatinine, eGFR, resistin, and visfatin were independent predictors of hospitalization. Apelin levels were negatively correlated with cardiovascular risk factors and positively correlated with eGFR. Patients with lower apelin levels were more likely to start a depurative technique. Conclusions. Apelin levels might have a significant clinical use as a marker/predictor of cardiovascular mortality and hospitalization or even as a therapeutic agent for CKD patients with cardiovascular disease.
Age-specific impact of diabetes mellitus on the risk of cardiovascular mortality: An overview from the evidence for Cardiovascular Prevention from Observational Cohorts in the Japan Research Group (EPOCH-JAPAN).
Hirakawa, Yoichiro; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Saitoh, Shigeyuki; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Okayama, Akira; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Sakata, Kiyomi; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Okamura, Tomonori
Diabetes mellitus is a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, the age-specific association of diabetes with cardiovascular risk, especially in the elderly, remains unclear in non-Western populations. A pooled analysis was conducted using 8 cohort studies (mean follow-up period, 10.3 years) in Japan, combining the data from 38,854 individual participants without history of cardiovascular disease. In all, 1867 of the participants had diabetes, defined based on the 1998 World Health Organization criteria. The association between diabetes and the risk of death from cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease (CHD), and stroke was estimated using a stratified Cox model, accounting for variability of baseline hazard functions among cohorts. During the follow-up, 1376 subjects died of cardiovascular disease (including 268 of coronary heart disease and 621 of stroke). Diabetes was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular death after multivariable adjustment (hazard ratio [HR] 1.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35-1.94). Similarly, diabetes was a risk factor for CHD (HR 2.13; 95% CI, 1.47-3.09) and stroke (HR 1.40; 95% CI, 1.05-1.85). In the age-stratified analysis of the risk of cardiovascular death, the relative effects of diabetes were consistent across age groups (p for heterogeneity = 0.18), whereas the excess absolute risks of diabetes were greater in participants in their 70s and 80s than in younger subjects. The management of diabetes is important to reduce the risk of death from cardiovascular disease, not only in midlife but also in late life, in the Japanese population. Copyright © 2016. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.
Gómez-Huelgas, R; Pérez-Jiménez, F; Serrano-Ríos, M; González-Santos, P; Román, P; Camafort, M; Conthe, P; García-Alegría, J; Guijarro, R; López-Miranda, J; Tirado-Miranda, R; Valdivielso, P
Although the mortality associated to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) has been reduced in the last decades, CVD remains the main cause of mortality in Spain and they are associated with an important morbidity and a huge economic burden. The increasing prevalence of obesity and diabetes could be slowing down the mortality reduction in Spain. Clinicians have often difficulty making clinical decisions due to the multiple clinical guidelines available. Moreover, in the current context of economic crisis it is critical to promote an efficient use of diagnostic and therapeutic proceedings to ensure the viability of public health care systems. The Spanish Society of Internal Medicine (SEMI) has coordinated a consensus document to answer questions of daily practice with the aim of facilitating physicians' decision-making in the management of diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors from a cost-efficiency point of view. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Ohkuma, T; Fujii, H; Iwase, M; Kikuchi, Y; Ogata, S; Idewaki, Y; Ide, H; Doi, Y; Hirakawa, Y; Mukai, N; Ninomiya, T; Uchida, K; Nakamura, U; Sasaki, S; Kiyohara, Y; Kitazono, T
Medical nutrition therapy plays a critical role in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. However, appropriate measures of eating behaviours, such as eating rate, have not yet been clearly established. The aim of the present study was to examine the associations among eating rate, obesity and cardiovascular risk factors. A total of 7,275 Japanese individuals aged ≥40 years who had normal fasting glucose levels, impaired fasting glucose or diabetes were divided into four groups according to self-reported eating rate: slow, medium, relatively fast and very fast. The associations between eating rate and various cardiovascular risk factors were investigated cross-sectionally. The proportions of participants who were obese or who had elevated waist circumference levels increased progressively with increases in eating rate (p for trend obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors and therefore may be a modifiable risk factor in the management of cardiovascular risk factors and diabetes.
OBJECTIVES: In patients with type 2 diabetes, high serum levels of osteoprotegerin (OPG) have been associated with a greater risk of cardiovascular events. However, it remains unclear how well OPG performs when compared with traditional biomarkers of cardiovascular risk such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Furthermore, OPG levels are also high in the presence of diabetes-related microvascular disease, and it is unclear whether OPG can distinguish microvascular disease from large-vessel atherosclerosis. The first aim of this study was to compare OPG levels against other biomarkers of cardiovascular risk in the identification of patients with documented multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD). The second aim was to compare OPG levels in patients with microvascular complications (microalbuminuria) against those with established CAD. METHODS: Three groups of male patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited: patients without microvascular complications or large-vessel atherosclerosis (n = 24), patients with microalbuminuria only (n = 23), and patients with microalbuminuria and documented multivessel CAD (n = 25). OPG, hsCRP, interleukin 6, urate, and pulse wave velocity were measured. RESULTS: Serum OPG levels were significantly higher in patients with a combination of microalbuminuria and CAD than in those with microalbuminuria alone. There were no significant differences in any of the other biomarkers between the groups. CONCLUSION: OPG was found to be superior to the other biomarkers studied in identifying patients with documented CAD. The presence of CAD was a greater determinant of serum OPG levels than microalbuminuria in our population. These findings support the use of OPG as a biomarker of cardiovascular risk.
Johansen Nanna B
Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening programmes for type 2 diabetes inevitably find more individuals at high risk for diabetes than people with undiagnosed prevalent disease. While well established guidelines for the treatment of diabetes exist, less is known about treatment or prevention strategies for individuals found at high risk following screening. In order to make better use of the opportunities for primary prevention of diabetes and its complications among this high risk group, it is important to quantify diabetes progression rates and to examine the development of early markers of cardiovascular disease and microvascular diabetic complications. We also require a better understanding of the mechanisms that underlie and drive early changes in cardiometabolic physiology. The ADDITION-PRO study was designed to address these issues among individuals at different levels of diabetes risk recruited from Danish primary care. Methods/Design ADDITION-PRO is a population-based, longitudinal cohort study of individuals at high risk for diabetes. 16,136 eligible individuals were identified at high risk following participation in a stepwise screening programme in Danish general practice between 2001 and 2006. All individuals with impaired glucose regulation at screening, those who developed diabetes following screening, and a random sub-sample of those at lower levels of diabetes risk were invited to attend a follow-up health assessment in 2009–2011 (n = 4,188, of whom 2,082 (50% attended. The health assessment included detailed measurement of anthropometry, body composition, biochemistry, physical activity and cardiovascular risk factors including aortic stiffness and central blood pressure. All ADDITION-PRO participants are being followed for incident cardiovascular disease and death. Discussion The ADDITION-PRO study is designed to increase understanding of cardiovascular risk and its underlying mechanisms among individuals at high risk of diabetes
Effects of the Multidisciplinary Risk Assessment and Management Program for Patients with Diabetes Mellitus (RAMP-DM) on biomedical outcomes, observed cardiovascular events and cardiovascular risks in primary care: a longitudinal comparative study.
Jiao, Fang Fang; Fung, Colman Siu Cheung; Wong, Carlos King Ho; Wan, Yuk Fai; Dai, Daisy; Kwok, Ruby; Lam, Cindy Lo Kuen
To assess whether the Multidisciplinary Risk Assessment and Management Program for Patients with Diabetes Mellitus (RAMP-DM) led to improvements in biomedical outcomes, observed cardiovascular events and predicted cardiovascular risks after 12-month intervention in the primary care setting. A random sample of 1,248 people with diabetes enrolled to RAMP-DM for at least 12 months was selected and 1,248 people with diabetes under the usual primary care were matched by age, sex, and HbA1c level at baseline as the usual care group. Biomedical and cardiovascular outcomes were measured at baseline and at 12-month after the enrollment. Difference-in-differences approach was employed to measure the effect of RAMP-DM on the changes in biomedical outcomes, proportion of subjects reaching treatment targets, observed and predicted cardiovascular risks. Compared to the usual care group, RAMP-DM group had lower cardiovascular events incidence (1.21% vs 2.89%, P = 0.003), and net decrease in HbA1c (-0.20%, P risks (total CVD risk, -2.06%, P risk, -1.43%, P risk, -0.71%, P risks. The RAMP-DM resulted in greater improvements in HbA1c and reduction in observed and predicted cardiovascular risks at 12 months follow-up, which indicated a risk-stratification multidisciplinary intervention was an effective strategy for managing Chinese people with diabetes in the primary care setting. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02034695.
Duckworth William C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Racial/ethnic disparities in cardiovascular disease complications have been observed in diabetic patients. We examined the association between race/ethnicity and cardiovascular disease risk factor control in a large cohort of insulin-treated veterans with type 2 diabetes. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional observational study at 3 Veterans Affairs Medical Centers in the American Southwest. Using electronic pharmacy databases, we randomly selected 338 veterans with insulin-treated type 2 diabetes. We collected medical record and patient survey data on diabetes control and management, cardiovascular disease risk factors, comorbidity, demographics, socioeconomic factors, psychological status, and health behaviors. We used analysis of variance and multivariate linear regression to determine the effect of race/ethnicity on glycemic control, insulin treatment intensity, lipid levels, and blood pressure control. Results The study cohort was comprised of 72 (21.3% Hispanic subjects (H, 35 (10.4% African Americans (AA, and 226 (67% non-Hispanic whites (NHW. The mean (SD hemoglobin A1c differed significantly by race/ethnicity: NHW 7.86 (1.4%, H 8.16 (1.6%, AA 8.84 (2.9%, p = 0.05. The multivariate-adjusted A1c was significantly higher for AA (+0.93%, p = 0.002 compared to NHW. Insulin doses (unit/day also differed significantly: NHW 70.6 (48.8, H 58.4 (32.6, and AA 53.1 (36.2, p Conclusion In our cohort, insulin-treated minority veterans, particularly AA, had poorer glycemic control and received lower doses of insulin than NHW. However, we found no differences for control of other cardiovascular disease risk factors. The diabetes treatment disparity could be due to provider behaviors and/or patient behaviors or preferences. Further research with larger sample sizes and more geographically diverse populations are needed to confirm our findings.
Mogensen, Ulrik Madvig; Andersson, Charlotte; Fosbøl, Emil Loldrup
AIMS: Metformin is the first-line treatment for most patients with type 2 diabetes but many patients need additional treatment with insulin secretagogues (IS) to achieve glycemic control. We aimed to compare mortality and cardiovascular risk among users of metformin in combination...... with pharmacologically different ISs. METHODS: Using nationwide administrative Danish registries, we followed all individuals without prior stroke or myocardial infarction who initiated metformin and an IS from 1997 through 2009. Rate ratios (RR) of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular death, and a composite...... of myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death were compared between user groups using time-dependent multivariable Poisson regression models. The most common combination, glimepiride+metformin, was used as reference. RESULTS: A total of 56,827 patients were included, 56% male, the mean age was 61...
Dabas, Aashima; Yadav, Sangeeta; Gupta, V K
Objective. The adverse role of dyslipidemia in predicting cardiovascular outcomes has not been elucidated extensively among type 1 diabetics in the literature. Methods. We assessed dyslipidemia and its correlation to other cardiac risk factors in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Total thirty type 1 adolescent diabetics were evaluated for their metabolic profile, including serum lipids and echocardiography was performed. Results. The average age of the cohort was 14.3 ± 3.09 yr with disease duration of 5.35 ± 2.94 yr. The mean HbA1C was 8.01%. The mean serum cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and triglyceride were normal. Serum cholesterol was high in patients with longer disease duration (P = 0.011, r = 0.41), high systolic blood pressure (P = 0.04, r = 0.32), and elevated HbA1C > 8% (P = 0.038, r = 0.33). Higher lipid values were associated with poorer carotid artery distensibility (P > 0.05) and higher carotid artery intimomedial thickness (cIMT) (P < 0.05 for cholesterol and LDL). Hyperglycemia adversely affected ejection fractions, though serum lipids did not show any significant effect on left ventricular parameters. Conclusions. Dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia can serve as biomarkers for cardiovascular dysfunction in at-risk adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Carotid artery parameters are adjunctive tools which may be affected early in the course of macrovascular disease.
Full Text Available Low physical activity (PA, or sedentary lifestyle, is associated with the development of several chronic diseases. We aimed to investigate current prevalence of sedentariness and its association with diabetes and other cardiovascular risk factors. PA was evaluated in a population-based, cross-sectional, randomly sampled study conducted in 2009-2010 in Spain. International Physical Activity Questionnaire (SF-IPAQ was used to assess PA. 4991 individuals (median age 50 years, 57% women were studied. Prevalence of sedentariness was 32.3% for men and 39% for women (p < 0.0001. Sex differences were particularly notable (age*sex interaction, p = 0.0024 at early and older ages. Sedentary individuals had higher BMI (28 vs. 27 kg/m2 and obesity prevalence (37 vs. 26%. Low PA was present in 44, 43, and 38% of individuals with known diabetes (KDM, prediabetes/unknown-diabetes (PREDM/UKDM, and normal glucose regulation (p = 0.0014, respectively. No difference between KDM and PREDM/UKDM (p = 0.72 was found. Variables independently associated (p < 0.05 with sedentariness were age, sex, BMI, central obesity, Mediterranean diet adherence, smoking habit, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and dyslipidemia. Low PA is on the rise in Spain, especially among women. Sedentariness is associated with several cardiovascular risk factors and may be responsible for the increasing prevalence of obesity and diabetes in this country.
Brugnara, Laura; Murillo, Serafín; Novials, Anna; Rojo-Martínez, Gemma; Soriguer, Federico; Goday, Albert; Calle-Pascual, Alfonso; Castaño, Luis; Gaztambide, Sonia; Valdés, Sergio; Franch, Josep; Castell, Conxa; Vendrell, Joan; Casamitjana, Roser; Bosch-Comas, Anna; Bordiú, Elena; Carmena, Rafael; Catalá, Miguel; Delgado, Elias; Girbés, Juan; López-Alba, Alfonso; Martínez-Larrad, Maria Teresa; Menéndez, Edelmiro; Mora-Peces, Inmaculada; Pascual-Manich, Gemma; Serrano-Ríos, Manuel; Gomis, Ramon; Ortega, Emilio
Low physical activity (PA), or sedentary lifestyle, is associated with the development of several chronic diseases. We aimed to investigate current prevalence of sedentariness and its association with diabetes and other cardiovascular risk factors. PA was evaluated in a population-based, cross-sectional, randomly sampled study conducted in 2009-2010 in Spain. International Physical Activity Questionnaire (SF-IPAQ) was used to assess PA. 4991 individuals (median age 50 years, 57% women) were studied. Prevalence of sedentariness was 32.3% for men and 39% for women (p prevalence (37 vs. 26%). Low PA was present in 44, 43, and 38% of individuals with known diabetes (KDM), prediabetes/unknown-diabetes (PREDM/UKDM), and normal glucose regulation (p = 0.0014), respectively. No difference between KDM and PREDM/UKDM (p = 0.72) was found. Variables independently associated (p associated with several cardiovascular risk factors and may be responsible for the increasing prevalence of obesity and diabetes in this country.
Full Text Available Objective. The adverse role of dyslipidemia in predicting cardiovascular outcomes has not been elucidated extensively among type 1 diabetics in the literature. Methods. We assessed dyslipidemia and its correlation to other cardiac risk factors in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Total thirty type 1 adolescent diabetics were evaluated for their metabolic profile, including serum lipids and echocardiography was performed. Results. The average age of the cohort was 14.3 ± 3.09 yr with disease duration of 5.35 ± 2.94 yr. The mean HbA1C was 8.01%. The mean serum cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and triglyceride were normal. Serum cholesterol was high in patients with longer disease duration (P=0.011, r=0.41, high systolic blood pressure (P=0.04, r=0.32, and elevated HbA1C > 8% (P=0.038, r=0.33. Higher lipid values were associated with poorer carotid artery distensibility (P>0.05 and higher carotid artery intimomedial thickness (cIMT (P<0.05 for cholesterol and LDL. Hyperglycemia adversely affected ejection fractions, though serum lipids did not show any significant effect on left ventricular parameters. Conclusions. Dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia can serve as biomarkers for cardiovascular dysfunction in at-risk adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Carotid artery parameters are adjunctive tools which may be affected early in the course of macrovascular disease.
Karin B Gast
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glucose, insulin and Homeostasis Model Assessment Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR are markers of insulin resistance. The objective of this study is to compare fasting glucose, fasting insulin concentrations and HOMA-IR in strength of association with incident cardiovascular disease. METHODS: We searched the PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, ScienceDirect and Cochrane Library databases from inception to March, 2011, and screened reference lists. Cohort studies or nested case-control studies that investigated the association between fasting glucose, fasting insulin or HOMA-IR and incident cardiovascular disease, were eligible. Two investigators independently performed the article selection, data extraction and risk of bias assessment. Cardiovascular endpoints were coronary heart disease (CHD, stroke or combined cardiovascular disease. We used fixed and random-effect meta-analyses to calculate the pooled relative risk for CHD, stroke and combined cardiovascular disease, comparing high to low concentrations of glucose, insulin or HOMA-IR. Study heterogeneity was calculated with the I(2 statistic. To enable a comparison between cardiovascular disease risks for glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR, we calculated pooled relative risks per increase of one standard deviation. RESULTS: We included 65 studies (involving 516,325 participants in this meta-analysis. In a random-effect meta-analysis the pooled relative risk of CHD (95% CI; I(2 comparing high to low concentrations was 1.52 (1.31, 1.76; 62.4% for glucose, 1.12 (0.92, 1.37; 41.0% for insulin and 1.64 (1.35, 2.00; 0% for HOMA-IR. The pooled relative risk of CHD per one standard deviation increase was 1.21 (1.13, 1.30; 64.9% for glucose, 1.04 (0.96, 1.12; 43.0% for insulin and 1.46 (1.26, 1.69; 0.0% for HOMA-IR. CONCLUSIONS: The relative risk of cardiovascular disease was higher for an increase of one standard deviation in HOMA-IR compared to an increase of one standard deviation in fasting
Umamahesh, K; Vigneswari, A; Surya Thejaswi, G; Satyavani, K; Viswanathan, Vijay
This study was planned to assess the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events over an 11-year period and to identify the associated risk factors that could predict the onset of CVD among subjects with type 2 diabetes. Retrospective data of 249 patients (M:F 149:100) with type 2 diabetes, from a cohort of 7800 patients, attending a tertiary care center for diabetes from January 2000 to December 2011 were retrieved and analyzed for this study. Sociodemographic and habitual risk factors, baseline diabetes duration, HbA1c and time of onset of CVD and its risk factors were collected from case records. Person-years method was used to calculate incident rate of CVD. Binary logistic regression analyses were done to identify predictors associated with CVD and its risk factors. Incidence of CVD among subjects with diabetes was 5.6 cases/1000 person-years. Nearly 60% developed hypertension and dyslipidemia or both during the 11-year period. The most common complication was neuropathy (14.4%). Smoking [OR (95%CI)] [9.26 (1.6-54.9)] (p = 0.014) and heavy alcohol consumption [8.7 (1.1-69.8)] (p = 0.04) were significantly associated with CVD. Higher BMI was significantly associated with hypertension and dyslipidemia [2.4 (1.3-4.3)] (p = 0.003). Smoking and heavy alcohol consumption were significantly associated with CVD, and increased BMI was significantly associated with hypertension and dyslipidemia among subjects with type 2 diabetes in this study population. These findings emphasize the need for early identification and modification of risk factors associated with CVD events in patients with diabetes. Copyright © 2013 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Achhra, A C; Mocroft, A; Reiss, P
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the impact of the gain in body mass index (BMI) observed immediately after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation on the subsequent risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. METHODS: We analysed data from the Data Collection on Adverse Events...... of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) cohort study. Outcomes were development of (i) CVD (composite of myocardial infarction/stroke/coronary procedure) and (ii) diabetes. The main exposure variable was change in BMI from ART initiation (pre-ART) to 1 year after initiation (continuous variable) in treatment......-naïve individuals initiating ART with no history of CVD or diabetes (for respective outcomes). BMI [weight (kg)/(height (m))(2) ] was categorized as underweight ( 30). Poisson regression models were fitted stratified for each pre-ART BMI category to allow...
Singh, Gitanjali M; Danaei, Goodarz; Farzadfar, Farshad
The effects of systolic blood pressure (SBP), serum total cholesterol (TC), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and body mass index (BMI) on the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have been established in epidemiological studies, but consistent estimates of effect sizes by age and sex...
De Vries, Dianna; Hak, Eelko; Postma, Maarten J.
Background: Statins have shown to be cost-effective in most diabetes patients. Treatment decisions in patients newly diagnosed with diabetes are primarily based on the cardiovascular risk. The effect of statins is, however, primarily based on the LDL-cholesterol reduction that is achieved, which is
Rensing, K. L.; Reuwer, A. Q.; Arsenault, B. J.; von der Thüsen, J. H.; Hoekstra, J. B. L.; Kastelein, J. J. P.; Twickler, Th B.
Despite improvement of microvascular outcomes as a consequence of optimal glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes, prevention of macrovascular complications is still a major challenge. Of interest, large-scale intervention studies (Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes, Action
Data on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in adolescents with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are limited. Echocardiography was performed in the last year of the Treatment Options for type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) clinical trial (median 4.5 yr from diagnosis of T2D, average age 18 yr), incl...
Franssens, Bas T.; Westerink, Jan; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Nathoe, Hendrik M.; Visseren, Frank L J
Objectives To quantify the risk of obesity and its associated metabolic dysfunction on the development of cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods In 1827 patients with type 2 diabetes enrolled in the Secondary Manifestations of ARTerial disease (SMART) cohort
Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention of diabetes and coronary heart disease (CHD is possible but identification of at-risk patients for targeting interventions is a challenge in primary care. Methods We analyzed electronic health record (EHR data for 122,715 patients from 12 primary care practices. We defined patients with risk factor clustering using metabolic syndrome (MetS characteristics defined by NCEP-ATPIII criteria; if missing, we used surrogate characteristics, and validated this approach by directly measuring risk factors in a subset of 154 patients. For subjects with at least 3 of 5 MetS criteria measured at baseline (2003-2004, we defined 3 categories: No MetS (0 criteria; At-risk-for MetS (1-2 criteria; and MetS (≥ 3 criteria. We examined new diabetes and CHD incidence, and resource utilization over the subsequent 3-year period (2005-2007 using age-sex-adjusted regression models to compare outcomes by MetS category. Results After excluding patients with diabetes/CHD at baseline, 78,293 patients were eligible for analysis. EHR-defined MetS had 73% sensitivity and 91% specificity for directly measured MetS. Diabetes incidence was 1.4% in No MetS; 4.0% in At-risk-for MetS; and 11.0% in MetS (p MetS vs No MetS = 6.86 [6.06-7.76]; CHD incidence was 3.2%, 5.3%, and 6.4% respectively (p Conclusion Risk factor clustering in EHR data identifies primary care patients at increased risk for new diabetes, CHD and higher resource utilization.
Fujii, Hiroki; Iwase, Masanori; Ohkuma, Toshiaki; Ogata-Kaizu, Shinako; Ide, Hitoshi; Kikuchi, Yohei; Idewaki, Yasuhiro; Joudai, Tamaki; Hirakawa, Yoichiro; Uchida, Kazuhiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Nakamura, Udai; Kitazono, Takanari
Dietary fiber is beneficial for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, although it is consumed differently in ethnic foods around the world. We investigated the association between dietary fiber intake and obesity, glycemic control, cardiovascular risk factors and chronic kidney disease in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. A total of 4,399 patients were assessed for dietary fiber intake using a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire. The associations between dietary fiber intake and various cardiovascular risk factors were investigated cross-sectionally. Body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, triglyceride and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein negatively associated with dietary fiber intake after adjusting for age, sex, duration of diabetes, current smoking, current drinking, total energy intake, fat intake, saturated fatty acid intake, leisure-time physical activity and use of oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin. The homeostasis model assessment insulin sensitivity and HDL cholesterol positively associated with dietary fiber intake. Dietary fiber intake was associated with reduced prevalence of abdominal obesity, hypertension and metabolic syndrome after multivariate adjustments including obesity. Furthermore, dietary fiber intake was associated with lower prevalence of albuminuria, low estimated glomerular filtration rate and chronic kidney disease after multivariate adjustments including protein intake. Additional adjustments for obesity, hypertension or metabolic syndrome did not change these associations. We demonstrated that increased dietary fiber intake was associated with better glycemic control and more favorable cardiovascular disease risk factors including chronic kidney disease in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetic patients should be encouraged to consume more dietary fiber in daily life.
Niemann, Bernd; Rohrbach, Susanne; Miller, Mark R; Newby, David E; Fuster, Valentin; Kovacic, Jason C
Oxidative stress occurs whenever the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) exceeds endogenous antioxidant capacity. In this paper, we review the specific role of several cardiovascular risk factors in promoting oxidative stress: diabetes, obesity, smoking, and excessive pollution. Specifically, the risk of developing heart failure is higher in patients with diabetes or obesity, even with optimal medical treatment, and the increased release of ROS from cardiac mitochondria and other sources likely contributes to the development of cardiac dysfunction in this setting. Here, we explore the role of different ROS sources arising in obesity and diabetes, and the effect of excessive ROS production on the development of cardiac lipotoxicity. In parallel, contaminants in the air that we breathe pose a significant threat to human health. This paper provides an overview of cigarette smoke and urban air pollution, considering how their composition and biological effects have detrimental effects on cardiovascular health. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shukla, Sanket Kumar; Liu, Weijing; Sikder, Kunal; Addya, Sankar; Sarkar, Amrita; Wei, Yidong; Rafiq, Khadija
Diabetes increases the risk of Cardio-vascular disease (CVD). CVD is more prevalent in type 2 diabetes (T2D) than type 1 diabetes (T1D), but the mortality risk is higher in T1D than in T2D. The pathophysiology of CVD in T1D is poorly defined. To learn more about biological pathways that are potentially involved in T1D with cardiac dysfunction, we sought to identify differentially expressed genes in the T1D heart. Our study used T1D mice with severe hyperglycemia along with significant deficits in echocardiographic measurements. Microarray analysis of heart tissue RNA revealed that the T1D mice differentially expressed 10 genes compared to control. Using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), we showed that these genes were significantly involved in ketogenesis, cardiovascular disease, apoptosis and other toxicology functions. Of these 10 genes, the 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-CoA Synthase 2 (HMGCS2) was the highest upregulated gene in T1D heart. IPA analysis showed that HMGCS2 was center to many biological networks and pathways. Our data also suggested that apart from heart, the expression of HMGCS2 was also different in kidney and spleen between control and STZ treated mice. In conclusion, The HMGCS2 molecule may potentially be involved in T1D induced cardiac dysfunction.
Norgaard, Mette Lykke; Andersen, Søren Skøtt; Schramm, T K
We assessed secular trends of cardiovascular outcomes following first diagnosis of myocardial infarction (MI) or diabetes in an unselected population.......We assessed secular trends of cardiovascular outcomes following first diagnosis of myocardial infarction (MI) or diabetes in an unselected population....
Zafrir, Barak; Azaiza, Mohanad; Gaspar, Tamar; Dobrecky-Mery, Idit; Azencot, Mali; Lewis, Basil S; Rubinshtein, Ronen; Halon, David A
Despite its well-established prognostic value, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is not incorporated routinely in risk assessment tools. Whether low CRF provides additional predictive information in asymptomatic type 2 diabetics beyond conventional risk scores and coronary artery calcification (CAC) is unclear. We studied 600 type 2 diabetics aged 55-74 years without known coronary heart disease. CRF was quantified in metabolic equivalents (METs) by maximal treadmill testing and categorized as tertiles of percent predicted METs (ppMETs) achieved. CAC was calculated by non-enhanced computed tomography scans. The individual and joint association of both measures with an outcome event of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction or stroke, was determined over a mean follow-up period of 80 ± 16 months. There were 72 (12%) events during follow-up. Low CRF was independently associated with event risk after adjustment for traditional risk factors and CAC (HR 2.25, 95% CI 1.41-3.57, p = 0.001). CRF (unfit/fit) allowed further outcome discrimination both amongst diabetics with low CAC scores (9.5% versus 2.0% event rate), and amongst diabetics with high CAC scores (23.5% versus 12.4% event rate), p mortality, myocardial infarction or stroke, despite low CAC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Jiezhong Chen1,3, Kenneth Raymond21John Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Acton, ACT, Australia; 2School of Pharmacy and Applied Science, Faculty of Science, Technology and Engineering, LaTrobe University, Bendigo, Vic, Australia; 3Adjunct Senior Research Fellow, University of Canberra, ACT, AustraliaAbstract: Diabetes mellitus is characterized by high blood glucose level with typical manifestations of thirst, polyuria, polydipsia, and weight loss. It is caused by defects in insulin-mediated signal pathways, resulting in decreased glucose transportation from blood into muscle and fat cells. The major risk is vascular injury leading to heart disease, which is accelerated by increased lipid levels and hypertension. Management of diabetes includes: control of blood glucose level and lipids; and reduction of hypertension. Dietary intake of beta-glucans has been shown to reduce all these risk factors to benefit the treatment of diabetes and associated complications. In addition, beta-glucans also promote wound healing and alleviate ischemic heart injury. However, the mechanisms behind the effect of beta-glucans on diabetes and associated complications need to be further studied using pure beta-glucan.Keywords: diabetes mellitus, hyperglycemia, prevalence, pathogenesis
Miao, Yan; Smink, Paul A.; de Zeeuw, Dick; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J.
BACKGROUND: Optimal renal and cardiovascular risk management in diabetic patients includes optimal maintenance of blood pressure and control of glucose and lipids. Although the optimal control of these risk factors or "risk/biomarkers" has proven to be effective, it often is difficult to achieve.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Impaired glucose regulation (IGR is associated with detrimental cardiovascular outcomes such as cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVD risk factors or intima-media thickness (IMT. Our aim was to examine whether these associations are mediated by body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (waist or fasting serum insulin (insulin in a population in the African region. Methods Major CVD risk factors (systolic blood pressure, smoking, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, were measured in a random sample of adults aged 25–64 in the Seychelles (n = 1255, participation rate: 80.2%. According to the criteria of the American Diabetes Association, IGR was divided in four ordered categories: 1 normal fasting glucose (NFG, 2 impaired fasting glucose (IFG and normal glucose tolerance (IFG/NGT, 3 IFG and impaired glucose tolerance (IFG/IGT, and 4 diabetes mellitus (DM. Carotid and femoral IMT was assessed by ultrasound (n = 496. Results Age-adjusted levels of the major CVD risk factors worsened gradually across IGR categories (NFG Conclusion We found graded relationships between IGR categories and both major CVD risk factors and carotid/femoral IMT. These relationships were only partly accounted for by BMI, waist and insulin. This suggests that increased CVD-risk associated with IGR is also mediated by factors other than the considered markers of adiposity and insulin resistance. The results also imply that IGR and associated major CVD risk factors should be systematically screened and appropriately managed.
Soriguer, Federico; Morcillo, Sonsoles; Hernando, Virginia; Valdés, Sergio; Ruiz de Adana, Maria Soledad; Olveira, Gabriel; Fuentes, Eduardo García; González, Inmaculada; Tapia, Maria José; Esteva, Isabel; Rojo-Martínez, Gemma
The aim of this study was to undertake a prospective study of the changes in certain risk factors for cardiovascular disease occurring during menopause. A longitudinal cohort study of 475 women was followed up for 6 years (Pizarra Study). The final menstrual period was defined after at least 6 months of amenorrhea. The women were classified into three groups: group 1, no menopause at either the first or second study; group 2, no menopause at the first study but menopause at the second study (6 y later); and group 3, menopause at the first study (and also at the second). The following are the main outcome measures used: age; body mass index; waist circumference; waist-to-hip ratio; skinfold thickness; arm circumference; intake of macronutrients (quantitative questionnaire); systolic and diastolic blood pressures; cholesterol, triglycerides; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; uric acid; homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; and the prevalence of obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, and impaired fasting glucose. None of the cardiovascular risk factors studied changed during the passage from premenopause to postmenopause, independently of age or physical activity. Menopause is a biological condition of the human species, for which has recently received attempts at medicalization that were not always justified. If menopause is not accompanied by any other cardiovascular risk factor independently of age, the stigma of menopause being considered a risk factor should cease. Although the results have the strength of a prospective study, the sample size forced us to consider these findings as preliminary.
Anavekar, Nagesh S; Solomon, Scott D; McMurray, John J V
. The valiant trial identified 14,527 patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by either clinical or radiologic signs of heart failure and/or left ventricular dysfunction for whom baseline creatinine was measured. Patients were randomly assigned to receive captopril, valsartan, or both. Glomerular...... and nonfatal cv outcomes independent of treatment assignment. In conclusion, although dm is associated with higher risk of renal dysfunction and adverse cv outcomes, patients without dm had a relation between renal function and cv risk similar to that for patients with dm after high-risk acute myocardial......Renal dysfunction is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular (cv) disease and its associated complications. Diabetes mellitus (dm) is a common cause of renal dysfunction. Whether the presence or absence of dm modifies the relation between renal dysfunction and cv disease is unclear...
Afaghi, Ahmad; Ziaee, Amir; Afaghi, Mahsa
One dietary strategy aimed at improving both diabetes control and control of cardiovascular risk factors is the use of low glycemic index diets. These diets have been reported to be beneficial in controlling diabetes, and also increase high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), lower serum triglyceride, and reduce glycated protein. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect of a low glycemic index-low glycemic load (GL = 67-77) diet on lipids and blood glucose of poorly controlled diabetic patients. In an intervention study, 100 poorly controlled diabetic patients (age 52.8 ± 4.5 years) who were taking insulin or on oral medication underwent administration of low GL diet (GL = 67-77; energy = 1800-2200 kcal, total fat = 36%, fat derived from olive oil and nuts 15%, carbohydrate = 41%, protein = 22%) for 10 weeks. Patients were recommended to follow their regular lifestyle. Total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), HDL, triglyceride, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), weight, and body mass index (BMI) were measured before and 10 weeks after the intervention. Before intervention, initial blood cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were 205.9 ± 21.6 and 181.5 ± 22.2, respectively, and were reduced to 182.6 ± 18.2 and 161.6 ± 16.7, respectively, after 10 weeks intervention (P lipid and glucose response control of poorly controlled diabetic patients.
In 19,219 individuals (45.4% male, 54.6% female) with an age range from 10 to 95 years average body weight, body mass index (BMI), serum cholesterol and arterial blood pressure showed typical age-dependent changes. In the middle-aged between 45 and 65 years the high percentage of total cholesterol levels over 200 mg/dl (male: 58.3%; female 70.7%) seems alarming. In very old persons over 80 years the predictive value of those cardiovascular risk factors for increased mortality might be reversed, since in several epidemiological observations higher total cholesterol values and a high systolic blood pressure were associated with a longer survival. Average random blood glucose concentration is steadily rising with age. In good comparison with results from US American and European studies the age-matched relative risk for known myocardial infarction and stroke is twice to four times higher in individuals with known diabetes mellitus than in those without. These findings underline the urgent need for broadly based screening programs looking for metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors and for early disturbances of carbohydrate metabolism particularly in middle-aged groups, and for manifest diabetes mellitus in persons over 65 years of age.
Kjær, Laura K; Cejvanovic, Vanja; Henriksen, Trine
OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular mortality risk remains high among patients with type 2 diabetes. Oxidative stress indicated by high urinary excretion of the biomarker for RNA oxidation, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxoGuo), is associated with an increased risk of death in newly diagnosed and treated...... patients. We assessed whether 8-oxoGuo is associated with specific cardiovascular and all-cause mortality risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Urinary biomarkers for nucleic acid oxidation were measured in a cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes aged ≥60 years (n = 1,863), along with biochemical......-cause and cardiovascular mortality risk in patients with type 2 diabetes. Targeting oxidative stress via interventions with long-term follow-up may reveal the predictive potential of the biomarker 8-oxoGuo....
Popa Loredana Mӑdӑlina
Full Text Available Background and Aims: The aim of the study was to estimate the predictive value of some new biomarkers in the assessment of cardiovascular disease (CVD risk in a type 2 diabetes (T2DM population and to perform a correlation between the SCORE risk results and the risk profile estimated by the use of these biomarkers. Finally, we aimed to establish if the CVD risk assessment can be improved by adding the biomarkers into the SCORE risk equation. Material and Methods: In the study population the CVD risk assessment was performed using the SCORE High Risk Chart. The new individual biomarkers were: estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, urinary albumin excretion (UAE rate, albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR, cystatin C, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL and apolipoprotein B (apo-B. Results: The SCORE risk prediction model results were significantly altered by adding in the equation apo-B and HDLc values. An increase of one standard deviation of the apo-B values caused the increase of the SCORE results with 0.19 standard deviations while an increase of one standard deviation of the HDLc values decreased the SCORE results with 0.26 standard deviations. Conclusions: Advanced lipid testing, including the measurement of apo-B, provides a more comprehensive cardiac risk assessment and should be used in the development of specifically designed risk-scores for T2DM individuals.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While current recommendations on exercise type and volume have strong experimental bases, there is no clear evidence from large-sized studies indicating whether increasing training intensity provides additional benefits to subjects with type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of moderate-to-high intensity (HI versus low-to-moderate intensity (LI training of equal energy cost, i.e. exercise volume, on modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. DESIGN: Pre-specified sub-analysis of the Italian Diabetes and Exercise Study (IDES, a randomized multicenter prospective trial comparing a supervised exercise intervention with standard care for 12 months (2005-2006. SETTING: Twenty-two outpatient diabetes clinics across Italy. PATIENTS: Sedentary patients with type 2 diabetes assigned to twice-a-week supervised progressive aerobic and resistance training plus exercise counseling (n = 303. INTERVENTIONS: Subjects were randomized by center to LI (n = 142, 136 completed or HI (n = 161, 152 completed progressive aerobic and resistance training, i.e. at 55% or 70% of predicted maximal oxygen consumption and at 60% or 80% of predicted 1-Repetition Maximum, respectively, of equal volume. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S: Hemoglobin (Hb A(1c and other cardiovascular risk factors; 10-year coronary heart disease (CHD risk scores. RESULTS: Volume of physical activity, both supervised and non-supervised, was similar in LI and HI participants. Compared with LI training, HI training produced only clinically marginal, though statistically significant, improvements in HbA(1c (mean difference -0.17% [95% confidence interval -0.44,0.10], P = 0.03, triglycerides (-0.12 mmol/l [-0.34,0.10], P = 0.02 and total cholesterol (-0.24 mmol/l [-0.46, -0.01], P = 0.04, but not in other risk factors and CHD risk scores. However, intensity was not an independent predictor of reduction of any of these parameters. Adverse event rate was similar in HI and LI subjects
Balducci, Stefano; Zanuso, Silvano; Cardelli, Patrizia; Salvi, Laura; Bazuro, Alessandra; Pugliese, Luca; Maccora, Carla; Iacobini, Carla; Conti, Francesco G; Nicolucci, Antonio; Pugliese, Giuseppe
While current recommendations on exercise type and volume have strong experimental bases, there is no clear evidence from large-sized studies indicating whether increasing training intensity provides additional benefits to subjects with type 2 diabetes. To compare the effects of moderate-to-high intensity (HI) versus low-to-moderate intensity (LI) training of equal energy cost, i.e. exercise volume, on modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. Pre-specified sub-analysis of the Italian Diabetes and Exercise Study (IDES), a randomized multicenter prospective trial comparing a supervised exercise intervention with standard care for 12 months (2005-2006). Twenty-two outpatient diabetes clinics across Italy. Sedentary patients with type 2 diabetes assigned to twice-a-week supervised progressive aerobic and resistance training plus exercise counseling (n = 303). Subjects were randomized by center to LI (n = 142, 136 completed) or HI (n = 161, 152 completed) progressive aerobic and resistance training, i.e. at 55% or 70% of predicted maximal oxygen consumption and at 60% or 80% of predicted 1-Repetition Maximum, respectively, of equal volume. Hemoglobin (Hb) A(1c) and other cardiovascular risk factors; 10-year coronary heart disease (CHD) risk scores. Volume of physical activity, both supervised and non-supervised, was similar in LI and HI participants. Compared with LI training, HI training produced only clinically marginal, though statistically significant, improvements in HbA(1c) (mean difference -0.17% [95% confidence interval -0.44,0.10], P = 0.03), triglycerides (-0.12 mmol/l [-0.34,0.10], P = 0.02) and total cholesterol (-0.24 mmol/l [-0.46, -0.01], P = 0.04), but not in other risk factors and CHD risk scores. However, intensity was not an independent predictor of reduction of any of these parameters. Adverse event rate was similar in HI and LI subjects. Data from the large IDES cohort indicate that, in low-fitness individuals such as sedentary subjects with type 2
Schwab, Ursula; Lauritzen, Lotte; Tholstrup, Tine
of this systematic review (SR) was to assess the evidence of an effect of the amount and type of dietary fat on body weight (BW), risk factors, and risk of non-communicable diseases, that is, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and cancer in healthy subjects or subjects at risk for these diseases....... This work was performed in the process of updating the fourth edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations from 2004. The literature search was performed in October 2010 covering articles published since January 2000. A complementary search was done in February 2012 covering literature until December...
Impaired fasting or glucose tolerance and/or diabetes can occur with hypertension, which theoretically predicts a worse cardiovascular risk profile, and consequently requires intensive cardiovasular risk management. Objectives. To characterise the frequency of the occurence of conventional cardiovascular risk factors ...
de Winter, C. F.; Bastiaanse, L. P.; Hilgenkamp, T. I. M.; Evenhuis, H. M.; Echteld, M. A.
Hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and the metabolic syndrome are important risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). In older people with intellectual disability (ID), CVD is a substantial morbidity risk. The aims of the present study, which was part of the Healthy Ageing in Intellectual Disability (HA-ID) study, were (1) to…
Lafitte, Marianne; Barandon, Laurent; Pucheu, Yann; Pillois, Xavier; Gin, Henri; Bonnet, Jacques; Couffinhal, Thierry
Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) is associated with a high risk of cardiovascular events after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The impact of suboptimal risk-factor control and drug prescription on morbidity and mortality rates in patients with PVD following an ACS remains to be established. To assess whether a global atherosclerosis management programme and optimal secondary prevention could benefit high-risk PVD patients after an ACS. A total of 851 ACS patients underwent an intensified intervention focusing on evaluating risk factors and atherosclerosis lesions, and on optimizing treatment and education. We compared its impact on long-term risk factors, medication observance and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) alone (n=715, 84.0%) and with both CAD and PVD (n=136). At a median follow-up of 18.6months, both groups reached recommended secondary prevention goals and showed no significant differences in rates of drug prescription. PVD was not associated with minor cardiovascular events (hazard ratio [HR] 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.57-3.02) but remained independently associated with major (HR 2.15, 95% CI 1.12-4.13) and total (HR 1.76, 95% CI 1.05-2.93) cardiovascular events. Compared to patients with CAD alone, this risk was significantly higher in CAD patients with both PVD and diabetes (HR 2.87, 95% CI 1.52-5.43), but not in PVD patients without diabetes (HR 1.35, 95% CI 0.71-2.56) or diabetic patients without PVD (HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.68-1.81). Despite optimization of risk-factor control and drug prescription after ACS, patients with both PVD and diabetes carry a 2.9-fold higher risk of cardiovascular events at 18-month follow-up versus patients with CAD alone. This excess risk was not significant in PVD patients without diabetes or in diabetic patients without PVD.
Berry, Jarett D.; Dyer, Alan; Cai, Xuan; Garside, Daniel B.; Ning, Hongyan; Thomas, Avis; Greenland, Philip; Van Horn, Linda; Tracy, Russell P.; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.
BACKGROUND The lifetime risks of cardiovascular disease have not been reported across the age spectrum in black adults and white adults. METHODS We conducted a meta-analysis at the individual level using data from 18 cohort studies involving a total of 257,384 black men and women and white men and women whose risk factors for cardiovascular disease were measured at the ages of 45, 55, 65, and 75 years. Blood pressure, cholesterol level, smoking status, and diabetes status were used to stratify participants according to risk factors into five mutually exclusive categories. The remaining lifetime risks of cardiovascular events were estimated for participants in each category at each age, with death free of cardiovascular disease treated as a competing event. RESULTS We observed marked differences in the lifetime risks of cardiovascular disease across risk-factor strata. Among participants who were 55 years of age, those with an optimal risk-factor profile (total cholesterol level, risks of death from cardiovascular disease through the age of 80 years than participants with two or more major risk factors (4.7% vs. 29.6% among men, 6.4% vs. 20.5% among women). Those with an optimal risk-factor profile also had lower lifetime risks of fatal coronary heart disease or nonfatal myocardial infarction (3.6% vs. 37.5% among men, risk-factor strata were observed among blacks and whites and across diverse birth cohorts. CONCLUSIONS Differences in risk-factor burden translate into marked differences in the lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease, and these differences are consistent across race and birth cohorts. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.) PMID:22276822
Aryal, M; Poudel, A; Satyal, B; Gyawali, P; Pokharel, B R; Raut, B K; Adhikari, R K; Koju, R
Cardiovascular disease (CVD), is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes and have approximately--two to four times higher CVD rate than adult without diabetes. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is primarily used as the marker of cardiovascular risk in diabetes despite its several limitations. Although several newer markers of CVD are emerging, no marker has been established in Nepal. The study was designed to evaluate the non-high-density-lipoprotein- cholesterol(Non-HDL-C) and Total Cholesterol to High density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC:HDL-C ratio) as CVD risk marker in diabetes mellitus. The study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry, Kathmandu University School of Medical Sciences. The study comprised of 76 diabetic subjects and 60 non-diabetic subjects. The anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured. The Non-HDL-C and TC:HDL-C ratio were also calculated employing their respective formula. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), blood pressure and lipid parameters were significantly different between diabetic subjects and non-diabetic subjects. There was increased non-HDL-C and TC:HDL-C ratio in subjects with diabetes mellitus. Furthermore, statistically significant correlations of non-HDL-C and TC:HDL-C ratio were obtained with BMI, WC, total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C in diabetic subjects. The present study observation revealed that the Non-HDL-C and TC: HDL-C strongly correlate with established independent risk factors such as obesity(WC), elevated blood pressure, HDL-C and LDL-C in diabetes. Thus, the evaluation of Non-HDL-C and TC: HDL-C ratio can be used as the simple, cost-effective and cumulative marker of cardiovascular risk in diabetes mellitus.
Full Text Available Background: There are few reports regarding the effect of long-term soy protein consumption among type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy. This study was conducted to elucidate the effects of soy consumption for a long period of time on cardiovascular risks, C-reactive protein (CRP and kidney function indexes among type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy. Materials & Methods: This long-term randomized clinical trial was conducted among 41 type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy (18 men and 23 women. Twenty patients in the soy protein group consumed a diet containing 0.8 g protein/kg body weight (35% animal proteins, 35% textured soy protein, and 30% vegetable proteins and 21 patients in the control group consumed a similar diet containing 70% animal proteins and 30% vegetable proteins for 4 years. Results: Soy protein consumption significantly improved cardiovascular risks such as fasting plasma glucose (mean change in the soy protein versus control groups: −18 ± 3 vs. 11 ± 2 mg/dl; P = 0.03, total cholesterol (−23 ± 5 vs. 10 ± 3 mg/dl; P = 0.01, LDL cholesterol (−20 ± 5 vs. 6 ± 2 mg/dl; P = 0.01, triglyceride (−24 ± 6 vs. −5 ± 2 mg/dl; P = 0.01 and serum CRP (1.31 ± 0.6 vs. 0.33 ± 0.1 mg/l; P = 0.02 concentrations. Significant reductions were also seen in proteinuria (−0.15 ± 0.03 vs. 0.02 ± 0.01 g/day; P = 0.001 and urinary creatinine (−1.5 ± 0.9 vs. 0.6 ± 0.3 mg/dl, P = 0.01 by consumption of soy protein. Conclusion: Long-term soy protein consumption has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors and kidney-related biomarkers among type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy
Momin, A A; Bankar, M P; Bhoite, G M
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a genetically heterogeneous condition, characterized by insulin deficiency and/or insulin resistance. The etiology of type 2 diabetes is complex, with involvement of genetic and environmental factors. The adipose tissue protein 'adiponectin' is known to increase insulin sensitivity with decreased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The gene for adiponectin is present on chromosome 3q27, the association of number of single nucleotide polymorphisms of adiponectin gene with type 2 diabetes and its complications have been reported. In the present study the two most common SNPs +45T/G & +276G/T, and their association with type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular markers were studied. The significant difference in genotype frequencies of +45T/G & +276G/T was found in type 2 diabetic patients and controls, with odds ratio of 1.13 & 1.26 respectively. BMI, Fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, HOMA IR, triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels were increased, and HDL cholesterol level was decreased in patients carrier for +45T/G SNP than the wild type. While only decrease in the HDL cholesterol was reported in carriers for SNP +276G/T than the wild type. The logistic regression analysis revealed the positive association of SNP +45T/G with total cholesterol & LDL cholesterol. And negative association of HDL cholesterol was found with SNPs +45T/G and +276G/T. The haplotype analysis shows the alterations in means of biochemical markers in the patients having haplotype (GG) for mutant allele of SNP +45T/G and wild allele for SNP +276G/T.
Microalbuminuria was originally considered to be an important new risk factor for diabetic nephropathy. More recently, it has been convincingly shown that microalbuminuria is also an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic patients. Even...... in the non-diabetic background population, microalbuminuria is a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. What is the link between increased loss of albumin in urine and cardiovascular disease and mortality? As microalbuminuria is apparently associated with increased universal vascular sieving of albumin...
Mazón-Ramos, Pilar; Cordero, Alberto; González-Juanatey, José Ramón; Bertomeu Martínez, Vicente; Delgado, Elías; Vitale, Gustavo; Fernández-Anaya, Silvia
Patients with type 2 diabetes and revascularized coronary disease are a group with very high cardiovascular risk that has been rarely studied. This ICP-Bypass substudy analyzes the clinical characteristics and risk factor control of these patients. The analysis selected patients with type 2 diabetes who had participated in an earlier multicenter, observational, cross-sectional study (ICP-Bypass) conducted in 2293 patients > 18 years of age who had undergone coronary surgery or percutaneous coronary intervention. Demographic and therapeutic variables, as well as clinical and analytical parameters, were collected and comparatively analyzed. The mean age (standard deviation) of the 771 diabetic patients included in the analysis was 67.7 (9.6) years (71.4% men; mean time since revascularization, 3.5 years). Most (57.8%) were receiving treatment with oral hypoglycemics alone, whereas 30.4% were receiving insulin alone or in combination. The mean glycohemoglobin figure was 7.1% (in 70%, 70 mg/dL). Among these patients, 93.6% were receiving statins and 18.7% a statin combined with ezetimib. A total of 78.1% had been diagnosed with hypertension; systolic/diastolic blood pressure was 7.5% should be individually assessed in terms of glycemic targets. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Li, Tricia Y; Brennan, Aoife M; Wedick, Nicole M; Mantzoros, Christos; Rifai, Nader; Hu, Frank B
Higher nut consumption has been associated with lower risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) events in several epidemiologic studies. The study examined the association between intake of nuts and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a cohort of women with type 2 diabetes. For the primary analysis, there were 6309 women with type 2 diabetes who completed a validated FFQ every 2-4 y between 1980 and 2002 and were without CVD or cancer at study entry. Major CVD events included incident myocardial infarction (MI), revascularization, and stroke. During 54,656 person-years of follow-up, there were 452 CHD events (including MI and revascularization) and 182 incident stroke cases. Frequent nut and peanut butter consumption was inversely associated with total CVD risk in age-adjusted analyses. After adjustment for conventional CVD risk factors, consumption of at least 5 servings/wk of nuts or peanut butter [serving size, 28 g (1 ounce) for nuts and 16 g (1 tablespoon) for peanut butter] was significantly associated with a lower risk of CVD (relative risk = 0.56; 95% CI: 0.36-0.89). Furthermore, when we evaluated plasma lipid and inflammatory biomarkers, we observed that increasing nut consumption was significantly associated with a more favorable plasma lipid profile, including lower LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, and apolipoprotein-B-100 concentrations. However, we did not observe significant associations for HDL cholesterol or inflammatory markers. These data suggest that frequent nut and peanut butter consumption is associated with a significantly lower CVD risk in women with type 2 diabetes.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 2 diabetes (T2D is strongly associated with cardiovascular risk and requires medications that improve glycemic control and other cardiovascular risk factors. The authors aimed to assess the relative effectiveness of pioglitazone (Pio, metformin (Met and any sulfonylurea (SU combinations in non-insulin-treated T2D patients who were failing previous hypoglycemic therapy. Methods Over a 1-year period, two multicenter, open-labeled, controlled, 1-year, prospective, observational studies evaluated patients with T2D (n = 4585 from routine clinical practice in Spain and Greece with the same protocol. Patients were eligible if they had been prescribed Pio + SU, Pio + Met or SU + Met serving as a control cohort, once they had failed with previous therapy. Anthropometric measurements, lipid and glycemic profiles, blood pressure, and the proportions of patients at microvascular and macrovascular risk were assessed. Results All study treatment combinations rendered progressive 6-month and 12-month lipid, glycemic, and blood pressure improvements. Pio combinations, especially Pio + Met, were associated with increases in HDL-cholesterol and decreases in triglycerides and in the atherogenic index of plasma. The proportion of patients at high risk decreased after 12 months in all study cohorts. Minor weight changes (gain or loss and no treatment-related fractures occurred during the study. The safety profile was good and proved similar among treatments, except for more hypoglycemic episodes in patients receiving SU and for the occurrence of edema in patients using Pio combinations. Serious cardiovascular events were rarely reported. Conclusions In patients with T2D failing prior hypoglycemic therapies, Pio combinations with SU or Met (especially Pio + Met improved blood lipid and glycemic profiles, decreasing the proportion of patients with a high microvascular or macrovascular risk. The combination of Pio with SU or Met may therefore
Davis, Stephen N; Perkins, Jennifer M
To review the role of the endogenous cannabinoid system (ECS) in the peripheral and central regulation of food intake, appetite, and energy storage and discuss the potential for the ECS to be an important target for lowering cardiovascular risk. Materials used for this article were identified through a MEDLINE search of the pertinent literature (1975 to present), including English-language randomized controlled, prospective, cohort, review, and observational studies. We summarize the available experimental and clinical data. The ECS is composed of two 7-transmembrane G protein-coupled cannabinoid receptor subtypes, CB1 and CB2, endogenous cannabinoid ligands (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol), and the enzymes that synthesize and break down the ligands. Understanding the role of the ECS in central and peripheral metabolic processes related to the regulation of food intake and energy balance as well as the endocrine role of excess adipose tissue, particularly visceral adipose tissue, and its promotion of global cardiometabolic risk has led to the development of pharmacologic agents with potential for blockade of CB1 receptors. In several studies, rimonabant (20 mg daily) demonstrated a favorable effect on various risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including dyslipidemia, abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, blood pressure, and measures of inflammation. The ECS has been shown to have a key role in the regulation of energy balance, and modulation of this system may affect multiple cardiometabolic risk factors. Clinical studies involving pharmacologic blockade of CB1 receptors in overweight patients with and without type 2 diabetes have demonstrated effective weight loss and improvements in several risk factors for cardiovascular disease.
Bots, Sophie H; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Nathoe, Hendrik M W; de Borst, Gert Jan; Kappelle, Jaap L; Visseren, Frank L J; Westerink, Jan
Strict glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes has proven to have microvascular benefits while the effects on CVD and mortality are less clear, especially in high risk patients. Whether strict glycaemic control would reduce the risk of future CVD or mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes and pre-existing CVD, is unknown. This study aims to evaluate whether the relation between baseline HbA1c and new cardiovascular events or mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes and pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD) is modified by baseline vascular risk. A cohort of 1096 patients with type 2 diabetes and CVD from the Second Manifestations of ARTerial Disease (SMART) study was followed. The relation between HbA1c at baseline and future vascular events (composite of myocardial infarction, stroke and vascular mortality) and all-cause mortality was evaluated with Cox proportional hazard analyses in a population that was stratified for baseline risk for vascular events as calculated with the SMART risk score. The mean follow-up duration was 6.9 years for all-cause mortality and 6.4 years for vascular events, in which period 243 and 223 cases were reported, respectively. A 1 % increase in HbA1c was associated with a higher risk for all-cause mortality (HR 1.18, 95 % CI 1.06-1.31). This association was also found in the highest SMART risk quartile (HR 1.33, 95 % CI 1.11-1.60). There was no relation between HbA1c and the occurrence of cardiovascular events during follow-up (HR 1.03, 95 % CI 0.91-1.16). The interaction term between HbA1c and SMART risk score was not significantly related to any of the outcomes. In patients with type 2 diabetes and CVD, HbA1c is related to the risk of all-cause mortality, but not to the risk of cardiovascular events. The relation between HbA1c and all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes and vascular disease is not dependent on baseline vascular risk.
Full Text Available The systematic use of aspirin and statins in patients with diabetes and no previous cardiovascular events is controversial. We sought to assess the effects of aspirin and statins on the thrombotic risk assessed by thrombin generation (TG among patients with type II diabetes mellitus and no previous cardiovascular events.Prospective, randomized, open, blinded to events evaluation, controlled, 2×2 factorial clinical trial including 30 patients randomly allocated to aspirin 100 mg/d, atorvastatin 40 mg/d, both or none. Outcome measurements included changes in TG levels after treatment (8 to 10 weeks, assessed by a calibrated automated thrombogram. At baseline all groups had similar clinical and biochemical profiles, including TG levels. There was no interaction between aspirin and atorvastatin. Atorvastatin significantly reduced TG measured as peak TG with saline (85.09±55.34 nmol vs 153.26±75.55 nmol for atorvastatin and control groups, respectively; p = 0.018. On the other hand, aspirin had no effect on TG (121.51±81.83 nmol vs 116.85±67.66 nmol, for aspirin and control groups, respectively; p = 0.716. The effects of treatments on measurements of TG using other agonists were consistent.While waiting for data from ongoing large clinical randomized trials to definitively outline the role of aspirin in primary prevention, our study shows that among diabetic patients without previous vascular events, statins but not aspirin reduce thrombotic risk assessed by TG.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00793754.
Palomo Atance, E; Giralt Muiña, P; Ballester Herrera, M J; Ruiz Cano, R; León Martín, A; Giralt Muiña, J
To establish the prevalence of overweight-obesity and metabolic syndrome in a group of paediatric patients with type 1 diabetes (DM1), and to determine the effects on the lipoprotein profile and metabolic control. A group of 115 patients (5-16 years) with DM1, and on intensive insulin therapy was studied. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), blood pressure (BP), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-c) and triglycerides (TG) were measured. The results were stratified by sex and age (obesity (according to Hernández's reference values) was 28.69% and 18.26%, respectively, with female predominance in both cases. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (according to the International Diabetes Federation criteria) was 3.22%. 3.47% The WC adjusted for age and sex was > 90th percentile in 3.47% of cases, and 2.6% had a systolic BP ≥ 130 mmHg and/or a diastolic BP ≥ 85 mmHg. An HDL-c Obese patients had lower HDL-c levels and higher LDL-c levels than non-obese subjects. There were no significant differences in HbA1c between patients with overweight-obesity and the rest. Overweight and obesity are common in paediatric patients with DM1. Nevertheless, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors is lower than in adult patients. The group of diabetic children with obesity had a lipoprotein profile of cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Yamaguchi, A; Knoblovits, P
We present a 45-year-old patient with Klinefelter syndrome, with a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, dyslipidemia, obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome and masked arterial hypertension. The purpose of this presentation is to draw attention to the increased cardiovascular risk in these patients and to review the data in the literature on this risk. Copyright © 2018 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Cedillo, Maribel; Libman, Ingrid M; Arena, Vincent C; Zhou, Lei; Trucco, Massimo; Ize-Ludlow, Diego; Pietropaolo, Massimo; Becker, Dorothy J
The current increase in childhood type 1 diabetes (T1D) and obesity has led to two conflicting hypotheses and conflicting reports regarding the effects of overweight on initiation and spreading of islet cell autoimmunity vs earlier clinical manifestation of preexisting autoimmune β-cell damage driven by excess weight. The objective of the study was to address the question of whether the degree of β-cell autoimmunity and age are related to overweight at diabetes onset in a large cohort of T1D youth. This was a prospective cross-sectional study of youth with autoimmune T1D consecutively recruited at diabetes onset. The study was conducted at a regional academic pediatric diabetes center. Two hundred sixty-three consecutive children younger than 19 years at onset of T1D participated in the study. Relationships between body mass index and central obesity (waist circumference and waist to height ratio) and antigen spreading (islet cell autoantibody number), age, and cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors examined at onset and/or 3 months after the diagnosis were measured. There were no significant associations between number of autoantibodies with measures of adiposity. Age relationships revealed that a greater proportion of those with central obesity (21%) were in the youngest age group (0-4 y) compared with those without central obesity (6%) (P = .001). PATIENTS with central obesity had increased CVD risk factors and higher onset C-peptide levels (P obesity accelerates progression of autoantibody spreading once autoimmunity, marked by standard islet cell autoantibody assays, is present. Central obesity was present in almost one-third of the subjects and was associated with early CVD risk markers already at onset.
Peng, Chiung-Huei; Yang, Yi-Sun; Chan, Kuei-Chuan; Kornelius, Edy; Chiou, Jeng-Yuan; Huang, Chien-Ning
Objective Periodontal disease may predispose individuals to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Diabetes mellitus, especially in patients with severe periodontitis, increases the risk of CVD mortality. However, the outcomes of periodontal therapy vary among the different treatment modalities. We aim to investigate whether periodontal treatment could influence the occurrence of CVD in patients with type 2 diabetes and periodontal problems. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted based on a dataset released by Taiwan National Health Insurance (NHI). The dataset was composed of randomly sampled, newly diagnosed diabetic patients who received insurance benefits from 1999 to 2001; patients who were younger than 18 years of age or who already had CVD before 1999 were excluded. The NHI code was used to identify the treatments, including subgingival curettage and flap operations. The patients' demographic variables were matched using a 1:4 propensity score. All of the subjects were followed up until the onset of CVD, or December 31, 2011. A Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to evaluate the effects of periodontal treatment on the rates of myocardial infarction, heart failure and stroke. Results Three thousand thirty-nine and 12,156 diabetic subjects were classified into the advanced periodontal treatment group and the non-advanced periodontal treatment group, respectively. The Cox proportional hazards analysis revealed that although the overall incidence of CVD was not significantly improved (Hazard ratio, HR 0.95; 95% CI 0.90-1.01), advanced periodontal treatment reduced the rates of myocardial infarction (HR 0.92; 95% CI 0.85-0.99) and heart failure (HR 0.60; 95% CI 0.45-0.80). There was no significance difference in the incidence of stroke (HR 0.95; 95% CI 0.85-1.06). Conclusion Advanced periodontal therapy lowers the rate of CVD, especially myocardial infarction and heart failure. Dental management has a beneficial effect on the health of
Cardoso, Claudia Rl; Maia, Maicon Dl; de Oliveira, Fátima P; Leite, Nathalie C; Salles, Gil F
Novel cardiovascular risk markers, such as ambulatory blood pressure (BP) and aortic stiffness, have been proposed. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between physical fitness and some of these risk markers in 575 type 2 diabetic patients. In a cross-sectional design, clinical, laboratory, echocardiographic, aortic pulse wave velocity and 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring data were obtained. Fitness was self-reported using a standard questionnaire of daily activities, and then assessed as belonging to one of the three categories: low (fitness (≤ 7 METs). In a random sub-sample of 265 patients, self-reported fitness was confirmed by a standard treadmill test. Statistical analysis was carried out, using tests including bivariate tests among the three categories and multivariate logistic regression. Agreement between self-reported and measured fitness was substantial (weighted κ: 0.63). High fitness patients were younger, frequently male, had a decreased prevalence of degenerative complications, lower office and ambulatory BP levels, particularly during the night and had an increased prevalence of the normal nocturnal dipping pattern. High fitness patients also had lower hemoglobin A1c and C-reactive protein levels, a decreased prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy and increased aortic stiffness. On multiple logistic regression, after adjustments for several confounders, high fitness was independently associated with a higher likelihood of having low C-reactive protein (odds ratio (OR): 2.3, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3-3.9), controlled nighttime BP (OR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.4-3.8), normal dipping pattern (OR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.2-3.5) and low aortic stiffness (OR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.3-4.8). Patients with moderate fitness had intermediate OR. In conclusion, a moderate to high level of physical fitness was independently associated with several favorable intermediate cardiovascular risk markers, which may contribute to decreasing the burden of morbi
Al-Salameh, Abdallah; Bucher, Sophie; Bauduceau, Bernard; Benattar-Zibi, Linda; Berrut, Gilles; Bertin, Philippe; Corruble, Emmanuelle; Danchin, Nicolas; Derumeaux, Geneviève; Doucet, Jean; Falissard, Bruno; Forette, Françoise; Hanon, Olivier; Ourabah, Rissane; Pasquier, Florence; Pinget, Michel; Ringa, Virginie; Becquemont, Laurent
The aim of this study was to estimate the association between gender and control of diabetes and other cardiovascular risk factors in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The sujets âgés cohort is an observational study whose main objective was to describe the real-life management of elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in France. Nine hundred eighty-three patients with diabetes (517 men and 466 women) were recruited by 213 general practitioners and were followed up prospectively every 6 months for 3 years. Diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia were considered controlled if the glycated hemoglobin (A1C) was ≤7%, blood pressure was diabetes mellitus and their male counterparts, except for LDL cholesterol, which is significantly higher in women. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shona J Livingstone
Full Text Available Randomized controlled trials have shown the importance of tight glucose control in type 1 diabetes (T1DM, but few recent studies have evaluated the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD and all-cause mortality among adults with T1DM. We evaluated these risks in adults with T1DM compared with the non-diabetic population in a nationwide study from Scotland and examined control of CVD risk factors in those with T1DM.The Scottish Care Information-Diabetes Collaboration database was used to identify all people registered with T1DM and aged ≥20 years in 2005-2007 and to provide risk factor data. Major CVD events and deaths were obtained from the national hospital admissions database and death register. The age-adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR for CVD and mortality in T1DM (n = 21,789 versus the non-diabetic population (3.96 million was estimated using Poisson regression. The age-adjusted IRR for first CVD event associated with T1DM versus the non-diabetic population was higher in women (3.0: 95% CI 2.4-3.8, p<0.001 than men (2.3: 2.0-2.7, p<0.001 while the IRR for all-cause mortality associated with T1DM was comparable at 2.6 (2.2-3.0, p<0.001 in men and 2.7 (2.2-3.4, p<0.001 in women. Between 2005-2007, among individuals with T1DM, 34 of 123 deaths among 10,173 who were <40 years and 37 of 907 deaths among 12,739 who were ≥40 years had an underlying cause of death of coma or diabetic ketoacidosis. Among individuals 60-69 years, approximately three extra deaths per 100 per year occurred among men with T1DM (28.51/1,000 person years at risk, and two per 100 per year for women (17.99/1,000 person years at risk. 28% of those with T1DM were current smokers, 13% achieved target HbA(1c of <7% and 37% had very poor (≥9% glycaemic control. Among those aged ≥40, 37% had blood pressures above even conservative targets (≥140/90 mmHg and 39% of those ≥40 years were not on a statin. Although many of these risk factors were comparable to those
Gejl, Michael; Starup-Linde, Jakob; Scheel-Thomsen, Jan
AIMS: Type 2 diabetes (DM) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effects of antidiabetic drugs on the composite endpoint (CE) of ischemic heart disease, heart failure or stroke in DM patients. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study. Cases were DM patients who...... subsequently suffered from CE; controls were DM patients with no history of CE after DM diagnosis. Using the Danish National Hospital Discharge Register, we included DM patients with information on date of DM diagnosis, date of CE, and comorbidities. From the Central Region of Jutland, Denmark, medication use......% CI: 16.88-24.12), neuropathy (OR=1.39, 95% CI: 1.05-1.85) and peripheral artery disease (OR=1.31, 95% CI: 1.02-1.69) increased the risk of CE. Biguanides (OR=0.62 95% CI; 0.54-0.71) and liraglutide (OR=0.48 95% CI; 0.38-0.62) significantly decreased the risk of CE as did statin treatment (OR=0.63, 95...
Arnaldi, Giorgio; Mancini, Tatiana; Polenta, Barbara; Boscaro, Marco
Chronic cortisol hypersecretion causes central obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, protrombotic state, manifestations which form a metabolic syndrome in all patients with Cushing's syndrome. These associated abnormalities determine an increased cardiovascular risk not only during the active phase of the disease but also long after the "biomedical remission". Clinical management of these patients should be particularly careful in identifying global cardiovascular risk. Considering that remission from hypercortisolism is often difficult to achieve care and control of all cardiovascular risk factors should be one of the primary goals during the follow up of these patients. Extending the indications of the recent consensus on Cushing's syndrome, we suggest to carry out an OGTT to avoid underestimation of diabetes mellitus, an echocardiography and Doppler ultrasonography of the epiaortic vessels in all patients at diagnosis and during follow-up.
Farzadfar, Farshad; Stevens, Gretchen A.; Woodward, Mark; Wormser, David; Kaptoge, Stephen; Whitlock, Gary; Qiao, Qing; Lewington, Sarah; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; vander Hoorn, Stephen; Lawes, Carlene M. M.; Ali, Mohammed K.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Ezzati, Majid
Background The effects of systolic blood pressure (SBP), serum total cholesterol (TC), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and body mass index (BMI) on the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have been established in epidemiological studies, but consistent estimates of effect sizes by age and sex are not available. Methods We reviewed large cohort pooling projects, evaluating effects of baseline or usual exposure to metabolic risks on ischemic heart disease (IHD), hypertensive heart disease (HHD), stroke, diabetes, and, as relevant selected other CVDs, after adjusting for important confounders. We pooled all data to estimate relative risks (RRs) for each risk factor and examined effect modification by age or other factors, using random effects models. Results Across all risk factors, an average of 123 cohorts provided data on 1.4 million individuals and 52,000 CVD events. Each metabolic risk factor was robustly related to CVD. At the baseline age of 55–64 years, the RR for 10 mmHg higher SBP was largest for HHD (2.16; 95% CI 2.09–2.24), followed by effects on both stroke subtypes (1.66; 1.39–1.98 for hemorrhagic stroke and 1.63; 1.57–1.69 for ischemic stroke). In the same age group, RRs for 1 mmol/L higher TC were 1.44 (1.29–1.61) for IHD and 1.20 (1.15–1.25) for ischemic stroke. The RRs for 5 kg/m2 higher BMI for ages 55–64 ranged from 2.32 (2.04–2.63) for diabetes, to 1.44 (1.40–1.48) for IHD. For 1 mmol/L higher FPG, RRs in this age group were 1.18 (1.08–1.29) for IHD and 1.14 (1.01–1.29) for total stroke. For all risk factors, proportional effects declined with age, were generally consistent by sex, and differed by region in only a few age groups for certain risk factor-disease pairs. Conclusion Our results provide robust, comparable and precise estimates of the effects of major metabolic risk factors on CVD and diabetes by age group. PMID:23935815
Gant, Christina M.; Binnenmars, S. Heleen; van den Berg, Else; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Navis, Gerjan; Laverman, Gozewijn D.
Cardiovascular risk management is an integral part of treatment in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), and requires pharmacological as well as nutritional management. We hypothesize that a systematic assessment of both pharmacological and nutritional management can identify targets for the improvement
Achhra, A. C.; Mocroft, A.; Reiss, P.; Sabin, C.; Ryom, L.; de Wit, S.; Smith, C. J.; d'Arminio Monforte, A.; Phillips, A.; Weber, R.; Lundgren, J.; Law, M. G.; Powderly, B.; Shortman, N.; Moecklinghoff, C.; Reilly, G.; Franquet, X.; Hatleberg, C. I.; Sabin, C. A.; Kamara, D.; Smith, C.; Bojesen, A.; Nielsen, J.; Raben, D.; Lundgren, J. D.; Salbøl Brandt, R.; Rickenbach, M.; Fanti, I.; Krum, E.; Hillebregt, M.; Geffard, S.; Sundström, A.; Delforge, M.; Fontas, E.; Torres, F.; McManus, H.; Wright, S.; Kjær, J.; Sjøl, A.; Meidahl, P.; Helweg-Larsen, J.; Schmidt Iversen, J.; Kirk, O.; Ross, M.; Fux, C. A.; Morlat, P.; Moranne, O.; Kesselring, A. M.; Kamara, D. A.; Pradier, C.; Friis-Møller, N.; Kowalska, J.; Law, M.; Dabis, F.; Bruyand, M.; Bower, M.; Fätkenheuer, G.; Donald, A.; Grulich, A.; Zaheri, S.; Gras, L.; Prins, J. M.; Kuijpers, T. W.; Scherpbier, H. J.; van der Meer, J. T. M.; Wit, F. W. M. N.; Godfried, M. H.; van der Poll, T.; Nellen, F. J. B.; Lange, J. M. A.; Geerlings, S. E.; van Vugt, M.; Pajkrt, D.; Bos, J. C.; van der Valk, M.; Grijsen, M. L.; Wiersinga, W. J.; Goorhuis, A.; Hovius, J. W. R.; Lowe, S.; Oude Lashof, A.; Posthouwer, D.; Pronk, J. H.; Ammerlaan, H. S. M.; van der Ende, M. E.; de Vries-Sluijs, T. E. M. S.; Schurink, C. A. M.; Nouwen, J. L.; Verbon, A.; Rijnders, B. J. A.; van Gorp, E. C. M.; van der Feltz, M.; Driessen, G. J. A.; van Rossum, A. M. C.; Branger, J.; Haag, Den; Schippers, E. F.; van Nieuwkoop, C.; van Elzakker, E. P.; Groeneveld, P. H. P.; Bouwhuis, J. W.; Soetekouw, R.; ten Kate, R. W.; Kroon, F. P.; van Dissel, J. T.; Arend, S. M.; de Boer, M. G. J.; Jolink, H.; ter Vollaard, H. J. M.; Bauer, M. P.; den Hollander, J. G.; Pogany, K.; van Twillert, G.; Kortmann, W.; Cohen Stuart, J. W. T.; Diederen, B. M. W.; Leyten, E. M. S.; Gelinck, L. B. S.; Kootstra, G. J.; Delsing, C. E.; Brinkman, K.; Blok, W. L.; Frissen, P. H. J.; Schouten, W. E. M.; van den Berk, G. E. L.; van Kasteren, M. E. E.; Brouwer, A. E.; Veenstra, J.; Lettinga, K. D.; Mulder, J. W.; Vrouenraets, S. M. E.; Lauw, F. N.; van Eeden, A.; Verhagen, D. W. M.; Sprenger, H. G.; Doedens, R.; Scholvinck, E. H.; van Assen, S.; Bierman, W. F. W.; Koopmans, P. P.; Keuter, M.; van der Ven, A. J. A. M.; ter Hofstede, H. J. M.; Dofferhoff, A. S. M.; Warris, A.; van Crevel, R.; Hoepelman, A. I. M.; Mudrikova, T.; Schneider, M. M. E.; Ellerbroek, P. M.; Oosterheert, J. J.; Arends, J. E.; Wassenberg, M. W. M.; Barth, R. E.; van Agtmael, M. A.; Perenboom, R. M.; Claessen, F. A. P.; Bomers, M.; Peters, E. J. G.; Geelen, S. P. M.; Wolfs, T. F. W.; Bont, L. J.; Richter, C.; van der Berg, J. P.; Gisolf, E. H.; van den Berge, M.; Stegeman, A.; van Vonderen, M. G. A.; van Houte, D. P. F.; Weijer, S.; el Moussaoui, R.; Winkel, C.; Muskiet, F.; Durand, N. N.; Voigt, R.; Bonnet, F.; Dupon, M.; Chêne, G.; Breilh, D.; Fleury, H.; Malvy, D.; Mercié, P.; Pellegrin, I.; Neau, D.; Pellegrin, J. L.; Bouchet, S.; Gaborieau, V.; Lacoste, D.; Tchamgoué, S.; Thiébaut, R.; Lawson-Ayayi, S.; Wittkop, L.; Bernard, N.; Hessamfar, M.; Vandenhende, M. A.; Dauchy, F. A.; Dutronc, H.; Longy-Boursier, M.; Duffau, P.; Roger Schmeltz, J.; Pistone, T.; Receveur, M. C.; Cazanave, C.; Ochoa, A.; Vareil, M. O.; Viallard, J. F.; Greib, C.; Lazaro, E.; Lafon, M. E.; Reigadas, S.; Trimoulet, P.; Molimard, M.; Titier, K.; Moreau, J. F.; Haramburu, F.; Miremont-Salamé, G.; Dupont, A.; Gerard, Y.; Caunègre, L.; André, K.; Bonnal, F.; Farbos, S.; Gemain, M. C.; Ceccaldi, J.; de Witte, S.; Courtault, C.; Monlun, E.; Lataste, P.; Meraud, J. P.; Chossat, I.; Blaizeau, M. J.; Conte, V.; Decoin, M.; Delaune, J.; Delveaux, S.; Diarra, F.; D'Ivernois, C.; Frosch, A.; Hannapier, C.; Lenaud, E.; Leleux, O.; Le Marec, F.; Leray, J.; Louis, I.; Palmer, G.; Pougetoux, A.; Sicard, X.; Touchard, D.; Uwamaliya-Nziyumvira, B.; Petoumenos, K.; Bendall, C.; Moore, R.; Edwards, S.; Hoy, J.; Watson, K.; Roth, N.; Nicholson, J.; Bloch, M.; Franic, T.; Baker, D.; Vale, R.; Carr, A.; Cooper, D.; Chuah, J.; Ngieng, M.; Nolan, D.; Skett, J.; Calvo, G.; Mateu, S.; Domingo, P.; Sambeat, M. A.; Gatell, J.; del Cacho, E.; Cadafalch, J.; Fuster, M.; Codina, C.; Sirera, G.; Vaqué, A.; Necsoi, C.; Clumeck, N.; Gennotte, A. F.; Gerard, M.; Kabeya, K.; Konopnicki, D.; Libois, A.; Martin, C.; Payen, M. C.; Semaille, P.; van Laethem, Y.; Neaton, J.; Bartsch, G.; El-Sadr, W. M.; Thompson, G.; Wentworth, D.; Luskin-Hawk, R.; Telzak, E.; Abrams, D. I.; Cohn, D.; Markowitz, N.; Arduino, R.; Mushatt, D.; Friedland, G.; Perez, G.; Tedaldi, E.; Fisher, E.; Gordin, F.; Crane, L. R.; Sampson, J.; Baxter, J.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; Grint, D.; Podlekareva, D.; Peters, L.; Reekie, J.; Tverland, J.; Fischer, A. H.; Losso, M.; Elias, C.; Ramos Mejia, J. M.; Vetter, N.; Zangerle, R.; Karpov, I.; Vassilenko, A.; Mitsura, V. M.; Suetnov, O.; Colebunders, R.; Vandekerckhove, L.; Hadziosmanovic, V.; Kostov, K.; Begovac, J.; Machala, L.; Jilich, D.; Sedlacek, D.; Kronborg, G.; Benfield, T.; Larsen, M.; Gerstoft, J.; Katzenstein, T.; Hansen, A.-B. E.; Skinhøj, P.; Pedersen, C.; Ostergaard, L.; Zilmer, K.; Smidt, Jelena; Ristola, M.; Katlama, C.; Viard, J.-P.; Livrozet, J. M.; Vanhems, P.; Rockstroh, J.; Schmidt, R.; van Lunzen, J.; Degen, O.; Stellbrink, H. J.; Staszewski, S.; Goethe, J. W.; Bickel, M.; Kosmidis, J.; Gargalianos, P.; Xylomenos, G.; Perdios, J.; Panos, G.; Filandras, A.; Karabatsaki, E.; Sambatakou, H.; Banhegyi, D.; Mulcahy, F.; Yust, I.; Turner, D.; Burke, M.; Pollack, S.; Hassoun, G.; Maayan, S.; Vella, S.; Esposito, R.; Mazeu, I.; Mussini, C.; Arici, C.; Pristera, R.; Mazzotta, F.; Gabbuti, A.; Vullo, V.; Lichtner, M.; Chirianni, A.; Montesarchio, E.; Gargiulo, M.; Antonucci, G.; Testa, A.; Narciso, P.; Vlassi, C.; Zaccarelli, M.; Lazzarin, A.; Castagna, A.; Gianotti, N.; Galli, M.; Ridolfo, A.; Sacco, L.; Rozentale, B.; Zeltina, I.; Chaplinskas, S.; Hemmer, R.; Staub, T.; Ormaasen, V.; Maeland, A.; Bruun, J.; Knysz, B.; Gasiorowski, J.; Horban, A.; Bakowska, E.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Flisiak, R.; Boron-Kaczmarska, A.; Pynka, M.; Parczewski, M.; Beniowski, M.; Mularska, E.; Trocha, H.; Jablonowska, E.; Malolepsza, E.; Wojcik, K.; Antunes, F.; Doroana, M.; Caldeira, L.; Mansinho, K.; Maltez, F.; Duiculescu, D.; Rakhmanova, A.; Zakharova, N.; Jevtovic, D.; Mokráš, M.; Staneková, D.; Tomazic, J.; González-Lahoz, J.; Soriano, V.; Labarga, P.; Medrano, J.; Moreno, S.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Clotet, B.; Jou, A.; Paredes, R.; Tural, C.; Puig, J.; Bravo, I.; Gatell, J. M.; Miró, J. M.; Gutierrez, M.; Mateo, G.; Karlsson, A.; Flamholc, L.; Ledergerber, B.; Francioli, P.; Cavassini, M.; Hirschel, B.; Boffi, E.; Furrer, H.; Battegay, M.; Elzi, L.; Kravchenko, E.; Chentsova, N.; Frolov, V.; Kutsyna, G.; Servitskiy, S.; Krasnov, M.; Barton, S.; Johnson, A. M.; Mercey, D.; Johnson, M. A.; Murphy, M.; Weber, J.; Scullard, G.; Fisher, M.; Leen, C.; Morfeldt, L.; Thulin, G.; Åkerlund, B.; Koppel, K.; Håkangård, C.; Moroni, M.; Angarano, G.; Antinori, A.; Armignacco, O.; Castelli, F.; Cauda, R.; Di Perri, G.; Iardino, R.; Ippolito, G.; Perno, C. F.; von Schloesser, F.; Viale, P.; Ceccherini-Silberstein, F.; Girardi, E.; Lo Caputo, S.; Puoti, M.; Andreoni, M.; Ammassari, A.; d'Arminio, A.; Balotta, C.; Bonfanti, P.; Bonora, S.; Borderi, M.; Capobianchi, R.; Cingolani, A.; Cinque, P.; de Luca, A.; Di Biagio, A.; Gori, A.; Guaraldi, G.; Lapadula, G.; Madeddu, G.; Maggiolo, F.; Marchetti, G.; Marcotullio, S.; Monno, L.; Quiros Roldan, E.; Rusconi, S.; Cicconi, P.; Formenti, T.; Galli, L.; Lorenzini, P.; Santoro, C.; Suardi, C.; Vanino, E.; Verucchi, G.; Minardi, C.; Quirino, T.; Abeli, C.; Manconi, P. E.; Vecchiet, J.; Falasca, K.; Sighinolfi, L.; Segala, D.; Cassola, G.; Viscoli, G.; Alessandrini, A.; Piscopo, R.; Mazzarello, G.; Mastroianni, C.; Belvisi, V.; Caramma, I.; Castelli, A. P.; Rizzardini, G.; Ridolfo, A. L.; Piolini, R.; Salpietro, S.; Carenzi, L.; Moioli, M. C.; Puzzolante, C.; Abrescia, N.; Guida, M. G.; Onofrio, M.; Baldelli, F.; Francisci, D.; Parruti, G.; Ursini, T.; Magnani, G.; Ursitti, M. A.; d'Avino, A.; Gallo, L.; Nicastri, E.; Acinapura, R.; Capozzi, M.; Libertone, R.; Tebano, G.; Cattelan, A.; Mura, M. S.; Caramello, P.; Orofino, G. C.; Sciandra, M.; Pellizzer, G.; Manfrin, V.; Caissotti, C.; Dellamonica, P.; Bernard, E.; Cua, E.; de Salvador-Guillouet, F.; Durant, J.; Ferrando, S.; Mondain-Miton, V.; Naqvi, A.; Perbost, I.; Prouvost-Keller, B.; Pillet, S.; Pugliese, P.; Rahelinirina, V.; Roger, P. M.; Dollet, K.; Aubert, V.; Bernasconi, E.; Böni, J.; Bucher, H. C.; Burton-Jeangros, C.; Calmy, A.; Dollenmaier, G.; Egger, M.; Fehr, J.; Fellay, J.; Gorgievski, M.; Günthard, H.; Haerry, D.; Hasse, B.; Hirsch, H. H.; Hoffmann, M.; Hösli, I.; Kahlert, C.; Kaiser, L.; Keiser, O.; Klimkait, T.; Kouyos, R.; Kovari, H.; Martinetti, G.; Martinez de Tejada, B.; Metzner, K.; Müller, N.; Nadal, D.; Nicca, D.; Pantaleo, G.; Rauch, A.; Regenass, S.; Rudin, C.; Schöni-Affolter, F.; Schmid, P.; Schüpbach, J.; Speck, R.; Tarr, P.; Telenti, A.; Trkola, A.; Vernazza, P.; Yerly, S.
The aim of the study was to assess the impact of the gain in body mass index (BMI) observed immediately after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation on the subsequent risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. We analysed data from the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs
Schoenaker, D.A.J.M.; Toeller, M.; Chaturvedi, N.; Fuller, J.H.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.
Aims/hypothesis - Low adherence to recommendations for dietary saturated fatty acid (SFA) and fibre intake in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus may heighten their increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. We examined the relationship of SFA and total, soluble and insoluble
Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases (CVD remain as the leading cause of mortality in the western world and have become a major health threat for developing countries. There are several risk factors that account for the CVD and the associated mortality. These include genetics, type 2 diabetes (T2DM, obesity, physical inactivity, hypertension, and abnormal lipids and lipoproteins. The constellation of these risk factors has been termed metabolic syndrome (MetS. MetS varies among racial and ethnic populations. Thus, race and ethnicity account for some of the differences in the MetS and the associated CVD and T2DM. Furthermore, the relationships among traditional metabolic parameters and CVD differ, especially when comparing Black and White populations. In this regard, the greater CVD in Blacks than Whites have been partly attributed to other non-traditional CVD risk factors, such as subclinical inflammation (C-reactive protein, homocysteine, increased low-density lipoprotein oxidation, lipoprotein a, adiponectin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, etc. Thus, to understand CVD and T2DM differences in Blacks and Whites with MetS, it is essential to explore the contributions of both traditional and non-traditional CVD and T2DM risk factors in Blacks of African ancestry and Whites of Europoid ancestry. Therefore, in this mini review, we propose that non-traditional risk factors should be integrated in defining MetS as a predictor of CVD and T2DM in Blacks in the African diaspora in future studies.
Full Text Available O Stephen Ogedengbe,1 Ignatius U Ezeani,2 Ijezie I Chukwuonye,3 Ndukaife Anyabolu,4,5 Ikemefuna I Ozor,6 Aihanuwa Eregie1 1Department of Internal Medicine, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, 2Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Federal Medical Center, Umuahia, 3Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Federal Medical Center, Umuahia, 4Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Imo State University Teaching Hospital, Orlu, 5Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, 6Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, NigeriaBackground: The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of coexistence of metabolic syndrome (MS and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM on the estimated cardiovascular risk as calculated using the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetic Study risk engine (UKPDS-RE and also to determine the impact of the coexistence of MS and T2DM on the 10-year risk of developing coronary heart disease and stroke.Methodology: This is a cross-sectional study in which convenience sampling technique was used to recruit 124 consecutive persons with T2DM and 96 controls using a questionnaire administered technique. The World Health Organization (WHO criterion was used to define MS and the UKPDS-RE was used to identify persons with increased risk for stroke and those with increased risk for coronary heart disease. The data obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Statistical comparisons were made with chi-square for comparison of proportions. A P-value of less than 0.05 was taken as statistically significant.Results: Fifteen subjects were identified as having an increased 10-year risk for stroke and ten as having an increased risk for a coronary event. The odds of a T2DM subject with MS having an increased risk for stroke compared with a T2DM subject without MS
Dare, Anna J; Plank, Lindsay D; Phillips, Anthony R J; Gane, Edward J; Harrison, Barry; Orr, David; Jiang, Yannan; Bartlett, Adam S J R
The effects of pretransplant obesity, diabetes mellitus (DM), coronary artery disease (CAD), and hypertension (HTN) on outcomes after liver transplantation (LT) are controversial. Questions have also been raised about the appropriateness of the body mass index (BMI) for assessing obesity in patients with end-stage liver disease. Both issues have implications for organ allocation in LT. To address these questions, we undertook a cohort study of 202 consecutive patients (2000-2010) undergoing LT at a national center in New Zealand. BMI and body fat percentage (%BF) values (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) were measured before transplantation, and the methods were compared. The influence of pretransplant risk variables (including obesity, DM, CAD, and HTN) on the 30-day postoperative event rate, length of hospital stay, and survival were analyzed. There was agreement between the calculated BMI and the measured %BF for 86.0% of the study population (κ coefficient = 0.73, 95% confidence interval = 0.61-0.85), and this was maintained across increasing Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores. Obesity was an independent risk factor for the postoperative event rate [count ratio (CR) = 1.03, P Obesity with concomitant DM was the strongest predictor of the postoperative event rate (CR = 1.75, P risk factors had no effect on 30-day, 1-year, or 5-year patient survival. In conclusion, BMI is an adequate tool for assessing obesity-associated risk in LT. Early post-LT morbidity is highest for patients with concomitant obesity and DM, although these factors do not appear to influence recipient survival. © 2014 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.
Cardiovascular risk assessment in type 2 diabetes mellitus: comparison of the World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension risk prediction charts versus UK Prospective Diabetes Study risk engine.
Herath, Herath M Meththananda; Weerarathna, Thilak Priyantha; Umesha, Dilini
Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at higher risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, and assessment of their cardiac risk is important for preventive strategies. The Ministry of Health of Sri Lanka has recommended World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH) charts for cardiac risk assessment in individuals with T2DM. However, the most suitable cardiac risk assessment tool for Sri Lankans with T2DM has not been studied. This study was designed to evaluate the performance of two cardiac risk assessments tools; WHO/ISH charts and UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) risk engine. Cardiac risk assessments were done in 2,432 patients with T2DM attending a diabetes clinic in Southern Sri Lanka using the two risk assessment tools. Validity of two assessment tools was further assessed by their ability to recognize individuals with raised low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and raised diastolic blood pressure in a cohort of newly diagnosed T2DM patients (n=332). WHO/ISH charts identified 78.4% of subjects as low cardiac risk whereas the UKPDS risk engine categorized 52.3% as low cardiac risk (Pengine identified higher proportions of patients (28%) compared to WHO/ISH charts (7%). Approximately 6% of subjects were classified as low cardiac risk (20%. Agreement between the two tools was poor (κ value =0.144, Pengine. Risk assessment by both assessment tools demonstrated poor sensitivity in identifying those with treatable levels of LDL cholesterol and diastolic blood pressure.
It negates the protective female hormonal advantage in cardiovascular disease so that the risk of cardiovascular death is equal in both sexes in diabetic patients. In type 2 diabetes autonomic dysfunction impairs exercise tolerance, reduces response in heart rate and blood pressure thus blunting the cardiac output in ...
Rathcke, Camilla N; Vestergaard, Henrik
with all-cause as well as cardiovascular mortality. Finally, YKL-40 levels are elevated both in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, known to be at high risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases, when compared to non-diabetic persons. A positive association between elevated circulating YKL...
Kelsall, Helen Louise; Fernando, Palamandadige Harsha Suranga; Gwini, Stella May; Sim, Malcolm Ross
To investigate prevalence of type 2 diabetes (diabetes) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in occupational and industry groups in a large, diverse working population. 500,000 Victorian workers undertook health checks including lifestyle, anthropometric and biomedical cardiovascular risk factor assessment. 5-year diabetes (AUSDRISK) and absolute CVD risk were estimated. High diabetes and CVD risk was increased in many occupational groups and industries relative to managers and Professional/Scientific/Technical Services respectively. Significantly more blue collar workers had high diabetes risk (males prevalence ratio PR 1.19 (95% CI 1.17-1.20); females 1.34 (1.30-1.38)), high CVD risk (males 1.45 (1.37-1.53); females 1.48 (1.17-1.88), and risk factors including smoking (males 2.26 (2.22-2.30); females 2.20 (2.13-2.27), compared with white collar workers. Targeting occupational and industry groups within sustainable workplace programs could assist in reducing chronic diseases, lowering sickness absence and improving productivity.
Full Text Available According to guidelines, diabetic patients with high cardiovascular risk should receive a statin. Despite this consensus, fibrate monotherapy is commonly used in this population. We assessed the frequency and clinical consequences of the use of fibrates for primary prevention in patients with diabetes and high cardiovascular risk.Retrospective cohort study based on nationwide data from the medical and administrative databases of French national health insurance systems (07/01/08-12/31/09 with a follow-up of up to 30 months.Lipid-lowering drug-naive diabetic patients initiating fibrate or statin monotherapy were identified. Patients at high cardiovascular risk were then selected: patients with a diagnosis of diabetes and hypertension, and > 50 (men or 60 (women, but with no history of cardiovascular events. The composite endpoint comprised myocardial infarction, stroke, amputation, or death.Of the 31,652 patients enrolled, 4,058 (12.8% received a fibrate. Age- and gender-adjusted annual event rates were 2.42% (fibrates and 2.21% (statins. The proportionality assumption required for the Cox model was not met for the fibrate/statin variable. A multivariate model including all predictors was therefore calculated by dividing data into two time periods, allowing Hazard Ratios to be calculated before (HR 540 of follow-up. Multivariate analyses showed that fibrates were associated with an increased risk for the endpoint after 540 days: HR 540 = 1.73 (1.28-2.32.Fibrate monotherapy is commonly prescribed in diabetic patients with high cardiovascular risk and is associated with poorer outcomes compared to statin therapy.
James A. Ker
Aug 20, 2014 ... Introduction. Cardiovascular disease remains a major cause of global mortality and morbidity. Atherosclerosis is the main underlying cause in the majority of cardiovascular disease events. Traditional independent risk factors for car diovascular disease include age, abnormal lipid levels, elevated blood ...
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the number one cause for mortality and morbidity around the world. Meanwhile, diabetes mellitus (DM) has become an emerging epidemic, causing 1.5 million deaths in 2012, with 80% occurring in low- and middle-income countries. Substantial evidence has linked both lifestyle and metabolic risk factors to increased risk of CVD and death, with suboptimal diet being the single leading modifiable cause of poor health (Lim. SS, et al, Lancet 2012). Of 20 top individual...
Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Elovainio, Marko; Hakulinen, Christian; Lipsanen, Jari; Kubzansky, Laura D; Hintsanen, Mirka; Savelieva, Kateryna; Serlachius, Anna; Magnussen, Costan G; Sabin, Matthew A; Burgner, David P; Lehtimäki, Terho; Jokinen, Eero; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Mikkilä, Vera; Jula, Antti; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Viikari, Jorma; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Raitakari, Olli; Juonala, Markus
Type 2 diabetes is a public health concern, but psychosocial factors that may protect against the disease are unknown. This study examines whether a positive psychosocial environment in childhood is associated with lower risk for Type 2 diabetes in adulthood or healthier glucose trajectories over the life course, and whether BMI mediates the associations. A cohort of 3,596 Finnish children was followed into adulthood over 32 years. An overall positive psychosocial score, consisting of six subdomains, was measured at study baseline (1980). Relative risk ratios and multilevel growth curve modeling were used to examine associations of the psychosocial score with Type 2 diabetes (2012) and glucose trajectories (1986-2012). The mediating effect by BMI was examined using mediation analysis. The analyses were conducted between June 2015 and January 2016. There was a 21% decrease in the rate of Type 2 diabetes (relative risk ratio, 0.79; 95% CI=0.66, 0.94) for each 1-SD increase in the positive psychosocial score after adjustment for childhood cardiovascular risk factors and dietary behaviors. Adult BMI mediated 52% and weight gain mediated 25% of the association. The growth curve model showed healthier glucose trajectories (age X psychosocial score interaction, b= -0.01; p=0.010) for participants with higher versus lower positive psychosocial score in childhood. Positive psychosocial environment in childhood seems to have beneficial influences on the risk for Type 2 diabetes over the life span. RCTs will be required to see if interventions directed at early-life circumstances are warranted. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
May, O; Arildsen, H; Damsgaard, E M
population in the municipality of Horsens, Denmark, was delineated by the prescription method and a random sample of 120 diabetics aged 40-75 years was recruited. Type 1 diabetes mellitus was registered if fasting C-peptide was below 0.30 nmol L(-1). The E/I ratio was calculated as the mean of the longest R......OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in Type 1 diabetes mellitus in the general population and to assess the relationship between CAN and risk of future coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: The Type 1 diabetes mellitus......%. The E/I ratio was significantly reduced in old age, long duration of diabetes, female gender, high fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, systolic blood pressure and urinary albumin excretion. A high risk of future CHD calculated using the Framingham model was associated with a low E/I ratio (r = -0.39, P...
Full Text Available Background: Different populations have shown various patterns of association between impaired fasting glucose (IFG and body composition parameters and risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD. The current study aimed at investigating the differences between persons with prediabetes and healthy people in terms of CVD risk factors including body composition parameters, blood pressure, and lipid profile in a sample of the Iranian population. Materials and Methods: In a case-control setting, a sample containing 386 (193 prediabetic subjects and 193 normal subjects of the first-degree relatives of diabetic patients aged 35-55 years were investigated. Samples were assessed using glucose tolerance categories. Prediabetes was defined according to the American Diabetes Association (ADA criteria. Body composition parameters, blood pressure, glucose parameters, and lipid profile were measured and compared between the two groups. Results: Prediabetic patients had higher body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, and body fat (BF in comparison to the control group (P < 0.05. In addition, prediabetic subject had a higher intake of energy, carbohydrate, protein, fat, and cholesterol and it seems that these patients had an unhealthy dietary intake (P < 0.05. Fasting blood glucose (FBG (P < 0.001, total cholesterol (P = 0.007, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and triglyceride (P = 0.021 were higher in prediabetic patients (P < 0.05 than in the controls. Conclusion: Both the risk factors of CVD and body composition parameters were different between the prediabetic and normal groups; total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, and FBS were predictors of the risk of prediabetes.
Montagnana, Martina; Fava, Cristiano; Targher, Giovanni; Franchini, Massimo; Danese, Elisa; Bonafini, Sara; De Cata, Angela; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Ruzzenente, Orazio; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Lippi, Giuseppe
A number of clinical studies have demonstrated that leptin concentrations are related to the metabolic disturbances that constitute the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and to diabetes mellitus (DM). To investigate possible determinants of leptin concentrations in a sample of patients at high cardiovascular (CV) risk carrying two or more features of the MetS and to investigate if any difference exist between at risk patients with or without DM. Serum leptin concentrations were measured in 60 consecutive male patients affected by at least two CV risk factors which belong to the National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP/ATP III) definition of MetS: 30 patients affected by type 2 DM (T2DM) and 30 nondiabetic patients (non-T2DM). Nineteen healthy subjects were included in the study as a control group (HC). Leptin was significantly higher in patients carrying two or more features of the MetS compared with HC (P = 0.02). Stratifying MetS patients for DM, we found that leptin level was higher in non-T2DM patients (7.8 ng/ml), intermediate in T2DM (6.2 ng/ml), and lower in HC (4.6 ng/ml). In MetS patients, a positive correlation was found between leptin and waist, triglycerides, and number of MetS criteria. After stratification for T2DM, the correlations were still significant in the non-T2DM but not in the T2DM group. In our sample of moderate-to-high-risk patients, leptin level is positively associated with waist circumference and triglycerides but only in non-T2DM patients. Our data suggest that diabetic subjects could modulate leptin production in a different way compared with patients carrying other MetS-related anomalies. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Wang, Changmei; Li, Fang; Guo, Jingjing; Li, Congcong; Xu, Dashuai; Wang, Bin
This study was designed to investigate the relation of insulin resistance, blood glucose and inflammatory cytokines with cardiovascular events in diabetic patients complicated with coronary heart disease (CHD). A total of 120 patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) complicated with CHD admitted to Jinan Central Hospital from January 2015 to March 2016 were enrolled in this study. There were 60 cases complicated with cardiovascular events and 60 had no history of cardiovascular events; there were 40 cases with abnormal blood glucose, 40 with insulin resistance and 40 with elevated inflammatory cytokines. Changes in the levels of blood glucose, fasting serum insulin and inflammatory cytokines as well as changes in the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance indexes (HOMA-IR) were recorded and compared among groups of patients. Besides, changes in the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) risk score and the incidence rate of cardiovascular events were also detected and multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted so as to identify relevant risk factors. Our results showed the fasting blood glucose and the 2 h postprandial blood glucose levels in the non-cardiovascular event group were lower than those in the cardiovascular event group (Presistance and those in patients with blood glucose abnormalities (Presistance and that in patients with elevated inflammatory cytokines. There was a positive correlation between TNF-α and HOMA-IR (Presistance and inflammatory cytokines were all independent risk factors for cardiovascular events. Based on our findings, stronger inflammatory responses in patients with T2DM complicated with CHD lead to higher incidence rates of cardiovascular events. Besides that, elevated blood glucose and insulin resistance levels are also independent risk factors for cardiovascular events.
Trends for type 2 diabetes and other cardiovascular risk factors in Mexico from 1993-2006 Tendencia en la prevalencia de diabetes tipo 2 y otros indicadores de riesgo cardiovascular en México entre 1993-2006
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the trends in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D, and other cardiovascular risk factors in three national health surveys (1993, 2000 and 2006. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The databases of three surveys: ENEC 1993, ENSA 2000 and ENSANUT 2006 were gathered. Calculations of published data were reprocessed to do appropriate adjustments to assure comparability among surveys. RESULTS: From 1993 to 2006 the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (6.7-14.4%, metabolic syndrome (26.6-36.8%, hypertension (23.8-30.7%, hypercholesterolemia (27-43.6%, and high LDL-cholesterol (31.6-46% increased rapidly. The prevalence of low HDL cholesterol was very high (60.5-63% in all surveys and remained remarkably unchanged among surveys. CONCLUSIONS: This increasing trends for the prevalence of T2D and cardiovascular risk factors predicts larger increments in the near future for T2D and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Intensification of the preventive and remedy strategies is mandatory in order curve the foreseen dramatic increment in the disease burden.OBJETIVO: Describir las tendencias en la prevalencia de diabetes tipo 2 (T2D, y otros factores de riesgo cardiovascular como las dislipidemias y la hipertensión en tres encuestas nacionales de salud (1993, 2000 y 2006. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Las bases de datos de ENEC 1993, ENSA 2000 y ENSANUT 2006 fueron reprocesados para asegurar la comparabilidad entre las encuestas. RESULTADOS: Entre 1993 y 2006 la prevalencia de T2D (6.7-14.4%, síndrome metabólico (26.6-36.8%, hipertensión (23.8-30.7%, hipercolesterolemia (27-43.6%, y LDL-colesterol alto (31.6-46% aumentaron rápidamente. La prevalencia de concentraciones bajas de HDL-colesterol fue muy alta (60.5-63% en todas las encuestas, manteniéndose esencialmente sin cambios. CONCLUSIÓN: La tendencias crecientes en las prevalencias de T2D y factores de riesgo cardiovascular predicen que a corto plazo habrá importantes incrementos en la morbilidad y
Miculis, Cristiane P; de Campos, Wagner; Gasparotto, Guilherme S; Silva, Michael P; Mascarenhas, Luis P; Boguszewski, Margaret C S
The objective of this study was to correlate CRF with cardiovascular risk factors in T1DM children. Fifty children and adolescents aged between 9 and 17 years with no diabetes complications and a mean diabetes duration of 4.6 years were selected. Antropometric, sexual maturation and blood pressure data were evaluated. CRF level was assessed with a 20-m shuttle run test. Laboratory tests were performed to verify fasting lipids and glycated hemoglobin. Statistical analyses were made with Pearson partial correlation, t test, and one-way ANOVA, with p≤0.05. After adjustment for body adiposity and sexual maturity, inverse correlations among CRF and TC, TG, TC/HDL-C, TG/HDL-C, non-HDL-C, and SBP were statistically significant. Variables differing by sex included weight Z score, BMI Z score, skinfold thickness, percentage of body fat, and DBP. Boys had higher CRF compared to girls. CRF and TC differed significantly by sexual maturation status. An inverse and significant relationship between CRF and most lipid profile's components and SBP in poor controlled T1DM children and adolescents was found, independently of body adiposity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Objective Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2 is a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD. While there is a clear correlation of fasting blood glucose (FBG and 2 h post-challenge blood glucose values (2h-BG with microvascular complications, the risk for CHD conferred by glucose dysregulation antecedent to DM2 is less clear. Therefore, we investigated associations of FBG and 2h-BG values with the prevalence of CHD assessed by coronary angiography as the most sensitive diagnostic tool. Research Design and Methods Coronary angiography was performed in 1394 patients without known DM. Capillary blood glucose was analyzed before and 2 h after an oral glucose tolerance test. Associations between FBG as well as 2h-BG levels and the risk for CHD were assessed by logistic regression analysis. Results 1064 (75% of patients were diagnosed with CHD. 204 (15% were diagnosed with so far unknown DM2, 274 (20% with isolated impaired fasting glucose (IFG, 188 (13% with isolated impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and 282 (20% with both, IGT and IFG. We found a continuous increase in the risk for CHD with fasting and post-challenge blood glucose values even in the subdiabetic range. This correlation did however not suggest clear cut-off values. The increase in risk for CHD reached statistical significance at FBG levels of > 120 mg/dl (Odds Ratio of 2.7 [1.3-5.6] and 2h-BG levels > 140 mg/dl (141-160 mg/dl OR 1.8 [1.1-2.9], which was however lost after adjusting for age, sex and BMI. Conclusions In our study population we found a continuous increased risk for CHD at fasting and 2h-BG levels in the sub-diabetic glucose range, but no clear cut-off values for cardiovascular risk.
Full Text Available Zinc is an essential trace element with proposed therapeutic effects in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM, however, the associations between zinc status and the prospective risks of cardiovascular diseases (CVD and Type 2 DM have not been evaluated. The current systematic review aims to determine the relationships between zinc intake or plasma/serum zinc levels and prospective incidence of CVD and Type 2 DM. Fourteen papers describing prospective cohort studies were included, reporting either CVD (n = 91,708 and/or Type 2 DM (n = 334,387 outcomes. Primary analyses from four out of five studies reported no association between zinc intake and CVD events, when adjusted for multiple variables. Higher serum zinc level was associated with lower risk of CVD in three out of five studies; pronounced effects were observed in vulnerable populations, specifically those with Type 2 DM and patients referred to coronary angiography. The limited evidence available suggests no association between zinc status and Type 2 DM risk. Further investigations into the mechanisms of zinc’s action on the pathogenesis of chronic diseases and additional evidence from observational studies are required to establish a recommendation for dietary zinc in relation to the prevention of CVD and Type 2 DM.
Graversen, Peter; Abildstrøm, Steen Z.; Jespersen, Lasse
Aim European society of cardiology (ESC) guidelines recommend that cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk stratification in asymptomatic individuals is based on the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) algorithm, which estimates individual 10-year risk of death from CVD. We assessed the potential...
de Sousa, M Vieira; Fukui, R; Krustrup, Peter
Background: Moderate calorie-restricted diets and exercise training prevent loss of lean mass and cardiovascular risk. Because adherence to routine exercise recommendation is generally poor, we utilized recreational soccer training as a novel therapeutic exercise intervention in type 2 diabetes (T2......D) patients. Objective: We compared the effects of acute and chronic soccer training plus calorie-restricted diet on protein catabolism and cardiovascular risk markers in T2D. Design, setting and subjects: Fifty-one T2D patients (61.1±6.4 years, 29 females: 22 males) were randomly allocated...
Nubiola, Andreu; Ferrer, Marga; Remolins, Imma
Hyperinsulinemia has been associated with cardiovascular risk, both independently and by facilitating the development of other cardiovascular risk factors. It has also been associated by different routes with increased cancer risk. Thus, this makes it a priority to identify and treat the hyperinsulinemic patient early in order to delay or prevent cardiovascular risk and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and certain types of cancer. A new strategy is needed for the treatment of hyperglycemia in these patients, whose primary objective would be to achieve weight loss, reduce insulin resistance and thereby hyperinsulinemia. That is, prescribing insulin secretors and insulin should be used with caution in these patients. Copyright © 2014 SEHLELHA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: One dietary strategy aimed at improving both diabetes control and control of cardiovascular risk factors is the use of low glycemic index diets. These diets have been reported to be beneficial in controlling diabetes, and also increase high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, lower serum triglyceride, and reduce glycated protein. Aim: Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect of a low glycemic index-low glycemic load (GL = 67-77 diet on lipids and blood glucose of poorly controlled diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: In an intervention study, 100 poorly controlled diabetic patients (age 52.8 ± 4.5 years who were taking insulin or on oral medication underwent administration of low GL diet (GL = 67-77; energy = 1800-2200 kcal, total fat = 36%, fat derived from olive oil and nuts 15%, carbohydrate = 41%, protein = 22% for 10 weeks. Patients were recommended to follow their regular lifestyle. Total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL, HDL, triglyceride, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, weight, and body mass index (BMI were measured before and 10 weeks after the intervention. Results: Before intervention, initial blood cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were 205.9 ± 21.6 and 181.5 ± 22.2, respectively, and were reduced to 182.6 ± 18.2 and 161.6 ± 16.7, respectively, after 10 weeks intervention (P < 0.001. LDL reduced and HDL increased significantly. The HbA1c percentage reduced by 12% (from 8.85 ± 0.22% to 7.81 ± 0.27% (P < 0.001, and also their weight significantly reduced from 74.0 ± 5 kg to 70.7 ± 4.6 kg (P < 0.001. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that low GL diet having lower carbohydrate amount and higher fat content is an appropriate strategy in blood lipid and glucose response control of poorly controlled diabetic patients.
Daniels, GH; Brown-Frandsen, K; Mann, JF; Nauck, MA; Nissen, SE; Poulter, NR; Steinberg, WM; Bergenstal, RM; Buse, JB; LEADER Steering Committee,; LEADER Trial Investigators,; , COLLABORATORS; Daniels, G; Mann, J; Marso, SP
BACKGROUND: The cardiovascular effect of liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide 1 analogue, when added to standard care in patients with type 2 diabetes, remains unknown.METHODS: In this double-blind trial, we randomly assigned patients with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk to receive liraglutide or placebo. The primary composite outcome in the time-to-event analysis was the first occurrence of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke. The...
Enas, Enas A.; Kuruvila, Arun; Khanna, Pravien; Pitchumoni, C.S.; Mohan, Viswanathan
Several reviews and meta-analyses have demonstrated the incontrovertible benefits of statin therapy in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). But the role for statins in primary prevention remained unclear. The updated 2013 Cochrane review has put to rest all lingering doubts about the overwhelming benefits of long-term statin therapy in primary prevention by conclusively demonstrating highly significant reductions in all-cause mortality, major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and the need for coronary artery revascularization procedures (CARPs). More importantly, these benefits of statin therapy are similar at all levels of CVD risk, including subjects at low (risk of a MACE. In addition to preventing myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and death, primary prevention with statins is also highly effective in delaying and avoiding expensive CARPs such as angioplasties, stents, and bypass surgeries. There is no evidence of any serious harm or threat to life caused by statin therapy, though several adverse effects that affect the quality of life, especially diabetes mellitus (DM) have been reported. Asian Indians have the highest risk of premature coronary artery disease (CAD) and diabetes. When compared with Whites, Asian Indians have double the risk of CAD and triple the risk of DM, when adjusted for traditional risk factors for these diseases. Available evidence supports the use of statin therapy for primary prevention in Asian Indians at a younger age and with lower targets for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and non-high density lipoprotein (non-HDL-C), than those currently recommended for Americans and Europeans. Early and aggressive statin therapy offers the greatest potential for reducing the continuing epidemic of CAD among Indians. PMID:24434254
Fitchett, David; Zinman, Bernard; Wanner, Christoph; Lachin, John M.; Hantel, Stefan; Salsali, Afshin; Johansen, Odd Erik; Woerle, Hans J.; Broedl, Uli C.; Inzucchi, Silvio E.
Aims We previously reported that in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME® trial, empagliflozin added to standard of care reduced the risk of 3-point major adverse cardiovascular events, cardiovascular and all-cause death, and hospitalization for heart failure in patients with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk. We have now further investigated heart failure outcomes in all patients and in subgroups, including patients with or without baseline heart failure. Methods and results Patients were randomized to receive empagliflozin 10 mg, empagliflozin 25 mg, or placebo. Seven thousand and twenty patients were treated; 706 (10.1%) had heart failure at baseline. Heart failure hospitalization or cardiovascular death occurred in a significantly lower percentage of patients treated with empagliflozin [265/4687 patients (5.7%)] than with placebo [198/2333 patients (8.5%)] [hazard ratio, HR: 0.66 (95% confidence interval: 0.55–0.79); P heart failure hospitalization or cardiovascular death of 35 over 3 years. Consistent effects of empagliflozin were observed across subgroups defined by baseline characteristics, including patients with vs. without heart failure, and across categories of medications to treat diabetes and/or heart failure. Empagliflozin improved other heart failure outcomes, including hospitalization for or death from heart failure [2.8 vs. 4.5%; HR: 0.61 (0.47–0.79); P heart failure at baseline in both treatment groups, but were no more common with empagliflozin than with placebo. Conclusion In patients with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk, empagliflozin reduced heart failure hospitalization and cardiovascular death, with a consistent benefit in patients with and without baseline heart failure. PMID:26819227
Asian Indians are the third largest and fastest growing Asian subgroup in the U.S. and considered the model minority due to their high education and income level. Unlike other Asian immigrants, they are a more heterogeneous group with a genetic predisposition for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Current national surveys are incapable of…
Sonne, Mette Paulii; Højbjerre, Lise; Alibegovic, Amra C
Aims: Physical inactivity is considered to be deleterious to vascular health, and in particular first degree relatives to patients with type 2 diabetes (FDR) and persons born with low birth weight (LBW) who may later in life develop cardiovascular disease. A period of imposed physical inactivity ...
Severo, Milton; Santos, Ana Cristina
Objectives The contribution of adiposity to cardiovascular and diabetes risk justifies the inclusion of an adiposity measure, usually waist circumference, in the definition of metabolic syndrome. However, waist circumference thresholds differ across populations. Our aim was to assess which adiposity measure performs the best in identifying the metabolic syndrome in a sample of Portuguese participants and to estimate cut-off values for these measures. Methods Data were obtained from a cross-sectional study (PORMETS study) conducted in Portugal between 2007 and 2009. A representative sample of non-institutionalized adults, comprising 3,956 participants, aged 18 years and older, was evaluated. A structured questionnaire was administered, collecting information on personal medical history, socio-demographics and behavioral characteristics. Anthropometrics, blood pressure and venous blood samples were also obtained. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Joint Interim Statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology recommended criteria. Elevated cardiometabolic risk was considered when two or more of the four criteria of metabolic syndrome were present, excluding the waist circumference component. A receiver operating characteristic curve was used to estimate cut-off points. Results This study found that waist-to-height ratio, waist circumference and body adiposity index performed better than other adiposity measures, such as body mass index. The estimated cut-off points for waist-to-height ratio, waist circumference and body adiposity index in women and men were 0.564 / 89 cm / 27.4 and 0.571 / 93.5 cm / 25.5, respectively. Conclusion As waist circumference is currently used as the adiposity measure in the definition of metabolic syndrome and as no relevant differences were observed between this measure and waist-to-height ratio, it is likely that no modification to the metabolic syndrome definition needs to be proposed. Moreover
Kawasaki, R; Cheung, N; Islam, FMA; Klein, R; Klein, BEK; Cotch, MF; Sharrett, AR; O'leary, D; Wong, TY
Objective Persons with diabetic retinopathy (DR) have an increased risk of clinical cardiovascular events. This study aimed to determine whether DR is associated with a range of measures of subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in persons without clinical CVD. Design Population-based, cross-sectional epidemiologic study. Participants Nine hundred twenty-seven persons with diabetes without clinical CVD in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Methods Diabetic retinopathy was ascertaine...
Medina-Remón, Alexander; Kirwan, Richard; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M; Estruch, Ramón
Diet and lifestyle play a significant role in the development chronic diseases; however the full complexity of this relationship is not yet understood. Dietary pattern investigation, which reflects the complexity of dietary intake, has emerged as an alternative and complementary approach for examining the association between diet and chronic diseases. Literature on this association has largely focused on individual nutrients, with conflicting outcomes, but individuals consume a combination of foods from many groups that form dietary patterns. Our objective was to systematically review the current findings on the effects of dietary patterns on chronic diseases. In this review, we describe and discuss the relationships between dietary patterns, such as the Mediterranean, the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension, Prudent, Seventh-day Adventists, and Western, with risk of obesity, type-2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, asthma, and neurodegenearive diseases. Evidence is increasing from both observational and clinical studies that plant-based dietary patterns, which are rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, are valuable in preventing various chronic diseases, whereas a diet high in red and processed meat, refined grains and added sugar seems to increase said risk. Dietary pattern analysis might be especially valuable to the development and evaluation of food-based dietary guidelines.
Brouwers, Frederieke M; Courteau, Josiane; Cohen, Alan A; Farand, Paul; Cloutier, Lyne; Asghari, Shabnam; Vanasse, Alain
Although treatment should be considered for elderly patients with hypertension (HTN), the effectiveness of beta-blockers (BBs) compared with other medications is less clear. This study's objective is to assess the relative effectiveness of BBs in elderly primary prevention patients with uncomplicated HTN. This is a population-based nested case-control study. The cohort is composed of 94,844 elderly patients followed through 2009 and diagnosed with HTN between 2000 and 2004, without recent antecedents of diabetes, renal disease, or cardiovascular disease (CVD). Individuals with a CVD outcome were considered cases, and controls were matched to cases according to age, sex, date of cohort entry, and comorbidity index. Patients whose treatment included a BB were compared with patients on other HTN drug(s). The BB use by patients was associated with an increased risk for CVD events (odds ratio (OR) = 1.36, 95%CI: 1.31-1.40) compared with patients using antihypertensive therapies without BBs. Sensitivity analyses suggest that this increased risk is not due to differences in prescription patterns on the basis of perceived disease severity. In real-world settings, antihypertensive therapies that include BBs are associated with less effective prevention of adverse outcomes in elderly hypertensive patients in primary prevention compared with antihypertensive therapies without BBs. Pending further studies, we recommend caution when prescribing BBs in primary prevention except when otherwise indicated. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Marcia C de Oliveira Otto
Full Text Available Trends in food availability and metabolic risk factors in Brazil suggest a shift toward unhealthy dietary patterns and increased cardiometabolic disease risk, yet little is known about the impact of dietary and metabolic risk factors on cardiometabolic mortality in Brazil.Based on data from Global Burden of Disease (GBD Study, we used comparative risk assessment to estimate the burden of 11 dietary and 4 metabolic risk factors on mortality due to cardiovascular diseases and diabetes in Brazil in 2010. Information on national diets and metabolic risks were obtained from the Brazilian Household Budget Survey, the Food and Agriculture Organization database, and large observational studies including Brazilian adults. Relative risks for each risk factor were obtained from meta-analyses of randomized trials or prospective cohort studies; and disease-specific mortality from the GBD 2010 database. We quantified uncertainty using probabilistic simulation analyses, incorporating uncertainty in dietary and metabolic data and relative risks by age and sex. Robustness of findings was evaluated by sensitivity to varying feasible optimal levels of each risk factor.In 2010, high systolic blood pressure (SBP and suboptimal diet were the largest contributors to cardiometabolic deaths in Brazil, responsible for 214,263 deaths (95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 195,073 to 233,936 and 202,949 deaths (95% UI: 194,322 to 211,747, respectively. Among individual dietary factors, low intakes of fruits and whole grains and high intakes of sodium were the largest contributors to cardiometabolic deaths. For premature cardiometabolic deaths (before age 70 years, representing 40% of cardiometabolic deaths, the leading risk factors were suboptimal diet (104,169 deaths; 95% UI: 99,964 to 108,002, high SBP (98,923 deaths; 95%UI: 92,912 to 104,609 and high body-mass index (BMI (42,643 deaths; 95%UI: 40,161 to 45,111.suboptimal diet, high SBP, and high BMI are major causes of
Stefan, Ramona Maria; Nita, Cristina; Craciun, Anca; Rusu, Adriana; Hancu, Nicolae
We assessed if early intensive interventions improve the glycemic control and the modifiable cardiovascular diseases risk factors in Romanian patients with newly diagnosed type-2 diabetes during the first year follow-up period. This was an observational, prospective study: 69 subjects were included in the analysis; each of them received intensive multi-factorial pharmacologic treatment and therapeutic education targeting hyperglycemia, weight, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Disease monitoring was done at months 0, 1, 3, 6 and 12 by assessment of anthropometric measurements, arterial blood pressure and biochemical parameters. The cardiovascular diseases risk factors were calculated using the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study Risk Engine. The mean age at diagnosis was 53.61±10.66 years. All anthropometric variables (body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, visceral fat area, percentage of body fat), except for skeletal muscle mass, significantly decreased overtime. The majority of the biochemical parameters significantly decreased overtime. The non-fatal/fatal coronary heart disease risk significantly decreased at month 12 (9.74 [pintensive lifestyle interventions in patients newly diagnosed with type-2 diabetes could decrease with approximately 50% the rate of cardiovascular disease risk.
T S Dzhavakhishvili
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate whether insulin treatment-induced weight gain had an adverse impact on cardiovascular risk factors in insulin-treated type 2 diabetic patients during the first year after initiating insulin therapy when insulin analogues or human insulins are used. A total of 157 patients with newly insulinized type 2 diabetes were included in the study. The patients were divided in two groups. First group consisted of subjects (mean age 57 [45; 73], duration of diabetes of 10 years [4; 16] who had received long-acting basal (glargine, detemir, premixed (biphasic insulin aspart 30, Humalog Mix 25 or short-acting (aspart, lispro insulin analogues. Patients from second group (mean age 59 [46; 75], duration of diabetes of 10 years [5; 15] were treated with intermediate-acting basal (Protophane, Humulin NPH insulin, premixed (biphasic human insulin 30, Humulin M3 and regular (Actrapid, Humulin R human insulins. Our study has shown that insulin-induced weight gain may not adversely affect cardiovascular risk factors, particularly, lipid profile, in insulin-treated type 2 diabetic patients during the first year after initiating insulin therapy. Use of insulin analogues for treatment of type 2 diabetes patients results in better glycaemic control, significant declines in blood lipid concentrations, less increase in waist circumference compared with human insulins during the first year after initiating insulin therapy.
Wannamethee, S Goya; Welsh, Paul; Lennon, Lucy; Papacosta, Olia; Whincup, Peter H; Sattar, Naveed
This study aimed to examine the association between copeptin (a surrogate marker of arginine vasopressin) and incident stroke, CHD and cardiovascular mortality in older men with and without diabetes. We conducted a prospective study of 3536 men aged 60-79 years who were followed for an average of 13 years. During this period, there were 437 major CHD events (fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction [MI]), 323 stroke events (fatal and non-fatal) and 497 cardiovascular disease (CVD) deaths. Prevalent diabetes was defined on the basis of a history of doctor-diagnosed diabetes or fasting blood glucose ≥7.0 mmol or HbA1c ≥6.5% (48 mmol/mol) (n = 428). No association was seen between copeptin and incident stroke or CVD mortality in men without diabetes after adjustment for conventional cardiovascular risk factors, renal dysfunction, and insulin and N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide levels. In contrast, elevated copeptin levels were associated with an increased risk of stroke and CVD mortality in men with diabetes after these adjustments. Compared with those in the lowest tertile of copeptin, men in the top tertile had adjusted relative HRs for stroke and CVD death of 2.34 (95% CI 1.04, 5.27) and 2.21 (1.12, 4.36), respectively. The risk of stroke and CVD mortality remained increased after the exclusion of men with prevalent stroke or MI. Higher levels of copeptin were associated with increased risk of CHD in the diabetic and non-diabetic groups, but these associations were attenuated after exclusion of individuals with a previous stroke or MI. Copeptin was independently associated with an increased risk of incident stroke and CVD mortality in men with diabetes, but not in men without diabetes. Targeting the arginine vasopressin system might have beneficial effects on CVD mortality and stroke risk in older men with diabetes.
Petrie, John R; Marso, Steven P; Bain, Stephen C; Franek, Edward; Jacob, Stephan; Masmiquel, Luis; Leiter, Lawrence A; Haluzik, Martin; Satman, Ilhan; Omar, Mohamed; Shestakova, Marina; Van Gaal, Luc; Mann, Johannes F; Baeres, Florian M M; Zinman, Bernard; Poulter, Neil R
As glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists lower blood pressure (BP) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), we examined BP control in relation to targets set by international bodies prior to randomization in the Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes: Evaluation of cardiovascular outcome Results (LEADER) trial. We analyzed baseline data from LEADER (NCT01179048), an ongoing phase 3B, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cardiovascular outcomes trial examining the cardiovascular safety of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist liraglutide in 9340 people with T2DM from 32 countries [age (all mean ± SD) 64 ± 7.2 years, BMI 32.5 ± 6.3 kg/m, duration of diabetes 12.7 ± 8.0 years], all of whom were at high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). A total of 81% (n = 7592) of participants had prior CVD and 90% (n = 8408) had a prior history of hypertension. Despite prescription of multiple antihypertensive agents at baseline, only 51% were treated to a target BP of less than 140/85 mmHg and only 26% to the recommended baseline BP target of less than 130/80 mmHg. In univariate analyses, those with prior CVD were prescribed more agents (P LEADER trial may provide further insights into BP control in relation to cardiovascular outcomes in this condition.
Keith, Mary; Kuliszewski, Michael A; Liao, Christine; Peeva, Valentina; Ahmed, Mavra; Tran, Susan; Sorokin, Kevin; Jenkins, David J; Errett, Lee; Leong-Poi, Howard
Secondary prevention can improve outcomes in high risk patients. This study investigated the magnitude of cardiovascular risk reduction associated with consumption of a modified portfolio diet in parallel with medical management. 30 patients with type II diabetes, 6 weeks post bypass surgery received dietary counseling on a Modified Portfolio Diet (MPD) (low fat, 8 g/1000 kcal viscous fibres, 17 g/1000 kcal soy protein and 22 g/1000 kcal almonds). Lipid profiles, endothelial function and markers of glycemic control, oxidative stress and inflammation were measured at baseline and following two and four weeks of intervention. Seven patients with no diet therapy served as time controls. Consumption of the MPD resulted in a 19% relative reduction in LDL (1.9 ± 0.8 vs 1.6 ± 0.6 mmol/L, p < 0.001) with no change in HDL cholesterol. Homocysteine levels dropped significantly (10.1 ± 2.7 vs 7.9 ± 4 μmol/L, p = 0.006) over the study period. Flow mediated dilatation increased significantly in treated patients (3.8 ± 3.8% to 6.5 ± 3.6%, p = 0.004) while remaining constant in controls (p = 0.6). Endothelial progenitor cells numbers (CD34+, CD 133+ and UEA-1+) increased significantly following MPD consumption (p < 0.02) with no difference in migratory capacity. In contrast, time controls showed no significant changes. Dietary intervention in medically managed, high risk patients resulted in important reductions in risk factors. Clinical Trials registry number NCT00462436. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
Bohn, Barbara; Herbst, Antje; Pfeifer, Martin; Krakow, Dietmar; Zimny, Stefan; Kopp, Florian; Melmer, Andreas; Steinacker, Jürgen M; Holl, Reinhard W
Physical activity (PA) can improve cardiovascular risk in the general population and in patients with type 2 diabetes. Studies also indicate an HbA(1c)-lowering effect in patients with type 2 diabetes. Since reports in patients with type 1 diabetes are scarce, this analysis aimed to investigate whether there is an association between PA and glycemic control or cardiovascular risk in subjects with type 1 diabetes. A total of 18,028 adults (≥18 to diabetes from the Diabetes-Patienten-Verlaufsdokumentation (DPV) database were included. Patients were stratified according to their self-reported frequency of PA (PA0, inactive; PA1, one to two times per week; PA2, more than two times per week). Multivariable regression models were applied for glycemic control, diabetes-related comorbidities, and cardiovascular risk factors. Data were adjusted for sex, age, and diabetes duration. P values for trend were given. SAS 9.4 was used for statistical analysis. An inverse association between PA and HbA(1c), diabetic ketoacidosis, BMI, dyslipidemia (all P control, diabetes-related comorbidities, and cardiovascular risk factors without an increase of adverse events. Hence, our data underscore the recommendation for subjects with type 1 diabetes to perform regular PA. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.
Pignone, Michael; Williams, Craig D.
Aspirin is effective for the prevention of cardiovascular events in patients with a history of vascular disease, as so-called secondary prevention. In general populations with no history of previous myocardial infarction or stroke, aspirin also seems useful for primary prevention of cardiovascular events, although the absolute benefits are smaller than those seen in patients with previous cardiovascular disease. Patients with diabetes mellitus are at an increased risk of cardiovascular events...
Jang Won Son
Full Text Available Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4 inhibitors have been touted as promising antihyperglycemic agents due to their beneficial effects on glycemia without inducing hypoglycemia or body weight gain and their good tolerability. Beyond their glucose-lowering effects, numerous clinical trials and experimental studies have suggested that DPP4 inhibitors may exert cardioprotective effects through their pleiotropic actions via glucagon-like peptide 1-dependent mechanisms or involving other substrates. Since 2008, regulatory agencies have required an assessment of cardiovascular disease (CVD safety for the approval of all new anti-hyperglycemic agents, including incretin-based therapies. Three large prospective DPP4 inhibitor trials with cardiovascular (CV outcomes have recently been published. According to the Saxagliptin Assessment of Vascular Outcomes Recorded in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus (SAVOR-TIMI 53 and EXamination of cArdiovascular outcoMes with alogliptIN versus standard of carE in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and acute coronary syndrome (EXAMINE trials, DPP4 inhibitors, including saxagliptin and alogliptin, did not appear to increase the risk of CV events in patients with type 2 diabetes and established CVD or high risk factors. Unexpectedly, saxagliptin significantly increased the risk of hospitalization for heart failure by 27%, a finding that has not been explained and that requires further exploration. More recently, the Trial Evaluating Cardiovascular Outcomes with Sitagliptin (TECOS trial demonstrated the CV safety of sitagliptin, including assessments of the primary composite CV endpoint and hospitalization for heart failure in patients with type 2 diabetes and established CVD. The CV outcomes of an ongoing linagliptin trial are expected to provide new evidence about the CV effects of a DPP4-inhibitor in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Gaede, Peter; Pedersen, Oluf
patients, treatment strategies have changed during recent years. This review focuses on the many recent drug trials that have set the course for an effective multifactorial treatment of the disease. Thus, the Steno-2 Study has shown that an intensified multifactorial intervention targeting several risk...... factors for cardiovascular disease is capable of reducing the risk for a combined endpoint of cardiovascular mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, coronary interventions, revascularisation to legs, and amputations by 50%....
Cooney, Marie Therese
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of death worldwide. Usually atherosclerosis is caused by the combined effects of multiple risk factors. For this reason, most guidelines on the prevention of CVD stress the assessment of total CVD risk. The most intensive risk factor modification can then be directed towards the individuals who will derive the greatest benefit. To assist the clinician in calculating the effects of these multiple interacting risk factors, a number of risk estimation systems have been developed. This review address several issues regarding total CVD risk assessment: Why should total CVD risk be assessed? What risk estimation systems are available? How well do these systems estimate risk? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the current systems? What are the current limitations of risk estimation systems and how can they be resolved? What new developments have occurred in CVD risk estimation?
Malik Vasanti S
Full Text Available Abstract As China is undergoing dramatic development, it is also experiencing major societal changes, including an emerging obesity epidemic, with the prevalence of overweight and obesity doubling in the past decade. However, the implications of a high glycemic index (GI and glycemic load (GL traditional Chinese diet are adversely changing in modern times, as a high-glycemic diet is becoming a greater contributor to diabetes and cardiovascular risks in a population with rising obesity and decreasing physical activity. Specifically, a high GI diet adversely impacts metabolism and appetite control regulation, and notably confers substantially greater risk of weight gain, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain cancers among overweight and obese individuals (P
Jimba, Sachiyo; Nakagami, Tomoko; Oya, Junko; Wasada, Taro; Endo, Yasuhiro; Iwamoto, Yasuhiko
We investigated the predictive value of changes in serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Japanese. A total of 1514 adult participants in a general health examination program were followed for 3 years until January, 2006. The subjects were divided into two groups according to whether their serum GGT level had decreased ( or =1 U/L) from the baseline level of GGT during the study period. The logistic regression model was used to analyze the relationship between increases in GGT levels and the incidence of diabetes (DM), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), dyslipidemia, and hypertension (HT). The mean value of GGT level was significantly higher at baseline than the 3-year follow-up point (47 +/- 41 versus 41 +/- 51, P < 0.0001), and the average 3-year GGT change was -5.7 +/- 32.3 U/L. The subjects with an increased GGT over the 3 years had an increased risk of developing DM, IFG, high triglyceride (TG) levels, and HT, in comparison with that of the subjects with a decreased GGT level, with an odds ratios (OR) of 6.13 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.83-13.25), 2.70 (1.68-4.34), 2.65 (1.76-3.99), and 1.54 (1.12-2.13), respectively, after adjusting for age, sex, and alcohol habits. Further adjustments for baseline GGT, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), body mass index (BMI), and 3-year changes in BMI did not alter these associations. The increased change in GGT over 3 years was a significant and an independent risk factor for the development of high TG, HT, IFG, and DM in Japanese.
Maha S. Al-Shammari
Full Text Available Abstract Genome-wide association studies have identified several loci associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD and type 2 diabetes (T2D. Polymorphisms within the KCNQ1 (potassium voltage-gated channel, KQT-like subfamily, member 1 gene are consistently associated with T2D in a number of populations. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the association of 3 polymorphisms of KCNQ1 (rs2237892, rs151290 and rs2237895 with T2D and/or CVD. Patients diagnosed with either T2D (320 patients, CVD (250 patients or both (60 patients and 516 healthy controls were genotyped by TaqMan assay run on a real time PCR thermocycler. A statistically significant association was found for SNPs rs151290 (OR = 1.76; 95%CI = 1.02-3.05; p = 0.0435 and rs2237895 (OR = 2.49; 95%CI = 1.72-3.61; p < 0.0001 with CVD. SNP rs151290 (OR = 7.43; 95%CI = 1.00-55.22; p = 0.0499 showed a strong association in patients with both T2D and CVD. None of the SNPs showed any significant association with T2D. Haploview analysis showed that the ACC (rs151290, rs2237892 and rs2237895 haplotype is the most significant risk allele combination for CVD, while CCA is the most significant risk haplotype for co-morbidity with T2D. KCNQ1 polymorphism at SNPs rs151290 and rs2237895 is strongly associated with CVD in this population, but presented no association with T2D.
Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease impose substantial clinical and economic burdens for seniors (age 65 and above and the Medicare program. Intensive Behavioral Counseling (IBC interventions like the National Diabetes Prevention Program (NDPP, have demonstrated effectiveness in reducing excess body weight and lowering or delaying morbidity onset. This paper estimated the potential health implications and medical savings of a digital version of IBC modeled after the NDPP.Participants in this digital IBC intervention, the Omada program, include 1,121 overweight or obese seniors with additional risk factors for diabetes or heart disease. Weight changes were objectively measured via participant use of a networked weight scale. Participants averaged 6.8% reduction in body weight within 26 weeks, and 89% of participants completed 9 or more of the 16 core phase lessons. We used a Markov-based microsimulation model to simulate the impact of weight loss on future health states and medical expenditures over 10 years. Cumulative per capita medical expenditure savings over 3, 5 and 10 years ranged from $1,720 to 1,770 (3 years, $3,840 to $4,240 (5 years and $11,550 to $14,200 (10 years. The range reflects assumptions of weight re-gain similar to that seen in the DPP clinical trial (lower bound or minimal weight re-gain aligned with age-adjusted national averages (upper bound. The estimated net economic benefit after IBC costs is $10,250 to $12,840 cumulative over 10 years. Simulation outcomes suggest reduced incidence of diabetes by 27-41% for participants with prediabetes, and stroke by approximately 15% over 5 years.A digital, remotely-delivered IBC program can help seniors at risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease achieve significant weight loss, reduces risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease, and achieve meaningful medical cost savings. These findings affirm recommendations for IBC coverage by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.
von Scholten, Bernt Johan; Persson, Frederik; Rosenlund, Signe
-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP); and 5) Copeptin, in type 2 diabetes patients with albuminuria. In a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial we enrolled patients with type 2 diabetes and persistent albuminuria (urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) > 30 mg....../g) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥ 30 mL/min/1.73m(2) . Patients received liraglutide (1.8 mg/d) and matched placebo for 12 weeks in random order. Primary endpoint was change in albuminuria; this is a prespecified sub-study. Thirty-two patients were randomised, 27 completed the study. TNF...
Higgins, T.P; Baker, M.D; Evans, S-A; Adams, R.A; Cobbold, C
Hypertension, decreased glucose tolerance, adverse lipid profiles and low physical activity levels are associated with increased type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. High intensity interval training (HIIT), a low volume, reduced time, high intensity programme, may be a useful alternative to current government guidelines which specify a minimum of 150 minutes of physical activity per week. We describe a personalised programme of high intensity exercise which p...
Nöthlings, Ute; Schulze, Matthias B; Weikert, Cornelia
We examined the associations of intake of vegetables, legumes and fruit with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a population with prevalent diabetes in Europe. A cohort of 10,449 participants with self-reported diabetes within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition...... with a significantly reduced risk, whereas nonsignificant inverse associations for fruit intake were observed. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and mortality due to non-CVD/non-cancer causes were significantly inversely associated with intake of total vegetables, legumes, and fruit (RR 0.88 [95% CI 0...
Ohara, Chisin; Inoue, Kazuo; Kashima, Saori; Inoue, Machiko; Akimoto, Kimihiko
We compared cardiovascular and metabolic markers between undiagnosed and known diabetes among 3045 subjects who had voluntary health check and no cardiovascular disease. Subjects with undiagnosed diabetes had poorer profiles of these markers than those with known diabetes. Undiagnosed diabetes should be recognized as a condition with these risks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Akhuemonkhan, Eboselume; Lazo, Mariana
Family history is a well-known risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and modification of lifestyle risk factors can significantly lessen such risk. Our aim was to assess the association between family history of diabetes and/or CVD and lifestyle behaviors and risk factors (smoking, low physical activity, excessive dietary sodium and cholesterol intake and obesity) in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009-2012. Family history, lifestyle behaviors and risk factors were defined using self-reported and physical examination data. The study sample included 10,988 participants with a mean age of 47years. Among the U.S. adult population, 29.5%, 5.7% and 6.5% had a family history of diabetes, CVD and both diseases respectively. Compared to participants with no family history, participants with a family history of diabetes, CVD and both diabetes and CVD were more likely to be current smokers (OR=1.18[95% CI, 1.03-1.35], OR=1.68[95% CI, 1.31-2.17] and OR=1.71[95% CI, 1.30-2.26] respectively). Participants with a family history of diabetes (OR=1.42[95% CI, 1.26-1.61]) and both diabetes and CVD were more likely to be overweight/obese (OR=2.06[95% CI, 1.57-2.69]). There was no association between family history and dietary factors or physical activity. In the U.S., there is a high prevalence of modifiable risk factors among persons with a family history of diabetes and/or CVD. Healthcare providers have a significant role to play in targeting these individuals for lifestyle changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Toyama, Tadashi; Furuichi, Kengo; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Shimizu, Miho; Hara, Akinori; Iwata, Yasunori; Kaneko, Shuichi; Wada, Takashi
Background Precise effects of albuminuria and low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) on cardiovascular mortality, all-cause mortality, and renal events in diabetic patients are uncertain. Materials and Methods A systematic review was conducted of the literature through MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINHAL from 1950 to December 2010. Cohort studies of diabetic patients providing adjusted relative risk (RR) of albuminuria and eGFR for risks of cardiovascular mortality, all-cause mortality, and renal events were selected. Two reviewers screened abstracts and full papers of each study using standardized protocol. Results We identified 31 studies fulfilling the criteria from 6546 abstracts. With regard to the risk of cardiovascular mortality, microalbuminuria (RR 1.76, 95%CI 1.38–2.25) and macroalbuminuria (RR 2.96 95%CI 2.44–3.60) were significant risk factors compared to normoalbuminuria. The same trends were seen in microalbuminuria (RR 1.60, 95%CI 1.42–1.81), and macroalbuminuria (RR 2.64, 95%CI 2.13–3.27) for the risk of all-cause mortality, and also in microalbuminuria (RR 3.21, 95%CI 2.05–5.02) and macroalbuminuria (RR 11.63, 95%CI 5.68–23.83) for the risk of renal events. The magnitudes of relative risks associated with low eGFR along with albuminuria were almost equal to multiplying each risk rate of low eGFR and albuminuria. No significant factors were found by investigating potential sources of heterogeneity using subgroup analysis. Conclusions High albuminuria and low eGFR are relevant risk factors in diabetic patients. Albuminuria and low eGFR may be independent of each other. To evaluate the effects of low eGFR, intervention, or race, appropriately designed studies are needed. PMID:24147148
Golmayo Gaztelu, L; Ros Pérez, P; Alonso Blanco, M; Martín-Frías, M; Barrio Castellanos, R
To analyse the prevalence, evolution of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) and their relationship with follow-up of metabolic control in pediatric patients with Type 1 Diabetes (T1DM). Longitudinal ambispective study including 75 children and adolescents with T1DM diagnosed from 1996 to 2003 and followed-up for nine years. Family history of CVRF was registered. Data from the second, sixth and ninth year after diagnosis were analysed. Family history of CVRF was found in 46.6% of the patients. The prevalence of HbA1c>7.5% in the second, sixth and ninth year after diagnosis was 45.3%, 53.3% y 56%, respectively. The prevalence of obesity (BMI>2SDS) in the three visits was 5.3%, 5.3% y 6.7%, respectively. Hypertension (BP>p90) was found in 14.6%, 8% and 13.3% of the patients in the three visits, respectively. Total cholesterol>200mg/dl: 25.3%, 13.3% and 16%; high density cholesterol lipoprotein100mg/dl: 38.6%, 34.6% and 38.6%; triglyceride>150 mg/dl: 0%, 1.3% and 2.6%, respectively. There was a significant increase in the prevalence of TG/HDL-C ≥ 2 between the sixth and the ninth year after diagnosis (1.3% and 9.3%, P<.05). A persistent HbA1c ≥ 7.5% showed a statistically significant relationship to a 0.94 decrease in HDL-C z-score between the second and the sixth year, and a persistent HbA1c<7.5% was significantly associated with a 0.55 increase in HDL-C z-score (P=.015) in the same period. A non-optimal metabolic control in first years of DM1 is associated with a decrease in HDL-C z-score. TG/HDL-C ratio could be an early marker of cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Persson, Frederik; Zobel, Emilie Hein; von Scholten, Bernt Johan
risk factors (sex, age, systolic blood pressure, LDL-cholesterol, smoking, HbA1c, creatinine and urinary albumin excretion rate). To assess if SDMA or ADMA improved risk prediction beyond traditional risk factors we calculated c-statistics and relative integrated discrimination improvement (r......Background To evaluate symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) as risk markers of cardiovascular disease, all-cause mortality and deterioration in renal function in a well characterised type 2 diabetic population with microalbuminuria and without symptoms...... of coronary artery disease. Methods 200 participants followed for 6.1 years. SDMA and ADMA were measured at baseline. Endpoints included 1) composite cardiovascular endpoint (n=40); 2) all-cause mortality (n=26); and 3) decline in eGFR of >30% (n=42). Cox models were unadjusted and adjusted for traditional...
Zobel, Emilie H; von Scholten, Bernt Johan; Reinhard, Henrik
for traditional risk factors (sex, age, systolic blood pressure, LDL-cholesterol, smoking, HbA1c, creatinine and urinary albumin excretion rate). To assess if SDMA or ADMA improved risk prediction beyond traditional risk factors we calculated c statistics and relative integrated discrimination improvement (r......BACKGROUND: To evaluate symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) as risk markers of cardiovascular disease, all-cause mortality and deterioration in renal function in a well characterised type 2 diabetic population with microalbuminuria and without symptoms...... of coronary artery disease. METHODS: 200 participants followed for 6.1 years. SDMA and ADMA were measured at baseline. Endpoints included (1) composite cardiovascular endpoint (n = 40); (2) all-cause mortality (n = 26); and (3) decline in eGFR of >30% (n = 42). Cox models were unadjusted and adjusted...
Full Text Available Diabetes is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD including stroke, coronary heart disease, and peripheral artery disease. It remains a leading cause of mortality throughout the world, affecting both women and men. This investigation was aimed to study gender based differences in cardiovascular risk factors of adult population with type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and to check the correlation between serum HbA1C, lipid profile and serum vitamin D levels, in T2DM patients of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. This hospital-based cross-sectional study involving subjects was divided into two gender based groups; normal male (800, diabetic male (800 and normal female (800 and T2DM females (800. Blood samples were analyzed for fasting glucose (FBG, HbA1c, total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (Tg, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and serum levels of 25(OH-vitamin D in all groups. All the glycemic control parameters and lipid profile parameters were found to be significantly different in diabetic vs non-diabetic group (p < 0.001 in both genders. The results also show that vitamin D concentration decreased significantly (p < 0.001 in diabetic patients than the healthy individuals in both the genders. Vitamin-D and HbA1C were negatively correlated in both males and females in T2DM patients and significant at P < 0.05. Our study reveals that dyslipidemia remains one of the major risk factors of CVD in T2DM. In addition to dyslipidemia, decreased levels of vitamin-D associated with increased HbA1C alarms the early diagnosis of Type 2 Diabetes.
Pedro-Botet, Juan; Chillarón, Juan J; Benaiges, David; Flores-Le Roux, Juana A
Patients with type2 diabetes mellitus have a high to very high cardiovascular risk, and often have other associated risk factors, such as hypertension, obesity and dyslipidaemia. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in this population. An integrated control of all risk factors in patients with diabetes is essential for minimising the risk of macrovascular complications. Given the benefits of the multifactorial intervention strategies for cardiovascular prevention in diabetic patients, a review is presented on the therapeutic goals established for each risk factor in diabetes and the benefits of their control. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Genovese, Stefano; De Berardis, Giorgia; Nicolucci, Antonio; Mannucci, Edoardo; Evangelista, Virgilio; Totani, Licia; Pellegrini, Fabio; Ceriello, Antonio
Besides its critical role in metabolic homeostasis, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ modulates several cellular responses involved in atherothrombosis. This multicenter, double-blind, randomized study investigated the effects of two oral hypoglycemic agents on markers of inflammation, platelet activation, thrombogenesis, and oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effect on C-reactive protein (CRP) after a 16-week treatment period with either pioglitazone or metformin. Additionally, markers of vascular inflammatory response, platelet activation, thrombogenesis, oxidative stress, glucose, and lipid metabolism, as well as liver function, were measured. In total, 50 patients completed the study. Pioglitazone-treated patients were found to have statistically significantly larger decreases in mean CRP levels (-0.4 mg/dL) compared to those treated with metformin (-0.2 mg/dL) (P=0.04), as well as greater reductions in levels of mean fasting plasma glucose (-27 vs. -9 mg/dL; P=0.01), serum insulin (-2 vs. -1.9 mU/L; P=0.014), homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) (-1.2 vs. -0.9; P=0.015), and E-selectin (-12.4 vs. +3.4 μg/mL; P=0.01). Mean glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels decreased in both treatment groups from baseline to week 16 (-0.4% in the pioglitazone group, -0.2% in the metformin group; P=0.36). Pioglitazone treatment was also found to be associated with a statistically significant increase in total cholesterol levels (+10 mg/dL in the pioglitazone arm, -3 mg/dL in the metformin arm; P=0.05) and a decrease in liver enzyme levels. The favorable changes in markers of systemic and vascular inflammatory response with pioglitazone suggest that it may positively influence the atherothrombotic process in type 2 diabetes.
Ye, Eva Qing; Chacko, Sara A; Chou, Elizabeth L; Kugizaki, Matthew; Liu, Simin
Whole-grain and high fiber intakes are routinely recommended for prevention of vascular diseases; however, there are no comprehensive and quantitative assessments of available data in humans. The aim of this study was to systematically examine longitudinal studies investigating whole-grain and fiber intake in relation to risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), cardiovascular disease (CVD), weight gain, and metabolic risk factors. We identified 45 prospective cohort studies and 21 randomized-controlled trials (RCT) between 1966 and February 2012 by searching the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane, Elsevier Medical Database, and PubMed. Study characteristics, whole-grain and dietary fiber intakes, and risk estimates were extracted using a standardized protocol. Using random effects models, we found that compared with never/rare consumers of whole grains, those consuming 48-80 g whole grain/d (3-5 serving/d) had an ~26% lower risk of T2D [RR = 0.74 (95% CI: 0.69, 0.80)], ~21% lower risk of CVD [RR = 0.79 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.85)], and consistently less weight gain during 8-13 y (1.27 vs 1.64 kg; P = 0.001). Among RCT, weighted mean differences in post-intervention circulating concentrations of fasting glucose and total and LDL-cholesterol comparing whole-grain intervention groups with controls indicated significantly lower concentrations after whole-grain interventions [differences in fasting glucose: -0.93 mmol/L (95% CI: -1.65, -0.21), total cholesterol: -0.83 mmol/L (-1.23, -0.42); and LDL-cholesterol: -0.82 mmol/L (-1.31, -0.33)]. [corrected] Findings from this meta-analysis provide evidence to support beneficial effects of whole-grain intake on vascular disease prevention. Potential mechanisms responsible for whole grains' effects on metabolic intermediates require further investigation in large intervention trials.
Reis Andre F
Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a genetically heterogeneous disease, hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 homeobox A (HNF1A single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs playing a minor role in its pathogenesis. HNF1A is a frequent cause of monogenic diabetes, albeit with early-onset. Some uncommon subgroups like late-onset autosomal dominant diabetes mellitus (LOADDM may present peculiar inheritance patterns with a stronger familial component. This study aims to investigate the relationship of HNF1A SNPs with cardiovascular risk factors in this group, as well as to characterize them in contrast with classical T2DM (CT2DM. Methods eighteen LOADDM (age at onset > 40 y.o.; diabetes in 3 contiguous generations, uniparental lineage along with 48 CT2DM patients and 42 normoglycemic controls (N group have been evaluated for cardiovascular risk factors and SNPs of HNF1A. Results LOADDM showed significantly higher frequencies of SNPs A98V (22.2% vs 2.1%, p = 0.02 and S487N (72.2% vs 43.8%, p = 0.049 of HNF1A compared to CT2DM. I27L did not show significant difference (66.7% vs 45.8%, but associated with lower risk of hypertriglyceridemia (OR 0.16, 95% CI 0.04–0.65, p = 0.01. "Protective effect" was independent from other well-known predictive risk factors for hypertriglyceridemia, such as waist circumference (OR 1.09 per 1 cm increase, p = 0.01 and HDL (OR 0.01 per 1 mmol/l, p = 0.005, after logistic regression. Conclusion Late onset autosomal dominant diabetes mellitus is clinically indistinguishable from classical type 2 diabetes individuals. However, LOADDM group is enriched for common HNF1A polymorphisms A98V and S487N. I27L showed "protective effect" upon hypertriglyceridemia in this sample of individuals, suggesting a role for HNF1A on diabetic individuals' lipid profile. These data contribute to the understanding of the complex interactions between genes, hyperglycemia and cardiovascular risk factors development in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Recent meta-analysis studies have provided clear evidence for the association between obesity and the risk of chronic diseases and mortality. The quantification of this association, however, has primarily been accomplished by considering the severity of bodyweight at a single point in time. The potential impact of the duration of obesity as an independent risk factor has been neglected. As the onset of obesity is becoming earlier with their impact on prolonging the duration of ...
S. Reppe (Sjur); Y. Wang (Yunpeng); W.K. Thompson (Wesley K.); L.K. McEvoy (Linda K.); N.J. Schork (Nicholas); V. Zuber (Verena); M. Leblanc (Marissa); F. Bettella (Francesco); I.G. Mills (Ian G.); R.S. Desikan (Rahul S.); S. Djurovic (Srdjan); K.M. Gautvik (Kaare); A.M. Dale (Anders); O.A. Andreassen (Ole); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); U. Styrkarsdottir (Unnur); E. Evangelou (Evangelos); Y.-H. Hsu (Yi-Hsiang); E.L. Duncan (Emma); E.E. Ntzani (Evangelia); L. Oei (Ling); O.M.E. Albagha (Omar M.); N. Amin (Najaf); J.P. Kemp (John); D.L. Koller (Daniel); G. Li (Guo); C.-T. Liu (Ching-Ti); R.L. Minster (Ryan); A. Moayyeri (Alireza); L. Vandenput (Liesbeth); D. Willner (Dana); S.-M. Xiao (Su-Mei); L.M. Yerges-Armstrong (Laura); H.-F. Zheng (Hou-Feng); N. Alonso (Nerea); J. Eriksson (Joel); C.M. Kammerer (Candace); S. Kaptoge (Stephen); P.J. Leo (Paul); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); S.G. Wilson (Scott); J.F. Wilson (James F); V. Aalto (Ville); M. Alen (Markku); A.K. Aragaki (Aaron); T. Aspelund (Thor); J.R. Center (Jacqueline); Z. Dailiana (Zoe); C. Duggan; M. Garcia (Melissa); N. Garcia-Giralt (Natàlia); S. Giroux (Sylvie); G. Hallmans (Göran); L.J. Hocking (Lynne); L.B. Husted (Lise Bjerre); K. Jameson (Karen); R. Khusainova (Rita); G.S. Kim (Ghi Su); C. Kooperberg (Charles); T. Koromila (Theodora); M. Kruk (Marcin); M. Laaksonen (Marika); A.Z. Lacroix (Andrea Z.); S.H. Lee (Seung Hun); P.C. Leung (Ping C.); J.R. Lewis (Joshua); L. Masi (Laura); S. Mencej-Bedrac (Simona); T.V. Nguyen (Tuan); X. Nogues (Xavier); M.S. Patel (Millan); J. Prezelj (Janez); L.M. Rose (Lynda); S. Scollen (Serena); K. Siggeirsdottir (Kristin); G.D. Smith; O. Svensson (Olle); S. Trompet (Stella); O. Trummer (Olivia); N.M. van Schoor (Natasja); J. Woo (Jean); K. Zhu (Kun); S. Balcells (Susana); M.L. Brandi; B.M. Buckley (Brendan M.); S. Cheng (Sulin); C. Christiansen; C. Cooper (Charles); G.V. Dedoussis (George); I. Ford (Ian); M. Frost (Morten); D. Goltzman (David); J. González-Macías (Jesús); M. Kähönen (Mika); M. Karlsson (Magnus); E.K. Khusnutdinova (Elza); J.-M. Koh (Jung-Min); P. Kollia (Panagoula); B.L. Langdahl (Bente); W.D. Leslie (William D.); P. Lips (Paul); O. Ljunggren (Östen); R. Lorenc (Roman); J. Marc (Janja); D. Mellström (Dan); B. Obermayer-Pietsch (Barbara); D. Olmos (David); U. Pettersson-Kymmer (Ulrika); D.M. Reid (David); J.A. Riancho (José); P.M. Ridker (Paul); M.F. Rousseau (Francois); P.E. Slagboom (Eline); N.L.S. Tang (Nelson L.S.); R. Urreizti (Roser); W. Van Hul (Wim); J. Viikari (Jorma); M.T. Zarrabeitia (María); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); M.C. Castaño Betancourt (Martha); E. Grundberg (Elin); L. Herrera (Lizbeth); T. Ingvarsson (Torvaldur); H. Johannsdottir (Hrefna); T. Kwan (Tony); R. Li (Rui); R.N. Luben (Robert); M.C. Medina-Gomez (Carolina); S.T. Palsson (Stefan Th); J.I. Rotter (Jerome I.); G. Sigurdsson (Gunnar); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); D.J. Verlaan (Dominique); F.M. Williams (Frances); A.R. Wood (Andrew); Y. Zhou (Yanhua); T. Pastinen (Tomi); S. Raychaudhuri (Soumya); J.A. Cauley (Jane); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); G.R. Clark (Graeme); S.R. Cummings (Steven R.); P. Danoy (Patrick); E.M. Dennison (Elaine); R. Eastell (Richard); J.A. Eisman (John); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); A. Hofman (Albert); R.D. Jackson (Rebecca); G. Jones (Graeme); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); K.T. Khaw; T. Lehtimäki (Terho); Y. Liu (YongMei); M. Lorentzon (Mattias); E. McCloskey (Eugene); B.D. Mitchell (Braxton); K. Nandakumar (Kannabiran); G.C. Nicholson (Geoffrey); B.A. Oostra (Ben); M. Peacock (Munro); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); R.L. Prince (Richard); O. Raitakari (Olli); I.R. Reid (Ian); J. Robbins (John); P.N. Sambrook (Philip); P.C. Sham (Pak Chung); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); F.A. Tylavsky (Frances); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); N.J. Wareham (Nicholas J.); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); M.J. Econs (Michael); D.M. Evans (David); T.B. Harris (Tamara B.); A.W.C. Kung (Annie Wai Chee); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); J. Reeve (Jonathan); T.D. Spector (Timothy); E.A. Streeten (Elizabeth); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); C. Ohlsson (Claes); D. Karasik (David); J.B. Richards (Brent); M.A. Brown (Matthew); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); S.H. Ralston (Stuart); J.P.A. Ioannidis (John P.A.); D.P. Kiel (Douglas P.); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando)
textabstractBone Mineral Density (BMD) is a highly heritable trait, but genome-wide association studies have identified few genetic risk factors. Epidemiological studies suggest associations between BMD and several traits and diseases, but the nature of the suggestive comorbidity is still unknown.
Wei, Min; Brandhorst, Sebastian; Shelehchi, Mahshid; Mirzaei, Hamed; Cheng, Chia Wei; Budniak, Julia; Groshen, Susan; Mack, Wendy J; Guen, Esra; Di Biase, Stefano; Cohen, Pinchas; Morgan, Todd E; Dorff, Tanya; Hong, Kurt; Michalsen, Andreas; Laviano, Alessandro; Longo, Valter D
Calorie restriction or changes in dietary composition can enhance healthy aging, but the inability of most subjects to adhere to chronic and extreme diets, as well as potentially adverse effects, limits their application. We randomized 100 generally healthy participants from the United States into two study arms and tested the effects of a fasting-mimicking diet (FMD)-low in calories, sugars, and protein but high in unsaturated fats-on markers/risk factors associated with aging and age-related diseases. We compared subjects who followed 3 months of an unrestricted diet to subjects who consumed the FMD for 5 consecutive days per month for 3 months. Three FMD cycles reduced body weight, trunk, and total body fat; lowered blood pressure; and decreased insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). No serious adverse effects were reported. After 3 months, control diet subjects were crossed over to the FMD program, resulting in a total of 71 subjects completing three FMD cycles. A post hoc analysis of subjects from both FMD arms showed that body mass index, blood pressure, fasting glucose, IGF-1, triglycerides, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and C-reactive protein were more beneficially affected in participants at risk for disease than in subjects who were not at risk. Thus, cycles of a 5-day FMD are safe, feasible, and effective in reducing markers/risk factors for aging and age-related diseases. Larger studies in patients with diagnosed diseases or selected on the basis of risk factors are warranted to confirm the effect of the FMD on disease prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Schramm, Tina Ken; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar; Vaag, Allan
Aims The impact of insulin secretagogues (ISs) on long-term major clinical outcomes in type 2 diabetes remains unclear. We examined mortality and cardiovascular risk associated with all available ISs compared with metformin in a nationwide study. Methods and results All Danish residents >20 years......, initiating single-agent ISs or metformin between 1997 and 2006 were followed for up to 9 years (median 3.3 years) by individual-level linkage of nationwide registers. All-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and the composite of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and cardiovascular mortality...... associated with individual ISs were investigated in patients with or without previous MI by multivariable Cox proportional-hazard analyses including propensity analyses. A total of 107 806 subjects were included, of whom 9607 had previous MI. Compared with metformin, glimepiride (hazard ratios and 95...
Full Text Available We compared the cardiovascular diseases (CVD and risk factors in patients with stage 3–5 chronic kidney disease (CKD and those with diabetes mellitus by analyzing the MAGNET study data of residents in northern Taiwan. The reimbursement of lipid-lowering therapy was also examined. Of the 1607 participants, 63 (31 men were found to have eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 and were defined as the CKD group. In parallel, 149 (73 men were found to have diabetes. Compared to the diabetic group, the CKD group was older (61.4 ± 9.0 vs 58.0 ± 8.6 years, p < 0.05. Otherwise, the distribution of CVD, hypertension, and family history of CVD, as well as the levels of serum total cholesterol, LDL-C, were similar. We also found 46.0% of the CKD group can not be reimbursed for lipid-lowering therapy. In conclusion, the findings suggested that, in this population, the cardiovascular risk was similar between the CKD and diabetic subjects.
Bot, Sandra D; Mackenbach, Joreintje D; Nijpels, Giel; Lakerveld, Jeroen
In this exploratory study we examined the associations between several social network characteristics and lifestyle behaviours in adults at increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. In addition, we explored whether similarities in lifestyle between individuals and their network members, or the level of social support perceived by these individuals, could explain these associations. From the control group of the Hoorn Prevention Study, participants with high and low educational attainment were approached for a structured interview between April and August 2010. Inclusion was stopped when fifty adults agreed to participate. Participants and a selection of their network members (e.g. spouses, best friends, neighbours, colleagues) completed a questionnaire on healthy lifestyle that included questions on fruit and vegetable intake, daily physical activity and leisure-time sedentary behaviour. We first examined associations between network characteristics and lifestyle using regression analyses. Second, we assessed associations between network characteristics and social support, social support and lifestyle, and compared the participants' lifestyles to those of their network members using concordance correlation coefficients. Fifty adults (50/83 x 100 = 62% response) and 170 of their network members (170/192 x 100 = 89% response) participated in the study. Individuals with more close-knit relationships, more friends who live nearby, and a larger and denser network showed higher levels of vegetable consumption and physical activity, and lower levels of sedentary behaviour. Perceived social norms or perceived support for behavioural change were not related to healthy lifestyle. Except for spousal concordance for vegetable intake, the lifestyle of individuals and their network members were not alike. Study results suggest that adults with a larger and denser social network have a healthier lifestyle. Underlying mechanisms for these associations should be
Hugenschmidt, Christina E; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Hayasaka, Satoru; Carr, J Jeffrey; Freedman, Barry I; Nyenhuis, David L; Williamson, Jeff D; Bowden, Donald W
We hypothesized that measures of coronary artery calcified plaque (CAC) collected at baseline from the Diabetes Heart Study (DHS) would explain associations between cognition and diabetes collected at follow-up approximately 7 years later. The DHS is a sibling study of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a cohort with a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes (~80%). Associations between baseline CAC and cognitive performance were tested using generalized estimating equations and mixed effects models to adjust for familial relationships. Diabetes status was associated (p<0.05) with poorer performance on tests of verbal memory, processing speed, and semantic fluency adjusting for age, sex, education, and hypertension status. As hypothesized, including CAC in the statistical model attenuated this association. Additionally, CAC and fasting glucose predicted performance in tasks not associated with diabetes status in this study (Stroop Task, Phonemic Fluency). These results confirm work attributing the heterogeneity of cognitive outcomes in type 2 diabetes to subclinical risk factors that combine to affect different aspects of brain function. Importantly, these results imply that risk factor intervention should begin before comorbidities, particularly CVD, become clinically apparent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ma, Wenjie; Wu, Jason H Y; Wang, Qianyi; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Djoussé, Luc; King, Irena B; Song, Xiaoling; Biggs, Mary L; Delaney, Joseph A; Kizer, Jorge R; Siscovick, David S; Mozaffarian, Dariush
Experimental evidence suggests that hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) affects insulin homeostasis via synthesis of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs). Few prospective studies have used fatty acid biomarkers to assess associations with type 2 diabetes. We investigated associations of major circulating SFAs [palmitic acid (16:0) and stearic acid (18:0)] and MUFA [oleic acid (18:1n-9)] in the DNL pathway with metabolic risk factors and incident diabetes in community-based older U.S. adults in the Cardiovascular Health Study. We secondarily assessed other DNL fatty acid biomarkers [myristic acid (14:0), palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7), 7-hexadecenoic acid (16:1n-9), and vaccenic acid (18:1n-7)] and estimated dietary SFAs and MUFAs. In 3004 participants free of diabetes, plasma phospholipid fatty acids were measured in 1992, and incident diabetes was identified by medication use and blood glucose. Usual diets were assessed by using repeated food-frequency questionnaires. Multivariable linear and Cox regression were used to assess associations with metabolic risk factors and incident diabetes, respectively. At baseline, circulating palmitic acid and stearic acid were positively associated with adiposity, triglycerides, inflammation biomarkers, and insulin resistance (P-trend < 0.01 each), whereas oleic acid showed generally beneficial associations (P-trend < 0.001 each). During 30,763 person-years, 297 incident diabetes cases occurred. With adjustment for demographics and lifestyle, palmitic acid (extreme-quintile HR: 1.89; 95% CI: 1.27, 2.83; P-trend = 0.001) and stearic acid (HR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.41; P-trend = 0.006) were associated with higher diabetes risk, whereas oleic acid was not significantly associated. In secondary analyses, vaccenic acid was inversely associated with diabetes (HR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.38, 0.83; P-trend = 0.005). Other fatty acid biomarkers and estimated dietary SFAs or MUFAs were not significantly associated with
To know the relation between the usual physical activity pattern and metabolic control and cardiovascular risk factors of people with diabetes mellitus. 144 type 1 (insulin dependent) diabetic subjects (M/F, 70/74) and 193 type 2 (non insulin dependent) diabetic patients 8M/F, 81/112) fron DNCT study (Diabetes Nutrition and Complications Trial) were included in the study from May 1993 to December 1994. Physical activity index was assessed by means of the weekly caloric expenditure based upon previously published questionnaire. At least 60% of diabetic patients had a regular exercise more than 3 times per week. Unexpected, level of HbA1c, but not other parameters, was related to the level of physical activity, in that the higher the activity the higher HbA1c level in both type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients. In the DNCT study the higher physical activity level was associated a worsening in the HbA1c level. These un expected date there are take into account when recommending physical activity to people with diabetes mellitus with no good metabolic control.
Marso, Steven P; Daniels, Gilbert H; Brown-Frandsen, Kirstine
BACKGROUND: The cardiovascular effect of liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide 1 analogue, when added to standard care in patients with type 2 diabetes, remains unknown. METHODS: In this double-blind trial, we randomly assigned patients with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk to receive ...... with liraglutide than with placebo. (Funded by Novo Nordisk and the National Institutes of Health; LEADER ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01179048.)....
Bonakdaran, S; Ebrahimzadeh, S; Noghabi, S H
The aim of this study in 2006-08 was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of CVD in an Iranian population of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. History and physical examinations were recorded and laboratory tests were performed in 752 patients attending the Mashhad Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center. The prevalence of CVD was 20.1%. CVD was significantly associated with age, duration of diabetes, hypertension, diabetic retinopathy, metabolic syndrome, renal insufficiency, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, uric acid and triglycerides/HDL ratio. Using a logistic regression model, age, metabolic syndrome and HDL cholesterol were significant independent predictors of CVD. The high prevalence of CVD in Iranian patients with type 2 diabetes underscores the importance of better detection and treatment of metabolic risk factors of CVD in these patients.
Barzilay, Joshua I.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Kizer, Jorge R.
Diabetes Mellitus exerts a strong effect on atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk into older age (beyond ages 70 to 74 years). This effect is particularly noticeable with regard to coronary artery disease and cerebral microvascular disease. Thus Diabetes Mellitus in older age deserves the same careful medical attention as it does in middle age. PMID:25453299
Full Text Available Abstract Background The topical role of uric acid and its relation to cardiovascular disease, renal disease, and hypertension is rapidly evolving. Its important role both historically and currently in the clinical clustering phenomenon of the metabolic syndrome (MS, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, atheroscleropathy, and non-diabetic atherosclerosis is of great importance. Results Uric acid is a marker of risk and it remains controversial as to its importance as a risk factor (causative role. In this review we will attempt to justify its important role as one of the many risk factors in the development of accelerated atherosclerosis and discuss its importance of being one of the multiple injurious stimuli to the endothelium, the arterial vessel wall, and capillaries. The role of uric acid, oxidative – redox stress, reactive oxygen species, and decreased endothelial nitric oxide and endothelial dysfunction cannot be over emphasized. In the atherosclerotic prooxidative environmental milieu the original antioxidant properties of uric acid paradoxically becomes prooxidant, thus contributing to the oxidation of lipoproteins within atherosclerotic plaques, regardless of their origins in the MS, T2DM, accelerated atherosclerosis (atheroscleropathy, or non-diabetic vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. In this milieu there exists an antioxidant – prooxidant urate redox shuttle. Conclusion Elevations of uric acid > 4 mg/dl should be considered a "red flag" in those patients at risk for cardiovascular disease and should alert the clinician to strive to utilize a global risk reduction program in a team effort to reduce the complications of the atherogenic process resulting in the morbid – mortal outcomes of cardiovascular disease.
Full Text Available The increasing worldwide prevalence of diabetes mellitus and obesity has projected concerns for increasing burden of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The dangers of obesity in adults and children have received more attention than ever in the recent years as more research data becomes available regarding the long-term health outcomes. Weight loss in obese and overweight subjects can be induced via intensive lifestyle modifications, medications, and/or bariatric surgery. These methods have been shown to confer overall health benefits; however, their effect on remission of preexisting diabetes mellitus and reduction in cardiovascular risk has been variable. Recent research data has offered a much better understanding of the pathophysiology and outcomes of these management strategies in obese patients. In this paper, the authors have summarized the results of major studies on remission of type 2 diabetes mellitus and reduction of cardiovascular events by weight loss induced by different methods. Furthermore, the paper aims to clarify various prevailing myths and practice patterns about obesity management among clinicians.
Zethelius, B; Gudbjörnsdottir, S; Eliasson, B; Eeg-Olofsson, K; Cederholm, J
To estimate risks of coronary heart disease (CHD), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and total mortality with low or higher levels of physical activity (PA) assessed with questionnaire, in an observational study of patients with type-2 diabetes from the Swedish National Diabetes Register. A total of 15,462 patients (60 years), were followed for 5 years from baseline in 2004 until 2009, with 760 CVD events and 427 total mortality events based on 54,344 person-years. Comparing 6963 patients with low baseline PA (never or 1-2 times/week for 30 min) and 8499 patients with higher baseline PA (regular 3 times/week or more), hazard ratios for fatal/nonfatal CHD, fatal/nonfatal CVD, fatal CVD, and total mortality were 1.25 (95% CI 1.05-1.48; p = 0.01), 1.26 (95% CI 1.09-1.45; p = 0.002), 1.69 (95% CI 1.18-2.41; p = 0.004), and 1.48 (95% CI 1.22-1.79; p < 0.001), adjusting for age, sex, diabetes duration, diabetes treatment, and smoking (model 1). Adjusting also for HbA1c, systolic blood pressure, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, body mass index, and albuminuria (model 2), HRs were 1.19 (95% CI 1.00-1.42; p = 0.049), 1.18 (95% CI 1.02-1.36; p = 0.04), 1.54 (95% CI 1.07-2.22; p = 0.02), and 1.41 (95% CI 1.16-1.72; p < 0.001), respectively. Corresponding results (model 2), comparing 4166 patients having low PA both baseline and at follow up with all other 11,296 patients were 1.68 (95% CI 1.41-2.01), 1.68 (95% CI 1.45-1.96), 2.12 (95% CI 1.48-3.03), and 2.03 (95% CI 1.66-2.48) (all p < 0.001) and compared to 2797 patients with low baseline PA and higher PA at follow up were 2.51 (95% CI 1.87-3.38), 2.54 (95% CI 1.98-3.27), 3.26 (95% CI 1.74-6.10), and 2.91 (95% CI 2.08-4.07) (all p < 0.001). This large observational study of patients with type-2 diabetes showed considerably increased risks for CVD and mortality with low PA.
Scholze, Alexandra; Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Sidelmann, Johannes J
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Fibulin-1 is one of a few extracellular matrix proteins present in blood in high concentrations. We aimed to define the relationship between plasma fibulin-1 levels and risk markers of cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Plasma fibulin-1 was determined in subjects with chronic...
Gaede, P; Hildebrandt, P; Hess, G
, myocardial infarction, stroke, revascularisation procedures in the heart or legs, and amputations. RESULTS: In the whole group, plasma NT-proBNP being above the median was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease during follow-up, with an unadjusted hazard ratio of 4.4 (95% CI 2.3-8.4; p.../INTERPRETATION: We conclude that high plasma NT-proBNP is a major risk marker for cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria........0001). A decrease in plasma NT-proBNP of 10 pg/ml during the first 2 years of intervention was associated with a 1% relative reduction in the primary endpoint (pdisease, the mean plasma NT-proBNP level increased during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Our aim was to compare the effects of a Paleolithic ('Old Stone Age' diet and a diabetes diet as generally recommended on risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes not treated with insulin. Methods In a randomized cross-over study, 13 patients with type 2 diabetes, 3 women and 10 men, were instructed to eat a Paleolithic diet based on lean meat, fish, fruits, vegetables, root vegetables, eggs and nuts; and a Diabetes diet designed in accordance with dietary guidelines during two consecutive 3-month periods. Outcome variables included changes in weight, waist circumference, serum lipids, C-reactive protein, blood pressure, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c, and areas under the curve for plasma glucose and plasma insulin in the 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Dietary intake was evaluated by use of 4-day weighed food records. Results Study participants had on average a diabetes duration of 9 years, a mean HbA1c of 6,6% units by Mono-S standard and were usually treated with metformin alone (3 subjects or metformin in combination with a sulfonylurea (3 subjects or a thiazolidinedione (3 subjects. Mean average dose of metformin was 1031 mg per day. Compared to the diabetes diet, the Paleolithic diet resulted in lower mean values of HbA1c (-0.4% units, p = 0.01, triacylglycerol (-0.4 mmol/L, p = 0.003, diastolic blood pressure (-4 mmHg, p = 0.03, weight (-3 kg, p = 0.01, BMI (-1 kg/m2, p = 0.04 and waist circumference (-4 cm, p = 0.02, and higher mean values of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (+0.08 mmol/L, p = 0.03. The Paleolithic diet was mainly lower in cereals and dairy products, and higher in fruits, vegetables, meat and eggs, as compared with the Diabetes diet. Further, the Paleolithic diet was lower in total energy, energy density, carbohydrate, dietary glycemic load, saturated fatty acids and calcium, and higher in unsaturated fatty acids, dietary cholesterol and several vitamins. Dietary GI
Bajuk Studen, Katica; Jensterle Sever, Mojca; Pfeifer, Marija
In addition to its effects on reproductive health, it is now well recognized that polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a metabolic disorder, characterized by decreased insulin sensitivity which leads to an excess lifetime risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PCOS patients are often obese, hypertensive, dyslipidemic and insulin resistant; they have obstructive sleep apnea and have been reported to have higher aldosterone levels in comparison to normal healthy controls. These are all components of an adverse cardiovascular risk profile. Many studies exploring subclinical atherosclerosis using different methods (flow-mediated dilatation, intima media thickness, arterial stiffness, coronary artery calcification) as well as assessing circulating cardiovascular risk markers, point toward an increased cardiovascular risk and early atherogenesis in PCOS. The risk and early features of subclinical atherosclerosis can be reversed by non-medical (normalization of weight, healthy lifestyle) and medical (metformin, thiazolidinediones, spironolactone, and statins) interventions. However, the long-term risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality as well as the clinical significance of different interventions still need to be properly addressed in a large prospective study. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Bała, Małgorzata M; Leśniak, Wiktoria; Płaczkiewicz-Jankowska, Ewa; Topór-Mądry, Roman; Jaeschke, Roman; Sieradzki, Jacek; Grzeszczak, Władysław; Banasiak, Waldemar
The practice guidelines of cardiological and diabetological societies emphasise that cardiovascular (CV) risk control in diabetic patients is especially important and should be stricter than in subjects without diabetes. There are little data on the frequency of meeting treatment goals in patients with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2). To characterise Polish patients with DM2 diagnosed within the previous two years and to assess if the treatment targets from the current (2008) guidelines of Diabetes Poland regarding control of CV risk factors are met. ARETAEUS1 was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study conducted in various regions of Poland in 2009 (January-April). It involved 1,714 patients of all ages and both genders, who had DM2 treated for less than 24 months. They were recruited by randomly selected physicians. Total cholesterol treatment goal ( 1.0 mmol/L in men and > 1.3 mmol/L in women) in 55%. Only 13% of the overall population met the goal of blood pressure (BP) below 130/80 mm Hg. When a less restrictive BP control threshold (two out of three treatment goals were between 8% and 33% in different subgroups. The percentages of patients meeting only one out of three treatment goals ranged from 27.8% to 46.7% or at least one - from 39% to 69%. Most patients with newly diagnosed diabetes are not meeting their treatment goals regarding control of CV risk factors, which indicates relatively low adherence to national guideline recommendations for diabetes control and primary CV prevention in DM2. Difficulties in achieving CV treatment targets in the diabetic population indicate the need for a great deal of effort on the part of clinicians and patients. Practice guidelines developers should consider what treatment targets are achievable at a reasonable expense of effort.
Dipla, Konstantina; Triantafyllou, Areti; Grigoriadou, Iris; Kintiraki, Evangelia; Triantafyllou, Georgios A; Poulios, Pavlos; Vrabas, Ioannis S; Zafeiridis, Andreas; Douma, Stella; Goulis, Dimitrios G
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a risk factor for the development of endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. However, in vivo microvascular endothelial function in GDM has not been investigated. This study aimed to examine, using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), whether: (1) there are differences in microvascular reactivity and skeletal muscle oxygen consumption (m[Formula: see text]) at rest and during exercise between GDM and uncomplicated pregnancies; and (2) there is an association of NIRS indices with macrovascular function and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Twenty-nine pregnant women (13 with GDM and 16 women with uncomplicated pregnancy, 28 ± 2 gestational weeks) underwent arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity [PWV]) and 24 h ambulatory BP (24 h BP) evaluation. NIRS continuously monitored, non-invasively, changes in muscle oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin and tissue O2 saturation index (TSI, %) during arterial occlusion/reperfusion and intermittent handgrip exercise. m[Formula: see text] and vascular reactivity indices were calculated. During occlusion and reperfusion, women with GDM exhibited slower TSI response (occlusion slope: -0.06 ± 0.02 vs -0.10 ± 0.04, in GDM and controls, respectively; reperfusion slope: 0.65 ± 0.26 vs 1.05 ± 0.41, respectively), lower m[Formula: see text] (1.3 ± 1.2 vs 3.8 ± 2.3 μmol l(-1) min(-1)) and blunted hyperaemia (ΔTSI 6.8 ± 2.9 vs 9.5 ± 3.4) compared with controls (p < 0.01). Despite similar handgrip strength in the GDM and control groups (29.1 ± 8.1 vs 26.2 ± 10.4 kg, respectively), during repeated forearm contractions, women with GDM presented a blunted TSI response (6.5 ± 3.9 vs 19.2 ± 10.9; p < 0.01) and a reduced capacity to maintain the predetermined handgrip (23.4 ± 2.9 vs 27.4 ± 3.8%, p < 0.05). NIRS indices correlated with PWV, 24 h BP and blood glucose concentration earlier in
Vázquez, Luis A; Rodríguez, Ángel; Salvador, Javier; Ascaso, Juan F; Petto, Helmut; Reviriego, Jesús
Obesity is associated with the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), but reports conflict regarding the association between obesity and macrovascular complications. In this study, we investigated associations between cardiovascular risk factors and body mass index (BMI) and glycemic control in non-insulin-treated patients with T2D. Authors gathered cross-sectional data from five observational studies performed in Spain. Generalized logit models were used to analyze the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors (independent variables) and 5 BMI strata (6.5-7%, >7-8%, >8-9%, >9%) (dependent outcomes). In total, data from 6442 patients were analyzed. Patients generally had mean values of investigated cardiovascular risk factors outside recommended thresholds. Younger patients had higher BMI, triglyceride levels and HbA1c than their older counterparts. Diastolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure and triglyceride levels were directly correlated with BMI strata, whereas an inverse correlation was observed between BMI strata and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, patient age, and duration of T2D. Increased duration of T2D and total cholesterol levels, and decreased HDL-C levels were associated with a higher HbA1c category. BMI and HbA1c levels were not associated with each other. As insulin-naïve patients with T2D became more obese, cardiovascular risk factors became more pronounced. Higher BMI was associated with younger age and shorter duration of T2D, consistent with the notion that obesity at an early age may be key to the current T2D epidemic. Glycemic control was independent of BMI but associated with abnormal lipid levels. Further efforts should be done to improve modifiable cardiovascular risk factors.
Method: One hundred and fourteen asymptomatic people living with diabetes mellitus were evaluated considering time at first diagnosis of DM irrespective of the initial care given. Cardiovascular risk factors were compared in two groups based on the median year duration of DM. A further 6 sub-grouping was done to look at.
Full Text Available Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. This study evaluated the relationship between CAN and recurrent CVD in type 2 diabetes. A total of 206 patients with type 2 diabetes who had a history of CVD within 3 years of enrollment were consecutively recruited from January 2001 to December 2009 and followed-up until December 2015. Cardiovascular autonomic function tests were performed using the following heart rate variability parameters: expiration-to-inspiration ratio, response to Valsalva maneuver and standing. We estimated the recurrence of CVD events during the follow-up period. A total of 159 (77.2% of the 206 patients enrolled completed the follow up, and 78 (49.1% patients had recurrent episodes of CVD, with an incidence rate of 75.6 per 1,000 patient-years. The mean age and diabetes duration were 62.5 ± 8.7 and 9.2 ± 6.9 years, respectively. Patients who developed recurrent CVD also exhibited hypertension (P = 0.004, diabetic nephropathy (P = 0.012, higher mean systolic blood pressure (P = 0.006, urinary albumin excretion (P = 0.015, and mean triglyceride level (P = 0.035 than did patients without recurrent CVD. Multivariable Cox hazard regression analysis revealed that definite CAN was significantly associated with an increased risk of recurrent CVD (hazard ratio [HR] 3.03; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.39-6.60; P = 0.005. Definite CAN was an independent predictor for recurrent CVD in patients with type 2 diabetes who had a known prior CVD event.
Divala, Oscar H; Amberbir, Alemayehu; Ismail, Zahra; Beyene, Teferi; Garone, Daniela; Pfaff, Colin; Singano, Victor; Akello, Harriet; Joshua, Martias; Nyirenda, Moffat J; Matengeni, Alfred; Berman, Josh; Mallewa, Jane; Chinomba, Gift S; Kayange, Noel; Allain, Theresa J; Chan, Adrienne K; Sodhi, Sumeet K; van Oosterhout, Joep J
Hypertension and diabetes prevalence is high in Africans. Data from HIV infected populations are limited, especially from Malawi. Integrating care for chronic non-communicable co-morbidities in well-established HIV services may provide benefit for patients by preventing multiple hospital visits but will increase the burden of care for busy HIV clinics. Cross-sectional study of adults (≥18 years) at an urban and a rural HIV clinic in Zomba district, Malawi, during 2014. Hypertension and diabetes were diagnosed according to stringent criteria. Proteinuria, non-fasting lipids and cardio/cerebro-vascular disease (CVD) risk scores (Framingham and World Health Organization/International Society for Hypertension) were determined. The association of patient characteristics with diagnoses of hypertension and diabetes was studied using multivariable analyses. We explored the additional burden of care for integrated drug treatment of hypertension and diabetes in HIV clinics. We defined that burden as patients with diabetes and/or stage II and III hypertension, but not with stage I hypertension unless they had proteinuria, previous stroke or high Framingham CVD risk. Nine hundred fifty-two patients were enrolled, 71.7% female, median age 43.0 years, 95.9% on antiretroviral therapy (ART), median duration 47.7 months. Rural and urban patients' characteristics differed substantially. Hypertension prevalence was 23.7% (95%-confidence interval 21.1-26.6; rural 21.0% vs. urban 26.5%; p = 0.047), of whom 59.9% had stage I (mild) hypertension. Diabetes prevalence was 4.1% (95%-confidence interval 3.0-5.6) without significant difference between rural and urban settings. Prevalence of proteinuria, elevated total/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio and high CVD risk score was low. Hypertension diagnosis was associated with increasing age, higher body mass index, presence of proteinuria, being on regimen zidovudine/lamivudine/nevirapine and inversely with World Health
Sympathovagal imbalance contributes to prehypertension status and cardiovascular risks attributed by insulin resistance, inflammation, dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in first degree relatives of type 2 diabetics.
Gopal Krushna Pal
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Though cardiovascular (CV risks are reported in first-degree relatives (FDR of type 2 diabetics, the pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to these risks are not known. We investigated the association of sympathovagal imbalance (SVI with CV risks in these subjects. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Body mass index (BMI, basal heart rate (BHR, blood pressure (BP, rate-pressure product (RPP, spectral indices of heart rate variability (HRV, autonomic function tests, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, lipid profile, inflammatory markers, oxidative stress (OS marker, rennin, thyroid profile and serum electrolytes were measured and analyzed in subjects of study group (FDR of type 2 diabetics, n = 72 and control group (subjects with no family history of diabetes, n = 104. RESULTS: BMI, BP, BHR, HOMA-IR, lipid profile, inflammatory and OS markers, renin, LF-HF (ratio of low-frequency to high-frequency power of HRV, a sensitive marker of SVI were significantly increased (p<0.0001 in study group compared to the control group. SVI in study group was due to concomitant sympathetic activation and vagal inhibition. There was significant correlation and independent contribution of markers of insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, inflammation and OS to LF-HF ratio. Multiple-regression analysis demonstrated an independent contribution of LF-HF ratio to prehypertension status (standardized beta 0.415, p<0.001 and bivariate logistic-regression showed significant prediction (OR 2.40, CI 1.128-5.326, p = 0.002 of LF-HF ratio of HRV to increased RPP, the marker of CV risk, in study group. CONCLUSION: SVI in FDR of type 2 diabetics occurs due to sympathetic activation and vagal withdrawal. The SVI contributes to prehypertension status and CV risks caused by insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, inflammation and oxidative stress in FDR of type 2 diabetics.
Raisch Dennis W
Full Text Available Abstract Background Health utility (HU measures are used as overall measures of quality of life and to determine quality adjusted life years (QALYs in economic analyses. We compared baseline values of three HUs including Short Form 6 Dimensions (SF-6D, and Health Utilities Index, Mark II and Mark III (HUI2 and HUI3 and the feeling thermometer (FT among type 2 diabetes participants in the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD trial. We assessed relationships between HU and FT values and patient demographics and clinical variables. Methods ACCORD was a randomized clinical trial to test if intensive controls of glucose, blood pressure and lipids can reduce the risk of major cardiovascular disease (CVD events in type 2 diabetes patients with high risk of CVD. The health-related quality of life (HRQOL sub-study includes 2,053 randomly selected participants. Interclass correlations (ICCs and agreement between measures by quartile were used to evaluate relationships between HU’s and the FT. Multivariable regression models specified relationships between patient variables and each HU and the FT. Results The ICCs were 0.245 for FT/SF-6D, 0.313 for HUI3/SF-6D, 0.437 for HUI2/SF-6D, 0.338 for FT/HUI2, 0.337 for FT/HUI3 and 0.751 for HUI2/HUI3 (P P P Conclusions The agreements between the different HUs were poor except for the two HUI measures; therefore HU values derived different measures may not be comparable. The FT had low agreement with HUs. The relationships between HUs and demographic and clinical measures demonstrate how severity of diabetes and other clinical and demographic factors are associated with HUs and FT measures. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00000620
Dunkley, A J; Tyrer, F; Doherty, Y; Martin-Stacey, L; Patel, N; Spong, R; Makepeace, C; Bhaumik, S; Gangadharan, S K; Yates, T; Davies, M J; Khunti, K
We report on the development of the 'STOP Diabetes' education programme, a multi-component lifestyle behaviour change intervention for the prevention of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). We combined qualitative stakeholder interviews with evidence reviews to develop the intervention, guided by the MRC Framework and informed by intervention mapping and two existing diabetes prevention programmes. We conducted two pilot cycles drawing on additional stakeholder interviews to inform and refine the intervention. The STOP Diabetes education programme employed a theoretical framework, using sound learning and behavioural principles and concrete kinaesthetic methods, to provide the grounding for innovative games and activities to promote health behaviour change in adults with ID. Qualitative data also suggested that two educators and one support person delivering a programme of one carer session followed by seven 2.5-h sessions over 7 weeks was acceptable to service users, carers and educators and appeared to benefit the participants. The STOP Diabetes education programme was successfully developed and is suitable for a definitive randomized controlled trial.
S.W.J. Lamberts (Steven); J.A.M.J.L. Janssen (Joseph)
textabstractThe incidence of peripheral, cerebro- and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus is approximately twice as high as in the non-diabetic population. Conventional cardiovascular risk factors such as plasma lipids, lipoproteins and
Ghotbi, Adam Ali; Køber, Lars; Finer, Nick
To assess the association of hypoglycemic treatment regimens with cardiovascular adverse events and mortality in a large population of type 2 diabetic patients at increased cardiovascular risk.......To assess the association of hypoglycemic treatment regimens with cardiovascular adverse events and mortality in a large population of type 2 diabetic patients at increased cardiovascular risk....
Valdés, Sergio; García-Torres, Francisca; Maldonado-Araque, Cristina; Goday, Albert; Calle-Pascual, Alfonso; Soriguer, Federico; Castaño, Luis; Catalá, Miguel; Gomis, Ramon; Rojo-Martínez, Gemma
The aim of this study was to compare the prevalences of obesity, diabetes and other cardiovascular risk factors in the region of Andalusia with those in the rest of Spain. The Di@bet.es study is a national, cross-sectional, population-based survey of cardiometabolic risk factors and their association with lifestyle. The sample consisted of 5103 participants ≥ 18 years. The variables analyzed were clinical, demographic and lifestyle survey, physical examination, and oral glucose tolerance test. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in Andalusia (n=1517) was compared with that for the rest of Spain (n=3586). In data adjusted to the Spanish population, the prevalence of diabetes (World Health Organization, 1999), hypertension (blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg), high-sensitivity CRP levels (≥ 3 mg/L) and obesity (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) were 16.3%, 43.9%, 32.0%, and 37.0% in Andalusia compared with 12.5%, 39.9%, 28.3%, and 26.6% in the rest of Spain (Pdiabetes, hypertension and high-sensitivity CRP were not significant in models adjusted for age, sex, and adiposity measurements. Differences in obesity were not significant in models adjusted for age, sex, educational level, marital status, work status, and physical activity (P=.086) CONCLUSIONS: This study contributes information from a national study perspective and shows a higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in southern Spain, in close relation to obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, and markers of socioeconomic disadvantage. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Nightingale, Claire M; Rudnicka, Alicja R; Owen, Christopher G; Newton, Sian L; Bales, Jennifer L; Donin, Angela S; McKay, Cathy M; Steer, Phillip J; Lawlor, Debbie A; Sattar, Naveed; Cook, Derek G; Whincup, Peter H
Lower birthweight (a marker of fetal undernutrition) is associated with higher risks of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and could explain ethnic differences in these diseases. We examined associations between birthweight and risk markers for diabetes and CVD in UK-resident white European, South Asian and black African-Caribbean children. In a cross-sectional study of risk markers for diabetes and CVD in 9- to 10-year-old children of different ethnic origins, birthweight was obtained from health records and/or parental recall. Associations between birthweight and risk markers were estimated using multilevel linear regression to account for clustering in children from the same school. Key data were available for 3,744 (66%) singleton study participants. In analyses adjusted for age, sex and ethnicity, birthweight was inversely associated with serum urate and positively associated with systolic BP. After additional height adjustment, lower birthweight (per 100 g) was associated with higher serum urate (0.52%; 95% CI 0.38, 0.66), fasting serum insulin (0.41%; 95% CI 0.08, 0.74), HbA1c (0.04%; 95% CI 0.00, 0.08), plasma glucose (0.06%; 95% CI 0.02, 0.10) and serum triacylglycerol (0.30%; 95% CI 0.09, 0.51) but not with BP or blood cholesterol. Birthweight was lower among children of South Asian (231 g lower; 95% CI 183, 280) and black African-Caribbean origin (81 g lower; 95% CI 30, 132). However, adjustment for birthweight had no effect on ethnic differences in risk markers. Birthweight was inversely associated with urate and with insulin and glycaemia after adjustment for current height. Lower birthweight does not appear to explain emerging ethnic difference in risk markers for diabetes.
Garzón, Gerardo; Gil, Ángel; Herrero, Ana María; Jiménez, Fernando; Cerezo, María José; Domínguez, Cristina
To determine the proportion of patients with type 2 diabetes with and without cardiovascular disease achieving the main cardiovascular goals. Cross-sectional study. A regional health district in a European country, Spain. Year: 2013. Adult patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes with and without cardiovascular disease. Study using secondary data obtained from electronic records of clinical history. Haemoglobin A1c, blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, smoking and medication were covered. n=49,658 RESULTS: The proportion of patients with diabetes achieving cardiovascular goals (among those with recent measurement) was: haemoglobin A1c 68.8% (CI95%:68.2%-69.4%), blood pressure 74.3% (CI95%:73.9%-74.7%), LDL cholesterol 59.8% (CI95%:59.0%-60.6%), tobacco 80.2% (CI95%:79.6%-80.8%). Only 40%-67% of patients has recent measurement. Only 48.0% (CI95%: 46.6%-49.4%) of patients who needed statins were receiving them. Higher proportion of patients with cardiovascular disease were achiving goals. Differences were small but significant. Cardiovascular goals were measured in around half of patients with diabetes. Proportion of patients achiving cardiovascular goals were similar to published and best in patients with cardiovascular disease but it could improve. This points to prioritising interventions in this group of patients at very high risk, improving the implementation of guidelines and patient adherence. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Gómez-Huelgas, R; Sabán-Ruiz, J; García-Román, F J; Quintela-Fernández, N; Seguí-Ripoll, J M; Bonilla-Hernández, M V; Romero-Meliá, G
To assess the safety and efficacy of a basal-plus (BP) regimen with insulin glargine (as basal insulin) and insulin glulisine (as prandial insulin) with the main meal for elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and high cardiovascular risk, following standard clinical practice. An observational, retrospective study was conducted in 21 centres of internal medicine in Spain. The study included patients aged 65 years or older with DM2, undergoing treatment with a BP regimen for 4 to 12 months before inclusion in the study and a diagnosis of cardiovascular disease or high cardiovascular risk. The primary endpoint was the change in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) from the introduction of the glulisine to inclusion in the study. The study included 198 patients (mean age, 74±6.4 years; males, 52%). After at least 4 months of treatment with the BP regimen, started with the addition of glulisine, the mean HbA1c value decreased significantly (9±1.5% vs. 7.7±1.1%; P<.001), and almost 24% of the patients reached HbA1c levels of 7.5-8%. Furthermore, blood glucose levels under fasting conditions decreased significantly (190.6±73.2mg/dl vs. 138.9±38.2mg/dl; P<.001). A total of 35 patients (17.7%) had some hypoglycaemia during the month prior to the start of the study, and 2 cases (1.01%) of severe hypoglycaemia were detected. The BP strategy could significantly improve blood glucose control in patients 65 years of age or older with DM2 and high cardiovascular risk and is associated with a low risk of severe hypoglycaemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.
Cardiovascular safety and efficacy of the PCSK9 inhibitor evolocumab in patients with and without diabetes and the effect of evolocumab on glycaemia and risk of new-onset diabetes: a prespecified analysis of the FOURIER randomised controlled trial.
Sabatine, Marc S; Leiter, Lawrence A; Wiviott, Stephen D; Giugliano, Robert P; Deedwania, Prakash; De Ferrari, Gaetano M; Murphy, Sabina A; Kuder, Julia F; Gouni-Berthold, Ioanna; Lewis, Basil S; Handelsman, Yehuda; Pineda, Armando Lira; Honarpour, Narimon; Keech, Anthony C; Sever, Peter S; Pedersen, Terje R
The proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor evolocumab reduced LDL cholesterol and cardiovascular events in the FOURIER trial. In this prespecified analysis of FOURIER, we investigated the efficacy and safety of evolocumab by diabetes status and the effect of evolocumab on glycaemia and risk of developing diabetes. FOURIER was a randomised trial of evolocumab (140 mg every 2 weeks or 420 mg once per month) versus placebo in 27 564 patients with atherosclerotic disease who were on statin therapy, followed up for a median of 2·2 years. In this prespecified analysis, we investigated the effect of evolocumab on cardiovascular events by diabetes status at baseline, defined on the basis of patient history, clinical events committee review of medical records, or baseline HbA 1c of 6·5% (48 mmol/mol) or greater or fasting plasma glucose (FPG) of 7·0 mmol/L or greater. The primary endpoint was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, hospital admission for unstable angina, or coronary revascularisation. The key secondary endpoint was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. We also assessed the effect of evolocumab on glycaemia, and on the risk of new-onset diabetes among patients without diabetes at baseline. HbA 1c was measured at baseline then every 24 weeks and FPG was measured at baseline, week 12, week 24, and every 24 weeks thereafter, and potential cases of new-onset diabetes were adjudicated centrally. In a post-hoc analysis, we also investigated the effects on glycaemia and diabetes risk in patients with prediabetes (HbA 1c 5·7-6·4% [39-46 mmol/mol] or FPG 5·6-6·9 mmol/L) at baseline. FOURIER is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01764633. At study baseline, 11 031 patients (40%) had diabetes and 16 533 (60%) did not have diabetes (of whom 10 344 had prediabetes and 6189 had normoglycaemia). Evolocumab significantly reduced cardiovascular outcomes
Moradi, Sedighe; Sahebi, Zeinab; Ebrahim Valojerdi, Ameneh; Rohani, Farzaneh; Ebrahimi, Hooman
Patients with diabetes type2 should receive regular medical care. We aimed at investigating the association between the number of office visits and improvement of their cardiovascular-risk factors. Four hundred and ninety patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were followed in a tertiary center were enrolled in this longitudinal study. The minimum follow up period was 3 years. Patient data were extracted from manual or electronic records. Sixty- four percent of cases were females, the mean age was 61 ± 12.45 years, and the mean disease duration was 6.5 ±7.9 years. The mean number of office visits was 2.69 ± 0.91 per year. Comparing the means of each of the cardio-vascular risk factors showed a significant decrease in all cardiovascular risk factors, while there was a significant weight gain over the same period. The association between changes in these parameters and the number of patients' office visits per year were not statistically significant. In patients with disease duration less than 5 years, each additional office visits by one visit per year was associated with a decrease in serum total cholesterol by 6.94 mg/dl. The mean number of office visits per year in patients older than 60 years old was more than younger patient (p = 0.001). The decrease in the mean values of the investigated parameters was statistically significant between the first year of follow up and the following years. Yet, these changes were not related to the mean number of patients' office visits per year, which may reflect the poor compliance of patients to treatment regardless of the number of their office visits.
Dyslipidemias are possible debilitating outcomes of diabetes and important predictors of cardiovascular disease risk in diabetic patients. We carried out a cross-sectional, case control study from April to July 2014 at the Ngaoundere Regional Hospital involving 90 patients: 45 diabetics (10 type 1 and 35 type 2) and 45 ...
This thesis aimed to study the relation of diet with risk of type 2 diabetes and intermediate risk markers of diabetes. We investigated the effect of cis9, trans11 conjugated linoleic acid (c9,t11 CLA) supplementation on pulse wave velocity and cardiovascular risk factors in a randomized, controlled
Pignone, Michael; Williams, Craig D.
Aspirin is effective for the prevention of cardiovascular events in patients with a history of vascular disease, as so-called secondary prevention. In general populations with no history of previous myocardial infarction or stroke, aspirin also seems useful for primary prevention of cardiovascular events, although the absolute benefits are smaller than those seen in patients with previous cardiovascular disease. Patients with diabetes mellitus are at an increased risk of cardiovascular events, but new trials have raised questions about the benefit of aspirin for primary prevention in patients with this disorder. This Review comprehensively examines the basic pharmacology of aspirin and provides an overview of the randomized, controlled trials of aspirin therapy that have included patients with diabetes mellitus. On the basis of currently available evidence from primary prevention trials, aspirin is estimated to reduce the relative risk of myocardial infarction and stroke by about 10% in patients with diabetes mellitus; however, aspirin also increases the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding. As such, low-dose aspirin therapy (75–162 mg) is reasonable for patients with diabetes mellitus and a 10-year risk of cardiovascular events >10%. Results from upcoming large trials will help clarify the effects of aspirin with greater precision, including whether the benefits differ between men and women. PMID:20856266
Lifestyle interventions produce short-term improvements in glycemia and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus, but no long-term data are available. We examined the effects of lifestyle intervention on changes in weight, fitness, and CVD risk factors d...
Osonoi, Yusuke; Mita, Tomoya; Osonoi, Takeshi; Saito, Miyoko; Tamasawa, Atsuko; Nakayama, Shiho; Someya, Yuki; Ishida, Hidenori; Kanazawa, Akio; Gosho, Masahiko; Fujitani, Yoshio; Watada, Hirotaka
While some dietary patterns are associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), the relationship between dietary pattern and risk factors for CVD in patients with T2DM remains to be clarified. The aim of this study was to identify dietary patterns and investigate the relationship between dietary patterns and potential risk factors for CVD in patients with T2DM. The study participants comprised 726 Japanese T2DM outpatients free of history of CVD. Life styles were analyzed using self-reported questionnaires. The relationship between dietary patterns, identified by factor analysis, and potential risk factors for CVD was investigated by linear and logistic regression analyses. Six dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis. Especially, three dietary patterns were associated with risk factors for CVD. The "Seaweeds, Vegetables, Soy products and Mushrooms" pattern, characterized by high consumption of seaweeds, soy products and mushrooms, was associated with lower use of diabetes medication and healthier lifestyles. The "Noodle and Soup" pattern, characterized by high consumption of noodle and soup was associated with higher body mass index, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase and triglyceride levels. The "Fruit, Dairy products and Sweets" pattern was associated with lower γ-glutamyl transpeptidase levels, blood pressure, albuminuria and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity. The findings suggested that dietary patterns correlated with risk factors for CVD in T2DM patients.
Masmiquel, L; Leiter, L A; Vidal, J; Bain, S; Petrie, J; Franek, E; Raz, I; Comlekci, A; Jacob, S; van Gaal, L; Baeres, F M M; Marso, S P; Eriksson, M
Epidemiological data on obesity are needed, particularly in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and high cardiovascular (CV) risk. We used the baseline data of liraglutide effect and action in diabetes: evaluation of CV outcome results-A long term Evaluation (LEADER) (a clinical trial to assess the CV safety of liraglutide) to investigate: (i) prevalence of overweight and obesity; (ii) relationship of the major cardiometabolic risk factors with anthropometric measures of adiposity [body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC)]; and (iii) cardiometabolic treatment intensity in relation to BMI and WC. LEADER enrolled two distinct populations of high-risk patients with T2DM in 32 countries: (1) aged ≥50 years with prior CV disease; (2) aged ≥60 years with one or more CV risk factors. Associations of metabolic variables, demographic variables and treatment intensity with anthropometric measurements (BMI and WC) were explored using regression models (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01179048). Mean BMI was 32.5 ± 6.3 kg/m(2) and only 9.1 % had BMI LEADER confers a unique opportunity to explore the longitudinal effect of weight on CV risk factors and hard endpoints.
Veronelli, Annamaria; Mauri, Chiara; Zecchini, Barbara; Peca, Maria Grazia; Turri, Olivia; Valitutti, Maria Teresa; dall'Asta, Chiara; Pontiroli, Antonio E
Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is characterized by reduced sexual appetite and altered psychologic and physiologic response to sexual intercourse; it is reported to be frequent in diabetes mellitus, but no data have been reported in thyroid disorders. To compare the prevalence of FSD in diabetic, in obese, and in hypothyroid women vs. healthy women, and to correlate FSD with endocrine and metabolic profiles. We evaluated, through a questionnaire (Female Sexual Function Index [FSFI]), the prevalence of FSD in 91 women affected by diabetes mellitus, obesity, or hypothyroidism, and in 36 healthy women, all aged 22-51 years and in premenopausal state. FSFI score, endocrine and metabolic parameters (triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein [HDL] and low-density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol, free-triiodothyronine (FT3), free-thyroxine (FT4), thyroid stimulating hormone [TSH], 17-beta-estradiol, testosterone, glycated hemoglobin 1c (HbA1c), thyroid autoantibodies, E-selectin, P-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 [ICAM-1], plasminogen-activator inhibitor-1 [PAI-1]), and anthropometric parameters (body mass index, waist, blood pressure [BP]). A reduced FSFI score was more frequent in diabetic, obese, and hypothyroid women vs. healthy women (P obese, and in hypothyroid women, associated with markers of cardiovascular risk.
Møller, Katrine Dragsbæk; Neergaard, Jesper; Laursen, Janne Marie
) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in elderly Caucasian women. We further investigated if stratification of individuals not defined with MetS would add predictive power in defining future disease prevalence of individuals with MetS. The Prospective Epidemiological Risk Factor Study, a community-based cohort study......, followed 3905 Danish women since 2000 (age: 70.1±6.5) with no previous diagnosis of T2DM or CVD, holding all measurements used for MetS definition; central obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and hyperglycemia combined with register-based follow-up information. Elderly women with defined MetS presented...
Ahmad, Faraz S; Ning, Hongyan; Rich, Jonathan D; Yancy, Clyde W; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Wilkins, John T
This study was designed to quantify the relationship between the absence of heart failure risk factors in middle age and incident heart failure, heart failure-free survival, and overall survival. Quantification of years lived free from heart failure in the context of risk factor burden in mid-life may improve risk communication and prevention efforts. We conducted a pooled, individual-level analysis sampling from communities across the United States as part of 4 cohort studies: the Framingham Heart, Framingham Offspring, Chicago Heart Association Detection Project in Industry, and ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities) studies. Participants with and without hypertension (blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg or treatment), obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m 2 ), or diabetes (fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dl or treatment), and combinations of these factors, at index ages of 45 years and 55 years through 95 years. Competing risk-adjusted Cox models, a modified Kaplan-Meier estimator, and Irwin's restricted mean were used to estimate the association between the absence of risk factors at mid-life and incident heart failure, heart failure-free survival, and overall survival. For participants at age 45 years, over 516,537 person-years of follow-up, 1,677 incident heart failure events occurred. Men and women with no risk factors, compared to those with all 3, had 73% to 85% lower risks of incident heart failure. Men and women without hypertension, obesity, or diabetes at age 45 years lived on average 34.7 years and 38.0 years without incident heart failure, and they lived on average an additional 3 years to 15 years longer free of heart failure than those with 1, 2, or 3 risk factors. Similar trends were seen when stratified by race and at index age 55 years. Prevention of hypertension, obesity, and diabetes by ages 45 years and 55 years may substantially prolong heart failure-free survival, decrease heart failure-related morbidity, and reduce the public health impact of
Sun, Xingxing; Du, Tingting; Huo, Rui; Xu, Lixian
Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) has been recommended as an optional method for diagnosing diabetes. The impact of HbA1c on the diagnosis of diabetes has not been evaluated in China, a country with the greatest number of people with diabetes in the world. Hence, we aim to examine how well HbA1c performs as compared with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) for diagnosing diabetes in Chinese population. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 7,641 Chinese men and women aged ≥18 years using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey 2009 in which FPG and standardized HbA1c were measured. HbA1c was measured with high-performance liquid chromatography system. Diabetes is defined as having FPG ≥7 mmol/l or HbA1c ≥6.5 %. Overall, 5.0 and 5.8 % had undiagnosed diabetes by FPG ≥7 mmol/l and HbA1c ≥6.5 %, respectively. Overlap between HbA1c- and FPG-based diagnosis of diabetes was limited (n = 214, 34.9 %). Similar trends were noted in both genders, all age groups, urban/rural settings, regions, body mass index (BMI) categories, waist circumference (WC) groups, and blood pressure status. Solely HbA1c-defined individuals exhibited higher levels of BMI, WC, total cholesterol, and hypersensitive C-reactive protein and lower levels of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. We note limited overlap between FPG- and HbA1c-based diagnosis of diabetes. The limited overlap between FPG- and HbA1c-based diagnosis of diabetes persisted in each evaluated subgroup. HbA1c criterion for the diagnosis of diabetes identifies individuals with a worse cardiovascular risk profile compared with FPG.
Review: Chronic inflammation and cardiovascular risk. 18. Vol 52 No 1. SA Fam Pract 2010. SA Fam Pract 2010;52(1): 18. Much evidence points towards inflammation as a key regulatory process linking cardiovascular risk factors for atherosclerosis and its complications to an altered arterial biology.1 Systemic inflammatory ...
Mesa García, María Dolores; García-Rodríguez, Cruz Erika; Rico, María de la Cruz; Aguilera, Concepción María; Pérez-Rodríguez, Milagros; Pérez-de-la-Cruz, Antonio Jesús; Gil, Ángel
Reducing the dietary glycaemic response has been proposed as a way to reduce the risk of diabetes complications. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk biomarkers in fragile, elderly type 2 diabetes patients after the intake of a new fructose-free diabetes-specific formula enriched with resistant-starch type IV and high in monounsaturated fatty acids. Forty-one type 2 diabetes patients aged 78.9 ± 2.8 years were fed exclusively with an enteral diabetes-specific formula for 6 weeks. Data were collected at baseline and after 6 weeks of feeding. Carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and inflammatory and cardiovascular risk biomarkers were measured to evaluated the course of diabetes complications. Blood glycated haemoglobin significantly decreased after the intervention (6.1 ± 0.1 vs. 5.8 ± 0.1 %; p< 0,045), as well as monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and soluble E-selectin (p < 0.05), while soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 tended to decrease from baseline to 6 weeks (p = 0.084 and p = 0.05, respectively). The new product improves glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk without altering lipid metabolism, which is useful for the prevention of diabetic complications. Longer intervention studies are needed in order to validate these results in a larger population.
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), which involves the heart, brain, and peripheral circulation, is a major health problem world-wide. The development of atherosclerosis is a complex process, and several established risk factors are involved. Nevertheless, these established risk factors
Risks for cardiovascular disease, stroke, ischaemic heart disease, and diabetes mellitus associated with the metabolic syndrome using the new harmonised definition: findings from nationally representative longitudinal data from an Asian population.
Khang, Young-Ho; Cho, Sung-Il; Kim, Hye-Ryun
We examined the risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, ischaemic heart disease, and diabetes with the metabolic syndrome according to the new harmonised definition and its components using a national longitudinal data set from an Asian population. Data of 9791 men and women aged 20+ from 1998 and 2001 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were individually linked to national hospitalisation and mortality data using unique personal identification numbers. During a 5.8-year follow-up through 2005, 288 incident cardiovascular events (184 strokes and 122 cases of ischaemic heart disease) and 85 new diabetes cases have been detected. Men and women with the metabolic syndrome had 48%, 39%, 64%, and 127% greater risks of cardiovascular disease, stroke, ischaemic heart disease, and diabetes, respectively, than those without the metabolic syndrome. The increased risks of cardiovascular disease, ischaemic heart disease, and diabetes remained significant after adjusting for health behaviours, bio-clinical factors, family history, and socio-demographic factors. Analysis results on population attributable risks showed that about a quarter of total diabetes occurrence and more than 10% of cardiovascular disease was attributable to the metabolic syndrome. The number of metabolic syndrome components was linearly associated with risks of outcomes. High blood pressure was significantly associated with all four outcomes while hypertriglyceridemia and hyperglycemia were also important for ischaemic heart disease and diabetes, respectively. Reduction of metabolic risk factors is necessary in South Korea to lower the burden of associated diseases, especially ever-increasing ischaemic heart disease and diabetes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rojo-Martínez, Gemma; Valdés, Sergio; Colomo, Natalia; Lucena, M Isabel; Gaztambide, Sonia; Gomis, Ramón; Casamitjana, Roser; Carmena, Rafael; Catalá, Miguel; Martínez-Larrad, María T; Serrano-Ríos, Manuel; Castaño, Luis; Vendrell, Joan; Girbés, Juan; Franch, Josep; Vázquez, José A; Mora-Peces, Inmaculada; Urrutia, Inés; Pascual-Manich, Gemma; Ortega, Emilio; Menéndez, Edelmiro; Delgado, Elias; Bordiú, Elena; Castell, Conxa; López-Alba, Alfonso; Goday, Alberto; Calle, Alfonso; Bosch-Comas, Anna; Soriguer, Federico
To assess the patterns of use of 8 therapeutic drug groups for the treatment of diabetes mellitus and other cardiovascular risk factors, and to identify sociodemographic and health determinants of their use in the overall Spanish population. A representative sample of the Spanish population within the Di@bet.es study, a cross-sectional population-based survey, was included. sociodemographic, clinical, and lifestyle data; physical examination, and an oral glucose tolerance test in patients without known diabetes mellitus. Furthermore, patients were systematically queried about current medication use, and 8 pharmacotherapeutic groups were evaluated: lipid-lowering therapy, antihypertensives, oral hypoglycemic agents, insulin, thyroid hormone, uricosurics, psychoactive drugs, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Sixty-six percent of the Spanish population was taking at least one medication. Therapeutic drug use was associated with age, independently of the higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, or hyperlipidemia in older patients. Sex disparities were found in the use of lipid-lowering agents, allopurinol, levothyroxine, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and psychoactive drugs. Use of psychoactive drugs was related to education level, work status, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Almost 30% of patients with diabetes mellitus were taking 6 or more medications daily. Diabetes mellitus was associated with greater use of antihypertensives, lipid-lowering agents, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Age and sex are the most important factors determining therapeutic drug use. Lifestyle patterns and sociocultural factors have an impact only on psychoactive drug use. Diabetes mellitus is associated with greater use of antihypertensives, lipid-lowering agents, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Asieh Sadat Mousavian
Full Text Available People with type II diabetes have more liver function abnormalities than non-diabetics. Recent studies have shown the mutual relationship between metabolic conditions of type II diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Therefore, this study explores the effects of synthetic aerobic exercises on the indicators of liver inflammation (AST & ALT and some of the cardiovascular risk factors of serum of the middle-aged women with diabetes (HDL, LDL, & triglyceride who live in Behbahan city. Methodology: In this study, 30 participants were selected randomly from among women with type II diabetes with BMI>25, aged 45-60, and divided into control and experimental groups. The participants of the practicing group practiced 12 weeks (three days a week with the intensity of 55-70 % maximum heart rate (MHR and 35-50 minutes per session. The results were analyzed with SPSS and dependent ttest was used to compare the average score of each group in pretest, and independent t-test was used to compare the averages of the different variables between two groups. Results: According to the results, 12 weeks of aerobic exercise have significant effect (p<0/05 on the level of alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase of participant's serum. In addition, the results have shown that 12 weeks of aerobic exercise have significant effect (p<0/05 on high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and triglyceride of the participants. Conclusion: It can be concluded that synthetic aerobic exercise can be effective in the conditions of patients with type II diabetes with reducing some indicators of liver inflammation and improving the lipid profile of serum of the participants.
Holley, J.L.; Fenton, R.A.; Arthur, R.S. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (USA))
This study assessed the usefulness of thallium stress testing as a predictor of perioperative cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing cadaveric renal transplantation. Demographic factors influencing the exercise performance in these patients were also examined. The medical records of 189 consecutive patients with diabetic nephropathy who were evaluated for cadaveric renal transplantation were reviewed. Thallium stress testing was the initial examination of cardiovascular status in 141 patients. An adequate examination was one in which at least 70% of maximum heart rate was achieved. A thallium stress test was normal if there were no ST segment depressions on the electrocardiogram and no perfusion abnormalities on the thallium scan. Forty-four patients underwent cardiac catheterization as the initial evaluation (Group C) and four patients underwent transplantation without a formal cardiovascular evaluation (Group D). Sixty-four of the 141 patients undergoing thallium stress testing had an adequate and normal examination (Group A). The incidence of perioperative cardiac events in this group was 2%. Seventy-seven patients (Group B) had an abnormal (n = 41) or an inadequate (n = 36) thallium stress test and most (n = 61) then underwent coronary angiography. The use of beta-blockers was the only predictor of an abnormal or inadequate thallium stress test. Forty-three percent of patients with inadequate or abnormal thallium stress tests had significant coronary artery disease on cardiac catheterization. The perioperative risk of cardiac events was not different in Group A versus Groups B, C, and D combined. Survival of Group A and B patients was not different but was significantly longer than that of Group C patients.
Fuchs, M.; Hoekstra, J. B. L.; Mudde, A. H.
The American Diabetes Association and the World Health Organisation have recently redefined the spectrum of abnormal glucose tolerance. The criteria for diabetes mellitus were sharpened and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) were classified as intermediate stages
Holman, Rury R; Haffner, Steven M; McMurray, John J
The ability of short-acting insulin secretagogues to reduce the risk of diabetes or cardiovascular events in people with impaired glucose tolerance is unknown.......The ability of short-acting insulin secretagogues to reduce the risk of diabetes or cardiovascular events in people with impaired glucose tolerance is unknown....
McMurray, John J; Holman, Rury R; Haffner, Steven M
It is not known whether drugs that block the renin-angiotensin system reduce the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular events in patients with impaired glucose tolerance.......It is not known whether drugs that block the renin-angiotensin system reduce the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular events in patients with impaired glucose tolerance....
Kovacic, Jason C; Castellano, Jose M; Farkouh, Michael E; Fuster, Valentin
There is a looming global epidemic of obesity and diabetes. Of all the end-organ effects caused by diabetes, the cardiovascular system is particularly susceptible to the biologic perturbations caused by this disease, and many patients may die from diabetes-related cardiovascular complications. Substantial progress has been made in understanding the pathobiology of the diabetic vasculature and heart. Clinical studies have illuminated the optimal way to treat patients with cardiovascular manifestations of this disease. This article reviews these aspects of diabetes and the cardiovascular system, broadly classified into diabetic vascular disease, diabetic cardiomyopathy, and the clinical management of the diabetic cardiovascular disease patient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The relationship between food insecurity with cardiovascular risk markers and metabolic syndrome components in patients with diabetes: A population-based study from Kerman coronary artery disease risk study.
Mahmoodi, Mohammad Reza; Najafipour, Hamid; Mohsenpour, Mohammad Ali; Amiri, Mojgan
We sought the prevalence of food insecurity and whether cardiovascular risk markers and metabolic syndrome components are significantly different in categories of food insecurity in patients with type 2 diabetes. In this cross-sectional study, 520 patients with type 2 diabetes from the Kerman coronary artery disease risk study aged between 23 and 87 years (60.8 ± 11.4) who selected by one-stage cluster sampling were assigned into four groups of "food secure" and "mild," "moderate," and "severe" food insecure. Household food insecurity was assessed by a 9-item household food insecurity access scale questionnaire. The prevalence of food security and mild, moderate, and severe food insecurity in patients with diabetes was 24.4%, 33.1%, 28.9%, and 13.6%, respectively. There was a significant difference among the food-secure/insecure sex groups (P = 0.001). The prevalence of food insecurity and risk factors such as total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and visceral obesity in mild food-insecure females was significantly higher than males (P food security than the other female groups. Diastolic blood pressure significantly increased (P = 0.028) in diabetic females with severe food insecurity than the other female groups. The glycosylated hemoglobin significantly increased (P = 0.013) in diabetic males with severe food insecurity than the other male groups. Food insecurity odds ratio in females was 1.74 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10-2.70), 2.39 (95% CI: 1.48-3.88), and 2.73 (95% CI: 1.49-5.01) times higher than in males for mild, moderate, and severe food insecurity, respectively. Food insecurity may deteriorate some cardiometabolic biomarkers in type 2 diabetes. Improving food security in patients with diabetes may help reduce cardiovascular disease.
Schmiegelow, Michelle D; Hedlin, Haley; Stefanick, Marcia L
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance is associated with diabetes mellitus, but it is uncertain whether it improves cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction beyond traditional cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified 15,288 women from the Women's Health Initiative Biomarkers s......-cholesterol and did not provide independent prognostic information in postmenopausal women without diabetes mellitus. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION INFORMATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrial.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00000611....
Andersson, Charlotte; Lyngbæk, Stig; Nguyen, Cu Dinh
Pharmacodynamic studies have shown that persistently high platelet reactivity is common in patients with diabetes in spite of clopidogrel treatment. Clinical trials have not convincingly demonstrated that clopidogrel benefits patients with diabetes as much patients without diabetes.......Pharmacodynamic studies have shown that persistently high platelet reactivity is common in patients with diabetes in spite of clopidogrel treatment. Clinical trials have not convincingly demonstrated that clopidogrel benefits patients with diabetes as much patients without diabetes....
Winther, Signe Abitz; Øllgaard, Jens Christian; Parving, Hans-Henrik Dyring
Background Trimethylamine-N-Oxide (TMAO) is a metabolite of phosphatidylcholine, choline and carnitine produced by the gut microbiota from ingested animal foods. It has been suggested as an independent gut microbiota derived risk factor for renal and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Patients with ty...... was predictive of poor renal outcomes, CVD events and mortality independent of conventional risk factors. Only the relation to CVD events remained after further adjustment for baseline eGFR. This elucidated the close relationship between TMAO and renal function....... Plasma TMAO was inversely associated with baseline eGFR (R2: 0.42; psmoking, systolic blood...
Higgins, Timothy P; Baker, Matthew D; Evans, Shelley-Ann; Adams, Rachel A; Cobbold, Christian
Hypertension, decreased glucose tolerance, adverse lipid profiles and low physical activity levels are associated with increased type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. High intensity interval training (HIIT), a low volume, reduced time, high intensity programme, may be a useful alternative to current government guidelines which specify a minimum of 150 minutes of physical activity per week. We describe a personalised programme of high intensity exercise which provides significant improvements in CVD risk markers. Healthy volunteers undertook 6 weeks of HIIT. T2DM and CVD risk predictors including glucose tolerance, VO2max, blood pressure (BP), and lipids were measured before and after HIIT. HIIT training was associated with beneficial changes in a range of predictors of blood flow and cardiovascular risk. There was a heterogeneous response to HIIT, with some subjects responding with favourable changes and others being non-responders to HIIT. In responders, HIIT was associated with a statistically significant (p = 0.023) increase in VO2max, from 45.4 (38.4,52.5) to 56.9 (51.2,65.7) (median (interquartile range)(ml/min/kg)). In responders HIIT resulted in a decrease in systolic BP from 127 (126,129) to 116 (106,122) (mmHg) with p = 0.026 and a decrease is diastolic blood pressure from 72 (69,74) to 57 (56,66) with p = 0.026. There was also some evidence of a beneficial change in blood lipid and glucose concentrations with HIIT. In conclusion, personalised HIIT has potential as an intervention to improve blood flow and cardiovascular health.
Huang, Yuxin; Li, Jihu; Zhu, Xiaolin; Sun, Jiao; Ji, Linong; Hu, Dayi; Pan, Changyu; Tan, Wen; Jiang, Suyuan; Tao, Xiaoming
This subanalysis of a cross-sectional, nationwide study was undertaken to assess the relationship between healthy lifestyle behaviors and multiple cardiovascular risk factors among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Data collected from 25,454 participants, including demographics, lifestyle behaviors and cardiovascular risk profiles, were analyzed. Blood pressure control as well as blood glucose and blood lipid (3Bs) levels were measured as multi-risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Healthy lifestyle behaviors included regular exercise, nonsmoking status and no alcohol consumption. The relationship between the healthy lifestyle behavior(s) and control of 3B(s) was calculated. Of the 25,454 eligible participants, 4171 (16.4%) were current smokers, 2011 (7.9%) currently consumed alcohol, and 11,174 (43.9%) did not exercise. In total, 654 (2.6%) reported all three unhealthy lifestyle behaviors. Most participants (71.1%) had received at least a high school education and were more likely to smoke and drink as compared to those with lower education. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors were commonly found in participants with low atherosclerosis risk, such as non-elderly people and those with an above-college education level. Unhealthy lifestyle is associated with poor 3B control and worse medication adherence. Unhealthy lifestyles are common in Chinese people with T2DM, especially in people who are non-elderly and above-college educated. Interventions aimed at changing risky lifestyle behaviors are required for improved outcomes for Chinese patients with T2DM.
The purpose of this study is to determine the relative associations of obesity with the prevalence of diabetes and diabetes-related cardiovascular comorbidities in Delaware. Compelling research evidence demonstrates that obesity is a major independent risk factor both for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Analysis was conducted using Delaware data for 4,777 respondents from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). The likelihood of having diabetes and diabetes-related cardiovascular (CVD) comorbidities increased with Body Mass Index (BMI). Compared with normal-weight adults, the multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) for diabetes was 7.14 (95 percent confidence interval [CI] 4.70-10.83) and 2.54 (95 percent CI, 1.65-3.92); OR for diabetes and comorbid hypertension was 9.93 (95 percent CI, 5.82-16.93) and 3.66 (95 percent CI 2.13-6.30); OR for diabetes and high cholesterol OR was 6.76 (95 percent CI, 3.98-11.48) and 3.09 (95 percent CI,1.78-5.37); and the OR for diabetes and heart disease was 7.64 (95 percent CI, 3.15-18.50) and 3.82 (95 percent CI, 1.42-10.30) in obese and overweight adult Delawareans, respectively. One of the objectives of Healthy People 2020 is to reduce the rate of cardiovascular disease deaths in persons with diagnosed diabetes. Findings from this study provide compelling local data for health professionals to prioritize and implement evidence based obesity prevention and control interventions among persons with diagnosed diabetes to reduce the risk of cardiovascular comorbidities.
Barnard, Neal D; Cohen, Joshua; Jenkins, David J A; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Gloede, Lise; Jaster, Brent; Seidl, Kim; Green, Amber A; Talpers, Stanley
We sought to investigate whether a low-fat vegan diet improves glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Individuals with type 2 diabetes (n = 99) were randomly assigned to a low-fat vegan diet (n = 49) or a diet following the American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines (n = 50). Participants were evaluated at baseline and 22 weeks. Forty-three percent (21 of 49) of the vegan group and 26% (13 of 50) of the ADA group participants reduced diabetes medications. Including all participants, HbA(1c) (A1C) decreased 0.96 percentage points in the vegan group and 0.56 points in the ADA group (P = 0.089). Excluding those who changed medications, A1C fell 1.23 points in the vegan group compared with 0.38 points in the ADA group (P = 0.01). Body weight decreased 6.5 kg in the vegan group and 3.1 kg in the ADA group (P vegan group and 10.7% in the ADA group (P = 0.02). After adjustment for baseline values, urinary albumin reductions were greater in the vegan group (15.9 mg/24 h) than in the ADA group (10.9 mg/24 h) (P = 0.013). Both a low-fat vegan diet and a diet based on ADA guidelines improved glycemic and lipid control in type 2 diabetic patients. These improvements were greater with a low-fat vegan diet.
... should increase surveillance for cardiac ischaemia, carefully re-examine the list of prescribed medications, and aggressively treating cardiovascular risk factors that may be associated with the development of CAN. Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, autonomic neuropathy, autonomic nervous system, orthostatic hypotension, ...
Weight and blood pressure response to weight management and sibutramine in diabetic and non-diabetic high-risk patients: an analysis from the 6-week lead-in period of the sibutramine cardiovascular outcomes (SCOUT) trial
Van Gaal, L F; Caterson, I D; Coutinho, W
To assess treatment responses to sibutramine and weight management in diabetic patients during the lead-in period of the Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes (SCOUT) trial.......To assess treatment responses to sibutramine and weight management in diabetic patients during the lead-in period of the Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes (SCOUT) trial....
Tailleux, Anne; Rouskas, Konstantinos; Pattou, François; Staels, Bart
To summarize recent epidemiological, preclinical and clinical studies on the effects of Roux-en-Y-gastric bypass (RYGBP) surgery on cardiovascular risk factors and the underlying mechanisms. Although RYGBP has mechanical effects on the gastrointestinal tract, the reduced gastric pouch and intestinal calorie absorption cannot fully explain the metabolic improvements. Obesity predisposes to cardiovascular risk factors such as dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hypertension. In contrast to the limited success of pharmacological and lifestyle interventions, RYGBP induces sustained weight loss, metabolic improvements and decreases morbidity/mortality. In line, RYGBP reduces cardiovascular risk factors. Although the mechanisms are not entirely understood, RYGBP induces complex changes in the gut affecting other organs through endocrine and metabolic signals from the intestine to all key metabolic organs, which can link RYGBP and decreased cardiovascular risk. Here, we discuss the roles of changes in lipid absorption and metabolism, bile acid metabolism, gut hormones and the microbiote as potential mechanisms in the decreased cardiovascular risk and metabolic improvement after RYGBP.
C.A. Baan (Caroline)
textabstractDiabetes mellitus comprises a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders that have one common feature: abnormally high levels of glucose in the blood. The most common form is non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NlDDM); about 80-90% of all diabetic patients has
Lozano, T; Ena, J
Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy associated with diabetes mellitus is caused by an impairment of the autonomic system. The prevalence of this condition ranges from 20% to 65%, depending on the duration of the diabetes mellitus. Clinically, the autonomic function disorder is associated with resting tachycardia, exercise intolerance, orthostatic hypotension, intraoperative cardiovascular instability, silent myocardial ischemia and increased mortality. For the diagnosis, the integrity of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system is assessed. Parasympathetic activity is examined by measuring heart rate variability in response to deep breathing, standing and the Valsalva manoeuvre. Sympathetic integrity is examined by measuring blood pressure in response to standing and isometric exercise. The treatment includes the metabolic control of diabetes mellitus and of the cardiovascular risk factors. Treating symptoms such as orthostatic hypotension requires special attention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.
Rock, Cheryl L; Flatt, Shirley W; Pakiz, Bilge; Taylor, Kenneth S; Leone, Angela F; Brelje, Kerrin; Heath, Dennis D; Quintana, Elizabeth L; Sherwood, Nancy E
To test whether a weight loss program promotes greater weight loss, glycemic control, and improved cardiovascular disease risk factors compared with control conditions and whether there is a differential response to higher versus lower carbohydrate intake. This randomized controlled trial at two university medical centers enrolled 227 overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes and assigned them to parallel in-person diet and exercise counseling, with prepackaged foods in a planned menu during the initial phase, or to usual care (UC; two weight loss counseling sessions and monthly contacts). Relative weight loss was 7.4% (95% CI 5.7-9.2%), 9.0% (7.1-10.9%), and 2.5% (1.3-3.8%) for the lower fat, lower carbohydrate, and UC groups (P Glycemic control markers and triglyceride levels were lower in the intervention groups compared with UC group at 1 year (fasting glucose 141 [95% CI 133-149] vs. 159 [144-174] mg/dL, P = 0.023; hemoglobin A1c 6.9% [6.6-7.1%] vs. 7.5% [7.1-7.9%] or 52 [49-54] vs. 58 [54-63] mmol/mol, P = 0.001; triglycerides 148 [134-163] vs. 204 [173-234] mg/dL, P glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association.
Does training of general practitioners for intensive treatment of people with screen-detected diabetes have a spillover effect on mortality and cardiovascular morbidity in 'at risk' individuals with normoglycaemia?
Simmons, Rebecca Kate; Bruun, Niels H; Witte, Daniel R
questionnaire but who were normoglycaemic. METHODS: In the Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study of Intensive Treatment In People with Screen-Detected Diabetes in Primary Care (ADDITION)-Denmark trial, 175 general practices were cluster-randomised into: (1) screening plus routine care of individuals with screen......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Within a trial of intensive treatment of people with screen-detected diabetes, we aimed to assess a potential spillover effect of the trial intervention on incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality among people who screened positive on a diabetes risk......-detected diabetes (control group); or (2) screening plus training and support in intensive multifactorial treatment of individuals with screen-detected diabetes (intervention group). We identified all individuals who screened positive on a diabetes risk questionnaire in ADDITION-Denmark but were normoglycaemic...
Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Maida, Carlo; Pinto, Antonio
Diabetic foot ulcerations have been extensively reported as vascular complications of diabetes mellitus associated with a high degree of morbidity and mortality. Diabetic foot syndrome (DFS), as defined by the World Health Organization, is an “ulceration of the foot (distally from the ankle and including the ankle) associated with neuropathy and different grades of ischemia and infection”. Pathogenic events able to cause diabetic foot ulcers are multifactorial. Among the commonest causes of this pathogenic pathway it’s possible to consider peripheral neuropathy, foot deformity, abnormal foot pressures, abnormal joint mobility, trauma, peripheral artery disease. Several studies reported how diabetic patients show a higher mortality rate compared to patients without diabetes and in particular these studies under filled how cardiovascular mortality and morbidity is 2-4 times higher among patients affected by type 2 diabetes mellitus. This higher degree of cardiovascular morbidity has been explained as due to the observed higher prevalence of major cardiovascular risk factor, of asymptomatic findings of cardiovascular diseases, and of prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events in diabetic patients with foot complications. In diabetes a fundamental pathogenic pathway of most of vascular complications has been reported as linked to a complex interplay of inflammatory, metabolic and procoagulant variables. These pathogenetic aspects have a direct interplay with an insulin resistance, subsequent obesity, diabetes, hypertension, prothrombotic state and blood lipid disorder. Involvement of inflammatory markers such as IL-6 plasma levels and resistin in diabetic subjects as reported by Tuttolomondo et al confirmed the pathogenetic issue of the a “adipo-vascular” axis that may contribute to cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes. This “adipo-vascular axis” in patients with type 2 diabetes has been reported as characterized
While exercise therapy has been advocated as part of treatment modalities for the diabetics because of positive roles of exercise in glucose tolerance, the diabetics should be exercised with caution and close monitoring of their cardiovascular system should be ensured. Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol.
Wang, Anxin; Chen, Guojuan; Cao, Yibin; Liu, Xiaoxue; Su, Zhaoping; Luo, Yanxia; Zhao, Zhan; Li, Xia; Chen, Shuohua; Wu, Shouling; Guo, Xiuhua
Data about associations between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and proteinuria with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and all-cause mortality among diabetic population is less described. We aimed to describe these associations in Chinese diabetic population, and investigate the difference between sexes. The study was based on 8,301 diabetic participants in the Kailuan study, who was free of CVDs at baseline. We used Cox proportional hazard models to examine the associations of eGFR ...
van der Weijden, T; van Steenkiste, B; Stoffers, H E J H; Timmermans, D R M; Grol, R
Guidelines on primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) emphasize identifying high-risk patients for more intensive management, but patients' misconceptions of risk hamper implementation. Insight is needed into the type of patients that general practitioners (GPs) encounter in their cardiovascular prevention activities. How appropriate are the risk perceptions and worries of patients with whom GPs discuss CVD risks? What determines inappropriate risk perception? Cross-sectional study in 34 general practices. The study included patients aged 40 to 70 years with whom CVD risk was discussed during consultation. After the consultation, the GPs completed a registration form, and patients completed a questionnaire. Correlations between patients' actual CVD risk and risk perceptions were analyzed. In total, 490 patients were included. In 17% of the consultations, patients were actually at high risk. Risk was perceived inappropriately by nearly 4 in 5 high-risk patients (incorrect optimism) and by 1 in 5 low-risk patients (incorrect pessimism). Smoking, hypertension, and obesity were determinants of perceiving CVD risk as high, whereas surprisingly, diabetic patients did not report any anxiety about their CVD risk. Men were more likely to perceive their CVD risk inappropriately than women. In communicating CVD risk, GPs must be aware that they mostly encounter low-risk patients and that the perceived risk and worry do not necessarily correspond with the actual risk. Incorrect perceptions of CVD risk among men and patients with diabetes were striking.
Khalib A. Latiff
Full Text Available Cardiovascular problem is one of the leading cause of death in Malaysia and now invaded to the sub-urban and rural areas. To prevent and control of this problem, several main risk factors needed to be known and shall be reexamined and ranked according to the priority. The objectives of this research paper was to identify several dominant risk factor related to cardiovascular problem. A cross sectional study was carried out from March 2000 – June 2001 on a total of 8159 rural population aged 18 and above to measure the prevalence of the common cardiovascular risk factors. Those risk factors are systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, serum cholesterol level, obesity index, blood glucose level, smoking, physical activity and mental stress. Overall prevalence of common cardiovascular risk factors were higher, dominated by physical inactivity (65.7%, hypercholesterolemia – TC:HC (62.3%, mental stress (55.5% and obesity (53.7%. Smoking was also high at 49.9% especially among men. However systolic hypertension, diastolic hypertension and diabetes mellitus; although increased by age, its prevalence is relatively low at 23.7%, 19.2%, and 6.3% respectively. Cardiovascular risk factors related to lifestyle are much evidenced as compared to risk factors related to the biological influence. Therefore, all initiatives in community health intervention should be mobilized specifically on prevention and control of lifestyle-related risk factors. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 50-6Keywords: cardiovascular problem, community intervention, lifestyle-linked risk factors
Vieira de Sousa, M; Fukui, R; Krustrup, P; Dagogo-Jack, S; Rossi da Silva, M E
Moderate calorie-restricted diets and exercise training prevent loss of lean mass and cardiovascular risk. Because adherence to routine exercise recommendation is generally poor, we utilized recreational soccer training as a novel therapeutic exercise intervention in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. We compared the effects of acute and chronic soccer training plus calorie-restricted diet on protein catabolism and cardiovascular risk markers in T2D. Fifty-one T2D patients (61.1±6.4 years, 29 females: 22 males) were randomly allocated to the soccer+diet-group (SDG) or to the diet-group (DG). The 40-min soccer sessions were held 3 times per week for 12 weeks. Nineteen participants attended 100% of scheduled soccer sessions, and none suffered any injuries. The SDG group showed higher levels of growth hormone (GH), free fatty acids and ammonia compared with DG. After 12 weeks, insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFPB)-3 and glucose levels were lower in SDG, whereas insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1/ IGFBP-3 ratio increased in both groups. After the last training session, an increase in IGF-1/IGFBP-3 and attenuation in ammonia levels were suggestive of lower muscle protein catabolism. Recreational soccer training was popular and safe, and was associated with decreased plasma glucose and IGFBP-3 levels, decreased ammoniagenesis, and increased lipolytic activity and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 ratio, all indicative of attenuated catabolism.
Boateng, Daniel; Agyemang, Charles; Beune, Erik; Meeks, Karlijn; Smeeth, Liam; Schulze, Matthias; Addo, Juliet; de-Graft Aikins, Ama; Galbete, Cecilia; Bahendeka, Silver; Danquah, Ina; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Mockenhaupt, Frank P; Spranger, Joachim; Kengne, Andre P; Grobbee, Diederick E; Stronks, Karien; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin
For migrant populations from sub-Saharan Africa, adverse cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors have been observed to be higher than found in their home country-based counterparts or among the host populations in high-income countries. Differences in absolute overall CVD risk, however, remain largely unexplained. We, therefore, predicted the differences in 10-year CVD risk among sub-Saharan African migrants (Ghanaians) living in 3 European cities and Ghana. For 3864 subjects aged 40 to 70 years from the multicenter RODAM study (Research on Obesity and Diabetes Among African Migrants) conducted among Ghanaian adults residing in rural and urban Ghana and 3 European cities (Amsterdam, Berlin, and London), 10-year risk of CVD was estimated using the Pooled Cohort Equations with estimates ≥7.5% defining high CVD risk. Logistic regressions were used to determine the association of migration on CVD risk. The proportion with CVD risk ≥7.5% among Ghanaian men was 34.7% in rural Ghana, 45.4% in urban Ghana, 53.9% in Amsterdam, 61.0% in Berlin, and 52.2% in London. Compared with rural Ghana, CVD risk was significantly increased for Ghanaian men living in Berlin (adjusted odds ratio, 2.80; 95% confidence interval, 1.76-4.45) and Amsterdam (1.88; 1.25-2.84). Increased risk observed for men was largely not seen for women. CVD risk increased with longer stay in Europe. Knowledge about predictors of increased CVD risk among sub-Saharan African migrants in Europe and nonmigrants in urban centers will inform and support targeted health care and interventions to these populations. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Lobraico, Jessika M; DiLello, Lauren C; Butler, Amber D; Cordisco, Marie Elena; Petrini, Joann R; Ahmadi, Ramin
The purpose of this trial was to evaluate the effect of krill oil supplementation, a source of ω-3 fatty acids, on cardiovascular disease risk factors and blood glucose control among participants with type 2 diabetes. A randomized, double-blind controlled cross-over trial was employed. Outcomes assessed were: endothelial function, blood lipids, glucose, glycated hemoglobin, serum antioxidant level, C peptide, and calculated Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) scores. Participants were randomized to either krill oil or olive oil supplementation for 4 weeks, underwent a 2-week washout period, and then crossed to the other supplementation for 4 weeks. All participants were then offered an additional 17 weeks of krill supplementation. Testing occurred at 3 time points: baseline, after first supplementation, and after second supplementation. Testing also occurred after an optional 17 weeks of krill oil supplementation. Difference scores were calculated for each participant in both sequences (ie, differences in outcome measures in the first and second period of the sequence). The mean and SD of the scores in the 2 sequence groups were used to test for differences between treatment effects at a significance level of pkrill oil for 4 weeks had an improvement in their endothelial function and a reduction in blood C peptide levels and HOMA scores as compared with the olive oil. A total of 34 participants completed the additional 17-week supplementation period. When compared with their respective baseline measures, these participants had a statistically significant improvement in endothelial function and blood high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Krill oil may lead to moderate improvement of cardiovascular risks, specifically endothelial dysfunction and HDL in patients with type 2 diabetes. Registered with ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02091193.
Prevalence of treatment for diabetes during 1997-2007, and trends in cardiovascular risk factors between 2001 and 2007 according to diabetic treatment, in the IPC (Investigations Préventives et Cliniques; Preventive and Clinical Investigations) cohort.
Thomas, F; Eschwege, E; Bean, K; Pannier, B; Danchin, N
This study aimed to evaluate changes in the prevalence of glucose-lowering agents in a large, unselected general French population from 1997 to 2007, with specific focus on changes in other cardiovascular risk factors in relation to diabetic status during 2001-2002 and 2006-2007. The prevalence of treated diabetes was assessed in a large population who had a health check-up at the "Investigations Préventives et Cliniques" Center between 1997-2007. Baseline characteristics and risk profiles of individuals with and without treatment for diabetes were assessed and compared with data for 2001-2002 and 2006-2007. From 1997 to 2007, the prevalence of treatment for diabetes increased from 0.75% to 1.73% in men and from 0.7% to 2.28% in women. In 2006-2007 compared with 2001-2002, the odds ratios for receiving glucose-lowering agents, adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI) and educational level, were 1.54 (95% CI: 1.28-1.86) in men and 1.59 (95% CI: 1.26-2.03) in women. In those treated for diabetes compared with untreated subjects, greater decreases in blood pressure, cholesterol and glycaemia were found, stress and depression scores improved, and a greater increase in BMI was found. Smoking decreased in both treated and untreated individuals. Physical activity decreased in treated individuals, but remained unchanged in the general population. The prevalence of people treated with diabetes increased in the Paris area. Although most concomitant risk factors decreased more in treated individuals than in the general population, physical activity and BMI worsened, thus, emphasizing the need for improving patient education. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
HbA(1c) and mean blood glucose show stronger associations with cardiovascular disease risk factors than do postprandial glycaemia or glucose variability in persons with diabetes: the A1C-Derived Average Glucose (ADAG) study
Borg, R.; Kuenen, J.C.; Carstensen, B.; Zheng, H.; Nathan, D.M.; Heine, R.J.; Nerup, J.; Borch-Johnsen, K.; Witte, D.R.
Aims: Increased glucose excursions and postprandial hyperglycaemia have been suggested as unique risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus. Much of the evidence is based on a single 2 h glucose value after oral glucose tolerance testing in
Henderson, Jeffrey A.; Chubak, Jessica; O'Connell, Joan; Ramos, Maria C.; Jensen, Julie; Jobe, Jared B.
We describe a randomized controlled trial, the Lakota Oyate Wicozani Pi Kte (LOWPK) trial, which was designed to determine whether a Web-based diabetes and nutritional intervention can improve risk factors related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) among a group of remote reservation-dwelling adult American Indian men and women with type 2 diabetes…
/L were found in 50.5% of participants. One or several treated or untreated modifiable risk factors were found in 78% of participants. The telephone survey showed that 53% of all adults in the canton were sensitized by the campaign. Excluding fees paid by the participants, the program incurred a cost of CHF 330,600.Conclusion: A community-based screening program had low efficiency for detecting new cases of diabetes, but it identified large numbers of persons with elevated other cardiovascular risk factors. Our findings suggest the convenience of A1c for mass screening of diabetes, the usefulness of extending diabetes screening to other cardiovascular risk factors, and the importance of a robust background communication campaign.Keywords: hypertension, cholesterol, community-based program, evaluation, Switzerland
Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut
Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross-sectional de......Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross...
Hariri, Ahmad A; Oliver, Nicholas S; Johnston, Desmond G; Stevenson, John C; Godsland, Ian F
Choice of adiposity measure may be important in the evaluation of relationships between adiposity and risk markers for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. We explored the strengths of risk marker associations with BMI, a simple measure of adiposity, and with measures provided by skinfold thicknesses and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We evaluated in three subgroups of white males (n = 156-349), participating in a health screening program, the strengths of relationship between measures of total and regional adiposity and risk markers relating to blood pressure, lipids and lipoproteins, insulin sensitivity, and subclinical inflammation. Independent of age, smoking, alcohol intake, and exercise, the strongest correlations with adiposity measures were seen with serum triglyceride concentrations and indices of insulin sensitivity, with strengths of association showing little difference between BMI and skinfold and DXA measures of total and percent body fat (R = 0.20-0.46, P adiposity were seen for serum HDL cholesterol and only relatively inconsistent associations with adiposity for total and LDL cholesterol and indices of subclinical inflammation. BMI can account for variation in risk markers in white males as well as more sophisticated measures derived from skinfold thickness measurements or DXA scanning.
Prevalencia de diabetes en una población adulta de Madrid (España: Estudio MADRIC (MADrid RIesgo Cardiovascular Prevalence of diabetes in an adult population in the region of Madrid (Spain: The Madrid Cardiovascular Risk study
Javier Rosado Martín
, physical examination and fasting blood analysis (glycemia, cholesterol and triglyceride levels. The participants were considered to be diabetic if they had been previously diagnosed with diabetes by their general physician or had a fasting glycemia > 126mg/dl without a previous diabetes diagnosis. Impaired fasting glycemia was defined as fasting glycemia between 100mg/dl and 125mg/dl in non-diabetic participants. Results: The sex- and age-adjusted prevalence figures for diabetes and impaired fasting glucose were 6.6% (95% CI: 5.9-8.7 and 14.1% (95% CI: 12.1-15.8, respectively. A substantial proportion of diabetic patients [17.2% (95% CI: 10.9-23.5] had not been previously diagnosed. The variables independently associated with diabetes were age, male gender, abdominal obesity and hypertension. Conclusions: Our prevalence figure for diabetes is similar to those reported in other Spanish regions. The high frequency of impaired fasting glucose is worrisome, particularly when combined with obesity, as this association confers a high risk for developing diabetes mellitus.
Pop, Dana; Peter, P; Dădârlat, Alexandra; Sitar-Tăut, Adela; Zdrenghea, D
Ghrelin, a newly discovered bioactive peptide, was originally reported to induce growth hormone release. Recent studies have shown beneficial hemodynamic effects of ghrelin in the cardiovascular system to support the wide distribution of its receptors in cardiovascular tissues. The aim of the study was to determine whether cardiovascular risk factors influence plasma ghrelin levels. We evaluated in the Rehabilitation Hospital Cluj-Napoca, Cardiology-Department 88 consecutive subjects, 65 (73.86%) being women, with mean age 61.7 +/- 10.33 years. We assessed the presence of cardiovascular risk factors (obesity, arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, smoking and lipid fractions). Plasma ghrelin levels were determined with a commercial ELISA kit (pg/ml). After the evaluation of cardiovascular risk factors, we found no statistically significant difference between ghrelin levels in the patients with vs those without cardiovascular risk factors (p>0.05). A negative correlation was found between ghrelin levels and age, r = -0.32 (p cardiovascular risk for each patient according to the risk score system (SCORE) for high cardiovascular risk countries. Statistically, the risk of fatal cardiovascular events in the next 10 years was indirectly correlated with the ghrelin levels in each patient-correlation between ghrelin levels and SCORE system r = -0.25, p=0.015. In conclusion, low serum ghrelin concentrations are associated with an increased global cardiovascular risk, calculated based on the European SCORE scale. However, we could not demonstrate a direct relationship between any of the major risk factors and ghrelin.
Full Text Available Depression and cardiovascular diseases (CVD are both common illnesses. Several studies demonstrated that depressed individuals have higher mortality compared to age-and gender-matched population, with an excess of cardiovascular deaths. There is a bidirectional association between depression and CVD. Several factors can interact and influence this relationship: poverty and social inequality, reduced accessibility to health care, biological alterations (as reduced heart rate variability, endothelial dysfunction, increased inflammation and platelet function, and hyperactivity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, side effects of psychiatric medication, lower adherence to medical treatments, and higher frequency of cardiovascular risk factors (higher tobacco use, physical inactivity, obesity, diabetes mellitus. This article aims to update the current evidence of the possible mechanisms involved in the association between depression and CVD.
It is estimated that at least 80% of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) have conventional risk factors and optimization of these risk factors can reduce morbidity and mortality due to this disease considerably. Contemporary women have increased burden of some of these risk factors such as obesity, metabolic syndrome and smoking. Turkish women have a worse CV risk profile than Turkish men in some aspects. Risk stratification systems such as Framingham have a tendency of underestimating the risk in women. Coronary artery disease remains in vessel wall for a longer period of time in women; therefore obstructive disease appear later in their lifespan necessitating risk stratification systems for estimating their lifetime risk.
V. А. Vizir
Full Text Available In a review article extensively discusses the relationship between sleep duration and cardiovascular diseases. Sleep loss is a common condition in developed countries, with evidence showing that people in Western countries are sleeping on average only 6.8 hour per night, 1.5 hour less than a century ago. Although the effect of sleep deprivation on the human body is not completely unexplained, recent epidemiological studies have revealed relationships between sleep deprivation and arterial hypertension, coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus. Increased sympathetic nervous system activity and changes in melatonin secretion are considered as the main pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the development and progression of cardiovascular disease in patients with insufficient duration of nighttime sleep. Adequate sleep duration may be important for preventing cardiovascular diseases in modern society.
Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the major macrovascular complication of diabetes mellitus. Recently, although CVD morbidity and mortality have decreased as a result of comprehensive control of CVD risk factors, CVD remains the leading cause of death of patients with diabetes in many countries, indicating the potential underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. MicroRNAs are a class of noncoding, single-stranded RNA molecules that are involved in β-cell function, insulin secretion, insulin resistance, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue and which play an important role in glucose homeostasis and the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. Here, we review recent progress in research on microRNAs in endothelial cell and vascular smooth muscle cell dysfunction, macrophage and platelet activation, lipid metabolism abnormality, and cardiomyocyte repolarization in diabetes mellitus. We also review the progress of microRNAs as potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets of CVD in patients with diabetes.
Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut
Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross...
A lifestyle intervention supported by mobile health technologies to improve the cardiometabolic risk profile of individuals at risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes: study rationale and protocol.
Stuckey, Melanie I; Shapiro, Sheree; Gill, Dawn P; Petrella, Robert J
Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors that greatly increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Regular exercise improves the risk profile, but most people do not successfully change their exercise habits to beneficially reduce risk. Tailored exercise prescribed by a family physician has shown promise as a means to increase fitness and reduce cardiometabolic risk, but optimal implementation practices remain unknown. Mobile health technologies have proved to be a beneficial tool to achieve blood pressure and blood glucose control in patients with diabetes. These technologies may address the limited access to health interventions in rural and remote regions. However, the potential as a tool to support exercise-based prevention activities is not well understood. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of a tailored exercise prescription alone or supported by mobile health technologies to improve metabolic syndrome and related cardiometabolic risk factors in rural community-dwelling adults at risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Adults (n = 149) with at least two metabolic syndrome risk factors were recruited from rural communities and randomized to either: 1) an intervention group receiving an exercise prescription and devices for monitoring of risk factors with a smartphone data portal equipped with a mobile health application; or 2) an active control group receiving only an exercise prescription. All participants reported to the research centre at baseline, and at 12-, 24- and 52-week follow-up visits for measurement of anthropometrics and blood pressure and for a blood draw to test blood-borne markers of cardiometabolic health. Vascular and autonomic function were examined. Fitness was assessed and exercise prescribed according to the Step Test and Exercise Prescription protocol. This study tested the effects of a prescriptive exercise intervention alone, versus one supported
Salem Mona A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is associated with a high risk for early atherosclerotic complications especially risk of coronary heart disease. Objective To evaluate the impact of six months exercise prgram on glycemic control, plasma lipids values, blood pressure, severity and frequency of hypoglycemia, anthropometric measurements and insulin dose in a sample of adolescents with T1DM. Research design and methods A total of 196 type 1 diabetic patients participated in the study. They were classified into three groups: Group (A did not join the exercise program(n = 48, group (B attended the exercise sessions once/week (n = 75, group (C attended the exercise sessions three times/week (n = 73. Studied parameters were evaluated before and six months after exercise programe. Results Exercise improved glycemic control by reducing HbA1c values in exercise groups (P = 0.03, P = 0.01 respectively and no change in those who were not physically active (P = 0.2. Higher levels of HbA1c were associated with higher levels of cholesterol, LDL-c, and triglycerides (P = 0.000 each. In both groups, B and C, frequent exercise improved dyslipidemia and reduced insulin requirements significantly (P = 0.00 both, as well as a reduction in BMI (P = 0.05, P = 0.00 respectively and waist circumference(P = 0.02, P = 0.00 respectively. The frequency of hypoglycemic attacks were not statistically different between the control group and both intervention groups (4.7 ± 3.56 and 4.82 ± 4.23, P = 0.888 respectively. Reduction of blood pressure was statistically insignificant apart from the diastolic blood presure in group C (P = 0.04. Conclusion Exercise is an indispensable component in the medical treatment of patients with T1DM as it improves glycemic control and decreases cardiovascular risk factors among them.
Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Tholstrup, Tine
Abstract Currently, the effect of dairy products on cardiovascular risk is a topic with much debate and conflicting results. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the existing literature regarding the effect of cheese intake and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies included...... reporting the intake of cheese and risk of CVD or risk factors of CVD represent four human intervention studies, nine prospective studies, one prospective case-cohort study, one prospective nested case-control study, five case-control studies, five cross-sectional studies and three correlation studies....... The possible mechanisms that may be of importance include calcium, protein, fermentation and the fatty acid composition of cheese. Results from four prospective studies reported no association between cheese intake and CVD risk, whereas one reported an increased risk, two reported a decreased risk and one...
The relationship between food insecurity with cardiovascular risk markers and metabolic syndrome components in patients with diabetes: A population-based study from Kerman coronary artery disease risk study
Mohammad Reza Mahmoodi
Full Text Available Background: We sought the prevalence of food insecurity and whether cardiovascular risk markers and metabolic syndrome components are significantly different in categories of food insecurity in patients with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 520 patients with type 2 diabetes from the Kerman coronary artery disease risk study aged between 23 and 87 years (60.8 ± 11.4 who selected by one-stage cluster sampling were assigned into four groups of “food secure” and “mild,” “moderate,” and “severe” food insecure. Household food insecurity was assessed by a 9-item household food insecurity access scale questionnaire. Results: The prevalence of food security and mild, moderate, and severe food insecurity in patients with diabetes was 24.4%, 33.1%, 28.9%, and 13.6%, respectively. There was a significant difference among the food-secure/insecure sex groups (P = 0.001. The prevalence of food insecurity and risk factors such as total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and visceral obesity in mild food-insecure females was significantly higher than males (P < 0.001, 0.001, and 0.001, respectively. The fasting blood sugar significantly increased (P = 0.020 in diabetic females with food security than the other female groups. Diastolic blood pressure significantly increased (P = 0.028 in diabetic females with severe food insecurity than the other female groups. The glycosylated hemoglobin significantly increased (P = 0.013 in diabetic males with severe food insecurity than the other male groups. Food insecurity odds ratio in females was 1.74 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10–2.70, 2.39 (95% CI: 1.48–3.88, and 2.73 (95% CI: 1.49–5.01 times higher than in males for mild, moderate, and severe food insecurity, respectively. Conclusion: Food insecurity may deteriorate some cardiometabolic biomarkers in type 2 diabetes. Improving food security in patients with diabetes may help reduce
The first marathon run as an athletic event took place in the context of the Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens, Greece. Today, participation in a 'marathon run' has become a global phenomenon attracting young professional athletes as well as millions of mainly middle-aged amateur athletes worldwide each year. One of the main motives for these amateur marathon runners is the expectation that endurance exercise (EE) delivers profound beneficial health effects. However, with respect to the cardiovascular system, a controversial debate has emerged whether the marathon run itself is healthy or potentially harmful to the cardiovascular system, especially in middle-aged non-elite male amateur runners. In this cohort, exercise-induced increases in cardiac biomarkers-troponin and brain natriuretic peptide-and acute functional cardiac alterations have been observed and interpreted as potential cardiac damage. Furthermore, in the cohort of 40- to 65-year-old males engaged in intensive EE, a significant risk for the development of atrial fibrillation has been identified. Fortunately, recent studies demonstrated a normalization of the cardiac biomarkers and the functional alterations within a short time frame. Therefore, these alterations may be perceived as physiological myocardial reactions to the strenuous exercise and the term 'cardiac fatigue' has been coined. This interpretation is supported by a recent analysis of 10.9 million marathon runners demonstrating that there was no significantly increased overall risk of cardiac arrest during long-distance running races. In conclusion, intensive and long-lasting EE, e.g. running a full-distance Marathon, results in high cardiovascular strain whose clinical relevance especially for middle-aged and older athletes is unclear and remains a matter of controversy. Furthermore, there is a need for evidence-based recommendations with respect to medical screening and training strategies especially in male amateur runners over the age of
Kowalewski, Wiesław; Hebel, Kazimiera
Cardiovascular diseases for decades have been and still are the main and current health problem of the Polish society and there are many reasons for these diseases. Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for developing cardiovascular disease. The factors significantly increasing risk the of cardiovascular disease are in addition to high blood pressure, smoking (also passive), high blood fats (cholesterol and its HDL, LDL fractions as well as triglyceride levels, obesity, lack of exercise, diabetes and hereditary features. Other important factors which play an important role are external factors such as e.g. environmental pollution, lifestyle, stress. Prediction of cardiovascular disease should start from the evaluation of the fetal period because low birth weight may be a risk of coronary heart disease, hypertension, obesity or diabetes in adulthood. The authors of the referred tests showed that the level of blood pressure observed during childhood is closely associated with the level of blood pressure in adults and is also dependent on the body weight. Since the issue of the effects of high pressure on the cardiovascular system is inherent in the issue of the metabolic syndrome, it should be mentioned also that another causative factor may be an irregularity in the removal of urine from the body and the amount of insulin. The control of hypertension is a complex problem, at least in view of the wide range of adverse factors affecting the human body: hypertension is often either a constituent of other lesions. Therefore, it is difficult to treat high blood pressure in the strict sense; more often it is a combination therapy based on pharmacology caused for other reasons.
Ramos Adauto V
Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity has become a common human disorder associated with significant morbidity and mortality and adverse effects on quality of life. Sequence variants in two candidate genes, FTO and UCP-1, have been reported to be overrepresented in obese Caucasian population. The association of these genes polymorphisms with the obesity phenotype in a multiethnic group such as the Brazilian population has not been previously reported. Methods To assess the putative contribution of both FTO and UCP-1 to body mass index (BMI and cardiovascular risk we genotyped SNPs rs9939609 (FTO and rs6536991, rs22705565 and rs12502572 (UCP-1 from 126 morbidly obese subjects (BMI 42.9 ± 5.6 kg/m2, mean ± SE and 113 normal-weight ethnically matched controls (BMI 22.6 ± 3.5 kg/m2, mean ± SE. Waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose and serum lipids were also measured. Each sample was also genotyped for 40 biallelic short insertion/deletion polymorphism (indels for ethnic assignment and to estimate the proportion of European, African and Amerindian biogeographical ancestry in the Brazilian population. Results Cases did not differ from controls in the proportions of genomic ancestry. The FTO SNP rs9939609 and UCP-1 SNP rs6536991 were significantly associated with BMI (p= 0.04 and pFTO and UCP-1 SNPs with obesity were noted. There was not an association between rs9939609 (FTO and rs6536991 (UCP-1 in with maximum weight loss after 1 year in 94 obese patients who underwent bariatric surgery. Conclusion Our data are consistent with FTO rs9939609 and UCP-1 rs6536991 common variants as contributors to obesity in the Brazilian population.
Christina M. Gant
Full Text Available Cardiovascular risk management is an integral part of treatment in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM, and requires pharmacological as well as nutritional management. We hypothesize that a systematic assessment of both pharmacological and nutritional management can identify targets for the improvement of treatment quality. Therefore, we analysed blood pressure (BP management in the DIAbetes and LifEstyle Cohort Twente (DIALECT. DIALECT is an observational cohort from routine diabetes care, performed at the ZGT Hospital (Almelo and Hengelo, The Netherlands. BP was measured for 15 minutes with one minute intervals. Sodium and potassium intake was derived from 24-hour urinary excretion. We determined the adherence to pharmacological and non-pharmacological guidelines in patients with BP on target (BP-OT and BP not on target (BP-NOT. In total, 450 patients were included from August 2009 until January 2016. The mean age was 63 ± 9 years, and the majority was male (58%. In total, 53% had BP-OT. In those with BP-NOT, pharmacological management was suboptimal (zero to two antihypertensive drugs in 62% of patients, and nutritional guideline adherence was suboptimal in 100% of patients (only 8% had a sodium intake on target, 66% had a potassium intake on target, 3% had a sodium-to-potassium ratio on target, and body mass index was <30 kg/m2 in 35%. These data show pharmacological undertreatment and a low adherence to nutritional guidelines. Uncontrolled BP is common in T2DM, and our data show a window of opportunity for improving BP control, especially in nutritional management. To improve treatment quality, we advocate to incorporate the integrated monitoring of nutritional management in quality improvement cycles in routine care.
Gant, Christina M; Binnenmars, S Heleen; Berg, Else van den; Bakker, Stephan J L; Navis, Gerjan; Laverman, Gozewijn D
Cardiovascular risk management is an integral part of treatment in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), and requires pharmacological as well as nutritional management. We hypothesize that a systematic assessment of both pharmacological and nutritional management can identify targets for the improvement of treatment quality. Therefore, we analysed blood pressure (BP) management in the DIAbetes and LifEstyle Cohort Twente (DIALECT). DIALECT is an observational cohort from routine diabetes care, performed at the ZGT Hospital (Almelo and Hengelo, The Netherlands). BP was measured for 15 minutes with one minute intervals. Sodium and potassium intake was derived from 24-hour urinary excretion. We determined the adherence to pharmacological and non-pharmacological guidelines in patients with BP on target (BP-OT) and BP not on target (BP-NOT). In total, 450 patients were included from August 2009 until January 2016. The mean age was 63 ± 9 years, and the majority was male (58%). In total, 53% had BP-OT. In those with BP-NOT, pharmacological management was suboptimal (zero to two antihypertensive drugs) in 62% of patients, and nutritional guideline adherence was suboptimal in 100% of patients (only 8% had a sodium intake on target, 66% had a potassium intake on target, 3% had a sodium-to-potassium ratio on target, and body mass index was nutritional guidelines. Uncontrolled BP is common in T2DM, and our data show a window of opportunity for improving BP control, especially in nutritional management. To improve treatment quality, we advocate to incorporate the integrated monitoring of nutritional management in quality improvement cycles in routine care.
Sadarangani, Kabir P; Hamer, Mark; Mindell, Jenny S; Coombs, Ngaire A; Stamatakis, Emmanuel
OBJECTIVE To examine associations between specific types of physical activity and all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in a large nationally representative sample of adults with diabetes from Great Britain. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS There were a total of 3,038 participants (675 deaths) with diabetes in the Health Survey for England and the Scottish Health Surveys conducted between 1997 and 2008. Participants aged ≥50 years at baseline were followed up for an average of 75.2 months for all-cause and CVD mortality. Data were collected on self-reported frequency, duration, and intensity of participation in sports and exercise, walking, and domestic physical activity, from which the number of MET-hours/week were derived. Sex-specific medians of time spent in each type of physical activity (for those physically active) were calculated, and Cox proportional hazards regression conducted to examine type-specific associations between the level of physical activity and all-cause and CVD mortality risk. RESULTS Inverse associations with all-cause and CVD mortality were observed for overall physical activity in a dose-response manner after adjusting for covariates. Compared with those who individuals were inactive, participants who reported some activity, but below the recommended amount, or who met the physical activity recommendations had a 26% (95% CI 39-11) and 35% (95% CI 47-21) lower all-cause mortality, respectively. Similar results were found for below/above median physical activity levels. Sports and exercise participation was inversely associated with all-cause (but not CVD) mortality, as were above average levels of walking. Domestic physical activity was not associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS Moderate physical activity levels were associated with better prognosis in diabetic adults.
Schwab, Ursula; Lauritzen, Lotte; Tholstrup, Tine; Haldorsson, Thorhallur I.; Riserus, Ulf; Uusitupa, Matti; Becker, Wulf
The effects of both the amount and quality of dietary fat have been studied intensively during the past decades. Previously, low-fat diets were recommended without much attention to the quality of fat, whereas there is general emphasis on the quality of fat in current guidelines. The objective of this systematic review (SR) was to assess the evidence of an effect of the amount and type of dietary fat on body weight (BW), risk factors, and risk of non-communicable diseases, that is, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and cancer in healthy subjects or subjects at risk for these diseases. This work was performed in the process of updating the fourth edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations from 2004. The literature search was performed in October 2010 covering articles published since January 2000. A complementary search was done in February 2012 covering literature until December 2011. Two authors independently selected articles for inclusion from a total of about 16,000 abstracts according to predefined criteria. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) and prospective cohort studies (PCS) were included as well as nested case–control studies. A few retrospective case–control studies were also included when limited or no data were available from other study types. Altogether 607 articles were quality graded and the observed effects in these papers were summarized. Convincing evidence was found that partial replacement of saturated fat (SFA) with polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) or monounsaturated fat (MUFA) lowers fasting serum/plasma total and LDL cholesterol concentrations. The evidence was probable for a decreasing effect of fish oil on concentration of serum/plasma total triglycerides as compared with MUFA. Beneficial effect of MUFA both on insulin sensitivity and fasting plasma/serum insulin concentration was considered as probable in comparisons of MUFA and carbohydrates versus SFA, whereas no effect was found on fasting glucose concentration
Full Text Available The effects of both the amount and quality of dietary fat have been studied intensively during the past decades. Previously, low-fat diets were recommended without much attention to the quality of fat, whereas there is general emphasis on the quality of fat in current guidelines. The objective of this systematic review (SR was to assess the evidence of an effect of the amount and type of dietary fat on body weight (BW, risk factors, and risk of non-communicable diseases, that is, type 2 diabetes (T2DM, cardiovascular diseases (CVD, and cancer in healthy subjects or subjects at risk for these diseases. This work was performed in the process of updating the fourth edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations from 2004. The literature search was performed in October 2010 covering articles published since January 2000. A complementary search was done in February 2012 covering literature until December 2011. Two authors independently selected articles for inclusion from a total of about 16,000 abstracts according to predefined criteria. Randomized controlled trials (RCT and prospective cohort studies (PCS were included as well as nested case–control studies. A few retrospective case–control studies were also included when limited or no data were available from other study types. Altogether 607 articles were quality graded and the observed effects in these papers were summarized. Convincing evidence was found that partial replacement of saturated fat (SFA with polyunsaturated fat (PUFA or monounsaturated fat (MUFA lowers fasting serum/plasma total and LDL cholesterol concentrations. The evidence was probable for a decreasing effect of fish oil on concentration of serum/plasma total triglycerides as compared with MUFA. Beneficial effect of MUFA both on insulin sensitivity and fasting plasma/serum insulin concentration was considered as probable in comparisons of MUFA and carbohydrates versus SFA, whereas no effect was found on fasting glucose
Hendijani, Fatemeh; Akbari, Vajihe
The effectiveness of probiotics in control of hypertension and dyslipidemia in diabetic patients remains unclear. Therefore, we systematically reviewed relevant data to elucidate the effects of probiotics on blood pressure and lipid profile of type 2 diabetic patients. We searched PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, Scopus, The Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses databases until May 2016. The primary outcomes were systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides (TG). Other biochemical response and adverse effects were considered as secondary outcomes. Data was extracted from included studies and pooled in meta-analysis whenever possible (both standardized mean difference (SMD) analysis and weighted mean difference (WMD) analysis were performed). Eleven eligible randomized controlled trial (n = 641) were identified. Pooling data from these trials demonstrated probiotic consumption significantly decreased SBP (WMD, -3.28 mmHg; 95% confidence interval [CI], -5.38 to -1.18), DBP (WMD, -2.13 mmHg; 95% CI, -4.5 to 0.24), LDL-C (WMD, 8.32 mg/dl; 95% CI, -15.24 to -1.4), TC (WMD, -12.19 mg/dl; 955 CI -17.62 to -6.75) and TG (WMD, -24.48 mg/dl; 95% CI, -33.77 to -11.18) in type 2 diabetic patients compared with placebo. The methodological quality varied across trials included in this study. This systematic review suggests probiotics supplementation may be helpful for control of dyslipidemia and hypertension in type 2 diabetic patients. Conducting more trails with large sample size and long follow-up time still is necessary to develop clinical practice guidelines for management of cardiovascular risk factors in patient with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Several inflammatory cytokines are involved in vascular inflammation resulting in endothelial dysfunction which is the earliest event in the atherosclerotic process leading to manifest cardiovascular disease. YKL-40 is an inflammatory glycoprotein involved in endothelial dysfunction by promoting chemotaxis, cell attachment and migration, reorganization and tissue remodelling as a response to endothelial damage. YKL-40 protein expression is seen in macrophages and smooth muscle cells in atherosclerotic plaques with the highest expression seen in macrophages in the early lesion of atherosclerosis. Several studies demonstrate, that elevated serum YKL-levels are independently associated with the presence and extent of coronary artery disease and even higher YKL-40 levels are documented in patients with myocardial infarction. Moreover, elevated serum YKL-40 levels have also been found to be associated with all-cause as well as cardiovascular mortality. Finally, YKL-40 levels are elevated both in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, known to be at high risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases, when compared to non-diabetic persons. A positive association between elevated circulating YKL-40 levels and increasing levels of albuminuria have been described in patients with type 1 diabetes indicating a role of YKL-40 in the progressing vascular damage resulting in microvascular disease. This review describes the present knowledge about YKL-40 and discusses its relation to endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease and diabetes and look ahead on future perspectives of YKL-40 research.
Alessandra Saldanha de Mattos Matheus
Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are the most prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The proposed mechanisms that can link accelerated atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular risk in this population are poorly understood. It has been suggested that an association between hyperglycemia and intracellular metabolic changes can result in oxidative stress, low-grade inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. Recently, epigenetic factors by different types of reactions are known to be responsible for the interaction between genes and environment and for this reason can also account for the association between diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The impact of clinical factors that may coexist with diabetes such as obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension are also discussed. Furthermore, evidence that justify screening for subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic patients is controversial and is also matter of this review. The purpose of this paper is to describe the association between poor glycemic control, oxidative stress, markers of insulin resistance, and of low-grade inflammation that have been suggested as putative factors linking diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
Marso, Steven P; Bain, Stephen C; Consoli, Agostino
BACKGROUND: Regulatory guidance specifies the need to establish cardiovascular safety of new diabetes therapies in patients with type 2 diabetes in order to rule out excess cardiovascular risk. The cardiovascular effects of semaglutide, a glucagon-like peptide 1 analogue with an extended half......-life of approximately 1 week, in type 2 diabetes are unknown. METHODS: We randomly assigned 3297 patients with type 2 diabetes who were on a standard-care regimen to receive once-weekly semaglutide (0.5 mg or 1.0 mg) or placebo for 104 weeks. The primary composite outcome was the first occurrence of cardiovascular.......001 for noninferiority). Nonfatal myocardial infarction occurred in 2.9% of the patients receiving semaglutide and in 3.9% of those receiving placebo (hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.51 to 1.08; P=0.12); nonfatal stroke occurred in 1.6% and 2.7%, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.99; P=0.04). Rates...
Full Text Available Structured lifestyle interventions can reduce diabetes incidence and cardiovascular disease (CVD risk among persons with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, but it is unclear whether they should be implemented among persons without IGT. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses to assess the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions on CVD risk among adults without IGT or diabetes. We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and PsychInfo databases, from inception to May 4, 2016. We selected randomized controlled trials of lifestyle interventions, involving physical activity (PA, dietary (D, or combined strategies (PA+D with follow-up duration ≥12 months. We excluded all studies that included individuals with IGT, confirmed by 2-hours oral glucose tolerance test (75g, but included all other studies recruiting populations with different glycemic levels. We stratified studies by baseline glycemic levels: (1 low-range group with mean fasting plasma glucose (FPG <5.5mmol/L or glycated hemoglobin (A1C <5.5%, and (2 high-range group with FPG ≥5.5mmol/L or A1C ≥5.5%, and synthesized data using random-effects models. Primary outcomes in this review included systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, total cholesterol (TC, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and triglycerides (TG. Totally 79 studies met inclusion criteria. Compared to usual care (UC, lifestyle interventions achieved significant improvements in SBP (-2.16mmHg[95%CI, -2.93, -1.39], DBP (-1.83mmHg[-2.34, -1.31], TC (-0.10mmol/L[-0.15, -0.05], LDL-C (-0.09mmol/L[-0.13, -0.04], HDL-C (0.03mmol/L[0.01, 0.04], and TG (-0.08mmol/L[-0.14, -0.03]. Similar effects were observed among both low-and high-range study groups except for TC and TG. Similar effects also appeared in SBP and DBP categories regardless of follow-up duration. PA+D interventions had larger improvement
Fang, Xuexian; Wang, Kai; Han, Dan; He, Xuyan; Wei, Jiayu; Zhao, Lu; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Ping, Zhiguang; Li, Yusheng; Xu, Yuming; Min, Junxia; Wang, Fudi
Although studies have examined the association between dietary magnesium intake and health outcome, the results are inconclusive. Here, we conducted a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies in order to investigate the correlation between magnesium intake and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes (T2D), and all-cause mortality. PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science were searched for articles that contained risk estimates for the outcomes of interest and were published through May 31, 2016. The pooled results were analyzed using a random-effects model. Forty prospective cohort studies totaling more than 1 million participants were included in the analysis. During the follow-up periods (ranging from 4 to 30 years), 7678 cases of CVD, 6845 cases of coronary heart disease (CHD), 701 cases of heart failure, 14,755 cases of stroke, 26,299 cases of T2D, and 10,983 deaths were reported. No significant association was observed between increasing dietary magnesium intake (per 100 mg/day increment) and the risk of total CVD (RR: 0.99; 95% CI, 0.88-1.10) or CHD (RR: 0.92; 95% CI, 0.85-1.01). However, the same incremental increase in magnesium intake was associated with a 22% reduction in the risk of heart failure (RR: 0.78; 95% CI, 0.69-0.89) and a 7% reduction in the risk of stroke (RR: 0.93; 95% CI, 0.89-0.97). Moreover, the summary relative risks of T2D and mortality per 100 mg/day increment in magnesium intake were 0.81 (95% CI, 0.77-0.86) and 0.90 (95% CI, 0.81-0.99), respectively. Increasing dietary magnesium intake is associated with a reduced risk of stroke, heart failure, diabetes, and all-cause mortality, but not CHD or total CVD. These findings support the notion that increasing dietary magnesium might provide health benefits.
Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM. DM can lead to multiple cardiovascular complications, including coronary artery disease (CAD, cardiac hypertrophy, and heart failure (HF. HF represents one of the most common causes of death in patients with DM and results from DM-induced CAD and diabetic cardiomyopathy. Oxidative stress is closely associated with the pathogenesis of DM and results from overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS. ROS overproduction is associated with hyperglycemia and metabolic disorders, such as impaired antioxidant function in conjunction with impaired antioxidant activity. Long-term exposure to oxidative stress in DM induces chronic inflammation and fibrosis in a range of tissues, leading to formation and progression of disease states in these tissues. Indeed, markers for oxidative stress are overexpressed in patients with DM, suggesting that increased ROS may be primarily responsible for the development of diabetic complications. Therefore, an understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms mediated by oxidative stress is crucial to the prevention and treatment of diabetes-induced CVD. The current review focuses on the relationship between diabetes-induced CVD and oxidative stress, while highlighting the latest insights into this relationship from findings on diabetic heart and vascular disease.
Wong, Nathan D; Patao, Christopher; Malik, Shaista; Iloeje, Uchenna
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) carries significant risks for coronary heart disease (CHD). We examined the potential US population impact of single and composite risk factor control. Among US adults with diagnosed T2DM aged≥30 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007 to 2012, we assessed CHD events preventable using the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study CHD risk engine. We examined in all those not at goal the impact of statistical control of smoking, glycated hemoglobin, systolic blood pressure, and total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, according to the predefined criteria setting risk factors at different levels of control representing (1) "All to Goal," (2) at "Nominal Control," or (3) at "Aggressive Control." Preventable CHD events represented the difference between the number of events estimated from the control of these risk factors versus current levels of the risk factors. Of 606 men (representing 6.2 million) and 603 women (6.3 million) with DM and no previous CHD, 1.3 million men and 0.7 million women would develop a CHD event within 10 years if left uncontrolled. Controlling all risk factors to goal was projected to prevent 35% and 45% of CHD events in men and women, respectively. Nominal risk factor control was projected to prevent 36% and 38% and aggressive control 51% and 61% of CHD events, respectively. In conclusion, a significant proportion of CHD events in adults with T2DM could be prevented from composite control of risk factors often not at goal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Quercetin has been distributed in a wide range of foods, but some of its known effects in vitro, are not proven in human studies. Therefore, the aim of this study was evaluation of the effects of quercetin intake on cardiovascular risk factors and inflammatory biomarkers in women with type 2 diabetes. Methods: This double-blind randomized clinical trial was carried out on 72 women for 10 weeks. Subjects were assigned to quercetin and placebo groups using a permutated block randomization of size two. Quercetin was given to participants as a 500 mg capsule daily. Biochemical variables were measured at baseline and at the end of the study, and changes were compared using appropriate statistical methods. Results: Compared with placebo, quercetin intake decreased systolic blood pressure significantly (−8.8 ± 9.3 vs. −3.5 ± 11.7, P = 0.04. Although changes in diastolic blood pressure between the groups was not significant ( P = 0.19, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C was significantly decreased in both groups while changes in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, triglycerides (TG and ratio of TG/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C were not significant between and within groups. Quercetin supplementation significantly reduced the serum concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6 ( P = 0.01 and P < 0.0001, respectively; however, the mean changes in serum levels of IL-6, TNF-α, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were not significant between the groups. Conclusions: Quercetin supplementation reduced systolic blood pressure significantly but had no effect on other cardiovascular risk factors and inflammatory biomarkers. Considering the biological effects of quercetin in vitro, we need more studies with a stronger design and sample size with different doses of quercetin.
Yeboah, Joseph; Bertoni, Alain G; Herrington, David M; Post, Wendy S; Burke, Gregory L
The purpose of the study was to assess the cardiovascular risk of impaired fasting glucose (IFG). The associations between IFG, incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and cardiovascular (CV) events remains unclear. The MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) study included participants who were 45 to 84 years or age and free of clinical CV disease at baseline (2000 to 2002). Type 2 DM was defined as fasting glucose >125 mg/dl or receiving antidiabetes medication at baseline and follow-up examinations; IFG was defined as no T2DM and fasting glucose 100 to 125 mg/dl. Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to assess the association between IFG and incident DM and also between IFG and incident CV events. Of 6,753 participants included in these analyses, 840 (12.7%) had T2DM and 940 (13.8%) had IFG at the baseline examination. During 7.5 years of follow-up, there were 418 adjudicated CV events. Type 2 DM was associated with an increased CV incidence in the univariate model (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.83, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.25 to 3.56, p fasting glucose). Impaired fasting glucose was associated with increased incidence of T2DM (HR: 13.2, 95% CI: 10.8 to 16.2, p fasting glucose. Impaired fasting glucose was associated with incident CV events in the univariate model (HR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.26 to 2.14, p fasting glucose. Having IFG was not independently associated with an increased short-term risk for incident CV events. These data reiterate the importance of intervention for persons with IFG to reduce their incidence of T2DM. Copyright © 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Borch, Daniel; Juul-Hindsgaul, Nicole; Veller, Mette; Astrup, Arne; Jaskolowski, Jörn; Raben, Anne
Potatoes have been related to increased risks of obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mainly because of their high glycemic index. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the relation between intake of potatoes and risks of obesity, T2D, and CVD in apparently healthy adults. MEDLINE, Embase, the Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for intervention and prospective observational studies that investigated adults without any known illnesses at baseline, recorded intake of potatoes, and measured adiposity (body weight, body mass index, or waist circumference), cases of T2D, cases of cardiovascular events, or risk markers thereof. In total, 13 studies were deemed eligible; 5 studies were related to obesity, 7 studies were related to T2D, and one study was related to CVD. Only observational studies were identified; there were 3 studies with moderate, 9 studies with serious, and one study with critical risk of bias. The association between potatoes (not including french fries) and adiposity was neutral in 2 studies and was positive in 2 studies. French fries were positively associated with adiposity in 3 of 3 studies. For T2D, 2 studies showed a positive association, whereas 5 studies showed no or a negative association with intake of potatoes and T2D. French fries were positively associated with T2D in 3 of 3 studies that distinguished this relation. For CVD, no association was observed. The identified studies do not provide convincing evidence to suggest an association between intake of potatoes and risks of obesity, T2D, or CVD. French fries may be associated with increased risks of obesity and T2D although confounding may be present. In this systematic review, only observational studies were identified. These findings underline the need for long-term randomized controlled trials. This trial was registered at the PROSPERO International prospective register of systematic reviews (www
Frías López, Ma del C; Tárraga López, P J; Rodríguez Montes, J A; Solera Albero, J; Celada Rodríguez, A; López Cara, M A; Gálvez, A
To determine the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in the general population of an urban health center and describe the clinical characteristics and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. An observational study, retrospective, reviewing the medical histories of patients sampled from June 2005 until July 2007. We analyzed the following variables; facts: age and sex. Family history thyroid disease and other diseases. Personal History: cardiovascular pulmonary autoimmune, alterations gynecology obstetric diabetes, hypertension (HT) dislipemia, obesity, psychiatric alterations and haematological. Laboratory data: novel TSH, free T4, antiperoxidase antibodies, total cholesterol and its fractions. The prevalence of the sample of 100 patients collected over 8 months was 3.8% in the general population over 14 years, of which 79 were women and 21 were men. 13% were type 2 diabetics, 23% had HT and 40% had dyslipidemia. Overweight and obesity were present in 26%. The average level of TSH was 6.92 ± 2.29 μU/ml and the average level of free T4 was 1.16 ± 0.16 ng/ml. Prevalence subclinical hypothyroidism was 3.8%. especially in women with a mean age of 46. The incidence of cardiovascular risk factors in the subjects studied is higher in DM (13%), similar to general population in terms of dyslipidemia (40%) and obesity (23%) and lowest in hypertension (23%). In our study we observed a common pattern in the management of subclinical hypothyroidism, requiring the implementation and promotion of practice guidelines in primary care.
Polónia, J; Carvalho, D; Nazaré, J; Martins, L; da Silva, P M; Aguiar, C; Manso, M C; Carqueja, T
MicRoAlbuminuria sCreening survEy (RACE) was a multicentre, observational, cross-sectional study conducted in primary health-care settings of Portugal. Here, we present a post-hoc analysis from the RACE study, assessing the renal and cardiovascular (CV) risk predictive value of two different microalbuminuria (MA) screening methods, nephelometry with 24-h urine (MA-24 h) and Micral test with occasional urine (MicralA) in patients with hypertension (HTN) with/without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Out of 3065 patients, 1173 (38.3%) were in the HTN group without T2DM (HTN) and 1892 (61.7%) in the HTN group with T2DM (HTN+T2DM). The overall prevalence of MA was 50.6% determined by MicralA and 22.1% with MA-24 h. Urinary albumin excretion data obtained by both techniques correlated significantly (r s =0.586; Pvalue of 41% and negative predictive value of 97%. With both methods, the presence of MA was independently associated with a higher risk (1.5- to 2.9-fold) of CV and renal organ damage in both HTN and HTN+T2DM groups. MicralA, due to its high sensitivity and negative predictive value, can be considered as a valid and reliable method for MA screening in patients with HTN with/without T2DM.
Balducci, Stefano; Zanuso, Silvano; Cardelli, Patrizia; Salvi, Laura; Bazuro, Alessandra; Pugliese, Luca; Maccora, Carla; Iacobini, Carla; Conti, Francesco G; Nicolucci, Antonio; Pugliese, Giuseppe
...). Twenty-two outpatient diabetes clinics across Italy. Sedentary patients with type 2 diabetes assigned to twice-a-week supervised progressive aerobic and resistance training plus exercise counseling (n = 303...
Becker, Annemarie; Bos, Griët; de Vegt, Femmie; Kostense, Piet J; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Nijpels, Giel; Heine, Robert J; Bouter, Lex M; Stehouwer, Coen D A
AIMS: We questioned whether prior cardiovascular disease has the same impact on risk of cardiovascular events as type 2 diabetes, and whether this differed between men and women. METHODS AND RESULTS: To address these issues we compared the 10-year risk of cardiovascular events among 208 Caucasian
Becker, A.; Bos, G.; de Vegt, F.; Kostense, P.J.; Dekker, J.M.; Nijpels, G.; Heine, R.J.; Bouter, L.M.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.
Aims: We questioned whether prior cardiovascular disease has the same impact on risk of cardiovascular events as type 2 diabetes, and whether this differed between men and women. Methods and results: To address these issues we compared the 10-year risk of cardiovascular events among 208 Caucasian
Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Hu, Frank B
Obesity and diabetes mellitus have reached epidemic proportions in the past few years. During 2011 to 2012, more than one-third of the US population was obese. Although recent trend data indicate that the epidemic has leveled off, prevalence of abdominal obesity continues to rise, especially among adults. As seen for obesity, the past few decades have seen a doubling of the diabetes mellitus incidence with an increasing number of type 2 diabetes mellitus cases being diagnosed in children. Significant racial and ethnic disparities exist in the prevalence and trends of obesity and diabetes mellitus. In general, in both adults and children, non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans seem to be at a high risk than their non-Hispanic white counterparts. Secular changes in agricultural policies, diet, food environment, physical activity, and sleep have all contributed to the upward trends in the diabesity epidemic. Despite marginal improvements in physical activity and the US diet, the food environment has changed drastically to an obesogenic one with increased portion sizes and limited access to healthy food choices especially for disadvantaged populations. Interventions that improve the food environment are critical as both obesity and diabetes mellitus raise the risk of cardiovascular disease by ≈2-fold. Among those with type 2 diabetes mellitus, significant sex differences occur in the risk of cardiovascular disease such that diabetes mellitus completely eliminates or attenuates the advantages of being female. Given the substantial burden of obesity and diabetes mellitus, future research efforts should adopt a translational approach to find sustainable and holistic solutions in preventing these costly diseases. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Karjalainen, Jaana J; Kiviniemi, Antti M; Hautala, Arto J; Piira, Olli-Pekka; Lepojärvi, E Samuli; Perkiömäki, Juha S; Junttila, M Juhani; Huikuri, Heikki V; Tulppo, Mikko P
Leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and exercise training are essential parts of current guidelines for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the contributions of LTPA and exercise training to cardiovascular (CV) risk in CAD patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are not well established. We examined the effects of LTPA (n = 539 and n = 507; with and without T2D, respectively) and 2-year controlled, home-based exercise training (n = 63 plus 64 control subjects with T2D and n = 72 plus 68 control subjects without T2D) on the CV risk profile and composite end point among CAD patients. During the 2-year follow-up, patients with reduced LTPA at baseline had an increased risk of CV events (adjusted hazard ratio 2.3 [95% CI 1.1-5.1; P = 0.033], 2.1 [1.1-4.2; P = 0.027], and 2.0 [1.0-3.9; P = 0.044] for no LTPA, LTPA irregularly, and LTPA two to three times weekly, respectively) compared with those with LTPA more than three times weekly. Among patients who completed the 2-year exercise intervention, exercise training resulted in favorable changes in exercise capacity both in CAD patients with T2D (+0.2 ± 0.8 vs. -0.1 ± 0.8 MET, P = 0.030) and without T2D (+0.3 ± 0.7 vs. -0.1 ± 0.5 MET, P = 0.002) as compared with the control group but did not have any significant effects on major metabolic or autonomic nervous system risk factors in CAD patients with or without T2D. There is an inverse association between habitual LTPA and short-term CV outcome, but controlled, home-based exercise training has only minor effects on the CV risk profile in CAD patients with T2D. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.
Park, Gil Hong; An, Sin Ae; Choi, Hyun Mi; Cheong, Kyung Ah; Chang, Yeon Soo [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
ADMA (asymmetric dimethylarginine) is an endogenous competitive NOS (nitric oxide synthase) inhibitor. Elevation of ADMA level in body fluid is related to various diseases including diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, hypercholesterolemia, chronic heart failure, and hypertension. Our goal was to elucidate the role for ADMA and protein arginine methylation in the pathogenesis of diabetes and develop RI protein chip system for easy determination of ADMA levels in blood or tissues. As a result, ADMA regulated by protein arginine methylation, DDAH1, and NOS was demonstrated to play some role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus, and arginine methylation of some proteins indicated their possible involvement in the change in ADMA levels. The concept of the RI protein chip system was devised such that firstly, ADMA was acylated by radio-labelled succinic acid, and followed by binding of the complex to anti-acyl ADMA-specific antibody coated on chip. Acylation condition of ADMA with radio-labelled succinic acid was established
Pedersen, Oluf; Gaede, Peter
plan was adopted involving both continuous lifestyle education and motivation and an ambitious goal-oriented pharmacological treatment of known modifiable risk factors. The conventional group was treated in accordance with national guidelines for type 2 diabetes with less stringent goals. The specific......: a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass grafting, percutaneous coronary intervention, nonfatal stroke, amputation for ischemia, or vascular surgery for peripheral arterial atherosclerosis. The differences between groups in surrogate end points...
Holzmann, Martin J; Carlsson, Axel C; Hammar, Niklas; Ivert, Torbjörn; Walldius, Göran; Jungner, Ingmar; Wändell, Per; Ärnlöv, Johan
In recent clinical guidelines, individuals with chronic kidney disease are considered to have a similar 10-year absolute risk of cardiovascular death as individuals with diabetes or established cardiovascular disease. There is limited evidence to support this claim. We investigated the 10-year risk for cardiovascular death in individuals with moderate or severe chronic kidney disease (glomerular filtration rate of 30-60 or disease. The inclusion criteria, exposure, study outcome and follow-up period adhered strictly to the definitions of the European Society of Cardiology guidelines. The absolute 10-year risk of cardiovascular death was 3.9% and 14.0% in individuals with moderate and severe chronic kidney disease, respectively, but was substantially lower in women and in younger individuals. The risk in individuals with prevalent diabetes and cardiovascular disease was approximately two and three times higher compared to the risk estimate for moderate chronic kidney disease (hazard ratio (HR) 4.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.8-4.5 and HR 6.2, 95% CI 5.7-6.7 vs. HR 2.3 95% CI 2.0-2.6, respectively) while the risk for individuals with severe chronic kidney disease appeared more congruent to that of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (HR 5.5, 95% CI 3.3-8.9). Although moderate chronic kidney disease is an independent predictor for an increased 10-year risk of cardiovascular death, only those with severe chronic kidney disease had similar risk to those with diabetes or cardiovascular disease. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.
Marti-Soler, Helena; Gubelmann, Cédric; Aeschbacher, Stefanie
OBJECTIVE: To assess the seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in a large set of population-based studies. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 24 population-based studies from 15 countries, with a total sample size of 237 979 subjects. CVRFs included Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist...
Tal, Roy; Pavlovsky, Lev; David, Michael
Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease which may dramatically affect patients' lives. This chronic disease is characterized by a protracted course of alternating remissions and relapses. In recent years, the attention of researchers has focused on the association between psoriasis and cardiovascular disease risk factors. This review summarizes the literature on this topic with an emphasis on research conducted in Israel.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin K has been related to glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity and diabetes. Because inflammation underlies all these metabolic conditions, it is plausible that the potential role of vitamin K in glucose metabolism occurs through the modulation of cytokines and related molecules. The purpose of the study was to assess the associations between dietary intake of vitamin K and peripheral adipokines and other metabolic risk markers related to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods Cross-sectional and longitudinal assessments of these associations in 510 elderly participants recruited in the PREDIMED centers of Reus and Barcelona (Spain. We determined 1-year changes in dietary phylloquinone intake estimated by food frequency questionnaires, serum inflammatory cytokines and other metabolic risk markers. Results In the cross-sectional analysis at baseline no significant associations were found between dietary phylloquinone intake and the rest of metabolic risk markers evaluated, with exception of a negative association with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. After 1-year of follow-up, subjects in the upper tertile of changes in dietary phylloquinone intake showed a greater reduction in ghrelin (−15.0%, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (−12.9%, glucagon-like peptide-1 (−17.6%, IL-6 (−27.9%, leptin (−10.3%, TNF (−26.9% and visfatin (−24.9% plasma concentrations than those in the lowest tertile (all p Conclusion These results show that dietary phylloquinone intake is associated with an improvement of cytokines and other markers related to insulin resistance and diabetes, thus extending the potential protection by dietary phylloquinone on chronic inflammatory diseases. Trial registration http://www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN35739639
Jaume Marrugat; Roberto Elosua; Gloria Icaza; Alberto Morales-Salinas; Irene R. Dégano
Resumen Las estrategias de prevención de las enfermedades cardiovasculares necesitan refinamiento porque su incidencia se reduce muy lentamente. Las funciones de riesgo incorporaron los factores de riesgo clásicos (edad, sexo, consumo de tabaco, diabetes, presión arterial, y perfil lipídico básico) en cohortes seguidas generalmente más de 10 años. Son razonablemente precisas para el cribado poblacional del riesgo de enfermedad coronaria exigido en las guías de práctica clínica. Clasifican ...
Rodriguez, Valentina; Weiss, Matthew C; Weintraub, Howard; Goldberg, Ira J; Schwartzbard, Arthur
Patients with diabetes mellitus have increased rates of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) and heart failure (HF). This increase occurs despite optimal lipid-lowering therapies. We reviewed clinical trials of diabetes treatments and their effects on circulating plasma lipoproteins and CVD. Several earlier studies failed to demonstrate clear CVD benefit from diabetes therapies. In addition, triglyceride-reducing agents did not reduce overall CVD in large clinical trials although these trials were not conducted in cohorts selected as hypertriglyceridemic. Specific classes such as the thiazolidinediones increased HF. After Food and Drug Administration mandates for more rigorous safety data, recent studies have not only demonstrated CVD safety for many diabetes mellitus agents, but have also shown that certain newer medications such as empagliflozin, canagliflozin, liraglutide, and semaglutide reduce CVD. Moreover, pioglitazone use in insulin-resistant patients has resulted in decreased cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events, suggesting a protective vascular effect of this agent. Benefits from these newer classes of medications are unlikely to be because of improved lipoprotein profiles. These disparities in diabetes medication effects on CVD are likely attributable to each drug or drug class' cardiometabolic effects. Selecting medications based solely on their potential to lower hemoglobin A1C is an outdated therapeutic approach. We propose a new algorithm for treatment of patients with type II diabetes such that medication selection is based on the presence or risk of coronary artery disease and/or HF. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schreuder, T.H.A.; Maessen, M.F.H.; Tack, C.J.J.; Thijssen, D.H.J.; Hopman, M.T.E.
PURPOSE: Short-to-moderate duration exercise training improves fitness and lowers cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However, the impact of long-term compliance to an active lifestyle of T2DM patients on cardiovascular risk factors has never been studied but could provide information on
Arsenault, Benoit J; Kohli, Payal; Lambert, Gilles; DeMicco, David A; Laskey, Rachel; Messig, Michael M; Kastelein, John J P; Waters, David D
Whether biomarkers associated with cardiovascular disease risk also predict incident diabetes mellitus (DM) is unknown. Our objective was to determine if a panel of 18 biomarkers previously associated with risk of cardiovascular disease also predicts incident DM in statin-treated patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). The Treating to New Targets (TNT) study is a randomized trial that compared the efficacy of high (80 mg) versus low (10 mg) dose atorvastatin for the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease events. Fasting plasma levels of standard lipids and of 18 emerging CAD risk biomarkers were obtained after an 8-week run-in period on atorvastatin 10 mg in a random sample of 1,424 TNT patients. After exclusion of patients with DM at baseline (n = 253), 101 patients developed DM during the median follow-up of 4.9 years. Patients with incident DM had lower levels of total and high-molecular weight adiponectin, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), soluble receptor of advanced glycation end products, and vitamin D compared with patients without incident DM. In contrast, insulin, soluble CD40 ligand, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels were higher in patients with incident DM compared with those without. Plasma levels of C-reactive protein, cystatin C, lipoprotein(a), monocyte chemotactic protein-1, matrix metalloproteinase-9, myeloperoxidase, neopterin, N-terminal fragment of pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, osteopontin, and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 were comparable in patients with and without incident DM. After multivariate adjustment, total and high-molecular weight adiponectin as well as Lp-PLA2 were negatively associated with incident DM. Results of this study suggest that plasma lipids and some emerging CAD risk biomarkers, such as adiponectin and Lp-PLA2, may be useful for predicting incident DM in statin-treated patients with stable CAD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mandviwala, Taher; Khalid, Umair; Deswal, Anita
In the USA, 69 % of adults are either overweight or obese and 35 % are obese. Obesity is associated with an increased incidence of various cardiovascular disorders. Obesity is a risk marker for cardiovascular disease, in that it is associated with a much higher prevalence of comorbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome, which then increase the risk for cardiovascular disease. However, in addition, obesity may also be an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, although obesity has been shown to be an independent risk factor for several cardiovascular diseases, it is often associated with improved survival once the diagnosis of the cardiovascular disease has been made, leading to the term "obesity paradox." Several pathways linking obesity and cardiovascular disease have been described. In this review, we attempt to summarize the complex relationship between obesity and cardiovascular disorders, in particular coronary atherosclerosis, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation.
Prevalence of peripheral arterial disease in subjects with moderate cardiovascular risk: Italian results from the PANDORA study Data from PANDORA (Prevalence of peripheral Arterial disease in subjects with moderate CVD risk, with No overt vascular Diseases nor Diabetes mellitus).
Sanna, Guido; Alesso, Donatella; Mediati, Malek; Cimminiello, Claudio; Borghi, Claudio; Fazzari, Amalia Lucia; Mangrella, Mario
The PANDORA study has recently examined the prevalence of low ankle brachial index (ABI) in subjects with moderate risk of cardiovascular disease. This sub-analysis of the PANDORA study examines the prevalence of asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease (PAD), as determined by ABI, in Italian subjects presenting with moderate cardiovascular risk, in the absence of diabetes or overt vascular disease. PANDORA is a non-interventional, cross-sectional study that was performed in 6 European countries, involving subjects with at least one cardiovascular (CV) risk factor. The primary objective was to evaluate the prevalence of asymptomatic PAD using ABI. For this post-hoc sub-analysis, data were extracted for subjects enrolled in Italy, comprising 51.5% (n = 5298) of subjects from the original PANDORA study. Secondary objectives were to establish the prevalence and treatment of CV risk factors. The mean age was 63.9 years and 22.9% (95% CI 21.7-24.0) of subjects presented with asymptomatic PAD. A range of risk factors comprising smoking, hypertension, low HDL-cholesterol, family history of coronary heart disease and habit of moderate-high alcohol intake were significantly associated with asymptomatic PAD (p < 0.0001). Statin treatment had the lowest incidence in Italian subjects. Furthermore, patients treated with statins were significantly less likely to have asymptomatic PAD than those who were not (p = 0.0001). Asymptomatic PAD was highly prevalent in Italian subjects, the majority of whom were not candidates for ABI assessment according to current guidelines. Findings from this study suggest that these patients should be carefully examined in clinical practice and ABI measured so that therapeutic interventions known to decrease their CV risk may be offered.
Prevalence of peripheral arterial disease in subjects with moderate cardiovascular risk: Italian results from the PANDORA study Data from PANDORA (Prevalence of peripheral Arterial disease in subjects with moderate CVD risk, with No overt vascular Diseases nor Diabetes mellitus
Full Text Available Abstract Background The PANDORA study has recently examined the prevalence of low ankle brachial index (ABI in subjects with moderate risk of cardiovascular disease. This sub-analysis of the PANDORA study examines the prevalence of asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease (PAD, as determined by ABI, in Italian subjects presenting with moderate cardiovascular risk, in the absence of diabetes or overt vascular disease. Methods PANDORA is a non-interventional, cross-sectional study that was performed in 6 European countries, involving subjects with at least one cardiovascular (CV risk factor. The primary objective was to evaluate the prevalence of asymptomatic PAD using ABI. For this post-hoc sub-analysis, data were extracted for subjects enrolled in Italy, comprising 51.5% (n = 5298 of subjects from the original PANDORA study. Secondary objectives were to establish the prevalence and treatment of CV risk factors. Results The mean age was 63.9 years and 22.9% (95% CI 21.7-24.0 of subjects presented with asymptomatic PAD. A range of risk factors comprising smoking, hypertension, low HDL-cholesterol, family history of coronary heart disease and habit of moderate-high alcohol intake were significantly associated with asymptomatic PAD (p Conclusions Asymptomatic PAD was highly prevalent in Italian subjects, the majority of whom were not candidates for ABI assessment according to current guidelines. Findings from this study suggest that these patients should be carefully examined in clinical practice and ABI measured so that therapeutic interventions known to decrease their CV risk may be offered. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00689377
Ranjan, Ajenthen; Schmidt, Signe; Damm-Frydenberg, Camilla
The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of a high carbohydrate diet (HCD) vs a low carbohydrate diet (LCD) on glycaemic variables and cardiovascular risk markers in patients with type 1 diabetes. Ten patients (4 women, insulin pump-treated, median ± standard deviation [s.d.] age 48...... ± 10 years, glycated haemoglobin [HbA1c] 53 ± 6 mmol/mol [7.0% ± 0.6%]) followed an isocaloric HCD (≥250 g/d) for 1 week and an isocaloric LCD (≤50 g/d) for 1 week in random order. After each week, we downloaded pump and sensor data and collected fasting blood and urine samples. Diet adherence was high...... (225 ± 30 vs 47 ± 10 g carbohydrates/d; P LCD resulted in more time with glucose values in the range of 3.9 to 10.0 mmol/L (83% ± 9% vs 72% ± 11%; P = .02), less time with values ≤3.9 mmol...
May, O.; Arildsen, H.; Damsgaard, E.M.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in Type 1 diabetes mellitus in the general population and to assess the relationship between CAN and risk of future coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: The Type 1 diabetes mellitus...... = 0.001). Exercise capacity, rise in systolic blood pressure and heart rate were positively correlated with the E/I ratio. A high VA Prognostic Score was correlated with a low E/I ratio (r = - 0.58, P ...%. The E/I ratio was significantly reduced in old age, long duration of diabetes, female gender, high fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, systolic blood pressure and urinary albumin excretion. A high risk of future CHD calculated using the Framingham model was associated with a low E/I ratio (r = -0.39, P...
Møller, Katrine Dragsbæk
gainers compared to normalweight weight-stable women. Contrarily, overweight and obese women who lost weight during the follow-up period decreased their risk of hyperglycaemia to a level comparable to women who stayed normalweight during the follow-up period. The thesis rounds off by introducing a novel......S risk factors, were also at increased risk of T2DM and CVD. The cohort was further used to explore how weight and weight change in late-life affected the risk of hyperglycaemia in elderly women (study III). The study presented a 2-fold increased risk of hyperglycaemia in overweight and obese elderly...... women compared to normalweight women after 13 years. In women who gained weight, the risk of hyperglycaemia in late-life was most profound for overweight and obese women resulting in a 2.7-fold increased risk of hyperglycaemia in overweight weight gainers and a 3.2-fold increased risk in obese weight...
Silva, Honorio; Hernandez-Hernandez, Rafael; Vinueza, Raul; Velasco, Manuel; Boissonnet, Carlos Pablo; Escobedo, Jorge; Silva, H Elif; Pramparo, Palmira; Wilson, Elinor
Effective prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases require regular screening for risk factors, high awareness of the condition, effective treatment of the identified risk factors, and adherence to the prescribed treatment. The Cardiovascular Risk Factor Multiple Evaluation in Latin America study was a cross-sectional, population-based, observational study of major cardiovascular risk factors-including hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia-in 7 Latin American cities. This report presents data on assessment, diagnosis, extent, and effectiveness of treatment, adherence to treatment, and reasons for nonadherence. Data were collected through household questionnaire-based interviews administered to 5383 men and 6167 women, 25-64 years of age, living in the following cities: Barquisimeto, Venezuela; Bogota, Colombia; Buenos Aires, Argentina; Lima, Peru; Mexico City, Mexico; Quito, Ecuador; and Santiago, Chile. Participants also completed a clinic visit for anthromorphometric and laboratory assessments. Rates of prior diagnosis of hypertension and diabetes were high (64% and 78% of affected individuals, respectively) but relatively low for hypercholesterolemia (41%). The majority of affected individuals (hypercholesterolemia 88%, diabetes 67%, and hypertension 53%) were untreated. Among individuals who were receiving pharmacologic treatment, targets for control of hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia were achieved by 51%, 16%, and 52%, respectively. Adherence to treatment was observed in 69% of individuals with hypertension, 63% with diabetes, and 66% with hypercholesterolemia. Forgetfulness was the major cause of nonadherence for all 3 conditions. There is a substantial need for increasing patient education, diagnosis, treatment, adherence, and control of cardiovascular risk factors in the 7 Latin American cities.
García-Martín, Antonia; Reyes-García, Rebeca; García-Castro, José Miguel; Quesada-Charneco, Miguel; Escobar-Jiménez, Fernando; Muñoz-Torres, Manuel
Patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP), even asymptomatic, have an increased cardiovascular risk. However, data on reversibility or improvement of cardiovascular disorders with surgery are controversial. Our aims were to assess the prevalence of classic cardiovascular risk factors in patients with asymptomatic PHP, to explore their relationship with calcium and PTH levels, and analyze the effect of parathyroidectomy on those cardiovascular risk factors. A retrospective, observational study of two groups of patients with asymptomatic PHP: 40 patients on observation and 33 patients who underwent surgery. Clinical and biochemical data related to PHP and various cardiovascular risk factors were collected from all patients at baseline and one year after surgery in the operated patients. A high prevalence of obesity (59.9%), type 2 diabetes mellitus (25%), high blood pressure (47.2%), and dyslipidemia (44.4%) was found in the total sample, with no difference between the study groups. Serum calcium and PTH levels positively correlated with BMI (r=.568, P=.011, and r=.509, P=.026 respectively) in non-operated patients. One year after parathyroidectomy, no improvement occurred in the cardiovascular risk factors considered. Our results confirm the high prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, and dyslipidemia in patients with asymptomatic PHP. However, parathyroidectomy did not improve these cardiovascular risk factors. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Dirksen, Carsten; Jacobsen, Siv H; Bojsen-Møller, Kirstine N
Experience with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in patients with type 1 diabetes is very limited, despite an increasing prevalence of obesity also in this population. We describe changes in anthropometric measures, insulin dose, HbA1c, blood pressure, lipid status, and metabolic response to a liquid mixed...... meal throughout the first year after RYGB in an obese patient with type 1 diabetes. No change in HbA1c was observed, but a 48% reduction in weight-adjusted insulin dose and improvements in cardiovascular risk factors was seen 1 year after surgery. Exaggerated secretions of anorexigenic gut hormones...
Alcohol consumption and risk of recurrent cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with clinically manifest vascular disease and diabetes mellitus: The Second Manifestations of ARTerial (SMART) disease study
Beulens, J.W.J.; Algra, A.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Visseren, F.L.J.; Grobbee, D.E.; Graaf, van der Y.
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the relation between alcohol consumption and specific vascular events and mortality in a high risk population of patients with clinical manifestations of vascular disease and diabetes. METHODS: Patients with clinically manifest vascular disease or diabetes (n=5447)
Urinary albumin and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine as markers of mortality and cardiovascular disease during 19 years after diagnosis of type 2 diabetes - A comparative study of two markers to identify high risk patients
Broedbaek, Kasper; Køster-Rasmussen, Rasmus; Siersma, Volkert
,8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxoGuo) that represents intracellular oxidative stress. We investigated the ability of microalbuminuria (MA) and urinary 8-oxoGuo, alone and in combination, to predict mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with type 2 diabetes. We used data from 1381 newly diagnosed diabetes......Urinary albumin is an important biomarker used to identify high risk patients with diabetes, but there is a need for new biomarkers that alone or in combination with urinary albumin could give an even better prediction of clinical patient outcomes. One promising biomarker is 8-oxo-7...... patients, and urinary albumin and 8-oxoGuo were assessed in morning urine collected at the time of diabetes diagnosis and at a follow-up visit 6 years later. Associations between the urinary markers and mortality and CVD were assessed in Cox proportional hazards regression models. Test performance...
Michael J Davies; Katherine Merton; Ujjwala Vijapurkar; Jacqueline Yee; Rong Qiu
...) with a favourable tolerability profile in a broad range of patients with T2DM. This post hoc analysis assessed the efficacy and safety of canagliflozin in patients with T2DM based on CV disease history or CV risk factors...
Comparison of effects of gliclazide, metformin and pioglitazone monotherapies on glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with newly diagnosed uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Erem, C; Ozbas, H M; Nuhoglu, I; Deger, O; Civan, N; Ersoz, H O
The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of gliclazide-modified release (gliclazide-MR), metformine (MET) and pioglitazone (PIO) monotherapies on glycemic control and conventional/non-conventional cardiovascular risk factors in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A single center, randomized, 52-wk comparator-controlled clinical study was carried out in patients with newly diagnosed uncontrolled T2DM. A total of 57 patients were randomized into gliclazide-MR, metformin and pioglitazone groups. Drugs were administered for 12 months. Anthropometric measurements, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), postprandial plasma glucose (PPG), HbA1c, insulin, HOMA-IR, lipid parameters, the markers of coagulation/fibrinolysis, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction were measured at baseline and at months 3, 6, and 12. In the gliclazide-MR group, HC, FPG, HbA1c, insulin, HOMA-IR, TC, trigylcerides, Lp (a), E-selectin and Hcy were significantly decreased after treatment compared to baseline. In the MET group, BMI, WC, FPG, PPG, HbA1c, ICAM-1 and Hcy significantly decreased after treatment compared to baseline. In PIO group, WC, HC, FPG, PPG, HbA1c, C-peptid, HOMA-IR, trigylcerides, vWF, IL-6, ICAM-1, E-selectin and Hcy significantly decreased after treatment compared to baseline, whereas, HDL-C increased. At the end of the month 12, the decreases in insulin and HOMA-IR score were more pronounced with PIO compared to gliclazide. Gliclazide-MR, MET and PIO monotherapies, were equally effective in proving glycemic control in patients with newly diagnosed, oral antidiabetic (OAD)-naive T2DM. But, improvements in conventional/non-conventional cardiovascular risk factors were more pronounced in patients on PIO therapy compared to gliclazide and MET therapies. Also, all of the 3 drugs represent effective and safe first-line pharmacological treatment options in these patients. © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New
Poola-Kella, Silpa; Steinman, Rachel A; Mesmar, Bayan; Malek, Rana
Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at an increased risk for developing metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and cardiovascular disease. In this review, we will discuss postpartum cardiovascular and diabetes risk in women with a history of GDM and different ways to improve postpartum screening. This review involves a comprehensive literature review on gestational diabetes and post-partum risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus as well as post-partum screening methods. Cardiovascular risk post-partum is potentiated by increased inflammatory markers leading to worsening atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events downstream. Decreased insulin sensitivity and β cell compensation, recurrent GDM, maternal factors such as pre and post-partum weight gain and lactation may contribute to T2DM risk. Postpartum glucose testing is essential in screening women as hyperglycemia in pregnancy has long term effects on both cardiovascular disease and diabetes risk on the mother. Long and short term improvement to post-partum glucose testing is essential to decreasing cardiometabolic and diabetes risk in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Boateng, Daniel; Agyemang, Charles; Beune, Erik; Meeks, Karlijn; Smeeth, Liam; Schulze, Matthias; Addo, Juliet; de-Graft Aikins, Ama; Galbete, Cecilia; Bahendeka, Silver; Danquah, Ina; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Mockenhaupt, Frank P.; Spranger, Joachim; Kengne, Andre P.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Stronks, Karien; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin
Background For migrant populations from sub-Saharan Africa, adverse cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors have been observed to be higher than found in their home country-based counterparts or among the host populations in high-income countries. Differences in absolute overall CVD risk, however,
Boateng, Daniel; Agyemang, Charles; Beune, Erik; Meeks, Karlijn; Smeeth, Liam; Schulze, Matthias B.; Addo, Juliet; de-Graft Aikins, Ama; Galbete, Cecilia; Bahendeka, Silver; Danquah, Ina; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Mockenhaupt, Frank P; Spranger, Joachim; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Grobbee, Diederick E; Stronks, Karien; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin
BACKGROUND: For migrant populations from sub-Saharan Africa, adverse cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors have been observed to be higher than found in their home country-based counterparts or among the host populations in high-income countries. Differences in absolute overall CVD risk,
AlJaroudi, Wael A; Petersen, John L
The prevalence of obesity has increased in the past 10 years. Recent studies have associated obesity with other cardiovascular risk factors, and an increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular death. Patients with obesity should undergo a global evaluation cardiovascular risk, including measurement of abdominal waist circumference, assessment of standard cardiovascular risk factors, screening for dyslipidemia, abnormal glucose metabolism, and hypertension. Recommendations for dietary modification should be tailored to the patient's associated medical conditions, such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, and all patients should be instructed on the importance of monitoring caloric intake. For patients who can engage in regular physical activity, we recommend a minimum regimen of 150 min/wk of moderate intensity exercise, such as brisk walking. Use of pharmacotherapy for obesity can be considered when efforts at therapeutic lifestyle modification have been ineffective, but patients must be carefully screened because many agents have potential side effects. Surgical approaches for obesity have also been demonstrated to be effective in achieving and sustaining weight loss and improving markers of cardiovascular risk and should be considered in patients who are refractory to therapeutic lifestyle modification. All diabetic patients should be treated comprehensively to reduce other comorbid conditions, including hypertension and dyslipidemia. Hypoglycemic therapy should be initiated when efforts to reduce hyperglycemia to target thresholds fail.
Møller, Katrine Dragsbæk; Neergaard, Jesper; Laursen, Janne Marie
, followed 3905 Danish women since 2000 (age: 70.1±6.5) with no previous diagnosis of T2DM or CVD, holding all measurements used for MetS definition; central obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and hyperglycemia combined with register-based follow-up information. Elderly women with defined MetS presented...... a 6.3-fold increased risk of T2DM (95% confidence interval: [3.74-10.50]) and 1.7-fold increased risk of CVD (1.44-2.05) compared to women with no MetS risk factors. Subdividing the control group without defined MetS revealed that both centrally obese controls and controls holding other MetS risk...
Halland, H; Lønnebakken, M T; Saeed, S; Midtbø, H; Cramariuc, D; Gerdts, E
Good cardiorespiratory fitness has been suggested to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in obesity. We explored the association of fitness with the prevalences of major cardiovascular risk factor like hypertension (HT), diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in overweight and obese subjects. Clinical data from 491 participants in the FAT associated CardiOvasculaR dysfunction (FATCOR) study were analyzed. Physical fitness was assessed by ergospirometry, and subjects with at least good level of performance for age and sex were classified as fit. HT subtypes were identified from clinic and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure in combination. Diabetes was diagnosed by oral glucose tolerance test. MetS was defined by the American Heart Association and National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute criteria. The participants were on average 48 years old (60% women), and mean body mass index (BMI) was 32 kg/m2. 28% of study participants were classified as fit. Fitness was not associated with lower prevalences of HT or HT subtypes, diabetes, MetS or individual MetS components (all p > 0.05). In multivariable regression analysis, being fit was characterized by lower waist circumference, BMI fitness was not associated with a lower prevalence of major cardiovascular risk factors like HT, diabetes or MetS. Given the strong association of cardiovascular risk factor burden with risk of clinical cardiovascular disease, these findings challenge the notion that fitness alone is associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease in obesity. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hajifathalian, Kaveh; Ueda, Peter; Lu, Yuan
BACKGROUND: Treatment of cardiovascular risk factors based on disease risk depends on valid risk prediction equations. We aimed to develop, and apply in example countries, a risk prediction equation for cardiovascular disease (consisting here of coronary heart disease and stroke) that can...... be recalibrated and updated for application in different countries with routinely available information. METHODS: We used data from eight prospective cohort studies to estimate coefficients of the risk equation with proportional hazard regressions. The risk prediction equation included smoking, blood pressure......, diabetes, and total cholesterol, and allowed the effects of sex and age on cardiovascular disease to vary between cohorts or countries. We developed risk equations for fatal cardiovascular disease and for fatal plus non-fatal cardiovascular disease. We validated the risk equations internally and also using...
Factores de riesgo cardiovascular en niños con diabetes tipo 1 y su relación con el control de la glucemia Cardiovascular risk factors in children with type 1 diabetes and their relationship with the glycemic control
Adela V. Abregú
Full Text Available Los pacientes con diabetes tienen un riesgo incrementado de desarrollar enfermedad cardiovascular (ECV. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar factores de riesgo de ECV en niños con diabetes tipo 1 y su asociación con el grado de control glucémico. Se estudiaron 52 pacientes, entre 5 y 15 años, tratados con insulina corriente y NPH, comparados con 37 controles. Se investigó el grado de control glucémico, perfil lipídico, fibrinógeno plasmático, microalbuminuria y presión arterial. Los pacientes se agruparon en diabéticos con buen control glucémico [DBCG: hemoglobina glicosilada (HA1c 8%. La población con diabetes presentó valores incrementados de colesterol total (4.1 ± 0.9 vs. 3.1 ± 0.7 mmol/l, p = 0.0008, LDL-colesterol (2.4 ± 0.9 vs. 1.7 ± 0.7 mmol/l, p = 0.0001, HDL-colesterol (1.2 ± 0.3 vs. 1.0 ± 0.2 mmol/l, p = 0.0002, respecto a los sujetos controles. El 83% mostró un pobre control glucémico. No hubo diferencias significativas en el perfil lipídico entre DBCG y DPCG, excepto para HDL-colesterol que fue mayor en los DPCG (p = 0.007. Los niveles de fibrinógeno fueron mayores en DPCG que en DBCG (265 ± 46 vs. 229 ± 22 mg/dl, p = 0.02. Se detectaron tres pacientes con microalbuminuria y ninguno con hipertensión arterial. En la población estudiada los factores de riesgo cardiovascular más pronunciados fueron la dislipemia y la hiperglucemia, evidenciando la necesidad de la detección temprana de estos factores y un control metabólico riguroso.Diabetics have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. The objective of this work was to evaluate the cardiovascular risk factors in infant-juvenile type 1 diabetics and their association with the degree of glycemic control. A total of 52 patients, aged 5-15 years, were studied and compared with 37 control subjects. The degree of glycemic control, lipid profile, plasma fibrinogen, microalbuminuria and blood pressure were investigated. The patients were grouped in
Holman, Rury R; Haffner, Steven M; McMurray, John J; Bethel, M Angelyn; Holzhauer, Björn; Hua, Tsushung A; Belenkov, Yuri; Boolell, Mitradev; Buse, John B; Buckley, Brendan M; Chacra, Antonio R; Chiang, Fu-Tien; Charbonnel, Bernard; Chow, Chun-Chung; Davies, Melanie J; Deedwania, Prakash; Diem, Peter; Einhorn, Daniel; Fonseca, Vivian; Fulcher, Gregory R; Gaciong, Zbigniew; Gaztambide, Sonia; Giles, Thomas; Horton, Edward; Ilkova, Hasan; Jenssen, Trond; Kahn, Steven E; Krum, Henry; Laakso, Markku; Leiter, Lawrence A; Levitt, Naomi S; Mareev, Viacheslav; Martinez, Felipe; Masson, Chantal; Mazzone, Theodore; Meaney, Eduardo; Nesto, Richard; Pan, Changyu; Prager, Rudolf; Raptis, Sotirios A; Rutten, Guy E H M; Sandstroem, Herbert; Schaper, Frank; Scheen, Andre; Schmitz, Ole; Sinay, Isaac; Soska, Vladimir; Stender, Steen; Tamás, Gyula; Tognoni, Gianni; Tuomilehto, Jaako; Villamil, Alberto S; Vozár, Juraj; Califf, Robert M
The ability of short-acting insulin secretagogues to reduce the risk of diabetes or cardiovascular events in people with impaired glucose tolerance is unknown. In a double-blind, randomized clinical trial, we assigned 9306 participants with impaired glucose tolerance and either cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular risk factors to receive nateglinide (up to 60 mg three times daily) or placebo, in a 2-by-2 factorial design with valsartan or placebo, in addition to participation in a lifestyle modification program. We followed the participants for a median of 5.0 years for incident diabetes (and a median of 6.5 years for vital status). We evaluated the effect of nateglinide on the occurrence of three coprimary outcomes: the development of diabetes; a core cardiovascular outcome that was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or hospitalization for heart failure; and an extended cardiovascular outcome that was a composite of the individual components of the core composite cardiovascular outcome, hospitalization for unstable angina, or arterial revascularization. After adjustment for multiple testing, nateglinide, as compared with placebo, did not significantly reduce the cumulative incidence of diabetes (36% and 34%, respectively; hazard ratio, 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00 to 1.15; P=0.05), the core composite cardiovascular outcome (7.9% and 8.3%, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.94, 95% CI, 0.82 to 1.09; P=0.43), or the extended composite cardiovascular outcome (14.2% and 15.2%, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.93, 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.03; P=0.16). Nateglinide did, however, increase the risk of hypoglycemia. Among persons with impaired glucose tolerance and established cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular risk factors, assignment to nateglinide for 5 years did not reduce the incidence of diabetes or the coprimary composite cardiovascular outcomes. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00097786.) 2010
Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of obesity has increased in societies of all socio-cultural backgrounds. To date, guidelines set forward to prevent obesity have universally emphasized optimal levels of physical activity. However there are few empirical data to support the assertion that low levels of energy expenditure in activity is a causal factor in the current obesity epidemic are very limited. Methods/Design The Modeling the Epidemiologic Transition Study (METS is a cohort study designed to assess the association between physical activity levels and relative weight, weight gain and diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk in five population-based samples at different stages of economic development. Twenty-five hundred young adults, ages 25-45, were enrolled in the study; 500 from sites in Ghana, South Africa, Seychelles, Jamaica and the United States. At baseline, physical activity levels were assessed using accelerometry and a questionnaire in all participants and by doubly labeled water in a subsample of 75 per site. We assessed dietary intake using two separate 24-hour recalls, body composition using bioelectrical impedance analysis, and health history, social and economic indicators by questionnaire. Blood pressure was measured and blood samples collected for measurement of lipids, glucose, insulin and adipokines. Full examination including physical activity using accelerometry, anthropometric data and fasting glucose will take place at 12 and 24 months. The distribution of the main variables and the associations between physical activity, independent of energy intake, glucose metabolism and anthropometric measures will be assessed using cross-section and longitudinal analysis within and between sites. Discussion METS will provide insight on the relative contribution of physical activity and diet to excess weight, age-related weight gain and incident glucose impairment in five