WorldWideScience

Sample records for cardiovascular molecular imaging

  1. Cardiovascular molecular MR imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Lamb, H J; van der Meer, R. W.; Roos, A. (Anna); Bax, J J

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular molecular imaging is a rapidly evolving field of research, aiming to image and quantify molecular and cellular targets in vivo. MR imaging has some inherent properties that make it very suitable for cardiovascular molecular imaging. Until now, only a limited number of studies have been published on cardiovascular molecular imaging using MR imaging. Review In the current review, MR techniques that have already shown potential are discussed. Metabolic MR imaging can ...

  2. Cardiovascular Molecular Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Khanicheh, Elham

    2009-01-01

    Although there have been significant improvements in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases they still remain the main cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Currently available diagnostic approaches may not be adequate to detect pathologic changes during the early disease stages, which may be valuable for risk stratification and also to assess a response to a therapy. Therefore molecular imaging techniques such as Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound (CEU) molecular imaging to noninvasively i...

  3. Cardiovascular molecular imaging of apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolters, S.L.; Reutelingsperger, C.P.M. [Maastricht University, Department of Biochemistry, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands); Corsten, M.F.; Hofstra, L. [Maastricht University, Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, P.O. Box 616, Maastricht (Netherlands); Narula, J. [University of California Irvine, Department of Cardiology, Irvine (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Molecular imaging strives to visualise processes at the molecular and cellular level in vivo. Understanding these processes supports diagnosis and evaluation of therapeutic efficacy on an individual basis and thereby makes personalised medicine possible. Apoptosis is a well-organised mode of cell suicide that plays a role in cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Apoptosis is associated with loss of cardiomyocytes following myocardial infarction, atherosclerotic plaque instability, congestive heart failure and allograft rejection of the transplanted heart. Thus, apoptosis constitutes an attractive target for molecular imaging of CVD. Our current knowledge about the molecular players and mechanisms underlying apoptosis offers a rich palette of potential molecular targets for molecular imaging. However, only a few have been successfully developed so far. This review highlights aspects of the molecular machinery and biochemistry of apoptosis relevant to the development of molecular imaging probes. It surveys the role of apoptosis in four major areas of CVD and portrays the importance and future perspectives of apoptosis imaging. The annexin A5 imaging protocol is emphasised since it is the most advanced protocol to measure apoptosis in both preclinical and clinical studies. (orig.)

  4. Quantitative cardiovascular magnetic resonance for molecular imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Lanza Gregory M; Caruthers Shelton D; Winter Patrick M; Wickline Samuel A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) molecular imaging aims to identify and map the expression of important biomarkers on a cellular scale utilizing contrast agents that are specifically targeted to the biochemical signatures of disease and are capable of generating sufficient image contrast. In some cases, the contrast agents may be designed to carry a drug payload or to be sensitive to important physiological factors, such as pH, temperature or oxygenation. In this review, examp...

  5. Molecular imaging in cardiovascular diseases; Molekulare kardiovaskulaere MRT-Bildgebung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botnar, R.M. [King' s College London (United Kingdom). Imaging Sciences; St. Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Ebersberger, H. [Heart Center Munich-Bogenhausen, Munich (Germany). Dept. of Cardiology and Intensive Care Medicine; Noerenberg, D. [Charite, Berlin (Germany). Inst. for Radiology; and others

    2015-02-15

    Cardiovascular diseases remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in industrialized and developing countries. In clinical practice, the in-vivo identification of atherosclerotic lesions, which can lead to complications such as heart attack or stroke, remains difficult. Imaging techniques provide the reference standard for the detection of clinically significant atherosclerotic changes in the coronary and carotid arteries. The assessment of the luminal narrowing is feasible, while the differentiation of stable and potentially unstable or vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques is currently not possible using non-invasive imaging. With high spatial resolution and high soft tissue contrast, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a suitable method for the evaluation of the thin arterial wall. In clinical practice, native MRI of the vessel wall already allows the differentiation and characterization of components of atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid arteries and the aorta. Additional diagnostic information can be gained by the use of non-specific MRI contrast agents. With the development of targeted molecular probes, that highlight specific molecules or cells, pathological processes can be visualized at a molecular level with high spatial resolution. In this review article, the development of pathophysiological changes leading to the development of the arterial wall are introduced and discussed. Additionally, principles of contrast enhanced imaging with non-specific contrast agents and molecular probes will be discussed and latest developments in the field of molecular imaging of the vascular wall will be introduced.

  6. Translational applications of molecular imaging in cardiovascular disease and stem cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Tao, Hongyan; Zhao, Shihua; He, Zuo-Xiang; Li, Zongjin

    2015-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Molecular imaging techniques provide valuable information at cellular and molecular level, as opposed to anatomical and structural layers acquired from traditional imaging modalities. More specifically, molecular imaging employs imaging probes which interact with specific molecular targets and therefore makes it possible to visualize biological processes in vivo. Molecular imaging technology is now progressing towards preclinical and clinical application that gives an integral and comprehensive guidance for the investigation of cardiovascular disease. In addition, cardiac stem cell therapy holds great promise for clinical translation. Undoubtedly, combining stem cell therapy with molecular imaging technology will bring a broad prospect for the study and treatment of cardiac disease. This review will focus on the progresses of molecular imaging strategies in cardiovascular disease and cardiac stem cell therapy. Furthermore, the perspective on the future role of molecular imaging in clinical translation and potential strategies in defining safety and efficacy of cardiac stem cell therapies will be discussed.

  7. Multi-target photoacoustic molecular imaging of cardiovascular inflammatory biomarkers using bioconjugated gold nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, S.; Tripathy, S.; Carson, A.; Lavery, L. L.; Zhang, H.; Agarwal, A.; Kotov, N.; Villanueva, F. S.; Kim, K.

    2011-03-01

    Multiple cardiovascular inflammatory biomarkers were simultaneously imaged in vivo using antibody conjugated gold nanorods (GNRs) injected into a mouse model of vascular injury stimulated by a photochemical reaction of Rose Bengal dye to green light. Mixed solutions of ICAM-1 antibody conjugated GNRs (715 nm) and E-selectin antibody conjugated GNRs (800 nm) were injected to bind to their respective inflammatory markers on the luminal surface of the inferior vena cava of a mouse. Photoacoustic intensity was measured by a commercial ultrasound probe synchronized to a pulsed laser (10-18 mJ/cm2) at 715 nm or 800 nm clearly identified the upregulation of targeted biomarkers. Histopathology on the harvested tissues confirmed inflammation. The feasibility of simultaneous photoacoustic molecular imaging of inflammation responses in cardiovascular system using a commercial ultrasound system has been demonstrated in vivo.

  8. Unmasking Silent Endothelial Activation in the Cardiovascular System Using Molecular Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belliere, Julie; Martinez de Lizarrondo, Sara; Choudhury, Robin P; Quenault, Aurélien; Le Béhot, Audrey; Delage, Christine; Chauveau, Dominique; Schanstra, Joost P; Bascands, Jean-Loup; Vivien, Denis; Gauberti, Maxime

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial activation is a hallmark of cardiovascular diseases, acting either as a cause or a consequence of organ injury. To date, we lack suitable methods to measure endothelial activation in vivo. In the present study, we developed a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method allowing non-invasive endothelial activation mapping in the vasculature of the main organs affected during cardiovascular diseases. In clinically relevant contexts in mice (including systemic inflammation, acute and chronic kidney diseases, diabetes mellitus and normal aging), we provided evidence that this method allows detecting endothelial activation before any clinical manifestation of organ failure in the brain, kidney and heart with an exceptional sensitivity. In particular, we demonstrated that diabetes mellitus induces chronic endothelial cells activation in the kidney and heart. Moreover, aged mice presented activated endothelial cells in the kidneys and the cerebrovasculature. Interestingly, depending on the underlying condition, the temporospatial patterns of endothelial activation in the vascular beds of the cardiovascular system were different. These results demonstrate the feasibility of detecting silent endothelial activation occurring in conditions associated with high cardiovascular risk using molecular MRI. PMID:26379785

  9. A novel high resolution, high sensitivity SPECT detector for molecular imaging of cardiovascular diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cusanno, F., E-mail: francesco.cusanno@iss.infn.i [I.N.F.N., Gruppo Collegato Sanita, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Argentieri, A. [I.N.F.N., Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Baiocchi, M.; Colilli, S.; Cisbani, E. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); De Vincentis, G. [Universita La Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Fratoni, R. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Garibaldi, F. [I.N.F.N., Gruppo Collegato Sanita, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Giuliani, F.; Gricia, M.; Lucentini, M. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Magliozzi, M.L. [I.N.F.N., Gruppo Collegato Sanita, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Majewski, S. [West Virginia University, Morgantown WV (United States); Marano, G. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Musico, P. [I.N.F.N., Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Musumeci, M.; Santavenere, F.; Torrioli, S. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Tsui, B.M.W. [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore MD (United States); Vitelli, L. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy)

    2010-05-21

    Cardiovascular diseases are the most common cause of death in western countries. Understanding the rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques and monitoring the effect of innovative therapies of heart failure is of fundamental importance. A flexible, high resolution, high sensitivity detector system for molecular imaging with radionuclides on small animal models has been designed for this aim. A prototype has been built using tungsten pinhole and LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) scintillator coupled to Hamamatsu Flat Panel PMTs. Compact individual-channel readout has been designed, built and tested. Measurements with phantoms as well as pilot studies on mice have been performed, the results show that the myocardial perfusion in mice can be determined with sufficient precision. The detector will be improved replacing the Hamamatsu Flat Panel with Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) to allow integration of the system with MRI scanners. Application of LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) scintillator coupled to photosensor with high photon detection efficiency and excellent energy resolution will allow dual-label imaging to monitor simultaneously the cardiac perfusion and the molecular targets under investigation during the heart therapy.

  10. Nuclear imaging of cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear imaging methods provide noninvasive indexes of myocardial function, perfusion, and metabolism and are well accepted in clinical cardiology. Advances in prevention and treatment of cardiac disease have resulted in decreasing cardiovascular mortality in industrialized nations. The improvement in therapeutic options has increased the demand for diagnostic tests that might guide clinical decision making. Information beyond the pure anatomic characterization of coronary stenoses is required. Nuclear imaging can be used for early detection and monitoring of the severity and extent of disease. The prognostic potential of such functional testing is being increasingly appreciated and used to guide therapy, thereby resulting in improvement of the quality and cost-effectiveness of the workup of patients with cardiovascular disease. Extensive clinical validation has resulted in growing acceptance of these techniques. Furthermore, ongoing improvement of imaging techniques and development of new radiopharmaceuticals will pave the way for disease-specific, molecular-targeted cardiac imaging in the future. (orig.)

  11. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelc, Norbert

    2000-03-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are a major source of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Early detection of disease can often be used to improved outcomes, either through direct interventions (e.g. surgical corrections) or by causing the patient to modify his or her behavior (e.g. smoking cessation or dietary changes). Ideally, the detection process should be noninvasive (i.e. it should not be associated with significant risk). Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) refers to the formation of images by localizing NMR signals, typically from protons in the body. As in other applications of NMR, a homogeneous static magnetic field ( ~0.5 to 4 T) is used to create ``longitudinal" magnetization. A magnetic field rotating at the Larmor frequency (proportional to the static field) excites spins, converting longitudinal magnetization to ``transverse" magnetization and generating a signal. Localization is performed using pulsed gradients in the static field. MRI can produce images of 2-D slices, 3-D volumes, time-resolved images of pseudo-periodic phenomena such as heart function, and even real-time imaging. It is also possible to acquire spatially localized NMR spectra. MRI has a number of advantages, but perhaps the most fundamental is the richness of the contrast mechanisms. Tissues can be differentiated by differences in proton density, NMR properties, and even flow or motion. We also have the ability to introduce substances that alter NMR signals. These contrast agents can be used to enhance vascular structures and measure perfusion. Cardiovascular MRI allows the reliable diagnosis of important conditions. It is possible to image the blood vessel tree, quantitate flow and perfusion, and image cardiac contraction. Fundamentally, the power of MRI as a diagnostic tool stems from the richness of the contrast mechanisms and the flexibility in control of imaging parameters.

  12. Molecular Mechanisms of Cardiovascular Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The average lifespan of humans is increasing, and with it the percentage of people entering the 65 and older age group is growing rapidly and will continue to do so in the next 20 years. Within this age group, cardiovascular disease will remain the leading cause of death, and the cost associated with treatment will continue to increase. Aging is an inevitable part of life and unfortunately poses the largest risk factor for cardiovascular disease. CONTENT: We provide an overview of some of the molecular mechanisms involved in regulating lifespan and health, including mitochondria, telomeres, stem cells, sirtuins, Adenosine Monophosphate-activated Protein Kinase, Mammalian Target of Rapamycin and Insulin-like Growth Factor 1. We also provide future perspectives of lifespan and health, which are intimately linked fields. SUMMARY: Aging remains the biggest non-modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The biological, structural and mechanical changes in senescent cardiovascular system are thought to contribute in increasing incidence of cardiovascular disease in aging. Understanding the mechanisms contributing to such changes is therefore crucial for both prevention and development of treatment for cardiovascular diseases. KEYWORDS: cardiovascular aging, mitochondria, telomeres, sirtuin, stem cells.

  13. Molecular Mechanisms of Cardiovascular Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Meiliana; Andi Wijaya

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The average lifespan of humans is increasing, and with it the percentage of people entering the 65 and older age group is growing rapidly and will continue to do so in the next 20 years. Within this age group, cardiovascular disease will remain the leading cause of death, and the cost associated with treatment will continue to increase. Aging is an inevitable part of life and unfortunately poses the largest risk factor for cardiovascular disease. CONTENT: We provide an overview of...

  14. Automated image analysis techniques for cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geest, Robertus Jacobus van der

    2011-01-01

    The introductory chapter provides an overview of various aspects related to quantitative analysis of cardiovascular MR (CMR) imaging studies. Subsequently, the thesis describes several automated methods for quantitative assessment of left ventricular function from CMR imaging studies. Several novel

  15. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging - a pictorial review

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay Dahya; Spottiswoode, Bruce S.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) is a powerful problem-solving tool and arguably offers the most comprehensive assessment of cardiac morphology and function, as well as the opportunity of rebuilding the bridge between cardiologists and radiologists. The role of CMR-trained imaging physicists is also valuable, and many CMR centres harmoniously incorporate these three sub-specialty fields. This paper comprises an overview of several CMR techniques, outlining both the strengths...

  16. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging - a pictorial review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Dahya

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR is a powerful problem-solving tool and arguably offers the most comprehensive assessment of cardiac morphology and function, as well as the opportunity of rebuilding the bridge between cardiologists and radiologists. The role of CMR-trained imaging physicists is also valuable, and many CMR centres harmoniously incorporate these three sub-specialty fields. This paper comprises an overview of several CMR techniques, outlining both the strengths and limitations of the modality.

  17. Molecular imaging in oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schober, Otmar; Riemann, Burkhard (eds.) [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2013-02-01

    Considers in detail all aspects of molecular imaging in oncology, ranging from basic research to clinical applications in the era of evidence-based medicine. Examines technological issues and probe design. Discusses preclinical studies in detail, with particular attention to multimodality imaging. Presents current clinical use of PET/CT, SPECT/CT, and optical imagingWritten by acknowledged experts. The impact of molecular imaging on diagnostics, therapy, and follow-up in oncology is increasing significantly. The process of molecular imaging includes key biotarget identification, design of specific molecular imaging probes, and their preclinical evaluation, e.g., in vivo using small animal studies. A multitude of such innovative molecular imaging probes have already entered clinical diagnostics in oncology. There is no doubt that in future the emphasis will be on multimodality imaging in which morphological, functional, and molecular imaging techniques are combined in a single clinical investigation that will optimize diagnostic processes. This handbook addresses all aspects of molecular imaging in oncology, ranging from basic research to clinical applications in the era of evidence-based medicine. The first section is devoted to technology and probe design, and examines a variety of PET and SPECT tracers as well as multimodality probes. Preclinical studies are then discussed in detail, with particular attention to multimodality imaging. In the third section, diverse clinical applications are presented, and the book closes by looking at future challenges. This handbook will be of value to all who are interested in the revolution in diagnostic oncology that is being brought about by molecular imaging.

  18. Design and implementation of the Molecular Imaging Unit for large animals at the National Center for Cardiovascular Research; Diseno y puesta en marcha de la Unidad de Imagen Molecular para animales grandes del Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, G.; Delgado Alberquilla, R.; Moreno Lopez, J.; Escudero Toro, R.

    2011-07-01

    in this paper describes the most important imaging techniques to be used with the latest equipment as well as the future of PET-MRI combination, its application in research on large animals and the implications for the design of the units, shielding calculation management sources of radiation and waste. This has required value and integrate the specific requirements of a research center in terms of bio security, care of large animals (pigs), health status of animals in an environment of highly demanding conditions PR.

  19. The future of the cardiovascular image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the future of the cardiovascular image is presented, it is important to know the advantages and disadvantages of the current image methods to apply them in each case. The characteristics of the methods are presented: X R simple plate, the cardiac ultrasound, the image by magnetic resonance, the computed tomography, the helicoid tomography, the SPECT of myocardial perfusion, the PET and the PET/CT and the used radiopharmaceuticals. The SPECT of myocardial perfusion is the more used method around the world for the evacuation of the coronary illness. It has a high sensitivity (between 90 and 97%), it is a non-invasive treatment (morbidity of 0.01%), of relative low cost and it is useful in the diagnosis of ischemia in groups of high risk like diabetics, dyslipidemia, obese and hypertension. (Author)

  20. Non-cardiovascular findings in clinical cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghadimi Mahani, Maryam [University of Michigan Health System, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Morani, Ajaykumar C. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Lu, Jimmy C.; Dorfman, Adam L. [University of Michigan Health System, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Fazeli Dehkordy, Soudabeh [University of Michigan Health System, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Providence Hospital and Medical Centers, Department of Graduate Medical Education, Southfield, MI (United States); Jeph, Sunil [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Geisinger Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Danville, PA (United States); Agarwal, Prachi P. [University of Michigan Health System, Department of Radiology, Division of Cardiothoracic Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-04-15

    With increasing use of pediatric cardiovascular MRI, it is important for all imagers to become familiar with the spectrum of non-cardiovascular imaging findings that can be encountered. This study aims to ascertain the prevalence and nature of these findings in pediatric cardiovascular MRIs performed at our institution. We retrospectively evaluated reports of all cardiovascular MRI studies performed at our institute from January 2008 to October 2012 in patients younger than18 years. Most studies (98%) were jointly interpreted by a pediatric cardiologist and a radiologist. We reviewed the electronic medical records of all cases with non-cardiovascular findings, defined as any imaging finding outside the cardiovascular system. Non-cardiovascular findings were classified into significant and non-significant, based on whether they were known at the time of imaging or they required additional workup or a change in management. In 849 consecutive studies (mean age 9.7 ± 6.3 years), 145 non-cardiovascular findings were found in 140 studies (16.5% of total studies). Overall, 51.0% (74/145) of non-cardiovascular findings were in the abdomen, 30.3% (44/145) were in the chest, and 18.6% (27/145) were in the spine. A total of 19 significant non-cardiovascular findings were observed in 19 studies in individual patients (2.2% of total studies, 47% male, mean age 5.9 ± 6.7 years). Significant non-cardiovascular findings included hepatic adenoma, arterially enhancing focal liver lesions, asplenia, solitary kidney, pelvicaliectasis, renal cystic diseases, gastric distention, adrenal hemorrhage, lung hypoplasia, air space disease, bronchial narrowing, pneumomediastinum and retained surgical sponge. Non-cardiovascular findings were seen in 16.5% of cardiovascular MRI studies in children, of which 2.2% were clinically significant findings. Prevalence and nature of these non-cardiovascular findings are different from those reported in adults. Attention to these findings is important

  1. Computational methods for molecular imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Kuangyu; Li, Shuo

    2015-01-01

    This volume contains original submissions on the development and application of molecular imaging computing. The editors invited authors to submit high-quality contributions on a wide range of topics including, but not limited to: • Image Synthesis & Reconstruction of Emission Tomography (PET, SPECT) and other Molecular Imaging Modalities • Molecular Imaging Enhancement • Data Analysis of Clinical & Pre-clinical Molecular Imaging • Multi-Modal Image Processing (PET/CT, PET/MR, SPECT/CT, etc.) • Machine Learning and Data Mining in Molecular Imaging. Molecular imaging is an evolving clinical and research discipline enabling the visualization, characterization and quantification of biological processes taking place at the cellular and subcellular levels within intact living subjects. Computational methods play an important role in the development of molecular imaging, from image synthesis to data analysis and from clinical diagnosis to therapy individualization. This work will bring readers fro...

  2. Molecular Modeling Approach to Cardiovascular Disease Targetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Sekhar Akula,

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease, including stroke, is the leading cause of illness and death in the India. A number of studies have shown that inflammation of blood vessels is one of the major factors that increase the incidence of heart diseases, including arteriosclerosis (clogging of the arteries, stroke and myocardial infraction or heart attack. Studies have associated obesity and other components of metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular risk factors, with lowgradeinflammation. Furthermore, some findings suggest that drugs commonly prescribed to the lower cholesterol also reduce this inflammation, suggesting an additional beneficial effect of the stains. The recent development of angiotensin 11 (Ang11 receptor antagonists has enabled to improve significantly the tolerability profile of thisgroup of drugs while maintaining a high clinical efficacy. ACE2 is expressed predominantly in the endothelium and in renal tubular epithelium, and it thus may be an import new cardiovascular target. In the present study we modeled the structure of ACE and designed an inhibitor through using ARGUS lab and the validation of the Drug molecule is done basing on QSAR properties and Cache for this protein through CADD.

  3. Molecular Biomedical Imaging Laboratory (MBIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Molecular Biomedical Imaging Laboratory (MBIL) is adjacent-a nd has access-to the Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences clinical imaging facilities. MBIL...

  4. Molecular imaging of macrophage enzyme activity in cardiac inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Muhammad; Pulli, Benjamin; Chen, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular imaging is highly advantageous as various insidious inflammatory events can be imaged in a serial and quantitative fashion. Combined with the conventional imaging modalities like computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR) and nuclear imaging, it helps us resolve the extent of ongoing pathology, quantify inflammation and predict outcome. Macrophages are increasingly gaining importance as an imaging biomarker in inflammatory cardiovascular diseases. Macrophages, recruited to th...

  5. Imaging of cardiovascular risk in patients with Turner's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, A; Weir-McCall, J R; Webb, D J; van Beek, E J R; Mirsadraee, S

    2015-08-01

    Turner's syndrome is a disorder defined by an absent or structurally abnormal second X chromosome and affects around 1 in 2000 newborn females. The standardised mortality ratio in Turner's syndrome is around three-times higher than in the general female population, mainly as a result of cardiovascular disorders. Most striking is the early age at which Turner's syndrome patients develop the life-threatening complications of cardiovascular disorders compared to the general population. The cardiovascular risk stratification in Turner's syndrome is challenging and imaging is not systematically used. The aim of this article is to review cardiovascular risks in this group of patients and discuss a systematic imaging approach for early identification of cardiovascular disorders in these patients. PMID:25917542

  6. Molecular breast imaging. An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of molecular imaging is to visualize and quantify biological, physiological and pathological processes at cellular and molecular levels. Molecular imaging using various techniques has recently become established in breast imaging. Currently molecular imaging techniques comprise multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), proton MR spectroscopy (1H-MRSI), nuclear imaging by breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI), positron emission tomography (PET) and positron emission mammography (PEM) and combinations of techniques (e.g. PET-CT and multiparametric PET-MRI). Recently, novel techniques for molecular imaging of breast tumors, such as sodium imaging (23Na-MRI), phosphorus spectroscopy (31P-MRSI) and hyperpolarized MRI as well as specific radiotracers have been developed and are currently under investigation. It can be expected that molecular imaging of breast tumors will enable a simultaneous assessment of the multiple metabolic and molecular processes involved in cancer development and thus an improved detection, characterization, staging and monitoring of response to treatment will become possible. (orig.)

  7. Molecular imaging in atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glaudemans, Andor W. J. M.; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Bozzao, Alessandro; Bonanno, Elena; Arca, Marcello; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Signore, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is the major cause of cardiovascular disease, which still has the leading position in morbidity and mortality in the Western world. Many risk factors and pathobiological processes are acting together in the development of atherosclerosis. This leads to different remodelling stages (p

  8. Time-resolved molecular imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Junliang; Blaga, Cosmin I.; Agostini, Pierre; DiMauro, Louis F.

    2016-06-01

    Time-resolved molecular imaging is a frontier of ultrafast optical science and physical chemistry. In this article, we review present and future key spectroscopic and microscopic techniques for ultrafast imaging of molecular dynamics and show their differences and connections. The advent of femtosecond lasers and free electron x-ray lasers bring us closer to this goal, which eventually will extend our knowledge about molecular dynamics to the attosecond time domain.

  9. Cardiovascular effects of cocaine: cellular, ionic and molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turillazzi, E; Bello, S; Neri, M; Pomara, C; Riezzo, I; Fineschi, V

    2012-01-01

    Cocaine is a widely abused drug responsible for the majority of deaths ascribed to drug overdose. Many mechanisms have been proposed in order to explain the various cocaine associated cardiovascular complications. Conventionally, cocaine cardiotoxicity has been thought to be mediated indirectly through its sympathomimetic effect, i.e., by inhibiting the reuptake and thus increasing the levels of neuronal catecholamines at work on adrenoceptors. Increased oxidative stress, reactive oxygen species, and cocaine-induced apoptosis in the heart muscle have suggested a new way to understand the cardiotoxic effects of cocaine. More recent studies have led the attention to the interaction of cocaine and some metabolites with cardiac sodium, calcium and potassium channels. The current paper is aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms of cocaine cardiotoxicity which have a specific clinical and forensic interest. From a clinical point of view the full knowledge of the exact mechanisms by which cocaine exerts cardio - vascular damage is essential to identify potential therapeutic targets and improve novel strategies for cocaine related cardiovascular diseases. From a forensic point of view, it is to be underlined that cocaine use is often associated to sudden death in young, otherwise healthy individuals. While such events are widely reported, the relationship between cardiac morphological alterations and molecular/cellular mechanisms is still controversial. In conclusion, the study of cocaine cardiovascular toxicity needs a strict collaboration between clinicians and pathologists which may be very effective in further dissecting the mechanisms underlying cocaine cardiotoxicity and understanding the cardiac cocaine connection. PMID:22856657

  10. Molecular imaging in oncology

    OpenAIRE

    Dzik-Jurasz, A S K

    2004-01-01

    Cancer is a genetic disease that manifests in loss of normal cellular homeostatic mechanisms. The biology and therapeutic modulation of neoplasia occurs at the molecular level. An understanding of these molecular processes is therefore required to develop novel prognostic and early biomarkers of response. In addition to clinical applications, increased impetus for the development of such technologies has been catalysed by pharmaceutical companies investing in the development of molecular ther...

  11. Molecular imaging in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyners, A K L; Broekman, K E; Glaudemans, A W J M; Brouwers, A H; Arts, H J G; van der Zee, A G J; de Vries, E G E; Jalving, M

    2016-04-01

    Ovarian cancer has a high mortality and novel-targeted treatment strategies have not resulted in breakthroughs for this disease. Insight into the molecular characteristics of ovarian tumors may improve diagnosis and selection of patients for treatment with targeted therapies. A potential way to achieve this is by means of molecular imaging. Generic tumor processes, such as glucose metabolism ((18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose) and DNA synthesis ((18)F-fluorodeoxythymidine), can be visualized non-invasively. More specific targets, such as hormone receptors, growth factor receptors, growth factors and targets of immunotherapy, can also be visualized. Molecular imaging can capture data on intra-patient tumor heterogeneity and is of potential value for individualized, target-guided treatment selection. Early changes in molecular characteristics during therapy may serve as early predictors of response. In this review, we describe the current knowledge on molecular imaging in the diagnosis and as an upfront or early predictive biomarker in patients with ovarian cancer. PMID:27141066

  12. MACD: an imaging marker for cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganz, Melanie; de Bruijne, Marleen; Nielsen, Mads

    2010-01-01

    Despite general acceptance that a healthy lifestyle and the treatment of risk factors can prevent the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), CVD are the most common cause of death in Europe and the United States. It has been shown that abdominal aortic calcifications (AAC) correlate strongly...... Atherosclerotic Calcification Distribution (MACD) index was developed. In the following several potential severity scores relating to the geometrical outline of the calcified deposits in the lumbar aortic region are introduced. Their individual as well as their combined predictive power is examined and a combined...... marker, MACD, is constructed. This is done using a Cox regression analysis, also known as survival analysis. Furthermore we show how a Cox regression yields MACD to be the most efficient marker. We also demonstrate that MACD has a larger individual predictive power than any of the other individual...

  13. Achieving quality in cardiovascular imaging: proceedings from the American College of Cardiology-Duke University Medical Center Think Tank on Quality in Cardiovascular Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Pamela; Iskandrian, Ami E; Krumholz, Harlan M; Gillam, Linda; Hendel, Robert; Jollis, James; Peterson, Eric; Chen, Jersey; Masoudi, Frederick; Mohler, Emile; McNamara, Robert L; Patel, Manesh R; Spertus, John

    2006-11-21

    Cardiovascular imaging has enjoyed both rapid technological advances and sustained growth, yet less attention has been focused on quality than in other areas of cardiovascular medicine. To address this deficit, representatives from cardiovascular imaging societies, private payers, government agencies, the medical imaging industry, and experts in quality measurement met, and this report provides an overview of the discussions. A consensus definition of quality in imaging and a convergence of opinion on quality measures across imaging modalities was achieved and are intended to be the start of a process culminating in the development, dissemination, and adoption of quality measures for all cardiovascular imaging modalities.

  14. Echocardiography in the Era of Multimodality Cardiovascular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoy Nalin Shah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Echocardiography remains the most frequently performed cardiac imaging investigation and is an invaluable tool for detailed and accurate evaluation of cardiac structure and function. Echocardiography, nuclear cardiology, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and cardiovascular-computed tomography comprise the subspeciality of cardiovascular imaging, and these techniques are often used together for a multimodality, comprehensive assessment of a number of cardiac diseases. This paper provides the general cardiologist and physician with an overview of state-of-the-art modern echocardiography, summarising established indications as well as highlighting advances in stress echocardiography, three-dimensional echocardiography, deformation imaging, and contrast echocardiography. Strengths and limitations of echocardiography are discussed as well as the growing role of real-time three-dimensional echocardiography in the guidance of structural heart interventions in the cardiac catheter laboratory.

  15. Molecular imaging with terahertz waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seung Jae; Choi, Jihye; Maeng, Inhee; Park, Jae Yeon; Lee, Kwangyeol; Huh, Yong-Min; Suh, Jin-Suck; Haam, Seungjoo; Son, Joo-Hiuk

    2011-02-28

    We demonstrate a highly sensitive THz molecular imaging (TMI) technique involving differential modulation of surface plasmons induced on nanoparticles and obtain target specific in vivo images of cancers. This technique can detect quantities of gold nanoparticles as small as 15 µM in vivo. A comparison of TMI images with near infrared absorption images shows the superior sensitivity of TMI. Furthermore, the quantification property of TMI is excellent, being linearly proportional to the concentration of nanoparticles. The target specificity issue is also addressed at the ex vivo and cell levels. The high thermal sensitivity of TMI can help extend photonic-based photothermal molecular imaging researches from the in vitro level to the in vivo level. The TMI technique can be used for monitoring drug delivery processes and for early cancer diagnosis.

  16. Advances in Multimodality Molecular Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multimodality molecular imaging is now playing a pivotal role in clinical setting and biomedical research. Modern molecular imaging technologies are deemed to potentially lead to a revolutionary paradigm shift in healthcare and revolutionize clinical practice. Within the spectrum of macroscopic medical imaging, sensitivity ranges from the detection of millimolar to submillimolar concentrations of contrast media with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), respectively, to picomolar concentrations in single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission 8 9 tomography (PET): a 108-109 difference. Even though the introduction of dedicated dual-modality imaging systems designed specifically and available commercially for clinical practice is relatively recent, the concept of combining anatomical and functional imaging has been recognized for several decades. Software- and hardware-based correlation between anatomical (x-ray CT, MRI) and physiological (PET) information is a promising research field and now offers unique capabilities for the medical imaging community and biomedical researchers. The introduction of dual-modality PET/CT imaging systems in clinical environments has revolutionized the practice of diagnostic imaging. The complementarity between the intrinsically aligned anatomic (CT) and functional or metabolic (PET) information provided in a 'one-stop shop' and the possibility to use CT images for attenuation correction of the PET data has been the driving force behind the success of this technology. On the other hand, combining PET with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in a single gantry is technically more challenging owing to the strong magnetic fields. Nevertheless, significant progress has been made resulting in the design of few preclinical PET systems and one human prototype dedicated for simultaneous PET/MR brain imaging where the first patient images have been shown late in 2006. This paper discusses the

  17. Molecular imaging. Fundamentals and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Jie (ed.) [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Intelligent Medical Research Center

    2013-07-01

    Covers a wide range of new theory, new techniques and new applications. Contributed by many experts in China. The editor has obtained the National Science and Technology Progress Award twice. ''Molecular Imaging: Fundamentals and Applications'' is a comprehensive monograph which describes not only the theory of the underlying algorithms and key technologies but also introduces a prototype system and its applications, bringing together theory, technology and applications. By explaining the basic concepts and principles of molecular imaging, imaging techniques, as well as research and applications in detail, the book provides both detailed theoretical background information and technical methods for researchers working in medical imaging and the life sciences. Clinical doctors and graduate students will also benefit from this book.

  18. Molecular imaging probes derived from natural peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charron, C L; Hickey, J L; Nsiama, T K; Cruickshank, D R; Turnbull, W L; Luyt, L G

    2016-06-01

    Covering: up to the end of 2015.Peptides are naturally occurring compounds that play an important role in all living systems and are responsible for a range of essential functions. Peptide receptors have been implicated in disease states such as oncology, metabolic disorders and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, natural peptides have been exploited as diagnostic and therapeutic agents due to the unique target specificity for their endogenous receptors. This review discusses a variety of natural peptides highlighting their discovery, endogenous receptors, as well as their derivatization to create molecular imaging agents, with an emphasis on the design of radiolabelled peptides. This review also highlights methods for discovering new and novel peptides when knowledge of specific targets and endogenous ligands are not available. PMID:26911790

  19. The future of the cardiovascular image; El futuro de la imagen cardiovascular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serna M, J.A. [Hospital Angeles del Pedregal, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    In this work the future of the cardiovascular image is presented, it is important to know the advantages and disadvantages of the current image methods to apply them in each case. The characteristics of the methods are presented: X R simple plate, the cardiac ultrasound, the image by magnetic resonance, the computed tomography, the helicoid tomography, the SPECT of myocardial perfusion, the PET and the PET/CT and the used radiopharmaceuticals. The SPECT of myocardial perfusion is the more used method around the world for the evacuation of the coronary illness. It has a high sensitivity (between 90 and 97%), it is a non-invasive treatment (morbidity of 0.01%), of relative low cost and it is useful in the diagnosis of ischemia in groups of high risk like diabetics, dyslipidemia, obese and hypertension. (Author)

  20. Molecular imaging in cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalski, Mark H. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Chen, Xiaoyuan [National Institutes of Health (NIH), Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine (LOMIN), National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2011-02-15

    The success of cancer therapy can be difficult to predict, as its efficacy is often predicated upon characteristics of the cancer, treatment, and individual that are not fully understood or are difficult to ascertain. Monitoring the response of disease to treatment is therefore essential and has traditionally been characterized by changes in tumor volume. However, in many instances, this singular measure is insufficient for predicting treatment effects on patient survival. Molecular imaging allows repeated in vivo measurement of many critical molecular features of neoplasm, such as metabolism, proliferation, angiogenesis, hypoxia, and apoptosis, which can be employed for monitoring therapeutic response. In this review, we examine the current methods for evaluating response to treatment and provide an overview of emerging PET molecular imaging methods that will help guide future cancer therapies. (orig.)

  1. Molecular Imaging Challenges With PET

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoq, P

    2010-01-01

    The future trends in molecular imaging and associated challenges for in-vivo functional imaging are illustrated on the basis of a few examples, such as atherosclerosis vulnerable plaques imaging or stem cells tracking. A set of parameters are derived to define the specifications of a new generation of in-vivo imaging devices in terms of sensitivity, spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio. The limitations of strategies used in present PET scanners are discussed and new approaches are proposed taking advantage of recent progress on materials, photodetectors and readout electronics. A special focus is put on metamaterials, as a new approach to bring more functionality to detection devices. It is shown that the route is now open towards a fully digital detector head with very high photon counting capability over a large energy range, excellent timing precision and possibility of imaging the energy deposition process.

  2. 3D molecular imaging SIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillen, Greg [Surface and Microanalysis Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8371 (United States)]. E-mail: Greg.gillen@nist.gov; Fahey, Albert [Surface and Microanalysis Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8371 (United States); Wagner, Matt [Surface and Microanalysis Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8371 (United States); Mahoney, Christine [Surface and Microanalysis Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8371 (United States)

    2006-07-30

    Thin monolayer and bilayer films of spin cast poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA), poly(lactic) acid (PLA) and PLA doped with several pharmaceuticals have been analyzed by dynamic SIMS using SF{sub 5} {sup +} polyatomic primary ion bombardment. Each of these systems exhibited minimal primary beam-induced degradation under cluster ion bombardment allowing molecular depth profiles to be obtained through the film. By combing secondary ion imaging with depth profiling, three-dimensional molecular image depth profiles have been obtained from these systems. In another approach, bevel cross-sections are cut in the samples with the SF{sub 5} {sup +} primary ion beam to produce a laterally magnified cross-section of the sample that does not contain the beam-induced damage that would be induced by conventional focussed ion beam (FIB) cross-sectioning. The bevel surface can then be examined using cluster SIMS imaging or other appropriate microanalysis technique.

  3. Molecular Imaging of the Kidneys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Zsolt; Alachkar, Nada; Xia, Jinsong; Mathews, William B.; Rabb, Hamid

    2010-01-01

    Radionuclide imaging of the kidneys with gamma cameras involves the use of labeled molecules seeking functionally critical molecular mechanisms in order to detect the pathophysiology of the diseased kidneys and achieve an early, sensitive and accurate diagnosis. The most recent imaging technology, PET, permits quantitative imaging of the kidney at a spatial resolution appropriate for the organ. H215O, 82RbCl, and [64Cu] ETS are the most important radiopharmaceuticals for measuring renal blood flow. The renin angiotensin system is the most important regulator of renal blood flow; this role is being interrogated by detecting angiotensin receptor subtype AT1R using in vivo PET imaging. Membrane organic anion transporters are important for the function of the tubular epithelium; therefore, Tc-99m MAG3 as well as some novel radiopharmaceuticals such as copper-64 labeled mono oxo-tetraazamacrocyclic ligands have been utilized for molecular renal imaging. Additionally, other radioligands that interact with the organic cation transporters or peptide transporters have developed. Focusing on early detection of kidney injury at the molecular level is an evolving field of great significance. Potential imaging targets are the kidney injury molecule- 1 (KIM-1) that is highly expressed in kidney injury and renal cancer but not in normal kidneys. While pelvic clearance, in addition to parenchymal transport, is an important measure in obstructive nephropathy, techniques that focus on upregulated molecules in response to tissue stress resulted from obstruction will be of great implication. Monocyte chemoattractant protein -1 (MCP-1) is a well-suited molecule in this case. The greatest advances in molecular imaging of the kidneys have been recently achieved in detecting renal cancer. In addition to the ubiquitous [18F]FDG, other radioligands such as [11C]acetate and anti-[18F]FACBC have emerged. Radioimmuno-imaging with [124I]G250 could lead to radioimmunotherapy for renal cancer

  4. Cardiovascular dysfunction in obesity and new diagnostic imaging techniques: the role of noninvasive image methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbosa JA

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available José Augusto A Barbosa¹, Alexandre B Rodrigues¹, Cleonice Carvalho C Mota¹, Márcia M Barbosa², Ana C Simões e Silva¹¹Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil; ²Ecocenter, Socor Hospital, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, BrazilAbstract: Obesity is a major public health problem affecting adults and children in both developed and developing countries. This condition often leads to metabolic syndrome, which increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. A large number of studies have been carried out to understand the pathogenesis of cardiovascular dysfunction in obese patients. Endothelial dysfunction plays a key role in the progression of atherosclerosis and the development of coronary artery disease, hypertension and congestive heart failure. Noninvasive methods in the field of cardiovascular imaging, such as measuring intima-media thickness, flow-mediated dilatation, tissue Doppler, and strain, and strain rate, constitute new tools for the early detection of cardiac and vascular dysfunction. These techniques will certainly enable a better evaluation of initial cardiovascular injury and allow the correct, timely management of obese patients. The present review summarizes the main aspects of cardiovascular dysfunction in obesity and discusses the application of recent noninvasive imaging methods for the early detection of cardiovascular alterations.Keywords: cardiovascular risk, endothelium dysfunction, obesity, strain and strain rate, tissue Doppler

  5. Molecular magnetic resonance imaging of atherosclerotic vessel wall disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noerenberg, Dominik [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); University of Munich - Grosshadern, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Ebersberger, Hans U. [Heart Center Munich-Bogenhausen, Department of Cardiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Munich (Germany); Diederichs, Gerd; Hamm, Bernd [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Botnar, Rene M. [King' s College London, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Makowski, Marcus R. [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); King' s College London, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-15

    Molecular imaging aims to improve the identification and characterization of pathological processes in vivo by visualizing the underlying biological mechanisms. Molecular imaging techniques are increasingly used to assess vascular inflammation, remodeling, cell migration, angioneogenesis and apoptosis. In cardiovascular diseases, molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers new insights into the in vivo biology of pathological vessel wall processes of the coronary and carotid arteries and the aorta. This includes detection of early vascular changes preceding plaque development, visualization of unstable plaques and assessment of response to therapy. The current review focuses on recent developments in the field of molecular MRI to characterise different stages of atherosclerotic vessel wall disease. A variety of molecular MR-probes have been developed to improve the non-invasive detection and characterization of atherosclerotic plaques. Specifically targeted molecular probes allow for the visualization of key biological steps in the cascade leading to the development of arterial vessel wall lesions. Early detection of processes which lead to the development of atherosclerosis and the identification of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques may enable the early assessment of response to therapy, improve therapy planning, foster the prevention of cardiovascular events and may open the door for the development of patient-specific treatment strategies. (orig.)

  6. Molecular magnetic resonance imaging of atherosclerotic vessel wall disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular imaging aims to improve the identification and characterization of pathological processes in vivo by visualizing the underlying biological mechanisms. Molecular imaging techniques are increasingly used to assess vascular inflammation, remodeling, cell migration, angioneogenesis and apoptosis. In cardiovascular diseases, molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers new insights into the in vivo biology of pathological vessel wall processes of the coronary and carotid arteries and the aorta. This includes detection of early vascular changes preceding plaque development, visualization of unstable plaques and assessment of response to therapy. The current review focuses on recent developments in the field of molecular MRI to characterise different stages of atherosclerotic vessel wall disease. A variety of molecular MR-probes have been developed to improve the non-invasive detection and characterization of atherosclerotic plaques. Specifically targeted molecular probes allow for the visualization of key biological steps in the cascade leading to the development of arterial vessel wall lesions. Early detection of processes which lead to the development of atherosclerosis and the identification of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques may enable the early assessment of response to therapy, improve therapy planning, foster the prevention of cardiovascular events and may open the door for the development of patient-specific treatment strategies. (orig.)

  7. Advances in multimodality molecular imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaidi Habib

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimodality molecular imaging using high resolution positron emission tomography (PET combined with other modalities is now playing a pivotal role in basic and clinical research. The introduction of combined PET/CT systems in clinical setting has revolutionized the practice of diagnostic imaging. The complementarity between the intrinsically aligned anatomic (CT and functional or metabolic (PET information provided in a "one-stop shop" and the possibility to use CT images for attenuation correction of the PET data has been the driving force behind the success of this technology. On the other hand, combining PET with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI in a single gantry is technically more challenging owing to the strong magnetic fields. Nevertheless, significant progress has been made resulting in the design of few preclinical PET systems and one human prototype dedicated for simultaneous PET/MR brain imaging. This paper discusses recent advances in PET instrumentation and the advantages and challenges of multimodality imaging systems. Future opportunities and the challenges facing the adoption of multimodality imaging instrumentation will also be addressed.

  8. Sparse image reconstruction for molecular imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Ting, Michael; Hero, Alfred O

    2008-01-01

    The application that motivates this paper is molecular imaging at the atomic level. When discretized at sub-atomic distances, the volume is inherently sparse. Noiseless measurements from an imaging technology can be modeled by convolution of the image with the system point spread function (psf). Such is the case with magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM), an emerging technology where imaging of an individual tobacco mosaic virus was recently demonstrated with nanometer resolution. We also consider additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) in the measurements. Many prior works of sparse estimators have focused on the case when H has low coherence; however, the system matrix H in our application is the convolution matrix for the system psf. A typical convolution matrix has high coherence. The paper therefore does not assume a low coherence H. A discrete-continuous form of the Laplacian and atom at zero (LAZE) p.d.f. used by Johnstone and Silverman is formulated, and two sparse estimators derived by maximizing t...

  9. Computational chemical imaging for cardiovascular pathology: chemical microscopic imaging accurately determines cardiac transplant rejection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saumya Tiwari

    Full Text Available Rejection is a common problem after cardiac transplants leading to significant number of adverse events and deaths, particularly in the first year of transplantation. The gold standard to identify rejection is endomyocardial biopsy. This technique is complex, cumbersome and requires a lot of expertise in the correct interpretation of stained biopsy sections. Traditional histopathology cannot be used actively or quickly during cardiac interventions or surgery. Our objective was to develop a stain-less approach using an emerging technology, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopic imaging to identify different components of cardiac tissue by their chemical and molecular basis aided by computer recognition, rather than by visual examination using optical microscopy. We studied this technique in assessment of cardiac transplant rejection to evaluate efficacy in an example of complex cardiovascular pathology. We recorded data from human cardiac transplant patients' biopsies, used a Bayesian classification protocol and developed a visualization scheme to observe chemical differences without the need of stains or human supervision. Using receiver operating characteristic curves, we observed probabilities of detection greater than 95% for four out of five histological classes at 10% probability of false alarm at the cellular level while correctly identifying samples with the hallmarks of the immune response in all cases. The efficacy of manual examination can be significantly increased by observing the inherent biochemical changes in tissues, which enables us to achieve greater diagnostic confidence in an automated, label-free manner. We developed a computational pathology system that gives high contrast images and seems superior to traditional staining procedures. This study is a prelude to the development of real time in situ imaging systems, which can assist interventionists and surgeons actively during procedures.

  10. Cardiovascular imaging in the diagnosis and monitoring of cardiotoxicity: cardiovascular magnetic resonance and nuclear cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Alessia; Pizzino, Fausto; Gargiulo, Paola; Perrone-Filardi, Pasquale; Cadeddu, Christian; Mele, Donato; Monte, Ines; Novo, Giuseppina; Zito, Concetta; Di Bella, Gianluca

    2016-05-01

    Chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity (CTX) is a determining factor for the quality of life and mortality of patients administered potentially cardiotoxic drugs and in long-term cancer survivors. Therefore, prevention and early detection of CTX are highly desirable, as is the exploration of alternative therapeutic strategies and/or the proposal of potentially cardioprotective treatments. In recent years, cardiovascular imaging has acquired a pivotal role in this setting. Although echocardiography remains the diagnostic method most used to monitor cancer patients, the need for more reliable, reproducible and accurate detection of early chemotherapy-induced CTX has encouraged the introduction of second-line advanced imaging modalities, such as cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and nuclear techniques, into the clinical setting. This review of the Working Group on Drug Cardiotoxicity and Cardioprotection of the Italian Society of Cardiology aims to afford an overview of the most important findings from the literature about the role of CMR and nuclear techniques in the management of chemotherapy-treated patients, describe conventional and new parameters for detecting CTX from both diagnostic and prognostic perspectives and provide integrated insight into the role of CMR and nuclear techniques compared with other imaging tools and versus the positions of the most important international societies.

  11. Multi-color magnetic particle imaging for cardiovascular interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegele, Julian; Vaalma, Sarah; Panagiotopoulos, Nikolaos; Barkhausen, Jörg; Vogt, Florian M.; Borgert, Jörn; Rahmer, Jürgen

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) uses magnetic fields to visualize the spatial distribution of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs). Guidance of cardiovascular interventions is seen as one possible application of MPI. To safely guide interventions, the vessel lumen as well as all required interventional devices have to be visualized and be discernible from each other. Until now, different tracer concentrations were used for discerning devices from blood in MPI, because only one type of SPIO could be imaged at a time. Recently, it was shown for 3D MPI that it is possible to separate different signal sources in one volume of interest, i.e. to visualize and discern different SPIOs or different binding states of the same SPIO. The approach was termed multi-color MPI. In this work, the use of multi-color MPI for differentiation of a SPIO coated guide wire (Terumo Radifocus 0.035″) from the lumen of a vessel phantom filled with diluted Resovist is demonstrated. This is achieved by recording dedicated system functions of the coating material containing solid Resovist and of liquid Resovist, which allows separation of their respective signal in the image reconstruction process. Assigning a color to the different signal sources results in a differentiation of guide wire and vessel phantom lumen into colored images.

  12. Tracers and contrast agents in cardiovascular imaging: present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This brief article addresses the current status and future potential of nuclear medicine, X-ray computed tomography (CT), ultrasound (US), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. The currently perceived advantages and disadvantages, as well as the possible future roles, of each of the modalities with regard to the evaluation of coronary artery disease are delineated. The certain advent of Mr and US myocardial contrast agents, combined with the inexorable pressures of health care reform, will alter the future usage patterns of all four modalities. Future debates about which modality should be used in which clinical situation will be based not on 'anatomy vs function', nor on the issues of cost effectiveness and patient outcomes

  13. MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF ACTION OF MAGNESIUM OROTATE ON CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Yu. Torshin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Orotic acid is one of the intermediates in the pyrimidine biosynthesis. Mechanisms of physiological effects of orotic acid are poorly known. Analysis of data about these mechanisms is presented. Effects of orotic acid and magnesium orotate on cardiovascular system as well as therapeutic implementation of magnesium orotate in cardiology are discussed.

  14. Molecular and Functional Imaging of Internet Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Yunqi Zhu; Hong Zhang; Mei Tian

    2015-01-01

    Maladaptive use of the Internet results in Internet addiction (IA), which is associated with various negative consequences. Molecular and functional imaging techniques have been increasingly used for analysis of neurobiological changes and neurochemical correlates of IA. This review summarizes molecular and functional imaging findings on neurobiological mechanisms of IA, focusing on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and nuclear imaging modalities including positron emission tomography (PET) an...

  15. Nuclear Molecular Imaging for Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaques

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Soo Jin; Paeng, Jin Chul

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease as well as a lipid disorder. Atherosclerotic plaque formed in vessel walls may cause ischemia, and the rupture of vulnerable plaque may result in fatal events, like myocardial infarction or stroke. Because morphological imaging has limitations in diagnosing vulnerable plaque, molecular imaging has been developed, in particular, the use of nuclear imaging probes. Molecular imaging targets various aspects of vulnerable plaque, such as inflammatory cell...

  16. Korean Society of Cardiovascular Imaging Guidelines for Cardiac Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Korean Society of Cardiovascular Imaging (KOCSI) has issued a guideline for the use of cardiac CT imaging in order to assist clinicians and patients in providing adequate level of medical service. In order to establish a guideline founded on evidence based medicine, it was designed based on comprehensive data such as questionnaires conducted in international and domestic hospitals, intensive journal reviews, and with experts in cardiac radiology. The recommendations of this guideline should not be used as an absolute standard and medical professionals can always refer to methods non-adherent to this guideline when it is considered more reasonable and beneficial to an individual patient's medical situation. The guideline has its limitation and should be revised appropriately with the advancement medical equipment technology and public health care system. The guideline should not be served as a measure for standard of care. KOCSI strongly disapproves the use of the guideline to be used as the standard of expected practice in medical litigation processes.

  17. Ultrasound molecular imaging: Moving toward clinical translation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou-Elkacem, Lotfi; Bachawal, Sunitha V.; Willmann, Jürgen K., E-mail: willmann@stanford.edu

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Ultrasound molecular imaging is a highly sensitive modality. • A clinical grade ultrasound contrast agent has entered first in human clinical trials. • Several new potential future clinical applications of ultrasound molecular imaging are being explored. - Abstract: Ultrasound is a widely available, cost-effective, real-time, non-invasive and safe imaging modality widely used in the clinic for anatomical and functional imaging. With the introduction of novel molecularly-targeted ultrasound contrast agents, another dimension of ultrasound has become a reality: diagnosing and monitoring pathological processes at the molecular level. Most commonly used ultrasound molecular imaging contrast agents are micron sized, gas-containing microbubbles functionalized to recognize and attach to molecules expressed on inflamed or angiogenic vascular endothelial cells. There are several potential clinical applications currently being explored including earlier detection, molecular profiling, and monitoring of cancer, as well as visualization of ischemic memory in transient myocardial ischemia, monitoring of disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease, and assessment of arteriosclerosis. Recently, a first clinical grade ultrasound contrast agent (BR55), targeted at a molecule expressed in neoangiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 2; VEGFR2) has been introduced and safety and feasibility of VEGFR2-targeted ultrasound imaging is being explored in first inhuman clinical trials in various cancer types. This review describes the design of ultrasound molecular imaging contrast agents, imaging techniques, and potential future clinical applications of ultrasound molecular imaging.

  18. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging findings in children with myocarditis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Guiying; Yang Xi; Su Ying; Xu Jimin; Wen Zhaoying

    2014-01-01

    Background Myocarditis is a common,potentially life-threatening disease that presents a wide rang of symptoms in children,as an important underlying etiology of other myocardial diseases such as dilated and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy.The incidence of nonfatal myocarditis is probably greater than that of the one actually diagnosed,which is the result of the challenges of establishing the diagnosis in standard clinical settings.Currently,no single clinical or imaging finding confirms the diagnosis of myocarditis with absolute certainty.Historically,clinical exam,electrocardiogram (ECG),serology and echocardiography had an unsatisfactory diagnostic accuracy in myocarditis.Endomyocardial biopsy remains as a widely accepted standard,but may not be suitable for every patient,especially for those with less severe disease.Our aim was to find the changes in cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging of children with myocarditis diagnosed by clinical criteria.Methods We studied 25 children (18 male,7 female; aged from 5-17 years) with diagnosed myocarditis by clinical criteria.CMR included function analyses,T2-weighted imaging,T1-weighted imaging before and after i.v.gadolinium injection (early gadolinium enhancement (EGE) and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE)).Results The T2 ratio was elevated in 21 children (84%,11 in anterolateral (44%),5 in inferolateral (20%),and 5 in septum (20%)),EGE was present in 9 children (36%,3 in anterolateral (12%),4 in inferolateral (20%),and 2 in septum (8%)),and LGE was present in 5 children (20%,2 in anterolateral (8%),1 in inferolateral (4%),1 in septum (4%),and 1 in midwall of left ventricular (LV) wall).In 9 children (36%),two (or more) out of three sequences (T2,EGE,LGE) were abnormal.Conclusions The CMR findings in children with clinically diagnosed myocarditis vary within the groups,including regional or global myocardial signal increase in T2-weighted images,EGE and LGE in T1

  19. Nanodiamond Imaging: a New Molecular Imaging Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hegyi, Alex Nathan

    2013-01-01

    Nanodiamond imaging is a novel biomedical imaging technique that non-invasively records the distribution of biologically-tagged nanodiamonds in vivo, in two or three dimensions. A nanodiamond imaging system optically detects electron spin resonance of nitrogen-vacancy centers in nanodiamonds, a non-toxic nanomaterial that is easily biologically functionalized. Two systems were built to demonstrate the feasibility of the technique. Using the first system, we imaged 2D projections of multipl...

  20. Molecular imaging of mental disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron emission tomography (PET) techniques have made it possible to measure changes in neurochemical components in living human brain. PET can be used to investigate various brain functions such as receptors, transporters, enzymes and various biochemical pathways; therefore, it could be a powerful tool for molecular imaging of mental disorders. Since the pathophysiology of schizophrenia has been discussed with a functional alteration of dopaminergic transmission in the brain, we have focused the dopaminergic components for the research target of schizophrenia using PET. Using high affinity ligand [11C]FLB 457, we found reduced D2 receptor binding in the anterior cingulate cortex of patients with schizophrenia, and a significant negative correlation was observed between D2 receptor binding and the positive symptom score. Subregions of interest were defined on the thalamus using individual magnetic resonance images. D2 receptor binding was also lower in the central medial and posterior subregions of the thalamus in patients with schizophrenia. Alterations in D2 receptor function in the extrastriatal region may underlie the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. On the other hand D1 receptor binding was found to be lower in the prefrontal cortex and a significant negative correlation was observed between D1 receptor binding and the negative symptom score. Abnormality of D1 receptor function would be at the bottom of the negative symptoms and cognitive impairment of schizophrenia. Regarding the effect of antipsychotics on dopamine D2 receptor, occupancy and it's time-course have been measured in a living body using PET. This approach can provide in vivo pharmacological evidences of antipsychotics and establish the rational therapeutic strategy. PET is a powerful tool not only in the field of brain research but also drug discovery. (author)

  1. Molecular Imaging of Pulmonary Cancer and Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Divgi, Chaitanya R.

    2009-01-01

    Molecular imaging (MI) may be defined as imaging in vivo using molecules that report on biologic function. This review will focus on the clinical use of radioactive tracers (nonpharmacologic amounts of compounds labeled with a radioactive substance) that permit external imaging using single photon emission computed tomography (planar, SPECT) or positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Imaging of lung cancer has been revolutionized with the use of fluorine-18–labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (18F...

  2. Genetics and cardiovascular disease: the impact of molecular diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengoechea, Jaime; McKelvey, Kent D

    2013-04-01

    Information technology is exponentially reducing the cost of genetic testing while multiple clinical applications emerge. Genetic diagnosis increasingly impacts prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease. In cardiovascular medicine, the establishment of a specific genetic diagnosis may affect management of cardiomyopathy, arrhythmia, connective tissue and metabolic disease. Econometric studies have determined that genetic testing is cost-effective in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and disease-specific interventions are now available for specific conditions. Identification of a specific genetic disorder now allows for more precise medicine in the affected individual and more accurate preventive care for asymptomatic family members.

  3. Alterations in vascular function in primary aldosteronism: a cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging study

    OpenAIRE

    Mark, P. B.; Boyle, S; Zimmerli, L U; McQuarrie, E.P.; Delles, C.; Freel, E. M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Excess aldosterone is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Aldosterone has a permissive effect on vascular fibrosis. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) allows study of vascular function by measuring aortic distensibility. We compared aortic distensibility in primary aldosteronism (PA), essential hypertension (EH) and normal controls and explored the relationship between aortic distensibility and pulse wave velocity (PWV). Methods: We studied PA (n=14)...

  4. Principle and applications of terahertz molecular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Joo-Hiuk

    2013-05-31

    The principle, characteristics and applications of molecular imaging with terahertz electromagnetic waves are reviewed herein. The terahertz molecular imaging (TMI) technique uses nanoparticle probes to achieve dramatically enhanced sensitivity compared with that of conventional terahertz imaging. Surface plasmons, induced around the nanoparticles, raise the temperature of water in biological cells, and the temperature-dependent changes in the optical properties of water, which are large in the terahertz range, are measured differentially by terahertz waves. TMI has been applied to cancer diagnosis and nanoparticle drug delivery imaging. The technique is also compared with magnetic resonance imaging by using a dual-modality nanoparticle probe.

  5. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging of hypoplastic left heart syndrome in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) plays an important complementary role to echocardiography and conventional angiography in the evaluation of hypoplastic left heart syndrome. This imaging modality is particularly useful for assessing cardiovascular postsurgical changes, extracardiac vascular anatomy, ventricular and valvular function, and a variety of complications. The purpose of this article is to provide a contemporary review of the role of CMR in the management of untreated and surgically palliated hypoplastic left heart syndrome in children. (orig.)

  6. Imaging of cardiovascular risk in patients with Turner's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner's syndrome is a disorder defined by an absent or structurally abnormal second X chromosome and affects around 1 in 2000 newborn females. The standardised mortality ratio in Turner's syndrome is around three-times higher than in the general female population, mainly as a result of cardiovascular disorders. Most striking is the early age at which Turner's syndrome patients develop the life-threatening complications of cardiovascular disorders compared to the general population. The cardiovascular risk stratification in Turner's syndrome is challenging and imaging is not systematically used. The aim of this article is to review cardiovascular risks in this group of patients and discuss a systematic imaging approach for early identification of cardiovascular disorders in these patients

  7. Imaging of cardiovascular risk in patients with Turner's syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Marin, A.; Weir-McCall, J.R.; Webb, D J; van Beek, E J R; Mirsadraee, S.

    2015-01-01

    Turner's syndrome is a disorder defined by an absent or structurally abnormal second X chromosome and affects around 1 in 2000 newborn females. The standardised mortality ratio in Turner's syndrome is around three-times higher than in the general female population, mainly as a result of cardiovascular disorders. Most striking is the early age at which Turner's syndrome patients develop the life-threatening complications of cardiovascular disorders compared to the general population. The cardi...

  8. Molecular imaging in quality health care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Quality health care results from translating fundamental bench discoveries and making them available to patients. During the past decade, 'molecular imaging' has emerged both as a new tool/technology and as a research and clinical discipline. Molecular imaging is an interdisciplinary approach involving biologists, physicists, physicians, mathematicians, conventional chemists, radiochemists and other specialists who have joined forces for better understanding and visualizing of both normal physiological processes and the molecular processes preceding the morphological manifestations of disease in vivo. Molecular imaging has been defined as 'non-invasive, quantitative, and repetitive imaging of targeted macromolecules and biological processes in living organisms' or as 'the visual representation, characterization, and quantification of biological processes at the cellular and sub-cellular levels within intact living organisms'. Weissleder defined molecular imaging in the most simple terms as 'studying diseases non-invasively at the molecular level'. Regardless of these semantic differences molecular imaging can contribute significantly to the preclinical and clinical drug and disease evaluation process. It is interesting to note, that despite major advances in imaging technology, cancer mortality has remained largely unchanged over the last three decades. Imaging has thus far enabled us to look through a magnifying glass at disease processes but has failed to dramatically influence disease outcomes. Emerging data suggest that molecular PET imaging is about to change this situation. High resolution molecular imaging devices designed for small animal research have developed into valuable tools for drug evaluation and imaging probe design. These include microPET, microCT, microMRI and optical imaging devices. These have enabled us to study drug effects in vivo by monitoring longitudinally their effects on tumour cell metabolism or proliferation. The only

  9. Molecular nuclear imaging for targeting and trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress of molecular biology, genetic engineering, and polymer chemistry provide various tools to target molecules and cells in vivo. In this paper, recent achievements in targeting receptors for hepatocyte or inflammatory cells and in trafficking bacterial, immune, and stem cells using molecular nuclear imaging techniques are introduced

  10. Molecular imaging of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, A.L.L.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women. Imaging techniques play a pivotal role in breast cancer management, especially in lesion detection, treatment planning and evaluation, and prognostication. These imaging techniques have however limitations such as the use of ionizing radiatio

  11. High-molecular-weight adiponectin does not predict cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyzanowska, Katarzyna; Aso, Yoshimasa; Mittermayer, Friedrich; Inukai, Toshihiko; Brix, Johanna; Schernthaner, Guntram

    2009-04-01

    Low circulating high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin might be associated with increased cardiovascular risk. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between HMW adiponectin and cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with an adverse cardiovascular risk profile. The investigation took place in a specialized outpatient clinic for metabolic diseases and included 147 patients with T2DM following a cross-sectional and a prospective study protocol. Ninety patients had macrovascular disease at baseline defined as preexisting coronary artery disease, previous stroke, or peripheral artery disease. HMW adiponectin measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Fujirebio, Tokyo, Japan) and routine clinical parameters were determined in all patients at baseline. The occurrence of new cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, stroke, and all-cause mortality) during the follow-up period was evaluated. No significant correlations between traditional cardiovascular risk markers and HMW adiponectin could be detected. HMW adiponectin did not differ between subjects with and without macrovascular disease at baseline (3.5 [interquartile range [IQR]: 2.2-5.7] mg/L vs 4.0 [IQR: 2.5-7.1] mg/L). During a follow-up of 19.3 (IQR: 16-25) months, 61 endpoints (41 myocardial infarctions, 10 strokes, and 10 deaths) were observed. A 1-standard-deviation increment of log-transformed HMW adiponectin was not significantly associated with the occurrence of cardiovascular events (Adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.58-1.54; P = 0.835). In conclusion, HMW adiponectin was not related to present macrovascular disease and is not associated with future cardiovascular events in high-risk patients with T2DM. It is unlikely that HMW adiponectin has significant vasoprotective effects in these patients.

  12. Molecular Imaging of Urogenital Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Steve Y.; Szabo, Zsolt; Morgan, Russell H.

    2013-01-01

    There is an expanding and exciting repertoire of PET imaging radiotracers for urogenital diseases, particularly in prostate cancer, renal cell cancer, and renal function. Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men. With growing therapeutics options for the treatment of metastatic and advanced prostate cancer, improved functional imaging of prostate cancer beyond the limitations of conventional computed tomography (CT) and bone scan (BS) is becoming increasingly important for both clinical management and drug development. PET radiotracers beyond 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) for prostate cancer include 18F-Sodium Fluoride, 11C-Choline and 18F-Fluorocholine and 11C-Acetate. Other emerging and promising PET radiotracers include a synthetic L-leucine amino acid analog (anti-18F-FACBC), dihydrotestosterone analog (18F-FDHT) and prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) based PET radiotracers (ex. 18F-DCFBC, 89Zr-DFO-J591, 68Ga(HBED-CC)). Larger prospective and comparison trials of these PET radiotracers are needed to establish the role of PET/CT in prostate cancer. Renal cell cancer imaging with FDG PET/CT although available can be limited, especially for detection of the primary tumor. Improved renal cell cancer detection with carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) based antibody (124I-girentuximab) and radioimmunotherapy targeting with 177Lu-cG250 appear promising. Evaluation of renal injury by imaging renal perfusion and function with novel PET radiotracers include p-18F-fluorohippurate (18F-PFH) and hippurate m-cyano-p-18F-fluorohippurate (18F-CNPFH) and Rubidium-82 chloride (typically used for myocardial perfusion imaging). Renal receptor imaging of the renal renin angiotensin system with a variety of selective PET radioligands are also becoming available for clinical translation. PMID:24484747

  13. Molecular and functional imaging of internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yunqi; Zhang, Hong; Tian, Mei

    2015-01-01

    Maladaptive use of the Internet results in Internet addiction (IA), which is associated with various negative consequences. Molecular and functional imaging techniques have been increasingly used for analysis of neurobiological changes and neurochemical correlates of IA. This review summarizes molecular and functional imaging findings on neurobiological mechanisms of IA, focusing on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and nuclear imaging modalities including positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). MRI studies demonstrate that structural changes in frontal cortex are associated with functional abnormalities in Internet addicted subjects. Nuclear imaging findings indicate that IA is associated with dysfunction of the brain dopaminergic systems. Abnormal dopamine regulation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) could underlie the enhanced motivational value and uncontrolled behavior over Internet overuse in addicted subjects. Further investigations are needed to determine specific changes in the Internet addictive brain, as well as their implications for behavior and cognition.

  14. Molecular and Functional Imaging of Internet Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunqi Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maladaptive use of the Internet results in Internet addiction (IA, which is associated with various negative consequences. Molecular and functional imaging techniques have been increasingly used for analysis of neurobiological changes and neurochemical correlates of IA. This review summarizes molecular and functional imaging findings on neurobiological mechanisms of IA, focusing on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and nuclear imaging modalities including positron emission tomography (PET and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT. MRI studies demonstrate that structural changes in frontal cortex are associated with functional abnormalities in Internet addicted subjects. Nuclear imaging findings indicate that IA is associated with dysfunction of the brain dopaminergic systems. Abnormal dopamine regulation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC could underlie the enhanced motivational value and uncontrolled behavior over Internet overuse in addicted subjects. Further investigations are needed to determine specific changes in the Internet addictive brain, as well as their implications for behavior and cognition.

  15. Cardiovascular CT angiography in neonates and children : Image quality and potential for radiation dose reduction with iterative image reconstruction techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tricarico, Francesco; Hlavacek, Anthony M.; Schoepf, U. Joseph; Ebersberger, Ullrich; Nance, John W.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Cho, Young Jun; Spears, J. Reid; Secchi, Francesco; Savino, Giancarlo; Marano, Riccardo; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Bonomo, Lorenzo; Apfaltrer, Paul

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate image quality (IQ) of low-radiation-dose paediatric cardiovascular CT angiography (CTA), comparing iterative reconstruction in image space (IRIS) and sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) with filtered back-projection (FBP) and estimate the potential for further dose reduct

  16. Advancing Cardiovascular, Neurovascular, and Renal Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Small Rodents Using Cryogenic Radiofrequency Coil Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niendorf, Thoralf; Pohlmann, Andreas; Reimann, Henning M; Waiczies, Helmar; Peper, Eva; Huelnhagen, Till; Seeliger, Erdmann; Schreiber, Adrian; Kettritz, Ralph; Strobel, Klaus; Ku, Min-Chi; Waiczies, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Research in pathologies of the brain, heart and kidney have gained immensely from the plethora of studies that have helped shape new methods in magnetic resonance (MR) for characterizing preclinical disease models. Methodical probing into preclinical animal models by MR is invaluable since it allows a careful interpretation and extrapolation of data derived from these models to human disease. In this review we will focus on the applications of cryogenic radiofrequency (RF) coils in small animal MR as a means of boosting image quality (e.g., by supporting MR microscopy) and making data acquisition more efficient (e.g., by reducing measuring time); both being important constituents for thorough investigational studies on animal models of disease. This review attempts to make the (bio)medical imaging, molecular medicine, and pharmaceutical communities aware of this productive ferment and its outstanding significance for anatomical and functional MR in small rodents. The goal is to inspire a more intense interdisciplinary collaboration across the fields to further advance and progress non-invasive MR methods that ultimately support thorough (patho)physiological characterization of animal disease models. In this review, current and potential future applications for the RF coil technology in cardiovascular, neurovascular, and renal disease will be discussed.

  17. Advancing Cardiovascular, Neurovascular and Renal Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Small Rodents Using Cryogenic Radiofrequency Coil Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thoralf eNiendorf

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Research in pathologies of the brain, heart and kidney have gained immensely from the plethora of studies that have helped shape new methods in magnetic resonance (MR for characterizing preclinical disease models. Methodical probing into preclinical animal models by MR is invaluable since it allows a careful interpretation and extrapolation of data derived from these models to human disease. In this review we will focus on the applications of cryogenic radiofrequency (RF coils in small animal MR as a means of boosting image quality (e.g. by supporting MR microscopy and making data acquisition more efficient (e.g. by reducing measuring time; both being important constituents for thorough investigational studies on animal models of disease. This review attempts to make the (biomedical imaging, molecular medicine and pharmaceutical communities aware of this productive ferment and its outstanding significance for anatomical and functional MR in small rodents. The goal is to inspire a more intense interdisciplinary collaboration across the fields to further advance and progress non-invasive MR methods that ultimately support thorough (pathophysiological characterization of animal disease models. In this review, current and potential future applications for the RF coil technology in cardiovascular, neurovascular and renal disease will be discussed.

  18. Molecular imaging of prostate cancer with PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadvar, Hossein

    2013-10-01

    Molecular imaging is paving the way for precision and personalized medicine. In view of the significant biologic and clinical heterogeneity of prostate cancer, molecular imaging is expected to play an important role in the evaluation of this prevalent disease. The natural history of prostate cancer spans from an indolent localized process to biochemical relapse after radical treatment with curative intent to a lethal castrate-resistant metastatic disease. The ongoing unraveling of the complex tumor biology of prostate cancer uniquely positions molecular imaging with PET to contribute significantly to every clinical phase of prostate cancer evaluation. The purpose of this article was to provide a concise review of the current state of affairs and potential future developments in the diagnostic utility of PET in prostate cancer.

  19. Molecular imaging of atherosclerosis in translational medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrone-Filardi, Pasquale; Costanzo, Pierluigi; Marciano, Caterina; Vassallo, Enrico; Marsico, Fabio; Ruggiero, Donatella; Petretta, Maria Piera; Chiariello, Massimo [University Federico II, Department of Internal Medicine, Cardiovascular and Immunological Sciences, Naples (Italy); Dellegrottaglie, Santo [University Federico II, Department of Internal Medicine, Cardiovascular and Immunological Sciences, Naples (Italy); Mount Sinai Medical Center, Z. and M.A. Wiener Cardiovascular Institute and M.-J. and H.R. Kravis Center for Cardiovascular Health, New York, NY (United States); Rudd, James H.F. [University of Cambridge, School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cuocolo, Alberto [University Federico II, Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Naples (Italy); SDN Foundation, Institute of Diagnostic and Nuclear Development, Naples (Italy)

    2011-05-15

    Functional characterization of atherosclerosis is a promising application of molecular imaging. Radionuclide-based techniques for molecular imaging in the large arteries (e.g. aorta and carotids), along with ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), have been studied both experimentally and in clinical studies. Technical factors including cardiac and respiratory motion, low spatial resolution and partial volume effects mean that noninvasive molecular imaging of atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries is not ready for prime time. Positron emission tomography imaging with fluorodeoxyglucose can measure vascular inflammation in the large arteries with high reproducibility, and signal change in response to anti-inflammatory therapy has been described. MRI has proven of value for quantifying carotid artery inflammation when iron oxide nanoparticles are used as a contrast agent. Macrophage accumulation of the iron particles allows regression of inflammation to be measured with drug therapy. Similarly, contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging is also being evaluated for functional characterization of atherosclerotic plaques. For all of these techniques, however, large-scale clinical trials are mandatory to define the prognostic importance of the imaging signals in terms of risk of future vascular events. (orig.)

  20. Molecular nuclear imaging for targeting and trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noninvasive molecular targeting in living subjects is highly demanded for better understanding of such diverse topics as the efficient delivery of drugs, genes, or radionuclides for the diagnosis or treatment of diseases. Progress in molecular biology, genetic engineering and polymer chemistry provides various tools to target molecules and cells in vivo. We used chitosan as a polymer, and 99mTc as a radionuclide. We developed 99mTc-galactosylated chitosan to target asialoglycoprotein receptors for nuclear imaging. We also developed 99mTc-HYNIC-chitosan-transferrin to target inflammatory cells, which was more effective than 67Ga-citrate for imaging inflammatory lesions. For an effective delivery of molecules, a longer circulation time is needed. We found that around 10% PEGylation was most effective to prolong the circulation time of liposomes for nuclear imaging of 99mTc-HMPAO-labeled liposomes in rats. Using various characteristics of molecules, we can deliver drugs into targets more effectively. We found that 99mTc-labeled biodegradable pullulan-derivatives are retained in tumor tissue in response to extracellular ion-strength. For the trafficking of various cells or bacteria in an intact animal, we used optical imaging techniques or radiolabeled cells. We monitored tumor-targeting bacteria by bioluminescent imaging techniques, dentritic cells by radiolabeling and neuronal stem cells by sodium-iodide symporter reporter gene imaging. In summary, we introduced recent achievements of molecular nuclear imaging technologies in targeting receptors for hepatocyte or inflammatory cells and in trafficking bacterial, immune and stem cells using molecular nuclear imaging techniques

  1. Imaging cellular and molecular biological functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shorte, S.L. [Institut Pasteur, 75 - Paris (France). Plateforme d' Imagerie Dynamique PFID-Imagopole; Frischknecht, F. (eds.) [Heidelberg Univ. Medical School (Germany). Dept. of Parasitology

    2007-07-01

    'Imaging cellular and molecular biological function' provides a unique selection of essays by leading experts, aiming at scientist and student alike who are interested in all aspects of modern imaging, from its application and up-scaling to its development. Indeed the philosophy of this volume is to provide student, researcher, PI, professional or provost the means to enter this applications field with confidence, and to construct the means to answer their own specific questions. (orig.)

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Wealth of Cardiovascular Information

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Sangeeta; Chryssos, Emanuel D.; Parker, Hugh

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is a relatively new noninvasive imaging modality that provides insight into multiple facets of the human myocardium not available by other imaging modalities. This one test allows for the assessment of ventricular and valvular function, ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathies, congenital heart disease, and cardiac tumors. It has been coined by many as “one-stop shopping.” As with any imaging modality, it is important to understand not only the indications ...

  3. Highly accelerated cardiovascular MR imaging using many channel technology: concepts and clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niendorf, Thoralf [RWTH Aachen, University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Aachen (Germany); Sodickson, Daniel K. [New York University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Center for Biomedical Imaging, New York, NY (United States)

    2008-01-15

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CVMRI) is of proven clinical value in the non-invasive imaging of cardiovascular diseases. CVMRI requires rapid image acquisition, but acquisition speed is fundamentally limited in conventional MRI. Parallel imaging provides a means for increasing acquisition speed and efficiency. However, signal-to-noise (SNR) limitations and the limited number of receiver channels available on most MR systems have in the past imposed practical constraints, which dictated the use of moderate accelerations in CVMRI. High levels of acceleration, which were unattainable previously, have become possible with many-receiver MR systems and many-element, cardiac-optimized RF-coil arrays. The resulting imaging speed improvements can be exploited in a number of ways, ranging from enhancement of spatial and temporal resolution to efficient whole heart coverage to streamlining of CVMRI work flow. In this review, examples of these strategies are provided, following an outline of the fundamentals of the highly accelerated imaging approaches employed in CVMRI. Topics discussed include basic principles of parallel imaging; key requirements for MR systems and RF-coil design; practical considerations of SNR management, supported by multi-dimensional accelerations, 3D noise averaging and high field imaging; highly accelerated clinical state-of-the art cardiovascular imaging applications spanning the range from SNR-rich to SNR-limited; and current trends and future directions. (orig.)

  4. Cardiovascular MRI in congenital heart disease. An imaging atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridharan, Shankar; Price, Gemma; Tann, Oliver; Hughes, Marina; Muthurangu, Vivek; Taylor, Andrew M. [UCL Institute of Child Health and Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom). Centre for Cardiovascular MR

    2010-07-01

    This new and unique clinical resource offers rapid access to high-quality images covering a broad spectrum of paediatric and adult cardiac pathologies visualized using MRI and CT. Key images of each condition and a clear interpretation of their MR appearances allow for greater understanding of the pathology. Focus is given to the planning of imaging planes, techniques and sequences to obtain the best images and improve MR assessment. This text would benefit all health professionals involved in imaging congenital cardiac disease. (orig.)

  5. Evaluation of an improved technique for automated center lumen line definition in cardiovascular image data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to evaluate a new method for automated definition of a center lumen line in vessels in cardiovascular image data. This method, called VAMPIRE, is based on improved detection of vessel-like structures. A multiobserver evaluation study was conducted involving 40 tracings in clinical CTA data of carotid arteries to compare VAMPIRE with an established technique. This comparison showed that VAMPIRE yields considerably more successful tracings and improved handling of stenosis, calcifications, multiple vessels, and nearby bone structures. We conclude that VAMPIRE is highly suitable for automated definition of center lumen lines in vessels in cardiovascular image data. (orig.)

  6. Evaluation of an improved technique for automated center lumen line definition in cardiovascular image data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gratama van Andel, Hugo A.F. [Erasmus MC-University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Medical Informatics, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus MC-University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Academic Medical Centre-University of Amsterdam, Department of Medical Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Meijering, Erik; Vrooman, Henri A.; Stokking, Rik [Erasmus MC-University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Medical Informatics, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus MC-University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Lugt, Aad van der; Monye, Cecile de [Erasmus MC-University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate a new method for automated definition of a center lumen line in vessels in cardiovascular image data. This method, called VAMPIRE, is based on improved detection of vessel-like structures. A multiobserver evaluation study was conducted involving 40 tracings in clinical CTA data of carotid arteries to compare VAMPIRE with an established technique. This comparison showed that VAMPIRE yields considerably more successful tracings and improved handling of stenosis, calcifications, multiple vessels, and nearby bone structures. We conclude that VAMPIRE is highly suitable for automated definition of center lumen lines in vessels in cardiovascular image data. (orig.)

  7. NAOMI: nanoparticle assisted optical molecular imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Dirk J.; van Velthoven, Mirjam E. J.; de Bruin, Martijn; Aalders, Maurice C. G.; Verbraak, Frank D.; Graf, Christina; van Leeuwen, Ton G.

    2006-02-01

    Our first steps towards nanoparticle assisted, optical molecular imaging (NAOMI) using OCT as the imaging modality are presented. We derive an expression to estimate the sensitivity of this technique. We propose to use nanoparticles based on biodegradable polymers, loaded with suitable dyes as contrast agent, and outline a method for establishing their desired optical properties prior to synthesis. This report presents preliminary results of our investigation on the use of nanoshells to serve as contrast agents We injected nanoshells with specific contrast features in the 800 nm wavelength region in excised porcine eyes. The nanoshells showed up as bright reflecting structures in the OCT images, which confirm their potential as contrast agents.

  8. Radiogenomic imaging-linking diagnostic imaging and molecular diagnostics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mathias; Goyen

    2014-01-01

    Radiogenomic imaging refers to the correlation between cancer imaging features and gene expression and is one of the most promising areas within science and medicine. High-throughput biological techniques have reshaped the perspective of biomedical research allowing for fast and efficient assessment of the entire molecular topography of a cell’s physiology providing new insights into human cancers. The use of non-invasive imaging tools for gene expression profiling of solid tumors could serve as a means for linking specific imaging features with specific gene expression patterns thereby allowing for more accurate diagnosis and prognosis and obviating the need for high-risk invasive biopsy procedures. This review focuses on the medical imaging part as one of the main drivers for the development of radiogenomic imaging.

  9. Molecular photoacoustic imaging of follicular thyroid carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi, Jelena; Kothapalli, Sri-Rajashekar; Bohndiek, Sarah;

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the potential of targeted photoacoustic imaging as a non-invasive method for detection of follicular thyroid carcinoma. Experimental Design We determined the presence and activity of two members of matrix metalloproteinase family (MMP), MMP-2 and MMP-9, suggested as biomarkers...... for malignant thyroid lesions, in FTC133 thyroid tumors subcutaneously implanted in nude mice. The imaging agent used to visualize tumors was MMP activatable photoacoustic probe, Alexa750-CXeeeeXPLGLAGrrrrrXK-BHQ3. Cleavage of the MMP activatable agent was imaged after intratumoral and intravenous injections...... in living mice optically, observing the increase in Alexa750 fluorescence, and photoacoustically, using a dual wavelength imaging method. Results Active forms of both MMP2 and MMP-9 enzymes were found in FTC133 tumor homogenates, with MMP-9 detected in greater amounts. The molecular imaging agent...

  10. Dose reduction in molecular breast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenaar, Douglas J.; Chowdhury, Samir; Hugg, James W.; Moats, Rex A.; Patt, Bradley E.

    2011-10-01

    Molecular Breast Imaging (MBI) is the imaging of radiolabeled drugs, cells, or nanoparticles for breast cancer detection, diagnosis, and treatment. Screening of broad populations of women for breast cancer with mammography has been augmented by the emergence of breast MRI in screening of women at high risk for breast cancer. Screening MBI may benefit the sub-population of women with dense breast tissue that obscures small tumors in mammography. Dedicated breast imaging equipment is necessary to enable detection of early-stage tumors less than 1 cm in size. Recent progress in the development of these instruments is reviewed. Pixellated CZT for single photon MBI imaging of 99mTc-sestamibi gives high detection sensitivity for early-stage tumors. The use of registered collimators in a near-field geometry gives significantly higher detection efficiency - a factor of 3.6-, which translates into an equivalent dose reduction factor given the same acquisition time. The radiation dose in the current MBI procedure has been reduced to the level of a four-view digital mammography study. In addition to screening of selected sub-populations, reduced MBI dose allows for dual-isotope, treatment planning, and repeated therapy assessment studies in the era of molecular medicine guided by quantitative molecular imaging.

  11. Molecular imaging in quality health care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Quality Health Care results from applying fundamental basic science and preclinical concepts as well as novel technologies to patient care within specific socio-economic frameworks. Cancer mortality has improved recently but outcomes of cancer patients are still unacceptably poor. Molecular Imaging has the potential to improve the outcome of cancer patients in several ways. In the preclinical setting, high resolution molecular imaging devices designed for small animal research have developed into valuable tools for drug evaluation and imaging probe design. These have enabled us to study drug effects in vivo by monitoring longitudinally their effects on tumor cell metabolism or proliferation. The success of Imatinib in treating chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) has demonstrated that targeted drugs can induce remarkable tumor responses and may even cure cancer patients. Targeted drugs have been used for treating various common solid human tumors, including breast cancer, colorectal cancer, and non-small cell lung cancer. However, diverse signaling pathways are involved in the development and progression of these genetically heterogeneous diseases. Consequently, inhibition of one specific pathway is likely to be efficacious in only in small subsets of patients with specific histological tumor types. It is unlikely that a single 'blockbuster' drug can be effective for all patients with a 'common' tumor. Rather, it will be necessary to develop multiple targeted drugs even for patients that share a single histologically defined tumor type. The inevitable consequence is a decreased revenue/cost ratio for the industry and increasing costs for patients and health care systems. It is therefore of paramount importance to identify drug failure as early as possible in preclinical and clinical trials. Human studies with positron emission tomography (PET) with molecular imaging probes targeting physiological processes such as

  12. Advance of Molecular Imaging Technology and Targeted Imaging Agent in Imaging and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yi Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular imaging is an emerging field that integrates advanced imaging technology with cellular and molecular biology. It can realize noninvasive and real time visualization, measurement of physiological or pathological process in the living organism at the cellular and molecular level, providing an effective method of information acquiring for diagnosis, therapy, and drug development and evaluating treatment of efficacy. Molecular imaging requires high resolution and high sensitive instruments and specific imaging agents that link the imaging signal with molecular event. Recently, the application of new emerging chemical technology and nanotechnology has stimulated the development of imaging agents. Nanoparticles modified with small molecule, peptide, antibody, and aptamer have been extensively applied for preclinical studies. Therapeutic drug or gene is incorporated into nanoparticles to construct multifunctional imaging agents which allow for theranostic applications. In this review, we will discuss the characteristics of molecular imaging, the novel imaging agent including targeted imaging agent and multifunctional imaging agent, as well as cite some examples of their application in molecular imaging and therapy.

  13. Nuclear cardiology core syllabus of the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimelli, Alessia; Neglia, Danilo; Schindler, Thomas H; Cosyns, Bernard; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Kitsiou, Anastasia

    2015-04-01

    The European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) Core Syllabus for Nuclear Cardiology is now available online. The syllabus lists key elements of knowledge in nuclear cardiology. It represents a framework for the development of training curricula and provides expected knowledge-based learning outcomes to the nuclear cardiology trainees.

  14. Imaging of cardiovascular dynamics in early mouse embryos with swept source optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larina, Irina V.; Liebling, Michael; Dickinson, Mary E.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2009-02-01

    Congenital cardiovascular defects are very common, occurring in 1% of live births, and cardiovascular failures are the leading cause of birth defect-related deaths in infants. To improve diagnostics, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular abnormalities, we need to understand not only how cells form the heart and vessels but also how physical factors such as heart contraction and blood flow influence heart development and changes in the circulatory network. Mouse models are an excellent resource for studying cardiovascular development and disease because of the resemblance to humans, rapid generation time, and availability of mutants with cardiovascular defects linked to human diseases. In this work, we present results on development and application of Doppler Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography (DSS-OCT) for imaging of cardiovascular dynamics and blood flow in the mouse embryonic heart and vessels. Our studies demonstrated that the spatial and temporal resolution of the DSS-OCT makes it possible to perform sensitive measurements of heart and vessel wall movements and to investigate how contractile waves facilitate the movement of blood through the circulatory system.

  15. Three Dimensional Molecular Imaging for Lignocellulosic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohn, Paul W.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2011-06-09

    The development of high efficiency, inexpensive processing protocols to render biomass components into fermentable substrates for the sequential processing of cell wall components into fuels and important feedstocks for the biorefinery of the future is a key goal of the national roadmap for renewable energy. Furthermore, the development of such protocols depends critically on detailed knowledge of the spatial and temporal infiltration of reagents designed to remove and separate the phenylpropenoid heteropolymer (lignin) from the processable sugar components sequestered in the rigid cell walls of plants. A detailed chemical and structural understanding of this pre-enzymatic processing in space and time was the focus of this program. We worked to develop new imaging strategies that produce real-time molecular speciation information in situ; extract sub-surface information about the effects of processing; and follow the spatial and temporal characteristics of the molecular species in the matrix and correlate this complex profile with saccharification. Spatially correlated SIMS and Raman imaging were used to provide high quality, high resolution subcellular images of Miscanthus cross sections. Furthermore, the combination of information from the mass spectrometry and Raman scattering allows specific chemical assignments of observed structures, difficult to assign from either imaging approach alone and lays the foundation for subsequent heterocorrelated imaging experiments targeted at more challenging biological systems, such as the interacting plant-microbe systems relevant to the rhizosphere.

  16. NAOMI: nanoparticle-assisted optical molecular imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Dirk J.; de Bruin, Martijn; Aalders, Maurice C. G.; Verbraak, Frank D.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.

    2007-02-01

    We present our first steps towards nanoparticle assisted, optical molecular imaging (NAOMI) using biodegradable nanoparticles. Our focus is on using optical coherence tomography(OCT) as the imaging modality. We propose to use nanoparticles based on biodegradable polymers, loaded with carefully selected dyes as contrast agent, and outline a method for establishing their desired optical properties prior to synthesis. Moreover, we perform a qualitative pilot study using these biodegradable nanoparticles, measuring their optical properties which are found to be in line with theoretical predictions.

  17. Molecular Imaging of Biomarkers in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulaner, Gary A.; Riedl, Chris C.; Dickler, Maura N.; Jhaveri, Komal; Pandit-Taskar, Neeta; Weber, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The success of breast cancer therapy is ultimately defined by clinical endpoints such as survival. It is valuable to have biomarkers that can predict the most efficacious therapies or measure response to therapy early in the course of treatment. Molecular imaging has a promising role in complementing and overcoming some of the limitations of traditional biomarkers by providing the ability to perform noninvasive, repeatable whole-body assessments. The potential advantages of imaging biomarkers are obvious and initial clinical studies have been promising, but proof of clinical utility still requires prospective multicenter clinical trials. PMID:26834103

  18. Ultrasound strain imaging for quantification of tissue function: cardiovascular applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Korte, Chris L.; Lopata, Richard G. P.; Hansen, Hendrik H. G.

    2013-03-01

    With ultrasound imaging, the motion and deformation of tissue can be measured. Tissue can be deformed by applying a force on it and the resulting deformation is a function of its mechanical properties. Quantification of this resulting tissue deformation to assess the mechanical properties of tissue is called elastography. If the tissue under interrogation is actively deforming, the deformation is directly related to its function and quantification of this deformation is normally referred as `strain imaging'. Elastography can be used for atherosclerotic plaques characterization, while the contractility of the heart or skeletal muscles can be assessed with strain imaging. We developed radio frequency (RF) based ultrasound methods to assess the deformation at higher resolution and with higher accuracy than commercial methods using conventional image data (Tissue Doppler Imaging and 2D speckle tracking methods). However, the improvement in accuracy is mainly achieved when measuring strain along the ultrasound beam direction, so 1D. We further extended this method to multiple directions and further improved precision by using compounding of data acquired at multiple beam steered angles. In arteries, the presence of vulnerable plaques may lead to acute events like stroke and myocardial infarction. Consequently, timely detection of these plaques is of great diagnostic value. Non-invasive ultrasound strain compounding is currently being evaluated as a diagnostic tool to identify the vulnerability of plaques. In the heart, we determined the strain locally and at high resolution resulting in a local assessment in contrary to conventional global functional parameters like cardiac output or shortening fraction.

  19. Design and validation of Segment - freely available software for cardiovascular image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engblom Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Commercially available software for cardiovascular image analysis often has limited functionality and frequently lacks the careful validation that is required for clinical studies. We have already implemented a cardiovascular image analysis software package and released it as freeware for the research community. However, it was distributed as a stand-alone application and other researchers could not extend it by writing their own custom image analysis algorithms. We believe that the work required to make a clinically applicable prototype can be reduced by making the software extensible, so that researchers can develop their own modules or improvements. Such an initiative might then serve as a bridge between image analysis research and cardiovascular research. The aim of this article is therefore to present the design and validation of a cardiovascular image analysis software package (Segment and to announce its release in a source code format. Results Segment can be used for image analysis in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, computed tomography (CT, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT and positron emission tomography (PET. Some of its main features include loading of DICOM images from all major scanner vendors, simultaneous display of multiple image stacks and plane intersections, automated segmentation of the left ventricle, quantification of MRI flow, tools for manual and general object segmentation, quantitative regional wall motion analysis, myocardial viability analysis and image fusion tools. Here we present an overview of the validation results and validation procedures for the functionality of the software. We describe a technique to ensure continued accuracy and validity of the software by implementing and using a test script that tests the functionality of the software and validates the output. The software has been made freely available for research purposes in a source code format on the project home

  20. Molecular imaging for the diagnosis of dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many radiotracers have been developed to visualize pathological protein accumulation and neurotransmitter deficits in the brains of patients with dementia using positron emission tomography (PET). Recent advances in the development of β-sheet binding agents enabled in vivo detection of senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease. Molecular imaging using these agents would contribute to the early and accurate diagnosis of dementia and monitoring therapeutic effect of anti-dementia drugs. (author)

  1. Brain imaging changes associated with risk factors for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease in asymptomatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Joseph I; Tang, Cheuk Y; de Haas, Hans J; Changchien, Lisa; Goliasch, Georg; Dabas, Puneet; Wang, Victoria; Fayad, Zahi A; Fuster, Valentin; Narula, Jagat

    2014-10-01

    Reviews of imaging studies assessing the brain effects of vascular risk factors typically include a substantial number of studies with subjects with a history of symptomatic cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease and/or events, limiting our ability to disentangle the primary brain effects of vascular risk factors from those of resulting brain and cardiac damage. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review of brain changes from imaging studies in patients with vascular risk factors but without clinically manifest cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease or events. The 77 studies included in this review demonstrate that in persons without symptomatic cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, or peripheral vascular disease, the vascular risk factors of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, hyperlipidemia, and smoking are all independently associated with brain imaging changes before the clinical manifestation of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease. We conclude that the identification of brain changes associated with vascular risk factors, before the manifestation of clinically significant cerebrovascular damage, presents a window of opportunity wherein adequate treatment of these modifiable vascular risk factors may prevent the development of irreversible deleterious brain changes and potentially alter patients' clinical course.

  2. Molecular Breast Imaging Using Emission Tomosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopan, O. [University of Florida; Gilland, D. [University of Florida; Weisenberger, Andrew G. [JLAB; Kross, Brian J. [JLAB; Welch, Benjamin L. [Dilon Technologies

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: Tour objective is to design a novel SPECT system for molecular breast imaging (MBI) and evaluate its performance. The limited angle SPECT system, or emission tomosynthesis, is designed to achieve 3D images of the breast with high spatial resolution/sensitivity. The system uses a simplified detector motion and is conducive to on-board biopsy and mult-modal imaging with mammography. Methods: The novel feature of the proposed gamma camera is a variable-angle, slant-hole (VASH) collimator, which is well suited for limited angle SPECT of a mildly compressed breast. The collimator holes change slant angle while the camera surface remains flush against the compression paddle. This allows the camera to vary the angular view ({+-}30{degrees}, {+-}45{degrees}) for tomographic imaging while keeping the camera close to the object for high spatial resolution and/or sensitivity. Theoretical analysis and Monte Carlo simulations were performed assuming a point source and isolated breast phantom. Spatial resolution, sensitivity, contrast and SNR were measured. Results were compared to single-view, planar images and conventional SPECT. For both conventional SPECT and VASH, data were reconstructed using iterative algorithms. Finally, a proof-of-concept VASH collimator was constructed for experimental evaluation. Results: Measured spatial resolution/sensitivity with VASH showed good agreement with theory including depth-of-interaction (DOI) effects. The DOI effect diminished the depth resolution by approximately 2 mm. Increasing the slant angle range from {+-}30{degrees} to {+-}45{degrees} resulted in an approximately 1 mm improvement in the depth resolution. In the breast phantom images, VASH showed improved contrast and SNR over conventional SPECT and improved contrast over planar scintimmammography. Reconstructed images from the proof-of-concept VASH collimator demonstrated reasonable depth resolution capabilities using limited angle projection data. Conclusion: We

  3. [Recommendations of the ESC guidelines regarding cardiovascular imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechtem, U; Greulich, S; Ong, P

    2016-08-01

    Cardiac imaging plays a key role in the diagnosis and risk stratification in the ESC guidelines for the management of patients with stable coronary artery disease. Demonstration of myocardial ischaemia guides the decision which further diagnostic and therapeutic strategy should be followed in these patients. One should, however, not forget that there are no randomised studies supporting this type of management. In patients with a low pretest probability coronary CT angiography is the optimal tool to exclude coronary artery stenoses rapidly and effectively. In the near future, however, better data is needed showing how much cardiac imaging is really necessary and how cost-effective it is in patients with stable coronary artery disease. PMID:27388914

  4. Impact of Medical Therapy on Atheroma Volume Measured by Different Cardiovascular Imaging Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad C. N. Sinno

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a systemic disease that affects most vascular beds. The gold standard of atherosclerosis imaging has been invasive intravascular ultrasound (IVUS. Newer noninvasive imaging modalities like B-mode ultrasound, cardiac computed tomography (CT, positron emission tomography (PET, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI have been used to assess these vascular territories with high accuracy and reproducibility. These imaging modalities have lately been used for the assessment of the atherosclerotic plaque and the response of its volume to several medical therapies used in the treatment of patients with cardiovascular disease. To study the impact of these medications on atheroma volume progression or regression, imaging modalities have been used on a serial basis providing a unique opportunity to monitor the effect these antiatherosclerotic strategies exert on plaque burden. As a result, studies incorporating serial IVUS imaging, quantitative coronary angiography (QCA, B-mode ultrasound, electron beam computed tomography (EBCT, and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging have all been used to evaluate the impact of therapeutic strategies that modify cholesterol and blood pressure on the progression/regression of atherosclerotic plaque. In this review, we intend to summarize the impact of different therapies aimed at halting the progression or even result in regression of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease evaluated by different imaging modalities.

  5. Imaging of murine embryonic cardiovascular development using optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongyang; Degenhardt, Karl R.; Astrof, Sophie; Zhou, Chao

    2016-03-01

    We have demonstrated the capability of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) system to image full development of mouse embryonic cardiovascular system. Monitoring morphological changes of mouse embryonic heart occurred in different embryonic stages helps identify structural or functional cardiac anomalies and understand how these anomalies lead to congenital heart diseases (CHD) present at birth. In this study, mouse embryo hearts ranging from E9.5 to E15.5 were prepared and imaged in vitro. A customized spectral domain OCT system was used for imaging, with a central wavelength of 1310nm, spectral bandwidth of ~100nm and imaging speed of 47kHz A-scans/s. Axial resolution of this system was 8.3µm in air, and transverse resolution was 6.2 µm with 5X objective. Key features of mouse embryonic cardiovascular development such as vasculature remodeling into circulatory system, separation of atria and ventricles and emergence of valves could be clearly seen in three-dimensional OCT images. Optical clearing was applied to overcome the penetration limit of OCT system. With high resolution, fast imaging speed, 3D imaging capability, OCT proves to be a promising biomedical imaging modality for developmental biology studies, rivaling histology and micro-CT.

  6. Neutron imaging for inertial confinement fusion and molecular optic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientific domains that require imaging of micrometric/nano-metric objects are dramatically increasing (Plasma Physics, Astrophysics, Biotechnology, Earth Sciences...). Difficulties encountered in imaging smaller and smaller objects make this research area more and more challenging and in constant evolution. The two scientific domains, through which this study has been led, are the neutron imaging in the context of the inertial confinement fusion and the fluorescence molecular imaging. Work presented in this thesis has two main objectives. The first one is to describe the instrumentation characteristics that require such imagery and, relatively to the scientific domains considered, identify parameters likely to optimize the imaging system accuracy. The second one is to present the developed data analysis and reconstruction methods able to provide spatial resolution adapted to the size of the observed object. Similarities of numerical algorithms used in these two scientific domains, which goals are quiet different, show how micrometric/nano-metric object imaging is a research area at the border of a large number of scientific disciplines. (author)

  7. PET Imaging - from Physics to Clinical Molecular Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Stan

    2008-03-01

    From the beginnings many years ago in a few physics laboratories and first applications as a research brain function imager, PET became lately a leading molecular imaging modality used in diagnosis, staging and therapy monitoring of cancer, as well as has increased use in assessment of brain function (early diagnosis of Alzheimer's, etc) and in cardiac function. To assist with anatomic structure map and with absorption correction CT is often used with PET in a duo system. Growing interest in the last 5-10 years in dedicated organ specific PET imagers (breast, prostate, brain, etc) presents again an opportunity to the particle physics instrumentation community to contribute to the important field of medical imaging. In addition to the bulky standard ring structures, compact, economical and high performance mobile imagers are being proposed and build. The latest development in standard PET imaging is introduction of the well known TOF concept enabling clearer tomographic pictures of the patient organs. Development and availability of novel photodetectors such as Silicon PMT immune to magnetic fields offers an exciting opportunity to use PET in conjunction with MRI and fMRI. As before with avalanche photodiodes, particle physics community plays a leading role in developing these devices. The presentation will mostly focus on present and future opportunities for better PET designs based on new technologies and methods: new scintillators, photodetectors, readout, software.

  8. Cardiovascular hybrid imaging using PET/MRI; Kardiovaskulaere Hybridbildgebung mit PET/MRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nensa, Felix; Schlosser, Thomas [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Neuroradiologie

    2014-12-15

    The following overview provides a summary of the state of the art and research as well as potential clinical applications of cardiovascular PET/MR imaging. PET/MRI systems have been clinically available for a few years, and their use in cardiac imaging has been successfully demonstrated. At this period in time, some of the technical difficulties that arose at the beginning have been solved; in particular with respect to MRI-based attenuation correction, caution should be exercised with PET quantification. In addition, many promising technical options are still in the developmental stage, such as MRI-based motion correction of PET data resulting from simultaneous MR acquisition, and are not yet available for cardiovascular imaging. On the other hand, PET/MRI has been used to demonstrate significant pathologies such as acute and chronic myocardial infarction, myocarditis or cardiac sarcoidosis; future applications in clinical routine or within studies appear to be possible. In coming years additional studies will have to be performed to prove diagnostic gain at a reasonable cost-benefit ratio before valid conclusions are possible regarding the clinical utility and future of cardiovascular PET/MR imaging.

  9. Molecular Imaging with Activatable Reporter Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Niu, Xiaoyuan Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular imaging is a newly emerged multiple disciplinary field that aims to visualize, characterize and quantitatively measure biological processes at cellular and molecular levels in humans and other living systems. A reporter gene is a piece of DNA encoding reporter protein, which presents as a readily measurable phenotype that can be distinguished easily from the background of endogenous protein. After being transferred into cells of organ systems (transgenes, the reporter gene can be utilized to visualize transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression, protein-protein interactions, or trafficking of proteins or cells in living subjects. Herein, we review previous classification of reporter genes and regroup the reporter gene based imaging as basic, inducible and activatable, based on the regulation of reporter gene transcription and post-translational modification of reporter proteins. We then focus on activatable reporters, in which the signal can be activated at the posttranslational level for visualizing protein-protein interactions, protein phosphorylation or tertiary structure changes. The applications of several types of activatable reporters will also be summarized. We conclude that activatable reporter imaging can benefit both basic biomedical research and drug development.

  10. Molecular probes for malignant melanoma imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Gang; Pan, Ying; Cheng, Zhen

    2010-09-01

    Malignant melanoma represents a serious public health problem and is a deadly disease when it is diagnosed at late stage. Though (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) has been widely used clinically for melanoma imaging, other approaches to specifically identify, characterize, monitor and guide therapeutics for malignant melanoma are still needed. Consequently, many probes targeting general molecular events including metabolism, angiogenesis, hypoxia and apoptosis in melanoma have been successfully developed. Furthermore, probes targeting melanoma associated targets such as melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R), melanin, etc. have undergone active investigation and have demonstrated high melanoma specificity. In this review, these molecular probes targeting diverse melanoma biomarkers have been summarized. Some of them may eventually contribute to the improvement of personalized management of malignant melanoma. PMID:20497118

  11. Molecular imaging of apoptosis in cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakumaeki, Juhana M. [Cellular and Molecular Imaging Group, Department of Biomedical NMR, A.I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland) and Department of Clinical Radiology, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 1777, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland)]. E-mail: juhana.hakumaki@uku.fi; Liimatainen, Timo [Cellular and Molecular Imaging Group, Department of Biomedical NMR, A.I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2005-11-01

    Apoptosis plays an important role in cancer. Mechanisms hindering its action are implicated in a number of malignancies. Also, the induction of apoptosis plays a pivotal role in non-surgical cancer treatment regimes such as irradiation, chemotherapy, or hormones. Recent advanced in imaging science have made it now possible for us to detect and visualize previously inaccessible and even unrecognized biological phenomena in cells and tissue undergoing apoptosis in vivo. Not only are these imaging techniques painting an intriguing picture of the spatiotemporal characteristics and metabolic and biophysical of apoptosis in situ, but they are expected to have an ever increasing impact in preclinical testing and design of new anticancer agents as well. Rapid and accurate visualization of apoptotic response in the clinical settings can also be of significant diagnostic and prognostic worth. With the advent of molecular medicine and patient-tailored treatment options and therapeutic agents, such monitoring techniques are becoming paramount.

  12. Bioresponsive probes for molecular imaging: concepts and in vivo applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijnhoven, S.M. van; Robillard, M.S.; Langereis, S.; Grull, H.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular imaging is a powerful tool to visualize and characterize biological processes at the cellular and molecular level in vivo. In most molecular imaging approaches, probes are used to bind to disease-specific biomarkers highlighting disease target sites. In recent years, a new subset of molecu

  13. Correlation of chronic kidney disease, diabetes and peripheral artery disease with cardiovascular events in patients using stress myocardial perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normal stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) studies generally suggest an excellent prognosis for cardiovascular events. Chronic kidney disease (CKD), diabetes and peripheral artery disease (PAD) have been established as the risk factors for cardiovascular events. However, whether these risk factors significantly predict cardiovascular events in patients with normal stress MPI is unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of these risk factors in patients with normal stress MPI. Patients with normal stress MPI (n=372, male=215 and female=157, age=69 years, CKD without hemodialysis=95, diabetes=99, PAD=19, previous coronary artery disease=116) were followed up for 14 months. Normal stress MPI was defined as a summed stress score of 2 and/or persistent proteinuria. Cardiovascular events included cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure requiring hospitalization. Cardiovascular events occurred in 20 of 372 patients (5.4%). In univariate Cox regression analysis, PAD, diabetes, diabetic retinopathy, insulin use, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, CKD, left ventricular ejection fraction and pharmacological stress tests were significant predictors of cardiovascular events. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, PAD, diabetes and CKD were independent and significant predictors for cardiovascular events, and their number was the strongest predictor for cardiovascular events (hazard ratio=21.7, P<0.001). PAD, diabetes and CKD are coexisting, independent and significant risk factors for cardiovascular events, CKD being the strongest predictor. The number of coexisting risk factors is important in predicting cardiovascular events in patients with normal stress MPI. (author)

  14. Cardiovascular assessment of patients with Ullrich-Turner's Syndrome on Doppler echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro Ana Valéria Barros de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the cardiovascular features of Ullrich-Turner's syndrome using echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging, and to correlate them with the phenotype and karyotype of the patients. The diagnostic concordance between the 2 methods was also assessed. METHODS: Fifteen patients with the syndrome were assessed by echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging (cardiac chambers, valves, and aorta. Their ages ranged from 10 to 28 (mean of 16.7 years. The karyotype was analyzed in 11 or 25 metaphases of peripheral blood lymphocytes, or both. RESULTS: The most common phenotypic changes were short stature and spontaneous absence of puberal development (100%; 1 patient had a cardiac murmur. The karyotypes detected were as follows: 45,X (n=7, mosaics (n=5, and deletions (n=3. No echocardiographic changes were observed. In regard to magnetic resonance imaging, coarctation and dilation of the aorta were found in 1 patient, and isolated dilation of the aorta was found in 4 patients. CONCLUSION: The frequencies of coarctation and dilation of the aorta detected on magnetic resonance imaging were similar to those reported in the literature (5.5% to 20%, and 6.3% to 29%, respectively. This confirmed the adjuvant role of magnetic resonance imaging to Doppler echocardiography for diagnosing cardiovascular alterations in patients with Ullrich-Turner's syndrome.

  15. Molecular imaging of cancer using PET and SPECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Molecular imaging allows for the study of molecular and cellular events in the living intact organism. The nuclear medicine methodologies of positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) posses several advantages, which make them particularly suited...

  16. Current Progress of Aptamer-Based Molecular Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Andrew Z.; Farokhzad, Omid C.

    2014-01-01

    Aptamers, single-stranded oligonucleotides, are an important class of molecular targeting ligand. Since their discovery, aptamers have been rapidly translated into clinical practice. They have been approved as therapeutics and molecular diagnostics. Aptamers also possess several properties that make them uniquely suited to molecular imaging. This review aims to provide an overview of aptamers’ advantages as targeting ligands and their application in molecular imaging.

  17. Molecular Imaging of Conscious, Unrestrained Mice with AwakeSPECT

    OpenAIRE

    Baba, Justin S.; Endres, Christopher J.; Foss, Catherine A.; Nimmagadda, Sridhar; Jung, Hyeyun; Goddard, James S.; Lee, Seungjoon; McKisson, John; Smith, Mark F.; Stolin, Alexander V.; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Pomper, Martin G.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a SPECT imaging system, AwakeSPECT, to enable molecular brain imaging of untrained mice that are conscious, unanesthetized, and unrestrained. We accomplished this with head tracking and motion correction techniques.

  18. Molecular breast imaging with gamma emitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, O; Spanu, A; Danieli, R; Madeddu, G

    2013-12-01

    Following a diagnosis of breast cancer (BC), the early detection of local recurrence is important to define appropriate therapeutic strategies and increase the chances of a cure. In fact, despite major progress in surgical treatment, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy protocols, tumor recurrence is still a major problem. Moreover, the diagnosis of recurrence with conventional imaging methods can be difficult as a result of the presence of scar tissue. Molecular breast imaging (MBI) with gamma-ray emitting radiotracers may be very useful in this clinical setting, because it is not affected by the post-therapy morphologic changes. This review summarises the applications of 99mTc-sestamibi and 99mTc-tetrofosmin, the two most employed gamma emitter radiopharmaceuticals for MBI, in the diagnosis of local disease recurrence in patients with BC. The main limitation of MBI using conventional gamma-cameras is the low sensitivity for small BCs. The recent development of hybrid single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography devices and especially of high-resolution specific breast cameras can improve the detection rate of sub-centimetric malignant lesions. Nevertheless, probably only the large availability of dedicated cameras will allow the clinical acceptance of MBI as useful complementary diagnostic technique in BC recurrence. The possible role of MBI with specific cameras in monitoring the local response of BC to neoadjuvant chemotherapy is also briefly discussed. PMID:24322791

  19. Applications of molecular MRI and optical imaging in cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Penet, Marie-France; Mikhaylova, Maria; Li, Cong; Krishnamachary, Balaji; Glunde, Kristine; Pathak, Arvind P.; Bhujwalla, Zaver M.

    2010-01-01

    Some of the most exciting advances in molecular-functional imaging of cancer are occurring at the interface between chemistry and imaging. Several of these advances have occurred through the development of novel imaging probes that report on molecular pathways, the tumor micro-environment and the response of tumors to treatment; as well as through novel image-guided platforms such as nanoparticles and nanovesicles that deliver therapeutic agents against specific targets and pathways. Cancer c...

  20. Ultrasound Biomicroscopy in Small Animal Research: Applications in Molecular and Preclinical Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Greco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM is a noninvasive multimodality technique that allows high-resolution imaging in mice. It is affordable, widely available, and portable. When it is coupled to Doppler ultrasound with color and power Doppler, it can be used to quantify blood flow and to image microcirculation as well as the response of tumor blood supply to cancer therapy. Target contrast ultrasound combines ultrasound with novel molecular targeted contrast agent to assess biological processes at molecular level. UBM is useful to investigate the growth and differentiation of tumors as well as to detect early molecular expression of cancer-related biomarkers in vivo and to monitor the effects of cancer therapies. It can be also used to visualize the embryological development of mice in uterus or to examine their cardiovascular development. The availability of real-time imaging of mice anatomy allows performing aspiration procedures under ultrasound guidance as well as the microinjection of cells, viruses, or other agents into precise locations. This paper will describe some basic principles of high-resolution imaging equipment, and the most important applications in molecular and preclinical imaging in small animal research.

  1. Risk stratification in cardiovascular disease primary prevention - scoring systems, novel markers, and imaging techniques.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zannad, Faiez

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to review and discuss current methods of risk stratification for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention, emerging biomarkers, and imaging techniques, and their relative merits and limitations. This report is based on discussions that took place among experts in the area during a special CardioVascular Clinical Trialists workshop organized by the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Drug Therapy in September 2009. Classical risk factors such as blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels remain the cornerstone of risk estimation in primary prevention but their use as a guide to management is limited by several factors: (i) thresholds for drug treatment vary with the available evidence for cost-effectiveness and benefit-to-risk ratios; (ii) assessment may be imprecise; (iii) residual risk may remain, even with effective control of dyslipidemia and hypertension. Novel measures include C-reactive protein, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) , genetic markers, and markers of subclinical organ damage, for which there are varying levels of evidence. High-resolution ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging to assess carotid atherosclerotic lesions have potential but require further validation, standardization, and proof of clinical usefulness in the general population. In conclusion, classical risk scoring systems are available and inexpensive but have a number of limitations. Novel risk markers and imaging techniques may have a place in drug development and clinical trial design. However, their additional value above and beyond classical risk factors has yet to be determined for risk-guided therapy in CVD prevention.

  2. Updated standards and processes for accreditation of echocardiographic laboratories from The European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Bogdan A; Stefanidis, Alexandros; Nihoyannopoulos, Petros; Fox, Kevin F; Ray, Simon; Cardim, Nuno; Rigo, Fausto; Badano, Luigi P; Fraser, Alan G; Pinto, Fausto; Zamorano, Jose Luis; Habib, Gilbert; Maurer, Gerald; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Andrade, Maria Joao; Donal, Erwan; Edvardsen, Thor; Varga, Albert

    2014-07-01

    Standards for echocardiographic laboratories were proposed by the European Association of Echocardiography (now the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging) 7 years ago in order to raise standards of practice and improve the quality of care. Criteria and requirements were published at that time for transthoracic, transoesophageal, and stress echocardiography. This paper reassesses and updates the quality standards to take account of experience and the technical developments of modern echocardiographic practice. It also discusses quality control, the incentives for laboratories to apply for accreditation, the reaccreditation criteria, and the current status and future prospects of the laboratory accreditation process.

  3. Molecular imaging of stem cell transplantation for neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Moore, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Cell replacement therapy with stem cells holds tremendous therapeutic potential for treating neurodegenerative diseases. Over the last decade, molecular imaging techniques have proven to be of great value in tracking transplanted cells and assessing the therapeutic efficacy. This current review summarizes the role and capabilities of different molecular imaging modalities including optical imaging, nuclear imaging and magnetic resonance imaging in the field of stem cell therapy for neurodegenerative disorders. We discuss current challenges and perspectives of these techniques and encompass updated information such as theranostic imaging and optogenetics in stem cell-based treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

  4. Cardiovascular CT angiography in neonates and children: Image quality and potential for radiation dose reduction with iterative image reconstruction techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tricarico, Francesco [Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, ' ' A. Gemelli' ' Hospital, Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy); Hlavacek, Anthony M. [Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Children' s Hospital, Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Charleston, SC (United States); Schoepf, U.J. [Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Children' s Hospital, Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Charleston, SC (United States); Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States); Ebersberger, Ullrich [Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Heart Centre Munich-Bogenhausen, Department of Cardiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Munich (Germany); Nance, John W. [Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Johns Hopkins Hospital, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn [Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University Medical Centre Groningen/University of Groningen, Centre for Medical Imaging - North East Netherlands, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands); Cho, Young Jun [Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Konyang University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Spears, J.R. [Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Secchi, Francesco [Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University of Milan School of Medicine IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Radiology Unit, Milan (Italy); Savino, Giancarlo; Marano, Riccardo; Bonomo, Lorenzo [Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, ' ' A. Gemelli' ' Hospital, Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy); Schoenberg, Stefan O. [University Medical Centre Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim - Heidelberg University, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Mannheim (Germany); Apfaltrer, Paul [Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University Medical Centre Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim - Heidelberg University, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Mannheim (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    To evaluate image quality (IQ) of low-radiation-dose paediatric cardiovascular CT angiography (CTA), comparing iterative reconstruction in image space (IRIS) and sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) with filtered back-projection (FBP) and estimate the potential for further dose reductions. Forty neonates and children underwent low radiation CTA with or without ECG synchronisation. Data were reconstructed with FBP, IRIS and SAFIRE. For ECG-synchronised studies, half-dose image acquisitions were simulated. Signal noise was measured and IQ graded. Effective dose (ED) was estimated. Mean absolute and relative image noise with IRIS and full-dose SAFIRE was lower than with FBP (P < 0.001), while SNR and CNR were higher (P < 0.001). Image noise was also lower and SNR and CNR higher in half-dose SAFIRE studies compared with full-and half-dose FBP studies (P < 0.001). IQ scores were higher for IRIS, full-dose SAFIRE and half-dose SAFIRE than for full-dose FBP and higher for half-dose SAFIRE than for half-dose FBP (P < 0.05). Median weight-specific ED was 0.3 mSv without and 1.36 mSv with ECG synchronisation. The estimated ED of half-dose SAFIRE studies was 0.68 mSv. IR improves image noise, SNR, CNR and subjective IQ compared with FBP in low-radiation-dose paediatric CTA and allows further dose reductions without compromising diagnostic IQ. (orig.)

  5. Cardiovascular CT angiography in neonates and children: Image quality and potential for radiation dose reduction with iterative image reconstruction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate image quality (IQ) of low-radiation-dose paediatric cardiovascular CT angiography (CTA), comparing iterative reconstruction in image space (IRIS) and sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) with filtered back-projection (FBP) and estimate the potential for further dose reductions. Forty neonates and children underwent low radiation CTA with or without ECG synchronisation. Data were reconstructed with FBP, IRIS and SAFIRE. For ECG-synchronised studies, half-dose image acquisitions were simulated. Signal noise was measured and IQ graded. Effective dose (ED) was estimated. Mean absolute and relative image noise with IRIS and full-dose SAFIRE was lower than with FBP (P < 0.001), while SNR and CNR were higher (P < 0.001). Image noise was also lower and SNR and CNR higher in half-dose SAFIRE studies compared with full-and half-dose FBP studies (P < 0.001). IQ scores were higher for IRIS, full-dose SAFIRE and half-dose SAFIRE than for full-dose FBP and higher for half-dose SAFIRE than for half-dose FBP (P < 0.05). Median weight-specific ED was 0.3 mSv without and 1.36 mSv with ECG synchronisation. The estimated ED of half-dose SAFIRE studies was 0.68 mSv. IR improves image noise, SNR, CNR and subjective IQ compared with FBP in low-radiation-dose paediatric CTA and allows further dose reductions without compromising diagnostic IQ. (orig.)

  6. The effect of aging on atherosclerotic plaque inflammation and molecular calcification: A PET CT imaging study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Björn; Thomassen, Anders; Simonsen, Jane Angel;

    cardiovascular risk factors were prospectively assessed by 18F-FDG (inflammation) and sodium 18F-fluoride (18F-NaF) (molecular calcification) PET CT imaging. Global aortic uptake of 18F-FDG and 18F-NaF was determined semi-quantitatively by calculating the average blood pool corrected standardized uptake value (cSUV......) [Mean SUVAORTA - Mean SUVBLOOD POOL]. Furthermore, the average maximum 18F-NaF cSUV was determined in the coronary arteries. Calculating regression and correlation coefficients summarized the data. Results: A quadratic relationship was observed between aging and aortic 18F-FDG avidity. A second order...

  7. Molecular imaging in Libman-Sacks endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Anders; Schaadt, Bente K; Santoni-Rugiu, Eric; Bruun, Niels E

    2015-04-01

    We present a 54-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), fever, pericardial effusion and a mitral valve vegetation. (18)F-Fluorodesoxyglucose positron emission tomography CT ((18)F-FDG-PET-CT) showed very high accumulation of the isotope at the mitral valve. The patient underwent cardiothoracic surgery and pathologic examinations showed characteristic morphology of Libman-Sacks vegetations. All microbiological examinations including blood cultures, microscopy, culture and 16s PCR of the valve were negative and the diagnosis of Libman-Sacks endocarditis was convincing. It is difficult to distinguish Libman-Sacks endocarditis from culture-negative infective endocarditis (IE). Molecular imaging techniques are being used increasingly in cases of suspected IE but no studies have previously reported the use in patients with Libman-Sacks endocarditis. In the present case, (18)F-FDG-PET-CT clearly demonstrated the increased glucose uptake caused by infiltrating white blood cells in the ongoing inflammatory process at the mitral valve. In conclusion, (18)F-FDG-PET-CT cannot be used to distinguish between IE and non-infective Libman-Sacks vegetations.

  8. Molecular mechanisms underlying the role of nitric oxide in the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoclet, J C; Troncy, E; Muller, B; Brua, C; Kleschyov, A L

    1998-11-01

    In the cardiovascular system, nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the short and long-term regulation of haemodynamics, and in a number of their pathological alterations. Investigation into the biochemistry of NO-synthase isoforms has confirmed that they also all produce superoxide anion (O(*)). The free radical NO can interact with many targets on which novel information has been recently obtained. The major results of these interactions are not only the well known activation of guanylyl cyclase, but also the formation of potentially cytotoxic peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), and the formation of S-nitrosothiols and non-haem iron-dinitrosyl dithiolate complexes. Tissue O(2), O(*), low molecular weight thiols and transition metals (especially FeII) play a pivotal role in directing NO towards targets responsible for biological effects, or storage or release from these stores. In addition, circulating forms of NO have been proposed with S-nitrosation of blood proteins. All these mechanisms provide potential pharmacological targets for future therapeutic strategies. PMID:15991928

  9. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of HGF/Met in the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Simona; Sala, Valentina; Gatti, Stefano; Crepaldi, Tiziana

    2015-12-01

    Met tyrosine kinase receptor, also known as c-Met, is the HGF (hepatocyte growth factor) receptor. The HGF/Met pathway has a prominent role in cardiovascular remodelling after tissue injury. The present review provides a synopsis of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of HGF/Met in the heart and blood vessels. In vivo, HGF/Met function is particularly important for the protection of the heart in response to both acute and chronic insults, including ischaemic injury and doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Accordingly, conditional deletion of Met in cardiomyocytes results in impaired organ defence against oxidative stress. After ischaemic injury, activation of Met provides strong anti-apoptotic stimuli for cardiomyocytes through PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)/Akt and MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) cascades. Recently, we found that HGF/Met is also important for autophagy regulation in cardiomyocytes via the mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway. HGF/Met induces proliferation and migration of endothelial cells through Rac1 (Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1) activation. In fibroblasts, HGF/Met antagonizes the actions of TGFβ1 (transforming growth factor β1) and AngII (angiotensin II), thus preventing fibrosis. Moreover, HGF/Met influences the inflammatory response of macrophages and the immune response of dendritic cells, indicating its protective function against atherosclerotic and autoimmune diseases. The HGF/Met axis also plays an important role in regulating self-renewal and myocardial regeneration through the enhancement of cardiac progenitor cells. HGF/Met has beneficial effects against myocardial infarction and endothelial dysfunction: the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying repair function in the heart and blood vessels are common and include pro-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic actions. Thus administration of HGF or HGF mimetics may represent a promising therapeutic agent for the

  10. Functional and molecular image guidance in radiotherapy treatment planning optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shiva K; Ten Haken, Randall K

    2011-04-01

    Functional and molecular imaging techniques are increasingly being developed and used to quantitatively map the spatial distribution of parameters, such as metabolism, proliferation, hypoxia, perfusion, and ventilation, onto anatomically imaged normal organs and tumor. In radiotherapy optimization, these imaging modalities offer the promise of increased dose sparing to high-functioning subregions of normal organs or dose escalation to selected subregions of the tumor as well as the potential to adapt radiotherapy to functional changes that occur during the course of treatment. The practical use of functional/molecular imaging in radiotherapy optimization must take into cautious consideration several factors whose influences are still not clearly quantified or well understood including patient positioning differences between the planning computed tomography and functional/molecular imaging sessions, image reconstruction parameters and techniques, image registration, target/normal organ functional segmentation, the relationship governing the dose escalation/sparing warranted by the functional/molecular image intensity map, and radiotherapy-induced changes in the image intensity map over the course of treatment. The clinical benefit of functional/molecular image guidance in the form of improved local control or decreased normal organ toxicity has yet to be shown and awaits prospective clinical trials addressing this issue. PMID:21356479

  11. Molecular mechanisms explaining the possible effects of phenolic compounds on reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aubets-Fusté

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present review is to evaluate the possible association between phenolic compounds and cardiovascular disease, proposing that their regular consumption in Western diets could be beneficial for protecting patients against cardiovascular disease. An extensive research of scientific literature was performed in the following electronic specialized databases (PubMed central (PMC-NBCI, Elsevier Journal, Scielo Spain, Scirus, Science Direct, Web of Science, including studies in animals, cells, and humans, to establish the effect of polyphenols in the prevention and development of cardiovascular disease was conducted. The in vitro, animal and human studies show the potential ability of polyphenols to act against cardiovascular disease as a result of their antioxidant effect and vasodilatation and their capacity to improve lipid profile while reducing the concentration of low-density lipoproteins. Polyphenols consumption in Western diets could be beneficial for protecting patients against cardiovascular disease.

  12. Diagnosis and management of ischemic cardiomyopathy: Role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christina; Doesch; Theano; Papavassiliu

    2014-01-01

    Coronary artery disease(CAD) represents an important cause of mortality. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance(CMR) imaging evolved as an imaging modality that allows the assessment of myocardial function, perfusion, contractile reserve and extent of fibrosis in a single comprehensive exam. This review highlights the role of CMR in the differential diagnosis of acute chest pain by detecting the location of obstructive CAD or necrosis and identifying other conditions like stress cardiomyopathy or myocarditis that can present with acute chest pain. Besides, it underlines the prognostic implication of perfusion abnormalities in the setting of acute chest pain. Furthermore, the review addresses the role of CMR to detect significant CAD in patients with stable CAD. It elucidates the accuracy and clinical utility of CMR with respect to other imaging modalitieslike single-photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography. Besides, the prognostic value of CMR stress testing is discussed. Additionally, it summarizes the available CMR techniques to assess myocardial viability and describes algorithm to identify those patient who might profit from revascularization those who should be treated medically. Finally, future promising imaging techniques that will provide further insights into the fundamental disease processes in ischemic cardiomyopathy are discussed.

  13. Inversion of Strong Field Photoelectron Spectra for Molecular Orbital Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Puthumpally-Joseph, R; Peters, M; Nguyen-Dang, T T; Atabek, O; Charron, E

    2016-01-01

    Imaging structures at the molecular level is a fast developing interdisciplinary research field that spans across the boundaries of physics and chemistry. High spatial resolution images of molecules can be obtained with photons or ultrafast electrons. In addition, images of valence molecular orbitals can be extracted via tomographic techniques based on the coherent XUV radiation emitted by a molecular gas exposed to an intense ultra-short infrared laser pulse. In this paper, we demonstrate that similar information can be obtained by inverting energy resolved photoelectron spectra using a simplified analytical model.

  14. Alterations in vascular function in primary aldosteronism: a cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, P B; Boyle, S; Zimmerli, L U; McQuarrie, E P; Delles, C; Freel, E M

    2014-02-01

    Excess aldosterone is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Aldosterone has a permissive effect on vascular fibrosis. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) allows study of vascular function by measuring aortic distensibility. We compared aortic distensibility in primary aldosteronism (PA), essential hypertension (EH) and normal controls and explored the relationship between aortic distensibility and pulse wave velocity (PWV). We studied PA (n=14) and EH (n=33) subjects and age-matched healthy controls (n=17) with CMR, including measurement of aortic distensibility, and measured PWV using applanation tonometry. At recruitment, PA and EH patients had similar blood pressure and left ventricular mass. Subjects with PA had significantly lower aortic distensibility and higher PWV compared with EH and healthy controls. These changes were independent of other factors associated with reduced aortic distensibility, including ageing. There was a significant relationship between increasing aortic stiffness and age in keeping with physical and vascular ageing. As expected, aortic distensibility and PWV were closely correlated. These results demonstrate that PA patients display increased arterial stiffness compared with EH, independent of vascular ageing. The implication is that aldosterone invokes functional impairment of arterial function. The long-term implications of arterial stiffening in aldosterone excess require further study. PMID:23884211

  15. Designing an university-level module on molecular imaging chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Why do we need radiopharmacy, radiopharmacy, radiopharmacy training? In this post-genomic era, molecular imaging has gain tremendous interest not only amongst physicians but also from biologists, chemists, physicists, engineers, statisticians, pharmaceutical companies and even from governments. There is no doubt that nuclear medicine has been engaged in molecular medicine more than one decade ago. Positron emission tomography (PET) has reawaken interest in long forgotten radiopharmacy. Only major hospitals in the developed countries have invested in the development of dedicated radiopharmacy laboratory and training or recruitment of radiopharmacist. But PET has forced nuclear medicine to create a radiopharmacy unit and adopt radiopharmacy guidelines such as good radiopharmaceutical practice (GRPP) and good manufacturing practice (GMP). It is compounded by the fact that SPECT radiopharmaceutical chemistry has advanced significantly for both diagnostics and therapeutics, which calls for a high level of understanding on radiopharmaceutical chemistry and technical know-how. These factors eventually lead to introduction of tran ing program, courses and degree program. The most striking examples will be European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) radiopharmacy courses and a series of IAEA activities on GRPP, GMP and technologist training programs. Various forms of training or education program can be formulated for various levels, starting from basic radiopharmacy course to PhD program, depending on the following factors; (1) National interest and policies on bio/medical sector; (2) Size of the nuclear medicine community in the respective country; (3) Institution interest and policies; and (4) Existing infrastructure and programs. Current Radiopharmacy Education in Singapore: In Singapore, all of the major nuclear medicine centers are supervised by radiopharmacists with PhD degree. All of the nuclear medicine technologists in the major centers have got

  16. The Center for Integrated Molecular Brain Imaging (Cimbi) database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Gitte M.; Jensen, Peter S.; Erritzoe, David;

    2016-01-01

    We here describe a multimodality neuroimaging containing data from healthy volunteers and patients, acquired within the Lundbeck Foundation Center for Integrated Molecular Brain Imaging (Cimbi) in Copenhagen, Denmark. The data is of particular relevance for neurobiological research questions...

  17. Assessment of radiation dose in nuclear cardiovascular imaging using realistic computational models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Nuclear cardiology plays an important role in clinical assessment and has enormous impact on the management of a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Pediatric patients at different age groups are exposed to a spectrum of radiation dose levels and associated cancer risks different from those of adults in diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures. Therefore, comprehensive radiation dosimetry evaluations for commonly used myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and viability radiotracers in target population (children and adults) at different age groups are highly desired. Methods: Using Monte Carlo calculations and biological effects of ionizing radiation VII model, we calculate the S-values for a number of radionuclides (Tl-201, Tc-99m, I-123, C-11, N-13, O-15, F-18, and Rb-82) and estimate the absorbed dose and effective dose for 12 MPI radiotracers in computational models including the newborn, 1-, 5-, 10-, 15-yr-old, and adult male and female computational phantoms. Results: For most organs, 201Tl produces the highest absorbed dose whereas 82Rb and 15O-water produce the lowest absorbed dose. For the newborn baby and adult patient, the effective dose of 82Rb is 48% and 77% lower than that of 99mTc-tetrofosmin (rest), respectively. Conclusions: 82Rb results in lower effective dose in adults compared to 99mTc-labeled tracers. However, this advantage is less apparent in children. The produced dosimetric databases for various radiotracers used in cardiovascular imaging, using new generation of computational models, can be used for risk-benefit assessment of a spectrum of patient population in clinical nuclear cardiology practice

  18. Assessment of radiation dose in nuclear cardiovascular imaging using realistic computational models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Tianwu [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva 4 CH-1211 (Switzerland); Lee, Choonsik [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20852 (United States); Bolch, Wesley E. [Departments of Nuclear and Radiological and Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Zaidi, Habib, E-mail: habib.zaidi@hcuge.ch [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva 4 CH-1211 (Switzerland); Geneva Neuroscience Center, Geneva University, Geneva CH-1205 (Switzerland); Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen 9700 RB (Netherlands)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Nuclear cardiology plays an important role in clinical assessment and has enormous impact on the management of a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Pediatric patients at different age groups are exposed to a spectrum of radiation dose levels and associated cancer risks different from those of adults in diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures. Therefore, comprehensive radiation dosimetry evaluations for commonly used myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and viability radiotracers in target population (children and adults) at different age groups are highly desired. Methods: Using Monte Carlo calculations and biological effects of ionizing radiation VII model, we calculate the S-values for a number of radionuclides (Tl-201, Tc-99m, I-123, C-11, N-13, O-15, F-18, and Rb-82) and estimate the absorbed dose and effective dose for 12 MPI radiotracers in computational models including the newborn, 1-, 5-, 10-, 15-yr-old, and adult male and female computational phantoms. Results: For most organs, {sup 201}Tl produces the highest absorbed dose whereas {sup 82}Rb and {sup 15}O-water produce the lowest absorbed dose. For the newborn baby and adult patient, the effective dose of {sup 82}Rb is 48% and 77% lower than that of {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin (rest), respectively. Conclusions: {sup 82}Rb results in lower effective dose in adults compared to {sup 99m}Tc-labeled tracers. However, this advantage is less apparent in children. The produced dosimetric databases for various radiotracers used in cardiovascular imaging, using new generation of computational models, can be used for risk-benefit assessment of a spectrum of patient population in clinical nuclear cardiology practice.

  19. Review of cardiovascular imaging in the journal of nuclear cardiology in 2015. Part 1 of 2: Plaque imaging, positron emission tomography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlJaroudi, Wael A; Hage, Fadi G

    2016-02-01

    In 2015, many original articles pertaining to cardiovascular imaging with impressive quality were published in the Journal of Nuclear Cardiology. In a set of 2 articles, we provide an overview of these contributions to facilitate for the interested reader a quick review of the advancements that occurred in the field over this year. In this first article, we focus on arterial plaque imaging, cardiac positron emission tomography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:26542991

  20. Review of cardiovascular imaging in the journal of nuclear cardiology in 2015. Part 1 of 2: Plaque imaging, positron emission tomography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlJaroudi, Wael A; Hage, Fadi G

    2016-02-01

    In 2015, many original articles pertaining to cardiovascular imaging with impressive quality were published in the Journal of Nuclear Cardiology. In a set of 2 articles, we provide an overview of these contributions to facilitate for the interested reader a quick review of the advancements that occurred in the field over this year. In this first article, we focus on arterial plaque imaging, cardiac positron emission tomography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.

  1. Imaging the Breakdown of Molecular Frame Dynamics through Rotational Uncoupling

    CERN Document Server

    Zipp, Lucas J; Bucksbaum, Philip H

    2016-01-01

    We have observed directly in the time domain the uncoupling of electron motion from the molecular frame due to rotational-electronic coupling in a molecular Rydberg system. In contrast to Born- Oppenheimer dynamics, in which the electron is firmly fixed to the molecular frame, there exists a regime of molecular dynamics known as $l$-uncoupling where the motion of a non-penetrating Rydberg electron decouples from the instantaneous alignment of the molecular frame. We have imaged this unusual regime in time-dependent photoelectron angular distributions of a coherently prepared electron wave packet in the 4$f$ manifold of $N_2$.

  2. Cardiovascular imaging in the diagnosis and monitoring of cardiotoxicity: role of echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Concetta; Longobardo, Luca; Cadeddu, Christian; Monte, Ines; Novo, Giuseppina; Dell'Oglio, Sonia; Pepe, Alessia; Madonna, Rosalinda; Tocchetti, Carlo G; Mele, Donato

    2016-05-01

    The evaluation by cardiovascular imaging of chemotherapy patients became a central topic in the last several years. The use of drugs for the treatment of cancers increased, and new molecules and protocols were developed to improve outcomes in these patients. Although, these novel approaches also produced a progressive increase in side effects, particularly myocardial dysfunction. Imaging of the heart was highly accurate in the early diagnosis of cancer therapeutics related-cardiac dysfunction. Echocardiography is the first-line method to assess ventricular function alterations, and it is required to satisfy the need for an early, easy and accurate diagnosis to stratify the risk of heart failure and manage treatments. A careful monitoring of cardiac function during the course of therapy should prevent the onset of severe heart impairment. This review provides an overview of the most important findings of the role of echocardiography in the management of chemotherapy-treated patients to create a clear and complete description of the efficacy of conventional measurements, the importance of comprehensive heart evaluations, the additional role of new echocardiographic techniques, the utility of integrated studies using other imaging tools and the positions of the most important international societies on this topic. PMID:27183524

  3. Continuous-terahertz-wave molecular imaging system for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Liangliang; Wu, Tong; Wang, Ruixue; Zuo, Shasha; Wu, Dong; Zhang, Cunlin; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2016-07-01

    Molecular imaging techniques are becoming increasingly important in biomedical research and potentially in clinical practice. We present a continuous-terahertz (THz)-wave molecular imaging system for biomedical applications, in which an infrared (IR) laser is integrated into a 0.2-THz reflection-mode continuous-THz-wave imaging system to induce surface plasmon polaritons on the nanoparticles and further improve the intensity of the reflected signal from the water around the nanoparticles. A strong and rapid increment of the reflected THz signal in the nanoparticle solution upon the IR laser irradiation is demonstrated, using either gold or silver nanoparticles. This low-cost, simple, and stable continuous-THz-wave molecular imaging system is suitable for miniaturization and practical imaging applications; in particular, it shows great promise for cancer diagnosis and nanoparticle drug-delivery monitoring.

  4. Molecular imaging of HER2-positive breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capala, Jacek; Bouchelouche, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    HER2 overexpression is correlated with aggressive tumor behavior and poor clinical outcome. Therefore, HER2 has become an important prognostic and predictive factor, as well as a target for molecular therapies. The article reviews recent advances in molecular imaging of HER2 that could facilitate...... individual approaches to targeted therapy of HER2-positive breast cancers....

  5. Tight binding description of the STM image of molecular chains

    OpenAIRE

    Calev, Yoel; Cohen, Hezy; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio; Nitzan, Abraham; Porath, Danny

    2004-01-01

    A tight binding model for scanning tunneling microscopy images of a molecule adsorbed on a metal surface is described. The model is similar in spirit to that used to analyze conduction along molecular wires connecting two metal leads and makes it possible to relate these two measurements and the information that may be gleaned from the corresponding results. In particular, the dependence of molecular conduction properties along and across a molecular chain on the chain length, intersite elect...

  6. MRI Reporter Genes for Noninvasive Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Yang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is one of the most important imaging technologies used in clinical diagnosis. Reporter genes for MRI can be applied to accurately track the delivery of cell in cell therapy, evaluate the therapy effect of gene delivery, and monitor tissue/cell-specific microenvironments. Commonly used reporter genes for MRI usually include genes encoding the enzyme (e.g., tyrosinase and β-galactosidase, the receptor on the cells (e.g., transferrin receptor, and endogenous reporter genes (e.g., ferritin reporter gene. However, low sensitivity limits the application of MRI and reporter gene-based multimodal imaging strategies are common including optical imaging and radionuclide imaging. These can significantly improve diagnostic efficiency and accelerate the development of new therapies.

  7. A Data Mining Approach for Cardiovascular Disease Diagnosis Using Heart Rate Variability and Images of Carotid Arteries

    OpenAIRE

    Hyeongsoo Kim; Musa Ibrahim M. Ishag; Minghao Piao; Taeil Kwon; Keun Ho Ryu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we proposed not only an extraction methodology of multiple feature vectors from ultrasound images for carotid arteries (CAs) and heart rate variability (HRV) of electrocardiogram signal, but also a suitable and reliable prediction model useful in the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease (CVD). For inventing the multiple feature vectors, we extract a candidate feature vector through image processing and measurement of the thickness of carotid intima-media (IMT). As a complementar...

  8. Molecular imaging of plaques in coronary arteries with PET and SPECT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Hua SUN; Hairil Rashmizal; Lei XU

    2014-01-01

    Coronary artery disease remains a major cause of mortality. Presence of atherosclerotic plaques in the coronary artery is responsible for lu-men stenosis which is often used as an indicator for determining the severity of coronary artery disease. However, the degree of coronary lumen stenosis is not often related to compromising myocardial blood flow, as most of the cardiac events that are caused by atherosclerotic plaques are the result of vulnerable plaques which are prone to rupture. Thus, identification of vulnerable plaques in coronary arteries has become increas-ingly important to assist identify patients with high cardiovascular risks. Molecular imaging with use of positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has fulfilled this goal by providing functional information about plaque activity which enables accurate assessment of plaque stability. This review article provides an overview of diagnostic applications of molecular imaging tech-niques in the detection of plaques in coronary arteries with PET and SPECT. New radiopharmaceuticals used in the molecular imaging of coro-nary plaques and diagnostic applications of integrated PET/CT and PET/MRI in coronary plaques are also discussed.

  9. Functional and Molecular Image Guidance in Radiotherapy Treatment Planning Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Shiva K.; Ten Haken, Randall K.

    2011-01-01

    Functional and molecular imaging techniques are increasingly being developed and used to quantitatively map the spatial distribution of parameters such as metabolism, proliferation, hypoxia, perfusion and ventilation, among others, onto anatomically-imaged normal organs and tumor. In radiotherapy optimization, these imaging modalities offer the promise of increased dose sparing to high functioning subregions of normal organs or dose escalation to selected subregions of tumor, as well as the p...

  10. Molecular Imaging of Healing After Myocardial Infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Naresh, Nivedita K; Ben-Mordechai, Tamar; Leor, Jonathan; Epstein, Frederick H

    2011-01-01

    The progression from acute myocardial infarction (MI) to heart failure continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Potential new therapies for improved infarct healing such as stem cells, gene therapy, and tissue engineering are being investigated. Noninvasive imaging plays a central role in the evaluation of MI and infarct healing, both clinically and in preclinical research. Traditionally, imaging has been used to assess cardiac structure, function, perfusion, and viability. H...

  11. Novel approach to improve molecular imaging research: Correlation between macroscopic and molecular pathological findings in patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Ingrid, E-mail: i.boehm@uni-bonn.de [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, ZARF Project, Center for Molecular Imaging Research MBMB, Philipps University of Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35039 Marburg (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: Currently, clinical research approaches are sparse in molecular imaging studies. Moreover, possible links between imaging features and pathological laboratory parameters are unknown, so far. Therefore, the goal was to find a possible relationship between imaging features and peripheral blood cell apoptosis, and thereby to present a novel way to complement molecular imaging research. Materials and methods: The investigation has been done in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a prototype of an autoimmune disease characterized by multiorgan involvement, autoantibody production, and disturbed apoptosis. Retrospectively, radiological findings have been compared to both autoantibody findings and percentage apoptotic blood cells. Results: Two SLE groups could be identified: patients with normal (annexin V binding < 20%), and with increased apoptosis (annexin V binding > 20%) of peripheral blood cells. The frequency of radiological examinations in SLE patients significantly correlated with an increased percentage of apoptotic cells (p < 0.005). In patients with characteristic imaging findings (e.g. lymph node swelling, pleural effusion) an elevated percentage of apoptotic cells was present. In contrast SLE-patients with normal imaging findings or uncharacteristic results of minimal severity had normal percentages of apoptotic blood cells. Conclusion: This correlation between radiographic findings and percentage of apoptotic blood cells provides (1) further insight into pathological mechanisms of SLE, (2) will offer the possibility to introduce apoptotic biomarkers as molecular probes for clinical molecular imaging approaches in future to early diagnose organ complaints in patients with SLE, and (3) is a plea to complement molecular imaging research by this clinical approach.

  12. Explosive type of moderate-resistance training induces functional, cardiovascular, and molecular adaptations in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltran Valls, Maria Reyes; Dimauro, Ivan; Brunelli, Andrea;

    2014-01-01

    Current recommendations aimed at reducing neuromuscular and functional loss in aged muscle have identified muscle power as a key target for intervention trials, although little is known about the biological and cardiovascular systemic response in the elderly. This study investigated the effects...... of 12 weeks of low-frequency, moderate-intensity, explosive-type resistance training (EMRT) on muscle strength and power in old community-dwelling people (70-75 years), monitoring functional performance linked to daily living activities (ADL) and cardiovascular response, as well as biomarkers of muscle...

  13. Molecular imaging in neuroendocrine tumors : Molecular uptake mechanisms and clinical results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, Klaas P.; Neels, Oliver N.; Kema, Ido P.; Elsinga, Philip H.; Links, Thera P.; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; Jager, Pieter L.

    2009-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors can originate almost everywhere in the body and consist of a great variety of subtypes. This paper focuses on molecular imaging methods using nuclear medicine techniques in neuroendocrine tumors, coupling molecular uptake mechanisms of radiotracers with clinical results. A non-

  14. Position paper of the Cardiovascular Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) on PET imaging of atherosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death not only in Europe but also in the rest of the World. Preventive measures, however, often fail and cardiovascular disease may manifest as an acute coronary syndrome, stroke or even sudden death after years of silent progression. Thus, there is a considerable need for innovative diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to improve the quality of care and limit the burden of cardiovascular diseases. During the past 10 years, several retrospective and prospective clinical studies have been published using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to quantify inflammation in atherosclerotic plaques. However, the current variety of imaging protocols used for vascular (arterial) imaging with FDG PET considerably limits the ability to compare results between studies and to build large multicentre imaging registries. Based on the existing literature and the experience of the Members of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) Cardiovascular Committee, the objective of this position paper was to propose optimized and standardized protocols for imaging and interpretation of PET scans in atherosclerosis. These recommendations do not, however, replace the individual responsibility of healthcare professionals to make appropriate decisions in the circumstances of the individual study protocols used and the individual patient, in consultation with the patient and, where appropriate and necessary, the patient's guardian or carer. These recommendations suffer from the absence of conclusive evidence on many of the recommendations. Therefore, they are not intended and should not be used as ''strict guidelines'' but should, as already mentioned, provide a basis for standardized clinical atherosclerosis PET imaging protocols, which are subject to further and continuing evaluation and improvement. However, this EANM position paper might indeed be a first step towards &apos

  15. Position paper of the Cardiovascular Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) on PET imaging of atherosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucerius, Jan [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht (Netherlands); University Hospital RWTH Aachen, RWTH Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Maastricht University Medical Center (MUMC), Department of Nuclear Medicine and Cardiovascular Research Institute (CARIM), P. Debyelaan 25, HX, Maastricht (Netherlands); Hyafil, Fabien [Bichat University Hospital, Inserm 1148, DHU FIRE, Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Paris, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Paris (France); Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Verberne, Hein J. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Slart, Riemer H.J.A. [University of Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); University of Twente, Department of Biomedical Photonic Imaging, Faculty of Science and Technology, Enschede (Netherlands); Lindner, Oliver [Heart and Diabetes Center NRW, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Institute of Radiology, Bad Oeynhausen (Germany); Sciagra, Roberto [University of Florence, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences, Florence (Italy); Agostini, Denis [Normandie Universite, Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHU Cote de Nacre, Caen (France); Uebleis, Christopher [Ludwig-Maximilians Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Clinical Radiology, Muenchen (Germany); Gimelli, Alessia [Fondazione Toscana Gabriele Monasterio, Pisa (Italy); Hacker, Marcus [Medical University Vienna, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided therapy, Vienna (Austria); Collaboration: on behalf of the Cardiovascular Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM)

    2016-04-15

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death not only in Europe but also in the rest of the World. Preventive measures, however, often fail and cardiovascular disease may manifest as an acute coronary syndrome, stroke or even sudden death after years of silent progression. Thus, there is a considerable need for innovative diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to improve the quality of care and limit the burden of cardiovascular diseases. During the past 10 years, several retrospective and prospective clinical studies have been published using {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to quantify inflammation in atherosclerotic plaques. However, the current variety of imaging protocols used for vascular (arterial) imaging with FDG PET considerably limits the ability to compare results between studies and to build large multicentre imaging registries. Based on the existing literature and the experience of the Members of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) Cardiovascular Committee, the objective of this position paper was to propose optimized and standardized protocols for imaging and interpretation of PET scans in atherosclerosis. These recommendations do not, however, replace the individual responsibility of healthcare professionals to make appropriate decisions in the circumstances of the individual study protocols used and the individual patient, in consultation with the patient and, where appropriate and necessary, the patient's guardian or carer. These recommendations suffer from the absence of conclusive evidence on many of the recommendations. Therefore, they are not intended and should not be used as ''strict guidelines'' but should, as already mentioned, provide a basis for standardized clinical atherosclerosis PET imaging protocols, which are subject to further and continuing evaluation and improvement. However, this EANM position paper might indeed be a first step towards &apos

  16. Position paper of the Cardiovascular Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) on PET imaging of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucerius, Jan; Hyafil, Fabien; Verberne, Hein J; Slart, Riemer H J A; Lindner, Oliver; Sciagra, Roberto; Agostini, Denis; Übleis, Christopher; Gimelli, Alessia; Hacker, Marcus

    2016-04-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death not only in Europe but also in the rest of the World. Preventive measures, however, often fail and cardiovascular disease may manifest as an acute coronary syndrome, stroke or even sudden death after years of silent progression. Thus, there is a considerable need for innovative diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to improve the quality of care and limit the burden of cardiovascular diseases. During the past 10 years, several retrospective and prospective clinical studies have been published using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to quantify inflammation in atherosclerotic plaques. However, the current variety of imaging protocols used for vascular (arterial) imaging with FDG PET considerably limits the ability to compare results between studies and to build large multicentre imaging registries. Based on the existing literature and the experience of the Members of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) Cardiovascular Committee, the objective of this position paper was to propose optimized and standardized protocols for imaging and interpretation of PET scans in atherosclerosis. These recommendations do not, however, replace the individual responsibility of healthcare professionals to make appropriate decisions in the circumstances of the individual study protocols used and the individual patient, in consultation with the patient and, where appropriate and necessary, the patient's guardian or carer. These recommendations suffer from the absence of conclusive evidence on many of the recommendations. Therefore, they are not intended and should not be used as "strict guidelines" but should, as already mentioned, provide a basis for standardized clinical atherosclerosis PET imaging protocols, which are subject to further and continuing evaluation and improvement. However, this EANM position paper might indeed be a first step towards "official" guidelines on

  17. Molecular Imaging in Stem Cell Therapy for Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahuan Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury (SCI is a serious disease of the center nervous system (CNS. It is a devastating injury with sudden loss of motor, sensory, and autonomic function distal to the level of trauma and produces great personal and societal costs. Currently, there are no remarkable effective therapies for the treatment of SCI. Compared to traditional treatment methods, stem cell transplantation therapy holds potential for repair and functional plasticity after SCI. However, the mechanism of stem cell therapy for SCI remains largely unknown and obscure partly due to the lack of efficient stem cell trafficking methods. Molecular imaging technology including positron emission tomography (PET, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, optical imaging (i.e., bioluminescence imaging (BLI gives the hope to complete the knowledge concerning basic stem cell biology survival, migration, differentiation, and integration in real time when transplanted into damaged spinal cord. In this paper, we mainly review the molecular imaging technology in stem cell therapy for SCI.

  18. Multifunctional hydroxyapatite nanoparticles for drug delivery and multimodal molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is the most important constituent of biological tissues such as bone and teeth and exhibits several characteristic features. HAp nanoparticles (NPs) are good host materials and can be functionalized with various kinds of dopants and substrates. By endowing HAp NPs with desired properties in order to render them suitable for biomedical applications including cellular imaging, non-invasive and quantitative visualisation of molecular process occurring at cellular and subcellular levels becomes possible. Depending on their functional properties, HAp based nanoprobes can be divided into three classes, i.e., luminescent HAp NPs (for both down conversion and up conversion luminescence), magnetic HAp NPs, and luminomagnetic HAp NPs. Luminomagnetic HAp NPs are particularly attractive in terms of bimodal imaging and even multimodal imaging by virtue of their luminescence and magnetism. Functionalized HAp NPs are potential candidates for targeted drug delivery applications. This review (with 166 references) spotlights the cellular imaging applications of three types of HAp NPs. Specific sections cover aspects of molecular imaging and the various imaging modes, a comparison of the common types of nanoprobes for bioimaging, synthetic methods for making the various kinds of HAp NPs, followed by overviews on fluorescent NPs for bioimaging (such as quantum dots, gold nanoclusters, lanthanide-doped or fluorophore-doped NPs), magnetic HAp NPs for use in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), luminomagnetic HAp NPs for bimodal imaging, and sections on drug delivery as well as cellular imaging applications of HAp based nanoprobes (including targeted imaging). (author)

  19. Emerging applications of conjugated polymers in molecular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junwei; Liu, Jie; Wei, Chen-Wei; Liu, Bin; O'Donnell, Matthew; Gao, Xiaohu

    2013-10-28

    In recent years, conjugated polymers have attracted considerable attention from the imaging community as a new class of contrast agent due to their intriguing structural, chemical, and optical properties. Their size and emission wavelength tunability, brightness, photostability, and low toxicity have been demonstrated in a wide range of in vitro sensing and cellular imaging applications, and have just begun to show impact in in vivo settings. In this Perspective, we summarize recent advances in engineering conjugated polymers as imaging contrast agents, their emerging applications in molecular imaging (referred to as in vivo uses in this paper), as well as our perspectives on future research.

  20. Molecular imaging in myeloma precursor disease

    OpenAIRE

    Mena, E.; Choyke, P; Tan, E; Landgren, O; Kurdziel, K

    2011-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is consistently preceded by its pre-malignant states, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and/or smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM). By definition, precursor conditions do not exhibit end-organ disease (anemia, hypercalcemia, renal failure, skeletal lytic lesions, or a combination of these). However, new imaging methods are demonstrating that some patients in the MGUS or SNM category are exhibiting early signs of MM.

  1. Molecular Imaging of Breast Cancer: Present and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eAlcantara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Medical imaging technologies have undergone explosive growth over the past few decades and now play a central role in clinical oncology. But the truly transformative power of imaging in the clinical management of cancer patients lies ahead. Today, imaging is at a crossroads, with molecularly targeted imaging agents expected to broadly expand the capabilities of conventional anatomical imaging methods. Molecular imaging will allow clinicians to not only see where a tumour is located in the body, but also to visualize the expression and activity of specific molecules (e.g. proteases and protein kinases and biological processes (e.g. apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metastasis that influence tumour behavior and/or response to therapy. Breast cancer, the most common cancer among women and a research area where our group is actively involved, is a very heterogeneous disease with diverse patterns of development and response to treatment. Hence, molecular imaging is expected to have a major impact on this type of cancer, leading to important improvements in diagnosis, individualized treatment, and drug development, as well as our understanding of how breast cancer arises.

  2. Molecular Imaging of Breast Cancer: Present and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcantara, David; Pernia Leal, Manuel; Garcia, Irene; Garcia-Martin, Maria Luisa

    2014-12-01

    Medical imaging technologies have undergone explosive growth over the past few decades and now play a central role in clinical oncology. But the truly transformative power of imaging in the clinical management of cancer patients lies ahead. Today, imaging is at a crossroads, with molecularly targeted imaging agents expected to broadly expand the capabilities of conventional anatomical imaging methods. Molecular imaging will allow clinicians to not only see where a tumour is located in the body, but also to visualize the expression and activity of specific molecules (e.g. proteases and protein kinases) and biological processes (e.g. apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metastasis) that influence tumour behavior and/or response to therapy. Breast cancer, the most common cancer among women and a research area where our group is actively involved, is a very heterogeneous disease with diverse patterns of development and response to treatment. Hence, molecular imaging is expected to have a major impact on this type of cancer, leading to important improvements in diagnosis, individualized treatment, and drug development, as well as our understanding of how breast cancer arises.

  3. Molecular imaging with dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT) is a quantitative technique that employs rapid sequences of CT images after bolus administration of intravenous contrast material to measure a range of physiological processes related to the microvasculature of tissues. By combining knowledge of the molecular processes underlying changes in vascular physiology with an understanding of the relationship between vascular physiology and CT contrast enhancement, DCE-CT can be redefined as a molecular imaging technique. Some DCE-CT derived parameters reflect tissue hypoxia and can, therefore, provide information about the cellular microenvironment. DCE-CT can also depict physiological processes, such as vasodilatation, that represent the physiological consequences of molecular responses to tissue hypoxia. To date the main applications have been in stroke and oncology. Unlike some other molecular imaging approaches, DCE-CT benefits from wide availability and ease of application along with the use of contrast materials and software packages that have achieved full regulatory approval. Hence, DCE-CT represents a molecular imaging technique that is applicable in clinical practice today.

  4. Molecular Imaging: A Promising Tool to Monitor Islet Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Replacement of insulin production by pancreatic islet transplantation has great potential as a therapy for type 1 diabetes mellitus. At present, the lack of an effective approach to islet grafts assessment limits the success of this treatment. The development of molecular imaging techniques has the potential to fulfill the goal of real-time noninvasive monitoring of the functional status and viability of the islet grafts. We review the application of a variety of imaging modalities for detecting endogenous and transplanted beta-cell mass. The review also explores the various molecular imaging strategies for assessing islet delivery, the metabolic effects on the islet grafts as well as detection of immunorejection. Here, we highlight the use of combined imaging and therapeutic interventions in islet transplantation and the in vivo monitoring of stem cells differentiation into insulin-producing cells.

  5. Development of molecular imaging in the European radiological community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent and concomitant advances in molecular biology and imaging for diagnosis and therapy will place in vivo imaging techniques at the centre of their clinical transfer. Before that, a wide range of multidisciplinary preclinical research is already taking place. The involvement of radiologists in this new field of imaging sciences is therefore absolutely mandatory during these two phases of development. Achievement of such objectives requires the refinement of strategy within the European radiological community and the European Society of Radiology (ESR) will have to drive a number of actions to stimulate the younger generation of radiologists and to facilitate their access to knowledge. For that purpose, a molecular imaging (MI) subcommittee of the ESR Research Committee based on a group of involved radiologists will be constituted to develop contacts with other constitutive committees and associated societies to provide proposals to our community. (orig.)

  6. Utilizing Systems Genetics Approaches to Identify Novel Molecular Mechanisms in Cardiovascular Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Romay, Milagros De La Caridad

    2016-01-01

    Despite the success of focused, reductionist approaches in characterizing the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), current estimates predict that 24 million deaths annually will be due to CVDs by 2030. Emphasizing the use of genetic variation in combination with mathematical modeling and integration of next generation –omics profiling technologies, systems genetics characterizes the flow of biological information in physiologic and pathologic states to allow investigators to und...

  7. Potential Role of Polyphenols in the Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases: Molecular Bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormaz, Juan Guillermo; Valls, Nicolas; Sotomayor, Camilo; Turner, Thomas; Rodrigo, Ramón

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. It is widely accepted that oxidative stress plays a key role in their development and progression; hence oxidative damage might be abrogated by antioxidants. Polyphenols are phytochemicals showing extensively studied antioxidant properties in-vivo. Most representative sources of these compounds include fruits, greens, nuts, herbs, cocoa, tea and coffee. Epidemiological evidence suggests an association between the consumption of polyphenol-rich vegetables and the reduction of cardiovascular disease prevalence. This fact could be related to the anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic and vasodilatory effects of polyphenols. Even though these biological effects could be mainly attributed to the antioxidant activity of polyphenols, other pharmacological mechanisms should also be considered. The latter could comprise direct anti-inflammatory effects, modulation of intracellular signaling and gene expression, improvement of nitric oxide homeostasis, as well as platelet antiaggregation. However, it is noticeable that protocols of interventions to evaluate the properties of polyphenols have failed to show the same positive results reported from observational studies. At present, a controversy exists regarding the actual effectiveness of polyphenols in preventing cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, an improvement of the available knowledge about polyphenol pharmacokinetics, together with a better understanding of the mechanisms of action of these compounds, could be of great benefit. Thus, a rational support for the development of interventional designs could provide reliable evidence on the actual role of polyphenols in CVD prevention.

  8. Potential Role of Polyphenols in the Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases: Molecular Bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormaz, Juan Guillermo; Valls, Nicolas; Sotomayor, Camilo; Turner, Thomas; Rodrigo, Ramón

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. It is widely accepted that oxidative stress plays a key role in their development and progression; hence oxidative damage might be abrogated by antioxidants. Polyphenols are phytochemicals showing extensively studied antioxidant properties in-vivo. Most representative sources of these compounds include fruits, greens, nuts, herbs, cocoa, tea and coffee. Epidemiological evidence suggests an association between the consumption of polyphenol-rich vegetables and the reduction of cardiovascular disease prevalence. This fact could be related to the anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic and vasodilatory effects of polyphenols. Even though these biological effects could be mainly attributed to the antioxidant activity of polyphenols, other pharmacological mechanisms should also be considered. The latter could comprise direct anti-inflammatory effects, modulation of intracellular signaling and gene expression, improvement of nitric oxide homeostasis, as well as platelet antiaggregation. However, it is noticeable that protocols of interventions to evaluate the properties of polyphenols have failed to show the same positive results reported from observational studies. At present, a controversy exists regarding the actual effectiveness of polyphenols in preventing cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, an improvement of the available knowledge about polyphenol pharmacokinetics, together with a better understanding of the mechanisms of action of these compounds, could be of great benefit. Thus, a rational support for the development of interventional designs could provide reliable evidence on the actual role of polyphenols in CVD prevention. PMID:26630919

  9. Molecular imaging of vessels in mouse models of disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vascular imaging of angiogenesis in mouse models of disease requires multi modal imaging hardware capable of targeting both structure and function at different physical scales. The three dimensional (3D) structure and function vascular information allows for accurate differentiation between biological processes. For example, image analysis of vessel development in angiogenesis vs. arteriogenesis enables more accurate detection of biological variation between subjects and more robust and reliable diagnosis of disease. In the recent years a number of micro imaging modalities have emerged in the field as preferred means for this purpose. They provide 3D volumetric data suitable for analysis, quantification, validation, and visualization of results in animal models. This review highlights the capabilities of microCT, ultrasound and microPET for multimodal imaging of angiogenesis and molecular vascular targets in a mouse model of tumor angiogenesis. The basic principles of the imaging modalities are described and experimental results are presented.

  10. Gadolinium-containing phosphatidylserine liposomes for molecular imaging of atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Maiseyeu, Andrei; Mihai, Georgeta; Kampfrath, Thomas; Simonetti, Orlando P.; Sen, Chandan K.; Roy, Sashwati; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Parthasarathy, Sampath

    2009-01-01

    Exteriorized phosphatidylserine (PS) residues in apoptotic cells trigger rapid phagocytosis by macrophage scavenger receptor pathways. Mimicking apoptosis with liposomes containing PS may represent an attractive approach for molecular imaging of atherosclerosis. We investigated the utility of paramagnetic gadolinium liposomes enriched with PS (Gd-PS) in imaging atherosclerotic plaque. Gd-PS-containing Gd-conjugated lipids, fluorescent rhodamine, and PS were prepared and characterized. Cellula...

  11. Molecular sources of residual cardiovascular risk, clinical signals, and innovative solutions: relationship with subclinical disease, undertreatment, and poor adherence: implications of new evidence upon optimizing cardiovascular patient outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kones R

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Richard KonesCardiometabolic Research Institute, Houston, TX, USAAbstract: Residual risk, the ongoing appreciable risk of major cardiovascular events (MCVE in statin-treated patients who have achieved evidence-based lipid goals, remains a concern among cardiologists. Factors that contribute to this continuing risk are atherogenic non-low-density lipoprotein (LDL particles and atherogenic processes unrelated to LDL cholesterol, including other risk factors, the inherent properties of statin drugs, and patient characteristics, ie, genetics and behaviors. In addition, providers, health care systems, the community, public policies, and the environment play a role. Major statin studies suggest an average 28% reduction in LDL cholesterol and a 31% reduction in relative risk, leaving a residual risk of about 69%. Incomplete reductions in risk, and failure to improve conditions that create risk, may result in ongoing progression of atherosclerosis, with new and recurring lesions in original and distant culprit sites, remodeling, arrhythmias, rehospitalizations, invasive procedures, and terminal disability. As a result, identification of additional agents to reduce residual risk, particularly administered together with statin drugs, has been an ongoing quest. The current model of atherosclerosis involves many steps during which disease may progress independently of guideline-defined elevations in LDL cholesterol. Differences in genetic responsiveness to statin therapy, differences in ability of the endothelium to regenerate and repair, and differences in susceptibility to nonlipid risk factors, such as tobacco smoking, hypertension, and molecular changes associated with obesity and diabetes, may all create residual risk. A large number of inflammatory and metabolic processes may also provide eventual therapeutic targets to lower residual risk. Classically, epidemiologic and other evidence suggested that raising high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol

  12. Molecular Imaging of Conscious, Unrestrained Mice with AwakeSPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, Justin S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Endres, Christopher J. [Johns Hopkins, Baltimore; Foss, Catherine A. [Johns Hopkins, Baltimore; Nimmagadda, Sridhar [Johns Hopkins, Baltimore; Jung, Hyeyun [Johns Hopkins, Baltimore; Goddard, James S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Lee, Seung Joon [JLAB; McKisson, John [JLAB; Smith, Mark F. [University of Maryland; Stolin, Alexander V. [West Virginia University; Weisenberger, Andrew G. [JLAB; Pomper, Martin G. [Johns Hopkins, Baltimore

    2013-06-01

    We have developed a SPECT imaging system, AwakeSPECT, to enable molecular brain imaging of untrained mice that are conscious, unanesthetized, and unrestrained. We accomplished this with head tracking and motion correction techniques. Methods: The capability of the system for motion-corrected imaging was demonstrated with a ^99mTc-pertechnetate phantom, ^99mTc-methylene diphosphonate bone imaging, and measurement of the binding potential of the dopamine transporter radioligand ^123I-ioflupane in mouse brain in the awake and anesthetized (isoflurane) states. Stress induced by imaging in the awake state was assessed through measurement of plasma corticosterone levels. Results: AwakeSPECT provided high-resolution bone images reminiscent of those obtained from CT. The binding potential of ^123I-ioflupane in the awake state was on the order of 50% of that obtained with the animal under anesthesia, consistent with previous studies in nonhuman primates. Levels of stress induced were on the order of those seen in other behavioral tasks and imaging studies of awake animals. Conclusion: These results demonstrate the feasibility of SPECT molecular brain imaging of mice in the conscious, unrestrained state and demonstrate the effects of isoflurane anesthesia on radiotracer uptake.

  13. Molecular Imaging of Conscious, Unrestrained Mice with AwakeSPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, Justin S [ORNL; Endres, Christopher [Johns Hopkins University; Foss, Catherine [Johns Hopkins University; Nimmagadda, Sridhar [Johns Hopkins University; Jung, Hyeyun [Johns Hopkins University; Goddard Jr, James Samuel [ORNL; Lee, Seung Joon [Jefferson Lab; McKisson, John [Jefferson Lab; Smith, Mark F. [University of Maryland School of Medicine, The, Baltimore, MD; Stolin, Alexander [West Virginia University, Morgantown; Weisenberger, Andrew G. [Jefferson Lab; Pomper, Martin [Johns Hopkins University

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a SPECT imaging system, AwakeSPECT, to enable molecular brain imaging of untrained mice that are conscious, unanesthetized, and unrestrained. We accomplished this with head tracking and motion correction techniques. Methods: The capability of the system for motion-corrected imaging was demonstrated with a 99mTc-pertechnetate phantom, 99mTcmethylene diphosphonate bone imaging, and measurement of the binding potential of the dopamine transporter radioligand 123I-ioflupane in mouse brain in the awake and anesthetized (isoflurane) states. Stress induced by imaging in the awake state was assessed through measurement of plasma corticosterone levels. Results: AwakeSPECT provided high-resolution bone images reminiscent of those obtained from CT. The binding potential of 123I-ioflupane in the awake state was on the order of 50% of that obtained with the animal under anesthesia, consistent with previous studies in nonhuman primates. Levels of stress induced were on the order of those seen in other behavioral tasks and imaging studies of awake animals. Conclusion: These results demonstrate the feasibility of SPECT molecular brain imaging of mice in the conscious, unrestrained state and demonstrate the effects of isoflurane anesthesia on radiotracer uptake.

  14. Molecular Imaging of Conscious, Unrestrained Mice with AwakeSPECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Justin S.; Endres, Christopher J.; Foss, Catherine A.; Nimmagadda, Sridhar; Jung, Hyeyun; Goddard, James S.; Lee, Seungjoon; McKisson, John; Smith, Mark F.; Stolin, Alexander V.; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Pomper, Martin G.

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a SPECT imaging system, AwakeSPECT, to enable molecular brain imaging of untrained mice that are conscious, unanesthetized, and unrestrained. We accomplished this with head tracking and motion correction techniques. Methods: The capability of the system for motion-corrected imaging was demonstrated with a 99mTc-pertechnetate phantom, 99mTcmethylene diphosphonate bone imaging, and measurement of the binding potential of the dopamine transporter radioligand 123I-ioflupane in mouse brain in the awake and anesthetized (isoflurane) states. Stress induced by imaging in the awake state was assessed through measurement of plasma corticosterone levels. Results: AwakeSPECT provided high-resolution bone images reminiscent of those obtained from CT. The binding potential of 123I-ioflupane in the awake state was on the order of 50% of that obtained with the animal under anesthesia, consistent with previous studies in nonhuman primates. Levels of stress induced were on the order of those seen in other behavioral tasks and imaging studies of awake animals. Conclusion: These results demonstrate the feasibility of SPECT molecular brain imaging of mice in the conscious, unrestrained state and demonstrate the effects of isoflurane anesthesia on radiotracer uptake. PMID:23536223

  15. Bench to bedside molecular functional imaging in translational cancer medicine: to image or to imagine?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ongoing research on malignant and normal cell biology has substantially enhanced the understanding of the biology of cancer and carcinogenesis. This has led to the development of methods to image the evolution of cancer, target specific biological molecules, and study the anti-tumour effects of novel therapeutic agents. At the same time, there has been a paradigm shift in the field of oncological imaging from purely structural or functional imaging to combined multimodal structure–function approaches that enable the assessment of malignancy from all aspects (including molecular and functional level) in a single examination. The evolving molecular functional imaging using specific molecular targets (especially with combined positron-emission tomography [PET] computed tomography [CT] using 2- [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose [FDG] and other novel PET tracers) has great potential in translational research, giving specific quantitative information with regard to tumour activity, and has been of pivotal importance in diagnoses and therapy tailoring. Furthermore, molecular functional imaging has taken a key place in the present era of translational cancer research, producing an important tool to study and evolve newer receptor-targeted therapies, gene therapies, and in cancer stem cell research, which could form the basis to translate these agents into clinical practice, popularly termed “theranostics”. Targeted molecular imaging needs to be developed in close association with biotechnology, information technology, and basic translational scientists for its best utility. This article reviews the current role of molecular functional imaging as one of the main pillars of translational research. -- Highlights: •Molecular functional imaging (MFI) gives insight into the tumor biology and intratumoral heterogeneity. •It has potential role in identifying radiomic signatures associated with underlying gene-expression. •Radiomics can be used to create a road map

  16. Molecular imaging of rheumatoid arthritis by radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies: new imaging strategies to guide molecular therapies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malviya, G.; Dierckx, R.A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen (Netherlands); Conti, F. [Rheumatology Unit, I Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy); Chianelli, M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen (Netherlands); Unit of Nuclear Medicine, Regina apostolorum Hospital, Albano, Rome (Italy); Scopinaro, F. [Nuclear Medicine Department, Sapienza University of Rome, St. Andrea Hospital, Rome (Italy); Signore, A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen (Netherlands); Nuclear Medicine Department, Sapienza University of Rome, St. Andrea Hospital, Rome (Italy)

    2010-02-15

    The closing of the last century opened a wide variety of approaches for inflammation imaging and treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The introduction of biological therapies for the management of RA started a revolution in the therapeutic armamentarium with the development of several novel monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), which can be murine, chimeric, humanised and fully human antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies specifically bind to their target, which could be adhesion molecules, activation markers, antigens or receptors, to interfere with specific inflammation pathways at the molecular level, leading to immune-modulation of the underlying pathogenic process. These new generation of mAbs can also be radiolabelled by using direct or indirect method, with a variety of nuclides, depending upon the specific diagnostic application. For studying rheumatoid arthritis patients, several monoclonal antibodies and their fragments, including anti-TNF-{alpha}, anti-CD20, anti-CD3, anti-CD4 and anti-E-selectin antibody, have been radiolabelled mainly with {sup 99m}Tc or {sup 111}In. Scintigraphy with these radiolabelled antibodies may offer an exciting possibility for the study of RA patients and holds two types of information: (1) it allows better staging of the disease and diagnosis of the state of activity by early detection of inflamed joints that might be difficult to assess; (2) it might provide a possibility to perform 'evidence-based biological therapy' of arthritis with a view to assessing whether an antibody will localise in an inflamed joint before using the same unlabelled antibody therapeutically. This might prove particularly important for the selection of patients to be treated since biological therapies can be associated with severe side-effects and are considerably expensive. This article reviews the use of radiolabelled mAbs in the study of RA with particular emphasis on the use of different radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies for

  17. Novel high resolution SPECT instrumentation and techniques for molecular imaging of small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of the project is the development and tuning of an advanced detector system for molecular imaging with radionuclides on small animal. The equipment has sub-millimeter spatial resolution, adequate sensitivity and field of view, It is designed for studies, on animal models, of diagnostic and/or therapeutic techniques in cardiovascular diseases, such as detection and identification of vulnerable plaques in atherosclerosis and stem cell therapy for cardiac repair. The present activities is carried on in collaboration with groups from Johns Hopkins University (Baltimore), Jefferson Lab (Newport News), Istituto Nazionale Fisica Nucleare (INFN) and ISS (Dept. Technology and Health and Dept. Therapeutic Research and Medicines Evaluation). The main results of the last two years are summarized as follows: development of the SPECT system prototype; set up of the technique for vulnerable plaques detection;demonstration of detectability of the cardiac perfusion via peritoneum injection of the radiotracer

  18. Exogenous Molecular Probes for Targeted Imaging in Cancer: Focus on Multi-modal Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Bishnu P. [Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of Michigan, School of Medicine, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, BSRB 1722, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Wang, Thomas D., E-mail: thomaswa@umich.edu [Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of Michigan, School of Medicine, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, BSRB 1722, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2010-06-11

    Cancer is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in our healthcare system. Molecular imaging is an emerging methodology for the early detection of cancer, guidance of therapy, and monitoring of response. The development of new instruments and exogenous molecular probes that can be labeled for multi-modality imaging is critical to this process. Today, molecular imaging is at a crossroad, and new targeted imaging agents are expected to broadly expand our ability to detect and manage cancer. This integrated imaging strategy will permit clinicians to not only localize lesions within the body but also to manage their therapy by visualizing the expression and activity of specific molecules. This information is expected to have a major impact on drug development and understanding of basic cancer biology. At this time, a number of molecular probes have been developed by conjugating various labels to affinity ligands for targeting in different imaging modalities. This review will describe the current status of exogenous molecular probes for optical, scintigraphic, MRI and ultrasound imaging platforms. Furthermore, we will also shed light on how these techniques can be used synergistically in multi-modal platforms and how these techniques are being employed in current research.

  19. Immunophenotyping invasive breast cancer: paving the road for molecular imaging.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, J.F.; Brussel, A.S. van; Groep, P. van der; Morsink, F.H.; Bult, P.; Wall, E. van der; Diest, P.J. van

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Mammographic population screening in The Netherlands has increased the number of breast cancer patients with small and non-palpable breast tumors. Nevertheless, mammography is not ultimately sensitive and specific for distinct subtypes. Molecular imaging with targeted tracers m

  20. Multi-modality systems for molecular tomographic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingze; Bai, Jing

    2009-11-01

    In vivo small animal imaging is a cornerstone in the study of human diseases by providing important clues on the pathogenesis, progression and treatment of many disorders. Molecular tomographic imaging can probe complex biologic interactions dynamically and to study diseases and treatment responses over time in the same animal. Current imaging technique including microCT, microMRI, microPET, microSPECT, microUS, BLT and FMT has its own advantages and applications, however, none of them can provide structural, functional and molecular information in one context. Multi-modality imaging, which utilizes the strengths of different modalities to provide a complete understanding of the object under investigation, emerges as an important alternative in small animal imaging. This article is to introduce the latest development of multimodality systems for small animal tomographic imaging. After a systematic review of imaging principles, systems and commerical products for each stand-alone method, we introduce some multimodality strategies in the latest years. In particular, two dual-modality systems, i.e. FMT-CT and FMT-PET are presented in detail. The end of this article concludes that though most multimodality systems are still in a laboratory research stage, they will surely undergo deep development and wide application in the near future.

  1. Molecular imaging of apoptosis: from micro to macro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wenbin; Wang, Xiaobo; Xu, Pengfei; Liu, Gang; Eden, Henry S; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is involved in numerous human conditions including neurodegenerative diseases, ischemic damage, autoimmune disorders and many types of cancer, and is often confused with other types of cell death. Therefore strategies that enable visualized detection of apoptosis would be of enormous benefit in the clinic for diagnosis, patient management, and development of new therapies. In recent years, improved understanding of the apoptotic machinery and progress in imaging modalities have provided opportunities for researchers to formulate microscopic and macroscopic imaging strategies based on well-defined molecular markers and/or physiological features. Correspondingly, a large collection of apoptosis imaging probes and approaches have been documented in preclinical and clinical studies. In this review, we mainly discuss microscopic imaging assays and macroscopic imaging probes, ranging in complexity from simple attachments of reporter moieties to proteins that interact with apoptotic biomarkers, to rationally designed probes that target biochemical changes. Their clinical translation will also be our focus.

  2. Low-Noise CMOS Image Sensors for Radio-Molecular Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis presents the development of low-noise CMOS image sensors for radio-molecular imaging. The development is described in two directions: firstly, from the technology point of view to reduce the pixel noise level, and secondly from the design point of view to reduce the pixel readout circuit

  3. PET molecular imaging in stem cell therapy for neurological diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, spinal cord injury and multiple sclerosis are caused by loss of different types of neurons and glial cells in the brain and spinal cord. At present, there are no effective therapies against these disorders. Discovery of the therapeutic potential of stem cells offers new strategies for the treatment of neurological diseases. Direct assessment of stem cells' survival, interaction with the host and impact on neuronal functions after transplantation requires advanced in vivo imaging techniques. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a potential molecular imaging modality to evaluate the viability and function of transplanted tissue or stem cells in the nervous system. This review focuses on PET molecular imaging in stem cell therapy for neurological diseases. (orig.)

  4. PET molecular imaging in stem cell therapy for neurological diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jiachuan; Zhang, Hong [Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Zhejiang University, Medical PET Center, Hangzhou (China); Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Imaging of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou (China); Tian, Mei [University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Experimental Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Human neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, spinal cord injury and multiple sclerosis are caused by loss of different types of neurons and glial cells in the brain and spinal cord. At present, there are no effective therapies against these disorders. Discovery of the therapeutic potential of stem cells offers new strategies for the treatment of neurological diseases. Direct assessment of stem cells' survival, interaction with the host and impact on neuronal functions after transplantation requires advanced in vivo imaging techniques. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a potential molecular imaging modality to evaluate the viability and function of transplanted tissue or stem cells in the nervous system. This review focuses on PET molecular imaging in stem cell therapy for neurological diseases. (orig.)

  5. Imaging of Isotopically Enhanced Molecular Targeting Agents Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quong, J N

    2004-02-19

    The goal of this project is to develop experimental and computational protocols to use SIMS to image the chemical composition of biological samples, focusing on optimizing sample preparation protocols and developing multivariate data analysis methods. Our results on sample preparation, molecular imaging, and multivariate analysis have been presented at several meeting abstracts (UCRL151797ABS, UCRL151797ABSREV1, UCRL151426ABS, UCRL201277, UCRL154757). A refereed paper describing our results for sample preparation and molecular imaging of various endogenous biomolecules as well as the mutagen PhIP has been accepted for publication (UCRL-JC-151797). We are also preparing two additional papers describing our multivariate analysis methods to analyze spectral data. As these papers have not been submitted, their content is included in this final report.

  6. The Utility of Molecular Imaging in Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiblich, Aaron; Stevens, Daniel; Sooriakumaran, Prasanna

    2016-03-01

    Prostate cancer is the commonest solid-organ cancer diagnosed in males and represents an important source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Imaging plays a crucial role in diagnosing prostate cancer and informs the ongoing management of the disease at all stages. Several novel molecular imaging technologies have been developed recently that have the potential to revolutionise disease diagnosis and the surveillance of patients living with prostate cancer. These innovations include hyperpolarised MRI, choline PET/CT and PSMA PET/CT. The major utility of choline and PSMA PET/CT currently lies in their sensitivity for detecting early recurrence after radical treatment for prostate cancer and identifying discrete lesions that may be amenable to salvage therapy. Molecular imaging is likely to play a future role in characterising genetic and biochemical signatures in individual tumours, which may be of particular significance as cancer therapies move into an era of precision medicine. PMID:26894753

  7. Left ventricular thrombus formation after acute myocardial infarction as assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delewi, Ronak [Department of Cardiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands (Netherlands); Nijveldt, Robin [Department of Cardiology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hirsch, Alexander [Department of Cardiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Marcu, Constantin B.; Robbers, Lourens [Department of Cardiology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hassell, Marriela E.C.J.; Bruin, Rianne H.A. de; Vleugels, Jim; Laan, Anja M. van der; Bouma, Berto J. [Department of Cardiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tio, René A. [Thorax Center, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Tijssen, Jan G.P. [Department of Cardiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rossum, Albert C. van [Department of Cardiology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Zijlstra, Felix [Thorax Center, Department of Cardiology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Piek, Jan J., E-mail: j.j.piek@amc.uva.nl [Department of Cardiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-12-15

    Introduction: Left ventricular (LV) thrombus formation is a feared complication of myocardial infarction (MI). We assessed the prevalence of LV thrombus in ST-segment elevated MI patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and compared the diagnostic accuracy of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) to cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). Also, we evaluated the course of LV thrombi in the modern era of primary PCI. Methods: 200 patients with primary PCI underwent TTE and CMR, at baseline and at 4 months follow-up. Studies were analyzed by two blinded examiners. Patients were seen at 1, 4, 12, and 24 months for assessment of clinical status and adverse events. Results: On CMR at baseline, a thrombus was found in 17 of 194 (8.8%) patients. LV thrombus resolution occurred in 15 patients. Two patients had persistence of LV thrombus on follow-up CMR. On CMR at four months, a thrombus was found in an additional 12 patients. In multivariate analysis, thrombus formation on baseline CMR was independently associated with, baseline infarct size (g) (B = 0.02, SE = 0.02, p < 0.001). Routine TTE had a sensitivity of 21–24% and a specificity of 95–98% compared to CMR for the detection of LV thrombi. Intra- and interobserver variation for detection of LV thrombus were lower for CMR (κ = 0.91 and κ = 0.96) compared to TTE (κ = 0.74 and κ = 0.53). Conclusion: LV thrombus still occurs in a substantial amount of patients after PCI-treated MI, especially in larger infarct sizes. Routine TTE had a low sensitivity for the detection of LV thrombi and the interobserver variation of TTE was large.

  8. Cardiac remodeling following percutaneous mitral valve repair. Initial results assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radunski, U.K [University Heart Center, Hamburg (Germany). Cardiology; Franzen, O. [Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark). Cardiology; Barmeyer, A. [Klinikum Dortmund (Germany). Kardiologie; and others

    2014-10-15

    Percutaneous mitral valve repair with the MitraClip device (Abbott Vascular, Redwood City, California, USA) is a novel therapeutic option in patients with mitral regurgitation. This study evaluated the feasibility of cardiac volume measurements by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) to assess reverse myocardial remodeling in patients after MitraClip implantation. 12 patients underwent CMR at baseline (BL) before and at 6 months follow-up (FU) after MitraClip implantation. Cine-CMR was performed in short- and long-axes for the assessment of left ventricular (LV), right ventricular (RV) and left atrial (LA) volumes. Assessment of endocardial contours was not compromised by the device-related artifact. No significant differences in observer variances were observed for LV, RV and LA volume measurements between BL and FU. LV end-diastolic (median 127 [IQR 96-150] vs. 112 [86-150] ml/m{sup 2}; p=0.03) and LV end-systolic (82 [54-91] vs. 69 [48-99] ml/m{sup 2}; p=0.03) volume indices decreased significantly from BL to FU. No significant differences were found for RV end-diastolic (94 [75-103] vs. 99 [77-123] ml/m{sup 2}; p=0.91), RV end-systolic (48 [42-80] vs. 51 [40-81] ml/m{sup 2}; p=0.48), and LA (87 [55-124] vs. 92 [48-137]R ml/m{sup 2}; p=0.20) volume indices between BL and FU. CMR enables the assessment of cardiac volumes in patients after MitraClip implantation. Our CMR findings indicate that percutaneous mitral valve repair results in reverse LV but not in RV or LA remodeling.

  9. Molecular Analysis of Oral Bacteria in Heart Valve of Patients With Cardiovascular Disease by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Francisco Artur Forte; Forte, Clarissa Pessoa Fernandes; Silva, Paulo Goberlânio de Barros; Lopes, Camile B; Montenegro, Raquel Carvalho; Santos, Ândrea Kely Campos Ribeiro Dos; Sobrinho, Carlos Roberto Martins Rodrigues; Mota, Mário Rogério Lima; Sousa, Fabrício Bitu; Alves, Ana Paula Negreiros Nunes

    2015-11-01

    Structural deficiencies and functional abnormalities of heart valves represent an important cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and a number of diseases, such as aortic stenosis, have been recently associated with infectious agents. This study aimed to analyze oral bacteria in dental plaque, saliva, and cardiac valves of patients with cardiovascular disease. Samples of supragingival plaque, subgingival plaque, saliva, and cardiac valve tissue were collected from 42 patients with heart valve disease. Molecular analysis of Streptococcus mutans, Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Treponema denticola was performed through real-time PCR. The micro-organism most frequently detected in heart valve samples was the S. mutans (89.3%), followed by P. intermedia (19.1%), P. gingivalis (4.2%), and T. denticola (2.1%). The mean decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) was 26.4 ± 6.9 (mean ± SD), and according to the highest score of periodontal disease observed for each patient, periodontal pockets > 4 mm and dental calculus were detected in 43.4% and 34.7% of patients, respectively. In conclusion, oral bacteria, especially S. mutans, were found in the cardiac valve samples of patients with a high rate of caries and gingivitis/periodontitis. PMID:26632711

  10. Molecular imaging of brown adipose tissue in health and disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauwens, Matthias [MUMC, Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University, Research School NUTRIM, Maastricht (Netherlands); Wierts, Roel; Brans, Boudewijn [MUMC, Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Royen, Bart van; Backes, Walter [MUMC, Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Radiology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Bucerius, Jan [MUMC, Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Uniklinikum Aachen, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Maastricht University, Research School CARIM, Maastricht (Netherlands); Mottaghy, Felix [MUMC, Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Uniklinikum Aachen, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has transformed from an interfering tissue in oncological {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to an independent imaging research field. This review takes the perspective from the imaging methodology on which human BAT research has come to rely on heavily. This review analyses relevant PubMed-indexed publications that discuss molecular imaging methods of BAT. In addition, reported links between BAT and human diseases such as obesity are discussed, and the possibilities for imaging in these fields are highlighted. Radiopharmaceuticals aiming at several different biological mechanisms of BAT are discussed and evaluated. Prospective, dedicated studies allow visualization of BAT function in a high percentage of human subjects. BAT dysfunction has been implicated in obesity, linked with diabetes and associated with cachexia and atherosclerosis. Presently, {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT is the most useful tool for evaluating therapies aiming at BAT activity. In addition to {sup 18}F-FDG, other radiopharmaceuticals such as {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi, {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), {sup 18}F-fluorodopa and {sup 18}F-14(R,S)-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid (FTHA) may have a potential for visualizing other aspects of BAT activity. MRI methods are under continuous development and provide the prospect of functional imaging without ionizing radiation. Molecular imaging of BAT can be used to quantitatively assess different aspects of BAT metabolic activity. (orig.)

  11. Molecular application of spectral photoacoustic imaging in pancreatic cancer pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshman, Minalini; Hupple, Clinton; Lohse, Ines; Hedley, David; Needles, Andrew; Theodoropoulos, Catherine

    2012-12-01

    Spectral imaging is an advanced photo-acoustic (PA) mode that can discern optical absorption of contrast agent(s) in the tissue micro-environment. This advancement is made possible by precise control of optical wavelength using a tunable pulsed laser, ranging from 680-970 nm. Differential optical absorption of blood oxygenation states makes spectral imaging of hemoglobin ideal to investigate remodeling of the tumor microenvironment- a molecular change that renders resistance to standard cancer treatment. Approach: Photo-acoustic imaging was performed on the Vevo® LAZR system (VisualSonics) at 5-20 Hz. Deep abdominal imaging was accomplished with a LZ250D probe at a center frequency of 21MHz and an axial resolution of 75 μm. The tumor model was generated in an immune compromised mouse by surgical implantation of primary patient derived tumors, in the pancreas. Results: Spectral imaging for oxygen saturation at 750 nm and 850 nm characterized this tumor with a poorly oxygenated core surrounded by a well oxygenated periphery. Multispectral imaging identified a sub region in the core with a four-fold signal exclusively at 750 and 800 nm. A co-registered 2D image of this region was shown to be echogenic and calcification was suspected. Perfusion imaging with contrast enhanced ultrasound using microbubbles (Vevo MicroMarker® contrast agents, VisualSonics) identified functional vessels towards this sub region. Histology confirmed calcification and vascularization in the tumor core. Taken together, non-invasive characterization of the tumor microenvironment using photo-acoustics rendered spectral imaging a sensitive tool to monitor molecular changes representative of progression of pancreatic cancer that kills within 6 months of diagnosis.

  12. Imprints of Molecular Clouds in Radio Continuum Images

    CERN Document Server

    Yusef-Zadeh, F

    2012-01-01

    We show radio continuum images of several molecular complexes in the inner Galaxy and report the presence of dark features that coincide with dense molecular clouds. Unlike infrared dark clouds, these features which we call "radio dark clouds" are produced by a deficiency in radio continuum emission from molecular clouds that are embedded in a bath of UV radiation field or synchrotron emitting cosmic ray particles. The contribution of the continuum emission along different pathlengths results in dark features that trace embedded molecular clouds. The new technique of identifying cold clouds can place constraints on the depth and the magnetic field of molecular clouds when compared to those of the surrounding hot plasma radiating at radio wavelengths. The study of five molecular complexes in the inner Galaxy, Sgr A, Sgr B2, radio Arc, the snake filament and G359.75-0.13 demonstrate an anti--correlation between the distributions of radio continuum and molecular line and dust emission. Radio dark clouds are iden...

  13. Engineering imaging probes and molecular machines for nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Sheng; Cradick, Thomas J; Ma, Yan; Dai, Zhifei; Bao, Gang

    2012-10-01

    Nanomedicine is an emerging field that integrates nanotechnology, biomolecular engineering, life sciences and medicine; it is expected to produce major breakthroughs in medical diagnostics and therapeutics. Due to the size-compatibility of nano-scale structures and devices with proteins and nucleic acids, the design, synthesis and application of nanoprobes, nanocarriers and nanomachines provide unprecedented opportunities for achieving a better control of biological processes, and drastic improvements in disease detection, therapy, and prevention. Recent advances in nanomedicine include the development of functional nanoparticle based molecular imaging probes, nano-structured materials as drug/gene carriers for in vivo delivery, and engineered molecular machines for treating single-gene disorders. This review focuses on the development of molecular imaging probes and engineered nucleases for nanomedicine, including quantum dot bioconjugates, quantum dot-fluorescent protein FRET probes, molecular beacons, magnetic and gold nanoparticle based imaging contrast agents, and the design and validation of zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and TAL effector nucleases (TALENs) for gene targeting. The challenges in translating nanomedicine approaches to clinical applications are discussed.

  14. Molecular Imaging Probes for Positron Emission Tomography and Optical Imaging of Sentinel Lymph Node and Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhengtao

    Molecular imaging is visualizations and measurements of in vivo biological processes at the molecular or cellular level using specific imaging probes. As an emerging technology, biocompatible macromolecular or nanoparticle based targeted imaging probes have gained increasing popularities. Those complexes consist of a carrier, an imaging reporter, and a targeting ligand. The active targeting ability dramatically increases the specificity. And the multivalency effect may further reduce the dose while providing a decent signal. In this thesis, sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping and cancer imaging are two research topics. The focus is to develop molecular imaging probes with high specificity and sensitivity, for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and optical imaging. The objective of this thesis is to explore dextran radiopharmaceuticals and porous silicon nanoparticles based molecular imaging agents. Dextran polymers are excellent carriers to deliver imaging reporters or therapeutic agents due to its well established safety profile and oligosaccharide conjugation chemistry. There is also a wide selection of dextran polymers with different lengths. On the other hand, Silicon nanoparticles represent another class of biodegradable materials for imaging and drug delivery. The success in fluorescence lifetime imaging and enhancements of the immune activation potency was briefly discussed. Chapter 1 begins with an overview on current molecular imaging techniques and imaging probes. Chapter 2 presents a near-IR dye conjugated probe, IRDye 800CW-tilmanocept. Fluorophore density was optimized to generate the maximum brightness. It was labeled with 68Ga and 99mTc and in vivo SLN mapping was successfully performed in different animals, such as mice, rabbits, dogs and pigs. With 99mTc labeled IRDye 800CW-tilmanocept, chapter 3 introduces a two-day imaging protocol with a hand-held imager. Chapter 4 proposed a method to dual radiolabel the IRDye 800CW-tilmanocept with both 68Ga and

  15. Metal-Based Systems for Molecular Imaging Applications - COST D38 Annual Workshop - Scientific Program and Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of the Action is the development of metal-based imaging probes for cellular and molecular imaging applications, based on MRI, PET, SPECT and optical imaging that will facilitate early diagnosis, assessment of disease progression and treatment evaluation.The goal of this Action is to further the development of innovative imaging probes through the pursuit of innovations in a number of different areas, ranging from the design of imaging units endowed with enhanced sensitivity to the control of the structural and electronic determinants responsible for the molecular recognition of the target molecule.At present, in vivo diagnostic systems basically assess the structure and function of human organs. Therefore, for important diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular pathologies,and also diseases of the central nervous system, only the late symptoms are detected. It is expected that the advances in genomics and proteomics will have a tremendous impact on human health care of the future. However, advances in molecular biology are already redefining diseases in terms of molecular abnormalities. With this knowledge, new generations of diagnostic imaging agents can be defined that aim at the detection of those molecular processes in vivo.The molecular imaging approach offers a great potential for earlier detection and characterisation of disease, and evaluation of treatment. However, more research is necessary to bring these ideas to clinical applications and a key aspect relates to the development of high-specificity, high-sensitivity imaging probes for the different detection modalities. Additionally, the Action includes research activities dealing with the exploitation of peculiar nuclear properties of given isotopes for therapeutic effects, thus integrating the diagnostic and the therapeutic stages.Apart from its use in early diagnosis in clinical practice, the molecular imaging approach will have also a major impact on the development of new

  16. Tracer application in cardiovascular imaging: a Triple Jump, Chapter 7 : In: Autonomic Innervation of the Heart, Edited by R.H.J.A. Slart, R.A. Tio, P.H. Elsinga and M. Schwaiger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Roo, F. Michelle; Hilgerink, Koen; Kosterink, Johannes; Luurtsema, Geert; Woerdenbag, Herman; Boersma, Hendrikus; Slart, Riemer; Tio, Rene; Elsinga, Philipus; Schwaiger, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Next to aspects related to the imaging techniques, the quality of the used cardiovascular tracer is of major importance to produce reliable images, leading to accurate diagnoses as well as outcome of research and imaging-correlated treatment. We have built up this chapter on cardiovascular imaging a

  17. Molecular Imaging with Small Animal PET/CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, T.; El-Ali, H.H.; Skovgaard, D.;

    2011-01-01

    Small animal positron emission tomography (PET) and computer tomography (CT) is an emerging field in pre-clinical imaging. High quality, state-of-the-art instruments are required for full optimization of the translational value of the small animal studies with PET and CT. However, with this achie...... small animal PET/CT for studies of muscle and tendon in exercise models. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.......Small animal positron emission tomography (PET) and computer tomography (CT) is an emerging field in pre-clinical imaging. High quality, state-of-the-art instruments are required for full optimization of the translational value of the small animal studies with PET and CT. However, with this...... this field of small animal molecular imaging with special emphasis on the targets for tissue characterization in tumor biology such as hypoxia, proliferation and cancer specific over-expression of receptors. The added value of applying CT imaging for anatomical localization and tumor volume...

  18. Ultrafast Molecular Imaging by Laser Induced Electron Diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Michel; Cornaggia, Christian; Saugout, Sébastien; Charron, Eric; Keller, Arne; Atabek, Osman

    2010-01-01

    We address the feasibility of imaging geometric and orbital structure of a polyatomic molecule on an attosecond time-scale using the Laser Induced Electron Diffraction, LIED, technique [T. Zuo \\textit{et al.}, Chem. Phys. Lett. \\textbf{259}, 313 (1996)]. We present numerical results obtained for the CO$_2$ molecule using a single active electron model. The molecular geometry (bond-lengths) is determined within 3% of accuracy from a diffraction pattern which also reflects the nodal properties of the initial molecular orbital. Robustness of the structure determination is discussed with respect to vibrational and rotational motions with a complete interpretation of the laser-induced mechanisms.

  19. Frequency Domain Fluorescent Molecular Tomography and Molecular Probes for Small Animal Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujala, Naresh Gandhi

    Fluorescent molecular tomography (FMT) is a noninvasive biomedical optical imaging that enables 3-dimensional quantitative determination of fluorochromes distributed in biological tissues. There are three methods for imaging large volume tissues based on different light sources: (a) using a light source of constant intensity, through a continuous or constant wave, (b) using a light source that is intensity modulated with a radio frequency (RF), and (c) using ultrafast pulses in the femtosecond range. In this study, we have developed a frequency domain fluorescent molecular tomographic system based on the heterodyne technique, using a single source and detector pair that can be used for small animal imaging. In our system, the intensity of the laser source is modulated with a RF frequency to produce a diffuse photon density wave in the tissue. The phase of the diffuse photon density wave is measured by comparing the reference signal with the signal from the tissue using a phasemeter. The data acquisition was performed by using a Labview program. The results suggest that we can measure the phase change from the heterogeneous inside tissue. Combined with fiber optics and filter sets, the system can be used to sensitively image the targeted fluorescent molecular probes, allowing the detection of cancer at an early stage. We used the system to detect the tumor-targeting molecular probe Alexa Fluor 680 and Alexa Fluor 750 bombesin peptide conjugates in phantoms as well as mouse tissues. We also developed and evaluated fluorescent Bombesin (BBN) probes to target gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) receptors for optical molecular imaging. GRP receptors are over-expressed in several types of human cancer cells, including breast, prostate, small cell lung, and pancreatic cancers. BBN is a 14 amino acid peptide that is an analogue to human gastrin-releasing peptide that binds specifically to GRPr receptors. BBN conjugates are significant in cancer detection and therapy. The

  20. Molecular imaging and the neuropathologies of Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cumming, Paul; Borghammer, Per

    2012-01-01

    The main motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) are linked to degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) fibers, especially those innervating the putamen. This degeneration can be assessed in molecular imaging studies with presynaptic tracers such as [(18)F]-fluoro-L-DOPA (FDOPA...... with denervation upregulation, but there is an accelerated rate of DA receptor loss as the disease advances. Animal studies and post mortem investigations reveal changes in brain opioid peptide systems, but these are poorly documented in imaging studies of PD. Relatively minor changes in the binding sites for GABA...

  1. Advances in radionuclide molecular imaging of pancreatic β-cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, β-cell mass (BCM) is lost.Various treatments are developed to restore or reconstruct BCM. The development of non-invasive methods to quantify BCM in vivo offers the potential for early detection of β-cell dysfunction prior to the clinical onset of diabetes. PET imaging with radioligands that directly target the pancreatic β-cells appears promising. The ability to determine the BCM has been investigated in several targets and their corresponding radiotracers, including radiolabeled receptor ligands, antibodies, metabolites and reporter genes. Therefore, we summarize the recent progress in radionuclide molecular imaging of pancreatic β-cells. (authors)

  2. Intelligent Design of Nano-Scale Molecular Imaging Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeaki Ozawa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual representation and quantification of biological processes at the cellular and subcellular levels within living subjects are gaining great interest in life science to address frontier issues in pathology and physiology. As intact living subjects do not emit any optical signature, visual representation usually exploits nano-scale imaging agents as the source of image contrast. Many imaging agents have been developed for this purpose, some of which exert nonspecific, passive, and physical interaction with a target. Current research interest in molecular imaging has mainly shifted to fabrication of smartly integrated, specific, and versatile agents that emit fluorescence or luminescence as an optical readout. These agents include luminescent quantum dots (QDs, biofunctional antibodies, and multifunctional nanoparticles. Furthermore, genetically encoded nano-imaging agents embedding fluorescent proteins or luciferases are now gaining popularity. These agents are generated by integrative design of the components, such as luciferase, flexible linker, and receptor to exert a specific on–off switching in the complex context of living subjects. In the present review, we provide an overview of the basic concepts, smart design, and practical contribution of recent nano-scale imaging agents, especially with respect to genetically encoded imaging agents.

  3. Tau PET: the next frontier in molecular imaging of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Chenjie; Dickerson, Bradford C

    2016-09-01

    We have arrived at an exciting juncture in dementia research: the second major pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-tau-can now be seen for the first time in the living human brain. The major proteinopathies in AD include amyloid-β plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) made of hyperphosphorylated paired helical filament (PHF) tau. Since its advent more than a decade ago, amyloid PET imaging has revolutionized the field of dementia research, enabling more confident diagnosis of the likely pathology in patients with a variety of clinical dementia syndromes, paving the way for the identification of people with preclinical or prodromal AD pathology, and serving as a minimally invasive molecular readout in clinical trials of putative disease-modifying interventions. Now that we are on the brink of a second revolution in molecular imaging in dementia, it is worth considering the likely potential impact of this development on the field. PMID:27334648

  4. On the subjective acceptance during cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging at 7.0 Tesla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Klix

    Full Text Available This study examines the subjective acceptance during UHF-CMR in a cohort of healthy volunteers who underwent a cardiac MR examination at 7.0T.Within a period of two-and-a-half years (January 2012 to June 2014 a total of 165 healthy volunteers (41 female, 124 male without any known history of cardiac disease underwent UHF-CMR. For the assessment of the subjective acceptance a questionnaire was used to examine the participants experience prior, during and after the UHF-CMR examination. For this purpose, subjects were asked to respond to the questionnaire in an exit interview held immediately after the completion of the UHF-CMR examination under supervision of a study nurse to ensure accurate understanding of the questions. All questions were answered with "yes" or "no" including space for additional comments.Transient muscular contraction was documented in 12.7% of the questionnaires. Muscular contraction was reported to occur only during periods of scanning with the magnetic field gradients being rapidly switched. Dizziness during the study was reported by 12.7% of the subjects. Taste of metal was reported by 10.1% of the study population. Light flashes were reported by 3.6% of the entire cohort. 13% of the subjects reported side effects/observations which were not explicitly listed in the questionnaire but covered by the question about other side effects. No severe side effects as vomiting or syncope after scanning occurred. No increase in heart rate was observed during the UHF-CMR exam versus the baseline clinical examination.This study adds to the literature by detailing the subjective acceptance of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging examinations at a magnetic field strength of 7.0T. Cardiac MR examinations at 7.0T are well tolerated by healthy subjects. Broader observational and multi-center studies including patient cohorts with cardiac diseases are required to gain further insights into the subjective acceptance of UHF

  5. Imaging focal and interstitial fibrosis with cardiovascular magnetic resonance in athletes with left ventricular hypertrophy: implications for sporting participation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Waterhouse, Deirdre F

    2012-11-01

    Long-term high-intensity physical activity is associated with morphological changes, termed as the \\'athlete\\'s heart\\'. The differentiation of physiological cardiac adaptive changes in response to high-level exercise from pathological changes consistent with an inherited cardiomyopathy is imperative. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging allows definition of abnormal processes occurring at the tissue level, including, importantly, myocardial fibrosis. It is therefore vital in accurately making this differentiation. In this review, we will review the role of CMR imaging of fibrosis, and detail CMR characterisation of myocardial fibrosis in various cardiomyopathies, and the implications of fibrosis. Additionally, we will outline advances in imaging fibrosis, in particular T1 mapping. Finally we will address the role of CMR in pre-participation screening.

  6. Non-invasive Optical Molecular Imaging for Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhen

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. It remains the second most common cause of death in the US, accounting for nearly 1 out of every 4 deaths. Improved fundamental understanding of molecular processes and pathways resulting in cancer development has catalyzed a shift towards molecular analysis of cancer using imaging technologies. It is expected that the non-invasive or minimally invasive molecular imaging analysis of cancer can significantly aid in improving the early detection of cancer and will result in reduced mortality and morbidity associated with the disease. The central hypothesis of the proposed research is that non-invasive imaging of changes in metabolic activity of individual cells, and extracellular pH within a tissue will improve early stage detection of cancer. The specific goals of this research project were to: (a) develop novel optical imaging probes to image changes in choline metabolism and tissue pH as a function of progression of cancer using clinically isolated tissue biopsies; (b) correlate changes in tissue extracellular pH and metabolic activity of tissues as a function of disease state using clinically isolated tissue biopsies; (c) provide fundamental understanding of relationship between tumor hypoxia, acidification of the extracellular space and altered cellular metabolism with progression of cancer. Three novel molecular imaging probes were developed to detect changes in choline and glucose metabolism and extracellular pH in model systems and clinically isolated cells and biopsies. Glucose uptake and metabolism was measured using a fluorescence analog of glucose, 2-NBDG (2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxy-D-glucose), while choline metabolism was measured using a click chemistry analog of choline, propargyl choline, which can be in-situ labeled with a fluorophore Alexa-488 azide via a click chemistry reaction. Extracellular pH in tissue were measured by Alexa-647 labeled pHLIP (pH low insertion peptide

  7. Evaluation of radiolabelled annexin A5 for scintigraphic imaging of cell processes (necrosis/apoptosis) in cardiovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annexin A5, a 35KDa protein, specifically binds with high affinity to phosphatidylserine (P.S.) which is actively redistributed to the external leaflet of plasmic membranes in apoptotic cells and activated platelets. Annexin A5 radiolabelled with 99mTc(99mTc-ANX5) was developed by Strauss (stanford, Usa) to image apoptosis in vivo: tumours cells apoptosis induced by chemo-radiotherapy, ischemia/reperfusion lesions in animals and patients, graft rejection. Additionally, many in vitro data suggest that annexin A5 also stains necrosis (membrane disruption), which occurs in all types of cell death. This preclinical work aimed to evaluate the potential interest of 99mTc-ANX5 imaging as a clinical tool in cardiovascular diseases. Four studies performed in rat models of myocardial infarction by coronary ligation and ischemia-reperfusion, and in rat models of subacute and acute (isoproterenol-induced) myocarditis show the ability of 99mTc-ANX5 to detect in vivo cardio myocytes death by apoptosis and necrosis. Another study demonstrates that 99mTc-ANX5 is highly accurate to evaluate in vivo the biological activity of parietal thrombus in a rat model of elastase-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm. These results suggest that 99mTc-ANX5 imaging could be used in patients for non invasive diagnosis, prognostic evaluation in acute myocarditis and in various thrombotic cardiovascular diseases. (author)

  8. Noninvasive Cardiovascular Risk Assessment of the Asymptomatic Diabetic Patient: The Imaging Council of the American College of Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budoff, Matthew J; Raggi, Paolo; Beller, George A; Berman, Daniel S; Druz, Regina S; Malik, Shaista; Rigolin, Vera H; Weigold, Wm Guy; Soman, Prem

    2016-02-01

    Increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes is well established; diabetes is associated with at least a 2-fold increased risk of coronary heart disease. Approximately two-thirds of deaths among persons with diabetes are related to cardiovascular disease. Previously, diabetes was regarded as a "coronary risk equivalent," implying a high 10-year cardiovascular risk for every diabetes patient. Following the original study by Haffner et al., multiple studies from different cohorts provided varying conclusions on the validity of the concept of coronary risk equivalency in patients with diabetes. New guidelines have started to acknowledge the heterogeneity in risk and include different treatment recommendations for diabetic patients without other risk factors who are considered to be at lower risk. Furthermore, guidelines have suggested that further risk stratification in patients with diabetes is warranted before universal treatment. The Imaging Council of the American College of Cardiology systematically reviewed all modalities commonly used for risk stratification in persons with diabetes mellitus and summarized the data and recommendations. This document reviews the evidence regarding the use of noninvasive testing to stratify asymptomatic patients with diabetes with regard to coronary heart disease risk and develops an algorithm for screening based on available data. PMID:26846937

  9. Breast imaging technology: Probing physiology and molecular function using optical imaging - applications to breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present review addresses the capacity of optical imaging to resolve functional and molecular characteristics of breast cancer. We focus on recent developments in optical imaging that allow three-dimensional reconstruction of optical signatures in the human breast using diffuse optical tomography (DOT). These technologic advances allow the noninvasive, in vivo imaging and quantification of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin and of contrast agents that target the physiologic and molecular functions of tumors. Hence, malignancy differentiation can be based on a novel set of functional features that are complementary to current radiologic imaging methods. These features could enhance diagnostic accuracy, lower the current state-of-the-art detection limits, and play a vital role in therapeutic strategy and monitoring

  10. PET-based molecular nuclear neuro-imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular nuclear neuro-imaging in CNS drug discovery and development can be divided into four categories that are clearly inter-related. (1) Neuroreceptor mapping to examine the involvement of specific neurotransmitter system in CNS diseases, drug occupancy characteristics and perhaps examine mechanisms of action;(2) Structural and spectroscopic imaging to examine morphological changes and their consequences;(3) Metabolic mapping to provide evidence of central activity and CNS fingerprinting the neuroanatomy of drug effects;(4) Functional mapping to examine disease-drug interactions. In addition, targeted delivery of therapeutic agents could be achieved by modifying stem cells to release specific drugs at the site of transplantation('stem cell pharmacology'). Future exploitation of stem cell biology, including enhanced release of therapeutic factors through genetic stem cell engineering might thus constitute promising pharmaceutical approaches to treating diseases of the nervous system. With continued improvements in instrumentation, identification of better imaging probes by innovative chemistry, molecular nuclear neuro-imaging promise to play increasingly important roles in disease diagnosis and therapy

  11. Photoacoustic molecular imaging for in vivo liver iron quantitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccarinelli, Federica; Carmona, Fernando; Regoni, Maria; Arosio, Paolo

    2016-05-01

    A recent study showed that ferritin is a suitable endogenous contrast agent for photoacoustic molecular imaging in cultured mammalian cells. We have therefore tested whether this imaging technique can be used for in vivo quantification of iron in mouse livers. To verify this hypothesis, we used multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) to image albino CD1 mice before and after experimental iron loading. Postmortem assays showed that the iron treatment caused a 15-fold increase in liver iron and a 40-fold increase in liver ferritin levels, while in vivo longitudinal analysis using MSOT revealed just a 1.6-fold increase in the ferritin/iron photoacoustic signal in the same animals. We conclude that MSOT can monitor changes in ferritin/iron levels in vivo, but its sensitivity is much lower than that of ex vivo iron assays.

  12. Assessment of radiation dose in nuclear cardiovascular imaging using realistic computational models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Tianwu; Lee, Choonsik; Bolch, Wesley E.; Zaidi, Habib

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Nuclear cardiology plays an important role in clinical assessment and has enormous impact on the management of a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Pediatric patients at different age groups are exposed to a spectrum of radiation dose levels and associated cancer risks different from those

  13. Novel Molecular Aspects of Ghrelin and Leptin in the Control of Adipobiology and the Cardiovascular System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaia Rodríguez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ghrelin and leptin show opposite effects on energy balance. Ghrelin constitutes a gut hormone that is secreted to the bloodstream in two major forms, acylated and desacyl ghrelin. The isoforms of ghrelin not only promote adiposity by the activation of hypothalamic orexigenic neurons but also directly stimulate the expression of several fat storage-related proteins in adipocytes, including ACC, FAS, LPL and perilipin, thereby stimulating intracytoplasmic lipid accumulation. Moreover, both acylated and desacyl ghrelin reduce TNF-α-induced apoptosis and autophagy in adipocytes, suggesting an anti-inflammatory role of ghrelin in human adipose tissue. On the other hand, leptin is an adipokine with lipolytic effects. In this sense, leptin modulates via PI3K/Akt/mTOR the expression of aquaglyceroporins such as AQP3 and AQP7 that facilitate glycerol efflux from adipocytes in response to the lipolytic stimuli via its translocation from the cytosolic fraction (AQP3 or lipid droplets (AQP7 to the plasma membrane. Ghrelin and leptin also participate in the homeostasis of the cardiovascular system. Ghrelin operates as a cardioprotective factor with increased circulating acylated ghrelin concentrations in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH causally related to LV remodeling during the progression to LVH. Additionally, leptin induces vasodilation by inducible NO synthase expression (iNOS in the vascular wall. In this sense, leptin inhibits the angiotensin II-induced Ca2+ increase, contraction and proliferation of VSMC through NO-dependent mechanisms. Together, dysregulation of circulating ghrelin isoforms and leptin resistance associated to obesity, type 2 diabetes, or the metabolic syndrome contribute to cardiometabolic derangements observed in these pathologies.

  14. Molecular imaging of prostate cancer: translating molecular biology approaches into the clinical realm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, Hebert Alberto; Sala, Evis; Hricak, Hedvig [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Grimm, Jan [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Program in Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York (United States); Donati, Olivio F. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-05-01

    The epidemiology of prostate cancer has dramatically changed since the introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in the 1980's. Most prostate cancers today are detected at early stages of the disease and are considered 'indolent'; however, some patients' prostate cancers demonstrate a more aggressive behaviour which leads to rapid progression and death. Increasing understanding of the biology underlying the heterogeneity that characterises this disease has led to a continuously evolving role of imaging in the management of prostate cancer. Functional and metabolic imaging techniques are gaining importance as the impact on the therapeutic paradigm has shifted from structural tumour detection alone to distinguishing patients with indolent tumours that can be managed conservatively (e.g., by active surveillance) from patients with more aggressive tumours that may require definitive treatment with surgery or radiation. In this review, we discuss advanced imaging techniques that allow direct visualisation of molecular interactions relevant to prostate cancer and their potential for translation to the clinical setting in the near future. The potential use of imaging to follow molecular events during drug therapy as well as the use of imaging agents for therapeutic purposes will also be discussed. (orig.)

  15. European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging/Cardiovascular Imaging Department of the Brazilian Society of Cardiology recommendations for the use of cardiac imaging to assess and follow patients after heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badano, Luigi P; Miglioranza, Marcelo H; Edvardsen, Thor; Colafranceschi, Alexandre Siciliano; Muraru, Denisa; Bacal, Fernando; Nieman, Koen; Zoppellaro, Giacomo; Marcondes Braga, Fabiana G; Binder, Thomas; Habib, Gilbert; Lancellotti, Patrizio

    2015-09-01

    The cohort of long-term survivors of heart transplant is expanding, and the assessment of these patients requires specific knowledge of the surgical techniques employed to implant the donor heart, the physiology of the transplanted heart, complications of invasive tests routinely performed to detect graft rejection (GR), and the specific pathologies that may affect the transplanted heart. A joint EACVI/Brazilian cardiovascular imaging writing group committee has prepared these recommendations to provide a practical guide to echocardiographers involved in the follow-up of heart transplant patients and a framework for standardized and efficient use of cardiovascular imaging after heart transplant. Since the transplanted heart is smaller than the recipient's dilated heart, the former is usually located more medially in the mediastinum and tends to be rotated clockwise. Therefore, standard views with conventional two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography are often difficult to obtain generating a large variability from patient to patient. Therefore, in echocardiography laboratories equipped with three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) scanners and specific expertise with the technique, 3DE may be a suitable alternative to conventional 2D echocardiography to assess the size and the function of cardiac chambers. 3DE measurement of left (LV) and right ventricular (RV) size and function are more accurate and reproducible than conventional 2D calculations. However, clinicians should be aware that cardiac chamber volumes obtained with 3DE cannot be compared with those obtained with 2D echocardiography. To assess cardiac chamber morphology and function during follow-up studies, it is recommended to obtain a comprehensive echocardiographic study at 6 months from the cardiac transplantation as a baseline and make a careful quantitation of cardiac chamber size, RV systolic function, both systolic and diastolic parameters of LV function, and pulmonary artery pressure. Subsequent

  16. Contributions on biomedical imaging, with a side-look at molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is intended as a brief introduction to the emerging scientific field of biomedical imaging. The breadth of the subject is shown and future fields of research are indicated, which hopefully will serve as a guide to the identification of starting points for the research in 'Biomedical and/or Molecular Imaging' at the GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health. The report starts with a brief sketch of the history. Then a - necessarily incomplete - list of research topics is presented. It is organized in two parts: the first one addresses medical imaging, and the second one is concerned with biological point aspects of the matter. (orig.)

  17. Molecular Imaging of Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaques in Animal Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargiulo, Sara; Gramanzini, Matteo; Mancini, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is characterized by intimal plaques of the arterial vessels that develop slowly and, in some cases, may undergo spontaneous rupture with subsequent heart attack or stroke. Currently, noninvasive diagnostic tools are inadequate to screen atherosclerotic lesions at high risk of acute complications. Therefore, the attention of the scientific community has been focused on the use of molecular imaging for identifying vulnerable plaques. Genetically engineered murine models such as ApoE(-/-) and ApoE(-/-)Fbn1C1039G(+/-) mice have been shown to be useful for testing new probes targeting biomarkers of relevant molecular processes for the characterization of vulnerable plaques, such as vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-1, VEGFR-2, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, P-selectin, and integrins, and for the potential development of translational tools to identify high-risk patients who could benefit from early therapeutic interventions. This review summarizes the main animal models of vulnerable plaques, with an emphasis on genetically altered mice, and the state-of-the-art preclinical molecular imaging strategies. PMID:27618031

  18. Molecular Imaging of Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaques in Animal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargiulo, Sara; Gramanzini, Matteo; Mancini, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is characterized by intimal plaques of the arterial vessels that develop slowly and, in some cases, may undergo spontaneous rupture with subsequent heart attack or stroke. Currently, noninvasive diagnostic tools are inadequate to screen atherosclerotic lesions at high risk of acute complications. Therefore, the attention of the scientific community has been focused on the use of molecular imaging for identifying vulnerable plaques. Genetically engineered murine models such as ApoE−/− and ApoE−/−Fbn1C1039G+/− mice have been shown to be useful for testing new probes targeting biomarkers of relevant molecular processes for the characterization of vulnerable plaques, such as vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-1, VEGFR-2, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, P-selectin, and integrins, and for the potential development of translational tools to identify high-risk patients who could benefit from early therapeutic interventions. This review summarizes the main animal models of vulnerable plaques, with an emphasis on genetically altered mice, and the state-of-the-art preclinical molecular imaging strategies. PMID:27618031

  19. Application of infrared thermal imaging in the study of preventing cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases with Chinese medicine health food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziru; Zhang, Xusheng

    2009-08-01

    To explore the assessing technique which could objectively reflect the characteristics of Chinese medicine in the prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, four balance features of infrared thermal images (ITI) corresponding to the up and down, left and right, proximal and distal balance of blood circulation of human body were studied. First, the ITI features of the middle-aged and elderly people with lipid abnormality history were compared with those of the healthy youth. It was found that the balance state of the youth was significantly better than that of the middle-aged and elderly, Ppathology basis of the influences of Shengyi on the four balance features and its relationship with the clinical outcome deserves further study. So the prospect of infrared thermal imaging is indicated as the suitable evaluation technique which could objectively reflect the whole balance regulation advantage of Chinese medicinal compounds.

  20. Strain measurement by cardiovascular magnetic resonance in pediatric cancer survivors: validation of feature tracking against harmonic phase imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jimmy C. [C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, University of Michigan Congenital Heart Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); University of Michigan, Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); University of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Connelly, James A. [University of Michigan, Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, Division of Hematology-Oncology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Zhao, Lili [University of Michigan, Department of Biostatistics, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Agarwal, Prachi P. [University of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Division of Cardiothoracic Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Dorfman, Adam L. [University of Michigan, Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); University of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Left ventricular strain may be a more sensitive marker of left ventricular dysfunction than ejection fraction in pediatric cancer survivors after anthracycline therapy, but there is limited validation of strain measurement by feature tracking on cardiovascular magnetic resonance (MR) images. To compare left ventricular circumferential and radial strain by feature tracking vs. harmonic phase imaging analysis (HARP) in pediatric cancer survivors. Twenty-six patients (20.2 ± 5.6 years old) underwent cardiovascular MR at least 5 years after completing anthracycline therapy. Circumferential and radial strain were measured at the base, midventricle and apex from short-axis myocardial tagged images by HARP, and from steady-state free precession images by feature tracking. Left ventricular ejection fraction more closely correlated with global circumferential strain by feature tracking (r = -0.63, P = 0.0005) than by HARP (r = -0.39, P = 0.05). Midventricular circumferential strain did not significantly differ by feature tracking or HARP (-20.8 ± 3.4 vs. -19.5 ± 2.5, P = 0.07), with acceptable limits of agreement. Midventricular circumferential strain by feature tracking strongly correlated with global circumferential strain by feature tracking (r = 0.87, P < 0.0001). Radial strain by feature tracking had poor agreement with HARP, particularly at higher values of radial strain. Intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility was excellent for feature tracking circumferential strain, but reproducibility was poor for feature tracking radial strain. Midventricular circumferential strain by feature tracking is a reliable and reproducible measure of myocardial deformation in patients status post anthracycline therapy, while radial strain measurements are unreliable. Further studies are necessary to evaluate potential relation to long-term outcomes. (orig.)

  1. Doppler-Derived Trigger Signals for High-Frame-Rate Mouse Cardiovascular Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Aristizábal, Orlando; Mamou, Jonathan; Turnbull, Daniel H.; Ketterling, Jeffrey A.

    2009-01-01

    The availability of an electrocardiogram (ECG) waveform in the adult mouse has permitted the measurement of fast, dynamic cardiac events where data acquisition is synchronized to the R-wave of the ECG waveform. These methods can easily attain one thousand frames/s at ultrasound frequencies greater than 20 MHz. With the heart being the first organ to develop, normal cardiovascular function is crucial to the viability of the developing embryo. Thus, translating such methodologies to analyze emb...

  2. Approaches to enhancing radiation safety in cardiovascular imaging: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel, Reza; Gerber, Thomas C; Balter, Stephen; Brenner, David J; Carr, J Jeffrey; Cerqueira, Manuel D; Chen, Jersey; Einstein, Andrew J; Krumholz, Harlan M; Mahesh, Mahadevappa; McCollough, Cynthia H; Min, James K; Morin, Richard L; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K; Nasir, Khurram; Redberg, Rita F; Shaw, Leslee J

    2014-11-01

    Education, justification, and optimization are the cornerstones to enhancing the radiation safety of medical imaging. Education regarding the benefits and risks of imaging and the principles of radiation safety is required for all clinicians in order for them to be able to use imaging optimally. Empowering patients with knowledge of the benefits and risks of imaging will facilitate their meaningful participation in decisions related to their health care, which is necessary to achieve patient-centered care. Limiting the use of imaging to appropriate clinical indications can ensure that the benefits of imaging outweigh any potential risks. Finally, the continually expanding repertoire of techniques that allow high-quality imaging with lower radiation exposure should be used when available to achieve safer imaging. The implementation of these strategies in practice is necessary to achieve high-quality, patient-centered imaging and will require a shared effort and investment by all stakeholders, including physicians, patients, national scientific and educational organizations, politicians, and industry.

  3. Luminescent Nanomaterials for Molecular-Specific Cellular Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvyagin, Andrei Vasilyevich; Song, Zhen; Nadort, Annemarie; Sreenivasan, Varun Kumaraswamy Annayya; Deyev, Sergey Mikhailovich

    Imaging of molecular trafficking in cells and biological tissue aided by molecular-specific fluorescent labeling is very attractive, since it affords capturing the key processes in comprehensive biological context. Several shortcomings of the existing organic dye labeling technology, however, call for development of alternative molecular reporters, with improved photostability, reduced cytotoxicity, and an increased number of controllable surface moieties. Such alternative molecular reporters are represented by inorganic luminescent nanoparticles (NP) whose optical, physical, and chemical properties are discussed on the examples of luminescent nanodiamonds (LND) and upconversion nanoparticles (UCNP). The emission origins of these nanomaterials differ markedly. LND emission results from individual nitrogen-vacancy color-centers in a biocompatible nanodiamond host whose properties can be controlled via size and surface groups. Photophysics of UCNP is governed by the collective, nonlinear excitation transfer processes, resulting in conversion of longer-wavelength excitation to the shorter-wavelength emission. The emission/excitation spectral properties of UCNP falling within the biological tissue transparency window open new opportunities of almost complete suppression of the cell/tissue autofluorescence background. The developed surface of these nanoparticles represents a flexible platform populated with biocompatible surface moieties onto which cargo and targeting biomolecules can be firmly docked through a process called bioconjugation. These bioconjugated modules, e.g., nanodiamond-antibody, (quantum dot)-somatostatin, or (upconversion nanoparticle)-(mini-antibody) can gain admission into the cells by initiating the cell-specific, cell-recognized communication protocol. In this chapter, we aim to demonstrate the whole bottom-up bio-nano-optics approach for optical biological imaging capturing luminescent nanoparticle design, surface activation, and bioconjugation

  4. Status and Advances of RGD Molecular Imaging in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning YUE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer has been one of the most common and the highest mortality rates malignant tumors at home and abroad. Sustained angiogenesis was not only the characteristic of malignant tumors, but also the foundation of tumor proliferation, invasion, recurrence and metastasis, it was also one of the hot spots of treatments in lung cancer biology currently. Integrins played an important part in tumor angiogenesis. Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD peptides could combine with integrins specifically, and the application of radionuclide-labeled RGD molecular probes enabled imaging of tumor blood vessels to reflect its changes. The lung cancer imaging of RGD peptides at home and abroad in recent years was reviewed in this article.

  5. Multifunctional Gold Nanostars for Molecular Imaging and Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Yuan, Hsiangkuo; Fales, Andrew; Register, Janna; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2015-08-01

    Plasmonics-active gold nanoparticles offer excellent potential in molecular imaging and cancer therapy. Among them, gold nanostars (AuNS) exhibit cross-platform flexibility as multimodal contrast agents for macroscopic X-ray computer tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), as well as nanoprobes for photoacoustic tomography (PAT), two-photon photoluminescence (TPL) and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Their surfactant-free surface enables versatile functionalization to enhance cancer targeting, and allow triggered drug release. AuNS can also be used as an efficient platform for drug carrying, photothermal therapy, and photodynamic therapy. This review paper presents the latest progress regarding AuNS as a promising nanoplatform for cancer nanotheranostics. Future research directions with AuNS for biomedical applications will also be discussed.

  6. PET/SPECT molecular imaging in clinical neuroscience: recent advances in the investigation of CNS diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Feng-Mei; Yuan, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Molecular imaging is an attractive technology widely used in clinical practice that greatly enhances our understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment in central nervous system (CNS) diseases. It is a novel multidisciplinary technique that can be defined as real-time visualization, in vivo characterization and qualification of biological processes at the molecular and cellular level. It involves the imaging modalities and the corresponding imaging agents. Nowadays, molecular imaging in n...

  7. Multifunctional nanomaterials for advanced molecular imaging and cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Prasad

    Nanotechnology offers tremendous potential for use in biomedical applications, including cancer and stem cell imaging, disease diagnosis and drug delivery. The development of nanosystems has aided in understanding the molecular mechanisms of many diseases and permitted the controlled nanoscale manipulation of biological phenomena. In recent years, many studies have focused on the use of several kinds of nanomaterials for cancer and stem cell imaging and also for the delivery of anticancer therapeutics to tumor cells. However, the proper diagnosis and treatment of aggressive tumors such as brain and breast cancer requires highly sensitive diagnostic agents, in addition to the ability to deliver multiple therapeutics using a single platform to the target cells. Addressing these challenges, novel multifunctional nanomaterial-based platforms that incorporate multiple therapeutic and diagnostic agents, with superior molecular imaging and targeting capabilities, has been presented in this work. The initial part of this work presents the development of novel nanomaterials with superior optical properties for efficiently delivering soluble cues such as small interfering RNA (siRNA) into brain cancer cells with minimal toxicity. Specifically, this section details the development of non-toxic quantums dots for the imaging and delivery of siRNA into brain cancer and mesenchymal stem cells, with the hope of using these quantum dots as multiplexed imaging and delivery vehicles. The use of these quantum dots could overcome the toxicity issues associated with the use of conventional quantum dots, enabled the imaging of brain cancer and stem cells with high efficiency and allowed for the delivery of siRNA to knockdown the target oncogene in brain cancer cells. The latter part of this thesis details the development of nanomaterial-based drug delivery platforms for the co-delivery of multiple anticancer drugs to brain tumor cells. In particular, this part of the thesis focuses on

  8. Molecular imaging by optically-detected electron spin resonance of nitrogen-vacancies in nanodiamond

    CERN Document Server

    Hegyi, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Molecular imaging refers to a class of noninvasive biomedical imaging techniques with the sensitivity and specificity to image biochemical variations in-vivo. An ideal molecular imaging technique visualizes a biochemical target according to a range of criteria, including high spatial and temporal resolution, high contrast relative to non-targeted tissues, depth-independent penetration into tissue, lack of harm to the organism under study, and low cost. Because no existing molecular imaging modality is ideal for all purposes, new imaging approaches are needed. Here we demonstrate a novel molecular imaging approach, called nanodiamond imaging, that uses nanodiamonds containing nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color centers as an imaging agent, and image nanodiamond targets in pieces of chicken breast. Nanodiamonds can be tagged with biologically active molecules so they bind to specific receptors; their distribution can then be quantified in-vivo via optically-detected magnetic resonance of the NVs. In effect, we are demo...

  9. The deleterious effects of arteriovenous fistula-creation on the cardiovascular system: a longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dundon BK

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Benjamin K Dundon,1–3 Kim Torpey,3 Adam J Nelson,1 Dennis TL Wong,1,2 Rae F Duncan,1 Ian T Meredith,2 Randall J Faull,1,3 Stephen G Worthley,1,4 Matthew I Worthley1,4 1Cardiology Department, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Central Adelaide Local Health Network, Discipline of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 2Monash Cardiovascular Research Centre, MonashHEART, Monash Health, Melbourne, Vic, Australia; 3Central Northern Renal and Transplantation Service, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Central Adelaide Local Health Network, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 4South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, Adelaide, SA, Australia Aim: Arteriovenous fistula-formation remains critical for the provision of hemodialysis in end-stage renal failure patients. Its creation results in a significant increase in cardiac output, with resultant alterations in cardiac stroke volume, systemic blood flow, and vascular resistance. The impact of fistula-formation on cardiac and vascular structure and function has not yet been evaluated via "gold standard" imaging techniques in the modern era of end-stage renal failure care. Methods: A total of 24 patients with stage 5 chronic kidney disease undergoing fistula-creation were studied in a single-arm pilot study. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging was undertaken at baseline, and prior to and 6 months following fistula-creation. This gold standard imaging modality was used to evaluate, via standard brachial flow-mediated techniques, cardiac structure and function, aortic distensibility, and endothelial function. Results: At follow up, left ventricular ejection fraction remained unchanged, while mean cardiac output increased by 25.0% (P<0.0001. Significant increases in left and right ventricular end-systolic volumes (21% [P=0.014] and 18% [P<0.01], left and right atrial area (11% [P<0.01] and 9% [P<0.01], and left ventricular mass were observed (12.7% increase (P<0.01. Endothelial

  10. Laser induced - tunneling, electron diffraction and molecular orbital imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Multiphoton ionization in the tunneling limit is similar to tunneling in a scanning tunneling microscope. In both cases an electron wave packet tunnels from a bound (or valence) state to the continuum. I will show that multiphoton ionization provides a route to extend tunneling spectroscopy to the interior of transparent solids. Rotating the laser polarization is the analogue of scanning the STM tip - a means of measuring the crystal symmetry of a solid. In gas phase molecules the momentum spectrum of individual electrons can be measured. I will show that, as we rotate the molecule with respect to the laser polarization, the photoelectron spectrum samples a filter projection of the momentum wave function (the molecular analogue to the band structure) of the ionizing orbital. Some electrons created during multiphoton ionization re-collide with their parent ion. I will show that they diffract, revealing the scattering potential of the ion - the molecular structure. The electron can also interfere with the initial orbital from which it separated, creating attosecond XUV pulses or pulse trains. The amplitude and phase of the radiation contains all information needed to re-construct the image of the orbital (just as a sheared optical interferometer can fully characterize an optical pulse). Strong field methods provide an extensive range of new tools to apply to atomic, molecular and solid-state problems. (author)

  11. Future imaging of atherosclerosis: molecular imaging of coronary atherosclerosis with (18)F positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Daniel J; Psaltis, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    Atherosclerosis is characterized by the formation of complex atheroma lesions (plaques) in arteries that pose risk by their flow-limiting nature and propensity for rupture and thrombotic occlusion. It develops in the context of disturbances to lipid metabolism and immune response, with inflammation underpinning all stages of plaque formation, progression and rupture. As the primary disease process responsible for myocardial infarction, stroke and peripheral vascular disease, atherosclerosis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality on a global scale. A precise understanding of its pathogenic mechanisms is therefore critically important. Integral to this is the role of vascular wall imaging. Over recent years, the rapidly evolving field of molecular imaging has begun to revolutionize our ability to image beyond just the anatomical substrate of vascular disease, and more dynamically assess its pathobiology. Nuclear imaging by positron emission tomography (PET) can target specific molecular and biological pathways involved in atherosclerosis, with the application of (18)Fluoride PET imaging being widely studied for its potential to identify plaques that are vulnerable or high risk. In this review, we discuss the emergence of (18)Fluoride PET as a promising modality for the assessment of coronary atherosclerosis, focusing on the strengths and limitations of the two main radionuclide tracers that have been investigated to date: 2-deoxy-2-((18)F)fluoro-D-glucose ((18)F-FDG) and sodium (18)F-fluoride ((18)F-NaF). PMID:27500093

  12. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging assessment of diastolic dysfunction in a population without heart disease: a gender-based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asymptomatic left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction is increasingly recognised as an important diagnosis. Our goal was to study the prevalence and gender differences in subclinical LV diastolic dysfunction, using cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) at 3 T. We prospectively studied 48 volunteers (19 male and 29 female, mean age 49 ± 7 years) with no evidence of cardiovascular disease. We used CMR to measure left atrium (LA) and LV volumes, LV peak filling rate and transmitral flow. The overall prevalence of LV diastolic dysfunction in our cohort varied between 20 % (based on evaluation of LV filing profiles) and 24 % (based on the evaluation of the transmitral flow). The prevalence of diastolic dysfunction was higher in men than in women, independently of the criteria used (P between 0.004 and 0.022). Indexed LV end-diastolic volume, indexed LV stroke volume, indexed LV mass, indexed LA minimum volume and indexed LA maximum volume were significantly greater in men than in women (P < 0.05). All the subjects had LV ejection fractions within the normal range. It is clinically feasible to study diastolic flow and LV filling with CMR. CMR detected diastolic dysfunction in asymptomatic men and women. (orig.)

  13. Computed tomography imaging of early coronary artery lesions in stable individuals with multiple cardiovascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Yang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence, extent, severity, and features of coronary artery lesions in stable patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: Seventy-seven patients with more than 3 cardiovascular risk factors were suspected of having coronary artery disease. Patients with high-risk factors and 39 controls with no risk factors were enrolled in the study. The related risk factors included hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia, smoking history, and overweight. The characteristics of coronary lesions were identified and evaluated by 64-slice coronary computed tomography angiography. RESULTS: The incidence of coronary atherosclerosis was higher in the high-risk group than in the no-risk group. The involved branches of the coronary artery, the diffusivity of the lesion, the degree of stenosis, and the nature of the plaques were significantly more severe in the high-risk group compared with the no-risk group (all p < 0.05. CONCLUSION: Among stable individuals with high-risk factors, early coronary artery lesions are common and severe. Computed tomography has promising value for the early screening of coronary lesions.

  14. A Review of Tumor Specific Imaging Methods: A Glance at the Use of Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Oghabian

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Background: Conventional imaging modalities of CT, MRI, ultrasound, radionuclide, and even metabolic PET are insensitive to reveal tumor and metastasis of less than few millimeters containing not much fewer than 500,000 cells. At this size, a tu-mor has effectively undergone about 20 cell dou-blings, and is sufficiently stuffed with gene defects and likely to metastasize. New techniques generally known as molecular imaging lead to a patient-specific approach based on physiologic, antigenic, molecular, and genetic disease markers. In this article, Current and the near term trends and techniques in early de-tection of cancer using gene specific, cell specific, or even patient specific approaches are summarized. A number of markers are used for cancer imaging. Anatomic markers show cell morphology defects at the sub-10-µm level on CT, MRI, and OCT (Optical Coherence Tomography. These techniques often fail to provide accurate and basic information necessary to manage the patient’s disease such as true metastatic extent. Functional markers use dynamic features, such as capillary leak (using ICG, IndoCyanine Green, lymphatic transport (by colloid, or Tc-Sestamibi, blood oxygenation, and blood flow. The features provide signal by a bulk phenomenon, and hence are still insensitive. More specifically, anti-genic probes, such as targeted antibodies have been demonstrated effectively in vivo for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, such as PSMA in the pros-tate cancer, CEA in colorectal cancer, and HER-2/neu in breast cancer. Metabolic probes accumulate at the site of a specific metabolic activity, and rely on imag-ing agents involving certain enzymatic pathways or transport functions of the cell. Examples are 18FDG (18F-fluoroDeoxyGlucose in PET and 11C-thymidine. Recent spectroscopy techniques do not need such labeled probes. The common method for in-vivo spectroscopy is MRSI (Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy that can

  15. Integration of an optical coherence tomography (OCT) system into an examination incubator to facilitate in vivo imaging of cardiovascular development in higher vertebrate embryos under stable physiological conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Happel, Christoph M.; Thrane, Lars; Thommes, Jan;

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution in vivo imaging of higher vertebrate embryos over short or long time periods under constant physiological conditions is a technically challenging task for researchers working on cardiovascular development. In chick embryos, for example, various studies have shown that without...

  16. Myocardial infarct heterogeneity assessment by late gadolinium enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging shows predictive value for ventricular arrhythmia development after acute myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robbers, Lourens F. H. J.; Delewi, Ronak; Nijveldt, Robin; Hirsch, Alexander; Beek, Aernout M.; Kemme, Michiel J. B.; van Beurden, Yvette; van der Laan, Anja M.; van der Vleuten, Pieter A.; Tio, Rene A.; Zijlstra, Felix; Piek, Jan J.; van Rossum, Albert C.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between the proportions of penumbrauvisualized by late gadolinium enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (LGE-CMR)uafter acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and the prevalence of ventricular tachycardia (VT). One-hundred and sixty-two AMI

  17. [Molecular imaging for early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo García, Miguel Angel

    2004-01-01

    The progressive aging of the population and the difficulty of diagnosing and treating Alzheimer's disease (AD) portends an exponencial increase in the prevalence of this illness. One way to approach this social and health problem is to develop diagnostic techniques that allow us to detect the disease in its pre-clinical stages and apply early treatment that can slow down AD advance. Molecular imaging, in particular that generated by positron emission tomography with 2-fluoro-2 deoxi-D-glucose (PET-FDG) has shown high sensitivity in detecting changes in cerebral metabolic activity in the early stages of AD, and allow other dementias and physiological changes that accompany normal aging to be distinguished from AD. PMID:15997594

  18. Molecular Imaging of Ultrathin Pentacene Films: Evidence for Homoepitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanfei; Haugstad, Greg; Frisbie, C. Daniel

    2013-03-01

    Ultrathin polycrystalline films of organic semiconductors have received intensive investigations due to the critical role they play in governing the performance of organic thin film transistors. In this work, a variety of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques have been employed to investigate ultrathin polycrystalline films (1-3 nm) of the benchmark organic semiconductor pentacene. By using spatially resolved Friction Force Microscopy (FFM), Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (KFM) and Electrostatic Force Microscopy (EFM), an interesting multi-domain structure is revealed within the second layer of the films, characterized as two distinct friction and surface potential domains correlating with each other. The existence of multiple homoepitaxial modes within the films is thus proposed and examined. By employing lattice-revolved imaging using contact mode SPM, direct molecular evidence for the unusual homoepitaxy is obtained.

  19. Recent trends in Molecular Imaging : PET/CT in Neurology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R P Tripathi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available PET/CT is an important molecular imaging technique for the assessment ofneurological disorders. The most widely used radiopharmaceutical for both clinical and research purposes is [18F] 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG. It is extensively used owing to its favourable physical characteristics. It enables depiction of cerebral glucose metabolism, and has thus been used to study various pathological states. Despite this, FDG has its own limitations. This is owing to its limited specificity and high cortical uptake. This has paved the way for the development of several non-FDG PET radiopharmaceuticals. We present the insights gained at our institution, using these radiotracers in the assessment of neurological disease. Our study shows that the use of FDG and non-FDG novel PET radiopharmaceuticals facilitates the early diagnosis, delineation of extent, prognostication and monitoring of therapeutic response in several neuropathological states.PET/CT is an important molecular imaging technique for the assessment ofneurological disorders. The most widely used radiopharmaceutical for both clinicaland research purposes is [18F] 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG. It is extensivelyused owing to its favourable physical characteristics. It enables depiction of cerebralglucose metabolism, and has thus been used to study various pathological states.Despite this, FDG has its own limitations. This is owing to its limited specificity andhigh cortical uptake. This has paved the way for the development of several non-FDGPET radiopharmaceuticals. We present the insights gained at our institution, usingthese radiotracers in the assessment of neurological disease. Our study shows that theuse of FDG and non-FDG novel PET radiopharmaceuticals facilitates the earlydiagnosis, delineation of extent, prognostication and monitoring of therapeuticresponse in several neuropathological states.

  20. Immunophenotyping invasive breast cancer: paving the road for molecular imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vermeulen Jeroen F

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammographic population screening in The Netherlands has increased the number of breast cancer patients with small and non-palpable breast tumors. Nevertheless, mammography is not ultimately sensitive and specific for distinct subtypes. Molecular imaging with targeted tracers might increase specificity and sensitivity of detection. Because development of new tracers is labor-intensive and costly, we searched for the smallest panel of tumor membrane markers that would allow detection of the wide spectrum of invasive breast cancers. Methods Tissue microarrays containing 483 invasive breast cancers were stained by immunohistochemistry for a selected set of membrane proteins known to be expressed in breast cancer. Results The combination of highly tumor-specific markers glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1-R, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET, and carbonic anhydrase 9 (CAIX 'detected' 45.5% of tumors, especially basal/triple negative and HER2-driven ductal cancers. Addition of markers with a 2-fold tumor-to-normal ratio increased the detection rate to 98%. Including only markers with >3 fold tumor-to-normal ratio (CD44v6 resulted in an 80% detection rate. The detection rate of the panel containing both tumor-specific and less tumor-specific markers was not dependent on age, tumor grade, tumor size, or lymph node status. Conclusions In search of the minimal panel of targeted probes needed for the highest possible detection rate, we showed that 80% of all breast cancers express at least one of a panel of membrane markers (CD44v6, GLUT1, EGFR, HER2, and IGF1-R that may therefore be suitable for molecular imaging strategies. This study thereby serves as a starting point for further development of a set of antibody-based optical tracers with a high breast cancer detection rate.

  1. Immunophenotyping invasive breast cancer: paving the road for molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammographic population screening in The Netherlands has increased the number of breast cancer patients with small and non-palpable breast tumors. Nevertheless, mammography is not ultimately sensitive and specific for distinct subtypes. Molecular imaging with targeted tracers might increase specificity and sensitivity of detection. Because development of new tracers is labor-intensive and costly, we searched for the smallest panel of tumor membrane markers that would allow detection of the wide spectrum of invasive breast cancers. Tissue microarrays containing 483 invasive breast cancers were stained by immunohistochemistry for a selected set of membrane proteins known to be expressed in breast cancer. The combination of highly tumor-specific markers glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1-R), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET), and carbonic anhydrase 9 (CAIX) 'detected' 45.5% of tumors, especially basal/triple negative and HER2-driven ductal cancers. Addition of markers with a 2-fold tumor-to-normal ratio increased the detection rate to 98%. Including only markers with >3 fold tumor-to-normal ratio (CD44v6) resulted in an 80% detection rate. The detection rate of the panel containing both tumor-specific and less tumor-specific markers was not dependent on age, tumor grade, tumor size, or lymph node status. In search of the minimal panel of targeted probes needed for the highest possible detection rate, we showed that 80% of all breast cancers express at least one of a panel of membrane markers (CD44v6, GLUT1, EGFR, HER2, and IGF1-R) that may therefore be suitable for molecular imaging strategies. This study thereby serves as a starting point for further development of a set of antibody-based optical tracers with a high breast cancer detection rate

  2. Non-invasive in-vivo imaging of stem cells after transplantation in cardiovascular tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Anders Bruun; Kastrup, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell therapy for degenerative diseases, including ischemic heart disease is now a clinical reality. In the search for the optimal cell type for each patient category, many different stem cell subpopulations have been used. In addition, different cell processing procedures and delivery methods...... no improvements. To better understand the underlying mechanisms of these results, a reverse translation from bedside to bench has been opened. Non-invasive cell tracking after implantation has a pivotal role in this translation. Imaging based methods can help elucidate important issues such as retention......, migration and efficacy of the transplanted cells. Great effort is being made in finding new and better imaging techniques for different imaging modalities, and much have already been learned. But there are still many unanswered questions. In this review, we give an overview of the imaging modalities used...

  3. Novel Metal Ion Based Estrogen Mimics for Molecular Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajagopalan, Raghavan

    2006-01-30

    The overall objective of the SBIR Phase I proposal is to prepare and evaluate a new class of {sup 99m}Tc or {sup 94m}Tc containing estrogen-like small molecules ('estrogen mimics') for SPECT or PET molecular imaging of estrogen receptor positive (ER+) tumors. In this approach, the metal ion is integrated into the estrone skeleton by isosteric substitution of a carbon atom in the steroidal structure to give new class of mimics that are topologically similar to the native estrogen (Fig. 1). Although both N{sub 2}S{sub 2} and N{sub 3}S mimics 1 and 2 were considered as target structures, molecular modeling study revealed that the presence of the acetyl group at position-15 in the N{sub 3}S mimic 2 causes steric hinderance toward binding of 2 to SHBG. Therefore, initial efforts were directed at the synthesis and evaluation of the N{sub 2}S{sub 2} mimic 1.

  4. New Researches and Application Progress of Commonly Used Optical Molecular Imaging Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yi Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical molecular imaging, a new medical imaging technique, is developed based on genomics, proteomics and modern optical imaging technique, characterized by non-invasiveness, non-radiativity, high cost-effectiveness, high resolution, high sensitivity and simple operation in comparison with conventional imaging modalities. Currently, it has become one of the most widely used molecular imaging techniques and has been applied in gene expression regulation and activity detection, biological development and cytological detection, drug research and development, pathogenesis research, pharmaceutical effect evaluation and therapeutic effect evaluation, and so forth, This paper will review the latest researches and application progresses of commonly used optical molecular imaging techniques such as bioluminescence imaging and fluorescence molecular imaging.

  5. Nuclear molecular imaging of paragangliomas; Imagerie moleculaire nucleaire des paragangliomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taieb, D.; Tessonnier, L.; Mundler, O. [Service central de biophysique et de medecine nucleaire, CHU de la Timone, 13 - Marseille (France)

    2010-08-15

    Paragangliomas (PGL) are relatively rare neural crest tumors originating in the adrenal medulla (usually called pheochromocytoma), chemoreceptors (i.e., carotid and aortic bodies) or autonomic ganglia. These tumors are highly vascular, usually benign and slow-growing. PGL may occur as sporadic or familial entities, the latter mostly in association with germline mutations of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) B, SDHC, SDHD, SDH5, von Hippel-Lindau (VHL), ret proto-oncogene (RET), neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) (von Recklinghausen's disease), prolyl hydroxylase domain protein 2 (PHD2) genes and TMEM127. Molecular nuclear imaging has a central role in characterization of PGL and include: somatostatin receptor imaging ({sup 111}In, {sup 68}Ga), MIBG scintigraphy ({sup 131}I, {sup 123}I), {sup 18}F-dihydroxy-phenylalanine ({sup 18}F-DOPA) positron emission tomography (PET), and {sup 18}F-deoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) PET. The choice of the tracer is not yet fully established but the work-up of familial forms often require the combination of multiple approaches. (authors)

  6. The Emerging Role of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Evaluation of Metabolic Cardiomyopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogeni, S; Markousis-Mavrogenis, G; Markussis, V; Kolovou, G

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this review is to discuss the role of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) in the diagnosis, risk stratification, and follow-up of metabolic cardiomyopathies. The classification of myocardial diseases, proposed by WHO/ISFC task force, distinguished specific cardiomyopathies, caused by metabolic disorders, into 4 types: 1) endocrine disorders, 2) storage or infiltration disorders (amyloidosis, hemochromatosis and familial storage disorders), 3) nutritional disorders (Kwashiorkor, beri-beri, obesity, and alcohol), and 4) diabetic heart. Thyroid disease, pheochromocytoma, and growth hormone excess or deficiency may contribute to usually reversible dilated cardiomyopathy. Glucogen storage diseases can be presented with myopathy, liver, and heart failure. Lysosomal storage diseases can provoke cardiac hypertrophy, mimicking hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and arrhythmias. Hereditary hemochromatosis, an inherited disorder of iron metabolism, leads to tissue iron overload in different organs, including the heart. Cardiac amyloidosis is the result of amyloid deposition in the heart, formed from breakdown of normal or abnormal proteins that leads to increased heart stiffness, restrictive cardiomyopathy, and heart failure. Finally, nutritional disturbances and metabolic diseases, such as Kwashiorkor, beri-beri, obesity, alcohol consumption, and diabetes mellitus may also lead to severe cardiac dysfunction. CMR, through its capability to reliably assess anatomy, function, inflammation, rest-stress myocardial perfusion, myocardial fibrosis, aortic distensibility, iron and/or fat deposition can serve as an excellent tool for early diagnosis of heart involvement, risk stratification, treatment evaluation, and long term follow-up of patients with metabolic cardiomyopathies. PMID:26197853

  7. Molecular Imaging of Tumors Using a Quantitative T1 Mapping Technique via Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Herrmann

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM with molecular imaging agents would allow for the specific localization of brain tumors. Prior studies using T1-weighted MR imaging demonstrated that the SBK2-Tris-(Gd-DOTA3 molecular imaging agent labeled heterotopic xenograft models of brain tumors more intensely than non-specific contrast agents using conventional T1-weighted imaging techniques. In this study, we used a dynamic quantitative T1 mapping strategy to more objectively compare intra-tumoral retention of the SBK2-Tris-(Gd-DOTA3 agent over time in comparison to non-targeted control agents. Our results demonstrate that the targeted SBK2-Tris-(Gd-DOTA3 agent, a scrambled-Tris-(Gd-DOTA3 control agent, and the non-specific clinical contrast agent Optimark™ all enhanced flank tumors of human glioma cells with similar maximal changes on T1 mapping. However, the retention of the agents differs. The non-specific agents show significant recovery within 20 min by an increase in T1 while the specific agent SBK2-Tris-(Gd-DOTA3 is retained in the tumors and shows little recovery over 60 min. The retention effect is demonstrated by percent change in T1 values and slope calculations as well as by calculations of gadolinium concentration in tumor compared to muscle. Quantitative T1 mapping demonstrates the superior binding and retention in tumors of the SBK2-Tris-(Gd-DOTA3 agent over time compared to the non-specific contrast agent currently in clinical use.

  8. A Data Mining Approach for Cardiovascular Disease Diagnosis Using Heart Rate Variability and Images of Carotid Arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeongsoo Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we proposed not only an extraction methodology of multiple feature vectors from ultrasound images for carotid arteries (CAs and heart rate variability (HRV of electrocardiogram signal, but also a suitable and reliable prediction model useful in the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease (CVD. For inventing the multiple feature vectors, we extract a candidate feature vector through image processing and measurement of the thickness of carotid intima-media (IMT. As a complementary way, the linear and/or nonlinear feature vectors are also extracted from HRV, a main index for cardiac disorder. The significance of the multiple feature vectors is tested with several machine learning methods, namely Neural Networks, Support Vector Machine (SVM, Classification based on Multiple Association Rule (CMAR, Decision tree induction and Bayesian classifier. As a result, multiple feature vectors extracted from both CAs and HRV (CA+HRV showed higher accuracy than the separative feature vectors of CAs and HRV. Furthermore, the SVM and CMAR showed about 89.51% and 89.46%, respectively, in terms of diagnosing accuracy rate after evaluating the diagnosis or prediction methods using the finally chosen multiple feature vectors. Therefore, the multiple feature vectors devised in this paper can be effective diagnostic indicators of CVD. In addition, the feature vector analysis and prediction techniques are expected to be helpful tools in the decisions of cardiologists.

  9. Multispectral optoacoustic and MRI coregistration for molecular imaging of orthotopic model of human glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Amalina Binte Ebrahim; Ho, Chris Jun Hui; Chandrasekharan, Prashant; Balasundaram, Ghayathri; Tay, Hui Chien; Burton, Neal C; Chuang, Kai-Hsiang; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Olivo, Malini

    2016-07-01

    Multi-modality imaging methods are of great importance in oncologic studies for acquiring complementary information, enhancing the efficacy in tumor detection and characterization. We hereby demonstrate a hybrid non-invasive in vivo imaging approach of utilizing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Multispectral Optoacoustic Tomography (MSOT) for molecular imaging of glucose uptake in an orthotopic glioblastoma in mouse. The molecular and functional information from MSOT can be overlaid on MRI anatomy via image coregistration to provide insights into probe uptake in the brain, which is verified by ex vivo fluorescence imaging and histological validation. In vivo MSOT and MRI imaging of an orthotopic glioma mouse model injected with IRDye800-2DG. Image coregistration between MSOT and MRI enables multifaceted (anatomical, functional, molecular) information from MSOT to be overlaid on MRI anatomy images to derive tumor physiological parameters such as perfusion, haemoglobin and oxygenation. PMID:27091626

  10. Contributions on biomedical imaging, with a side-look at molecular imaging; Beitraege zur biomedizinischen Bildgebung mit einem Seitenblick auf Molecular Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, G. (ed.)

    2004-05-01

    This report is intended as a brief introduction to the emerging scientific field of biomedical imaging. The breadth of the subject is shown and future fields of research are indicated, which hopefully will serve as a guide to the identification of starting points for the research in 'Biomedical and/or Molecular Imaging' at the GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health. The report starts with a brief sketch of the history. Then a - necessarily incomplete - list of research topics is presented. It is organized in two parts: the first one addresses medical imaging, and the second one is concerned with biological point aspects of the matter. (orig.) [German] In diesem Bericht sind einige Beitraege zum Gebiet 'Bildgebende Verfahren in Biologie und Medizin' zusammengestellt. Sie stammen saemtlich aus dem Institut fuer Biomathematik und Biometrie, IBB, am Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, GSF, in Muenchen/Neuherberg, und seinem engeren Umfeld. Ziel war es, zu sichten, was in und um diesen Themenkreis herum an Wissen und sonstiger Kompetenz hier vorhanden ist. Einige am IBB etablierte Gebiete wie Roentgen-Mammographie oder funktionelle Magnetresonanztherapie wurden ausgeblendet. Der Grund ist die Fokussierung auf ein nicht exakt definierbares, neues Gebiet der Bildgebung, das unter dem Namen 'Molecular Imaging' kursiert und derzeit Furore macht macht. (orig.)

  11. Ultra-Wideband Sensors for Improved Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cardiovascular Monitoring and Tumour Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Seifert

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The specific advantages of ultra-wideband electromagnetic remote sensing (UWB radar make it a particularly attractive technique for biomedical applications. We partially review our activities in utilizing this novel approach for the benefit of high and ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and other applications, e.g., for intensive care medicine and biomedical research. We could show that our approach is beneficial for applications like motion tracking for high resolution brain imaging due to the non-contact acquisition of involuntary head motions with high spatial resolution, navigation for cardiac MRI due to our interpretation of the detected physiological mechanical contraction of the heart muscle and for MR safety, since we have investigated the influence of high static magnetic fields on myocardial mechanics. From our findings we could conclude, that UWB radar can serve as a navigator technique for high and ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging and can be beneficial preserving the high resolution capability of this imaging modality. Furthermore it can potentially be used to support standard ECG analysis by complementary information where sole ECG analysis fails. Further analytical investigations have proven the feasibility of this method for intracranial displacements detection and the rendition of a tumour’s contrast agent based perfusion dynamic. Beside these analytical approaches we have carried out FDTD simulations of a complex arrangement mimicking the illumination of a human torso model incorporating the geometry of the antennas applied.

  12. The protective effects of Schisandra chinensis fruit extract and its lignans against cardiovascular disease: a review of the molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Jung Nyeo; Cho, Minsoo; So, Insuk; Jeon, Ju-Hong

    2014-09-01

    Schisandra chinensis fruit extract (SCE) has traditionally been used as an oriental medicine for the treatment of various human diseases, including cardiovascular disease. Advances in scientific knowledge and analytical technologies provide opportunities for translational research involving S. chinensis; such research may contribute to future drug discovery. To date, emerging experimental evidence supports the therapeutic effects of the SCE or its bioactive lignan ingredients in cardiovascular disease, unraveling the mechanistic basis for their pharmacological actions. In the present review, we highlight SCE and its lignans as promising resources for the development of safe, effective, and multi-targeted agents against cardiovascular disease. Moreover, we offer novel insight into future challenges and perspective on S. chinensis research to future clinical investigations and healthcare strategies.

  13. Eponymous cardiovascular surgeries for congenital heart diseases--imaging review and historical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buethe, Ji; Ashwath, Ravi C; Rajiah, Prabhakar

    2015-01-01

    Advances in pediatric cardiology and cardiac surgical techniques over the past few decades have revolutionized the management of the patients with congenital heart disease, and many now survive into adulthood. Several eponymous surgical procedures performed for congenital heart disease have been named after eminent surgeons. In this article, we provide a short biography of the surgeons associated with these eponymous surgical procedures along with their other important scientific contributions. This is followed by a review of these surgical procedures and their most common complications. Imaging appearances of these surgical procedures along with common complications are described and illustrated, with particular emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging. The surgical procedures described in this review include Blalock-Taussig, Potts, Waterston, Glenn, Fontan, Kawashima, Norwood, Sano, Damus-Kaye-Stansel, Mustard, Senning, Jatene, LeCompte, Rastelli, Rashkind, Ross, and Waldenhausen.

  14. Exploiting Molecular Biology by Time-Resolved Fluorescence Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Francis; Fattinger, Christof

    Many contemporary biological investigations rely on highly sensitive in vitro assays for the analysis of specific molecules in biological specimens, and the main part of these assays depends on high-sensitivity fluorescence detection techniques for the final readout. The analyzed molecules and molecular interactions in the specimen need to be detected in the presence of other highly abundant biomolecules, while the analyzed molecules themselves are only present at nano-, pico-, or even femtomolar concentration.A short scientific rationale of fluorescence is presented. It emphasizes the use of fluorescent labels for sensitive assays in life sciences and specifies the main properties of an ideal fluorophore. With fluorescence lifetimes in the microsecond range and fluorescence quantum yield of 0.4 some water soluble complexes of Ruthenium like modified Ru(sulfobathophenanthroline) complexes fulfill these properties. They are outstanding fluorescent labels for ultrasensitive assays as illustrated in two examples, in drug discovery and in point of care testing.We discuss the fundamentals and the state-of-the-art of the most sensitive time-gated fluorescence assays. We reflect on how the imaging devices currently employed for readout of these assays might evolve in the future. Many contemporary biological investigations rely on highly sensitive in vitro assays for the analysis of specific molecules in biological specimens, and the main part of these assays depends on high-sensitivity fluorescence detection techniques for the final readout. The analyzed molecules and molecular interactions in the specimen need to be detected in the presence of other highly abundant biomolecules, while the analyzed molecules themselves are only present at nano-, pico-, or even femtomolar concentration.A short scientific rationale of fluorescence is presented. It emphasizes the use of fluorescent labels for sensitive assays in life sciences and specifies the main properties of an ideal

  15. Where Does It Lead? Imaging Features of Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Devices on Chest Radiograph and CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanzman, Rotem S.; Blondin, Dirk; Furst, Gunter; Scherer, Axel; R Miese, Falk; Kroepil, Patric [University of Duesseldorf, Medical Faculty, 40225 Duesseldorf (Germany); Winter, Joachim [University Hospital Duesseldorf, 40225 Duesseldorf (Germany); Abbara, Suhny [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (US)

    2011-10-15

    Pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) are being increasingly employed in patients suffering from cardiac rhythm disturbances. The principal objective of this article is to familiarize radiologists with pacemakers and ICDs on chest radiographs and CT scans. Therefore, the preferred lead positions according to pacemaker types and anatomic variants are introduced in this study. Additionally, the imaging features of incorrect lead positions and defects, as well as complications subsequent to pacemaker implantation are demonstrated herein.

  16. Non-Contrast Enhanced Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Characterizing Chronic Myocardial Infarctions

    OpenAIRE

    Kali, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is the leading cause of morbidity and death globally. Non-invasive characterization of chronic MIs is of significant clinical importance due to its association with adverse cardiac outcomes such as cardiac arrhythmias, heart failure, and sudden cardiac death. Late Gadolinium Enhancement (LGE) MRI has evolved into a robust non-invasive imaging technique for characterizing chronic MIs and identifying new pathophysiological substrates of adverse cardiac outcomes within...

  17. Where Does It Lead? Imaging Features of Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Devices on Chest Radiograph and CT

    OpenAIRE

    Lanzman, Rotem S.; Winter, Joachim; Blondin, Dirk; Fürst, Günter; Scherer, Axel; Miese, Falk R; Abbara, Suhny; Kröpil, Patric

    2011-01-01

    Pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) are being increasingly employed in patients suffering from cardiac rhythm disturbances. The principal objective of this article is to familiarize radiologists with pacemakers and ICDs on chest radiographs and CT scans. Therefore, the preferred lead positions according to pacemaker types and anatomic variants are introduced in this study. Additionally, the imaging features of incorrect lead positions and defects, as well as complica...

  18. Perspectives in molecular imaging through translational research, human medicine, and veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Clifford R; Garg, Predeep

    2014-01-01

    The concept of molecular imaging has taken off over the past 15 years to the point of the renaming of the Society of Nuclear Medicine (Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging) and Journals (European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging) and offering of medical fellowships specific to this area of study. Molecular imaging has always been at the core of functional imaging related to nuclear medicine. Even before the phrase molecular imaging came into vogue, radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals were developed that targeted select physiological processes, proteins, receptor analogs, antibody-antigen interactions, metabolites and specific metabolic pathways. In addition, with the advent of genomic imaging, targeted genomic therapy, and theranostics, a number of novel radiopharmaceuticals for the detection and therapy of specific tumor types based on unique biological and cellular properties of the tumor itself have been realized. However, molecular imaging and therapeutics as well as the concept of theranostics are yet to be fully realized. The purpose of this review article is to present an overview of the translational approaches to targeted molecular imaging with application to some naturally occurring animal models of human disease.

  19. A Molecular Imaging Approach to Mercury Sensing Based on Hyperpolarized (129)Xe Molecular Clamp Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qianni; Zeng, Qingbin; Jiang, Weiping; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Luo, Qing; Zhang, Xu; Bouchard, Louis-S; Liu, Maili; Zhou, Xin

    2016-03-14

    Mercury pollution, in the form of mercury ions (Hg(2+)), is a major health and environmental hazard. Commonly used sensors are invasive and limited to point measurements. Fluorescence-based sensors do not provide depth resolution needed to image spatial distributions. Herein we report a novel sensor capable of yielding spatial distributions by MRI using hyperpolarized (129)Xe. A molecular clamp probe was developed consisting of dipyrrolylquinoxaline (DPQ) derivatives and twocryptophane-A cages. The DPQ derivatives act as cation receptors whereas cryptophane-A acts as a suitable host molecule for xenon. When the DPQ moiety interacts with mercury ions, the molecular clamp closes on the ion. Due to overlap of the electron clouds of the two cryptophane-A cages, the shielding effect on the encapsulated Xe becomes important. This leads to an upfield change of the chemical shift of the encapsulated Xe. This sensor exhibits good selectivity and sensitivity toward the mercury ion. This mercury-activated hyperpolarized (129)Xe-based chemosensor is a new concept method for monitoring Hg(2+) ion distributions by MRI.

  20. SU-E-I-39: Molecular Image Guided Cancer Stem Cells Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Cancer stem cells resistance to radiation is a problematic issue that has caused a big fail in cancer treatment. Methods: As a primary work, molecular imaging can indicate the main mechanisms of radiation resistance of cancer stem cells. By developing and commissioning new probes and nanomolecules and biomarkers, radiation scientist will able to identify the essential pathways of radiation resistance of cancer stem cells. As the second solution, molecular imaging is a best way to find biological target volume and delineate cancer stem cell tissues. In the other hand, by molecular imaging techniques one can image the treatment response in tumor and also in normal tissue. In this issue, the response of cancer stem cells to radiation during therapy course can be imaged, also the main mechanisms of radiation resistance and finding the best radiation modifiers (sensitizers) can be achieved by molecular imaging modalities. In adaptive radiotherapy the molecular imaging plays a vital role to have higher tumor control probability by delivering high radiation doses to cancer stem cells in any time of treatment. The outcome of a feasible treatment is dependent to high cancer stem cells response to radiation and removing all of which, so a good imaging modality can show this issue and preventing of tumor recurrence and metastasis. Results: Our results are dependent to use of molecular imaging as a new modality in the clinic. We propose molecular imaging as a new radiobiological technique to solve radiation therapy problems due to cancer stem cells. Conclusion: Molecular imaging guided cancer stem cell diagnosis and therapy is a new approach in the field of cancer treatment. This new radiobiological imaging technique should be developed in all clinics as a feasible tool that is more biological than physical imaging

  1. SU-E-I-39: Molecular Image Guided Cancer Stem Cells Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdollahi, H

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Cancer stem cells resistance to radiation is a problematic issue that has caused a big fail in cancer treatment. Methods: As a primary work, molecular imaging can indicate the main mechanisms of radiation resistance of cancer stem cells. By developing and commissioning new probes and nanomolecules and biomarkers, radiation scientist will able to identify the essential pathways of radiation resistance of cancer stem cells. As the second solution, molecular imaging is a best way to find biological target volume and delineate cancer stem cell tissues. In the other hand, by molecular imaging techniques one can image the treatment response in tumor and also in normal tissue. In this issue, the response of cancer stem cells to radiation during therapy course can be imaged, also the main mechanisms of radiation resistance and finding the best radiation modifiers (sensitizers) can be achieved by molecular imaging modalities. In adaptive radiotherapy the molecular imaging plays a vital role to have higher tumor control probability by delivering high radiation doses to cancer stem cells in any time of treatment. The outcome of a feasible treatment is dependent to high cancer stem cells response to radiation and removing all of which, so a good imaging modality can show this issue and preventing of tumor recurrence and metastasis. Results: Our results are dependent to use of molecular imaging as a new modality in the clinic. We propose molecular imaging as a new radiobiological technique to solve radiation therapy problems due to cancer stem cells. Conclusion: Molecular imaging guided cancer stem cell diagnosis and therapy is a new approach in the field of cancer treatment. This new radiobiological imaging technique should be developed in all clinics as a feasible tool that is more biological than physical imaging.

  2. Basic research and clinical application of optical molecular imaging in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a rapidly developing biomedical imaging technology,in vivo optical molecular imaging has been widely applied in various research fields owing to its unique real-time, quantitative and noninvasive characteristics. The applications of in vivo optical imaging technology in the basic and clinical research of breast cancer were reviewed, including detection of distant metastasis,tumor apoptosis, cell cycle, hypoxia and angiogenesis, ER-mediated molecular pathway, breast cancer stem cells, early diagnosis, sentinel node biopsy, evaluation of drug efficacy and detection of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) expression. They all seem to have a promising potential in in vivo optical molecular imaging. (authors)

  3. Segmentation of the heart and major vascular structures in cardiovascular CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, J.; Ecabert, O.; Lorenz, C.; von Berg, J.; Walker, M. J.; Ivanc, T. B.; Vembar, M.; Olszewski, M. E.; Weese, J.

    2008-03-01

    Segmentation of organs in medical images can be successfully performed with shape-constrained deformable models. A surface mesh is attracted to detected image boundaries by an external energy, while an internal energy keeps the mesh similar to expected shapes. Complex organs like the heart with its four chambers can be automatically segmented using a suitable shape variablility model based on piecewise affine degrees of freedom. In this paper, we extend the approach to also segment highly variable vascular structures. We introduce a dedicated framework to adapt an extended mesh model to freely bending vessels. This is achieved by subdividing each vessel into (short) tube-shaped segments ("tubelets"). These are assigned to individual similarity transformations for local orientation and scaling. Proper adaptation is achieved by progressively adapting distal vessel parts to the image only after proximal neighbor tubelets have already converged. In addition, each newly activated tubelet inherits the local orientation and scale of the preceeding one. To arrive at a joint segmentation of chambers and vasculature, we extended a previous model comprising endocardial surfaces of the four chambers, the left ventricular epicardium, and a pulmonary artery trunk. Newly added are the aorta (ascending and descending plus arch), superior and inferior vena cava, coronary sinus, and four pulmonary veins. These vessels are organized as stacks of triangulated rings. This mesh configuration is most suitable to define tubelet segments. On 36 CT data sets reconstructed at several cardiac phases from 17 patients, segmentation accuracies of 0.61-0.80mm are obtained for the cardiac chambers. For the visible parts of the newly added great vessels, surface accuracies of 0.47-1.17mm are obtained (larger errors are asscociated with faintly contrasted venous structures).

  4. The Center for Integrated Molecular Brain Imaging (Cimbi) database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Gitte M; Jensen, Peter S; Erritzoe, David; Baaré, William F C; Ettrup, Anders; Fisher, Patrick M; Gillings, Nic; Hansen, Hanne D; Hansen, Lars Kai; Hasselbalch, Steen G; Henningsson, Susanne; Herth, Matthias M; Holst, Klaus K; Iversen, Pernille; Kessing, Lars V; Macoveanu, Julian; Madsen, Kathrine Skak; Mortensen, Erik L; Nielsen, Finn Årup; Paulson, Olaf B; Siebner, Hartwig R; Stenbæk, Dea S; Svarer, Claus; Jernigan, Terry L; Strother, Stephen C; Frokjaer, Vibe G

    2016-01-01

    We here describe a multimodality neuroimaging containing data from healthy volunteers and patients, acquired within the Lundbeck Foundation Center for Integrated Molecular Brain Imaging (Cimbi) in Copenhagen, Denmark. The data is of particular relevance for neurobiological research questions related to the serotonergic transmitter system with its normative data on the serotonergic subtype receptors 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT4 and the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT), but can easily serve other purposes. The Cimbi database and Cimbi biobank were formally established in 2008 with the purpose to store the wealth of Cimbi-acquired data in a highly structured and standardized manner in accordance with the regulations issued by the Danish Data Protection Agency as well as to provide a quality-controlled resource for future hypothesis-generating and hypothesis-driven studies. The Cimbi database currently comprises a total of 1100 PET and 1000 structural and functional MRI scans and it holds a multitude of additional data, such as genetic and biochemical data, and scores from 17 self-reported questionnaires and from 11 neuropsychological paper/computer tests. The database associated Cimbi biobank currently contains blood and in some instances saliva samples from about 500 healthy volunteers and 300 patients with e.g., major depression, dementia, substance abuse, obesity, and impulsive aggression. Data continue to be added to the Cimbi database and biobank. PMID:25891375

  5. 心血管MRI第二部分--心血管MRI的基本序列和常用技术%Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging:Part II--the basic sequences and common techniques of cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹刚; 贺光军; 赵世华

    2013-01-01

    This article is the second section. The basic contrast behaviors, sequences, and requirements of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging were described in detail. First, three basic fast sequences for CMR imaging and different contrast behaviors were summarized. Second, some common used technique strategies for solving the problems in CMR imaging were presented.%此文为第二部分,着重介绍心血管MRI(CMRI)的基本对比、序列及要求。首先,归纳CMRI的三种基本快速成像序列和图像的对比分类。然后,应对CMRI的技术挑战和难点,讲述CMRI质量控制的常用技术。

  6. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance in Marfan syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Dormand, Helen; Mohiaddin, Raad H

    2013-01-01

    This review provides an overview of Marfan syndrome with an emphasis on cardiovascular complications and cardiovascular imaging. Both pre- and post-operative imaging is addressed with an explanation of surgical management. All relevant imaging modalities are discussed with a particular focus on cardiovascular MR.

  7. Nanoimaging in cardiovascular diseases: Current state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryyani Deb

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has been integrated into healthcare system in terms of diagnosis as well as therapy. The massive impact of imaging nanotechnology has a deeper intervention in cardiology i.e. as contrast agents , to target vulnerable plaques with site specificity and in a theranostic approach to treat these plaques, stem cell delivery in necrotic myocardium, etc. Thus cardiovascular nanoimaging is not limited to simple diagnosis but also can help real time tracking during therapy as well as surgery. The present review provides a comprehensive description of the molecular imaging techniques for cardiovascular diseases with the help of nanotechnology and the potential clinical implications of nanotechnology for future applications.

  8. Molecular imaging of HER2-positive breast cancer: a step toward an individualized 'image and treat' strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capala, Jacek; Bouchelouche, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    HER2 overexpression is correlated with aggressive tumor behavior and poor clinical outcome. Therefore, HER2 has become an important prognostic and predictive factor, as well as a target for molecular therapies. The article reviews recent advances in molecular imaging of HER2 that could facilitate...... individual approaches to targeted therapy of HER2-positive breast cancers....

  9. Advance in molecular imaging research of vascular smooth muscle cells in the vascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are the primary cells within the vascular wall structure and maintain the tension of blood vessels, playing a key role in the restenosis, atherosclerosis and some other vascular diseases. With the development of molecular imaging, VSMCs cellular level of imaging studies is becoming more and more attention. The phenotype modulation, proliferation, migration and molecular imaging research progress of VSMCs in pathologic state were reviewed, to improve the management of vascular restenosis and atherosclerosis. (authors)

  10. Molecular markers in breast cancer: new tools in imaging and prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeulen, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Although breast cancer is mainly diagnosed by mammography, other imaging modalities (e.g. MRI, PET) are increasingly used. The most recent developments in the field of molecular imaging comprise the application of near-infrared fluorescent labeled (NIRF) tracers for detection of breast cancer. Thus far, only a few molecular imaging tracers have been taken to the clinic of which most are suitable for PET. My thesis describes the e...

  11. Clinical implications of microvascular obstruction and intramyocardial haemorrhage in acute myocardial infarction using cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekkers, Sebastiaan C.A.M.; Smulders, Martijn W.; Waltenberger, Johannes; Gorgels, Anton P.M.; Schalla, Simon [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Passos, Valeria Lima [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Methodology and Statistics, Maastricht (Netherlands); Leiner, Tim [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2010-11-15

    To investigate the clinical implications of microvascular obstruction (MVO) and intramyocardial haemorrhage (IMH) in acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Ninety patients with a first AMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were studied. T2-weighted, cine and late gadolinium-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging was performed at 5 {+-} 2 and 103 {+-} 11 days. Patients were categorised into three groups based on the presence or absence of MVO and IMH. MVO was observed in 54% and IMH in 43% of patients, and correlated significantly (r = 0.8, p < 0.001). Pre-PCI thrombolysis in myocardial infarction 3 flow was only observed in MVO(-)/IMH(-) patients. Infarct size and impairment of systolic function were largest in MVO(+)/IMH(+) patients (n = 39, 23 {+-} 9% and 47 {+-} 7%), smallest in MVO(-)/IMH(-) patients (n = 41, 8 {+-} 8% and 55 {+-} 8%) and intermediate in MVO(+)/IMH(-) patients (n = 10, 16 {+-} 7% and 51 {+-} 6%, p < 0.001). LVEF increased in all three subgroups at follow-up, but remained intermediate in MVO(+)/IMH(-) and was lowest in MVO(+)/IMH(+) patients. Using random intercept model analysis, only infarct size was an independent predictor for adverse LV remodelling. Intramyocardial haemorrhage and microvascular obstruction are strongly related. Pre-PCI TIMI 3 flow is less frequently observed in patients with MVO and IMH. Only infarct size was an independent predictor of LV remodelling. (orig.)

  12. Investigations on the usefulness of CEACAMs as potential imaging targets for molecular imaging purposes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Heine

    Full Text Available Members of the carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs family are the prototype of tumour markers. Classically they are used as serum markers, however, CEACAMs could serve as targets for molecular imaging as well.In order to test the anti CEACAM monoclonal antibody T84.1 for imaging purposes, CEACAM expression was analysed using this antibody. Twelve human cancer cell lines from different entities were screened for their CEACAM expression using qPCR, Western Blot and FACS analysis. In addition, CEACAM expression was analyzed in primary tumour xenografts of these cells. Nine of 12 tumour cell lines expressed CEACAM mRNA and protein when grown in vitro. Pancreatic and colon cancer cell lines showed the highest expression levels with good correlation of mRNA and protein level. However, when grown in vivo, the CEACAM expression was generally downregulated except for the melanoma cell lines. As the CEACAM expression showed pronounced expression in FemX-1 primary tumours, this model system was used for further experiments. As the accessibility of the antibody after i.v. application is critical for its use in molecular imaging, the binding of the T84.1 monoclonal antibody was assessed after i.v. injection into SCID mice harbouring a FemX-1 primary tumour. When applied i.v., the CEACAM specific T84.1 antibody bound to tumour cells in the vicinity of blood vessels. This binding pattern was particularly pronounced in the periphery of the tumour xenograft, however, some antibody binding was also observed in the central areas of the tumour around blood vessels. Still, a general penetration of the tumour by i.v. application of the anti CEACAM antibody could not be achieved despite homogenous CEACAM expression of all melanoma cells when analysed in tissue sections. This lack of penetration is probably due to the increased interstitial fluid pressure in tumours caused by the absence of functional lymphatic vessels.

  13. Strengths and Limitations of Current Adult Nomograms for the Aorta Obtained by Noninvasive Cardiovascular Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantinotti, Massimiliano; Giordano, Raffaele; Clemente, Alberto; Assanta, Nadia; Murzi, Michele; Murzi, Bruno; Crocetti, Maura; Marotta, Marco; Scalese, Marco; Kutty, Shelby; Iervasi, Giorgio

    2016-07-01

    Normalized measurements for the evaluation of aortic disease severity are preferred to the adoption of generic cutoff values. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the strengths and limitations of currently available aortic nomograms by echocardiography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A literature search was conducted accessing the National Library of Medicine using the keywords normal values, aorta, echocardiography, CT, and MRI. Addition of these keywords further refined the results: reference values, nomograms, aortic arch, and adults. Thirty studies were included in the final analysis. Despite the strengths noted in the recent investigations, multiple methodological and numerical limitations emerged. The numerical limitations included sample size limitation in most of the studies (only few investigations consisted of >800 subjects and many had 70-300), lack of aortic arch measurements, and paucity of data for non-Caucasian subjects. Methodological limitations consisted of lack of standardization in measurements (systole vs. diastole, internal vs. external border, axial vs. orthogonal planes), heterogeneity and data normalization issues (various age intervals used, body size often not evaluated, data expressed as observed values rather than estimated values by z-score), and study design issues. The designs were mostly retrospective with poorly defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The nomograms presented range of normality with significant differences, but also with some reproducible pattern. Despite recent advances, multiple methodological or numerical limitations exist in adult nomograms for the aorta. Comprehensive nomograms of aortic dimensions at multiple levels including the aortic arch for different imaging techniques, involving a wide sample size, and using standardized methodology for measurements and data normalization are warranted. The availability of robust nomograms may encourage the use of personalized

  14. Cardiac pathologies in female carriers of Duchenne muscular dystrophy assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common and severe dystrophinopathy. DMD carriers rarely present with clinical symptoms, but may suffer from cardiac involvement. Because echocardiographic findings are inconsistent and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) data are limited, this study sought to investigate asymptomatic carriers for cardiac abnormalities using CMRI. Fifteen genetically confirmed DMD carriers (age, 32.3 ± 10.2 years) were prospectively examined on a 1.5T MR system. Cine, T2, and late-gadolinium-enhanced (LGE) images were acquired, and were evaluated in consensus by two experienced readers. Left ventricular (LV) parameters were analysed semiautomatically, normalized to BSA. Normalized LV end-diastolic volume was increased in 7 % (73.7 ± 16.8 ml/m2; range, 48-116 ml/m2) and normalized LV end-systolic volume in 20 % (31.5 ± 13.3 ml/m2; range, 15-74 ml/m2). EF was reduced in 33 % (58.4 ± 7.6 %; range, 37-69 %) and normalized LV myocardial mass in 80 % (40.5 ± 6.8 g/m2; range, 31-55 g/m2). In 80 %, regional myocardial thinning was detected in more than one segment. In 13 % and 40 %, apical-lateral accentuation of LV non-compaction was present. LGE was found in 60 % (midmyocardial inferolateral accentuation). Given the high frequency of cardiac pathologies detected by CMRI, regular cardiac risk assessment is advisable for DMD carriers. Besides clinical examination, CMRI is an excellent tool for this purpose. (orig.)

  15. Cardiac pathologies in female carriers of Duchenne muscular dystrophy assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schelhorn, Juliane; Schemuth, Haemi; Nensa, Felix; Nassenstein, Kai; Forsting, Michael; Schlosser, Thomas [University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Schoenecker, Anne; Neudorf, Ulrich [University Hospital Essen, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Essen (Germany); Schara, Ulrike [University Hospital Essen, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Essen (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common and severe dystrophinopathy. DMD carriers rarely present with clinical symptoms, but may suffer from cardiac involvement. Because echocardiographic findings are inconsistent and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) data are limited, this study sought to investigate asymptomatic carriers for cardiac abnormalities using CMRI. Fifteen genetically confirmed DMD carriers (age, 32.3 ± 10.2 years) were prospectively examined on a 1.5T MR system. Cine, T2, and late-gadolinium-enhanced (LGE) images were acquired, and were evaluated in consensus by two experienced readers. Left ventricular (LV) parameters were analysed semiautomatically, normalized to BSA. Normalized LV end-diastolic volume was increased in 7 % (73.7 ± 16.8 ml/m{sup 2}; range, 48-116 ml/m{sup 2}) and normalized LV end-systolic volume in 20 % (31.5 ± 13.3 ml/m{sup 2}; range, 15-74 ml/m{sup 2}). EF was reduced in 33 % (58.4 ± 7.6 %; range, 37-69 %) and normalized LV myocardial mass in 80 % (40.5 ± 6.8 g/m{sup 2}; range, 31-55 g/m{sup 2}). In 80 %, regional myocardial thinning was detected in more than one segment. In 13 % and 40 %, apical-lateral accentuation of LV non-compaction was present. LGE was found in 60 % (midmyocardial inferolateral accentuation). Given the high frequency of cardiac pathologies detected by CMRI, regular cardiac risk assessment is advisable for DMD carriers. Besides clinical examination, CMRI is an excellent tool for this purpose. (orig.)

  16. Effect of Papillary Muscles and Trabeculae on Left Ventricular Measurement Using Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patients with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Eun-Ah; Lee, Whal [Department of Radiology, Cardiovascular Division, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung-Kwan [Department of Internal Medicine, Cardiovascular Division, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin Wook [Department of Radiology, Cardiovascular Division, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the influence of papillary muscles and trabeculae on left ventricular (LV) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) analysis using three methods of cavity delineation (classic or modified inclusion methods, and the exclusion method) in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). This retrospective study included 20 consecutive HCM patients who underwent 1.5-T CMR imaging with short-axis cine stacks of the entire LV. LV measurements were performed using three different methods of manual cavity delineation of the endocardial and epicardial contours: method A, presumed endocardial boundary as seen on short-axis cine images; method B, including solely the cavity and closely adjacent trabeculae; or method C, excluding papillary muscles and trabeculae. Ascending aorta forward flow was measured as reference for LV-stroke volume (SV). Interobserver reproducibility was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients. Method A showed larger end-diastole and end-systole volumes (largest percentage differences of 25% and 68%, respectively, p < 0.05), compared with method C. The ejection fraction was 55.7 ± 6.9% for method A, 68.6 ± 8.4% for B, and 71.7 ± 7.0% for C (p < 0.001). Mean mass was also significantly different: 164.6 ± 47.4 g for A, 176.5 ± 50.5 g for B, and 199.6 ± 53.2 g for C (p < 0.001). LV-SV error was largest with method B (p < 0.001). No difference in interobserver agreement was observed (p > 0.05). In HCM patients, LV measurements are strikingly different dependent on whether papillary muscles and trabeculae are included or excluded. Therefore, a consistent method of LV cavity delineation may be crucial during longitudinal follow-up to avoid misinterpretation and erroneous clinical decision-making.

  17. Radiolabelled nanoparticles: novel classification of radiopharmaceuticals for molecular imaging of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirshojaei, Seyedeh Fatemeh; Ahmadi, Amirhossein; Morales-Avila, Enrique; Ortiz-Reynoso, Mariana; Reyes-Perez, Horacio

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology has been used for every single modality in the molecular imaging arena for imaging purposes. Synergic advantages can be explored when multiple molecular imaging modalities are combined with respect to single imaging modalities. Multifunctional nanoparticles have large surface areas, where multiple functional moieties can be incorporated, including ligands for site-specific targeting and radionuclides, which can be detected to create 3D images. Recently, radiolabeled nanoparticles with individual properties have attracted great interest regarding their use in multimodality tumor imaging. Multifunctional nanoparticles can combine diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities for both target-specific diagnosis and the treatment of a given disease. The future of nanomedicine lies in multifunctional nanoplatforms that combine the diagnostic ability and therapeutic effects using appropriate ligands, drugs, responses and technological devices, which together are collectively called theranostic drugs. Co-delivery of radiolabeled nanoparticles is useful in multifunctional molecular imaging areas because it comprises several advantages based on nanoparticles architecture, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic properties.

  18. MARS spectral molecular imaging of lamb tissue: data collection and image analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Aamir, R; Bateman, C.J.; Butler, A.P.H.; Butler, P.H.; Anderson, N.G.; Bell, S.T.; Panta, R.K.; Healy, J.L.; Mohr, J.L.; Rajendran, K.; Walsh, M.F.; Ruiter, N.de; Gieseg, S.P.; Woodfield, T.; Renaud, P.F.; Brooke, L.; Abdul-Majid, S.; Clyne, M.; Glendenning, R.; Bones, P.J.; Billinghurst, M.; Bartneck, C.; Mandalika, H.; Grasset, R.; Schleich, N.; Scott, N.; Nik, S.J.; Opie, A.; Janmale, T.; Tang, D.N.; Kim, D.; Doesburg, R.M.; Zainon, R.; Ronaldson, J.P.; Cook, N.J.; Smithies, D.J.; Hodge, K.

    2014-01-01

    Spectral molecular imaging is a new imaging technique able to discriminate and quantify different components of tissue simultaneously at high spatial and high energy resolution. Our MARS scanner is an x-ray based small animal CT system designed to be used in the diagnostic energy range (20 to 140 keV). In this paper, we demonstrate the use of the MARS scanner, equipped with the Medipix3RX spectroscopic photon-processing detector, to discriminate fat, calcium, and water in tissue. We present data collected from a sample of lamb meat including bone as an illustrative example of human tissue imaging. The data is analyzed using our 3D Algebraic Reconstruction Algorithm (MARS-ART) and by material decomposition based on a constrained linear least squares algorithm. The results presented here clearly show the quantification of lipid-like, water-like and bone-like components of tissue. However, it is also clear to us that better algorithms could extract more information of clinical interest from our data. Because we ...

  19. MARS spectral molecular imaging of lamb tissue: data collection and image analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spectral molecular imaging is a new imaging technique able to discriminate and quantify different components of tissue simultaneously at high spatial and high energy resolution. Our MARS scanner is an x-ray based small animal CT system designed to be used in the diagnostic energy range (20–140 keV). In this paper, we demonstrate the use of the MARS scanner, equipped with the Medipix3RX spectroscopic photon-processing detector, to discriminate fat, calcium, and water in tissue. We present data collected from a sample of lamb meat including bone as an illustrative example of human tissue imaging. The data is analyzed using our 3D Algebraic Reconstruction Algorithm (MARS-ART) and by material decomposition based on a constrained linear least squares algorithm. The results presented here clearly show the quantification of lipid-like, water-like and bone-like components of tissue. However, it is also clear to us that better algorithms could extract more information of clinical interest from our data. Because we are one of the first to present data from multi-energy photon-processing small animal CT systems, we make the raw, partial and fully processed data available with the intention that others can analyze it using their familiar routines. The raw, partially processed and fully processed data of lamb tissue along with the phantom calibration data can be found at http://hdl.handle.net/10092/8531

  20. Molecular Imaging of Transporters with Positron Emission Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoni, Gunnar; Sörensen, Jens; Hall, Håkan

    Positron emission tomography (PET) visualization of brain components in vivo is a rapidly growing field. Molecular imaging with PET is also increasingly used in drug development, especially for the determination of drug receptor interaction for CNS-active drugs. This gives the opportunity to relate clinical efficacy to per cent receptor occupancy of a drug on a certain targeted receptor and to relate drug pharmacokinetics in plasma to interaction with target protein. In the present review we will focus on the study of transporters, such as the monoamine transporters, the P-glycoprotein (Pgp) transporter, the vesicular monoamine transporter type 2, and the glucose transporter using PET radioligands. Neurotransmitter transporters are presynaptically located and in vivo imaging using PET can therefore be used for the determination of the density of afferent neurons. Several promising PET ligands for the noradrenaline transporter (NET) have been labeled and evaluated in vivo including in man, but a really useful PET ligand for NET still remains to be identified. The most promising tracer to date is (S,S)-[18F]FMeNER-D2. The in vivo visualization of the dopamine transporter (DAT) may give clues in the evaluation of conditions related to dopamine, such as Parkinson's disease and drug abuse. The first PET radioligands based on cocaine were not selective, but more recently several selective tracers such as [11C]PE2I have been characterized and shown to be suitable as PET radioligands. Although there are a large number of serotonin transporter inhibitors used today as SSRIs, it was not until very recently, when [11C]McN5652 was synthesized, that this transporter was studied using PET. New candidates as PET radioligands for the SERT have subsequently been developed and [11C]DASB and [11C]MADAM and their analogues are today the most promising ligands. The existing radioligands for Pgp transporters seem to be suitable tools for the study of both peripheral and central drug

  1. Small animal optoacoustic tomography system for molecular imaging of contrast agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Richard; Liopo, Anton; Ermilov, Sergey A.; Oraevsky, Alexander A.

    2016-03-01

    We developed a new and improved Laser Optoacoustic Imaging System, LOIS-3D for preclinical research applications in small animal models. The advancements include (i) a new stabilized imaging module with a more homogeneous illumination of the mouse yielding a better spatial resolution (bioluminescence based modalities for molecular imaging in live mice.

  2. Integration of an optical coherence tomography (OCT) system into a new environmental chamber to facilitate long term in vivo imaging of cardiovascular development in higher vertebrate embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars; Happel, Christoph M.; Thommes, Jan;

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution 3-D in vivo imaging of embryonic development over long periods of time under constant physiological conditions (e.g. temperature, humidity) was a challenging task for researchers working on early cardiovascular development. Without appropriate maintenance of temperature, for example...... development. Here we demonstrate, to the best of our knowledge, the first realization of an optical coherence tomography (OCT) system integrated into a new environmental incubation chamber (EIC) to facilitate real-time in vivo imaging of cardiovascular development in chick embryos. The EIC provides stable...... conditions for embryonic development with respect to temperature, humidity, and oxygen levels. An OCT probe is integrated into the EIC and facilitates visualization of embryos at micrometer resolution, including the acquisition of M-mode, Doppler OCT, and Doppler M-mode data....

  3. Development of Optical Molecular Imaging System for the Acquisition of Bioluminescence Signals from Small Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical imaging is providing great advance and improvement in genetic and molecular imaging of animals and humans. Optical imaging system consists of optical imaging devices, which carry out major function for monitoring, tracing, and imaging in most of molecular in-vivo researches. In bio-luminescent imaging, small animals containing luciferase gene locally irradiate light, and emitted photons transmitted through skin of the small animals are imaged by using a high sensitive charged coupled device (CCD) camera. In this paper, we introduced optical imaging system for the image acquisition of bio-luminescent signals emitted from small animals. In the system, Nikon lens and four LED light sources were mounted at the inside of a dark box. A cooled CCD camera equipped with a control module was used. We tested the performance of the optical imaging system using effendorf tube and light emitting bacteria which injected intravenously into CT26 tumor bearing nude mouse. The performance of implemented optical imaging system for bio-luminescence imaging was demonstrated and the feasibility of the system in small animal imaging application was proved. We anticipate this system could be a useful tool for the molecular imaging of small animals adaptable for various experimental conditions in future

  4. From molecular imaging to personalized radionuclide therapy of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. 68Gallium is a positron emitter (t1/2 68 min) which can be produced from a generator in a convenient, 'in-house' preparation and used for labeling of peptides, e.g. somatostatin analogues (SA) like DOTATOC or DOTATATE for molecular imaging of SSTR expressing tumors. Since 2004, we have performed over 7700 68Ga PET/CT studies in patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NET) and have established SSTR PET/CT as the new gold standard for imaging G1 and G2 NET (staging, re-staging, therapy response evaluation and detection of unknown primary NET). The same peptides can be labeled with 177Lutetium or 90Yttrium for radionuclide therapy, a form of personalized treatment (THERANOSTICS approach). PRRNT is based on the receptor-mediated internalization of SA. Several clinical trials indicate that PRRNT can deliver effective radiation doses to tumors. A German multi-institutional registry study with prospective follow up in 450 patients indicates that PRRT is an effective therapy for patients with G1-2 neuroendocrine tumors, irrespective of previous therapies, with a survival advantage of several years compared to other therapies and only minor side effects. Median overall survival (OS) of all patients from the start of treatment was 59 months. Median progression-free survival (PFS) measured from last cycle of therapy accounted to 41 mo. Median PFS of pancreatic NET was 39 mo. Similar results were obtained for NET of unknown primary (median PFS: 38 mo) whereas NET of small bowel had a median PFS of 51 months. Side effects like 3-4 NEThro- or hemato-toxicity were observed in only 0.2% and 2% of patients respectively. PRRNT is highly effective in the management of NET, even in advanced cases. In patients with progressive neuroendocrine tumors, fractionated, personalized PRRNT with lower doses of radioactivity given over a longer period of time (Bad Berka Concept using sequential (DUO) PRRNT) results in excellent therapeutic responses. By

  5. Role of multimodality cardiac imaging in preoperative cardiovascular evaluation before noncardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathala Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The preoperative cardiac assessment of patients undergoing noncardiac surgery is common in the daily practice of medical consultants, anesthesiologists, and surgeons. The number of patients undergoing noncardiac surgery worldwide is increasing. Currently, there are several noninvasive diagnostic tests available for preoperative evaluation. Both nuclear cardiology with myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT and stress echocardiography are well-established techniques for preoperative cardiac evaluation. Recently, some studies demonstrated that both coronary angiography by gated multidetector computed tomography and stress cardiac magnetic resonance might potentially play a role in preoperative evaluation as well, but more studies are needed to assess the role of these new modalities in preoperative risk stratification. A common question that arises in preoperative evaluation is if further preoperative testing is needed, which preoperative test should be used. The preferred stress test is the exercise electrocardiogram (ECG. Stress imaging with exercise or pharmacologic stress agents is to be considered in patients with abnormal rest ECG or patients who are unable to exercise. After reviewing this article, the reader should develop an understanding of the following: (1 the magnitude of the cardiac preoperative morbidity and mortality, (2 how to select a patient for further preoperative testing, (3 currently available noninvasive cardiac testing for the detection of coronary artery disease and assessment of left ventricular function, and (4 an approach to select the most appropriate noninvasive cardiac test, if needed.

  6. 7 Tesla (T) human cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging using FLASH and SSFP to assess cardiac function: validation against 1.5 T and 3 T

    OpenAIRE

    Suttie, J. J.; DelaBarre, L; Pitcher, A.; van de Moortele, P. F.; Dass, S; Snyder, C. J.; Francis, J M; Metzger, G. J.; Weale, P.; Ugurbil, K; Neubauer, S.; Robson, M; Vaughan, T

    2011-01-01

    We report the first comparison of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) at 1.5 T, 3 T and 7 T field strengths using steady state free precession (SSFP) and fast low angle shot (FLASH) cine sequences. Cardiac volumes and mass measurements were assessed for feasibility, reproducibility and validity at each given field strength using FLASH and SSFP sequences. Ten healthy volunteers underwent retrospectively electrocardiogram (ECG) gated CMR at 1.5 T, 3 T and 7 T using FLASH and SSFP se...

  7. Molecular Ultrasound Imaging of Tissue Inflammation Using an Animal Model of Acute Kidney Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Kenneth; Warram, Jason M.; Wang, Dezhi; Ratnayaka, Sithira; Traylor, Amie; Agarwal, Anupam

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of molecular ultrasound (US) imaging for monitoring the early inflammatory effects following acute kidney injury. Procedures A population of rats underwent 30 min of renal ischemia (acute kidney injury, N=6) or sham injury (N=4) using established surgical methods. Animals were divided and molecular US imaging was performed during the bolus injection of a targeted microbubble (MB) contrast agent to either P-selectin or vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1). Imaging was performed before surgery and 4 and 24 h thereafter. After manual segmentation of renal tissue space, the molecular US signal was calculated as the difference between time-intensity curve data before MB injection and after reaching steady-state US image enhancement. All animals were terminated after the 24 h imaging time point and kidneys excised for immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis. Results Renal inflammation was analyzed using molecular US imaging. While results using the P-selectin and VCAM-1 targeted MBs were comparable, it appears that the former was more sensitive to biomarker expression. All molecular US imaging measures had a positive correlation with IHC findings. Conclusions Acute kidney injury is a serious disease in need of improved noninvasive methods to help diagnose the extent of injury and monitor the tissue throughout disease progression. Molecular US imaging appears well suited to address this challenge and more research is warranted. PMID:25905474

  8. Molecular Imaging Probes for Diagnosis and Therapy Evaluation of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Meng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is a major cause of cancer death in women where early detection and accurate assessment of therapy response can improve clinical outcomes. Molecular imaging, which includes PET, SPECT, MRI, and optical modalities, provides noninvasive means of detecting biological processes and molecular events in vivo. Molecular imaging has the potential to enhance our understanding of breast cancer biology and effects of drug action during both preclinical and clinical phases of drug development. This has led to the identification of many molecular imaging probes for key processes in breast cancer. Hormone receptors, growth factor receptor, and angiogenic factors, such as ER, PR, HER2, and VEGFR, have been adopted as imaging targets to detect and stage the breast cancer and to monitor the treatment efficacy. Receptor imaging probes are usually composed of targeting moiety attached to a signaling component such as a radionuclide that can be detected using dedicated instruments. Current molecular imaging probes involved in breast cancer diagnosis and therapy evaluation are reviewed, and future of molecular imaging for the preclinical and clinical is explained.

  9. The clinical impact of late gadolinium enhancement in Takotsubo cardiomyopathy: serial analysis of cardiovascular magnetic resonance images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katoh Hideki

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our study aimed to investigate both the clinical implications of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR and the relation of LGE to clinical findings in patients with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC. Methods We evaluated 20 consecutive patients (2 men, 18 women; median age, 77 years; interquartile range [IQR] 67-82 years who were admitted to our hospital with the diagnosis of TTC. CMR was performed within 1 week after admission, and follow-up studies were conducted 1.5 and 6 months later. Results In 8 patients, CMR imaging during the sub-acute phase revealed LGE in the area matched with wall motion impairment. Cardiogenic shock was more frequently observed in patients with LGE than in those without LGE (38% vs 0%, p = 0.049. The patients with LGE needed a longer duration for ECG normalization and recovery of wall motion than did those without LGE (median 205 days, IQR [152-363] vs 68 days, [43-145], p = 0.005; 15 days, [10-185] vs 7 days, [4-13], p = 0.030, respectively. In 5 of these 8 patients, LGE disappeared within 45-180 days (170, IQR [56-180] of onset. The patients with LGE remaining in the chronic phase had higher peak creatine kinase levels than did those without LGE (median 307 IU/L, IQR [264-460] vs 202 IU/L, [120-218], p = 0.017. Conclusion LGE by CMR in the sub-acute phase may be associated with the severity and prolonged recovery to normal of clinical findings in TTC.

  10. Handbook of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging principles and clinical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Edmund E; Tateishi, Ukihide; Baum, Richard P

    2012-01-01

    This handbook will provide updated information on nuclear medicine and molecular imaging techniques as well as its clinical applications, including radionuclide therapy, to trainees and practitioners of nuclear medicine, radiology and general medicine. Updated information on nuclear medicine and molecular imaging are vitally important and useful to both trainees and existing practitioners. Imaging techniques and agents are advancing and changing so rapidly that concise and pertinent information are absolutely necessary and helpful. It is hoped that this handbook will help readers be better equipped for the utilization of new imaging methods and treatments using radiopharmaceuticals.

  11. Molecular Imaging : Computer Reconstruction and Practice - Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Molecular Imaging from Physical Principles to Computer Reconstruction and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Lemoigne, Yves

    2008-01-01

    This volume collects the lectures presented at the ninth ESI School held at Archamps (FR) in November 2006 and is dedicated to nuclear physics applications in molecular imaging. The lectures focus on the multiple facets of image reconstruction processing and management and illustrate the role of digital imaging in clinical practice. Medical computing and image reconstruction are introduced by analysing the underlying physics principles and their implementation, relevant quality aspects, clinical performance and recent advancements in the field. Several stages of the imaging process are specifically addressed, e.g. optimisation of data acquisition and storage, distributed computing, physiology and detector modelling, computer algorithms for image reconstruction and measurement in tomography applications, for both clinical and biomedical research applications. All topics are presented with didactical language and style, making this book an appropriate reference for students and professionals seeking a comprehen...

  12. Neurobiological mechanisms of treatment resistant depression: Functional, structural and molecular imaging studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.P. de Kwaasteniet

    2015-01-01

    This thesis investigated the neurobiological mechanisms of TRD using functional, structural and molecular imaging studies. First the neurobiological mechanisms of MDD were investigated and revealed decreased functional connectivity between the ventral and dorsal network. Thereafter, structural conne

  13. Gold nanoflowers for 3D volumetric molecular imaging of tumors by photoacoustic tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanyuan Jiang[1,4; Zijian Deng[2,4; Dan Yang[3; Xin Deng[1; Qi Li[1; Yinlin Sha[3; Changhui Li[2; Dongsheng Xu[1

    2015-01-01

    By binding molecular probes that target tumor cells, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with superior characteristics have shown great potential in tumor molecular imaging studies. The non-invasive, high-resolution, and three-dimensional imaging of the targeted AuNPs within the tumor is desirable for both diagnosis and therapy. In this study, gold nanoflowers (AuNFs) are presented as a novel contrast agent for photoacoustic tomography (PAT). By binding to folic acid, the molecular probe, the tail-vein injected AuNFs concentrated within the tumor site in mice; this was clearly visualized by three-dimensional (3D) PAT imaging. In addition, toxicity assay proved that AuNFs were harmless to living cells and animals. Our results demonstrate that AuNFs have great potential in tumor molecular imaging.

  14. Cardiovascular risks and brain function: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of executive function in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Chuang, Yi-Fang; Eldreth, Dana; Kirk I Erickson; Varma, Vijay; Harris, Gregory; Fried, Linda P.; Rebok, George W.; Tanner, Elizabeth K.; Carlson, Michelle C.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia are associated with cognitive impairment and risk of dementia in older adults. However, the mechanisms linking them are not clear. This study aims to investigate the association between aggregate CV risk, assessed by the Framingham general cardiovascular risk profile, and functional brain activation in a group of community-dwelling older adults. Sixty participants (mean age: 64.6 years) from the Brain Health ...

  15. Use of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging for TAVR assessment in patients with bioprosthetic aortic valves: Comparison with computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quail, Michael A., E-mail: m.quail@ucl.ac.uk [Centre for Cardiovascular Imaging, UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science and Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom); Nordmeyer, Johannes [Department of Congenital Heart Disease and Paediatric Cardiology, Deutsches Herzzentrum Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Schievano, Silvia [Centre for Cardiovascular Imaging, UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science and Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom); Reinthaler, Markus; Mullen, Michael J. [The Heart Hospital, University College Hospital and Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, UCL, 16-18 Westmoreland Street, London (United Kingdom); Taylor, Andrew M. [Centre for Cardiovascular Imaging, UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science and Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has been successfully used to treat patients with failing aortic bioprostheses. Computed tomography (CT) is the usual method of pre-procedural imaging for TAVR in the native position; however, the optimal modality for valve-in-valve procedures has not been established. CT can assess intracardiac anatomy and is superior to cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in the assessment of coronary artery disease. However, CMR can provide superior haemodynamic information, does not carry the risk of ionising radiation, and may be performed without contrast in patients with renal insufficiency. In this study, we compared CT and CMR for the evaluation of TAVR in a small cohort of patients with existing aortic bioprostheses. Materials and methods: 21 patients with aortic bioprostheses were prospectively evaluated by CT and CMR, as pre-assessment for TAVR; agreement between measurements of aortic geometries was assessed. Results: 16/21 patients had aortic bioprostheses constructed with a metal ring, and 5/21 patients had a metal strut construction. Patients with metal struts had significant metal-artefact on CMR, which compromised image quality in this region. There was good agreement between CT and CMR measurements of aortic geometry. The mean difference (d) in annulus area-derived diameter was 0.5 mm (95% limits of agreement [L.A] 4.2 mm). There was good agreement between modalities for the cross-sectional area of the sinuses of valsalva (d 0.5 cm{sup 2}, L.A 1.4 cm{sup 2}), sinotubular junction (d 0.9 cm{sup 2}, L.A 1.5 cm{sup 2}), and ascending aorta (d 0.6 cm{sup 2}, L.A 1.4 cm{sup 2}). In patients without metal struts, the left coronary artery height d was 0.7 mm and L.A 2.8 mm. Conclusions: Our analysis shows that CMR and CT measurements of aortic geometry show good agreement, including measurement of annulus size and coronary artery location, and thus provide the necessary anatomical information for valve

  16. Use of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging for TAVR assessment in patients with bioprosthetic aortic valves: Comparison with computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has been successfully used to treat patients with failing aortic bioprostheses. Computed tomography (CT) is the usual method of pre-procedural imaging for TAVR in the native position; however, the optimal modality for valve-in-valve procedures has not been established. CT can assess intracardiac anatomy and is superior to cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in the assessment of coronary artery disease. However, CMR can provide superior haemodynamic information, does not carry the risk of ionising radiation, and may be performed without contrast in patients with renal insufficiency. In this study, we compared CT and CMR for the evaluation of TAVR in a small cohort of patients with existing aortic bioprostheses. Materials and methods: 21 patients with aortic bioprostheses were prospectively evaluated by CT and CMR, as pre-assessment for TAVR; agreement between measurements of aortic geometries was assessed. Results: 16/21 patients had aortic bioprostheses constructed with a metal ring, and 5/21 patients had a metal strut construction. Patients with metal struts had significant metal-artefact on CMR, which compromised image quality in this region. There was good agreement between CT and CMR measurements of aortic geometry. The mean difference (d) in annulus area-derived diameter was 0.5 mm (95% limits of agreement [L.A] 4.2 mm). There was good agreement between modalities for the cross-sectional area of the sinuses of valsalva (d 0.5 cm2, L.A 1.4 cm2), sinotubular junction (d 0.9 cm2, L.A 1.5 cm2), and ascending aorta (d 0.6 cm2, L.A 1.4 cm2). In patients without metal struts, the left coronary artery height d was 0.7 mm and L.A 2.8 mm. Conclusions: Our analysis shows that CMR and CT measurements of aortic geometry show good agreement, including measurement of annulus size and coronary artery location, and thus provide the necessary anatomical information for valve-in-valve TAVR planning. However, in patients

  17. Molecular imaging of cancer: MR spectroscopy and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging is a non-invasive diagnostic tool for the investigation of cancer metabolism. As an adjunct to morphologic and dynamic magnetic resonance imaging, it is routinely used for the staging, assessment of treatment response, and therapy monitoring in brain, breast, and prostate cancer. Recently, its application was extended to other cancerous diseases, such as malignant soft-tissue tumours, gastrointestinal and gynecological cancers, as well as nodal metastasis. In this review, we discuss the current and evolving clinical applications of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging. In addition, we will briefly discuss other evolving techniques, such as phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging, sodium imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging in cancer assessment.

  18. Optical molecular imaging for detection of Barrett's-associated neoplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nadhi Thekkek; Sharmila Anandasabapathy; Rebecca Richards-Kortum

    2011-01-01

    Recent advancements in the endoscopic imaging of Barrett's esophagus can be used to probe a wide range of optical properties that are altered with neoplastic progression.This review summarizes relevant changes in optical properties as well as imaging approaches that measures those changes.Wide-field imaging approaches include narrow-band imaging that measures changes in light scattering and absorption,and autofluorescence imaging that measure changes in endogenous fluorophores.High-resolution imaging approaches include optical coherence tomography,endocytoscopy,confocal microendoscopy,and high-resolution microendoscopy.These technologies,some coupled with an appropriate contrast agent,can measure differences in glandular morphology,nuclear morphology,or vascular alterations associated with neoplasia.Advances in targeted contrast agents are further discussed.Studies that have explored these technologies are highlighted;as are the advantages and limitations of each.

  19. Onboard functional and molecular imaging: A design investigation for robotic multipinhole SPECT

    OpenAIRE

    Bowsher, James; Yan, Susu; Roper, Justin; Giles, William; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Onboard imaging—currently performed primarily by x-ray transmission modalities—is essential in modern radiation therapy. As radiation therapy moves toward personalized medicine, molecular imaging, which views individual gene expression, may also be important onboard. Nuclear medicine methods, such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), are premier modalities for molecular imaging. The purpose of this study is to investigate a robotic multipinhole approach to onboard S...

  20. Reduced radiation dose and improved image quality at cardiovascular CT angiography by automated attenuation-based tube voltage selection: intra-individual comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krazinski, Aleksander W.; Silverman, Justin R. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Meinel, Felix G.; Geyer, Lucas L. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Schoepf, U.J. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States); Canstein, Christian [Siemens Healthcare, CT Division, Malvern, PA (United States); De Cecco, Carlo N. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University of Rome ' ' Sapienza' ' - Polo Pontino, Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology, Latina (Italy)

    2014-11-15

    To evaluate the effect of automated tube voltage selection on radiation dose and image quality at cardiovascular CT angiography (CTA). We retrospectively analysed paired studies in 72 patients (41 male, 60.5 ± 16.5 years), who had undergone CTA acquisitions of the heart or aorta both before and after the implementation of an automated x-ray tube voltage selection algorithm (ATVS). All other parameters were kept identical between the two acquisitions. Subjective image quality (IQ) was rated and objective IQ was measured by image noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and figure of merit (FOM). Image quality parameters and effective dose were compared between acquisitions. Overall subjective image quality improved with the percentage of cases scored as adequate or higher increasing from 79 % to 92 % after implementation of ATVS (P = 0.03). SNR (14.1 ± 5.9, 15.7 ± 6.1, P = 0.009), CNR (11.6 ± 5.3, 13.2 ± 5.6, P = 0.011), and FOM (19.9 ± 23.3, 43.8 ± 51.1, P < 0.001) were significantly higher after implementation of ATVS. Mean image noise (24.1 ± 8.4 HU, 22.7 ± 7.1 HU, P = 0.048) and mean effective dose (10.6 ± 5.9 mSv, 8.8 ± 5.0 mSv, P = 0.003) were significantly lower after implementation of ATVS. Automated tube voltage selection can operator-independently optimize cardiovascular CTA image acquisition parameters with improved image quality at reduced dose. (orig.)

  1. Cardiovascular events in Japanese asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes: a 1-year interim report of a J-ACCESS 2 investigation using myocardial perfusion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Kenichi [Kanazawa University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kanazawa (Japan); Yamasaki, Yoshimitsu [Osaka University, Center for Advanced Science and Innovation, Osaka (Japan); Kusuoka, Hideo [National Hospital Organization Osaka National Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Izumi, Tohru [Kitasato University, Department of Cardiology and Internal Medicine, Sagamihara (Japan); Kashiwagi, Atsunori [Shiga University of Medical Science, Department of Medicine, Ohtsu (Japan); Kawamori, Ryuzo [Juntendo University, Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Shimamoto, Kazuaki [Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Second Department of Internal Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Yamada, Nobuhiro [University of Tsukuba, Division of Metabolism and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Tsukuba (Japan); Nishimura, Tsunehiko [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, 465 Kajii-cho, Kawara-machi, Hirokoji, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    Diabetic patients have a high risk for cardiovascular events. The role of myocardial perfusion imaging was investigated in asymptomatic diabetic patients to evaluate short-term prognosis in a Japanese population. A total of 506 asymptomatic patients {>=}50 years of age who had carotid artery maximum intima-media thickness {>=}1.1 mm, urinary albumin excretion of {>=}30 mg/g creatinine, with additional criteria of abdominal obesity, low HDL cholesterol, high triglyceride level, and hypertension were enrolled and followed up over a 3-year period. Gated SPECT with stress-rest protocol was performed and analyzed by summed defect scores and QGS software. One-year cardiovascular events were analyzed. Myocardial ischemia was observed in 17% of patients, and abnormal perfusion findings of ischemia and/or scar were observed in 32% of patients. By the end of the 1-year follow-up, 33 (6.5%) cardiovascular events occurred including 6 all-cause deaths. Patients with summed stress score (SSS) >8 had a higher incidence of either death or cardiovascular events. Event-free survival rates for SSS 0-3, 4-8, 9-13, and {>=}14 were 0.96, 0.95, 0.82, and 0.76, respectively. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that significant variables were SSS, history of cerebrovascular accident, and electrocardiographic abnormality at rest. The 1-year interim summary showed that cardiovascular events were significantly higher in patients with SPECT abnormality, although hard cardiac event rate was relatively low. Targeted treatment strategy is required for asymptomatic but potentially high-risk diabetic patients. (orig.)

  2. Cardiovascular events in Japanese asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes: a 1-year interim report of a J-ACCESS 2 investigation using myocardial perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diabetic patients have a high risk for cardiovascular events. The role of myocardial perfusion imaging was investigated in asymptomatic diabetic patients to evaluate short-term prognosis in a Japanese population. A total of 506 asymptomatic patients ≥50 years of age who had carotid artery maximum intima-media thickness ≥1.1 mm, urinary albumin excretion of ≥30 mg/g creatinine, with additional criteria of abdominal obesity, low HDL cholesterol, high triglyceride level, and hypertension were enrolled and followed up over a 3-year period. Gated SPECT with stress-rest protocol was performed and analyzed by summed defect scores and QGS software. One-year cardiovascular events were analyzed. Myocardial ischemia was observed in 17% of patients, and abnormal perfusion findings of ischemia and/or scar were observed in 32% of patients. By the end of the 1-year follow-up, 33 (6.5%) cardiovascular events occurred including 6 all-cause deaths. Patients with summed stress score (SSS) >8 had a higher incidence of either death or cardiovascular events. Event-free survival rates for SSS 0-3, 4-8, 9-13, and ≥14 were 0.96, 0.95, 0.82, and 0.76, respectively. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that significant variables were SSS, history of cerebrovascular accident, and electrocardiographic abnormality at rest. The 1-year interim summary showed that cardiovascular events were significantly higher in patients with SPECT abnormality, although hard cardiac event rate was relatively low. Targeted treatment strategy is required for asymptomatic but potentially high-risk diabetic patients. (orig.)

  3. Molecular shape of Lumbricus terrestris erythrocruorin studied by electron microscopy and image analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekema, Egbert J.; Heel, Marin van

    1989-01-01

    The molecular structure of erythrocruorin (hemoglobin) from Lumbricus terrestris has been studied by electron microscopy of negatively stained particles. Over 1000 molecular projections were selected from a number of electron micrographs and were then classified by multivariate statistical image-pro

  4. Dynamical image-charge effect in molecular tunnel junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Chengjun; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2014-01-01

    When an electron tunnels between two metal contacts it temporarily induces an image charge (IC) in the electrodes which acts back on the tunneling electron. It is usually assumed that the IC forms instantaneously such that a static model for the image potential applies. Here we investigate how...

  5. Imaging of Flow Patterns with Fluorescent Molecular Rotors

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafic, Adnan; Huang, Hsuan-Ming; Theodorakis, Emmanuel A.; Haidekker, Mark A

    2010-01-01

    Molecular rotors are a group of fluorescent molecules that form twisted intramolecular charge transfer states (TICT) upon photoexcitation. Some classes of molecular rotors, among them those that are built on the benzylidene malononitrile motif, return to the ground state either by nonradiative intramolecular rotation or by fluorescence emission. In low-viscosity solvents, intramolecular rotation dominates, and the fluorescence quantum yield is low. Higher solvent viscosities reduce the intram...

  6. Deblurring molecular images using desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, R. Mitchell; Galhena, Asiri S.; Fernandez, Facundo M.; Wang, May D.

    2016-01-01

    Traditional imaging techniques for studying the spatial distribution of biological molecules such as proteins, metabolites, and lipids, require the a priori selection of a handful of target molecules. Imaging mass spectrometry provides a means to analyze thousands of molecules at a time within a tissue sample, adding spatial detail to proteomic, metabolomic, and lipidomic studies. Compared to traditional microscopic images, mass spectrometric images have reduced spatial resolution and require a destructive acquisition process. In order to increase spatial detail, we propose a constrained acquisition path and signal degradation model enabling the use of a general image deblurring algorithm. Our analysis shows the potential of this approach and supports prior observations that the effect of the sprayer focuses on a central region much smaller than the extent of the spray. PMID:19963935

  7. Molecular imaging of gene expression and protein function in vivo with PET and SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vijay; Luker, Gary D; Piwnica-Worms, David

    2002-10-01

    Molecular imaging is broadly defined as the characterization and measurement of biological processes in living animals, model systems, and humans at the cellular and molecular level using remote imaging detectors. One underlying premise of molecular imaging is that this emerging field is not defined by the imaging technologies that underpin acquisition of the final image per se, but rather is driven by the underlying biological questions. In practice, the choice of imaging modality and probe is usually reduced to choosing between high spatial resolution and high sensitivity to address a given biological system. Positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) inherently use image-enhancing agents (radiopharmaceuticals) that are synthesized at sufficiently high specific activity to enable use of tracer concentrations of the compound (picomolar to nanomolar) for detecting molecular signals while providing the desired levels of image contrast. The tracer technologies strategically provide high sensitivity for imaging small-capacity molecular systems in vivo (receptors, enzymes, transporters) at a cost of lower spatial resolution than other technologies. We review several significant PET and SPECT advances in imaging receptors (somatostatin receptor subtypes, neurotensin receptor subtypes, alpha(v)beta(3) integrin), enzymes (hexokinase, thymidine kinase), transporters (MDR1 P-glycoprotein, sodium-iodide symporter), and permeation peptides (human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat conjugates), as well as innovative reporter gene constructs (herpes simplex virus 1 thymidine kinase, somatostatin receptor subtype 2, cytosine deaminase) for imaging gene promoter activation and repression, signal transduction pathways, and protein-protein interactions in vivo. PMID:12353250

  8. Molecular imaging for theranostics in gastroenterology: one stone to kill two birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Kwang Hyun; Kown, Chang-Il; Park, Jong Min; Lee, Hoo Geun; Han, Na Young; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2014-09-01

    Molecular imaging in gastroenterology has become more feasible with recent advances in imaging technology, molecular genetics, and next-generation biochemistry, in addition to advances in endoscopic imaging techniques including magnified high-resolution endoscopy, narrow band imaging or autofluorescence imaging, flexible spectral imaging color enhancement, and confocal laser endomicroscopy. These developments have the potential to serve as "red flag" techniques enabling the earlier and accurate detection of mucosal abnormalities (such as precancerous lesions) beyond biomarkers, virtual histology of detected lesions, and molecular targeted therapy-the strategy of "one stone to kill two or three birds"; however, more effort should be done to be "blue ocean" benefit. This review deals with the introduction of Raman spectroscopy endoscopy, imaging mass spectroscopy, and nanomolecule development for theranostics. Imaging of molecular pathological changes in cells/tissues/organs might open the "royal road" to either convincing diagnosis of diseases that otherwise would only be detected in the advanced stages or novel therapeutic methods targeted to personalized medicine.

  9. Molecular markers in breast cancer: new tools in imaging and prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Although breast cancer is mainly diagnosed by mammography, other imaging modalities (e.g. MRI, PET) are increasingly used. The most recent developments in the field of molecular imaging comprise the application of near-infrared fluoresc

  10. A DR-WFOI fusion system for the real-time molecular imaging in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Bi; Xiaochun Xu; Lei Xi; Shaoqun Zeng; Qingming Luo

    2008-01-01

    Digital radiography (DR) and whole-body fluorescent optical imaging (WFOI) have been widely applied in the field of molecular imaging, with the advantages in tissues and functional imaging. The integration of them contributes to the development and discovery of medicine. We introduce an equipment, performance of which is better than that of another molecular imaging system manufactured by Kodak Corp. It can take real-time small animal imaging in vivo, with lower cost and shorter development cycle on the LabVIEW platform. At last, a paradigm experiment on a nude mouse with green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic tumor is given to present a real-time DR-WFOI fusion simultaneous image.

  11. Molecular and Functional Imaging for Detection of Lymph Node Metastases in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansje Fortuin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on lymph node metastases is crucial for the prognosis and treatment of prostate cancer patients. Conventional anatomic imaging often fails to differentiate benign from metastatic lymph nodes. Pelvic lymph node dissection is an invasive technique and underestimates the extent of lymph node metastases. Therefore, there is a need for more accurate non-invasive diagnostic techniques. Molecular and functional imaging has been subject of research for the last decades, in this respect. Therefore, in this article the value of imaging techniques to detect lymph node metastases is reviewed. These techniques include scintigraphy, sentinel node imaging, positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT, diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI MRI and magnetic resonance lymphography (MRL. Knowledge on pathway and size of lymph node metastases has increased with molecular and functional imaging. Furthermore, improved detection and localization of lymph node metastases will enable (focal treatment of the positive nodes only.

  12. Molecular and functional imaging for detection of lymph node metastases in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuin, Ansje; Rooij, Maarten de; Zamecnik, Patrik; Haberkorn, Uwe; Barentsz, Jelle

    2013-07-03

    Knowledge on lymph node metastases is crucial for the prognosis and treatment of prostate cancer patients. Conventional anatomic imaging often fails to differentiate benign from metastatic lymph nodes. Pelvic lymph node dissection is an invasive technique and underestimates the extent of lymph node metastases. Therefore, there is a need for more accurate non-invasive diagnostic techniques. Molecular and functional imaging has been subject of research for the last decades, in this respect. Therefore, in this article the value of imaging techniques to detect lymph node metastases is reviewed. These techniques include scintigraphy, sentinel node imaging, positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI MRI) and magnetic resonance lymphography (MRL). Knowledge on pathway and size of lymph node metastases has increased with molecular and functional imaging. Furthermore, improved detection and localization of lymph node metastases will enable (focal) treatment of the positive nodes only.

  13. Air flow-assisted ionization imaging mass spectrometry method for easy whole-body molecular imaging under ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhigang; He, Jiuming; Chen, Yi; He, Jingjing; Gong, Tao; Tang, Fei; Wang, Xiaohao; Zhang, Ruiping; Huang, Lan; Zhang, Lianfeng; Lv, Haining; Ma, Shuanggang; Fu, Zhaodi; Chen, Xiaoguang; Yu, Shishan; Abliz, Zeper

    2013-03-01

    Whole-body molecular imaging is able to directly map spatial distribution of molecules and monitor its biotransformation in intact biological tissue sections. Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS), a label-free molecular imaging method, can be used to image multiple molecules in a single measurement with high specificity. Herein, a novel easy-to-implement, whole-body IMS method was developed with air flow-assisted ionization in a desorption electrospray ionization mode. The developed IMS method can effectively image molecules in a large whole-body section in open air without sample pretreatment, such as chemical labeling, section division, or matrix deposition. Moreover, the signal levels were improved, and the spatial assignment errors were eliminated; thus, high-quality whole-body images were obtained. With this novel IMS method, in situ mapping analysis of molecules was performed in adult rat sections with picomolar sensitivity under ambient conditions, and the dynamic information of molecule distribution and its biotransformation was provided to uncover molecular events at the whole-animal level. A global view of the differential distribution of an anticancer agent and its metabolites was simultaneously acquired in whole-body rat and model mouse bearing neuroglioma along the administration time. The obtained drug distribution provided rich information for identifying the targeted organs and predicting possible tumor spectrum, pharmacological activity, and potential toxicity of drug candidates.

  14. Effect of molecular organization on the image histograms of polarization SHG microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Psilodimitrakopoulos, Sotiris; Amat Roldán, Iván; Loza Álvarez, Pablo; Artigas García, David

    2012-01-01

    Based on its polarization dependency, second harmonic generation (PSHG) microscopy has been proven capable to structurally characterize molecular architectures in different biological samples. By exploiting this polarization dependency of the SHG signal in every pixel of the image, average quantitative structural information can be retrieved in the form of PSHG image histograms. In the present study we experimentally show how the PSHG image histograms can be affected by the organization of th...

  15. Laser-Induced Electron Diffraction: Inversion of Photoelectron Spectra for Molecular Orbital Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Puthumpally-Joseph, R; Peters, M; Nguyen-Dang, T T; Atabek, O; Charron, E

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the possibility of imaging molecular orbitals from photoelectron spectra obtained via Laser Induced Electron Diffraction (LIED) in linear molecules. This is an extension of our work published recently in Physical Review A \\textbf{94}, 023421 (2016) to the case of the HOMO-1 orbital of the carbon dioxide molecule. We show that such an imaging technique has the potential to image molecular orbitals at different internuclear distances in a sub-femtosecond time scale and with a resolution of a fraction of an Angstr\\"om.

  16. High-order harmonic spectroscopy for molecular imaging of polyatomic molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Negro, M; Faccialà, D; De Silvestri, S; Vozzi, C; Stagira, S

    2014-01-01

    High-order harmonic generation is a powerful and sensitive tool for probing atomic and molecular structures, combining in the same measurement an unprecedented attosecond temporal resolution with a high spatial resolution, of the order of the angstrom. Imaging of the outermost molecular orbital by high-order harmonic generation has been limited for a long time to very simple molecules, like nitrogen. Recently we demonstrated a technique that overcame several of the issues that have prevented the extension of molecular orbital tomography to more complex species, showing that molecular imaging can be applied to a triatomic molecule like carbon dioxide. Here we report on the application of such technique to nitrous oxide (N2O) and acetylene (C2H2). This result represents a first step towards the imaging of fragile compounds, a category which includes most of the fundamental biological molecules.

  17. Autonomic innervation of the heart. Role of molecular imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slart, Riemer H.J.A; Elsinga, Philip H. [Univ. Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Tio, Rene A. [Univ. Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Thorax Center Cardiology; Schwaiger, Markus (ed.) [Technische Univ. Muenchen Klinikum Rechts der Isar (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik

    2015-03-01

    Reviews in detail the value of SPECT-CT and PET-CT in the imaging of cardiac innervation. Details the role of imaging in a range of conditions and diseases. Includes important background on pathophysiology, tracers, radiopharmaceutical production, and kinetic modeling software. This book explains in detail the potential value of the hybrid modalities, SPECT-CT and PET-CT, in the imaging of cardiac innervation in a wide range of conditions and diseases, including ischemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, heart failure, amyloidosis, heart transplantation, and ventricular arrhythmias. Imaging of the brain-heart axis in neurodegenerative disease and stress and of cardiotoxicity is also discussed. The roles of the various available tracers are fully considered, and individual chapters address radiopharmaceutical development under GMP, imaging physics, and kinetic modeling software. Highly relevant background information is included on the autonomic nervous system of the heart and its pathophysiology, and in addition future perspectives are discussed. Awareness of the importance of autonomic innervation of the heart for the optimal management of cardiac patients is growing, and there is an evident need for objective measurement techniques or imaging modalities. In this context, Autonomic Innervation of the Heart will be of wide interest to clinicians, researchers, and industry.

  18. Autonomic innervation of the heart. Role of molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reviews in detail the value of SPECT-CT and PET-CT in the imaging of cardiac innervation. Details the role of imaging in a range of conditions and diseases. Includes important background on pathophysiology, tracers, radiopharmaceutical production, and kinetic modeling software. This book explains in detail the potential value of the hybrid modalities, SPECT-CT and PET-CT, in the imaging of cardiac innervation in a wide range of conditions and diseases, including ischemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, heart failure, amyloidosis, heart transplantation, and ventricular arrhythmias. Imaging of the brain-heart axis in neurodegenerative disease and stress and of cardiotoxicity is also discussed. The roles of the various available tracers are fully considered, and individual chapters address radiopharmaceutical development under GMP, imaging physics, and kinetic modeling software. Highly relevant background information is included on the autonomic nervous system of the heart and its pathophysiology, and in addition future perspectives are discussed. Awareness of the importance of autonomic innervation of the heart for the optimal management of cardiac patients is growing, and there is an evident need for objective measurement techniques or imaging modalities. In this context, Autonomic Innervation of the Heart will be of wide interest to clinicians, researchers, and industry.

  19. 2014 Korean Guidelines for Appropriate Utilization of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Joint Report of the Korean Society of Cardiology and the Korean Society of Radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Yeonyee E. [Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Yoo Jin [Department of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung-Kwan [Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Cardiovascular Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeong A [Department of Radiology, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang 411-706 (Korea, Republic of); Na, Jin Oh [Cardiovascular Center, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul 152-703 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Dong Hyun [Department of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Jin [Department of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eui-Young [Division of Cardiology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 135-720 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is now widely used in several fields of cardiovascular disease assessment due to recent technical developments. CMR can give physicians information that cannot be found with other imaging modalities. However, there is no guideline which is suitable for Korean people for the use of CMR. Therefore, we have prepared a Korean guideline for the appropriate utilization of CMR to guide Korean physicians, imaging specialists, medical associates and patients to improve the overall medical system performances. By addressing CMR usage and creating these guidelines we hope to contribute towards the promotion of public health. This guideline is a joint report of the Korean Society of Cardiology and the Korean Society of Radiology.

  20. 2014 Korean guidelines for appropriate utilization of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging: A joint report of the Korean Society of Cardiology and the Korean Society of Radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Yeon Yee E. [Dept. of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Yoo Jin; Choi, Eui Young [Dept. of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2015-04-15

    The use of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is increasing for the assessment of certain cardiovascular diseases, due to recent technical developments. CMR can give physicians information that cannot be found with other imaging modalities. However, there has been no guideline for the use of CMR in Korean people. Therefore, we have prepared a Korean guideline for the appropriate utilization of CMR to guide Korean physicians, imaging specialists, medical associates, and patients to improve the overall performances in medical system. By addressing CMR usage and creating these guidelines, we hope to contribute to the promotion of public health. This guideline is a joint report of the Korean Society of Cardiology and the Korean Society of Radiology.

  1. 2014 Korean Guidelines for Appropriate Utilization of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Joint Report of the Korean Society of Cardiology and the Korean Society of Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is now widely used in several fields of cardiovascular disease assessment due to recent technical developments. CMR can give physicians information that cannot be found with other imaging modalities. However, there is no guideline which is suitable for Korean people for the use of CMR. Therefore, we have prepared a Korean guideline for the appropriate utilization of CMR to guide Korean physicians, imaging specialists, medical associates and patients to improve the overall medical system performances. By addressing CMR usage and creating these guidelines we hope to contribute towards the promotion of public health. This guideline is a joint report of the Korean Society of Cardiology and the Korean Society of Radiology

  2. Molecular imaging to target transplanted muscle progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutpell, Kelly; McGirr, Rebecca; Hoffman, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe genetic neuromuscular disorder that affects 1 in 3,500 boys, and is characterized by progressive muscle degeneration. In patients, the ability of resident muscle satellite cells (SCs) to regenerate damaged myofibers becomes increasingly inefficient. Therefore, transplantation of muscle progenitor cells (MPCs)/myoblasts from healthy subjects is a promising therapeutic approach to DMD. A major limitation to the use of stem cell therapy, however, is a lack of reliable imaging technologies for long-term monitoring of implanted cells, and for evaluating its effectiveness. Here, we describe a non-invasive, real-time approach to evaluate the success of myoblast transplantation. This method takes advantage of a unified fusion reporter gene composed of genes (firefly luciferase [fluc], monomeric red fluorescent protein [mrfp] and sr39 thymidine kinase [sr39tk]) whose expression can be imaged with different imaging modalities. A variety of imaging modalities, including positron emission tomography (PET), single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical imaging, and high frequency 3D-ultrasound are now available, each with unique advantages and limitations. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) studies, for example, have the advantage of being relatively low cost and high-throughput. It is for this reason that, in this study, we make use of the firefly luciferase (fluc) reporter gene sequence contained within the fusion gene and bioluminescence imaging (BLI) for the short-term localization of viable C2C12 myoblasts following implantation into a mouse model of DMD (muscular dystrophy on the X chromosome [mdx] mouse). Importantly, BLI provides us with a means to examine the kinetics of labeled MPCs post-implantation, and will be useful to track cells repeatedly over time and following migration. Our reporter gene approach further allows us to merge multiple imaging modalities in a single living

  3. Comprehensive assessment of a post-coronary bypass graft patient with cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging and multi-detector computed tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pairoj Rerkpattanapipat; Patcharee Paijitprapaporn; Suthipong Jongjirasiri; Jiraporn Laothamatas; Nithi Mahanonda

    2007-01-01

    Coronary bypass graft surgery (CABG) is a revascularization procedure which reduces myocardial ischemia and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in selected patients; however, up to 40% of saphanous vein grafts may degenerate over 10 years. Although coronary angiography is the gold standard to detect graft patency and native vessel disease, sometimes it is difficult to locate the grafts resulting in increased exposure to radiation and contrast administration. This case highlights the utility of cardiac computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to provide comprehensive noninvasive assessment in a patient post CABG.

  4. Bioluminescence: a versatile technique for imaging cellular and molecular features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paley, Miranda A.

    2016-01-01

    Bioluminescence is a ubiquitous imaging modality for visualizing biological processes in vivo. This technique employs visible light and interfaces readily with most cell and tissue types, making it a versatile technology for preclinical studies. Here we review basic bioluminescence imaging principles, along with applications of the technology that are relevant to the medicinal chemistry community. These include noninvasive cell tracking experiments, analyses of protein function, and methods to visualize small molecule metabolites. In each section, we also discuss how bioluminescent tools have revealed insights into experimental therapies and aided drug discovery. Last, we highlight the development of new bioluminescent tools that will enable more sensitive and multi-component imaging experiments and, thus, expand our broader understanding of living systems.

  5. Small-animal SPECT and SPECT/CT: application in cardiovascular research

    OpenAIRE

    Golestani, R.; Wu, C.; Tio, R.A.; Zeebregts, C. J.; Petrov, A.D.; Beekman, F.J.; Dierckx, R. A. J. O.; Boersma, H.H.; Slart, R.H.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Preclinical cardiovascular research using noninvasive radionuclide and hybrid imaging systems has been extensively developed in recent years. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is based on the molecular tracer principle and is an established tool in noninvasive imaging. SPECT uses gamma cameras and collimators to form projection data that are used to estimate (dynamic) 3-D tracer distributions in vivo. Recent developments in multipinhole collimation and advanced image reconstr...

  6. Laser induced electron diffraction: a tool for molecular orbital imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Michel; Charron, Eric; Keller, Arne; Atabek, Osman

    2012-01-01

    We explore the laser-induced ionization dynamics of N2 and CO2 molecules subjected to a few-cycle, linearly polarized, 800\\,nm laser pulse using effective two-dimensional single active electron time-dependent quantum simulations. We show that the electron recollision process taking place after an initial tunnel ionization stage results in quantum interference patterns in the energy resolved photo-electron signals. If the molecule is initially aligned perpendicular to the field polarization, the position and relative heights of the associated fringes can be related to the molecular geometrical and orbital structure, using a simple inversion algorithm which takes into account the symmetry of the initial molecular orbital from which the ionized electron is produced. We show that it is possible to extract inter-atomic distances in the molecule from an averaged photon-electron signal with an accuracy of a few percents.

  7. Molecular imaging agents for SPECT (and SPECT/CT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnanasegaran, Gopinath [Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Ballinger, James R. [Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); King' s College London, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-15

    The development of hybrid single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) cameras has increased the diagnostic value of many existing single photon radiopharmaceuticals. Precise anatomical localization of lesions greatly increases diagnostic confidence in bone imaging of the extremities, infection imaging, sentinel lymph node localization, and imaging in other areas. Accurate anatomical localization is particularly important prior to surgery, especially involving the parathyroid glands and sentinel lymph node procedures. SPECT/CT plays a role in characterization of lesions, particularly in bone scintigraphy and radioiodine imaging of metastatic thyroid cancer. In the development of novel tracers, SPECT/CT is particularly important in monitoring response to therapies that do not result in an early change in lesion size. Preclinical SPECT/CT devices, which actually have spatial resolution superior to PET/CT devices, have become essential in characterization of the biodistribution and tissue kinetics of novel tracers, allowing coregistration of serial studies within the same animals, which serves both to reduce biological variability and reduce the number of animals required. In conclusion, SPECT/CT increases the utility of existing radiopharmaceuticals and plays a pivotal role in the evaluation of novel tracers. (orig.)

  8. Molecular probes for nonlinear optical imaging of biological membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard-Desce, Mireille H.; Ventelon, Lionel; Charier, Sandrine; Moreaux, Laurent; Mertz, Jerome

    2001-12-01

    Second-harmonic generation (SHG) and two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) are nonlinear optical (NLO) phenomena that scale with excitation intensity squared, and hence give rise to an intrinsic 3-dimensional resolution when used in microscopic imaging. TPEF microscopy has gained widespread popularity in the biology community whereas SHG microscopy promises to be a powerful tool because of its sensitivity to local asymmetry. We have implemented an approach toward the design of NLO-probes specifically adapted for SHG and/or TPEF imaging of biological membranes. Our strategy is based on the design of nanoscale amphiphilic NLO-phores. We have prepared symmetrical bolaamphiphilic fluorophores combining very high two-photon absorption (TPA) cross-sections in the visible red region and affinity for cellular membranes. Their incorporation and orientation in lipid membranes can be monitored via TPEF anisotropy. We have also prepared amphiphilic push-pull chromophores exhibiting both large TPA cross-sections and very large first hyperpolarizabilities in the near-IR region. These NLO-probes have proved to be particularly useful for imaging of biological membranes by simultaneous SHG and TPEF microscopy and offer attractive prospects for real-time imaging of fundamental biological processes such as adhesion, fusion or reporting of membrane potentials.

  9. Homing peptide guiding optical molecular imaging for the diagnosis of bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-feng; Pang, Jian-zhi; Liu, Jie-hao; Zhao, Yang; Jia, Xing-you; Li, Jun; Liu, Reng-xin; Wang, Wei; Fan, Zhen-wei; Zhang, Zi-qiang; Yan, San-hua; Luo, Jun-qian; Zhang, Xiao-lei

    2014-11-01

    Background: The limitations of primary transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBt) have led the residual tumors rates as high as 75%. The intraoperative fluorescence imaging offers a great potential for improving TURBt have been confirmed. So we aim to distinguish the residual tumors and normal mucosa using fluorescence molecular imaging formed by conjugated molecule of the CSNRDARRC bladder cancer homing peptide with fluorescent dye. The conjugated molecule was abbreviated FIuo-ACP. In our study, we will research the image features of FIuo-ACP probe targeted bladder cancer for fluorescence molecular imaging diagnosis for bladder cancer in vivo and ex vivo. Methods: After the FIuo-ACP probe was synthetized, the binding sites, factors affecting binding rates, the specificity and the targeting of Fluo-ACP labeled with bladder cancer cells were studied respectively by laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM), immunofluorescence and multispectral fluorescence ex vivo optical molecular imaging system. Results: The binding sites were located in nucleus and the binding rates were correlated linearly with the dose of probe and the grade of pathology. Moreover, the probe has a binding specificity with bladder cancer in vivo and ex vivo. Tumor cells being labeled by the Fluo-ACP, bright green spots were observed under LSCM. The tissue samples and tumor cells can be labeled and identified by fluorescence microscope. Optical molecular imaging of xenograft tumor tissues was exhibited as fluorescent spots under EMCCD. Conclusion: The CSNRDARRC peptides might be a useful bladder cancer targeting vector. The FIuo-ACP molecular probe was suitable for fluorescence molecular imaging diagnosis for bladder cancer in vivo and ex vivo.

  10. Quantitative sensing of microviscosity in protocells and amyloid materials using fluorescence lifetime imaging of molecular rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Alex J.; Tang, T.-Y. Dora; Herling, Therese W.; Che Hak, C. Rohaida; Mann, Stephen; Knowles, Tuomas P. J.; Kuimova, Marina K.

    2014-03-01

    Molecular rotors are fluorophores that have a fluorescence quantum yield that depends upon intermolecular rotation. The fluorescence quantum yield, intensity and lifetime of molecular rotors all vary as functions of viscosity, as high viscosities inhibit intermolecular rotation and cause an increase in the non-radiative decay rate. As such, molecular rotors can be used to probe viscosity on microscopic scales. Here, we apply fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) to measure the fluorescence lifetimes of three different molecular rotors, in order to determine the microscopic viscosity in two model systems with significant biological interest. First, the constituents of a novel protocell - a model of a prebiotic cell - were studied using the molecular rotors BODIPY C10 and kiton red. Second, amyloid formation was investigated using the molecular rotor Cy3.

  11. Molecular determinants for cardiovascular TRPC6 channel regulation by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Juan; Geshi, Naomi; Takahashi, Shinichi;

    2013-01-01

    The molecular mechanism underlying Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent kinase II (CaMKII)-mediated regulation of the mouse transient receptor potential channel TRPC6 was explored by chimera, deletion and site-directed mutagenesis approaches. Induction of currents (ICCh) in TRPC6-expressing HEK293 cel...... essential for CaMKII-mediated regulation of TRPC6 channels. This mechanism may be of physiological significance in a native environment such as in vascular smooth muscle cells....

  12. Synthesis and evaluation of a peptide targeted small molecular Gd-DOTA monoamide conjugate for MR molecular imaging of prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xueming; Burden-Gulley, Susan M.; Yu, Guan-Ping; Tan, Mingqian; Lindner, Daniel; Brady-Kalnay, Susann M.; Lu, Zheng-Rong

    2012-01-01

    Tumor extracellular matrix has an abundance of cancer related proteins that can be used as biomarkers for cancer molecular imaging. Innovative design and development of safe and effective targeted contrast agents to these biomarkers would allow effective MR cancer molecular imaging with high spatial resolution. In this study, we synthesized a low molecular weight CLT1 peptide targeted Gd(III) chelate CLT1-dL-(Gd-DOTA)4 specific to clotted plasma proteins in tumor stroma for cancer MR molecula...

  13. Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma: Current Functional and Future Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise M Blanchet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paragangliomas are neural crest-derived tumors, arising either from chromaffin sympathetic tissue (in adrenal, abdominal, intra-pelvic or thoracic paraganglia or from parasympathetic tissue (in head and neck paraganglia. They have a specific cellular metabolism, with the ability to synthesize, store and secrete catecholamines (although most head and neck paragangliomas do not secrete any catecholamines. This disease is rare and also very heterogeneous, with various presentations (e.g., in regards to localization, multifocality, potential to metastasize, biochemical phenotype, and genetic background. With growing knowledge, notably about the pathophysiology and genetic background, guidelines are evolving rapidly. In this context, functional imaging is a challenge for the management of paragangliomas.Nuclear imaging has been used for exploring paragangliomas for the last three decades, with MIBG historically as the first-line exam. Tracers used in paragangliomas can be grouped in three different categories. Agents that specifically target catecholamine synthesis, storage, and secretion pathways include: 123 and 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (123/131I-MIBG, 18F-fluorodopamine (18F-FDA, and 18F-fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine (18F-FDOPA. Agents that bind somatostatin receptors include 111In-pentetreotide and 68Ga-labelled somatostatin analog peptides. The non-specific agent most commonly used in paragangliomas is 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG. This review will first describe conventional scintigraphic exams that are used for imaging paragangliomas. In the second part we will emphasize the interest in new PET approaches (specific and non-specific, considering the growing knowledge about genetic background and pathophysiology, with the aim of understanding how tumors behave, and optimally adjusting imaging technique for each tumor type.

  14. Measurement of the density profile of pure and seeded molecular beams by femtosecond ion imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Congsen; Janssen, Maurice H M

    2015-02-01

    Here, we report on femtosecond ion imaging experiments to measure the density profile of a pulsed supersonic molecular beam. Ion images are measured for both a molecular beam and bulk gas under identical experimental conditions via femtosecond multiphoton ionization of Xe atoms. We report the density profile of the molecular beam, and the measured absolute density is compared with theoretical calculations of the centre line beam density. Subsequently, we discuss reasons accounting for the differences between measurements and calculations and propose that strong skimmer interference is the most probable cause for the differences. Furthermore, we report on experiments measuring the centre line density of seeded supersonic beams. The femtosecond ion images show that seeding the heavy Xe atom at low relative seed fractions (1%-10%) in a light carrier gas like Ne results in strong relative enhancements of up to two orders of magnitude. PMID:25725826

  15. In vivo photoacoustic molecular imaging of breast carcinoma with folate receptor-targeted indocyanine green nanoprobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huina; Liu, Chengbo; Gong, Xiaojing; Hu, Dehong; Lin, Riqiang; Sheng, Zonghai; Zheng, Cuifang; Yan, Meng; Chen, Jingqin; Cai, Lintao; Song, Liang

    2014-11-01

    As an optical-acoustic hybrid imaging technology, photoacoustic imaging uniquely combines the advantages of rich optical contrast with high ultrasonic resolution in depth, opening up many new possibilities not attainable with conventional pure optical imaging technologies. To perform photoacoustic molecular imaging, optically absorbing exogenous contrast agents are needed to enhance the signals from specifically targeted disease activity. In this work, we designed and developed folate receptor targeted, indocyanine green dye doped poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) lipid nanoparticles (FA-ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs) for molecular photoacoustic imaging of tumor. The fabricated FA-ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs exhibited good aqueous stability, a high folate-receptor targeting efficiency, and remarkable optical absorption in near-infrared wavelengths, providing excellent photoacoustic signals in vitro. Furthermore, after intravenous administration of FA-ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs, mice bearing MCF-7 breast carcinomas showed significantly enhanced photoacoustic signals in vivo in the tumor regions, compared with those using non-targeted ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs. Given the existing wide clinical use of ICG and PLGA, the developed FA-ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs, in conjunction with photoacoustic imaging technology, offer a great potential to be translated into the clinic for non-ionizing molecular imaging of breast cancer in vivo.

  16. Enhancing contrast and quantitation by spatial frequency domain fluorescence molecular imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jessica; Hathi, Deep; Zhou, Haiying; Shokeen, Monica; Akers, Walter J.

    2016-03-01

    Optical imaging with fluorescent contrast agents is highly sensitive for molecular imaging but is limited in depth to a few centimeters below the skin. Planar fluorescence imaging with full-field, uniform illumination and scientific camera image capture provides a portable and robust configuration for real-time, sensitive fluorescence detection with scalable resolution, but is inherently surface weighted and therefore limited in depth to a few millimeters. At the NIR region (700-1000 nm), tissue absorption and autofluorescence are relatively reduced, increasing depth penetration and reducing background signal, respectively. Optical imaging resolution scales with depth, limiting microscopic resolution with multiphoton microscopy and optical coherence tomography to skin and peri-tumoral tissues are not uniform, varying in thickness and color, complicating subsurface fluorescence measurements. Diffuse optical imaging methods have been developed that better quantify optical signals relative to faster full-field planar reflectance imaging, but require long scan times, complex instrumentation, and reconstruction algorithms. Here we report a novel strategy for rapid measurement of subsurface fluorescence using structured light illumination to improve quantitation of deep-seated fluorescence molecular probe accumulation. This technique, in combination with highly specific, tumor-avid fluorescent molecular probes, will easily integrate noninvasive diagnostics for superficial cancers and fluorescence guided surgery.

  17. In vivo photoacoustic molecular imaging of breast carcinoma with folate receptor-targeted indocyanine green nanoprobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huina; Liu, Chengbo; Gong, Xiaojing; Hu, Dehong; Lin, Riqiang; Sheng, Zonghai; Zheng, Cuifang; Yan, Meng; Chen, Jingqin; Cai, Lintao; Song, Liang

    2014-11-01

    As an optical-acoustic hybrid imaging technology, photoacoustic imaging uniquely combines the advantages of rich optical contrast with high ultrasonic resolution in depth, opening up many new possibilities not attainable with conventional pure optical imaging technologies. To perform photoacoustic molecular imaging, optically absorbing exogenous contrast agents are needed to enhance the signals from specifically targeted disease activity. In this work, we designed and developed folate receptor targeted, indocyanine green dye doped poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) lipid nanoparticles (FA-ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs) for molecular photoacoustic imaging of tumor. The fabricated FA-ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs exhibited good aqueous stability, a high folate-receptor targeting efficiency, and remarkable optical absorption in near-infrared wavelengths, providing excellent photoacoustic signals in vitro. Furthermore, after intravenous administration of FA-ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs, mice bearing MCF-7 breast carcinomas showed significantly enhanced photoacoustic signals in vivo in the tumor regions, compared with those using non-targeted ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs. Given the existing wide clinical use of ICG and PLGA, the developed FA-ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs, in conjunction with photoacoustic imaging technology, offer a great potential to be translated into the clinic for non-ionizing molecular imaging of breast cancer in vivo.

  18. Improved tumor identification using dual tracer molecular imaging in fluorescence guided brain surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaochun; Torres, Veronica; Straus, David; Brey, Eric M.; Byrne, Richard W.; Tichauer, Kenneth M.

    2015-03-01

    Brain tumors represent a leading cause of cancer death for people under the age of 40 and the probability complete surgical resection of brain tumors remains low owing to the invasive nature of these tumors and the consequences of damaging healthy brain tissue. Molecular imaging is an emerging approach that has the potential to improve the ability for surgeons to correctly discriminate between healthy and cancerous tissue; however, conventional molecular imaging approaches in brain suffer from significant background signal in healthy tissue or an inability target more invasive sections of the tumor. This work presents initial studies investigating the ability of novel dual-tracer molecular imaging strategies to be used to overcome the major limitations of conventional "single-tracer" molecular imaging. The approach is evaluated in simulations and in an in vivo mice study with animals inoculated orthotopically using fluorescent human glioma cells. An epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeted Affibody-fluorescent marker was employed as a targeted imaging agent, and the suitability of various FDA approved untargeted fluorescent tracers (e.g. fluorescein & indocyanine green) were evaluated in terms of their ability to account for nonspecific uptake and retention of the targeted imaging agent. Signal-to-background ratio was used to measure and compare the amount of reporter in the tissue between targeted and untargeted tracer. The initial findings suggest that FDA-approved fluorescent imaging agents are ill-suited to act as untargeted imaging agents for dual-tracer fluorescent guided brain surgery as they suffer from poor delivery to the healthy brain tissue and therefore cannot be used to identify nonspecific vs. specific uptake of the targeted imaging agent where current surgery is most limited.

  19. Molecular fragmentation by recombination with cold electrons studied with a mass sensitive imaging detector

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, M

    2010-01-01

    The recombination of a molecular cation with a low-energy electron, followed by fragmentation, is a fundamental reaction process in cold and dilute plasmas. For polyatomic ions, it can yield molecular fragments in ro-vibrationally excited states. The discrimination between decay channels with chemically different fragments and the measurement of their excitation energies pose an experimental challenge. This work discusses a new experimental scheme based on fast beam fragment imaging in a stor...

  20. Clocks and cardiovascular function

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoughlin, Sarah C.; Haines, Philip; FitzGerald, Garret A.

    2016-01-01

    Circadian clocks in central and peripheral tissues enable the temporal synchronization and organization of molecular and physiological processes of rhythmic animals, allowing optimum functioning of cells and organisms at the most appropriate time of day. Disruption of circadian rhythms, from external or internal forces, leads to widespread biological disruption and is postulated to underlie many human conditions, such as the incidence and timing of cardiovascular disease. Here, we describe in vivo and in vitro methodology relevant to studying the role of circadian rhythms in cardiovascular function and dysfunction PMID:25707279

  1. Characterising haemodialysis-associated cardiomyopathy using deformation imaging by cardiovascular magnetic resonance tagging and speckle-tracking echocardiography

    OpenAIRE

    Odudu, Aghogho

    2013-01-01

    Haemodialysis patients represent an extreme phenotype of cardiovascular risk with a pattern of disease distinct from that in the general population. Non-traditional risk factors, specific to chronic kidney disease such as hypervolaemia, arterial stiffness and advanced glycation end-product deposition are increasingly recognised. A previously demonstrated non-traditional risk factor associated with worse outcomes is the presence of uraemic cardiomyopathy. This pattern of cardiac morphology and...

  2. Targeting the treatment of drug abuse with molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although imaging studies in and of themselves have significant contributions to the study of human behavior, imaging in drug abuse has a much broader agenda. Drugs of abuse bind to molecules in specific parts of the brain in order to produce their effects. Positron emission tomography (PET) provides a unique opportunity to track this process, capturing the kinetics with which an abused compound is transported to its site of action. The specific examples discussed here were chosen to illustrate how PET can be used to map the regional distribution and kinetics of compounds that may or may not have abuse liability. We also discussed some morphological and functional changes associated with drug abuse and different stages of recovery following abstinence. PET measurements of functional changes in the brain have also led to the development of several treatment strategies, one of which is discussed in detail here. Information such as this becomes more than a matter of academic interest. Such knowledge can provide the bases for anticipating which compounds may be abused and which may not. It can also be used to identify biological markers or changes in brain function that are associated with progression from drug use to drug abuse and also to stage the recovery process. This new knowledge can guide legislative initiatives on the optimal duration of mandatory treatment stays, promoting long-lasting abstinence and greatly reducing the societal burden of drug abuse. Imaging can also give some insights into potential pharmacotherapeutic targets to manage the reinforcing effects of addictive compounds, as well as into protective strategies to minimize their toxic consequences

  3. Positron emission tomography: diagnostic imaging on a molecular level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In human medicine positron emission tomography (PET) is a modern diagnostic imaging method. In the present paper we outline the physical principles of PET and give an overview over the main clinic fields where PET is being used, such as neurology, cardiology and oncology. Moreover, we present a current project in veterinary medicine (in collaboration with the Paul Scherrer Institute and the University Hospital Zurich), where a hypoxia tracer is applied to dogs and cats suffering from spontaneous tumors. Finally new developments in the field of PET were discussed

  4. Molecular imaging of cancer with radiolabeled peptides and PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vāvere, Amy L; Rossin, Raffaella

    2012-06-01

    Radiolabeled peptides hold promise for diagnosis and therapy of cancer as well as for early monitoring of therapy outcomes, patient stratification, etc. This manuscript focuses on the development of peptides labeled with 18F, 64Cu, 68Ga and other positron-emitting radionuclides for PET imaging. The major techniques for radionuclide incorporation are briefly discussed. Then, examples of positron-emitting peptides targeting somatostatin receptors, integrins, gastrin-releasing peptide receptors, vasointestinal peptide receptors, melanocortin 1 receptors and others are reviewed. PMID:22292762

  5. Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance guidelines for reporting cardiovascular magnetic resonance examinations

    OpenAIRE

    van Rossum Albert C; Raman Subha V; McConnell Michael V; Lawson Mark A; Higgins Charles B; Friedrich Matthias G; Bogaert Jan G; Bluemke David; Hundley W Gregory; Flamm Scott; Kramer Christopher M; Nagel Eike; Neubauer Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Abstract These reporting guidelines are recommended by the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (SCMR) to provide a framework for healthcare delivery systems to disseminate cardiac and vascular imaging findings related to the performance of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) examinations.

  6. Emerging Themes in Image Informatics and Molecular Analysis for Digital Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Rohit; Madabhushi, Anant

    2016-07-11

    Pathology is essential for research in disease and development, as well as for clinical decision making. For more than 100 years, pathology practice has involved analyzing images of stained, thin tissue sections by a trained human using an optical microscope. Technological advances are now driving major changes in this paradigm toward digital pathology (DP). The digital transformation of pathology goes beyond recording, archiving, and retrieving images, providing new computational tools to inform better decision making for precision medicine. First, we discuss some emerging innovations in both computational image analytics and imaging instrumentation in DP. Second, we discuss molecular contrast in pathology. Molecular DP has traditionally been an extension of pathology with molecularly specific dyes. Label-free, spectroscopic images are rapidly emerging as another important information source, and we describe the benefits and potential of this evolution. Third, we describe multimodal DP, which is enabled by computational algorithms and combines the best characteristics of structural and molecular pathology. Finally, we provide examples of application areas in telepathology, education, and precision medicine. We conclude by discussing challenges and emerging opportunities in this area. PMID:27420575

  7. Emerging Themes in Image Informatics and Molecular Analysis for Digital Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Rohit; Madabhushi, Anant

    2016-07-11

    Pathology is essential for research in disease and development, as well as for clinical decision making. For more than 100 years, pathology practice has involved analyzing images of stained, thin tissue sections by a trained human using an optical microscope. Technological advances are now driving major changes in this paradigm toward digital pathology (DP). The digital transformation of pathology goes beyond recording, archiving, and retrieving images, providing new computational tools to inform better decision making for precision medicine. First, we discuss some emerging innovations in both computational image analytics and imaging instrumentation in DP. Second, we discuss molecular contrast in pathology. Molecular DP has traditionally been an extension of pathology with molecularly specific dyes. Label-free, spectroscopic images are rapidly emerging as another important information source, and we describe the benefits and potential of this evolution. Third, we describe multimodal DP, which is enabled by computational algorithms and combines the best characteristics of structural and molecular pathology. Finally, we provide examples of application areas in telepathology, education, and precision medicine. We conclude by discussing challenges and emerging opportunities in this area.

  8. Molecular imaging: future uses in arthritides; Molekulare Bildgebung: Kuenftige Anwendungen bei Arthritiden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brem, M.H.; Schlechtweg, P.M.; MacKenzie, J.; Winalski, C.S.; Lang, P. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital of Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    Molecular imaging is an upcoming field in radiology as a result of great advances in imaging technology, genetics, and biochemistry in the recent past. Early-stage imaging of molecular pathological changes in cells opens the gates to new methods in medical treatment of diseases that otherwise would only be detected in advanced stages. Methods of imaging biochemical pathways with molecular agents are currently an issue of intensive research. This article reviews current modalities of molecular imaging in arthritis that should offer future perspective on early disease detection, diagnosis, and monitoring of treatment efficiency and how they can pave the way to optimized therapy. (orig.) [German] Die molekulare Bildgebung gehoert dank immenser Fortschritte bzgl. Technologie, Genetik und Biochemie in juengster Vergangenheit zu den sehr viel versprechenden neuen Methoden der Bildgebung in der Radiologie. Die Darstellung pathophysiologischer Vorgaenge auf molekularer Ebene in Initialstadien von Erkrankungen eroeffnen ganz neue und noch weitgehend unerforschte Optionen bei der Behandlung von Erkrankungen, die mit herkoemmlichen Methoden erst in weit fortgeschrittenen Stadien erkannt werden koennen. Gegenwaertig wird intensiv an Methoden zur Darstellung dieser verschiedenen zellulaeren Vorgaenge durch Kontrastmittel auf molekularer Basis gearbeitet. In diesem Uebersichtsartikel soll veranschaulicht werden, wie die molekulare Bildgebung bei Arthritiden derzeit und zukuenftig zu verbesserter Frueherkennung, Diagnostik und durch Monitoring der verschiedenen Behandlungsregime zu optimierter Therapie beitragen kann. (orig.)

  9. A systematic review of image segmentation methodology, used in the additive manufacture of patient-specific 3D printed models of the cardiovascular system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, N; Velasco Forte, M; Tandon, A; Valverde, I

    2016-01-01

    Background Shortcomings in existing methods of image segmentation preclude the widespread adoption of patient-specific 3D printing as a routine decision-making tool in the care of those with congenital heart disease. We sought to determine the range of cardiovascular segmentation methods and how long each of these methods takes. Methods A systematic review of literature was undertaken. Medical imaging modality, segmentation methods, segmentation time, segmentation descriptive quality (SDQ) and segmentation software were recorded. Results Totally 136 studies met the inclusion criteria (1 clinical trial; 80 journal articles; 55 conference, technical and case reports). The most frequently used image segmentation methods were brightness thresholding, region growing and manual editing, as supported by the most popular piece of proprietary software: Mimics (Materialise NV, Leuven, Belgium, 1992–2015). The use of bespoke software developed by individual authors was not uncommon. SDQ indicated that reporting of image segmentation methods was generally poor with only one in three accounts providing sufficient detail for their procedure to be reproduced. Conclusions and implication of key findings Predominantly anecdotal and case reporting precluded rigorous assessment of risk of bias and strength of evidence. This review finds a reliance on manual and semi-automated segmentation methods which demand a high level of expertise and a significant time commitment on the part of the operator. In light of the findings, we have made recommendations regarding reporting of 3D printing studies. We anticipate that these findings will encourage the development of advanced image segmentation methods. PMID:27170842

  10. A systematic review of image segmentation methodology, used in the additive manufacture of patient-specific 3D printed models of the cardiovascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Byrne

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Shortcomings in existing methods of image segmentation preclude the widespread adoption of patient-specific 3D printing as a routine decision-making tool in the care of those with congenital heart disease. We sought to determine the range of cardiovascular segmentation methods and how long each of these methods takes. Methods A systematic review of literature was undertaken. Medical imaging modality, segmentation methods, segmentation time, segmentation descriptive quality (SDQ and segmentation software were recorded. Results Totally 136 studies met the inclusion criteria (1 clinical trial; 80 journal articles; 55 conference, technical and case reports. The most frequently used image segmentation methods were brightness thresholding, region growing and manual editing, as supported by the most popular piece of proprietary software: Mimics (Materialise NV, Leuven, Belgium, 1992–2015. The use of bespoke software developed by individual authors was not uncommon. SDQ indicated that reporting of image segmentation methods was generally poor with only one in three accounts providing sufficient detail for their procedure to be reproduced. Conclusions and implication of key findings Predominantly anecdotal and case reporting precluded rigorous assessment of risk of bias and strength of evidence. This review finds a reliance on manual and semi-automated segmentation methods which demand a high level of expertise and a significant time commitment on the part of the operator. In light of the findings, we have made recommendations regarding reporting of 3D printing studies. We anticipate that these findings will encourage the development of advanced image segmentation methods.

  11. Somatostatin Receptor-Based Molecular Imaging and Therapy for Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs are tumors originated from neuroendocrine cells in the body. The localization and the detection of the extent of NETs are important for diagnosis and treatment, which should be individualized according to the tumor type, burden, and symptoms. Molecular imaging of NETs with high sensitivity and specificity is achieved by nuclear medicine method using single photon-emitting and positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals. Somatostatin receptor imaging (SRI using SPECT or PET as a whole-body imaging technique has become a crucial part of the management of NETs. The radiotherapy with somatostatin analogues labeled with therapeutic beta emitters, such as lutetium-177 or yttrium-90, has been proved to be an option of therapy for patients with unresectable and metastasized NETs. Molecular imaging can deliver an important message to improve the outcome for patients with NETs by earlier diagnosis, better choice of the therapeutic method, and evaluation of the therapeutic response.

  12. Nonlinear optical molecular imaging enables metabolic redox sensing in tissue-engineered constructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Leng-Chun; Lloyd, William R.; Wilson, Robert H.; Kuo, Shiuhyang; Marcelo, Cynthia L.; Feinberg, Stephen E.; Mycek, Mary-Ann

    2011-07-01

    Tissue-engineered constructs require noninvasive monitoring of cellular viability prior to implantation. In a preclinical study on human Ex Vivo Produced Oral Mucosa Equivalent (EVPOME) constructs, nonlinear optical molecular imaging was employed to extract morphological and functional information from intact constructs. Multiphoton excitation fluorescence images were acquired using endogenous fluorescence from cellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate [NAD(P)H] and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). The images were analyzed to report quantitatively on tissue structure and metabolism (redox ratio). Both thickness variations over time and cell distribution variations with depth were identified, while changes in redox were quantified. Our results show that nonlinear optical molecular imaging has the potential to visualize and quantitatively monitor the growth and viability of a tissue-engineered construct over time.

  13. Optical-based molecular imaging: contrast agents and potential medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser- and sensitive charge-coupled device technology together with advanced mathematical modelling of photon propagation in tissue has prompted the development of novel optical imaging technologies. Fast surface-weighted imaging modalities, such as fluorescence reflectance imaging (FRI) and 3D quantitative fluorescence-mediated tomography have now become available [1, 2]. These technical advances are paralleled by a rapid development of a whole range of new optical contrasting strategies, which are designed to generate molecular contrast within a living organism. The combination of both, technical advances of light detection and the refinement of optical contrast media, finally yields a new spectrum of tools for in vivo molecular diagnostics. Whereas the technical aspects of optical imaging are covered in more detail in a previous review article in ''European Radiology'' [3], this article focuses on new developments in optical contrasting strategies and design of optical contrast agents for in vivo diagnostics. (orig.)

  14. Recent Advance of Biological Molecular Imaging Based on Lanthanide-Doped Upconversion-Luminescent Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanzeng Min

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Lanthanide-doped upconversion-luminescent nanoparticles (UCNPs, which can be excited by near-infrared (NIR laser irradiation to emit multiplex light, have been proven to be very useful for in vitro and in vivo molecular imaging studies. In comparison with the conventionally used down-conversion fluorescence imaging strategies, the NIR light excited luminescence of UCNPs displays high photostability, low cytotoxicity, little background auto-fluorescence, which allows for deep tissue penetration, making them attractive as contrast agents for biomedical imaging applications. In this review, we will mainly focus on the latest development of a new type of lanthanide-doped UCNP material and its main applications for in vitro and in vivo molecular imaging and we will also discuss the challenges and future perspectives.

  15. Imaging Multi-Particle Atomic and Molecular Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landers, Allen [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)

    2016-02-12

    Final Report for Grant Number: DE- FG02-10ER16146 This grant supported research in basic atomic, molecular and optical physics related to the interactions of atoms and molecules with photons and electrons. The duration of the grant was the 5 year period from 4/1/2010 – 10/31/2015. All of the support from the grant was used to pay salaries of the PI, graduate students, and undergraduates and travel to conferences and meetings. The results were in the form of publications in peer reviewed journals. There were 20 peer reviewed publications over these 5 years with 2 of the publications in Physical Review Letters and 1 in Nature; all of the other articles were in respected peer reviewed journals (Physical Review A, New Journal of Physics, Journal of Physics B ...).

  16. Molecular targeting of angiogenesis for imaging and therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brack, Simon S.; Neri, Dario [Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (Switzerland); Dinkelborg, Ludger M. [Research Laboratories of Schering AG, Berlin (Germany)

    2004-09-01

    Angiogenesis, i.e. the proliferation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones, is an underlying process in many human diseases, including cancer, blinding ocular disorders and rheumatoid arthritis. The ability to selectively target and interfere with neovascularisation would potentially be useful in the diagnosis and treatment of angiogenesis-related diseases. This review presents the authors' views on some of the most relevant markers of angiogenesis described to date, as well as on specific ligands which have been characterised in pre-clinical animal models and/or clinical studies. Furthermore, we present an overview on technologies which are likely to have an impact on the way molecular targeting of angiogenesis is performed in the future. (orig.)

  17. Justifying molecular images in cell biology textbooks: From constructions to primary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpente, Norberto

    2016-02-01

    For scientific claims to be reliable and productive they have to be justified. However, on the one hand little is known on what justification precisely means to scientists, and on the other the position held by philosophers of science on what it entails is rather limited; for justifications customarily refer to the written form (textual expressions) of scientific claims, leaving aside images, which, as many cases from the history of science show are relevant to this process. The fact that images can visually express scientific claims independently from text, plus their vast variety and origins, requires an assessment of the way they are currently justified and in turn used as sources to justify scientific claims in the case of particular scientific fields. Similarly, in view of the different nature of images, analysis is required to determine on what side of the philosophical distinction between data and phenomena these different kinds of images fall. This paper historicizes and documents a particular aspect of contemporary life sciences research: the use of the molecular image as vehicle of knowledge production in cell studies, a field that has undergone a significant shift in visual expressions from the early 1980s onwards. Focussing on textbooks as sources that have been overlooked in the historiography of contemporary biomedicine, the aim is to explore (1) whether the shift of cell studies, entailing a superseding of the optical image traditionally conceptualised as primary data, by the molecular image, corresponds with a shift of justificatory practices, and (2) to assess the role of the molecular image as primary data. This paper also explores the dual role of images as teaching resources and as resources for the construction of knowledge in cell studies especially in its relation to discovery and justification. Finally, this paper seeks to stimulate reflection on what kind of archival resources could benefit the work of present and future epistemic

  18. Molecular Beacon-Based MicroRNA Imaging During Neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghwan; Kim, Soonhag

    2016-01-01

    The fluorescence monitoring system for examining endogenous microRNA (miRNA) activity in cellular level provides crucial information on not only understanding a critical role of miRNA involving a variety of biological processes, but also evaluating miRNA expression patterns in a noninvasive manner. In this protocol, we report the details of a new procedure for a molecular beacon-based miRNA monitoring system, which includes the illustration scheme for miRNA detection strategy, exogenous miRNA detection, and measurement of endogenous miRNA expression level during neurogenesis. The fluorescence signal of miR-124a beacon quenched by BHQ2 was gradually recovered as increasing concentration of the miR-124a in tube. The functional work of miR-124a beacon was examined in intracellular environment, allowing for the internalization of the miR-124a beacon by lipofectamine, which resulted in activated fluorescent signals of the miR-124a beacon in the HeLa cells after the addition of synthetic miR-124a. The endogenous miR-124a expression level was detected by miR-124a beacon system during neurogenesis, showing brighter fluorescence intensity in cytoplasmic area of P19 cells after induction of neuronal differentiation by retinoic acid. The molecular beacon based-miRNA detection technique could be applicable to the simultaneous visualization of a variety of miRNA expression patterns using different fluorescence dyes. For the study of examining endogenous miRNA expression level using miRNA-beacon system, if cellular differentiation step is already prepared, transfection step of miR-124a beacon into P19 cells, and acquisition of activated fluorescence signal measured by confocal microscope can be conducted approximately within 6 h. PMID:26530921

  19. Molecular Beacon-Based MicroRNA Imaging During Neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghwan; Kim, Soonhag

    2016-01-01

    The fluorescence monitoring system for examining endogenous microRNA (miRNA) activity in cellular level provides crucial information on not only understanding a critical role of miRNA involving a variety of biological processes, but also evaluating miRNA expression patterns in a noninvasive manner. In this protocol, we report the details of a new procedure for a molecular beacon-based miRNA monitoring system, which includes the illustration scheme for miRNA detection strategy, exogenous miRNA detection, and measurement of endogenous miRNA expression level during neurogenesis. The fluorescence signal of miR-124a beacon quenched by BHQ2 was gradually recovered as increasing concentration of the miR-124a in tube. The functional work of miR-124a beacon was examined in intracellular environment, allowing for the internalization of the miR-124a beacon by lipofectamine, which resulted in activated fluorescent signals of the miR-124a beacon in the HeLa cells after the addition of synthetic miR-124a. The endogenous miR-124a expression level was detected by miR-124a beacon system during neurogenesis, showing brighter fluorescence intensity in cytoplasmic area of P19 cells after induction of neuronal differentiation by retinoic acid. The molecular beacon based-miRNA detection technique could be applicable to the simultaneous visualization of a variety of miRNA expression patterns using different fluorescence dyes. For the study of examining endogenous miRNA expression level using miRNA-beacon system, if cellular differentiation step is already prepared, transfection step of miR-124a beacon into P19 cells, and acquisition of activated fluorescence signal measured by confocal microscope can be conducted approximately within 6 h.

  20. Calculation of images of oriented C_60 molecules using molecular orbital theory

    OpenAIRE

    Hands, Ian D; Dunn, Janette L; Bates, Colin A.

    2010-01-01

    Using Hückel molecular-orbital theory, images are created to represent the electron distributions expected for a C60 molecule adsorbed on a substrate. Three different orientations of the C60 molecule on the substrate are considered. The effect of the interaction of the molecule with the substrate is treated purely from the basis of symmetry using group theoretical methods. The resulting electron distributions are then used to generate idealized images which represent how the molec...

  1. Peptide-Targeted Nanoglobular Gd-DOTA Monoamide Conjugates for Magnetic Resonance Cancer Molecular Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Mingqian; Wu, Xueming; Jeong, Eun-Kee; Chen, Qianjin; Lu, Zheng-Rong

    2010-01-01

    Effective imaging of cancer molecular biomarker is critical for accurate cancer diagnosis and prognosis. CLT1 peptide was observed to specifically bind to the fibrin-fibronectin complexes presented in tumor extracellular matrix. In this study, we synthesized and evaluated CLT1 peptide-targeted nanoglobular Gd-DOTA monoamide conjugates for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the fibrin-fibronectin complexes in tumor. The targeted nanoglobular contrast agents were prepared by conjugating peptide...

  2. Early Cancer Detection and Targeted Therapy by Magnetic Resonance Molecular Imaging and Nano Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhao

    2015-01-01

    The common theme of my 5-year PhD research is to channel progress in spin physics and nano-bio-materials into meaningful improvements in the theoretical studies, methodological developments, and advanced applications of magnetic resonance (MR) to: 1) MR Molecular Imaging: to detect lesions (especially cancers) at early stages through imaging the existence and locations of physiologically important biomarkers; and2) MR Nano Medicine: to cure diseases (especially cancers) by targeted therapy th...

  3. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in systemic hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Maceira Alicia M; Mohiaddin Raad H

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Systemic hypertension is a highly prevalent potentially modifiable cardiovascular risk factor. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis of underlying causes for hypertension, in assessing cardiovascular complications of hypertension, and in understanding the pathophysiology of the disease process. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) provides accurate and reproducible measures of ventricular volumes, mass, function and haemodynamics as well as uniquely allowing tissue char...

  4. Prognostic value of cardiovascular MR imaging biomarkers on outcome in peripheral arterial disease: a 6-year follow-up pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bosch, Harrie; Westenberg, Jos; Setz-Pels, Wikke; Kersten, Erik; Tielbeek, Alexander; Duijm, Lucien; Post, Johannes; Teijink, Joep; de Roos, Albert

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to explore the prognostic value of outcome of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (MR) imaging biomarkers in patients with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in comparison with traditional risk factors. Forty-two consecutive patients (mean age 64 ± 11 years, 22 men) referred for contrast-enhanced MR angiography (CE-MRA) were included. At baseline a comprehensive cardiovascular MRI examination was performed: CE-MRA of the infra-renal aorta and run-off vessels, carotid vessel wall imaging, cardiac cine imaging and aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) assessment. Patients were categorized for outcome at 72 ± 5 months follow-up. One patient was lost to follow-up. Over 6 years, six patients had died (mortality rate 14.6 %), six patients (14.6 %) had experienced a cardiac event and three patients (7.3 %) a cerebral event. The mean MRA stenosis class (i.e., average stenosis severity visually scored over 27 standardized segments) was a significant independent predictor for all-cause mortality (beta 3.0 ± standard error 1.3, p = 0.02). Descending aorta PWV, age and diabetes mellitus were interrelated with stenosis severity but none of these were significant independent predictors. For cardiac morbidity, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and mean MRA stenosis class were associated, but only LVEF was a significant independent predictor (beta -0.14 ± 0.05, p = 0.005). Diabetes mellitus was a significant independent predictor for cerebral morbidity (beta 2.8 ± 1.3, p = 0.03). Significant independent predictors for outcome in PAD are mean MRA stenosis class for all-cause mortality, LVEF for cardiac morbidity and diabetes mellitus for cerebral morbidity. PMID:27209283

  5. Quantitative multicolor compositional imaging resolves molecular domains in cell-matrix adhesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Zamir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cellular processes occur within dynamic and multi-molecular compartments whose characterization requires analysis at high spatio-temporal resolution. Notable examples for such complexes are cell-matrix adhesion sites, consisting of numerous cytoskeletal and signaling proteins. These adhesions are highly variable in their morphology, dynamics, and apparent function, yet their molecular diversity is poorly defined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present here a compositional imaging approach for the analysis and display of multi-component compositions. This methodology is based on microscopy-acquired multicolor data, multi-dimensional clustering of pixels according to their composition similarity and display of the cellular distribution of these composition clusters. We apply this approach for resolving the molecular complexes associated with focal-adhesions, and the time-dependent effects of Rho-kinase inhibition. We show here compositional variations between adhesion sites, as well as ordered variations along the axis of individual focal-adhesions. The multicolor clustering approach also reveals distinct sensitivities of different focal-adhesion-associated complexes to Rho-kinase inhibition. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Multicolor compositional imaging resolves "molecular signatures" characteristic to focal-adhesions and related structures, as well as sub-domains within these adhesion sites. This analysis enhances the spatial information with additional "contents-resolved" dimensions. We propose that compositional imaging can serve as a powerful tool for studying complex multi-molecular assemblies in cells and for mapping their distribution at sub-micron resolution.

  6. Molecular Dynamics Study of a Thermal Expansion Coefficient: Ti Bulk with an Elastic Minimum Image Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yakup Hundur; Rainer Hippler; Ziya B. Güven(c)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Linear thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) of Ti bulk is investigated by means of molecular dynamics simulation.The elastic minimum image convention of periodic boundary conditions is introduced to allow the bulk to adjust its size according to the new fixed temperature. The TEC and the specific heat of Ti are compared to the available theoretical and experimental data.

  7. Catalytic Molecular Imaging of MicroRNA in Living Cells by DNA-Programmed Nanoparticle Disassembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuewen; Zeng, Tao; Li, Zhi; Wang, Ganglin; Ma, Nan

    2016-02-24

    Molecular imaging is an essential tool for disease diagnostics and treatment. Direct imaging of low-abundance nucleic acids in living cells remains challenging because of the relatively low sensitivity and insufficient signal-to-background ratio of conventional molecular imaging probes. Herein, we report a class of DNA-templated gold nanoparticle (GNP)-quantum dot (QD) assembly-based probes for catalytic imaging of cancer-related microRNAs (miRNA) in living cells with signal amplification capacity. We show that a single miRNA molecule could catalyze the disassembly of multiple QDs with the GNP through a DNA-programmed thermodynamically driven entropy gain process, yielding significantly amplified QD photoluminescence (PL) for miRNA imaging. By combining the robust PL of QDs with the catalytic amplification strategy, three orders of magnitude improvement in detection sensitivity is achieved in comparison with non-catalytic imaging probe, which enables facile and accurate differentiation between cancer cells and normal cells by miRNA imaging in living cells. PMID:26694689

  8. A synthetic molecular system capable of mirror-image genetic replication and transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zimou; Xu, Weiliang; Liu, Lei; Zhu, Ting F

    2016-07-01

    The overwhelmingly homochiral nature of life has left a puzzle as to whether mirror-image biological systems based on a chirally inverted version of molecular machinery could also have existed. Here we report that two key steps in the central dogma of molecular biology, the template-directed polymerization of DNA and transcription into RNA, can be catalysed by a chemically synthesized D-amino acid polymerase on an L-DNA template. We also show that two chirally mirrored versions of the 174-residue African swine fever virus polymerase X could operate in a racemic mixture without significant enantiomeric cross-inhibition to the activity of each other. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a functionally active L-DNAzyme could be enzymatically produced using the D-amino acid polymerase. The establishment of such molecular systems with an opposite handedness highlights the potential to exploit enzymatically produced mirror-image biomolecules as research and therapeutic tools. PMID:27325097

  9. Molecular Imaging Using Fluorescence and Bioluminescence to Reveal Tissue Response to Laser-Mediated Thermal Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackanos, Mark A.; Jansen, E. Duco; Contag, Christopher H.

    For decades biological investigation has focused on a reductionist approach, which has greatly advanced our understanding of the biological process, but has also served to move the analysis further and further away from the living body. This was necessary as we sought to identify the cells, genes, mutations and/or etiological agents that were associated with a given process. The information generated through these approaches can now be used to advance more integrative strategies in which specific cellular and molecular events can be studied in context of the functional circulation and intact organ systems of living animals, and humans. Essential tools for integrative analyses of biology include imaging modalities that enable visualization of structure and function in the living body. The relatively recent development of molecular probes as exogenous contrast agents and reporter genes that encode proteins with unique properties that can be distinguished from tissues and cells has ushered in a new set of approaches that are being called molecular imaging.

  10. The triple line pattern on carotid intima media thickness imaging and its relationship to cardiovascular risk factors in patients on lipid lowering therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh TA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tania A Singh,1 Todd C Villines,2 Allen J Taylor31Division of Cardiology, Medstar Georgetown University Hospital, 2Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, MD, 3Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA Background: Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT infrequently identifies a triple line pattern (TLP in the visualization of the internal elastic lamina. We examined the prevalence and predictors of the TLP among a consecutive series of subjects enrolled in a CIMT clinical trial, and also the effects of lipid lowering therapy.Methods: Baseline CIMT studies of subjects with known heart disease, or high risk for heart disease, were evaluated from a single site of the Arterial Biology for the Investigation of the Treatment Effects of Reducing Cholesterol 6-HDL and LDL Treatment Strategies in Atherosclerosis trial (N=120. One sonographer obtained four views of the right and left far wall common CIMT, using a 13 MHz ultrasound probe. Images were blindly reviewed for the presence of the TLP. The TLP was defined as absent (0, possible (1, or definite (2. A composite score from all four views was calculated. A patient was defined as having the TLP if the composite score was ≥4. Univariate predictors of the TLP were explored. Follow-up ultrasounds at 14 months were also reviewed for presence of the TLP.Results: The prevalence of the TLP at baseline was 22.5%. Among cardiovascular risk variables, systolic blood pressure was significantly higher in subjects displaying the TLP (141.3±15.6 mmHg versus 133.1±18.4 mmHg; P=0.036. There were no differences among those with, and without, the TLP, with respect to other cardiovascular risk variables (age, sex, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, glucose, weight, waist girth, tobacco use, medications, quantitative CIMT, or image quality. During ongoing lipid lowering therapy, the prevalence of the TLP increased to 54

  11. Full-direct method for imaging pharmacokinetic parameters in dynamic fluorescence molecular tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guanglei, E-mail: guangleizhang@bjtu.edu.cn [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Computer and Information Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Pu, Huangsheng; Liu, Fei; Bai, Jing [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); He, Wei [China Institute of Sport Science, Beijing 100061 (China); Luo, Jianwen, E-mail: luo-jianwen@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-02-23

    Images of pharmacokinetic parameters (also known as parametric images) in dynamic fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) can provide three-dimensional metabolic information for biological studies and drug development. However, the ill-posed nature of FMT and the high temporal variation of fluorophore concentration together make it difficult to obtain accurate parametric images in small animals in vivo. In this letter, we present a method to directly reconstruct the parametric images from the boundary measurements based on hybrid FMT/X-ray computed tomography (XCT) system. This method can not only utilize structural priors obtained from the XCT system to mitigate the ill-posedness of FMT but also make full use of the temporal correlations of boundary measurements to model the high temporal variation of fluorophore concentration. The results of numerical simulation and mouse experiment demonstrate that the proposed method leads to significant improvements in the reconstruction quality of parametric images.

  12. Full-direct method for imaging pharmacokinetic parameters in dynamic fluorescence molecular tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guanglei; Pu, Huangsheng; He, Wei; Liu, Fei; Luo, Jianwen; Bai, Jing

    2015-02-01

    Images of pharmacokinetic parameters (also known as parametric images) in dynamic fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) can provide three-dimensional metabolic information for biological studies and drug development. However, the ill-posed nature of FMT and the high temporal variation of fluorophore concentration together make it difficult to obtain accurate parametric images in small animals in vivo. In this letter, we present a method to directly reconstruct the parametric images from the boundary measurements based on hybrid FMT/X-ray computed tomography (XCT) system. This method can not only utilize structural priors obtained from the XCT system to mitigate the ill-posedness of FMT but also make full use of the temporal correlations of boundary measurements to model the high temporal variation of fluorophore concentration. The results of numerical simulation and mouse experiment demonstrate that the proposed method leads to significant improvements in the reconstruction quality of parametric images.

  13. Full-direct method for imaging pharmacokinetic parameters in dynamic fluorescence molecular tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Images of pharmacokinetic parameters (also known as parametric images) in dynamic fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) can provide three-dimensional metabolic information for biological studies and drug development. However, the ill-posed nature of FMT and the high temporal variation of fluorophore concentration together make it difficult to obtain accurate parametric images in small animals in vivo. In this letter, we present a method to directly reconstruct the parametric images from the boundary measurements based on hybrid FMT/X-ray computed tomography (XCT) system. This method can not only utilize structural priors obtained from the XCT system to mitigate the ill-posedness of FMT but also make full use of the temporal correlations of boundary measurements to model the high temporal variation of fluorophore concentration. The results of numerical simulation and mouse experiment demonstrate that the proposed method leads to significant improvements in the reconstruction quality of parametric images

  14. Differential structured illumination microendoscopy for in vivo imaging of molecular contrast agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keahey, Pelham; Ramalingam, Preetha; Schmeler, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Fiber optic microendoscopy has shown promise for visualization of molecular contrast agents used to study disease in vivo. However, fiber optic microendoscopes have limited optical sectioning capability, and image contrast is limited by out-of-focus light generated in highly scattering tissue. Optical sectioning techniques have been used in microendoscopes to remove out-of-focus light but reduce imaging speed or rely on bulky optical elements that prevent in vivo imaging. Here, we present differential structured illumination microendoscopy (DSIMe), a fiber optic system that can perform structured illumination in real time for optical sectioning without any opto-mechanical components attached to the distal tip of the fiber bundle. We demonstrate the use of DSIMe during in vivo fluorescence imaging in patients undergoing surgery for cervical adenocarcinoma in situ. Images acquired using DSIMe show greater contrast than standard microendoscopy, improving the ability to detect cellular atypia associated with neoplasia. PMID:27621464

  15. Companion diagnostics and molecular imaging-enhanced approaches for oncology clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Heertum, Ronald L; Scarimbolo, Robert; Ford, Robert; Berdougo, Eli; O'Neal, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In the era of personalized medicine, diagnostic approaches are helping pharmaceutical and biotechnology sponsors streamline the clinical trial process. Molecular assays and diagnostic imaging are routinely being used to stratify patients for treatment, monitor disease, and provide reliable early clinical phase assessments. The importance of diagnostic approaches in drug development is highlighted by the rapidly expanding global cancer diagnostics market and the emergent attention of regulatory agencies worldwide, who are beginning to offer more structured platforms and guidance for this area. In this paper, we highlight the key benefits of using companion diagnostics and diagnostic imaging with a focus on oncology clinical trials. Nuclear imaging using widely available radiopharmaceuticals in conjunction with molecular imaging of oncology targets has opened the door to more accurate disease assessment and the modernization of standard criteria for the evaluation, staging, and treatment responses of cancer patients. Furthermore, the introduction and validation of quantitative molecular imaging continues to drive and optimize the field of oncology diagnostics. Given their pivotal role in disease assessment and treatment, the validation and commercialization of diagnostic tools will continue to advance oncology clinical trials, support new oncology drugs, and promote better patient outcomes.

  16. Onboard functional and molecular imaging: A design investigation for robotic multipinhole SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Onboard imaging—currently performed primarily by x-ray transmission modalities—is essential in modern radiation therapy. As radiation therapy moves toward personalized medicine, molecular imaging, which views individual gene expression, may also be important onboard. Nuclear medicine methods, such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), are premier modalities for molecular imaging. The purpose of this study is to investigate a robotic multipinhole approach to onboard SPECT. Methods: Computer-aided design (CAD) studies were performed to assess the feasibility of maneuvering a robotic SPECT system about a patient in position for radiation therapy. In order to obtain fast, high-quality SPECT images, a 49-pinhole SPECT camera was designed which provides high sensitivity to photons emitted from an imaging region of interest. This multipinhole system was investigated by computer-simulation studies. Seventeen hot spots 10 and 7 mm in diameter were placed in the breast region of a supine female phantom. Hot spot activity concentration was six times that of background. For the 49-pinhole camera and a reference, more conventional, broad field-of-view (FOV) SPECT system, projection data were computer simulated for 4-min scans and SPECT images were reconstructed. Hot-spot localization was evaluated using a nonprewhitening forced-choice numerical observer. Results: The CAD simulation studies found that robots could maneuver SPECT cameras about patients in position for radiation therapy. In the imaging studies, most hot spots were apparent in the 49-pinhole images. Average localization errors for 10-mm- and 7-mm-diameter hot spots were 0.4 and 1.7 mm, respectively, for the 49-pinhole system, and 3.1 and 5.7 mm, respectively, for the reference broad-FOV system. Conclusions: A robot could maneuver a multipinhole SPECT system about a patient in position for radiation therapy. The system could provide onboard functional and molecular imaging with 4-min

  17. Onboard functional and molecular imaging: A design investigation for robotic multipinhole SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowsher, James, E-mail: james.bowsher@duke.edu; Giles, William; Yin, Fang-Fang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 and Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Yan, Susu [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Roper, Justin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: Onboard imaging—currently performed primarily by x-ray transmission modalities—is essential in modern radiation therapy. As radiation therapy moves toward personalized medicine, molecular imaging, which views individual gene expression, may also be important onboard. Nuclear medicine methods, such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), are premier modalities for molecular imaging. The purpose of this study is to investigate a robotic multipinhole approach to onboard SPECT. Methods: Computer-aided design (CAD) studies were performed to assess the feasibility of maneuvering a robotic SPECT system about a patient in position for radiation therapy. In order to obtain fast, high-quality SPECT images, a 49-pinhole SPECT camera was designed which provides high sensitivity to photons emitted from an imaging region of interest. This multipinhole system was investigated by computer-simulation studies. Seventeen hot spots 10 and 7 mm in diameter were placed in the breast region of a supine female phantom. Hot spot activity concentration was six times that of background. For the 49-pinhole camera and a reference, more conventional, broad field-of-view (FOV) SPECT system, projection data were computer simulated for 4-min scans and SPECT images were reconstructed. Hot-spot localization was evaluated using a nonprewhitening forced-choice numerical observer. Results: The CAD simulation studies found that robots could maneuver SPECT cameras about patients in position for radiation therapy. In the imaging studies, most hot spots were apparent in the 49-pinhole images. Average localization errors for 10-mm- and 7-mm-diameter hot spots were 0.4 and 1.7 mm, respectively, for the 49-pinhole system, and 3.1 and 5.7 mm, respectively, for the reference broad-FOV system. Conclusions: A robot could maneuver a multipinhole SPECT system about a patient in position for radiation therapy. The system could provide onboard functional and molecular imaging with 4-min

  18. Target-to-background enhancement in multispectral endoscopy with background autofluorescence mitigation for quantitative molecular imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chenying; Hou, Vivian W.; Girard, Emily J.; Nelson, Leonard Y.; Seibel, Eric J.

    2014-07-01

    Fluorescence molecular imaging with exogenous probes improves specificity for the detection of diseased tissues by targeting unambiguous molecular signatures. Additionally, increased diagnostic sensitivity is expected with the application of multiple molecular probes. We developed a real-time multispectral fluorescence-reflectance scanning fiber endoscope (SFE) for wide-field molecular imaging of fluorescent dye-labeled molecular probes at nanomolar detection levels. Concurrent multichannel imaging with the wide-field SFE also allows for real-time mitigation of the background autofluorescence (AF) signal, especially when fluorescein, a U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved dye, is used as the target fluorophore. Quantitative tissue AF was measured for the ex vivo porcine esophagus and murine brain tissues across the visible and near-infrared spectra. AF signals were then transferred to the unit of targeted fluorophore concentration to evaluate the SFE detection sensitivity for sodium fluorescein and cyanine. Next, we demonstrated a real-time AF mitigation algorithm on a tissue phantom, which featured molecular probe targeted cells of high-grade dysplasia on a substrate containing AF species. The target-to-background ratio was enhanced by more than one order of magnitude when applying the real-time AF mitigation algorithm. Furthermore, a quantitative estimate of the fluorescein photodegradation (photobleaching) rate was evaluated and shown to be insignificant under the illumination conditions of SFE. In summary, the multichannel laser-based flexible SFE has demonstrated the capability to provide sufficient detection sensitivity, image contrast, and quantitative target intensity information for detecting small precancerous lesions in vivo.

  19. Ratiometric and near-infrared molecular probes for the detection and imaging of zinc ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol, Priya; Sreejith, Sivaramapanicker; Ajayaghosh, Ayyappanpillai

    2007-03-01

    The detection and imaging of Zn2+ in biological samples are of paramount interest owing to the role of this cation in physiological functions. This is possible only with molecular probes that specifically bind to Zn2+ and result in changes in emission properties. A "turn-on" emission or shift in the emission color upon binding to Zn2+ should be ideal for in vivo imaging. In this context, ratiometric and near-IR probes are of particular interest. Therefore, in the area of chemosensors or molecular probes, the design of fluorophores that allow ratiometric sensing or imaging in the near-IR region is attracting the attention of chemists. The purpose of this Focus Review is to highlight recent developments in this area and stress the importance of further research for future applications.

  20. Molecular Imaging of Bacterial Infections in vivo: The Discrimination between Infection and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Eggleston

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Molecular imaging by definition is the visualization of molecular and cellular processes within a given system. The modalities and reagents described here represent a diverse array spanning both pre-clinical and clinical applications. Innovations in probe design and technologies would greatly benefit therapeutic outcomes by enhancing diagnostic accuracy and assessment of acute therapy. Opportunistic pathogens continue to pose a worldwide threat, despite advancements in treatment strategies, which highlights the continued need for improved diagnostics. In this review, we present a summary of the current clinical protocol for the imaging of a suspected infection, methods currently in development to optimize this imaging process, and finally, insight into endocarditis as a model of infectious disease in immediate need of improved diagnostic methods.

  1. Image-guided Coring for Large-scale Studies in Molecular Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaser-Kouhsari, Laleh; Knoblauch, Nicholas W; Oh, Eun-Yeong; Baker, Gabrielle; Christensen, Stephen; Hazra, Aditi; Tamimi, Rulla M; Beck, Andrew H

    2016-07-01

    Sampling of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue blocks is a critical initial step in molecular pathology. Image-guided coring (IGC) is a new method for using digital pathology images to guide tissue block coring for molecular analyses. The goal of our study is to evaluate the use of IGC for both tissue-based and nucleic acid-based projects in molecular pathology. First, we used IGC to construct a tissue microarray (TMA); second, we used IGC for FFPE block sampling followed by RNA extraction; and third, we assessed the correlation between nuclear counts quantitated from the IGC images and RNA yields. We used IGC to construct a TMA containing 198 normal and breast cancer cores. Histopathologic analysis showed high accuracy for obtaining tumor and normal breast tissue. Next, we used IGC to obtain normal and tumor breast samples before RNA extraction. We selected a random subset of tumor and normal samples to perform computational image analysis to quantify nuclear density, and we built regression models to estimate RNA yields from nuclear count, age of the block, and core diameter. Number of nuclei and core diameter were the strongest predictors of RNA yields in both normal and tumor tissue. IGC is an effective method for sampling FFPE tissue blocks for TMA construction and nucleic acid extraction. We identify significant associations between quantitative nuclear counts obtained from IGC images and RNA yields, suggesting that the integration of computational image analysis with IGC may be an effective approach for tumor sampling in large-scale molecular studies. PMID:26186251

  2. Disease-specific target gene expression profiling of molecular imaging probes: database development and clinical validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lawrence Wing-Chi; Ngo, Connie Hiu-Ching; Wang, Fengfeng; Zhao, Moss Y; Zhao, Mengying; Law, Helen Ka-Wai; Wong, Sze Chuen Cesar; Yung, Benjamin Yat-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Molecular imaging probes can target abnormal gene expression patterns in patients and allow early diagnosis of disease. For selecting a suitable imaging probe, the current Molecular Imaging and Contrast Agent Database (MICAD) provides descriptive and qualitative information on imaging probe characteristics and properties. However, MICAD does not support linkage with the expression profiles of target genes. The proposed Disease-specific Imaging Probe Profiling (DIPP) database quantitatively archives and presents the gene expression profiles of targets across different diseases, anatomic regions, and subcellular locations, providing an objective reference for selecting imaging probes. The DIPP database was validated with a clinical positron emission tomography (PET) study on lung cancer and an in vitro study on neuroendocrine cancer. The retrieved records show that choline kinase beta and glucose transporters were positively and significantly associated with lung cancer among the targets of 11C-choline and [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-2-d-glucose (FDG), respectively. Their significant overexpressions corresponded to the findings that the uptake rate of FDG increased with tumor size but that of 11C-choline remained constant. Validated with the in vitro study, the expression profiles of disease-associated targets can indicate the eligibility of patients for clinical trials of the treatment probe. A Web search tool of the DIPP database is available at http://www.polyu.edu.hk/bmi/dipp/. PMID:25022454

  3. Illuminating necrosis: From mechanistic exploration to preclinical application using fluorescence molecular imaging with indocyanine green.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Cheng; Wang, Kun; Zeng, Chaoting; Chi, Chongwei; Shang, Wenting; Ye, Jinzuo; Mao, Yamin; Fan, Yingfang; Yang, Jian; Xiang, Nan; Zeng, Ning; Zhu, Wen; Fang, Chihua; Tian, Jie

    2016-02-11

    Tissue necrosis commonly accompanies the development of a wide range of serious diseases. Therefore, highly sensitive detection and precise boundary delineation of necrotic tissue via effective imaging techniques are crucial for clinical treatments; however, no imaging modalities have achieved satisfactory results to date. Although fluorescence molecular imaging (FMI) shows potential in this regard, no effective necrosis-avid fluorescent probe has been developed for clinical applications. Here, we demonstrate that indocyanine green (ICG) can achieve high avidity of necrotic tissue owing to its interaction with lipoprotein (LP) and phospholipids. The mechanism was explored at the cellular and molecular levels through a series of in vitro studies. Detection of necrotic tissue and real-time image-guided surgery were successfully achieved in different organs of different animal models with the help of FMI using in house-designed imaging devices. The results indicated that necrotic tissue with a 0.6 mm diameter could be effectively detected with precise boundary definition. We believe that the new discovery and the associated imaging techniques will improve personalized and precise surgery in the near future.

  4. Illuminating necrosis: From mechanistic exploration to preclinical application using fluorescence molecular imaging with indocyanine green.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Cheng; Wang, Kun; Zeng, Chaoting; Chi, Chongwei; Shang, Wenting; Ye, Jinzuo; Mao, Yamin; Fan, Yingfang; Yang, Jian; Xiang, Nan; Zeng, Ning; Zhu, Wen; Fang, Chihua; Tian, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Tissue necrosis commonly accompanies the development of a wide range of serious diseases. Therefore, highly sensitive detection and precise boundary delineation of necrotic tissue via effective imaging techniques are crucial for clinical treatments; however, no imaging modalities have achieved satisfactory results to date. Although fluorescence molecular imaging (FMI) shows potential in this regard, no effective necrosis-avid fluorescent probe has been developed for clinical applications. Here, we demonstrate that indocyanine green (ICG) can achieve high avidity of necrotic tissue owing to its interaction with lipoprotein (LP) and phospholipids. The mechanism was explored at the cellular and molecular levels through a series of in vitro studies. Detection of necrotic tissue and real-time image-guided surgery were successfully achieved in different organs of different animal models with the help of FMI using in house-designed imaging devices. The results indicated that necrotic tissue with a 0.6 mm diameter could be effectively detected with precise boundary definition. We believe that the new discovery and the associated imaging techniques will improve personalized and precise surgery in the near future. PMID:26864116

  5. Differential diagnosis of lung carcinoma with three-dimensional quantitative molecular vibrational imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Liang; Hammoudi, Ahmad A.; Li, Fuhai; Thrall, Michael J.; Cagle, Philip T.; Chen, Yuanxin; Yang, Jian; Xia, Xiaofeng; Fan, Yubo; Massoud, Yehia; Wang, Zhiyong; Wong, Stephen T. C.

    2012-06-01

    The advent of molecularly targeted therapies requires effective identification of the various cell types of non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC). Currently, cell type diagnosis is performed using small biopsies or cytology specimens that are often insufficient for molecular testing after morphologic analysis. Thus, the ability to rapidly recognize different cancer cell types, with minimal tissue consumption, would accelerate diagnosis and preserve tissue samples for subsequent molecular testing in targeted therapy. We report a label-free molecular vibrational imaging framework enabling three-dimensional (3-D) image acquisition and quantitative analysis of cellular structures for identification of NSCLC cell types. This diagnostic imaging system employs superpixel-based 3-D nuclear segmentation for extracting such disease-related features as nuclear shape, volume, and cell-cell distance. These features are used to characterize cancer cell types using machine learning. Using fresh unstained tissue samples derived from cell lines grown in a mouse model, the platform showed greater than 97% accuracy for diagnosis of NSCLC cell types within a few minutes. As an adjunct to subsequent histology tests, our novel system would allow fast delineation of cancer cell types with minimum tissue consumption, potentially facilitating on-the-spot diagnosis, while preserving specimens for additional tests. Furthermore, 3-D measurements of cellular structure permit evaluation closer to the native state of cells, creating an alternative to traditional 2-D histology specimen evaluation, potentially increasing accuracy in diagnosing cell type of lung carcinomas.

  6. PET for molecular imaging of cancer: a tool for tailored therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of personalised medicine has led to a need for improved phenotyping as well as prediction of treatment response early after therapy initiation. Most of the molecular biology methods used today need tissue sampling for in vitro analysis. In contrast, molecular imaging allows for non-invasive studies at the molecular level in living, intact organisms. Accordingly, molecular imaging with PET has been one of the most successful techniques in such phenotyping and response prediction using FDG. In addition, recent development of new PET tracers has further improved the value of PET in tumor characterization. Such new PET tracers allow for visualization of tumor specific receptors and tissue characteristics such as ability to metastasize. Furthermore, PET has a high sensitivity and allows for quantification and is not prone to sampling error as seen with biopsies. We will present examples of development of probes targeting the somatostatin receptor type 2, over-expressed in neuroendocrine tumors, including our first-in-man studies of 64Cu-DOTATATE. Also development in probes for visualization of the invasive phenotype will be presented. Finally, with the most recent development of true integrated PET/MRI scanners it has now become possible to add information from MRI. The value of such hybrid imaging will also be briefly discussed. (author)

  7. Small-animal SPECT and SPECT/CT: application in cardiovascular research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preclinical cardiovascular research using noninvasive radionuclide and hybrid imaging systems has been extensively developed in recent years. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is based on the molecular tracer principle and is an established tool in noninvasive imaging. SPECT uses gamma cameras and collimators to form projection data that are used to estimate (dynamic) 3-D tracer distributions in vivo. Recent developments in multipinhole collimation and advanced image reconstruction have led to sub-millimetre and sub-half-millimetre resolution SPECT in rats and mice, respectively. In this article we review applications of microSPECT in cardiovascular research in which information about the function and pathology of the myocardium, vessels and neurons is obtained. We give examples on how diagnostic tracers, new therapeutic interventions, pre- and postcardiovascular event prognosis, and functional and pathophysiological heart conditions can be explored by microSPECT, using small-animal models of cardiovascular disease. (orig.)

  8. Mechanistic and quantitative insight into cell surface targeted molecular imaging agent design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Bhatnagar, Sumit; Deschenes, Emily; Thurber, Greg M.

    2016-05-01

    Molecular imaging agent design involves simultaneously optimizing multiple probe properties. While several desired characteristics are straightforward, including high affinity and low non-specific background signal, in practice there are quantitative trade-offs between these properties. These include plasma clearance, where fast clearance lowers background signal but can reduce target uptake, and binding, where high affinity compounds sometimes suffer from lower stability or increased non-specific interactions. Further complicating probe development, many of the optimal parameters vary depending on both target tissue and imaging agent properties, making empirical approaches or previous experience difficult to translate. Here, we focus on low molecular weight compounds targeting extracellular receptors, which have some of the highest contrast values for imaging agents. We use a mechanistic approach to provide a quantitative framework for weighing trade-offs between molecules. Our results show that specific target uptake is well-described by quantitative simulations for a variety of targeting agents, whereas non-specific background signal is more difficult to predict. Two in vitro experimental methods for estimating background signal in vivo are compared – non-specific cellular uptake and plasma protein binding. Together, these data provide a quantitative method to guide probe design and focus animal work for more cost-effective and time-efficient development of molecular imaging agents.

  9. Mechanistic and quantitative insight into cell surface targeted molecular imaging agent design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Bhatnagar, Sumit; Deschenes, Emily; Thurber, Greg M

    2016-05-05

    Molecular imaging agent design involves simultaneously optimizing multiple probe properties. While several desired characteristics are straightforward, including high affinity and low non-specific background signal, in practice there are quantitative trade-offs between these properties. These include plasma clearance, where fast clearance lowers background signal but can reduce target uptake, and binding, where high affinity compounds sometimes suffer from lower stability or increased non-specific interactions. Further complicating probe development, many of the optimal parameters vary depending on both target tissue and imaging agent properties, making empirical approaches or previous experience difficult to translate. Here, we focus on low molecular weight compounds targeting extracellular receptors, which have some of the highest contrast values for imaging agents. We use a mechanistic approach to provide a quantitative framework for weighing trade-offs between molecules. Our results show that specific target uptake is well-described by quantitative simulations for a variety of targeting agents, whereas non-specific background signal is more difficult to predict. Two in vitro experimental methods for estimating background signal in vivo are compared - non-specific cellular uptake and plasma protein binding. Together, these data provide a quantitative method to guide probe design and focus animal work for more cost-effective and time-efficient development of molecular imaging agents.

  10. Rhodopsin molecular contrast imaging by optical coherence tomography for functional assessment of photoreceptors (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafra, Zahra; Liu, Tan; Jiao, Shuliang

    2016-03-01

    Rhodopsin, the light-sensing molecule in the outer segments of rod photoreceptors, is responsible for converting light into neuronal signals in a process known as phototransduction. Rhodopsin is thus a functional biomarker for rod photoreceptors. We developed a novel technology based on visible-light optical coherence tomography (VIS-OCT) for in vivo molecular imaging of rhodopsin. The depth resolution of OCT allows the visualization of the location where the change of optical absorption occurs and provides a potentially accurate assessment of rhodopsin content by segmentation of the image at the location. A broadband supercontinuum laser, whose filtered output was centered at 520 nm, was used as the illuminating light source. To test the capabilities of the system on rhodopsin mapping we imaged the retina of albino rats. The rats were dark adapted before imaging. An integrated near infrared OCT was used to guide the alignment in dark. VIS-OCT three-dimensional images were then acquired under dark- and light- adapted states sequentially. Rhodopsin distribution was calculated from the differential image. The rhodopsin distributions can be displayed in both en face view and depth-resolved cross-sectional image. Rhodopsin OCT can be used to quantitatively image rhodopsin distribution and thus assess the distribution of functional rod photoreceptors in the retina. Rhodopsin OCT can bring significant impact into ophthalmic clinics by providing a tool for the diagnosis and severity assessment of a variety of retinal conditions.

  11. Ultrasound molecular imaging of secreted frizzled related protein-2 expression in murine angiosarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James K Tsuruta

    Full Text Available Angiosarcoma is a biologically aggressive vascular malignancy with a high metastatic potential. In the era of targeted medicine, knowledge of specific molecular tumor characteristics has become more important. Molecular imaging using targeted ultrasound contrast agents can monitor tumor progression non-invasively. Secreted frizzled related protein 2 (SFRP2 is a tumor endothelial marker expressed in angiosarcoma. We hypothesize that SFRP2-directed imaging could be a novel approach to imaging the tumor vasculature. To develop an SFRP2 contrast agent, SFRP2 polyclonal antibody was biotinylated and incubated with streptavidin-coated microbubbles. SVR angiosarcoma cells were injected into nude mice, and when tumors were established the mice were injected intravenously with the SFRP2 -targeted contrast agent, or a control streptavidin-coated contrast agent. SFRP2 -targeted contrast agent detected tumor vasculature with significantly more signal intensity than control contrast agent: the normalized fold-change was 1.6 ± 0.27 (n = 13, p = 0.0032. The kidney was largely devoid of echogenicity with no significant difference between the control contrast agent and the SFRP2-targeted contrast agent demonstrating that the SFRP2-targeted contrast agent was specific to tumor vessels. Plotting average pixel intensity obtained from SFRP2-targeted contrast agent against tumor volume showed that the average pixel intensity increased as tumor volume increased. In conclusion, molecularly-targeted imaging of SFRP2 visualizes angiosarcoma vessels, but not normal vessels, and intensity increases with tumor size. Molecular imaging of SFRP2 expression may provide a rapid, non-invasive method to monitor tumor regression during therapy for angiosarcoma and other SFRP2 expressing cancers, and contribute to our understanding of the biology of SFRP2 during tumor development and progression.

  12. Imaging intracellular viscosity by a new molecular rotor suitable for phasor analysis of fluorescence lifetime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battisti, Antonella; Panettieri, Silvio; Abbandonato, Gerardo; Jacchetti, Emanuela; Cardarelli, Francesco; Signore, Giovanni; Beltram, Fabio; Bizzarri, Ranieri

    2013-07-01

    The arsenal of fluorescent probes tailored to functional imaging of cells is rapidly growing and benefits from recent developments in imaging strategies. Here, we present a new molecular rotor, which displays strong absorption in the green region of the spectrum, very little solvatochromism, and strong emission sensitivity to local viscosity. The emission increase is paralleled by an increase in emission lifetime. Owing to its concentration-independent nature, fluorescence lifetime is particularly suitable to image environmental properties, such as viscosity, at the intracellular level. Accordingly, we demonstrate that intracellular viscosity measurements can be efficiently carried out by lifetime imaging with our probe and phasor analysis, an efficient method for measuring lifetime-related properties (e.g., bionalyte concentration or local physicochemical features) in living cells. Notably, we show that it is possible to monitor the partition of our probe into different intracellular regions/organelles and to follow mitochondrial de-energization upon oxidative stress. PMID:23780224

  13. Monitoring molecular, functional and morphologic aspects of bone metastases using non-invasive imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauerle, Tobias; Komljenovic, Dorde; Semmler, Wolfhard

    2012-03-01

    Bone is among the most common locations of metastasis and therefore represents an important clinical target for diagnostic follow-up in cancer patients. In the pathogenesis of bone metastases, disseminated tumor cells proliferating in bone interact with the local microenvironment stimulating or inhibiting osteoclast and osteoblast activity. Non-invasive imaging methods monitor molecular, functional and morphologic changes in both compartments of these skeletal lesions - the bone and the soft tissue tumor compartment. In the bone compartment, morphologic information on skeletal destruction is assessed by computed tomography (CT) and radiography. Pathogenic processes of osteoclast and osteoblast activity, however, can be imaged using optical imaging, positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission CT (SPECT) and skeletal scintigraphy. Accordingly, conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and CT as well as diffusion- weighted MRI and optical imaging are used to assess morphologic aspects on the macroscopic and cellular level of the soft tissue tumor compartment. Imaging methods such as PET, MR spectroscopy, dynamic contrast-enhanced techniques and vessel size imaging further elucidate on pathogenic processes in this compartment including information on metabolism and vascularization. By monitoring these aspects in bone lesions, new insights in the pathogenesis of skeletal metastases can be gained. In translation to the clinical situation, these novel methods for the monitoring of bone metastases might be applied in patients to improve follow-up of these lesions, in particular after therapeutic intervention. This review summarizes established and experimental imaging techniques for the monitoring of tumor and bone cell activity including molecular, functional and morphological aspects in bone metastases. PMID:22214500

  14. Effect of Diabetes on Brain Structure: The Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes MR Imaging Baseline Data

    OpenAIRE

    Bryan, R. Nick; Bilello, Michel; Davatzikos, Christos; Lazar, Ronald M.; Murray, Anne; Horowitz, Karen; Lovato, James; Miller, Michael E.; Williamson, Jeff; Launer, Lenore J

    2014-01-01

    The results of this study show that measures of longer duration of diabetes or biochemical severity correlated primarily with brain atrophy, but not with white matter lesion volume, which is the major MR imaging marker of small vessel ischemic disease.

  15. 心血管MRI第四部分--不同场强的心血管MR成像特点比较%Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging:Part IV--The comparison of imaging features of cardiovascular magnetic resonance scanners with different ifeld strength

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹刚; 贺光军; 赵世华

    2014-01-01

    该文为第四部分,承接前三部分讲述了当今心血管MR(cardiovascular MR,CMR)的两大主流机型,即1.5 T和3.0 T扫描仪的成像特点。3.0 T系统在很多单位已成为神经系统成像的标准,但对体部,特别是心脏,3.0 T系统的广泛应用则受限于诸多因素,充满着挑战。然而,在更高场强下行CMR成像又具有无可比拟的优越性并成为发展趋势。作者从物理基础开始,归纳了3.0 T对比1.5 T在CMR成像应用中的优缺点和发展前景。%This article is the fourth section. Following the three previous sections, the current major types of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) scanner, 1.5 T and 3.0 T, were presented. 3.0 T system has played a role as the standardization for nervous system imaging in most units. But for body imaging, especially for cardiac imaging, there is much more challenging to perform imaging at 3.0 T than 1.5 T. However, it is the trend of development to perform CMR imaging in higher ifeld strength due to the signiifcant advantages. From the magnetic resonance physics to clinical application of CMR, the 1.5 T and 3.0 T CMR systems were compared in this article.

  16. Justifying molecular images in cell biology textbooks: From constructions to primary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpente, Norberto

    2016-02-01

    For scientific claims to be reliable and productive they have to be justified. However, on the one hand little is known on what justification precisely means to scientists, and on the other the position held by philosophers of science on what it entails is rather limited; for justifications customarily refer to the written form (textual expressions) of scientific claims, leaving aside images, which, as many cases from the history of science show are relevant to this process. The fact that images can visually express scientific claims independently from text, plus their vast variety and origins, requires an assessment of the way they are currently justified and in turn used as sources to justify scientific claims in the case of particular scientific fields. Similarly, in view of the different nature of images, analysis is required to determine on what side of the philosophical distinction between data and phenomena these different kinds of images fall. This paper historicizes and documents a particular aspect of contemporary life sciences research: the use of the molecular image as vehicle of knowledge production in cell studies, a field that has undergone a significant shift in visual expressions from the early 1980s onwards. Focussing on textbooks as sources that have been overlooked in the historiography of contemporary biomedicine, the aim is to explore (1) whether the shift of cell studies, entailing a superseding of the optical image traditionally conceptualised as primary data, by the molecular image, corresponds with a shift of justificatory practices, and (2) to assess the role of the molecular image as primary data. This paper also explores the dual role of images as teaching resources and as resources for the construction of knowledge in cell studies especially in its relation to discovery and justification. Finally, this paper seeks to stimulate reflection on what kind of archival resources could benefit the work of present and future epistemic

  17. Molecular Imaging of Tumor Hypoxia: Existing Problems and Their Potential Model-Based Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Kuangyu; Ziegler, Sibylle I; Vaupel, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Molecular imaging of tissue hypoxia generates contrast in hypoxic areas by applying hypoxia-specific tracers in organisms. In cancer tissue, the injected tracer needs to be transported over relatively long distances and accumulates slowly in hypoxic regions. Thus, the signal-to-background ratio of hypoxia imaging is very small and a non-specific accumulation may suppress the real hypoxia-specific signals. In addition, the heterogeneous tumor microenvironment makes the assessment of the tissue oxygenation status more challenging. In this study, the diffusion potential of oxygen and of a hypoxia tracer for 4 different hypoxia subtypes: ischemic acute hypoxia, hypoxemic acute hypoxia, diffusion-limited chronic hypoxia and anemic chronic hypoxia are theoretically assessed. In particular, a reaction-diffusion equation is introduced to quantitatively analyze the interstitial diffusion of the hypoxia tracer [(18)F]FMISO. Imaging analysis strategies are explored based on reaction-diffusion simulations. For hypoxia imaging of low signal-to-background ratio, pharmacokinetic modelling has advantages to extract underlying specific binding signals from non-specific background signals and to improve the assessment of tumor oxygenation. Different pharmacokinetic models are evaluated for the analysis of the hypoxia tracer [(18)F]FMISO and optimal analysis model were identified accordingly. The improvements by model-based methods for the estimation of tumor oxygenation are in agreement with experimental data. The computational modelling offers a tool to explore molecular imaging of hypoxia and pharmacokinetic modelling is encouraged to be employed in the corresponding data analysis. PMID:27526129

  18. Molecular imaging of hypoxia in non-small-cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yip, Connie [King' s College London, St Thomas' Hospital, Department of Cancer Imaging, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); National Cancer Centre, Department of Radiation Oncology, Singapore (Singapore); St Thomas' Hospital, Imaging 2, London (United Kingdom); Blower, Philip J. [King' s College London, St Thomas' Hospital, Department of Imaging Chemistry and Biology, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Goh, Vicky [King' s College London, St Thomas' Hospital, Department of Cancer Imaging, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); St Thomas' Hospital, Department of Radiology, Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Landau, David B. [King' s College London, St Thomas' Hospital, Department of Cancer Imaging, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); St Thomas' Hospital, Department of Clinical Oncology, Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Cook, Gary J.R. [King' s College London, St Thomas' Hospital, Department of Cancer Imaging, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); St Thomas' Hospital, Clinical PET Imaging Centre, Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the commonest cancer worldwide but survival remains poor with a high risk of relapse, particularly after nonsurgical treatment. Hypoxia is present in a variety of solid tumours, including NSCLC. It is associated with treatment resistance and a poor prognosis, although when recognised may be amenable to different treatment strategies. Thus, noninvasive assessment of intratumoral hypoxia could be used to stratify patients for modification of subsequent treatment to improve tumour control. Molecular imaging approaches targeting hypoxic cells have shown some early success in the clinical setting. This review evaluates the evidence for hypoxia imaging using PET in NSCLC and explores its potential clinical utility. (orig.)

  19. Imaging ion and molecular transport at subcellular resolution by secondary ion mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Subhash; Morrison, George H.

    1995-05-01

    The transport of K+, Na+, and Ca2+ were imaged in individual cells with a Cameca IMS-3f ion microscope. Strict cryogenic frozen freeze-dry sample preparations were employed. Ion redistribution artifacts in conventional chemical preparations are discussed. Cryogenically prepared freeze-fractured freeze-dried cultured cells allowed the three-dimensional ion microscopic imaging of elements. As smaller structures in calcium images can be resolved with the 0.5 [mu]m spatial resolution, correlative techniques are needed to confirm their identity. The potentials of reflected light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and laser scanning confocal microscopy are discussed for microfeature recognition in freeze-fractured freeze-dried cells. The feasibility of using frozen freeze-dried cells for imaging molecular transport at subcellular resolution was tested. Ion microscopy successfully imaged the transport of the isotopically tagged (13C, 15N) amino acid, -arginine. The labeled amino acid was imaged at mass 28 with a Cs+ primary ion beam as the 28(13C15N)- species. After a 4 h exposure of LLC-PK1 kidney cells to 4 mM labeled arginine, the amino acid was localized throughout the cell with a preferential incorporation into the nucleus and nucleolus. An example is also shown of the ion microscopic imaging of sodium borocaptate, an experimental therapeutic drug for brain tumors, in cryogenically prepared frozen freeze-dried Swiss 3T3 cells.

  20. Magnetic resonance-coupled fluorescence tomography scanner for molecular imaging of tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Scott C.; Pogue, Brian W.; Springett, Roger; Leussler, Christoph; Mazurkewitz, Peter; Tuttle, Stephen B.; Gibbs-Strauss, Summer L.; Jiang, Shudong S.; Dehghani, Hamid; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2008-06-01

    A multichannel spectrally resolved optical tomography system to image molecular targets in small animals from within a clinical MRI is described. Long source/detector fibers operate in contact mode and couple light from the tissue surface in the magnet bore to 16 spectrometers, each containing two optical gratings optimized for the near infrared wavelength range. High sensitivity, cooled charge coupled devices connected to each spectrograph provide detection of the spectrally resolved signal, with exposure times that are automated for acquisition at each fiber. The design allows spectral fitting of the remission light, thereby separating the fluorescence signal from the nonspecific background, which improves the accuracy and sensitivity when imaging low fluorophore concentrations. Images of fluorescence yield are recovered using a nonlinear reconstruction approach based on the diffusion approximation of photon propagation in tissue. The tissue morphology derived from the MR images serves as an imaging template to guide the optical reconstruction algorithm. Sensitivity studies show that recovered values of indocyanine green fluorescence yield are linear to concentrations of 1nM in a 70mm diameter homogeneous phantom, and detection is feasible to near 10pM. Phantom data also demonstrate imaging capabilities of imperfect fluorophore uptake in tissue volumes of clinically relevant sizes. A unique rodent MR coil provides optical fiber access for simultaneous optical and MR data acquisition of small animals. A pilot murine study using an orthotopic glioma tumor model demonstrates optical-MRI imaging of an epidermal growth factor receptor targeted fluorescent probe in vivo.

  1. The Changing Face of Vascular Interventional Radiology: The Future Role of Pharmacotherapies and Molecular Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapping, Charles R., E-mail: crtapping@doctors.org.uk; Bratby, Mark J., E-mail: mark.bratby@ouh.nhs.uk [Oxford University Hospitals, John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-01

    Interventional radiology has had to evolve constantly because there is the ever-present competition and threat from other specialties within medicine, surgery, and research. The development of new technologies, techniques, and therapies is vital to broaden the horizon of interventional radiology and to ensure its continued success in the future. In part, this change will be due to improved chronic disease prevention altering what we treat and in whom. The most important of these strategies are the therapeutic use of statins, Beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and substances that interfere with mast cell degeneration. Molecular imaging and therapeutic strategies will move away from conventional techniques and nano and microparticle molecular technology, tissue factor imaging, gene therapy, endothelial progenitor cells, and photodynamic therapy will become an important part of interventional radiology of the future. This review looks at these new and exciting technologies.

  2. Dose reduction of up to 89% while maintaining image quality in cardiovascular CT achieved with prospective ECG gating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londt, John H.; Shreter, Uri; Vass, Melissa; Hsieh, Jiang; Ge, Zhanyu; Adda, Olivier; Dowe, David A.; Sabllayrolles, Jean-Louis

    2007-03-01

    We present the results of dose and image quality performance evaluation of a novel, prospective ECG-gated Coronary CT Angiography acquisition mode (SnapShot Pulse, LightSpeed VCT-XT scanner, GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI), and compare it to conventional retrospective ECG gated helical acquisition in clinical and phantom studies. Image quality phantoms were used to measure noise, slice sensitivity profile, in-plane resolution, low contrast detectability and dose, using the two acquisition modes. Clinical image quality and diagnostic confidence were evaluated in a study of 31 patients scanned with the two acquisition modes. Radiation dose reduction in clinical practice was evaluated by tracking 120 consecutive patients scanned with the prospectively gated scan mode. In the phantom measurements, the prospectively gated mode resulted in equivalent or better image quality measures at dose reductions of up to 89% compared to non-ECG modulated conventional helical scans. In the clinical study, image quality was rated excellent by expert radiologist reviewing the cases, with pathology being identical using the two acquisition modes. The average dose to patients in the clinical practice study was 5.6 mSv, representing 50% reduction compared to a similar patient population scanned with the conventional helical mode.

  3. Depth-resolved rhodopsin molecular contrast imaging for functional assessment of photoreceptors

    OpenAIRE

    Tan Liu; Rong Wen; Lam, Byron L.; Puliafito, Carmen A.; Shuliang Jiao

    2015-01-01

    Rhodopsin, the light-sensing molecule in the outer segments of rod photoreceptors, is responsible for converting light into neuronal signals in a process known as phototransduction. Rhodopsin is thus a functional biomarker for rod photoreceptors. Here we report a novel technology based on visible-light optical coherence tomography (VIS-OCT) for in vivo molecular imaging of rhodopsin. The depth resolution of OCT allows the visualization of the location where the change of optical absorption oc...

  4. The dopaminergic basis of human behaviors: a review of molecular imaging studies

    OpenAIRE

    Egerton, Alice; Mehta, Mitul A; Montgomery, Andrew J; Lappin, Julia M.; Howes, Oliver D; Reeves, Suzanne J.; Cunningham, Vincent J; Grasby, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    This systematic review describes human molecular imaging studies which have investigated alterations in extracellular DA levels during performance of behavioral tasks. Whilst heterogeneity in experimental methods limits meta-analysis, we describe the advantages and limitations of different methodological approaches. Interpretation of experimental results may be limited by regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) changes, head movement and choice of control conditions. We revisit our original study...

  5. Molecular Imaging Approaches to Understanding the Roles of Hydrogen Peroxide Biology in Stress and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Dickinson, Bryan Craig

    2010-01-01

    The production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in biological systems is associated with a variety of pathologies including neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and the general process of aging. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that the reactivity of this particular reactive oxygen species (ROS) is also harnessed for physiological processes. Molecular imaging using fluorescence microscopy offers a valuable approach for deciphering the multifaceted roles of H2O2 in biological processes. ...

  6. On Sensitivity of Molecular Specific Photoacoustic Imaging Using Plasmonic Gold Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Mallidi, Srivalleesha; Joshi, Pratixa P.; Sokolov, Konstantin; Emelianov, Stanislav

    2009-01-01

    Functionalized gold nanospheres undergo receptor mediated aggregation on cancer cells that overexpress the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). This phenomenon leads to a red shift in the plasmon resonance frequency of the EGFR-targeted gold nanoparticles. Previously we demonstrated that highly selective detection of cancer cells can be achieved using the combination of multi-wavelength photoacoustic imaging and molecular specific gold nanoparticles. In this study, we use tissue models to...

  7. Noninvasive ultrasound molecular imaging of the effect of statins on endothelial inflammatory phenotype in early atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Khanicheh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Inflammatory changes on the endothelium are responsible for leukocyte recruitment to plaques in atherosclerosis. Noninvasive assessment of treatment-effects on endothelial inflammation may be of use for managing medical therapy and developing novel therapies. We hypothesized that molecular imaging of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 with contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEU could assess treatment effects on endothelial phenotype in early atherosclerosis. METHODS: Mice with atherosclerosis produced by gene deletion of the LDL-receptor and Apobec-1-editing protein were studied. At 12 weeks of age, mice received 8 weeks of regular chow or atorvastatin-enriched chow (10 mg/kg/day. At 20 weeks, CEU molecular imaging for aortic endothelial VCAM-1 expression was performed with VCAM-1-targeted (MB(VCAM and control microbubbles (MB(Ctr. Aortic wall thickness was assessed with high frequency ultrasound. Histology, immunohistology and Western blot were used to assess plaque burden and VCAM-1 expression. RESULTS: Plaque burden was reduced on histology, and VCAM-1 was reduced on Western blot by atorvastatin, which corresponded to less endothelial expression of VCAM-1 on immunohistology. High frequency ultrasound did not detect differences in aortic wall thickness between groups. In contrast, CEU molecular imaging demonstrated selective signal enhancement for MB(VCAM in non-treated animals (MB(VCAM 2±0.3 vs MB(Ctr 0.7±0.2, p<0.01, but not in statin-treated animals (MB(VCAM 0.8±0.2 vs MB(Ctr 1.0±0.2, p = ns; p<0.01 for the effect of statin on MB(VCAM signal. CONCLUSIONS: Non-invasive CEU molecular imaging detects the effects of anti-inflammatory treatment on endothelial inflammation in early atherosclerosis. This easily accessible, low-cost technique may be useful in assessing treatment effects in preclinical research and in patients.

  8. Molecular Sensing and Imaging of Human Disease Cells and Their Responses to Biochemical Stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Lifu

    2015-01-01

    The overall goal of this dissertation is to develop noninvasive imaging techniques that allow us not only to detect diseased cells but also to study the molecular mechanisms underlying these diseases. Atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy are applied to measure cellular mechanical properties (e.g. Young’s Modulus, adhesion force) and biochemical composition of living cancerous vs. healthy (A549 vs. SAEC) human lung epithelial cells. These biomechanical and biochemical properties c...

  9. Development of Laser Desorption Imaging Mass Spectrometry Methods to Investigate the Molecular Composition of Latent Fingermarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauzon, Nidia; Dufresne, Martin; Chauhan, Vinita; Chaurand, Pierre

    2015-06-01

    For a century, fingermark analysis has been one of the most important and common methods in forensic investigations. Modern chemical analysis technologies have added the potential to determine the molecular composition of fingermarks and possibly identify chemicals a suspect may have come into contact with. Improvements in analytical detection of the molecular composition of fingermarks is therefore of great importance. In this regard, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) and laser desorption ionization (LDI) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) have proven to be useful technologies for fingermark analysis. In these analyses, the choice of ionizing agent and its mode of deposition are critical steps for the identification of molecular markers. Here we propose two novel and complementary IMS approaches for endogenous and exogenous substance detection in fingermarks: sublimation of 2-mercaptobenzothiazol (2-MBT) matrix and silver sputtering.

  10. IMAGING OF THE CCS 22.3 GHz EMISSION IN THE TAURUS MOLECULAR CLOUD COMPLEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thioxoethenylidene (CCS) is an abundant interstellar molecule and a good tracer of high density and evolutionary stage of dense molecular clouds. It is also a suitable candidate for Zeeman splitting observations for its high splitting factor and narrow thermal line widths. We report here Expanded Very Large Array 22.3 GHz observations of three dense molecular cores TMC-1, TMC-1C, and L1521B in the Taurus molecular cloud complex to image the CCS 21-10 transition. For all three sources, the clumpy CCS emission is most likely tracing the starless cores. However, these compact structures account for only ∼1%-13% of the integrated emission detected in single-dish observations, indicating the presence of significant large-scale diffuse emission in favorable conditions for producing CCS.

  11. Imaging of the CCS 22.3 GHz emission in the Taurus Molecular Cloud complex

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Nirupam; Momjian, Emmanuel; Sarma, Anuj P

    2011-01-01

    Thioxoethenylidene (CCS) is an abundant interstellar molecule, and a good tracer of high density and evolutionary stage of dense molecular clouds. It is also a suitable candidate for Zeeman splitting observations for its high splitting factor and narrow thermal linewidths. We report here EVLA 22.3 GHz observations of three dense molecular cores TMC-1, TMC-1C and L1521B in the Taurus Molecular Cloud complex to image the CCS 2_1-1_0 transition. For all three sources, the clumpy CCS emission is most likely tracing the starless cores. However, these compact structures account for only ~ 1-13% of the integrated emission detected in single-dish observations, indicating the presence of significant large scale diffuse emission in favorable conditions for producing CCS.

  12. Cardiac Sarcoidosis or Giant Cell Myocarditis? On Treatment Improvement of Fulminant Myocarditis as Demonstrated by Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogabathina, Hari; Olson, Peter; Rathi, Vikas K.; Biederman, Robert W. W.

    2012-01-01

    Giant cell myocarditis, but not cardiac sarcoidosis, is known to cause fulminant myocarditis resulting in severe heart failure. However, giant cell myocarditis and cardiac sarcoidosis are pathologically similar, and attempts at pathological differentiation between the two remain difficult. We are presenting a case of fulminant myocarditis that has pathological features suggestive of cardiac sarcoidosis, but clinically mimicking giant cell myocarditis. This patient was treated with cyclosporine and prednisone and recovered well. This case we believe challenges our current understanding of these intertwined conditions. By obtaining a sense of severity of cardiac involvement via delayed hyperenhancement of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, we were more inclined to treat this patient as giant cell myocarditis with cyclosporine. This resulted in excellent improvement of patient's cardiac function as shown by delayed hyperenhancement images, early perfusion images, and SSFP videos. PMID:24826266

  13. Cardiac Sarcoidosis or Giant Cell Myocarditis? On Treatment Improvement of Fulminant Myocarditis as Demonstrated by Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Bogabathina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant cell myocarditis, but not cardiac sarcoidosis, is known to cause fulminant myocarditis resulting in severe heart failure. However, giant cell myocarditis and cardiac sarcoidosis are pathologically similar, and attempts at pathological differentiation between the two remain difficult. We are presenting a case of fulminant myocarditis that has pathological features suggestive of cardiac sarcoidosis, but clinically mimicking giant cell myocarditis. This patient was treated with cyclosporine and prednisone and recovered well. This case we believe challenges our current understanding of these intertwined conditions. By obtaining a sense of severity of cardiac involvement via delayed hyperenhancement of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, we were more inclined to treat this patient as giant cell myocarditis with cyclosporine. This resulted in excellent improvement of patient’s cardiac function as shown by delayed hyperenhancement images, early perfusion images, and SSFP videos.

  14. Evaluation of 2 different x-ray digital systems designed for cardiovascular angiography: patient dosimetry data and image quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Octavian Dragusin; Kristien Smans; Hilde Bosmans [Department of Radiology, Gasthuisberg Hospital, Leuven (Belgium); Walter Desmet [Department of Cardiology, Gasthuisberg Hospital, Leuven (Belgium)

    2006-07-01

    The goal of this study was the comparative assessment of dose and image quality performance of a new flat-panel detector (F.D.) and an image intensifier (II) charge coupled device (C.C.D.) installed in a Catheterization laboratory (Cathlab). Poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA) plates were used to simulate different patient size (10,15,20,25,30 cm). Entrance dose to the phantom and image quality of a test object (Leeds T.O.R. 18-F.G.) were measured. For analysis of image quality, two methods were used. Firstly, images were evaluated directly on the monitor (low contrast resolution and high spatial resolution). Secondly, a numerical method was used (noise and signal-to-noise ratio). Finally a preliminary patient dose survey for the two most common interventional cardiology procedures (coronary angiography C.A. and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty - P.T.C.A.) was performed. Dose area product (D.A.P.), fluoroscopy time (F.T.) and total number of frames (No. frames) were collected. The results showed that both systems performed within international recommendations; the F.D. system seems superior to the II system, in terms of entrance doses of the phantom and image quality. Surprisingly, however, this potential dose reduction is not reflected in the patient data; D.A.P. values of patient data were not significantly reduced with the new system. This underlines the need for a careful set-up of the system and a more detailed analysis of the procedure. (authors)

  15. Application of Machine Learning tools to recognition of molecular patterns in STM images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksov, Artem; Ziatdinov, Maxim; Fujii, Shintaro; Kiguchi, Manabu; Higashibayashi, Shuhei; Sakurai, Hidehiro; Kalinin, Sergei; Sumpter, Bobby

    The ability to utilize individual molecules and molecular assemblies as data storage elements has motivated scientist for years, concurrent with the continuous effort to shrink a size of data storage devices in microelectronics industry. One of the critical issues in this effort lies in being able to identify individual molecular assembly units (patterns), on a large scale in an automated fashion of complete information extraction. Here we present a novel method of applying machine learning techniques for extraction of positional and rotational information from scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images of π-bowl sumanene molecules on gold. We use Markov Random Field (MRF) model to decode the polar rotational states for each molecule in a large scale STM image of molecular film. We further develop an algorithm that uses a convolutional Neural Network combined with MRF and input from density functional theory to classify molecules into different azimuthal rotational classes. Our results demonstrate that a molecular film is partitioned into distinctive azimuthal rotational domains consisting typically of 20-30 molecules. In each domain, the ``bowl-down'' molecules are generally surrounded by six nearest neighbor molecules in ``bowl-up'' configuration, and the resultant overall structure form a periodic lattice of rotational and polar states within each domain. Research was supported by the US Department of Energy.

  16. Nonlinear microrheology and molecular imaging to map microscale deformations of entangled DNA networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tsai-Chin; Anderson, Rae

    We use active microrheology coupled to single-molecule fluorescence imaging to elucidate the microscale dynamics of entangled DNA. DNA naturally exists in a wide range of lengths and topologies, and is often confined in cell nucleui, forming highly concentrated and entangled biopolymer networks. Thus, DNA is the model polymer for understanding entangled polymer dynamics as well as the crowded environment of cells. These networks display complex viscoelastic properties that are not well understood, especially at the molecular-level and in response to nonlinear perturbations. Specifically, how microscopic stresses and strains propagate through entangled networks, and what molecular deformations lead to the network stress responses are unknown. To answer these important questions, we optically drive a microsphere through entangled DNA, perturbing the system far from equilibrium, while measuring the resistive force the DNA exerts on the bead during and after bead motion. We simultaneously image single fluorescent-labeled DNA molecules throughout the network to directly link the microscale stress response to molecular deformations. We characterize the deformation of the network from the molecular-level to the mesoscale, and map the stress propagation throughout the network. We further study the impact of DNA length (11 - 115 kbp) and topology (linear vs ring DNA) on deformation and propagation dynamics, exploring key nonlinear features such as tube dilation and power-law relaxation.

  17. Molecular photoacoustic imaging of breast cancer using an actively targeted conjugated polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasundaram G

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ghayathri Balasundaram,1,* Chris Jun Hui Ho,1,* Kai Li,2 Wouter Driessen,3 US Dinish,1 Chi Lok Wong,1 Vasilis Ntziachristos,3 Bin Liu,2 Malini Olivo1,41Bio-Optical Imaging Group, Singapore Bioimaging Consortium (SBIC, 2Institute of Materials Research and Engineering (IMRE, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR, Singapore; 3Institute of Biological and Medical Imaging, Helmholtz Center Munich, Neuherberg, Germany; 4School of Physics, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Conjugated polymers (CPs are upcoming optical contrast agents in view of their unique optical properties and versatile synthetic chemistry. Biofunctionalization of these polymer-based nanoparticles enables molecular imaging of biological processes. In this work, we propose the concept of using a biofunctionalized CP for noninvasive photoacoustic (PA molecular imaging of breast cancer. In particular, after verifying the PA activity of a CP nanoparticle (CP dots in phantoms and the targeting efficacy of a folate-functionalized version of the same (folate-CP dots in vitro, we systemically administered the probe into a folate receptor-positive (FR+ve MCF-7 breast cancer xenograft model to demonstrate the possible application of folate-CP dots for imaging FR+ve breast cancers in comparison to CP dots with no folate moieties. We observed a strong PA signal at the tumor site of folate-CP dots-administered mice as early as 1 hour after administration as a result of the active targeting of the folate-CP dots to the FR+ve tumor cells but a weak PA signal at the tumor site of CP-dots-administered mice as a result of the passive accumulation of the probe by enhanced permeability and retention effect. We also observed that folate-CP dots produced ~4-fold enhancement in the PA signal in the tumor, when compared to CP dots. These observations demonstrate the great potential of this active-targeting CP to be used

  18. Multimodality Molecular Imaging of Cardiac Cell Transplantation: Part II. In Vivo Imaging of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells in Swine with PET/CT and MR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parashurama, Natesh; Ahn, Byeong-Cheol; Ziv, Keren; Ito, Ken; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Willmann, Jürgen K; Chung, Jaehoon; Ikeno, Fumiaki; Swanson, Julia C; Merk, Denis R; Lyons, Jennifer K; Yerushalmi, David; Teramoto, Tomohiko; Kosuge, Hisanori; Dao, Catherine N; Ray, Pritha; Patel, Manishkumar; Chang, Ya-Fang; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Cohen, Jeff Eric; Goldstone, Andrew Brooks; Habte, Frezghi; Bhaumik, Srabani; Yaghoubi, Shahriar; Robbins, Robert C; Dash, Rajesh; Yang, Phillip C; Brinton, Todd J; Yock, Paul G; McConnell, Michael V; Gambhir, Sanjiv S

    2016-09-01

    Purpose To quantitatively determine the limit of detection of marrow stromal cells (MSC) after cardiac cell therapy (CCT) in swine by using clinical positron emission tomography (PET) reporter gene imaging and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with cell prelabeling. Materials and Methods Animal studies were approved by the institutional administrative panel on laboratory animal care. Seven swine received 23 intracardiac cell injections that contained control MSC and cell mixtures of MSC expressing a multimodality triple fusion (TF) reporter gene (MSC-TF) and bearing superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (NP) (MSC-TF-NP) or NP alone. Clinical MR imaging and PET reporter gene molecular imaging were performed after intravenous injection of the radiotracer fluorine 18-radiolabeled 9-[4-fluoro-3-(hydroxyl methyl) butyl] guanine ((18)F-FHBG). Linear regression analysis of both MR imaging and PET data and nonlinear regression analysis of PET data were performed, accounting for multiple injections per animal. Results MR imaging showed a positive correlation between MSC-TF-NP cell number and dephasing (dark) signal (R(2) = 0.72, P = .0001) and a lower detection limit of at least approximately 1.5 × 10(7) cells. PET reporter gene imaging demonstrated a significant positive correlation between MSC-TF and target-to-background ratio with the linear model (R(2) = 0.88, P = .0001, root mean square error = 0.523) and the nonlinear model (R(2) = 0.99, P = .0001, root mean square error = 0.273) and a lower detection limit of 2.5 × 10(8) cells. Conclusion The authors quantitatively determined the limit of detection of MSC after CCT in swine by using clinical PET reporter gene imaging and clinical MR imaging with cell prelabeling. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:27332865

  19. Nanosized multifunctional liposomes for tumor diagnosis and molecular imaging by SPECT/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silindir, Mine; Erdoğan, Suna; Özer, A Yekta; Doğan, A Lale; Tuncel, Murat; Uğur, Ömer; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2013-03-01

    Among currently used cancer imaging methods, nuclear medicine modalities provide metabolic information, whereas modalities in radiology provide anatomical information. However, different modalities, having different acquisition times in separate machines, decrease the specificity and accuracy of images. To solve this problem, hybrid imaging modalities were developed as a new era, especially in the cancer imaging field. With widespread usage of hybrid imaging modalities, specific contrast agents are essentially needed to use in both modalities, such as single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT). Liposomes are one of the most desirable drug delivery systems, depending on their suitable properties. The aim of this study was to develop a liposomal contrast agent for the diagnosis and molecular imaging of tumor by SPECT/CT. Liposomes were prepared nanosized, coated with polyethylene glycol to obtain long blood circulation, and modified with monoclonal antibody 2C5 for specific tumor targeting. Although DTPA-PE and DTPA-PLL-NGPE (polychelating amphilic polymers; PAPs) were loaded onto liposomes for stable radiolabeling for SPECT imaging, iopromide was encapsulated into liposomes for CT imaging. Liposomes [(DPPC:PEG(2000)-PE:Chol:DTPA-PE), (PL 90G:PEG(2000)-PE:Chol:DTPA-PE), (DPPC:PEG(2000)-PE:Chol:PAPs), (PL 90G:PEG(2000)-PE:Chol:PAPs), (60:0.9:39:0.1% mol ratio)] were characterized in terms of entrapment efficiency, particle size, physical stability, and release kinetics. Additionally, in vitro cell-binding studies were carried out on two tumor cell lines (MCF-7 and EL 4) by counting radioactivity. Tumor-specific antibody-modified liposomes were found to be effective multimodal contrast agents by designating almost 3-8 fold more uptake than nonmodified ones in different tumor cell lines. These results could be considered as an important step in the development of tumor-targeted SPECT/CT contrast agents for cancer imaging. PMID:23078019

  20. The development of EGFR molecular imaging and gene mutation in non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vivo epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) imaging has great potential to affect patient-specific treatment for NSCLC, applying a targeted therapy, and measuring molecular-specific effects of treatment. New PET/CT radiotracers,such as N-(4-bromo-2-fluorophenyl)-6-methoxy-7-[(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl) methoxy]quinazolin-4-amine (ZD6476), five 4-(anilino) quinazoline derivatives (ML01) and 4-[(3-iodophenyl) amino]-7-(2-[2-{2-(2-[2-{2-([18F]fluoroethoxy)-ethoxy}-ethoxy]-ethoxy)- ethoxy }-ethoxy]-quinazoline-6-yl-acrylamide) ([18F]F-PEG6-IPQA) are now available. But, 11C labeled-4-N-(3-bromoanilino)-6, 7-dimethoxyquinazoline (PD153035) is the only PET/CT radiotracer used for human clinical evaluation,primarily for EGFR imaging. Finally, the most important aspect of successful imaging is the identification and characterization of EGFR at the cellular or sub-cellular level with high specificity for the target. Considering the need for further development of such PET/CT tracers, EGFR molecular imaging will be presented along with an important examination of the progression that has been made thus far in the field. (authors)

  1. Pushing CT and MR Imaging to the Molecular Level for Studying the “Omics”: Current Challenges and Advancements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsuan-Ming Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past decade, medical imaging has made the transition from anatomical imaging to functional and even molecular imaging. Such transition provides a great opportunity to begin the integration of imaging data and various levels of biological data. In particular, the integration of imaging data and multiomics data such as genomics, metabolomics, proteomics, and pharmacogenomics may open new avenues for predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine. However, to promote imaging-omics integration, the practical challenge of imaging techniques should be addressed. In this paper, we describe key challenges in two imaging techniques: computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and then review existing technological advancements. Despite the fact that CT and MRI have different principles of image formation, both imaging techniques can provide high-resolution anatomical images while playing a more and more important role in providing molecular information. Such imaging techniques that enable single modality to image both the detailed anatomy and function of tissues and organs of the body will be beneficial in the imaging-omics field.

  2. Depth-resolved rhodopsin molecular contrast imaging for functional assessment of photoreceptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tan; Wen, Rong; Lam, Byron L.; Puliafito, Carmen A.; Jiao, Shuliang

    2015-09-01

    Rhodopsin, the light-sensing molecule in the outer segments of rod photoreceptors, is responsible for converting light into neuronal signals in a process known as phototransduction. Rhodopsin is thus a functional biomarker for rod photoreceptors. Here we report a novel technology based on visible-light optical coherence tomography (VIS-OCT) for in vivo molecular imaging of rhodopsin. The depth resolution of OCT allows the visualization of the location where the change of optical absorption occurs and provides a potentially accurate assessment of rhodopsin content by segmentation of the image at the location. Rhodopsin OCT can be used to quantitatively image rhodopsin distribution and thus assess the distribution of functional rod photoreceptors in the retina. Rhodopsin OCT can bring significant impact into ophthalmic clinics by providing a tool for the diagnosis and severity assessment of a variety of retinal conditions.

  3. Preparation of lisinopril-capped gold nanoparticles for molecular imaging of angiotensin-converting enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Baeta, Cesar; Aras, Omer; Daniel, Marie-Christine

    2009-05-01

    Overexpression of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) has been associated with the pathophysiology of cardiac and pulmonary fibrosis. Moreover, the prescription of ACE inhibitors, such as lisinopril, has shown a favorable effect on patient outcome for patients with heart failure or systemic hypertension. Thus targeted imaging of the ACE would be of crucial importance for monitoring tissue ACE activity as well as the treatment efficacy in heart failure. In this respect, lisinopril-coated gold nanoparticles were prepared to provide a new type of probe for targeted molecular imaging of ACE by tuned K-edge computed tomography (CT) imaging. The preparation involved non-modified lisinopril, using its primary amine group as the anchoring function on the gold nanoparticles surface. The stable lisinopril-coated gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Their zeta potential was also measured in order to assess the charge density on the modified gold nanoparticles (GNPs).

  4. Targeting Amino Acid Metabolism for Molecular Imaging of Inflammation Early After Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, James T; Bankstahl, Jens P; Wang, Yong; Wollert, Kai C; Bengel, Frank M

    2016-01-01

    Acute tissue inflammation after myocardial infarction influences healing and remodeling and has been identified as a target for novel therapies. Molecular imaging holds promise for guidance of such therapies. The amino acid (11)C-methionine is a clinically approved agent which is thought to accumulate in macrophages, but not in healthy myocytes. We assessed the suitability of positron emission tomography (PET) with (11)C-methionine for imaging post-MI inflammation, from cell to mouse to man. Uptake assays demonstrated 7-fold higher (11)C-methionine uptake by polarized pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages over anti-inflammatory M2 subtypes (ptranslation of novel image-guided, inflammation-targeted regenerative therapies. PMID:27570549

  5. Synthesis and Bioconjugation of Gold Nanoparticles as Potential Molecular Probes for Light-Based Imaging Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Gopal Rayavarapu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We have synthesized and characterized gold nanoparticles (spheres and rods with optical extinction bands within the “optical imaging window.” The intense plasmon resonant driven absorption and scattering peaks of these nanoparticles make them suitable as contrast agents for optical imaging techniques. Further, we have conjugated these gold nanoparticles to a mouse monoclonal antibody specific to HER2 overexpressing SKBR3 breast carcinoma cells. The bioconjugation protocol uses noncovalent modes of binding based on a combination of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions of the antibody and the gold surface. We discuss various aspects of the synthesis and bioconjugation protocols and the characterization results of the functionalized nanoparticles. Some proposed applications of these potential molecular probes in the field of biomedical imaging are also discussed.

  6. Preanalytical considerations in detection of colorectal cancer in blood serum using Raman molecular imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treado, Patrick J.; Stewart, Shona D.; Smith, Aaron; Kirschner, Heather; Post, Christopher; Overholt, Bergein F.

    2016-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and women in the United States. Raman Molecular Imaging (RMI) is an effective technique to evaluate human tissue, cells and bodily fluids, including blood serum for disease diagnosis. ChemImage Corporation, in collaboration with clinicians, has been engaged in development of an in vitro diagnostic Raman assay focused on CRC detection. The Raman Assay for Colorectal Cancer (RACC) exploits the high specificity of Raman imaging to distinguish diseased from normal dried blood serum droplets without additional reagents. Pilot Study results from testing of hundreds of biobank patient samples have demonstrated that RACC detects CRC with high sensitivity and specificity. However, expanded clinical trials, which are ongoing, are revealing a host of important preanalytical considerations associated with sample collection, sample storage and stability, sample shipping, sample preparation and sample interferents, which impact detection performance. Results from recent clinical studies will be presented.

  7. Role of risk stratification by SPECT, PET, and hybrid imaging in guiding management of stable patients with ischaemic heart disease: expert panel of the EANM cardiovascular committee and EACVI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acampa, Wanda; Gaemperli, Oliver; Gimelli, Alessia; Knaapen, Paul; Schindler, Thomas H; Verberne, Hein J; Zellweger, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Risk stratification has become increasingly important in the management of patients with suspected or known ischaemic heart disease (IHD). Recent guidelines recommend that these patients have their care driven by risk assessment. The purpose of this position statement is to summarize current evidence on the value of cardiac single-photon emission computed tomography, positron emission tomography, and hybrid imaging in risk stratifying asymptomatic or symptomatic patients with suspected IHD, patients with stable disease, patients after coronary revascularization, heart failure patients, and specific patient population. In addition, this position statement evaluates the impact of imaging results on clinical decision-making and thereby its role in patient management. The document represents the opinion of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) Cardiovascular Committee and of the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) and intends to stimulate future research in this field. PMID:25902767

  8. Iron oxide nanoparticle-micelles (ION-micelles for sensitive (molecular magnetic particle imaging and magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas W E Starmans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs are a promising nanoplatform for contrast-enhanced MRI. Recently, magnetic particle imaging (MPI was introduced as a new imaging modality, which is able to directly visualize magnetic particles and could serve as a more sensitive and quantitative alternative to MRI. However, MPI requires magnetic particles with specific magnetic properties for optimal use. Current commercially available iron oxide formulations perform suboptimal in MPI, which is triggering research into optimized synthesis strategies. Most synthesis procedures aim at size control of iron oxide nanoparticles rather than control over the magnetic properties. In this study, we report on the synthesis, characterization and application of a novel ION platform for sensitive MPI and MRI. METHODS AND RESULTS: IONs were synthesized using a thermal-decomposition method and subsequently phase-transferred by encapsulation into lipidic micelles (ION-Micelles. Next, the material and magnetic properties of the ION-Micelles were analyzed. Most notably, vibrating sample magnetometry measurements showed that the effective magnetic core size of the IONs is 16 nm. In addition, magnetic particle spectrometry (MPS measurements were performed. MPS is essentially zero-dimensional MPI and therefore allows to probe the potential of iron oxide formulations for MPI. ION-Micelles induced up to 200 times higher signal in MPS measurements than commercially available iron oxide formulations (Endorem, Resovist and Sinerem and thus likely allow for significantly more sensitive MPI. In addition, the potential of the ION-Micelle platform for molecular MPI and MRI was showcased by MPS and MRI measurements of fibrin-binding peptide functionalized ION-Micelles (FibPep-ION-Micelles bound to blood clots. CONCLUSIONS: The presented data underlines the potential of the ION-Micelle nanoplatform for sensitive (molecular MPI and warrants further investigation of the Fib

  9. 心血管MRI第一部分--磁共振基本物理原理及成像策略%Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging:Part I--The basic physics and imaging strategies of magnetic resonance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏宇; 贺光军; 赵世华

    2013-01-01

      MRI以其独特的优势广泛应用于临床,特别是在心血管系统疾病中的诊断价值得到日益体现。心血管MRI(CMR)能无创地一站式评价心血管的解剖、功能、心肌灌注和病变的组织特性,并且评价的可重复性高。CMR成像技术内容丰富,尚具挑战性,需克服心脏自身和随呼吸的运动伪影。MRI的软硬件系统性能不断提高,特别是磁场强度革命性地提升,使得成像技术不断地完善和更新。作者用4个篇章分别阐明上述MRI尤其是CMR的基本成像原理及技术要点,致力于用简明易懂的语言使大多数放射科一线工作者能轻松愉悦地领悟MRI尤其是CMR的魅力。此文为第一部分,归纳MRI基本物理原理及MR图像的产生过程。%Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has been widely used in clinical routine, especially in cardiovascular disease diagnosis, due to its prominent advantage. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) can evaluate the anatomy, function, myocardial perfusion and characterization of heart non-invasively in one-stop. Cardiac and respiratory motion is major problem in CMR imaging. It makes CMR imaging be more challenging than any other imaging modality. As the performance of MR hardware and software system uptakes, especially for the substantial increasing of the strength of magnet, the imaging technique is improved persistently. The authors try their best to describe the fundamental physics and key technological points of MR, especially CMR in four successive articles. In first article, the physics of MR and progress of MR image generating were summarized.

  10. Molecular imaging of atherosclerotic lesions by positron emission tomography - can it meet the expectations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammen, Lindsay; Steiner, Sabine; Berent, Robert; Sinzinger, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Early non-invasive imaging of atherosclerosis and in particular the detection of lesions at risk with high specificity could significantly affect cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Conventional nuclear medicine approaches, in particular using autologous radiolabeled lipoproteins, can be related to histopathological findings; however, they fail to identify lesions at risk. Positron emission tomography (PET) tracers with much better physical properties have been examined, the most detailed information being available for F-18-deoxyglucose (FDG) and F-18-sodium fluoride (NaF). These two approaches are sensitive to different biochemical mechanisms, i.e. inflammation and microcalcification. Initial enthusiasm, in particular for F-18-FDG, has disappeared, although for F-18-NaF there is some hope, but this is not a breakthrough. No tracer is available so far that is able to identify a specific characteristic of a lesion prone to rupture. Other PET tracers in the pipeline have been examined, mainly in experimental models and only a few in patients, but they failed to contribute significantly to early lesion discovery and do not support great expectations. The key question is: Do we understand what we see? Moreover, methodological problems, a lack of standardization of imaging protocols and aspects of quantification provide a wide range for potential future improvements. While monitoring a therapeutic intervention seems to be possible for both F-18-FDG and F-18-NaF, highly specific early identification of lesions at risk by PET imaging is still far away. As of today, PET is not ready for routine clinical judgment of atherosclerotic lesions at risk to rupture. Even if all these problems can be solved, radiation exposure will still remain a concern, in particular for repeated studies.

  11. Observing molecular dynamics with time-resolved 3D momentum imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, F. P.; Wright, T.; Bocharova, I.; Ray, D.; Shivaram, N.; Cryan, J.; Belkacem, A.; Weber, T.; Dörner, R.

    2014-05-01

    Photo-excitation and ionization trigger rich dynamics in molecular systems which play a key role in many important processes in nature such as vision, photosynthesis or photoprotection. Observing those reactions in real-time without significantly disturbing the molecules by a strong electric field has been a great challenge. Recent experiments using Time-of-Flight and Velocity Map Imaging techniques have revealed important information on the dynamics of small molecular systems upon photo-excitation. We have developed an apparatus for time-resolved momentum imaging of electrons and ions in all three spatial dimensions that employs two-color femtosecond laser pulses in the vacuum and extreme ultraviolet (VUV, XUV) for probing molecular dynamics. Our COLTRIMS style reaction microscope can measure electrons and ions in coincidence and reconstruct the momenta of the reaction fragments in 3D. We use a high power 800 nm laser in a loose focusing geometry gas cell to efficinetly drive High Harmonic Generation. The resulting photon flux is sufficient to perform 2-photon pump-probe experiments using VUV and XUV pulses for both pump and probe. With this setup we investigate non-Born-Oppenheimer dynamics in small molecules such as C2H4 and CO2 on a femtosecond time scale. Supported by Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences division of BES/DOE.

  12. Molecular imaging of cannabis leaf tissue with MeV-SIMS method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenčič, Boštjan; Jeromel, Luka; Ogrinc Potočnik, Nina; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Kovačec, Eva; Regvar, Marjana; Siketić, Zdravko; Vavpetič, Primož; Rupnik, Zdravko; Bučar, Klemen; Kelemen, Mitja; Kovač, Janez; Pelicon, Primož

    2016-03-01

    To broaden our analytical capabilities with molecular imaging in addition to the existing elemental imaging with micro-PIXE, a linear Time-Of-Flight mass spectrometer for MeV Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (MeV-SIMS) was constructed and added to the existing nuclear microprobe at the Jožef Stefan Institute. We measured absolute molecular yields and damage cross-section of reference materials, without significant alteration of the fragile biological samples during the duration of measurements in the mapping mode. We explored the analytical capability of the MeV-SIMS technique for chemical mapping of the plant tissue of medicinal cannabis leaves. A series of hand-cut plant tissue slices were prepared by standard shock-freezing and freeze-drying protocol and deposited on the Si wafer. We show the measured MeV-SIMS spectra showing a series of peaks in the mass area of cannabinoids, as well as their corresponding maps. The indicated molecular distributions at masses of 345.5 u and 359.4 u may be attributed to the protonated THCA and THCA-C4 acids, and show enhancement in the areas with opened trichome morphology.

  13. Light at the end of the tunnel in radiation therapy: molecular imaging in radiation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate dose delivery to malignant tissue in radiotherapy is quite important for enhancing the treatment efficacy while minimizing morbidity of surrounding normal tissues. Advances in therapeutic strategies and diagnosis technologies along with our understanding of the biology of tumor response to radiation therapy have paved way to allow nearly 60% of current cancer patients to be treated with Radiation Therapy. The confluence of molecular imaging and nanotechnology fields are bridging physics and medicine and are quickly making strides in opening new avenues and therapeutic strategies that complement radiation therapy - with a distinct footprint in immunotherapy, adoptive cell therapy, and targeted chemotherapy. Incorporating optical imaging in radiation therapy in my laboratory, we demonstrated that molecular probes can monitor radiation-induced physiological changes at the target and off-target sites using in vivo molecular imaging approaches. Further we show endogenous bioluminescence resulting from whole body irradiation, which is distinct from the Cherenkov radiation. Mice without anesthesia were held in ventilated mouse pie cage and subjected to 5 Gy X-ray irradiation using commercially available X-RAD320 irradiator (1 Gy/min; F2 beam hardening filter 1.5 mm Al, 0.25 mm Cu, 0.75 mm Sn,). The endogenous bioluminescence from the subjects was captured using cooled CCD camera. Significant increase (up to 100 fold) in the amounts of photons released as bioluminescence was detected during 5 min capture from the mice subjected to irradiation compared to that of the control. To determine the early inflammatory response, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity was monitored using L-012 (8-amino-5-chloro-7-phenylpyridol (3,4-d)pyridazine-1,4(2H,3H) dione), a chemiluminescence reporter. L-012 was administered (i.p) after 15 min of irradiation. Chemiluminescence resulting from the irradiation induced ROS activity, possible through the action of the

  14. Fab(nimotuzumab)-HYNIC-99mTc: Antibody Fragmentation for Molecular Imaging Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada, Victoria; García, María Fernanda; Alonso-Martínez, Luis Michel; Camachoc, Ximena; Goicochea, Enzo; Fernández, Marcelo; Castillo, Abmel Xiques; Díaz-Miqueli, Arlhee; Iznaga-Escobar, Normando; Montaña, René Leyva; Alonso, Omar; Gambini, Juan Pablo; Cabral, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Finally, fast blood clearance nimotuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that recognise, with high specific affinity, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) which play an important role in the growth process associated with many solid tumors. In this work, the whole antibody was digested with papain in order to generate a Fab fragment, derivatized with NHS-HYNIC-Tfa and radiolabel with technetium-99m (99mTc) as a potential agent of molecular imaging of cancer. Both, whole and fragment radiolabels were in-vivo and in-vitro characterized. Radiolabeling conditions with Tricine as coligand and quality controls were assessed to confirm the integrity of the labeled fragment. Biodistribution and imaging studies in normal and spontaneous adenocarcinoma mice were performed at different times to determine the in-vivo characteristics of the radiolabel fragment. Tumor localization was visualized by conventional gamma camera imaging studies, and the results were compared with the whole antibody. Also, an immunoreactivity assay was carried out for both. The results showed clearly the integrity of the nimotuzumab fragment and the affinity by the receptor was verified. Fab(nimotuzumab)-HYNIC was obtained with high purity and a simple strategy of radiolabeling was performed. Finally, a fast blood clearance was observed in the biodistribution studies increasing the tumor uptake of Fab(nimotuzumab)- HYNIC-99mTc over time, with tumor/muscle ratios of 3.81 ± 0.50, 5.16 ± 1.97 and 6.32 ± 1.98 at 1 h, 4 h and 24 h post injection. Urinary excretion resulted in 32.89 ± 3.91 %ID eliminated at 24 h. Scintigraphy images showed uptake in the tumor and the activity in non-target organs was consistent with the biodistribution data at the same time points. Hence, these preliminary results showed important further characteristic of Fab(nimotuzumab)-HYNIC-99mTc as a molecular imaging agent of cancer. PMID:26961312

  15. Impairment of retrograde neuronal transport in oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy demonstrated by molecular imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid Schellingerhout

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of our study was to utilize a molecular imaging technology based on the retrograde axonal transport mechanism (neurography, to determine if oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity affects retrograde axonal transport in an animal model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice (n = 8/group were injected with a cumulative dose of 30 mg/kg oxaliplatin (sufficient to induce neurotoxicity or dextrose control injections. Intramuscular injections of Tetanus Toxin C-fragment (TTc labeled with Alexa 790 fluorescent dye were done (15 ug/20 uL in the left calf muscles, and in vivo fluorescent imaging performed (0-60 min at baseline, and then weekly for 5 weeks, followed by 2-weekly imaging out to 9 weeks. Tissues were harvested for immunohistochemical analysis. RESULTS: With sham treatment, TTc transport causes fluorescent signal intensity over the thoracic spine to increase from 0 to 60 minutes after injection. On average, fluorescence signal increased 722%+/-117% (Mean+/-SD from 0 to 60 minutes. Oxaliplatin treated animals had comparable transport at baseline (787%+/-140%, but transport rapidly decreased through the course of the study, falling to 363%+/-88%, 269%+/-96%, 191%+/-58%, 121%+/-39%, 75%+/-21% with each successive week and stabilizing around 57% (+/-15% at 7 weeks. Statistically significant divergence occurred at approximately 3 weeks (p≤0.05, linear mixed-effects regression model. Quantitative immuno-fluorescence histology with a constant cutoff threshold showed reduced TTc in the spinal cord at 7 weeks for treated animals versus controls (5.2 Arbitrary Units +/-0.52 vs 7.1 AU +/-1.38, p0.56, T-test. CONCLUSION: We show-for the first time to our knowledge-that neurographic in vivo molecular imaging can demonstrate imaging changes in a model of oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy. Impaired retrograde neural transport is suggested to be an important part of the pathophysiology of oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy.

  16. Fab(nimotuzumab)-HYNIC-99mTc: Antibody Fragmentation for Molecular Imaging Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada, Victoria; García, María Fernanda; Alonso-Martínez, Luis Michel; Camachoc, Ximena; Goicochea, Enzo; Fernández, Marcelo; Castillo, Abmel Xiques; Díaz-Miqueli, Arlhee; Iznaga-Escobar, Normando; Montaña, René Leyva; Alonso, Omar; Gambini, Juan Pablo; Cabral, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Finally, fast blood clearance nimotuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that recognise, with high specific affinity, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) which play an important role in the growth process associated with many solid tumors. In this work, the whole antibody was digested with papain in order to generate a Fab fragment, derivatized with NHS-HYNIC-Tfa and radiolabel with technetium-99m (99mTc) as a potential agent of molecular imaging of cancer. Both, whole and fragment radiolabels were in-vivo and in-vitro characterized. Radiolabeling conditions with Tricine as coligand and quality controls were assessed to confirm the integrity of the labeled fragment. Biodistribution and imaging studies in normal and spontaneous adenocarcinoma mice were performed at different times to determine the in-vivo characteristics of the radiolabel fragment. Tumor localization was visualized by conventional gamma camera imaging studies, and the results were compared with the whole antibody. Also, an immunoreactivity assay was carried out for both. The results showed clearly the integrity of the nimotuzumab fragment and the affinity by the receptor was verified. Fab(nimotuzumab)-HYNIC was obtained with high purity and a simple strategy of radiolabeling was performed. Finally, a fast blood clearance was observed in the biodistribution studies increasing the tumor uptake of Fab(nimotuzumab)- HYNIC-99mTc over time, with tumor/muscle ratios of 3.81 ± 0.50, 5.16 ± 1.97 and 6.32 ± 1.98 at 1 h, 4 h and 24 h post injection. Urinary excretion resulted in 32.89 ± 3.91 %ID eliminated at 24 h. Scintigraphy images showed uptake in the tumor and the activity in non-target organs was consistent with the biodistribution data at the same time points. Hence, these preliminary results showed important further characteristic of Fab(nimotuzumab)-HYNIC-99mTc as a molecular imaging agent of cancer.

  17. Advances of molecular imaging probes for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ming; Wang, Xiaobo; Liu, Zhiguo; Yu, Lun; Hu, Shuo; Chen, Lizhang; Zeng, Wenbin

    2014-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive decline in multiple cognitive domains and it becomes the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. There is an urgent need for the early diagnosis and treatment of AD to ease caregiver burden and medical costs, as well as improve patients' living activities associated with the dramatic increasing number of affected individuals. Molecular imaging with target-specific probes is contributing to identify the underlying biology in AD, which benefits to the early diagnosis of AD and the evaluation of anti-AD therapy. Molecular imaging probes, such as (11)C-PIB, (11)C-MP4A, (18)F-AV-45, and (11)F-FDG, can selectively bind to special bimolecular of AD or accurately accumulate at the location of damage areas, thus become an edge tool for a better management of the diseases in the clinical practice and new drug development. In the past decades, a large variety of probes is being developed and tested to be useful for the early and accurate diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, patient selection for disease-modifying therapeutic trials and monitoring the effect of anti-amyloid therapy. Since imaging probes may also help to guide physicians to identify those patients that could best benefit from a given therapeutic regimen, dose, or duration of drug, this paper is to present a perspective of the available imaging probes for AD, classified on different modalities. Meanwhile, recent advances of those probes that have been selected for clinical trials and are at the different stages of the US Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) approval are outlined. Additionally, future directions and specific application of imaging strategies designed for both diagnosis and treatment for AD are discussed. PMID:24484277

  18. Noninvasive imaging of multiple myeloma using near infrared fluorescent molecular probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathi, Deep; Zhou, Haiying; Bollerman-Nowlis, Alex; Shokeen, Monica; Akers, Walter J.

    2016-03-01

    Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell malignancy characterized by monoclonal gammopathy and osteolytic bone lesions. Multiple myeloma is most commonly diagnosed in late disease stages, presenting with pathologic fracture. Early diagnosis and monitoring of disease status may improve quality of life and long-term survival for multiple myeloma patients from what is now a devastating and fatal disease. We have developed a near-infrared targeted fluorescent molecular probe with high affinity to the α4β1 integrin receptor (VLA-4)overexpressed by a majority of multiple myeloma cells as a non-radioactive analog to PET/CT tracer currently being developed for human diagnostics. A near-infrared dye that emits about 700 nm was conjugated to a high affinity peptidomimmetic. Binding affinity and specificity for multiple myeloma cells was investigated in vitro by tissue staining and flow cytometry. After demonstration of sensitivity and specificity, preclinical optical imaging studies were performed to evaluate tumor specificity in murine subcutaneous and metastatic multiple myeloma models. The VLA-4-targeted molecular probe showed high affinity for subcutaneous MM tumor xenografts. Importantly, tumor cells specific accumulation in the bone marrow of metastatic multiple myeloma correlated with GFP signal from transfected cells. Ex vivo flow cytometry of tumor tissue and bone marrow further corroborated in vivo imaging data, demonstrating the specificity of the novel agent and potential for quantitative imaging of multiple myeloma burden in these models.

  19. Molecular PET imaging for biology-guided adaptive radiotherapy of head and neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeben, Bianca A. W.; Bussink, Johan; Kaanders, Johannes H. A. M. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Radboud Univ. Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)], e-mail: b.hoeben@rther.umcn.nl; Oyen, Wim J. G. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Radboud Univ. Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Troost, Esther G. C. [Maastro Clinic, GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht Univ. Medical Centre, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2013-10-15

    Integration of molecular imaging PET techniques into therapy selection strategies and radiation treatment planning for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) can serve several purposes. First, pre-treatment assessments can steer decisions about radiotherapy modifications or combinations with other modalities. Second, biology-based objective functions can be introduced to the radiation treatment planning process by co-registration of molecular imaging with planning computed tomography (CT) scans. Thus, customized heterogeneous dose distributions can be generated with escalated doses to tumor areas where radiotherapy resistance mechanisms are most prevalent. Third, monitoring of temporal and spatial variations in these radiotherapy resistance mechanisms early during the course of treatment can discriminate responders from non-responders. With such information available shortly after the start of treatment, modifications can be implemented or the radiation treatment plan can be adapted tailing the biological response pattern. Currently, these strategies are in various phases of clinical testing, mostly in single-center studies. Further validation in multicenter set-up is needed. Ultimately, this should result in availability for routine clinical practice requiring stable production and accessibility of tracers, reproducibility and standardization of imaging and analysis methods, as well as general availability of knowledge and expertise. Small studies employing adaptive radiotherapy based on functional dynamics and early response mechanisms demonstrate promising results. In this context, we focus this review on the widely used PET tracer 18F-FDG and PET tracers depicting hypoxia and proliferation; two well-known radiation resistance mechanisms.

  20. A hardware investigation of robotic SPECT for functional and molecular imaging onboard radiation therapy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To construct a robotic SPECT system and to demonstrate its capability to image a thorax phantom on a radiation therapy flat-top couch, as a step toward onboard functional and molecular imaging in radiation therapy. Methods: A robotic SPECT imaging system was constructed utilizing a gamma camera detector (Digirad 2020tc) and a robot (KUKA KR150 L110 robot). An imaging study was performed with a phantom (PET CT PhantomTM), which includes five spheres of 10, 13, 17, 22, and 28 mm diameters. The phantom was placed on a flat-top couch. SPECT projections were acquired either with a parallel-hole collimator or a single-pinhole collimator, both without background in the phantom and with background at 1/10th the sphere activity concentration. The imaging trajectories of parallel-hole and pinhole collimated detectors spanned 180° and 228°, respectively. The pinhole detector viewed an off-centered spherical common volume which encompassed the 28 and 22 mm spheres. The common volume for parallel-hole system was centered at the phantom which encompassed all five spheres in the phantom. The maneuverability of the robotic system was tested by navigating the detector to trace the phantom and flat-top table while avoiding collision and maintaining the closest possible proximity to the common volume. The robot base and tool coordinates were used for image reconstruction. Results: The robotic SPECT system was able to maneuver parallel-hole and pinhole collimated SPECT detectors in close proximity to the phantom, minimizing impact of the flat-top couch on detector radius of rotation. Without background, all five spheres were visible in the reconstructed parallel-hole image, while four spheres, all except the smallest one, were visible in the reconstructed pinhole image. With background, three spheres of 17, 22, and 28 mm diameters were readily observed with the parallel-hole imaging, and the targeted spheres (22 and 28 mm diameters) were readily observed in the pinhole

  1. A hardware investigation of robotic SPECT for functional and molecular imaging onboard radiation therapy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Susu, E-mail: susu.yan@duke.edu; Tough, MengHeng [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Bowsher, James; Yin, Fang-Fang [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Cheng, Lin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To construct a robotic SPECT system and to demonstrate its capability to image a thorax phantom on a radiation therapy flat-top couch, as a step toward onboard functional and molecular imaging in radiation therapy. Methods: A robotic SPECT imaging system was constructed utilizing a gamma camera detector (Digirad 2020tc) and a robot (KUKA KR150 L110 robot). An imaging study was performed with a phantom (PET CT Phantom{sup TM}), which includes five spheres of 10, 13, 17, 22, and 28 mm diameters. The phantom was placed on a flat-top couch. SPECT projections were acquired either with a parallel-hole collimator or a single-pinhole collimator, both without background in the phantom and with background at 1/10th the sphere activity concentration. The imaging trajectories of parallel-hole and pinhole collimated detectors spanned 180° and 228°, respectively. The pinhole detector viewed an off-centered spherical common volume which encompassed the 28 and 22 mm spheres. The common volume for parallel-hole system was centered at the phantom which encompassed all five spheres in the phantom. The maneuverability of the robotic system was tested by navigating the detector to trace the phantom and flat-top table while avoiding collision and maintaining the closest possible proximity to the common volume. The robot base and tool coordinates were used for image reconstruction. Results: The robotic SPECT system was able to maneuver parallel-hole and pinhole collimated SPECT detectors in close proximity to the phantom, minimizing impact of the flat-top couch on detector radius of rotation. Without background, all five spheres were visible in the reconstructed parallel-hole image, while four spheres, all except the smallest one, were visible in the reconstructed pinhole image. With background, three spheres of 17, 22, and 28 mm diameters were readily observed with the parallel-hole imaging, and the targeted spheres (22 and 28 mm diameters) were readily observed in the

  2. Cardiovascular and interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This year's cardiovascular section demonstrates a continued growth in the number of digests on cardivascular and general interventional topics and continued progress in MRI studies. The reader will also notice fewer digests on DSA and percutaneous stone removal compared with the 1985 and 1986 Year Books. While newer technology, such as extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, has significantly reduced the number of percutaneous procedures for renal calculi, other interventional procedures, such as those involving fibrinolysis, are increasing by leaps and bounds. A number of digests on benign and malignant bile duct strictures continue to shed light on the management of these difficult cases. While abscess drainage is growing and well accepted by most surgeons, articles on esophageal dilatations seem to be declining in the radiology literature, probably on the basis of fewer operations being performed by us and more being performed by endoscopists. Digests on MRI in the cardiovascular system continue to report excellent images of the aorta and of congenital heart disease

  3. Molecular Imaging in Preclinical Models of IBD with Nuclear Imaging Techniques: State-of-the-Art and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaru, Eric; Bianchi, Andrea; Wunder, Andreas; Rasche, Volker; Stiller, Detlef

    2016-10-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, is characterized by chronic unregulated inflammation of the intestinal mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract. To date, this pathology has no cure. Colonoscopy and biopsies are the current gold standard diagnostic tools. However, being a chronic disease, IBD requires continuous follow-up to check for disease progress, treatment response, and remission. Unfortunately, these 2 diagnostic procedures are invasive and generally unable to show the cellular and molecular changes that take place in vivo. In this context, it is clear that there is a strong need for optimized noninvasive imaging techniques able to overcome the aforementioned limitations. This review aims to bring to light the scientific advancements that have been achieved so far in nuclear medicine in relation to tracking of immune cells involved in the preclinical models of IBD. In particular, this review will explore the advantages and limitations of the radiopharmaceuticals that aim to track whole cells like neutrophils, those that involve the radiolabeling of immune cell substrates or available human IBD medical therapies, and those that aim to track cell signaling molecules (e.g., cytokines and cell adhesion molecules). After a detailed critical summary of the state-of-the art, the challenges and perspectives of molecular imaging applied to IBD studies will be analyzed. Special attention will be paid to the translational potential of the described techniques and on the potential impact of these innovative approaches on the drug discovery pipelines and their contribution to the evolution of personalized medicine. PMID:27580387

  4. Diffractive imaging of a molecular rotational wavepacket with femtosecond Megaelectronvolt electron pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Jie; Vecchione, Theodore; Robinson, Matthew S; Li, Renkai; Hartmann, Nick; Shen, Xiaozhe; Coffee, Ryan; Corbett, Jeff; Fry, Alan; Gaffney, Kelly; Gorkhover, Tais; Hast, Carsten; Jobe, Keith; Makasyuk, Igor; Reid, Alexander; Robinson, Joseph; Vetter, Sharon; Wang, Fenglin; Weathersby, Stephen; Yoneda, Charles; Centurion, Martin; Wang, Xijie

    2015-01-01

    Imaging changes in molecular geometries on their natural femtosecond timescale with sub-Angstrom spatial precision is one of the critical challenges in the chemical sciences, since the nuclear geometry changes determine the molecular reactivity. For photoexcited molecules, the nuclear dynamics determine the photoenergy conversion path and efficiency. We performed a gas-phase electron diffraction experiment using Megaelectronvolt (MeV) electrons, where we captured the rotational wavepacket dynamics of nonadiabatically laser-aligned nitrogen molecules. We achieved an unprecedented combination of 100 fs root-mean-squared (RMS) temporal resolution and sub-Angstrom (0.76 {\\AA}) spatial resolution that makes it possible to resolve the position of the nuclei within the molecule. In addition, the diffraction patterns reveal the angular distribution of the molecules, which changes from prolate (aligned) to oblate (anti-aligned) in 300 fs. Our results demonstrate a significant and promising step towards making atomical...

  5. MALDI imaging mass spectrometry: spatial molecular analysis to enable a new age of discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessel, Megan M; Norris, Jeremy L; Caprioli, Richard M

    2014-07-31

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI IMS) combines the sensitivity and selectivity of mass spectrometry with spatial analysis to provide a new dimension for histological analyses to provide unbiased visualization of the arrangement of biomolecules in tissue. As such, MALDI IMS has the capability to become a powerful new molecular technology for the biological and clinical sciences. In this review, we briefly describe several applications of MALDI IMS covering a range of molecular weights, from drugs to proteins. Current limitations and challenges are discussed along with recent developments to address these issues. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 20years of Proteomics in memory of Viatliano Pallini. Guest Editors: Luca Bini, Juan J. Calvete, Natacha Turck, Denis Hochstrasser and Jean-Charles Sanchez.

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging of right ventricular morphology and function in the assessment of suspected pulmonary hypertension results from the ASPIRE registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swift Andrew J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR imaging is accurate and reproducible for the assessment of right ventricular (RV morphology and function. However, the diagnostic accuracy of CMR derived RV measurements for the detection of pulmonary hypertension (PH in the assessment of patients with suspected PH in the clinic setting is not well described. Methods We retrospectively studied 233 consecutive treatment naïve patients with suspected PH including 39 patients with no PH who underwent CMR and right heart catheterisation (RHC within 48hours. The diagnostic accuracy of multiple CMR measurements for the detection of mPAP ≥ 25 mmHg was assessed using Fisher’s exact test and receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis. Results Ventricular mass index (VMI was the CMR measurement with the strongest correlation with mPAP (r = 0.78 and the highest diagnostic accuracy for the detection of PH (area under the ROC curve of 0.91 compared to an ROC of 0.88 for echocardiography calculated mPAP. Late gadolinium enhancement, VMI ≥ 0.4, retrograde flow ≥ 0.3 L/min/m2 and PA relative area change ≤ 15% predicted the presence of PH with a high degree of diagnostic certainty with a positive predictive value of 98%, 97%, 95% and 94% respectively. No single CMR parameter could confidently exclude the presence of PH. Conclusion CMR is a useful alternative to echocardiography in the evaluation of suspected PH. This study supports a role for the routine measurement of ventricular mass index, late gadolinium enhancement and the use of phase contrast imaging in addition to right heart functional indices in patients undergoing diagnostic CMR evaluation for suspected pulmonary hypertension.

  7. Isomerism in benzyl-DOTA derived bifunctional chelators: implications for molecular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Katherine M; Woods, Mark

    2015-02-18

    The bifunctional chelator IB-DOTA has found use in a range of biomedical applications given its ability to chelate many metal ions, but in particular the lanthanide(III) ions. Gd(3+) in particular is of interest in the development of new molecular imaging agents for MRI and is highly suitable for chelation by IB-DOTA. Given the long-term instability of the aryl isothiocyanate functional group we have used the more stable nitro derivative (NB-DOTA) to conduct a follow-up study of some of our previous work on the coordination chemistry of chelates of these BFCs. Using a combination of NMR and HPLC to study the Eu(3+) and Yb(3+) chelates of NB-DOTA, we have demonstrated that this ligand will produce two discrete regioisomeric chelates at the point at which the metal ion is introduced into the BFC. These regioisomers are defined by the position of the benzylic substituent on the macrocyclic ring: adopting an equatorial position either at the corner or the side of the [3333] ring conformation. These regioisomers are incapable of interconversion and are distinct, separate structures with different SAP/TSAP ratios. The side isomer exhibits an increased population of the TSAP isomer, pointing to more rapid water exchange kinetics in this regioisomer. This has potential ramifications for the use of these two regioisomers of Gd(3+)-BFC chelates in MRI applications. We have also found that, remarkably, there is little or no freedom of rotation about the first single bond extending from the macrocyclic ring to the benzylic substituent. Since this is the linkage through which the chelate is conjugated to the remainder of the molecular imaging probe, this result implies that there may be reduced local rotation of the Gd(3+) chelate within a molecular imaging probe. This implies that this type of BFC could exhibit higher relaxivities than other types of BFC.

  8. Simultaneous molecular imaging of EGFR and HER2 using hyperspectral darkfield microscopy and immunotargeted nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Matthew J.; Marinakos, Stella; Chilkoti, Ashutosh; Wax, Adam P.

    2009-02-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2) contribute to the regulation of cell proliferation, and when jointly over-expressed are associated with several types of cancer. The ability to monitor both receptors simultaneously results in a more accurate indicator of degree of cancerous activity than either receptor alone. Plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) show promise as a potential EGFR and HER2 biomarker over alternatives such as fluorophores and quantum dots, which are limited by their cytotoxicity and photobleaching. To observe immunolabeled NPs bound to receptor-expressing cells, our past experiments were conducted using a novel optical darkfield microspectroscopy system. We implemented an epi-illumination darkfield broadband light train, which allows for darkfield analysis of live cells in culture with enhanced NP contrast. Under this setup, molecularly specific binding of NPs immunolabeled with anti-EGFR was confirmed. We have since adapted our darkfield setup, which previously only obtained spectral information from a line imaging spectrometer, to incorporate hyperspectral imaging capabilities, allowing widefield data acquisition within seconds. The new system has been validated through observation of shifts in the peak wavelength of scattering by gold NPs on silanated cover glasses using several immersion media. Peak resonant scattering wavelengths match well with that predicted by Mie theory. We will further demonstrate the potential of the system with simultaneous molecular imaging of multiple receptors in vitro using labeled EGFR+/HER2+ SK-BR-3 human breast cancer cells with anti-EGFR immunolabeled gold nanospheres and anti-HER2 immunolabeled gold nanorods, with each scattering in different spectral windows. Additional trials will be performed to demonstrate molecularly specific binding using EGFR+/HER2- MDA-MB-468 and HER2+/EGFR- MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells.

  9. Early detection of breast cancer: a molecular optical imaging approach using novel estrogen conjugate fluorescent dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Shubhadeep; Jose, Iven

    2011-02-01

    Estrogen induced proliferation of mutant cells is widely understood to be the one of major risk determining factor in the development of breast cancer. Hence determination of the Estrogen Receptor[ER] status is of paramount importance if cancer pathogenesis is to be detected and rectified at an early stage. Near Infrared Fluorescence [NIRf] Molecular Optical Imaging is emerging as a powerful tool to monitor bio-molecular changes in living subjects. We discuss pre-clinical results in our efforts to develop an optical imaging diagnostic modality for the early detection of breast cancer. We have successfully carried out the synthesis and characterization of a novel target-specific NIRf dye conjugate aimed at measuring Estrogen Receptor[ER] status. The conjugate was synthesized by ester formation between 17-β estradiol and a hydrophilic derivative of Indocyanine Green (ICG) cyanine dye, bis-1,1-(4-sulfobutyl) indotricarbocyanine-5-carboxylic acid, sodium salt. In-vitro studies regarding specific binding and endocytocis of the dye performed on ER+ve [MCF-7] and control [MDA-MB-231] adenocarcinoma breast cancer cell lines clearly indicated nuclear localization of the dye for MCF-7 as compared to plasma level staining for MDA-MB-231. Furthermore, MCF-7 cells showed ~4.5-fold increase in fluorescence signal intensity compared to MDA-MB-231. A 3-D mesh model mimicking the human breast placed in a parallel-plate DOT Scanner is created to examine the in-vivo efficacy of the dye before proceeding with clinical trials. Photon migration and florescence flux intensity is modeled using the finite-element method with the coefficients (quantum yield, molar extinction co-efficient etc.) pertaining to the dye as obtained from photo-physical and in-vitro studies. We conclude by stating that this lipophilic dye can be potentially used as a target specific exogenous contrast agent in molecular optical imaging for early detection of breast cancer.

  10. Peptidyl Molecular Imaging Contrast Agents Using a New Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Byunghee; Pagel, Mark D.

    2007-01-01

    A versatile method is disclosed for solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) of molecular imaging contrast agents. A DO3A moiety was derivatized to introduce a CBZ-protected amino group and then coupled to a polymeric support. CBZ cleavage with Et2AlCl/thioanisole was optimized for SPPS. Amino acids were then coupled to the aminoDOTA loaded resin using conventional step-wise Fmoc SPPS to create a product with DOTA coupled to the C-terminus of the peptide. In a second study, the DO3A moiety was co...

  11. Universal Molecular Scaffold for Facile Construction of Multivalent and Multimodal Imaging Probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Yongkang; Xiang, Guangya; Ma, Xiang; Hui, Wenqi; Ouyang, Qin; Sun, Lingyi; Ding, Jiule; Sheng, Jing; Zeng, Dexing

    2016-03-16

    Multivalent and multimodal imaging probes are rapidly emerging as powerful chemical tools for visualizing various biochemical processes. Herein, we described a bifunctional chelator (BFC)-based scaffold that can be used to construct such promising probes concisely. Compared to other reported similar scaffolds, this new BFC scaffold demonstrated two major advantages: (1) significantly simplified synthesis due to the use of this new BFC that can serve as chelator and linker simultaneously; (2) highly efficient synthesis rendered by using either click chemistry and/or total solid-phase synthesis. In addition, the versatile utility of this molecular scaffold has been demonstrated by constructing several multivalent/multimodal imaging probes labeled with various radioisotopes, and the resulting radiotracers demonstrated substantially improved in vivo performance compared to the two individual monomeric counterparts.

  12. In-vivo human brain molecular imaging with a brain-dedicated PET/MRI system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Zang Hee; Son, Young Don; Choi, Eun Jung; Kim, Hang Keun; Kim, Jeong Hee; Lee, Sang Yoon; Ogawa, Seiji; Kim, Young Bo

    2013-02-01

    Advances in the new-generation of ultra-high-resolution, brain-dedicated positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) systems have begun to provide many interesting insights into the molecular dynamics of the brain. First, the finely delineated structural information from ultra-high-field MRI can help us to identify accurate landmark structures, thereby making it easier to locate PET activation sites that are anatomically well-correlated with metabolic or ligand-specific organs in the neural structures in the brain. This synergistic potential of PET/MRI imaging is discussed in terms of neuroscience and neurological research from both translational and basic research perspectives. Experimental results from the hippocampus, thalamus, and brainstem obtained with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose and (11)C-3-amino-4-(2-dimethylaminomethylphenylsulfanyl)benzonitrile are used to demonstrate the potential of this new brain PET/MRI system.

  13. Super-Resolution Molecular and Functional Imaging of Nanoscale Architectures in Life and Materials Science

    KAUST Repository

    Habuchi, Satoshi

    2014-06-12

    Super-resolution (SR) fluorescence microscopy has been revolutionizing the way in which we investigate the structures, dynamics, and functions of a wide range of nanoscale systems. In this review, I describe the current state of various SR fluorescence microscopy techniques along with the latest developments of fluorophores and labeling for the SR microscopy. I discuss the applications of SR microscopy in the fields of life science and materials science with a special emphasis on quantitative molecular imaging and nanoscale functional imaging. These studies open new opportunities for unraveling the physical, chemical, and optical properties of a wide range of nanoscale architectures together with their nanostructures and will enable the development of new (bio-)nanotechnology.

  14. The use of anatomical information for molecular image reconstruction algorithms: Attention/Scatter correction, motion compensation, and noise reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Se Young [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    PET and SPECT are important tools for providing valuable molecular information about patients to clinicians. Advances in nuclear medicine hardware technologies and statistical image reconstruction algorithms enabled significantly improved image quality. Sequentially or simultaneously acquired anatomical images such as CT and MRI from hybrid scanners are also important ingredients for improving the image quality of PET or SPECT further. High-quality anatomical information has been used and investigated for attenuation and scatter corrections, motion compensation, and noise reduction via post-reconstruction filtering and regularization in inverse problems. In this article, we will review works using anatomical information for molecular image reconstruction algorithms for better image quality by describing mathematical models, discussing sources of anatomical information for different cases, and showing some examples.

  15. The Use of Anatomical Information for Molecular Image Reconstruction Algorithms: Attenuation/Scatter Correction, Motion Compensation, and Noise Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Se Young

    2016-03-01

    PET and SPECT are important tools for providing valuable molecular information about patients to clinicians. Advances in nuclear medicine hardware technologies and statistical image reconstruction algorithms enabled significantly improved image quality. Sequentially or simultaneously acquired anatomical images such as CT and MRI from hybrid scanners are also important ingredients for improving the image quality of PET or SPECT further. High-quality anatomical information has been used and investigated for attenuation and scatter corrections, motion compensation, and noise reduction via post-reconstruction filtering and regularization in inverse problems. In this article, we will review works using anatomical information for molecular image reconstruction algorithms for better image quality by describing mathematical models, discussing sources of anatomical information for different cases, and showing some examples. PMID:26941855

  16. Sodium and T1rho MRI for molecular and diagnostic imaging of articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borthakur, Arijitt; Mellon, Eric; Niyogi, Sampreet; Witschey, Walter; Kneeland, J Bruce; Reddy, Ravinder

    2006-11-01

    In this article, both sodium magnetic resonance (MR) and T1rho relaxation mapping aimed at measuring molecular changes in cartilage for the diagnostic imaging of osteoarthritis are reviewed. First, an introduction to structure of cartilage, its degeneration in osteoarthritis (OA) and an outline of diagnostic imaging methods in quantifying molecular changes and early diagnostic aspects of cartilage degeneration are described. The sodium MRI section begins with a brief overview of the theory of sodium NMR of biological tissues and is followed by a section on multiple quantum filters that can be used to quantify both bi-exponential relaxation and residual quadrupolar interaction. Specifically, (i) the rationale behind the use of sodium MRI in quantifying proteoglycan (PG) changes, (ii) validation studies using biochemical assays, (iii) studies on human OA specimens, (iv) results on animal models and (v) clinical imaging protocols are reviewed. Results demonstrating the feasibility of quantifying PG in OA patients and comparison with that in healthy subjects are also presented. The section concludes with the discussion of advantages and potential issues with sodium MRI and the impact of new technological advancements (e.g. ultra-high field scanners and parallel imaging methods). In the theory section on T1rho, a brief description of (i) principles of measuring T1rho relaxation, (ii) pulse sequences for computing T1rho relaxation maps, (iii) issues regarding radio frequency power deposition, (iv) mechanisms that contribute to T1rho in biological tissues and (v) effects of exchange and dipolar interaction on T1rho dispersion are discussed. Correlation of T1rho relaxation rate with macromolecular content and biomechanical properties in cartilage specimens subjected to trypsin and cytokine-induced glycosaminoglycan depletion and validation against biochemical assay and histopathology are presented. Experimental T1rho data from osteoarthritic specimens, animal models

  17. Exploration of target molecules for molecular imaging of inflammatory bowel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashikawa, Kei; Akada, Naoki; Yagi, Katsuharu [Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Watanabe, Keiko; Kamino, Shinichiro; Kanayama, Yousuke; Hiromura, Makoto [Multiple Molecular Imaging Research Laboratory, RIKEN Center for Molecular Imaging Science, Kobe 650-0047 (Japan); Enomoto, Shuichi, E-mail: senomoto@pharm.okayama-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Multiple Molecular Imaging Research Laboratory, RIKEN Center for Molecular Imaging Science, Kobe 650-0047 (Japan)

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {sup {yields}18}F-FDG PET could discriminate each inflamed area of IBD model mice clearly. {sup {yields}18}F-FDG PET could not discriminate the difference of pathogenic mechanism. {yields} Cytokines and cytokine receptors expression was different by pathogenic mechanism. {yields} Cytokines and cytokine receptors would be new target molecules for IBD imaging. -- Abstract: Molecular imaging technology is a powerful tool for the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and the efficacy evaluation of various drug therapies for it. However, it is difficult to elucidate directly the relationships between the responsible molecules and IBD using existing probes. Therefore, the development of an alternative probe that is able to elucidate the pathogenic mechanism and provide information on the appropriate guidelines for treatment is earnestly awaited. In this study, we investigated pathognomonic molecules in the intestines of model mice. The accumulation of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) in the inflamed area of the intestines of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)- or indomethacin (IND)-induced IBD model mice was measured by positron emission tomography (PET) and autoradiography to confirm the inflamed area. The results suggested that the inflammation was selectively induced in the colons of mice by the administration of DSS, whereas it was induced mainly in the ilea and the proximal colons of mice by the administration of IND. To explore attractive target molecules for the molecular imaging of IBD, we evaluated the gene expression levels of cytokines and cytokine receptors in the inflamed area of the intestines of both model mice. We found that the expression levels of cytokines and cytokine receptors were significantly increased during the progression of IBD, whereas the expression levels were decreased as the mucosa began to heal. In particular, the expression levels of these molecules had already changed before the symptoms of IBD appeared. In

  18. Radiopharmaceuticals: nanoparticles like multi-functional systems for the obtaining in vivo of molecular images; Radiofarmacos: nanoparticulas como sistemas multifuncionales para la obtencion in vivo de imagenes moleculares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferro F, G.; Ramirez de la Cruz, F. M.; Ocampo G, B. E.; Morales A, E.; Santos C, C. L.; Mendoza S, A. N., E-mail: guillermina.ferro@inin.gob.m [ININ, Departamento de Materiales Radiactivos, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    The techniques of obtaining direct or indirect molecular images detect and register the space-temporary distribution of molecular or cellular processes for biochemical, biological, diagnostic and therapeutic applications. The advanced techniques of image like the nuclear magnetic resonance, the single photon emission computed tomography, the positron emission tomography and the images of optic fluorescence have been used successfully to detect these processes. On the other hand, the utility of the nanoparticles for any application is dependent of the physicochemical properties that present, being possible to modify their surface when making them react with different biomolecules what allows the formation of conjugates with specific molecular recognition. The joint of various protein molecules, peptides or oligonucleotides to the surface of a nanoparticle produce a multi-functional system able to increase the multivalent joints from the nanoparticles-biomolecules to their receivers for the obtaining of molecular images in vivo. The peptides stimulate, regulate or inhibit numerous functions of the life, acting mainly as information transmitters and activity coordinators of several tissues in the organism. The receivers of regulator peptides are over represented in numerous types of cancer cells and they are protein structures. These receivers have been used as white molecular of marked peptides, to locate primary malignant tumors and their metastasis, using the diagnostic techniques of molecular image mentioned above, which consist basically on the radio peptides use and conjugated peptides to fluoro chromes, to metallic nanoparticles and nano crystals. A summary of the work is presented carried out by the personnel of the Radio-active Materials and Chemistry Departments of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares in this field. (Author)

  19. Characterization of VCAM-1-binding peptide-functionalized quantum dots for molecular imaging of inflamed endothelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Chen

    Full Text Available Inflammation-induced activation of endothelium constitutes one of the earliest changes during atherogenesis. New imaging techniques that allow detecting activated endothelial cells can improve the identification of persons at high cardiovascular risk in early stages. Quantum dots (QDs have attractive optical properties such as bright fluorescence and high photostability, and have been increasingly studied and developed for bio-imaging and bio-targeting applications. We report here the development of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 binding peptide (VCAM-1 binding peptide functionalized QDs (VQDs from amino QDs. It was found that the QD fluorescence signal in tumor necrosis factor [Formula: see text] (TNF-[Formula: see text] treated endothelial cells in vitro was significantly higher when these cells were labeled with VQDs than amino QDs. The VQD labeling of TNF-[Formula: see text]-treated endothelial cells was VCAM-1 specific since pre-incubation with recombinant VCAM-1 blocked cells' uptake of VQDs. Our ex vivo and in vivo experiments showed that in the inflamed endothelium, QD fluorescence signal from VQDs was also much stronger than that of amino QDs. Moreover, we observed that the QD fluorescence peak was significantly blue-shifted after VQDs interacted with aortic endothelial cells in vivo and in vitro. A similar blue-shift was observed after VQDs were incubated with recombinant VCAM-1 in tube. We anticipate that the specific interaction between VQDs and VCAM-1 and the blue-shift of the QD fluorescence peak can be very useful for VCAM-1 detection in vivo.

  20. Sodium Iodide Symporter for Nuclear Molecular Imaging and Gene Therapy: From Bedside to Bench and Back

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byeong-Cheol Ahn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular imaging, defined as the visual representation, characterization and quantification of biological processes at the cellular and subcellular levels within intact living organisms, can be obtained by various imaging technologies, including nuclear imaging methods. Imaging of normal thyroid tissue and differentiated thyroid cancer, and treatment of thyroid cancer with radioiodine rely on the expression of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS in these cells. NIS is an intrinsic membrane protein with 13 transmembrane domains and it takes up iodide into the cytosol from the extracellular fluid. By transferring NIS function to various cells via gene transfer, the cells can be visualized with gamma or positron emitting radioisotopes such as Tc-99m, I-123, I-131, I-124 and F-18 tetrafluoroborate, which are accumulated by NIS. They can also be treated with beta- or alpha-emitting radionuclides, such as I-131, Re-186, Re-188 and At-211, which are also accumulated by NIS. This article demonstrates the diagnostic and therapeutic applications of NIS as a radionuclide-based reporter gene for trafficking cells and a therapeutic gene for treating cancers.

  1. Analysis of an automated background correction method for cardiovascular MR phase contrast imaging in children and young adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigsby, Cynthia K.; Hilpipre, Nicholas; Boylan, Emma E.; Popescu, Andrada R.; Deng, Jie [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, Chicago, IL (United States); McNeal, Gary R. [Siemens Medical Solutions USA Inc., Customer Solutions Group, Cardiovascular MR R and D, Chicago, IL (United States); Zhang, Gang [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago Research Center, Biostatistics Research Core, Chicago, IL (United States); Choi, Grace [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Pediatrics, Chicago, IL (United States); Greiser, Andreas [Siemens AG Healthcare Sector, Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    Phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful tool for evaluating vessel blood flow. Inherent errors in acquisition, such as phase offset, eddy currents and gradient field effects, can cause significant inaccuracies in flow parameters. These errors can be rectified with the use of background correction software. To evaluate the performance of an automated phase contrast MRI background phase correction method in children and young adults undergoing cardiac MR imaging. We conducted a retrospective review of patients undergoing routine clinical cardiac MRI including phase contrast MRI for flow quantification in the aorta (Ao) and main pulmonary artery (MPA). When phase contrast MRI of the right and left pulmonary arteries was also performed, these data were included. We excluded patients with known shunts and metallic implants causing visible MRI artifact and those with more than mild to moderate aortic or pulmonary stenosis. Phase contrast MRI of the Ao, mid MPA, proximal right pulmonary artery (RPA) and left pulmonary artery (LPA) using 2-D gradient echo Fast Low Angle SHot (FLASH) imaging was acquired during normal respiration with retrospective cardiac gating. Standard phase image reconstruction and the automatic spatially dependent background-phase-corrected reconstruction were performed on each phase contrast MRI dataset. Non-background-corrected and background-phase-corrected net flow, forward flow, regurgitant volume, regurgitant fraction, and vessel cardiac output were recorded for each vessel. We compared standard non-background-corrected and background-phase-corrected mean flow values for the Ao and MPA. The ratio of pulmonary to systemic blood flow (Qp:Qs) was calculated for the standard non-background and background-phase-corrected data and these values were compared to each other and for proximity to 1. In a subset of patients who also underwent phase contrast MRI of the MPA, RPA, and LPA a comparison was made between standard non

  2. SimVascular 2.0: an Integrated Open Source Pipeline for Image-Based Cardiovascular Modeling and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Hongzhi; Merkow, Jameson; Updegrove, Adam; Schiavazzi, Daniele; Wilson, Nathan; Shadden, Shawn; Marsden, Alison

    2015-11-01

    SimVascular (www.simvascular.org) is currently the only fully open source software package that provides a complete pipeline from medical image based modeling to patient specific blood flow simulation and analysis. It was initially released in 2007 and has contributed to numerous advances in fundamental hemodynamics research, surgical planning, and medical device design. However, early versions had several major barriers preventing wider adoption by new users, large-scale application in clinical and research studies, and educational access. In the past years, SimVascular 2.0 has made significant progress by integrating open source alternatives for the expensive commercial libraries previously required for anatomic modeling, mesh generation and the linear solver. In addition, it simplified the across-platform compilation process, improved the graphical user interface and launched a comprehensive documentation website. Many enhancements and new features have been incorporated for the whole pipeline, such as 3-D segmentation, Boolean operation for discrete triangulated surfaces, and multi-scale coupling for closed loop boundary conditions. In this presentation we will briefly overview the modeling/simulation pipeline and advances of the new SimVascular 2.0.

  3. Special conference of the American Association for Cancer Research on molecular imaging in cancer: linking biology, function, and clinical applications in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luker, Gary D

    2002-04-01

    The AACR Special Conference on Molecular Imaging in Cancer: Linking Biology, Function, and Clinical Applications In Vivo, was held January 23-27, 2002, at the Contemporary Hotel, Walt Disney World, Orlando, FL. Co-Chairs David Piwnica-Worms, Patricia Price and Thomas Meade brought together researchers with diverse expertise in molecular biology, gene therapy, chemistry, engineering, pharmacology, and imaging to accelerate progress in developing and applying technologies for imaging specific cellular and molecular signals in living animals and humans. The format of the conference was the presentation of research that focused on basic and translational biology of cancer and current state-of-the-art techniques for molecular imaging in animal models and humans. This report summarizes the special conference on molecular imaging, highlighting the interfaces of molecular biology with animal models, instrumentation, chemistry, and pharmacology that are essential to convert the dreams and promise of molecular imaging into improved understanding, diagnosis, and management of cancer.

  4. Accelerated cardiovascular magnetic resonance of the mouse heart using self-gated parallel imaging strategies does not compromise accuracy of structural and functional measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörries Carola

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-gated dynamic cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR enables non-invasive visualization of the heart and accurate assessment of cardiac function in mouse models of human disease. However, self-gated CMR requires the acquisition of large datasets to ensure accurate and artifact-free reconstruction of cardiac cines and is therefore hampered by long acquisition times putting high demands on the physiological stability of the animal. For this reason, we evaluated the feasibility of accelerating the data collection using the parallel imaging technique SENSE with respect to both anatomical definition and cardiac function quantification. Results Findings obtained from accelerated data sets were compared to fully sampled reference data. Our results revealed only minor differences in image quality of short- and long-axis cardiac cines: small anatomical structures (papillary muscles and the aortic valve and left-ventricular (LV remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI were accurately detected even for 3-fold accelerated data acquisition using a four-element phased array coil. Quantitative analysis of LV cardiac function (end-diastolic volume (EDV, end-systolic volume (ESV, stroke volume (SV, ejection fraction (EF and LV mass in healthy and infarcted animals revealed no substantial deviations from reference (fully sampled data for all investigated acceleration factors with deviations ranging from 2% to 6% in healthy animals and from 2% to 8% in infarcted mice for the highest acceleration factor of 3.0. CNR calculations performed between LV myocardial wall and LV cavity revealed a maximum CNR decrease of 50% for the 3-fold accelerated data acquisition when compared to the fully-sampled acquisition. Conclusions We have demonstrated the feasibility of accelerated self-gated retrospective CMR in mice using the parallel imaging technique SENSE. The proposed method led to considerably reduced acquisition times, while preserving high

  5. High Resolution Imaging of Defect Structures in Polymer and Organic Molecular Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, David

    2003-03-01

    We have been developing techniques for the low dose High Resolution Electron Microscopy (HREM) imaging of defect structures in polymer and organic molecular crystals. We have examined a variety of technologically important materials systems including rigid-rod polymers, poly(imides), poly(diacetylenes), poly(bisthiazoles), poly(bisoxazoles), and aromatic polyamides such as poly(paraphenylene terephthalamide) (PPTA or Kevlar(R)) and poly(metaphenylene diisophthalamide) (MPDI or Nomex(R)). These studies have made it possible for us to image the molecular reorganization in the vicinity of dislocations, surfaces, and grain boundaries. We have also learned about the micromechanisms of lattice bending and twisting. Most recently we have been examining the microstructure of pentacene, a highly-crystalline conjugated organic small molecule that is of interest for making flexible electronic devices such as thin-film transistors. We have also been examing the utility of low voltage techniques using a table-top sized electron microscope that operates near 5 kV.

  6. Molecular orbital imaging of cobalt phthalocyanine on native oxidized copper layers using STM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Qinmin; Huang, Min; Qin, Zhihui [State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiaohongshan West 30, Wuchang, Wuhan 430071 (China); Cao, Gengyu, E-mail: gycao@wipm.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiaohongshan West 30, Wuchang, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2012-07-15

    To observe molecular orbitals using scanning tunneling microscopy, well-ordered oxidized layers on Cu(001) were fabricated to screen the individual adsorbed cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc) molecules from the electronic influence of the metal surface. Scanning tunneling microscope images of the molecule on this oxidized layer show similarities to the orbital distribution of the free molecule. The good match between the differential conductance mapping images and the calculated charge distribution at energy levels corresponding to the frontier orbitals of CoPc provides more evidence of the screening of the oxidized layer from interactions between the metal surface and supported molecules. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer STM is a powerful tool to depict molecular orbitals, a basic concept of chemistry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Native copper oxide layer was fabricated for adsorption of cobalt phthalocyanine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detailed orbitals of CoPc were successfully observed for the 1st time by STM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of the layer is explained by DFT quantum mechanical computations.

  7. Molecular orbital imaging of cobalt phthalocyanine on native oxidized copper layers using STM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To observe molecular orbitals using scanning tunneling microscopy, well-ordered oxidized layers on Cu(001) were fabricated to screen the individual adsorbed cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc) molecules from the electronic influence of the metal surface. Scanning tunneling microscope images of the molecule on this oxidized layer show similarities to the orbital distribution of the free molecule. The good match between the differential conductance mapping images and the calculated charge distribution at energy levels corresponding to the frontier orbitals of CoPc provides more evidence of the screening of the oxidized layer from interactions between the metal surface and supported molecules. -- Highlights: ► STM is a powerful tool to depict molecular orbitals, a basic concept of chemistry. ► Native copper oxide layer was fabricated for adsorption of cobalt phthalocyanine. ► Detailed orbitals of CoPc were successfully observed for the 1st time by STM. ► The effect of the layer is explained by DFT quantum mechanical computations.

  8. Molecular Imaging of Stem Cells: Tracking Survival, Biodistribution, Tumorigenicity, and Immunogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Gu, Wen-Yi Chen, Jay Gu, Paul Burridge, Joseph C. Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Being able to self-renew and differentiate into virtually all cell types, both human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs have exciting therapeutic implications for myocardial infarction, neurodegenerative disease, diabetes, and other disorders involving irreversible cell loss. However, stem cell biology remains incompletely understood despite significant advances in the field. Inefficient stem cell differentiation, difficulty in verifying successful delivery to the target organ, and problems with engraftment all hamper the transition from laboratory animal studies to human clinical trials. Although traditional histopathological techniques have been the primary approach for ex vivo analysis of stem cell behavior, these postmortem examinations are unable to further elucidate the underlying mechanisms in real time and in vivo. Fortunately, the advent of molecular imaging has led to unprecedented progress in understanding the fundamental behavior of stem cells, including their survival, biodistribution, immunogenicity, and tumorigenicity in the targeted tissues of interest. This review summarizes various molecular imaging technologies and how they have advanced the current understanding of stem cell survival, biodistribution, immunogenicity, and tumorigenicity.

  9. Image-charge-induced localization of molecular orbitals at metal-molecule interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strange, M.; Thygesen, K. S.

    2012-01-01

    Quasiparticle (QP) wave functions, also known as Dyson orbitals, extend the concept of single-particle states to interacting electron systems. Here we employ many-body perturbation theory in the GW approximation to calculate the QP wave functions for a semiempirical model describing a pi-conjugat......Quasiparticle (QP) wave functions, also known as Dyson orbitals, extend the concept of single-particle states to interacting electron systems. Here we employ many-body perturbation theory in the GW approximation to calculate the QP wave functions for a semiempirical model describing a pi......-conjugated molecular wire in contact with a metal surface. We find that image charge effects pull the frontier molecular orbitals toward the metal surface, while orbitals with higher or lower energy are pushed away. This affects both the size of the energetic image charge shifts and the coupling of the individual...... orbitals to the metal substrate. Full diagonalization of the QP equation and, to some extent, self-consistency in the GW self-energy, is important to describe the effect, which is not captured by standard density functional theory or Hartree-Fock. These results should be important for the understanding and...

  10. Cherenkov radiation fluence estimates in tissue for molecular imaging and therapy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Adam K.; Zhang, Rongxiao; Andreozzi, Jacqueline; Gladstone, David; Pogue, Brian

    2016-03-01

    Cherenkov radiation has emerged as a novel source of light with a number of applications in the biomedical sciences. It's unique properties, including its broadband emission spectrum, spectral weighting in the ultraviolet and blue wavebands, and local generation of light within a given tissue have made it an attractive source of light for techniques ranging from widefield imaging to oximetry and phototherapy. To help guide the future development of this field in the context of molecular imaging, quantitative estimates of the light fluence rates of Cherenkov radiation from a number of radionuclide and external radiotherapy beams in tissue was explored for the first time. Using Monte Carlo simulations, these values were found to be on the order of 0.1 - 1 nW/cm2 per MBq/g for radionuclides and 1 - 10 μW/cm2 per Gy/sec for external radiotherapy beams, dependent on the given waveband and optical properties. For phototherapy applications, the total light fluence was found to be on the order of nJ/cm2 for radionuclides, and mJ/cm2 for radiotherapy beams. To validate these findings, experimental validation was completed with an MV x-ray photon beam incident onto a tissue phantom, confirming the magnitudes of the simulation values. The results indicate that diagnostic potential is reasonable for Cherenkov excitation of molecular probes, but phototherapy may remain elusive at these relatively low fluence values.

  11. 124Iodine: A Longer-Life Positron Emitter Isotope—New Opportunities in Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Lucio Cascini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 124Iodine (124I with its 4.2 d half-life is particularly attractive for in vivo detection and quantification of longer-term biological and physiological processes; the long half-life of 124I is especially suited for prolonged time in vivo studies of high molecular weight compounds uptake. Numerous small molecules and larger compounds like proteins and antibodies have been successfully labeled with 124I. Advances in radionuclide production allow the effective availability of sufficient quantities of 124I on small biomedical cyclotrons for molecular imaging purposes. Radioiodination chemistry with 124I relies on well-established radioiodine labeling methods, which consists mainly in nucleophilic and electrophilic substitution reactions. The physical characteristics of 124I permit taking advantages of the higher PET image quality. The availability of new molecules that may be targeted with 124I represents one of the more interesting reasons for the attention in nuclear medicine. We aim to discuss all iodine radioisotopes application focusing on 124I, which seems to be the most promising for its half-life, radiation emissions, and stability, allowing several applications in oncological and nononcological fields.

  12. Estrogen Receptor-Targeted Contrast Agents for Molecular Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Breast Cancer Hormonal Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais, Adi; Degani, Hadassa

    2016-01-01

    The estrogen receptor (ER) α is overexpressed in most breast cancers, and its level serves as a major prognostic factor. It is important to develop quantitative molecular imaging methods that specifically detect ER in vivo and assess its function throughout the entire primary breast cancer and in metastatic breast cancer lesions. This study presents the biochemical and molecular features, as well as the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) effects of two novel ER-targeted contrast agents (CAs), based on pyridine-tetra-acetate-Gd(III) chelate conjugated to 17β-estradiol (EPTA-Gd) or to tamoxifen (TPTA-Gd). The experiments were conducted in solution, in human breast cancer cells, and in severe combined immunodeficient mice implanted with transfected ER-positive and ER-negative MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer xenografts. Binding studies with ER in solution and in human breast cancer cells indicated affinities in the micromolar range of both CAs. Biochemical and molecular studies in breast cancer cell cultures showed that both CAs exhibit estrogen-like agonistic activity, enhancing cell proliferation, as well as upregulating cMyc oncogene and downregulating ER expression levels. The MRI longitudinal relaxivity was significantly augmented by EPTA-Gd in ER-positive cells as compared to ER-negative cells. Dynamic contrast-enhanced studies with EPTA-Gd in vivo indicated specific augmentation of the MRI water signal in the ER-positive versus ER-negative xenografts, confirming EPTA-Gd-specific interaction with ER. In contrast, TPTA-Gd did not show increased enhancement in ER-positive tumors and did not appear to interact in vivo with the tumors' ER. However, TPTA-Gd was found to interact strongly with muscle tissue, enhancing muscle signal intensity in a mechanism independent of the presence of ER. The specificity of EPTA-Gd interaction with ER in vivo was further verified by acute and chronic competition with tamoxifen. The chronic tamoxifen treatment also revealed that this

  13. Estrogen receptor targeted contrast agents for molecular magnetic resonance imaging of breast cancer hormonal status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi ePais

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The estrogen receptor α (ER is over expressed in most breast cancers and its level serves as a major prognostic factor. It is important to develop quantitative molecular imaging methods that specifically detect ER in vivo and assess its function throughout the entire primary breast cancer, as well as in metastatic breast cancer lesions. This study presents the biochemical and molecular features, as well as the magnetic resonance imaging effects of two novel ER- targeted contrast agents (CAs based on pyridine-tetra-acetate-Gd(III chelate conjugated to 17β-estradiol (EPTA-Gd or to tamoxifen (TPTA-Gd. The experiments were conducted in solution, in human breast cancer cells and in severe combined immunodeficient mice implanted with transfected ER-positive and ER-negative MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer xenografts. Binding studies with ER in solution and in human breast cancer cells indicated affinities in the micromolar range of both CAs. Biochemical and molecular studies in breast cancer cell cultures showed that both CAs exhibit estrogen like agonistic activity, enhancing cell proliferation, as well as up-regulating cMyc oncogene and down-regulating ER expression levels. The MRI longitudinal relaxivity was significantly augmented by EPTA-Gd in ER-positive cells as compared to ER-negative cells. Dynamic contrast enhanced studies with EPTA-Gd in vivo indicated specific augmentation of the MRI water signal in the ER-positive versus ER-negative xenografts, confirming EPTA-Gd specific interaction with ER. In contrast, TPTA-Gd did not show increased enhancement in ER-positive tumors and did not appear to interact in vivo with the tumors’ ER. However, TPTA-Gd was found to interact strongly with muscle tissue, enhancing muscle signal intensity in a mechanism independent of the presence of ER. The specificity of EPTA-Gd interaction with ER in vivo was further verified by acute and chronic competition with tamoxifen. The chronic tamoxifen treatment also

  14. Molecular imaging in patients with mood disorders: a review of PET findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mood disorders are chronic, recurrent psychiatric disorders with high morbidity rates that cause severe disability. Researchers have used molecular imaging extensively in studies of mood disorders. In this article, we concisely and selectively review the major findings of positron emission tomography studies of patients with mood disorders. Specifically, we describe findings from cerebral blood flow, cerebral glucose/oxygen metabolism, and radioligand studies in both cross-sectional and longitudinal investigations. Patients with mood disorders have mood-correlated regional metabolism changes and molecular abnormalities in several neurotransmitter systems. Although the findings of these studies are not completely consistent and confounding factors, including drug effects and specific methodology, should be strictly controlled, these results reveal the pathophysiology of mood disorders and aid the development of novel treatment approaches for mood disorders. Future positron emission tomography research will benefit greatly from the development of better radioligands to simultaneously identify multiple neurotransmitter systems in the specific brain region and the integration of more detecting methods in specifying the neurobiological predictors of treatment response in patients with mood disorders. Understanding the molecular mechanisms in underlying mood disorders will result in aetiological diagnosis and individualization of treatment of these disorders. (orig.)

  15. Cardiovascular group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, Gunnar

    1989-01-01

    As a starting point, the group defined a primary goal of maintaining in flight a level of systemic oxygen transport capacity comparable to each individual's preflight upright baseline. The goal of maintaining capacity at preflight levels would seem to be a reasonable objective for several different reasons, including the maintenance of good health in general and the preservation of sufficient cardiovascular reserve capacity to meet operational demands. It is also important not to introduce confounding variables in whatever other physiological studies are being performed. A change in the level of fitness is likely to be a significant confounding variable in the study of many organ systems. The principal component of the in-flight cardiovascular exercise program should be large-muscle activity such as treadmill exercise. It is desirable that at least one session per week be monitored to assure maintenance of proper functional levels and to provide guidance for any adjustments of the exercise prescription. Appropriate measurements include evaluation of the heart-rate/workload or the heart-rate/oxygen-uptake relationship. Respiratory gas analysis is helpful by providing better opportunities to document relative workload levels from analysis of the interrelationships among VO2, VCO2, and ventilation. The committee felt that there is no clear evidence that any particular in-flight exercise regimen is protective against orthostatic hypotension during the early readaptation phase. Some group members suggested that maintenance of the lower body muscle mass and muscle tone may be helpful. There is also evidence that late in-flight interventions to reexpand blood volume to preflight levels are helpful in preventing or minimizing postflight orthostatic hypotension.

  16. Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheung Angela

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health Issue Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death in Canadian women and men. In general, women present with a wider range of symptoms, are more likely to delay seeking medial care and are less likely to be investigated and treated with evidence-based medications, angioplasty or coronary artery bypass graft than men. Key Findings In 1998, 78,964 Canadians died from CVD, almost half (39,197 were women. Acute myocardial infarction, which increases significantly after menopause, was the leading cause of death among women. Cardiovascular disease accounted for 21% of all hospital admissions for Canadian women over age 50 in 1999. Admissions to hospital for ischemic heart disease were more frequent for men, but the mean length of hospital stay was longer for women. Mean blood pressure increases with age in both men and women. After age 65, however, high blood pressure is more common among Canadian women. More than one-third of postmenopausal Canadian women have hypertension. Diabetes increases the mortality and morbidity associated with CVD in women more than it does in men. Depression also contributes to the incidence and recovery from CVD, particularly for women who experience twice the rate of depression as men. Data Gaps and Recommendations CVD needs to be recognized as a woman's health issue given Canadian mortality projections (particularly heart failure. Health professionals should be trained to screen, track, and address CVD risk factors among women, including hypertension, elevated lipid levels, smoking, physical inactivity, depression, diabetes and low socio-economic status.

  17. The Use of Radiation Detectors in Medicine: The Future of Molecular Imaging and Multimodality Imaging: Advantages and Technological Challenges (3/3)

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    The development of radiation detectors in the field of nuclear and particle physics has had a terrific impact in medical imaging since this latter discipline took off in late ’70 with the invention of the CT scanners. The massive use in High Energy Physics of position sensitive gas detectors, of high Z and high density scintillators coupled to Photomultiplier (PMT) and Position Sensitive Photomultipliers (PSPMT), and of solid state detectors has triggered during the last 30 years a series of novel applications in Medical Imaging with ionizing radiation. The accelerated scientific progression in genetics and molecular biology has finally generated what it is now called Molecular Imaging. This field of research presents additional challenges not only in the technology of radiation detector, but more and more in the ASIC electronics, fast digital readout and parallel software. In this series of three lectures I will try to present how high energy physics and medical imaging development have both benefited by t...

  18. Radiogenomic analysis of breast cancer: dynamic contrast enhanced - magnetic resonance imaging based features are associated with molecular subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijian; Fan, Ming; Zhang, Juan; Zheng, Bin; Wang, Xiaojia; Li, Lihua

    2016-03-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common malignant tumor with upgrading incidence in females. The key to decrease the mortality is early diagnosis and reasonable treatment. Molecular classification could provide better insights into patient-directed therapy and prognosis prediction of breast cancer. It is known that different molecular subtypes have different characteristics in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination. Therefore, we assumed that imaging features can reflect molecular information in breast cancer. In this study, we investigated associations between dynamic contrasts enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) features and molecular subtypes in breast cancer. Sixty patients with breast cancer were enrolled and the MR images were pre-processed for noise reduction, registration and segmentation. Sixty-five dimensional imaging features including statistical characteristics, morphology, texture and dynamic enhancement in breast lesion and background regions were semiautomatically extracted. The associations between imaging features and molecular subtypes were assessed by using statistical analyses, including univariate logistic regression and multivariate logistic regression. The results of multivariate regression showed that imaging features are significantly associated with molecular subtypes of Luminal A (p=0.00473), HER2-enriched (p=0.00277) and Basal like (p=0.0117), respectively. The results indicated that three molecular subtypes are correlated with DCE-MRI features in breast cancer. Specifically, patients with a higher level of compactness or lower level of skewness in breast lesion are more likely to be Luminal A subtype. Besides, the higher value of the dynamic enhancement at T1 time in normal side reflect higher possibility of HER2-enriched subtype in breast cancer.

  19. Longitudinal in vivo imaging of bone formation and resorption using fluorescence molecular tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambers, F M; Stuker, F; Weigt, C; Kuhn, G; Koch, K; Schulte, F A; Ripoll, J; Rudin, M; Müller, R

    2013-02-01

    Bone research often focuses on anatomical imaging of the bone microstructure, but in order to gain better understanding in how bone remodeling is modulated through interventions also bone formation and resorption processes should be investigated. With this in mind, the purpose of this study was to establish a longitudinal in vivo imaging approach of bone formation and resorption using fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT). In this study the reproducibility, accuracy and sensitivity of FMT for bone imaging were assessed by performing longitudinal measurements with FMT and comparing it to in vivo micro-computed tomography on a set of control mice, and mice in which load-adaptation was induced in the sixth caudal vertebra. The precision error for FMT measurements, expressed as coefficient of variation, was smaller than 16%, indicating acceptable reproducibility. A correlation was found between bone resorption measured with FMT and bone resorption rate measured with in vivo micro-computed tomography only over the first 14days (R=0.81, pbone formation measured with FMT and bone formation rate measured with in vivo micro-CT. Bone formation measured by FMT was 89-109% greater (pBone resorption was 5-8% lower, but did not reach a significant difference between groups, indicating moderate sensitivity for FMT. In conclusion, in vivo FMT in mouse tail bones is feasible but needs to be optimized for monitoring load adaptation in living mice.

  20. Molecular Origin of Color Variation in Firefly (Beetle) Bioluminescence: A Chemical Basis for Biological Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Firefly shows bioluminescence by "luciferin-luciferase" (L-L) reaction using luciferin, luciferase, ATP and O2. The chemical photon generation by an enzymatic reaction is widely utilized for analytical methods including biological imaging in the life science fields. To expand photondetecting analyses with firefly bioluminescence, it is important for users to understand the chemical basis of the L-L reaction. In particular, the emission color variation of the L-L reaction is one of the distinguishing characteristics for multicolor luciferase assay and in vivo imaging. From the viewpoint of fundamental chemistry, this review explains the recent progress in the studies on the molecular mechanism of emission color variation after showing the outline of the reaction mechanism of the whole L-L reaction. On the basis of the mechanism, the progresses in organic synthesis of luciferin analogs modulating their emission colors are also presented to support further developments of red/near infrared in vivo biological imaging utility of firefly bioluminescence.

  1. Molecular Ultrasound Imaging of Early Vascular Response in Prostate Tumors Irradiated with Carbon Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Palmowski

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Individualized treatments with combination of radiotherapy and targeted drugs require knowledge about the behavior of molecular targets after irradiation. Angiogenic marker expression has been studied after conventional radiotherapy, but little is known about marker response to charged particles. For the very first time, we used molecular ultrasound imaging to intraindividually track changes in angiogenic marker expression after carbon ion irradiation in experimental tumors. Expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 and of αvβ3-integrin in subcutaneous AT-1 prostate cancers in rats treated with carbon ions (16 Gy was studied using molecular ultrasound and immunohistochemistry. For this purpose, cyanoacrylate microbubbles were synthesized and linked to specific ligands. The accumulation of targeted microbubbles in tumors was quantified before and 36 hours after irradiation. In addition, tumor vascularization was analyzed using volumetric Doppler ultrasound. In tumors, the accumulation of targeted microbubbles was significantly higher than in nonspecific ones and could be inhibited competitively. Before irradiation, no difference in binding of αvβ3-integrin-specific or ICAM-1-specific microbubbles was observed in treated and untreated animals. After irradiation, however, treated animals showed a significantly higher binding of αvβ3-integrin-specific microbubbles and an enhanced binding of ICAM-1-specific microbubbles than untreated controls. In both groups, a decrease in vascularization occurred during tumor growth, but no significant difference was observed between irradiated and nonirradiated tumors. In conclusion, carbon ion irradiation upregulates ICAM-1 and αvβ3-integrin expression in tumor neovasculature. Molecular ultrasound can indicate the regulation of these markers and thus may help to identify the optimal drugs and time points in individualized therapy regimens.

  2. DISENTANGLING THE CIRCUMNUCLEAR ENVIRONS OF CENTAURUS A. I. HIGH-RESOLUTION MOLECULAR GAS IMAGING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present high-resolution images of the 12CO(2-1) emission in the central 1' (1 kpc) of NGC 5128 (Centaurus A), observed using the Submillimeter Array. We elucidate for the first time the distribution and kinematics of the molecular gas in this region with a resolution of 6.''0 x 2.''4 (100 pc x 40 pc). We spatially resolve the circumnuclear molecular gas in the inner 24''x 12'' (400 pc x 200 pc), which is elongated along a position angle of P.A. ≅155 deg. and perpendicular to the radio/X-ray jet. The southeast (SE) and northwest (NW) components of the circumnuclear gas are connected to molecular gas found at larger radii. This gas appears as two parallel filaments at P.A. = 120 deg., which are coextensive with the long sides of the 3 kpc parallelogram shape of the previously observed dust continuum, as well as ionized and pure rotational H2 lines. Spatial and kinematical asymmetries are apparent in both the circumnuclear and outer gas, suggesting noncoplanar and/or noncircular motions. We extend to inner radii (r12CO(2 - 1) observations show relevant deviations from this model: namely, the physical connection between the circumnuclear gas and that at larger radii, brighter SE and NW sides on the parallelogram-shaped feature, and an outer curvature of its long sides. Overall, it resembles more closely an S-shaped morphology, a trend that is also found in other molecular species. Hence, we qualitatively explore the possible contribution of a weak bi-symmetric potential which would naturally explain these peculiarities.

  3. Molecular Imaging Biomarkers of Resistance to Radiation Therapy for Spontaneous Nasal Tumors in Canines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradshaw, Tyler J. [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Bowen, Stephen R. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); Deveau, Michael A. [Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas (United States); Kubicek, Lyndsay [Angell Animal Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); White, Pamela [Department of Surgical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Bentzen, Søren M. [Division of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, University of Maryland Greenebaum Cancer Center, and Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Chappell, Richard J. [Department of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Forrest, Lisa J. [Department of Surgical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Jeraj, Robert, E-mail: rjeraj@wisc.edu [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Department of Human Oncology, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Imaging biomarkers of resistance to radiation therapy can inform and guide treatment management. Most studies have so far focused on assessing a single imaging biomarker. The goal of this study was to explore a number of different molecular imaging biomarkers as surrogates of resistance to radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Twenty-two canine patients with spontaneous sinonasal tumors were treated with accelerated hypofractionated radiation therapy, receiving either 10 fractions of 4.2 Gy each or 10 fractions of 5.0 Gy each to the gross tumor volume. Patients underwent fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-, fluorothymidine (FLT)-, and Cu(II)-diacetyl-bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) (Cu-ATSM)-labeled positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging before therapy and FLT and Cu-ATSM PET/CT imaging during therapy. In addition to conventional maximum and mean standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max}; SUV{sub mean}) measurements, imaging metrics providing response and spatiotemporal information were extracted for each patient. Progression-free survival was assessed according to response evaluation criteria in solid tumor. The prognostic value of each imaging biomarker was evaluated using univariable Cox proportional hazards regression. Multivariable analysis was also performed but was restricted to 2 predictor variables due to the limited number of patients. The best bivariable model was selected according to pseudo-R{sup 2}. Results: The following variables were significantly associated with poor clinical outcome following radiation therapy according to univariable analysis: tumor volume (P=.011), midtreatment FLT SUV{sub mean} (P=.018), and midtreatment FLT SUV{sub max} (P=.006). Large decreases in FLT SUV{sub mean} from pretreatment to midtreatment were associated with worse clinical outcome (P=.013). In the bivariable model, the best 2-variable combination for predicting poor outcome was high midtreatment FLT SUV{sub max} (P=.022) in

  4. Molecular Imaging Biomarkers of Resistance to Radiation Therapy for Spontaneous Nasal Tumors in Canines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Imaging biomarkers of resistance to radiation therapy can inform and guide treatment management. Most studies have so far focused on assessing a single imaging biomarker. The goal of this study was to explore a number of different molecular imaging biomarkers as surrogates of resistance to radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Twenty-two canine patients with spontaneous sinonasal tumors were treated with accelerated hypofractionated radiation therapy, receiving either 10 fractions of 4.2 Gy each or 10 fractions of 5.0 Gy each to the gross tumor volume. Patients underwent fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-, fluorothymidine (FLT)-, and Cu(II)-diacetyl-bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) (Cu-ATSM)-labeled positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging before therapy and FLT and Cu-ATSM PET/CT imaging during therapy. In addition to conventional maximum and mean standardized uptake values (SUVmax; SUVmean) measurements, imaging metrics providing response and spatiotemporal information were extracted for each patient. Progression-free survival was assessed according to response evaluation criteria in solid tumor. The prognostic value of each imaging biomarker was evaluated using univariable Cox proportional hazards regression. Multivariable analysis was also performed but was restricted to 2 predictor variables due to the limited number of patients. The best bivariable model was selected according to pseudo-R2. Results: The following variables were significantly associated with poor clinical outcome following radiation therapy according to univariable analysis: tumor volume (P=.011), midtreatment FLT SUVmean (P=.018), and midtreatment FLT SUVmax (P=.006). Large decreases in FLT SUVmean from pretreatment to midtreatment were associated with worse clinical outcome (P=.013). In the bivariable model, the best 2-variable combination for predicting poor outcome was high midtreatment FLT SUVmax (P=.022) in combination with large FLT response from

  5. Nanomedicine: Addressing Cardiovascular Disease and Cardiovascular Tissue Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botchwey, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is becoming an increasingly significant problem. In attempts to overcome many of the traditional hurdles of cardiovascular disease treatment, therapeutic approaches have been gradually moving beyond an exclusive focus on orally delivered drugs towards the development of nanoscale applications. These technologies exploit molecular scale events to improve drug and gene delivery applications, enhance preventative medicine and diagnostic strategies, and create biomimicking substrates for vascular tissue engineering. As nanoscale treatments enter the arena of clinical medicine, new ways of thinking about and routes for applying nanomedicine to cardiovascular health issues are emerging. With focuses on drug delivery, gene therapy, and biomimetics, this article will provide a comprehensive review of various nanomedicine applications for combating atherosclerosis and for improving upon current vascular tissue engineering designs.

  6. Usefulness of imaging techniques and novel biomarkers in the prediction of cardiovascular risk in patients with chronic kidney disease in Spain: The NEFRONA project

    OpenAIRE

    Junyent, Mireia; Martínez Alonso, Montserrat; Borràs, Mercè; Betriu i Bars, M. Àngels; Coll,Blai; Craver Hospital, Lourdes; Marco Mayayo, M. Paz; Sarró, Felipe; Valdivielso Revilla, José Manuel; Fernández i Giráldez, Elvira

    2010-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Cardiovascular risk assessment in this population is hampered by the failure of traditional risk factors to fully account for the elevated CVD risk, mainly due to the reverse epidemiology effect, and the presence of risk factors specifically related to uraemia. Hereby, we present the protocol of a prospective study aimed to assess the ...

  7. Biokinetics and dosimetry of target-specific radiopharmaceuticals for molecular imaging and therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferro F, G.; Torres G, E. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Gonzalez V, A. [UAEM, Facultad de Medicina, Toluca (Mexico); Murphy, C.A. de [INCMNSZ, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    Molecular imaging techniques directly or indirectly monitor and record the spatiotemporal distribution of molecular or cellular processes for biochemical, biologic, diagnostic or therapeutic applications. {sup 99m}Tc-HYNlC-TOC has shown high in vitro and in vivo stability, rapid background clearance and rapid detection of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors. Therapies using radiolabeled anti-CD20 have demonstrated their efficacy in patients with B-cell non Hodgkin's Iymphoma (NHL). The aim of this study was to establish biokinetic models for {sup 99m}Tc-HYNlC-TOC and {sup 188}Re-anti-CD20 prepared from Iyophilized kits, and to evaluate their dosimetry as target-specific radiopharmaceuticals. Whole-body images were acquired at different times after {sup 99m}Tc-HYNlC-TOC or {sup 188}Re-anti-CD20 administration obtained from instant freeze-dried kit formulations with radiochemical purities > 95 %. Regions of interest (ROls) were drawn around source organs on each time frame. The cpm of each ROI was converted to activity using the conjugate view counting method. Th