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Sample records for cardiovascular lifestyle change

  1. Lifestyle in Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.O. Younge (John)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Globally, the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still increasing. However, in recent decades, better treatment modalities have led to less cardiovascular related deaths. After years of research, we now generally accept that lifestyle factors are the most importa

  2. Lifestyle Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Lifestyle Changes for Heart Attack Prevention Updated:Jul 28, ... factors for heart disease , heart attack and stroke. Lifestyle Changes Stop smoking If you smoke, quit. If ...

  3. A systematic review of patient reported factors associated with uptake and completion of cardiovascular lifestyle behaviour change

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    Murray Jenni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthy lifestyles are an important facet of cardiovascular risk management. Unfortunately many individuals fail to engage with lifestyle change programmes. There are many factors that patients report as influencing their decisions about initiating lifestyle change. This is challenging for health care professionals who may lack the skills and time to address a broad range of barriers to lifestyle behaviour. Guidance on which factors to focus on during lifestyle consultations may assist healthcare professionals to hone their skills and knowledge leading to more productive patient interactions with ultimately better uptake of lifestyle behaviour change support. The aim of our study was to clarify which influences reported by patients predict uptake and completion of formal lifestyle change programmes. Methods A systematic narrative review of quantitative observational studies reporting factors (influences associated with uptake and completion of lifestyle behaviour change programmes. Quantitative observational studies involving patients at high risk of cardiovascular events were identified through electronic searching and screened against pre-defined selection criteria. Factors were extracted and organised into an existing qualitative framework. Results 374 factors were extracted from 32 studies. Factors most consistently associated with uptake of lifestyle change related to support from family and friends, transport and other costs, and beliefs about the causes of illness and lifestyle change. Depression and anxiety also appear to influence uptake as well as completion. Many factors show inconsistent patterns with respect to uptake and completion of lifestyle change programmes. Conclusion There are a small number of factors that consistently appear to influence uptake and completion of cardiovascular lifestyle behaviour change. These factors could be considered during patient consultations to promote a tailored approach to

  4. Lifestyle Changes in Young Adulthood and Middle Age and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and All-Cause Mortality : The Doetinchem Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hulsegge, Gerben; Looman, Moniek; Smit, Henriëtte A.; Daviglus, Martha L; Van Der Schouw, Yvonne T; Verschuren, W.M. Monique

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The associations between overall lifestyle profile and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and death have been mainly investigated in cross-sectional studies. The full benefits of a healthy lifestyle may therefore be underestimated, and the magnitude of benefits associated with changes in lifestyle remains unclear. We quantified the association of changes in lifestyle profiles over 5 years with risk of CVD and all-cause mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: Lifestyle factors (ie, diet, physica...

  5. Preventing a Cardiovascular Disease Epidemic among Indigenous Populations through Lifestyle Changes

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    Lee Stoner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the driving force behind the discrepancy in life expectancy between indigenous and non-indigenous groups in many countries. Preceding CVD many indigenous groups exhibit a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, including overweight-obesity, diabetes, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure. In turn, modifiable lifestyle risk factors contribute to the development of this cluster of cardiometabolic conditions. Modifiable lifestyle risk factors include, but are not limited to, physical inactivity, poor nutrition, excessive alcohol consumption, and cigarette smoking. Notably, these metabolic and lifestyle risk factors are relatively simple to monitor and track. The current review will look at modifiable cardiometabolic (overweight-obesity, diabetes mellitus, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure and lifestyle (physical inactivity, poor nutrition, risky alcohol behavior, and cigarette smoking risk factors among indigenous populations from Australia (Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders, New Zealand (Mβori and the United States (Native Americans. Discussion will focus on the causal relationship between modifiable lifestyle risk factors and cardiometabolic outcomes, as well as, simple measurements for tracking these risk factors.

  6. Body & Lifestyle Changes

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    ... Close X Home > Pregnancy > Body & lifestyle changes Body & lifestyle changes E-mail to a friend Please fill ... between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Body & lifestyle changes Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care ...

  7. Lifestyle Changes in Young Adulthood and Middle Age and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and All-Cause Mortality : The Doetinchem Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsegge, Gerben; Looman, Moniek; Smit, Henriëtte A; Daviglus, Martha L; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Verschuren, W M Monique

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The associations between overall lifestyle profile and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and death have been mainly investigated in cross-sectional studies. The full benefits of a healthy lifestyle may therefore be underestimated, and the magnitude of benefits associated with changes in lifes

  8. Lifestyle Changes and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Lifestyle Changes and Cholesterol Updated:Oct 26,2015 As ... disease and stroke, your doctor may suggest some lifestyle changes. Regardless of whether your plan includes drug ...

  9. Lifestyle factors and risk of cardiovascular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoevenaar-Blom, M.P.

    2013-01-01

     Background Evidence is accumulating that lifestyle factors influence the incidence of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular diseases (CVD). A healthy diet, being physically active, moderate alcohol consumption and not smoking are associated with a lower CVD risk. In addition to

  10. Lifestyle Medicine-Related Cardiovascular Risk Factor Changes in Employees Participating in a Pharmacist-Run Risk Reduction Program

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    Yongyue Qi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD remains the leading cause of death among American adults accounting for approximately one-third of all deaths. It has been shown, however, that the actual causes of death are related to lifestyle behaviors such as tobacco use, poor diet and physical activity and alcohol consumption. A pharmacist-run employee health program, started in 2008, sought to lower CVD risk through the use of individualized lifestyle behavior programming, medication therapy management, and care coordination activities. Following one year of participation in the program, employee participants were shown to significantly increase exercise quantity (p < 0.001, fruit and vegetable consumption (p < 0.001, and decrease self-reported stress level (p = 0.006. The percentage of program participants simultaneously adherent to the recommended levels of exercise, combined fruit and vegetable intake and tobacco abstinence at one-year was 34.5% vs. 5.5% at baseline. This compares with only 5.1% of the U.S. population adherent to the same three behaviors. Pharmacists can positively impact healthy lifestyle behaviors when working in an employee health setting.

  11. Lifestyle dominates cardiovascular risks in Malaysia

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    Khalib A. Latiff

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular problem is one of the leading cause of death in Malaysia and now invaded to the sub-urban and rural areas. To prevent and control of this problem, several main risk factors needed to be known and shall be reexamined and ranked according to the priority. The objectives of this research paper was to identify several dominant risk factor related to cardiovascular problem. A cross sectional study was carried out from March 2000 – June 2001 on a total of 8159 rural population aged 18 and above to measure the prevalence of the common cardiovascular risk factors. Those risk factors are systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, serum cholesterol level, obesity index, blood glucose level, smoking, physical activity and mental stress. Overall prevalence of common cardiovascular risk factors were higher, dominated by physical inactivity (65.7%, hypercholesterolemia – TC:HC (62.3%, mental stress (55.5% and obesity (53.7%. Smoking was also high at 49.9% especially among men. However systolic hypertension, diastolic hypertension and diabetes mellitus; although increased by age, its prevalence is relatively low at 23.7%, 19.2%, and 6.3% respectively. Cardiovascular risk factors related to lifestyle are much evidenced as compared to risk factors related to the biological influence. Therefore, all initiatives in community health intervention should be mobilized specifically on prevention and control of lifestyle-related risk factors. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 50-6Keywords: cardiovascular problem, community intervention, lifestyle-linked risk factors

  12. Cardiovascular prevention: lifestyle and statins--competitors or companions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opie, L H; Dalby, A J

    2014-03-01

    Favourable lifestyles promote cardiovascular protection. Exercise can induce beneficial changes in the genome that decrease low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and increase anti-inflammatory markers. The Mediterranean dietary pattern, fortified by nuts, while not reducing weight, reduces mortality. Lifestyle changes combined with statin therapy provide potent protection against coronary heart disease, especially when used for secondary prevention after cardiovascular events. Decisions regarding the initiation of statin therapy for primary prevention are more difficult, requiring consideration of both the LDL-C level and the degree of cardiovascular risk for dyslipidaemic patients. Combining intensive exercise and statin therapy substantially reduces the mortality risk, and thus is potentially the ideal risk-reducing combination.

  13. Lifestyle Changes for Heart Failure

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    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Lifestyle Changes for Heart Failure Updated:May 4,2016 ... so it becomes a regular part of your lifestyle. Managing stress Take 15 to 20 minutes a ...

  14. Cardiovascular effects of intensive lifestyle intervention in type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weight loss is recommended for overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes on the basis of short-term studies, but long-term effects on cardiovascular disease remain unknown. We examined whether an intensive lifestyle intervention for weight loss would decrease cardiovascular morbidity and mor...

  15. Qatari women living with cardiovascular diseases-challenges and opportunities to engage in healthy lifestyles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Tam Truong; Al Suwaidi, Jassim; Al Enazi, Noora Rashid; Idris, Zeinab; Albulushi, Asma Mohammad; Yassin, Khadra; Rehman, Asma Mohammad; Hassan, Asma Hassan Abu

    2012-01-01

    In Qatar, cardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Cardiovascular diseases can be prevented and controlled by modifying lifestyle risk behaviors. In this qualitative study, we investigate ways to increase participation in physical activity, and to promote a healthy diet, and nonsmoking behavior in Qatari women. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 50 Arabic women. Participation in physical activity, observing a healthy diet, and abstinence from smoking are desirable lifestyle practices among Qatari women. Social support networks, cultural values, religion, changing sociodemographic and economic conditions, heart disease, and a harsh climate affect the ability of these women to pursue a healthy lifestyle. PMID:23153347

  16. The CHANGE trial: no superiority of lifestyle coaching plus care coordination plus treatment as usual compared to treatment as usual alone in reducing risk of cardiovascular disease in adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and abdominal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speyer, Helene; Christian Brix Nørgaard, Hans; Birk, Merete; Karlsen, Mette; Storch Jakobsen, Ane; Pedersen, Kamilla; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Pisinger, Charlotta; Gluud, Christian; Mors, Ole; Krogh, Jesper; Nordentoft, Merete

    2016-06-01

    Life expectancy in patients with schizophrenia is reduced by 20 years for men and 15 years for women compared to the general population. About 60% of the excess mortality is due to physical illnesses, with cardiovascular disease being dominant. CHANGE was a randomized, parallel-group, superiority, multi-centre trial with blinded outcome assessment, testing the efficacy of an intervention aimed to improve cardiovascular risk profile and hereby potentially reduce mortality. A total of 428 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and abdominal obesity were recruited and centrally randomized 1:1:1 to 12 months of lifestyle coaching plus care coordination plus treatment as usual (N=138), or care coordination plus treatment as usual (N=142), or treatment as usual alone (N=148). The primary outcome was 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease assessed post-treatment and standardized to age 60. At follow-up, the mean 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease was 8.4 ± 6.7% in the group receiving lifestyle coaching, 8.5 ± 7.5% in the care coordination group, and 8.0 ± 6.5% in the treatment as usual group (p=0.41). We found no intervention effects for any secondary or exploratory outcomes, including cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity, weight, diet and smoking. In conclusion, the CHANGE trial did not support superiority of individual lifestyle coaching or care coordination compared to treatment as usual in reducing cardiovascular risk in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and abdominal obesity.

  17. The CHANGE trial: no superiority of lifestyle coaching plus care coordination plus treatment as usual compared to treatment as usual alone in reducing risk of cardiovascular disease in adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and abdominal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speyer, Helene; Christian Brix Nørgaard, Hans; Birk, Merete; Karlsen, Mette; Storch Jakobsen, Ane; Pedersen, Kamilla; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Pisinger, Charlotta; Gluud, Christian; Mors, Ole; Krogh, Jesper; Nordentoft, Merete

    2016-06-01

    Life expectancy in patients with schizophrenia is reduced by 20 years for men and 15 years for women compared to the general population. About 60% of the excess mortality is due to physical illnesses, with cardiovascular disease being dominant. CHANGE was a randomized, parallel-group, superiority, multi-centre trial with blinded outcome assessment, testing the efficacy of an intervention aimed to improve cardiovascular risk profile and hereby potentially reduce mortality. A total of 428 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and abdominal obesity were recruited and centrally randomized 1:1:1 to 12 months of lifestyle coaching plus care coordination plus treatment as usual (N=138), or care coordination plus treatment as usual (N=142), or treatment as usual alone (N=148). The primary outcome was 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease assessed post-treatment and standardized to age 60. At follow-up, the mean 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease was 8.4 ± 6.7% in the group receiving lifestyle coaching, 8.5 ± 7.5% in the care coordination group, and 8.0 ± 6.5% in the treatment as usual group (p=0.41). We found no intervention effects for any secondary or exploratory outcomes, including cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity, weight, diet and smoking. In conclusion, the CHANGE trial did not support superiority of individual lifestyle coaching or care coordination compared to treatment as usual in reducing cardiovascular risk in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and abdominal obesity. PMID:27265706

  18. The CHANGE trial: no superiority of lifestyle coaching plus care coordination plus treatment as usual compared to treatment as usual alone in reducing risk of cardiovascular disease in adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and abdominal obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speyer, Helene; Christian Brix Nørgaard, Hans; Birk, Merete; Karlsen, Mette; Storch Jakobsen, Ane; Pedersen, Kamilla; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Pisinger, Charlotta; Gluud, Christian; Mors, Ole; Krogh, Jesper; Nordentoft, Merete

    2016-01-01

    Life expectancy in patients with schizophrenia is reduced by 20 years for men and 15 years for women compared to the general population. About 60% of the excess mortality is due to physical illnesses, with cardiovascular disease being dominant. CHANGE was a randomized, parallel‐group, superiority, multi‐centre trial with blinded outcome assessment, testing the efficacy of an intervention aimed to improve cardiovascular risk profile and hereby potentially reduce mortality. A total of 428 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and abdominal obesity were recruited and centrally randomized 1:1:1 to 12 months of lifestyle coaching plus care coordination plus treatment as usual (N=138), or care coordination plus treatment as usual (N=142), or treatment as usual alone (N=148). The primary outcome was 10‐year risk of cardiovascular disease assessed post‐treatment and standardized to age 60. At follow‐up, the mean 10‐year risk of cardiovascular disease was 8.4 ± 6.7% in the group receiving lifestyle coaching, 8.5 ± 7.5% in the care coordination group, and 8.0 ± 6.5% in the treatment as usual group (p=0.41). We found no intervention effects for any secondary or exploratory outcomes, including cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity, weight, diet and smoking. In conclusion, the CHANGE trial did not support superiority of individual lifestyle coaching or care coordination compared to treatment as usual in reducing cardiovascular risk in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and abdominal obesity. PMID:27265706

  19. Lifestyle Changes After Laryngeal or Hypopharyngeal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... laryngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer affect your emotional health? Lifestyle changes after laryngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer You can’ ... people want to know if there are specific lifestyle changes they can make to reduce their risk ...

  20. Improving patient adherence to lifestyle advice (IMPALA): a cluster-randomised controlled trial on the implementation of a nurse-led intervention for cardiovascular risk management in primary care (protocol).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, M.S. Koelewijn-van; Steenkiste, B. van; Ronda, G.; Wensing, M.J.P.; Stoffers, H.E.; Elwyn, G.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Weijden, T.T. van der

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many patients at high risk of cardiovascular diseases are managed and monitored in general practice. Recommendations for cardiovascular risk management, including lifestyle change, are clearly described in the Dutch national guideline. Although lifestyle interventions, such as advice on

  1. Gene expression profiling during intensive cardiovascular lifestyle modification: Relationships with vascular function and weight loss

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    Heather L. Blackburn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Heart disease and related sequelae are a leading cause of death and healthcare expenditure throughout the world. Although many patients opt for surgical interventions, lifestyle modification programs focusing on nutrition and exercise have shown substantial health benefits and are becoming increasing popular. We conducted a year-long lifestyle modification program to mediate cardiovascular risk through traditional risk factors and to investigate how molecular changes, if present, may contribute to long-term risk reduction. Here we describe the lifestyle intervention, including clinical and molecular data collected, and provide details of the experimental methods and quality control parameters for the gene expression data generated from participants and non-intervention controls. Our findings suggest successful and sustained modulation of gene expression through healthy lifestyle changes may have beneficial effects on vascular health that cannot be discerned from traditional risk factor profiles. The data are deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus, series GSE46097 and GSE66175.

  2. A retrospective cohort study on lifestyle habits of cardiovascular patients: how informative are medical records?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Fouwels; S.J.H. Bredie; H. Wollersheim; G.M. Schippers

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: To evaluate the vigilance of medical specialists as to the lifestyle of their cardiovascular outpatients by comparing lifestyle screening as registered in medical records versus a lifestyle questionnaire (LSQ), a study was carried out at the cardiovascular outpatient clinic of

  3. A retrospective cohort study on lifestyle habits of cardiovascular patients: how informative are medical records?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fouwels, A.J.; Bredie, S.J.H.; Wollersheim, H.C.H.; Schippers, G.M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To evaluate the vigilance of medical specialists as to the lifestyle of their cardiovascular outpatients by comparing lifestyle screening as registered in medical records versus a lifestyle questionnaire (LSQ), a study was carried out at the cardiovascular outpatient clinic of the univer

  4. Quantifying Socioeconomic and Lifestyle Related Health Risks: Burden of Cardiovascular Disease Among Indian Males

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    Neetu Purohit

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-communicable diseases account for a significant disease burden in the South East Asia region. India is facing an increased incidence of lifestyle-related diseases, such as cardiovascular disease. Socioeconomic and lifestyle risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD have been under investigated in India. This study was designed to explore risk factors contributing to the development of cardiovascular disease among Indian males.Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 2,235 males in the age group of 18-60 years across three states of India. A household survey was used to collect demographic and socioeconomic status information in addition to lifestyle-related attributes such as smoking, alcohol consumption, diet, and physical activity. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were performed to identify the role of various factors that may be associated with the development of cardiovascular disease in this population.Results: The prevalence of cardiovascular disease among the male respondents contacted through a household survey was reported to be 9.8%. Logistic regression revealed that males with higher education and higher income were more likely to report CVD. With age as a strong predictor of CVD, the risk of CVD was found to be five times higher in the older age group. Current smokers were 1.3 times more likely to have CVD compared to those who never smoked. Those who were engaged in physical activity were less likely to have CVD; however, the adverse effects of smoking and excessive consumption of red meat showed a stronger association with CVD than the protective effects of physical activity.Conclusion: In developing countries, where the increase in earning capacity and change in lifestyle has been found to be accompanied by substantial risk of heart disease for males, public health measures like health promotion programs need to be implemented to decrease CVD burden.

  5. Lifestyle change as therapy for obesity

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    Adrian Vlad

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Lifestyle change (comprising adequate diet, physical activity, and behavior therapy represents the cornerstone of obesitytherapy. Dietary intervention consists primarily in reducing the energy content of the diet and secondarily in altering the relativemacronutrient composition. It is recommended to ingest low-calorie diets rather than very-low-calorie diets, because they aresafer and better accepted and provide at least similar long-term results. Low-fat diets have traditionally been prescribed forweight loss, because they facilitate energy restriction. Low-carbohydrate diets are helpful because they favor energy restriction,as well. Physical activity has favorable effects in obese patients: it prevents the decline in resting energy expenditure thataccompanies diet-induced weight loss, reduces the amount of free-fat mass lost, decreases the risk of developing type 2diabetes mellitus and of dying from cardiovascular disease, increases the rate of weight loss, and helps maintaining the resultson long term. Behavior therapy aims at altering eating and activity habits that promote obesity. It usually involves multiplestrategies, including stimulus control, self-monitoring, problem solving skills, cognitive restructuring, social support, andrelapse prevention. Many obese persons can achieve short-term weight loss by dieting alone. However, successful log-termresults are much more difficult to obtain and require a more complex strategy, including physical activity and behavior therapy.

  6. Primary prevention of diabetes mellitus type 2 and cardiovascular diseases using a cognitive behavior program aimed at lifestyle changes in people at risk: Design of a randomized controlled trial

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    Chinapaw Marijke J

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of people with cardiovascular disease (CVD and diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM is growing rapidly. To a large extend, this increase is due to lifestyle-dependent risk factors, such as overweight, reduced physical activity, and an unhealthy diet. Changing these risk factors has the potential to postpone or prevent the development of T2DM and CVD. It is hypothesized that a cognitive behavioral program (CBP, focused in particular on motivation and self-management in persons who are at high risk for CVD and/or T2DM, will improve their lifestyle behavior and, as a result, will reduce their risk of developing T2DM and CVD. Methods 12,000 inhabitants, 30-50 years of age living in several municipalities in the semi-rural region of West-Friesland will receive an invitation from their general practitioner (n = 13 to measure their own waist circumference with a tape measure. People with abdominal obesity (male waist ≥ 102 cm, female waist ≥ 88 cm will be invited to participate in the second step of the screening which includes blood pressure, a blood sample and anthropometric measurements. T2DM and CVD risk scores will then be calculated according to the ARIC and the SCORE formulae, respectively. People with a score that indicates a high risk of developing T2DM and/or CVD will then be randomly assigned to the intervention group (n = 300 or the control group (n = 300. Participants in the intervention group will follow a CBP aimed at modifying their dietary behavior, physical activity, and smoking behavior. The counseling methods that will be used are motivational interviewing (MI and problem solving treatment (PST, which focus in particular on intrinsic motivation for change and self-management of problems of the participants. The CBP will be provided by trained nurse practitioners in the participant's general practice, and will consists of a maximum of six individual sessions of 30 minutes, followed by 3-monthly booster

  7. Obesity-related inflammation & cardiovascular disease: Efficacy of a yoga-based lifestyle intervention

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    Kumar Sarvottam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a global health burden and its prevalence is increasing substantially due to changing lifestyle. Chronic adiposity is associated with metabolic imbalance leading to dyslipidaemia, diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases (CVD. Adipose tissue acts as an endocrine organ releasing several adipocytokines, and is associated with increased levels of tissue and circulating inflammatory biomolecules causing vascular inflammation and atherogenesis. Further, inflammation is also associated independently with obesity as well as CVD. Keeping this in view, it is possible that a reduction in weight may lead to a decrease in inflammation, resulting in CVD risk reduction, and better management of patients with CVD. Lifestyle intervention has been endorsed by several health authorities in prevention and management of chronic diseases. A yoga-based lifestyle intervention appears to be a promising option in reducing the risk for CVD as well as management of patients with CVD as it is simple to follow and cost-effective with high compliance. The efficacy of such lifestyle intervention programmes is multifaceted, and is achieved via reduction in weight, obesity-related inflammation and stress, thereby culminating into risk reduction towards several chronic diseases including CVD. In this review, the association between obesity-related inflammation and CVD, and the role of yoga-based lifestyle intervention in prevention and management of CVD are discussed.

  8. Barriers to lifestyle behavioral change in migrant South Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mihir; Phillips-Caesar, Erica; Boutin-Foster, Carla

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to describe and assess the cultural barriers to behavior change in migrant South Asians, given the high morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease in this population. We reviewed studies that explored the relationship between South Asian culture in the Diaspora and lifestyle behaviors. Our review produced 91 studies, of which 25 discussed the relationship between various aspects of South Asians' belief system and their approach to modifying lifestyle habits. We identify 6 specific categories of beliefs which play the largest role in the difficulties South Asians describe with behavior change: gender roles, body image, physical activity misconceptions, cultural priorities, cultural identity, and explanatory model of disease. Future research and interventions should account for these cultural factors to successfully improve dietary habits and physical activity levels in migrant South Asian populations.

  9. Lifestyle modifies obesity-associated risk of cardiovascular disease in a genetically homogeneous population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marit E; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The association between obesity and cardiovascular disease risk differs across populations. Whether such differences in obesity-related risk factors exist within population groups of the same genetic origin but with differences in lifestyle remains to be determined. OBJECTIVE: The aim...... groups of Inuit living in Greenland and Inuit migrants living in Denmark. The findings indicate that lifestyle factors modify the cardiovascular disease risk associated with obesity.......BACKGROUND: The association between obesity and cardiovascular disease risk differs across populations. Whether such differences in obesity-related risk factors exist within population groups of the same genetic origin but with differences in lifestyle remains to be determined. OBJECTIVE: The aim...... was to analyze whether obesity was associated with the same degree of metabolic disturbances in 2 groups of genetically homogeneous Inuit who were exposed to considerable differences in lifestyle. DESIGN: We studied obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in a cross-sectional population survey of 2311...

  10. The effect of a comprehensive lifestyle intervention on cardiovascular risk factors in pharmacologically treated patients with stable cardiovascular disease compared to usual care: a randomised controlled trial

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    IJzelenberg Wilhelmina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The additional benefit of lifestyle interventions in patients receiving cardioprotective drug treatment to improve cardiovascular risk profile is not fully established. The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of a target-driven multidisciplinary structured lifestyle intervention programme of 6 months duration aimed at maximum reduction of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD compared with usual care. Methods A single centre, two arm, parallel group randomised controlled trial was performed. Patients with stable established CVD and at least one lifestyle-related risk factor were recruited from the vascular and cardiology outpatient departments of the university hospital. Blocked randomisation was used to allocate patients to the intervention (n = 71 or control group (n = 75 using an on-site computer system combined with allocations in computer-generated tables of random numbers kept in a locked computer file. The intervention group received the comprehensive lifestyle intervention offered in a specialised outpatient clinic in addition to usual care. The control group continued to receive usual care. Outcome measures were the lifestyle-related cardiovascular risk factors: smoking, physical activity, physical fitness, diet, blood pressure, plasma total/HDL/LDL cholesterol concentrations, BMI, waist circumference, and changes in medication. Results The intervention led to increased physical activity/fitness levels and an improved cardiovascular risk factor profile (reduced BMI and waist circumference. In this setting, cardiovascular risk management for blood pressure and lipid levels by prophylactic treatment for CVD in usual care was already close to optimal as reflected in baseline levels. There was no significant improvement in any other risk factor. Conclusions Even in CVD patients receiving good clinical care and using cardioprotective drug treatment, a comprehensive

  11. Lifestyle changes for prevention of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hashemi, Seyed Hesam Bani; Karimi, Samieh; Mahboobi, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cause of death from cancer among women. Lifestyle changes are shown to be important in the prevention of breast cancer. Diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol use, and vitamin and mineral use are key factors influencing the risk of breast cancer among women. Because these factors are related to each other, it is difficult to assess their individual roles in breast cancer. Some of these factors are alterable, meaning that women can decrease their risk...

  12. IIASA's Population Project: Aging and Changing Lifestyles

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, A

    1982-01-01

    Low fertility levels in IIASA countries are creating aging populations whose demands for health care and income maintenance (social security) will increase to unprecedented levels, thereby calling forth policies that will seek to promote increased family care and worklife flexibility. The Population Project will examine current patterns of population aging and changing lifestyles in IIASA countries, project the needs for health and income support that such patterns are likely to generate duri...

  13. The Role of Healthy Lifestyle in the Primordial Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claas, Steven A; Arnett, Donna K

    2016-06-01

    Whereas primary prevention seeks to forestall development of disease in individuals with elevated risk, primordial prevention seeks to preempt the development of risk factors. Health behaviors-characterized as "lifestyle" factors-are key interventional targets in primordial prevention of cardiovascular disease. Appropriate dietary intake, including limiting salt and saturated fat consumption, can reduce the risk of developing hypertension and dyslipidemias. Regular physical activity is associated with lower blood pressure and healthier lipid profiles. Diet and exercise are critical to maintaining weight conducive to cardiovascular health. Behavioral factors such as stress management, sleep duration, portion control, and meal timing may play a role in weight management and offer additional routes of intervention. Any smoking elevates cardiovascular risk. Although lifestyle modification programs can be instrumental in reaching public health goals, maintaining cardiovascular health should not be a matter solely of willpower. Ideally, structural and social forces should make healthy lifestyles the default option. PMID:27142061

  14. Changes in lifestyle and total homocysteine in relation to MTHFR (C677T) genotype: the Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husemoen, LL; Thomsen, TF; Fenger, M;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reduction in total homocysteine (tHcy) may be clinically relevant in the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of changes in various lifestyle habits and lifestyle related biological CVD risk markers on changes in t...

  15. Clustering of Multiple Lifestyle Behaviours and Its Association to Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bel-Serrat, Silvia; Mouratidou, Theodora; Santaliestra-Pasías, Alba María;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Individual lifestyle behaviours have independently been associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk factors in children. This study aimed to identify clustered lifestyle behaviours (dietary, physical activity (PA) and sedentary indicators) and to examine...... ratio, triglycerides, sum of two skinfolds and systolic blood pressure (SBP) z-scores were summed to compute a CVD risk score. Cluster analyses stratified by sex and age groups (2 to

  16. Education to a Healthy Lifestyle Improves Symptoms and Cardiovascular Risk Factors – AsuRiesgo Study

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    Graciela Chaves

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular diseases are the current leading causes of death and disability globally. Objective: To assess the effects of a basic educational program for cardiovascular prevention in an unselected outpatient population. Methods: All participants received an educational program to change to a healthy lifestyle. Assessments were conducted at study enrollment and during follow-up. Symptoms, habits, ATP III parameters for metabolic syndrome, and American Heart Association’s 2020 parameters of cardiovascular health were assessed. Results: A total of 15,073 participants aged ≥ 18 years entered the study. Data analysis was conducted in 3,009 patients who completed a second assessment. An improvement in weight (from 76.6 ± 15.3 to 76.4 ± 15.3 kg, p = 0.002, dyspnea on exertion NYHA grade II (from 23.4% to 21.0% and grade III (from 15.8% to 14.0% and a decrease in the proportion of current active smokers (from 3.6% to 2.9%, p = 0.002 could be documented. The proportion of patients with levels of triglycerides > 150 mg/dL (from 46.3% to 42.4%, p 100 mg/dL (from 69.3% to 65.5%, p < 0.001 improved. A ≥ 20% improvement of AHA 2020 metrics at the level graded as poor was found for smoking (-21.1%, diet (-29.8%, and cholesterol level (-23.6%. A large dropout as a surrogate indicator for low patient adherence was documented throughout the first 5 visits, 80% between the first and second assessments, 55.6% between the second and third assessments, 43.6% between the third and fourth assessments, and 38% between the fourth and fifth assessments. Conclusion: A simple, basic educational program may improve symptoms and modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, but shows low patient adherence.

  17. Lifestyle changes in the management of adulthood and childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orio, Francesco; Tafuri, Domenico; Ascione, Antonio; Marciano, Francesca; Savastano, Silvia; Colarieti, Giorgio; Orio, Marcello; Colao, Annamaria; Palomba, Stefano; Muscogiuri, Giovanna

    2016-12-01

    Adulthood and childhood obesity is rapidly becoming an epidemic problem and it has a short and long-term impact on health. Short-term consequences are mostly represented by psychological effects; in fact obese children have more chances to develop psychological or psychiatric problems than non-obese children. The main long-term effect is represented by the fact that childhood obesity continues into adulthood obesity and this results in negative effects in young adult life, since obesity increases the risk to develop morbidity and premature mortality. The obesity-related diseases are mostly represented by hypertension, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular diseases. Medical treatment should be discouraged in childhood because of the side effects and it should be only reserved for obese children with related medical complications. Lifestyle changes should be encouraged in both adulthood and childhood obesity. This review focuses on the management of obesity both in adulthood and in childhood, paying particular attention to lifestyle changes that should be recommended. PMID:27600645

  18. The South Asian Heart Lifestyle Intervention (SAHELI) study to improve cardiovascular risk factors in a community setting: design and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandula, Namratha R; Patel, Yasin; Dave, Swapna; Seguil, Paola; Kumar, Santosh; Baker, David W; Spring, Bonnie; Siddique, Juned

    2013-11-01

    Disseminating and implementing evidence-based, cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention lifestyle interventions in community settings and in ethnic minority populations is a challenge. We describe the design and methods for the South Asian Heart Lifestyle Intervention (SAHELI) study, a pilot study designed to determine the feasibility and initial efficacy of a culturally-targeted, community-based lifestyle intervention to improve physical activity and diet behaviors among medically underserved South Asians (SAs). Participants with at least one CVD risk factor will be randomized to either a lifestyle intervention or a control group. Participants in both groups will be screened in a community setting and receive a primary care referral after randomization. Intervention participants will receive 6weeks of group classes, followed by 12weeks of individual telephone support where they will be encouraged to initiate and maintain a healthy lifestyle goal. Control participants will receive their screening results and monthly mailings on CVD prevention. Primary outcomes will be changes in moderate/vigorous physical activity and saturated fat intake between baseline, 3-, and 6-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes will be changes in weight, clinical risk factors, primary care visits, self-efficacy, and social support. This study will be one of the first to pilot-test a lifestyle intervention for SAs, one of the fastest growing racial/ethnic groups in the U.S. and one with disparate CVD risk. Results of this pilot study will provide preliminary data about the efficacy of a lifestyle intervention on CVD risk in SAs and inform community-engaged CVD prevention efforts in an increasingly diverse U.S. population.

  19. How can consumers be empowered for sustainable lifestyle changes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    Consumers can be empowered for changing lifestyles by reducing some of their individual limitations, but it is also important to reduce some of the external constraints that make changes towards a more sustainable lifestyle difficult. In terms of reducing consumers' subjectively felt restrictions...... on their ability to change lifestyle, the two approaches are equivalent. Policy that increases a feeling of empowerment may also have a positive effect on consumers' motivation to make an effort, thus amplifying its effects. In this paper I discuss both types of constraints on lifestyle changes in a...

  20. Lifestyle Risk Factors and Cardiovascular Disease in Cubans and Cuban Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa S. Burroughs Peña

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in Cuba. Lifestyle risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD in Cubans have not been compared to risk factors in Cuban Americans. Articles spanning the last 20 years were reviewed. The data on Cuban Americans are largely based on the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES, 1982–1984, while more recent data on epidemiological trends in Cuba are available. The prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus remains greater in Cuban Americans than in Cubans. However, dietary preferences, low physical activity, and tobacco use are contributing to the rising rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and CHD in Cuba, putting Cubans at increased cardiovascular risk. Comprehensive national strategies for cardiovascular prevention that address these modifiable lifestyle risk factors are necessary to address the increasing threat to public health in Cuba.

  1. Stage of Change and Motivation to a Healthier Lifestyle before and after an Intensive Lifestyle Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Buratta Livia; Reginato Elisa; Ranucci Claudia; Pippi Roberto; Aiello Cristina; Sbroma Tomaro Emilia; Perrone Chiara; Tirimagni Alberto; Russo Angelo; De Feo Pierpaolo; Mazzeschi Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Lifestyle modification programs are different but typically include both nutritional aspects and physical activity as main domains with different behavioral and/or psychological strategies designed to affect change. A fundamental role in modifying unhealthy habits is played by personal motivation for change. The present study sought to investigate, in a group of 100 overweight/obese outpatients with and/or without TMD2, treatment seeking, the effect of an intensive lifestyle progra...

  2. Let's Talk about Lifestyle Changes to Prevent Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevention let’s talk about Lifestyle Changes To Prevent Stroke You can do plenty to make your heart and blood vessels healthy, even if you’ve had a stroke. A healthy lifestyle plays a big part in decreasing your risk ...

  3. Changes in Healthy Childhood Lifestyle Behaviors in Japanese Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Takahiro; Kasuga, Kosho; Murase, Tomohiko; Suzuki, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Background: Unhealthy lifestyles during childhood constitute a public health problem in Japan. However, current health education in Japan is ineffective in counteracting them. Previous studies contend that healthy lifestyles in children vary by academic grade and sex. This study examined changes throughout childhood suggests some intervention…

  4. Cardiovascular risk profile and lifestyle habits in a cohort of Italian cardiologists (from the SOCRATES Survey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temporelli, Pier Luigi; Zito, Giovanni; Faggiano, Pompilio

    2013-07-15

    Cardiologists' cardiovascular profile and lifestyle habits are poorly known worldwide. To offer a snapshot of the personal health habits of Italian cardiologists, the Survey on Cardiac Risk Profile and Lifestyle Habits in a Cohort of Italian Cardiologists (SOCRATES) was undertaken. A Web-based electronic self-reported survey, accessible through a dedicated Web site, was used for data entry, and data were transferred through the Web to a central database. The survey was divided into 4 sections: baseline characteristics, medical illnesses and traditional cardiovascular risk factors, lifestyle habits, and selected medication use. The e-mail databases of 3 national scientific societies were used to survey a large and representative sample of Italian cardiologists. During the 3-month period of the survey, 1,770 of the 5,240 cardiologists contacted (33.7%) completed and returned ≥1 sections of the questionnaire. More than 49% of the participants had 1 of the 5 classic risk factors (hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, active smoking, diabetes, and previous vascular events). More than 28% of respondents had 2 to 5 risk factors, and only 22.1% had none and therefore, according to age and gender, could be considered at low to intermediate risk. Despite the reported risk factors, >90% of cardiologists had a self-reported risk perception quantified as mild, such as low or intermediate. Furthermore, overweight and obesity, physical inactivity, and stress at work or at home were commonly reported, as well as limited use of cardiovascular drugs, such as statins or aspirin. In conclusion, the average cardiovascular profile of Italian cardiologist is unlikely to be considered ideal or even favorable according to recent statements and guidelines regarding cardiovascular risk.

  5. Sociocultural Tailoring of a Healthy Lifestyle Intervention to Reduce Cardiovascular Disease and Type 2 Diabetes Risk Among Latinos

    OpenAIRE

    Mudd-Martin, Gia; Martinez, Maria C.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Gokun, Yevgeniya; Meininger, Janet C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Suboptimal lifestyle factors in combination with genetic susceptibility contribute to cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes risk among Latinos. We describe a community–academic collaboration that developed and explored the feasibility of implementing a socioculturally tailored, healthy lifestyle intervention integrating genomics and family history education to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes among Latinos. Community Context The community-based partici...

  6. Healthy Lifestyle Factors and Risk of Cardiovascular Events and Mortality in Treatment-Resistant Hypertension: The Regards Study

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz, Keith M; Booth, John N.; Calhoun, David A.; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Howard, George; Safford, Monika M.; Muntner, Paul; Shimbo, Daichi

    2014-01-01

    Few data exist regarding whether healthy lifestyle factors are associated with better prognosis among individuals with apparent treatment-resistant hypertension, a high-risk phenotype of hypertension. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of healthy lifestyle factors with cardiovascular events, all-cause mortality, and cardiovascular mortality among individuals with apparent treatment-resistant hypertension. We studied participants (n=2,043) from the population-based REasons...

  7. The Effects of Globalization on Lifestyle Changes in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sojasi Qeidari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Globalization has different effects on human life, which are more noticeable in rural areas than in cities. Thus, the present article aims to study the effects of globalization on lifestyle in rural areas. The methodology in this research is descriptive-analytical; and to collect data in the theoretical section of the study the library method has been used and in the field study questionnaires have been employed. In the present study, the residents of Roshanabad in Gorgan, composed of 24 villages, are included; using Cochran sampling method, 265 families were selected as sample. The results of the study show that the effects of globalization can be detected in all aspects and indexes of lifestyle, and according to participants in the study, some changes are occurring in lifestyle in the rural society. The regression testing indicated a Beta coefficient of 0.328 for most changes happening in lifestyle as a result of globalization. It can be said that since Iranian villages are experiencing a transition from tradition to modernity or even postmodernity, different aspects of lifestyle are somehow mingled; young people in rural areas show a tendency toward urban lifestyle while older people prefer local rural lifestyle.

  8. The combined impact of adherence to five lifestyle factors on all-cause, cancer and cardiovascular mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kristina E N; Johnsen, Nina F; Olsen, Anja;

    2015-01-01

    Individual lifestyle factors have been associated with lifestyle diseases and premature mortality by an accumulating body of evidence. The impact of a combination of lifestyle factors on mortality has been investigated in several studies, but few have applied a simple index taking national...... guidelines into account. The objective of the present prospective cohort study was to investigate the combined impact of adherence to five lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, waist circumference and diet) on all-cause, cancer and cardiovascular mortality based on international......·70) for cardiovascular mortality. In the present study, adherence to merely one additional health recommendation had a protective effect on mortality risk, indicating a huge potential in enhancing healthy lifestyle behaviours of the population....

  9. Diet, Lifestyle, Biomarkers, Genetic Factors, and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in the Nurses’ Health Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Edward; Rimm, Eric; Qi, Lu; Rexrode, Kathryn; Albert, Christine M.; Sun, Qi; Willett, Walter C.; Manson, JoAnn E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To review the contributions of the Nurses’ Health Studies (NHSs) to the understanding of cardiovascular disease etiology in women. Methods. We performed a narrative review of the publications of the NHS and NHS II between 1976 and 2016. Results. Diets low in trans fat, saturated fat, refined carbohydrates, and sugar-sweetened beverages and rich in fruits and vegetables, whole grains, and sources of unsaturated fats are associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Healthy lifestyle choices include smoking avoidance, regular physical activity, maintaining a normal body mass index, and moderate alcohol consumption. Adherence to a combination of these healthy diet and lifestyle behaviors may prevent most vascular events. Studies also covered oral contraceptive use, postmenopausal hormone therapy, shift work, sleep duration, psychosocial factors, and various biomarkers and genetic factors. Findings, such as the association of trans fat with cardiovascular disease, have helped shaped medical guidelines and government policies. Conclusions. The NHS has provided compelling evidence that the majority of vascular events may be prevented by avoiding smoking, participating in regular physical activity, maintaining normal body mass index, and eating a healthy diet. PMID:27459449

  10. Lifestyle, Cardiovascular Drugs and Risk Factors in Younger and Elder Adults: The PEP Family Heart Study

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Schwandt; Evelyn Liepold; Thomas Bertsch; Gerda-Maria Haas

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to compare cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, lifestyle habits and pharmacological treatment in two groups of elder adults with 20 years difference in their mean age. Methods: This study comprised 590 women including two groups with mean age of 42.4±5.5 vs. 66.5±4.0 years, and 486 men of two groups with mean age of 44.1±5.6 vs. 63.9±7.0 years. Data on physical examination, fasting blood analyses, 7-day dietary re-cords, physical activity, smoking and a...

  11. Do lifestyle changes work for improving erectile dysfunction?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaya Horasanli; Ugur Boylu; Muammer Kendirci; Cengiz Miroglu

    2008-01-01

    The main cause of erectile dysfunction (ED) is organic in nature, with vascular etiologies being the most common risk factors. Although there have been sufficient data on the relationship between ED and several well-recognized risk factors, including aging, coronary artery disease, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, high blood pressure,and pelvic surgeries, little attention has been paid by the urologists to the role of lifestyle factors in ED. However,accumulating data from basic science and clinical studies have determined a link between the occurrence of ED and a number of lifestyle factors, such as smoking, obesity, alcohol consumption, and lack of physical activity. The application of findings from animal and human studies to the clinical practice regarding the modification of lifestyle factors could help improving ED as well as reducing the risks of developing cardiovascular diseases. This communication addresses the impact of lifestyle factors on erectile function and the potential benefits of modifying these factors to improve ED in respect to the current evidence.

  12. Morbidly obese patients and lifestyle change: constructing ethical selves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsen, Ingrid Ruud; Terragni, Laura; Foss, Christina

    2011-12-01

    Morbidly obese patients and lifestyle change: constructing ethical selves In contemporary societies, bodily size is an important part of individuals' self-representation. As the number of persons clinically diagnosed as morbidly obese increases, programmes are developed to make people reduce weight by changing their lifestyle, and for some, by bariatric surgery. This article presents findings from interviews with 12 participants undergoing a prerequisite course prior to bariatric surgery that is intended both as a preparation for further (surgical) treatment and as a tool to empower individuals regarding lifestyle changes. In this study, we investigate how power operates by looking at how the participants position themselves throughout the course. Findings reveal how participants construct their ability to act in line with norms of lifestyle change. They do this by positioning themselves as both included group members and as 'morally' acceptable individuals. Despite some resistance, the participants tend to glide into the role of 'good patients' acting in compliance with the aims of the course in their hope and striving for new positions as 'normal-sized'. The intention in the course is to empower individuals towards lifestyle changes. The findings provide a basis to question whether these kinds of courses create new forms of compliance and dependency. PMID:22050620

  13. Prevention of Cancer Through Lifestyle Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. James Barnard

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the USA and an abundance of evidence suggests that lifestyle factors including smoking, the typical high-fat, refined-sugar diet and physical inactivity account for the majority of cancer. This review focuses on diet and inactivity as major factors for cancer promotion by inducing insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. Elevated levels of serum insulin impact on the liver primarily, increasing the production of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I while reducing the production of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1 resulting in stimulation of tumor cell growth and inhibition of apoptosis (programmed cell death. Adopting a diet low in fat and high in fiber-rich starch foods, which would also include an abundance of antioxidants, combined with regular aerobic exercise might control insulin resistance, reduce the resulting serum factors and thus reduce the risk for many different cancers commonly seen in the USA.

  14. Mobile Phone-Based Lifestyle Intervention for Reducing Overall Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Guangzhou, China: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiting; Chen, Songting; Zhang, Guanrong; Lin, Aihua

    2015-12-17

    With the rapid and widespread adoption of mobile devices, mobile phones offer an opportunity to deliver cardiovascular disease (CVD) interventions. This study evaluated the efficacy of a mobile phone-based lifestyle intervention aimed at reducing the overall CVD risk at a health management center in Guangzhou, China. We recruited 589 workers from eight work units. Based on a group-randomized design, work units were randomly assigned either to receive the mobile phone-based lifestyle interventions or usual care. The reduction in 10-year CVD risk at 1-year follow-up for the intervention group was not statistically significant (-1.05%, p = 0.096). However, the mean risk increased significantly by 1.77% (p = 0.047) for the control group. The difference of the changes between treatment arms in CVD risk was -2.83% (p = 0.001). In addition, there were statistically significant changes for the intervention group relative to the controls, from baseline to year 1, in systolic blood pressure (-5.55 vs. 6.89 mmHg; p Mobile phone-based intervention may therefore be a potential solution for reducing CVD risk in China.

  15. Healthy Lifestyle Behaviours are Associated with Lower Probability of Having Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Akbartabartoori

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Healthy lifestyle behaviors are associated with lower risk of having cardiovascular disease (CVD. There is a cluster of risk factors that predisposes people to CVD. Overweight/obesity, unhealthy diet, inactivity, and smoking are major lifestyle risk factors for CVD, which are also associated with other potent clinical risk factors including raised plasma lipids, coagulation factors and measures of inflammation. This study aimed to evaluate the association between lifestyle factors and some established clinical cardiovascular risk factors: C-reactive protein (CRP, total cholesterol, HDL-C, non-HDL-C and fibrinogen in Scottish adults with a high prevalence of CVD. Cross-sectional data from 5460 participants aged 16-74 years whom had valid biochemical measurements in the Scottish Health Survey (SHS 1998 were analysed. Trained staff obtained anthropometric measures. Levels of physical activity, cigarette smoking, alcohol intake and dietary habits were measured by questionnaires. Non-HDL-C was calculated by subtracting HDL-C from total cholesterol. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS with different statistical tests. After adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI was significantly associated with all risk factors in both sexes as obese subjects had the highest concentrations of CRP, total and non-HDL-C and fibrinogen, and the lowest concentrations of HDL-C (P 4 mmol/l and HDL-c ≤ 1 mmol/l for obese subjects compared with BMI<25 kg/m² were 4.8, 2.2, 4.8, 3.6 respectively. These figures for current smokers compared with non-smokers were 2.0, 2.1 2, and 1.5 respectively (P< 0.01. After BMI and smoking, physical activity was most important factor that showed significant association with CRP, fibrinogen and HDL-C. Total fruit and vegetable consumption had a significant association with CRP, and alcohol intake with HDL-C. Overweight/obesity, cigarette smoking and physical inactivity were the main independent variables associated with the clinical

  16. Lifestyle after Cardiac Rehabilitation: Did the Message Come across, and Was It Feasible? An Analysis of Patients’ Narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Marie Veje; Laustsen, Sussie; Petersen, Annemette Krintel;

    2014-01-01

    Lifestyle following heart disease is considered important to prevent and reduce cardiovascular risk factors. Thus, cardiac rehabilitation is focused on potential lifestyle changes. Further insight into patients’ perspective on lifestyle after cardiac rehabilitation is needed as changing habits fo...

  17. Lifestyle-focused interventions at the workplace to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease - A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, I.F.; Proper, K.I.; Beek, A.J. van der; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Mechelen, W.V.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this review was to summarize the evidence for an effect of lifestyle-targeted interventions at the workplace on the main biological risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods: We performed an extensive systematic literature search for randomized controlled trials (

  18. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MOTIVATION METHODSAPPLIED TO HAVE THE KRASNOYARSK REGION RESIDENTS CHANGE THEIR LIFESTYLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Yurevna Kutumova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The sociological research carried showed that provision of educational information is the main method of motivating people to change their lifestyle and break harmful habits. The mass media are in the first position in the rating as the most effective public awareness development means and healthcare professional advice goes second.A patient usually receives such advice when visiting a healthcare institution to be given diagnosis or treatment or in the course of health assessment or scheduled preventive medical examination. 45% of the Krasnoyarsk Region smokers considered changing their lifestyle and quitting smoking, 36,9% of the residents made such attempt and 8,4% broke the harmful habit after watching television features and under the influence of outdoor advertising. Information that was received from a doctor about risks of developing major no communicable diseases (cardiovascular, oncology, respiratory due to smoking motivated only 36, 9% of the population to change the lifestyle, which mostly included young people aged 18-24. For 63,6% of the region residents there was no positive effect of health professional advice received during a visit to a healthcare institution for a certain purpose. Thus, the received results testify to the bigger importance of educational promotion of mass media in motivation to change of a way of life and refusal of smoking, in comparison with information received from health workers.

  19. Lifestyle, Cardiovascular Drugs and Risk Factors in Younger and Elder Adults: The PEP Family Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schwandt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to compare cardiovascular disease(CVD risk factors, lifestyle habits and pharmacological treatmentin two groups of elder adults with 20 years difference in theirmean age.Methods: This study comprised 590 women including two groupswith mean age of 42.4±5.5 vs. 66.5±4.0 years, and 486 men of twogroups with mean age of 44.1±5.6 vs. 63.9±7.0 years. Data onphysical examination, fasting blood analyses, 7-day dietary records,physical activity, smoking and actual medication use wererecorded.Results: Compared with younger individuals, seniors had a moreadverse risk factor profile in terms of abdominal obesity, overweight,hyperglycemia, hypertension, dyslipoproteinemia withoutdifferences in HDL-C. But this is not reflected by lifestyle behavior.Less than 2% of the elderly and 17% of the younger adultswere current smoker. Furthermore, the pattern of physical activitywas different in terms of more continuous sports in seniorscontrasting with extremes between no sports and more than twicea week in the younger group. Seniors consumed significantly lesscarbohydrates including more monosaccharide and less polysaccharides,more alcohol and water. The intake of fat and proteinwas higher in elder women than in all other groups. One third ofseniors took antihypertensive medications and 12% used lipidmodifying drugs.Conclusions: Different levels of prevention against CVDs andtheir risk factors shall be considered for various age groups ofpopulation. The findings of this study emphasize on the necessityof preventive measures against smoking and physical inactivity inyounger adults and dietary habits in seniors.

  20. Lifestyle, cardiovascular drugs and risk factors in younger and elder adults: The PEP family heart study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schwandt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to compare cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors, lifestyle habits and pharmacological treatment in two groups of elder adults with 20 years difference in their mean age. Methods: This study comprised 590 women including two groups with mean age of 42.4±5.5 vs. 66.5±4.0 years, and 486 men of two groups with mean age of 44.1±5.6 vs. 63.9±7.0 years. Data on physical examination, fasting blood analyses, 7-day dietary re-cords, physical activity, smoking and actual medication use were recorded. Results: Compared with younger individuals, seniors had a more adverse risk factor profile in terms of abdominal obesity, over-weight, hyperglycemia, hypertension, dyslipoproteinemia without differences in HDL-C. But this is not reflected by lifestyle behav-ior. Less than 2% of the elderly and 17% of the younger adults were current smoker. Furthermore, the pattern of physical activ-ity was different in terms of more continuous sports in seniors contrasting with extremes between no sports and more than twice a week in the younger group. Seniors consumed significantly less carbohydrates including more monosaccharide and less polysaccharides, more alcohol and water. The intake of fat and protein was higher in elder women than in all other groups. One third of seniors took antihypertensive medications and 12% used lipid modifying drugs. Conclusions: Different levels of prevention against CVDs and their risk factors shall be considered for various age groups of population. The findings of this study emphasize on the necessity of preventive measures against smoking and physical inactivity in younger adults and dietary habits in seniors.

  1. A 3-year randomized trial of lifestyle intervention for cardiovascular risk reduction in the primary care setting: the Swedish Bjorknas study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta K Eriksson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Successfully transferring the findings of expensive and tightly controlled programmes of intensive lifestyle modification to the primary care setting is necessary if such knowledge is to be of clinical utility. The objective of this study was to test whether intensive lifestyle modification, shown previously in tightly-controlled clinical trials to be efficacious for diabetes risk-reduction among high-risk individuals, can reduce cardiovascular risk factor levels in the primary care setting. METHODOLOGY / PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Swedish Björknäs study was a randomized controlled trial conducted from 2003 to 2006 with follow-up on cardiovascular risk factors at 3, 12, 24 and 36 months. A total of 151 middle-aged men and women at moderate- to high-risk of cardiovascular disease from northern Sweden were randomly assigned to either an intensive lifestyle intervention (n = 75 or control (n = 76 group. The intervention was based broadly on the protocol of the Diabetes Prevention Program. The three-month intervention period was administered in the primary care setting and consisted of supervised exercise sessions and diet counselling, followed by regular group meetings during three years. The control group was given general advice about diet and exercise and received standard clinical care. Outcomes were changes in anthropometrics, aerobic fitness, self-reported physical activity, blood pressure, and metabolic traits. At 36 months post-randomisation, intensive lifestyle modification reduced waist circumference (-2.2 cm: p = 0.001, waist-hip ratio (-0.02: p<0.0001, systolic blood pressure (-4.9 mmHg: p = 0.036, and diastolic blood pressure (-1.6 mmHg: p = 0.005, and improved aerobic fitness (5%; p = 0.038. Changes in lipid or glucose values did not differ statistically between groups. At 36 months, self-reported time spent exercising and total physical activity had increased more in the intervention group than in the control group (p<0

  2. No significant improvement of cardiovascular disease risk indicators by a lifestyle intervention in people with Familial Hypercholesterolemia compared to usual care: results of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broekhuizen Karen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH may benefit from lifestyle changes supporting their primary treatment of dyslipidaemia. This project evaluated the efficacy of an individualised tailored lifestyle intervention on lipids (low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, total cholesterol (TC and triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, glucose, body mass index (BMI and waist circumference in people with FH. Methods Adults with FH (n = 340, recruited from a Dutch cascade screening program, were randomly assigned to either a control group or an intervention group. The personalised intervention consisted of web-based tailored lifestyle advice and personal counselling. The control group received care as usual. Lipids, systolic blood pressure, glucose, BMI, and waist circumference were measured at baseline and after 12 months. Regression analyses were conducted to examine differences between both groups. Results After 12 months, no significant between-group differences of cardiovascular disease (CVD risk indicators were observed. LDL-C levels had decreased in both the intervention and control group. This difference between intervention and control group was not statistically significant. Conclusions This project suggests that an individually tailored lifestyle intervention did not have an additional effect in improving CVD risk indicators among people with FH. The cumulative effect of many small improvements in all indicators on long term CVD risk remains to be assessed in future studies. Trial registration NTR1899 at ww.trialregister.nl

  3. Percentage of Deaths Attributable to Poor Cardiovascular Health Lifestyle Factors: Findings from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Xuemei Sui; Hongjuan Li; Jiajia Zhang; Li Chen; Ling Zhu; Blair, Steven N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. We assessed the effects of the four newly defined American Heart Association (AHA) lifestyle factors on mortality by examining the associated population attributable fractions (PAFs) of these factors. Methods. Slightly modified AHA cardiovascular health factors (smoking, body mass index, cardiorespiratory fitness, and diet) were measured among 11,240 (24% women) participants from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study between 1987 and 1999. The cohort was followed to December 31, 200...

  4. Associations between Unhealthy Diet and Lifestyle Behaviours and Increased Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Young Overweight and Obese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatnall, Megan C; Collins, Clare E; Callister, Robin; Hutchesson, Melinda J

    2016-01-01

    Unhealthy lifestyle behaviours are known modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This cross-sectional analysis aimed to describe lifestyle behaviours and CVD risk markers in young overweight and obese Australian women and explore associations between individual and combined lifestyle behaviours with CVD risk markers. Lifestyle behaviours assessed were diet quality, alcohol intake, physical activity, sitting time and smoking status, and were combined to generate a Healthy Lifestyle Score (HLS) (0-5). Objectively measured CVD risk markers were body mass index (BMI), %body fat, waist circumference, blood pressure, and plasma cholesterol and triglycerides. Analysis included 49 women aged 18-35 years, with BMI 25.0 to 34.9 kg/m². The mean ± SD Australian Recommended Food Score was 33.5 ± 9.3 points, alcohol 3.3 ± 2.4 standard drinks/day, physical activity 207 ± 225 min/week and sitting time 578 ± 213 min/day. All participants were non-smokers. The proportion of participants outside normal reference ranges was 83.7% for waist circumference (n = 41), blood pressure 0% (n = 0), total cholesterol 26.2% (n = 11), HDL cholesterol 38.6% (n = 17), LDL cholesterol 22.7% (n = 10), and triglycerides 4.2% (n = 2). Physical activity was inversely associated with body fat (β = -0.011%, p = 0.005), diastolic blood pressure (β = -0.010 mmHg, p = 0.031) and waist circumference (β = -0.013 cm, p = 0.029). Most participants (59.2%, n = 29) had a HLS ≤ 2. No significant associations were found between HLS and CVD risk markers. Insufficient physical activity was the primary lifestyle factor associated with increased CVD risk markers, which suggests interventions targeting physical activity in young women may potentially improve cardiovascular health. PMID:27548243

  5. Lifestyle Modifications Versus Antihypertensive Medications in Reducing Cardiovascular Events in an Aging Society: A Success Rate-oriented Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Yoichi; Shibazaki, Satomi; Araki, Ryuichiro; Miyazaki, Takashi; Sato, Makiko; Takahashi, Sachiko; Suwa, Emi; Takenaka, Tsuneo; Suzuki, Hiromichi

    2016-01-01

    Objective It is difficult to compare directly the practical effects of lifestyle modifications and antihypertensive medications on reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD). The purpose of this study was to compare the hypothetical potential of lifestyle modifications with that of antihypertensive medications in reducing CVD in an aging society using a success rate-oriented simulation. Methods We constructed a simulation model for virtual Japanese subpopulations according to sex and age at 10-year intervals from 40 years of age as an example of an aging society. The fractional incidence rate of CVD was calculated as the product of the incidence rate at each systolic blood pressure (SBP) level and the proportion of the SBP frequency distribution in the fractional subpopulations of each SBP. The total incidence rate was calculated by the definite integral of the fractional incidence rate at each SBP level in the sex- and age-specific subpopulations. Results If we consider the effects of lifestyle modifications on metabolic factors and transfer them onto SBP, the reductions in the total incidence rate of CVD were competitive between lifestyle modifications and antihypertensive medications in realistic scenarios. In middle-aged women, the preventive effects of both approaches were limited due to a low incidence rate. In middle-aged men and extremely elderly subjects whose adherence to antihypertensive medications is predicted to be low, lifestyle modifications could be an alternative choice. Conclusion The success rate-oriented simulation suggests that the effectiveness of lifestyle modifications or antihypertensive medications in preventing cardiovascular events largely depends on the baseline incidence rate and sex- and age-specific behavioral factors. PMID:27522993

  6. The Behavioral and Clinical Effects of Therapeutic Lifestyle Change on Middle-aged Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven G. Aldana, PhD

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Chronic diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and diabetes are responsible for most deaths in the United States. Lifestyle factors — poor nutrition, sedentary living, and tobacco use — appear to play a prominent role in the development of many chronic diseases. This study determined the behavioral and clinical impact of a therapeutic lifestyle-modification intervention on a group of community volunteers. Methods Participants included 348 volunteers aged 24 to 81 years from the Rockford, Ill, metropolitan area who participated in a randomized clinical trial. The intervention group attended a 40-hour educational course delivered as lectures during a 4-week period. Participants learned the importance of making better lifestyle choices and how to make improvements in nutrition and physical activity. Changes in nutrition, physical activity behavior, and several chronic disease risk factors were assessed at baseline and 6 months. Results Intervention participants showed significant 6-month improvement in all nutrition and physical activity measures except calories from protein and whole-grain servings and all clinical measures except blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were worse after 6 months in both groups but only significantly worse in the control group. The control group experienced small but significant improvements in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and high-density lipoproteins. Change-score comparisons between the intervention and control groups were significant for all nutrition and physical activity variables except total steps per week and daily sodium intake and were also significant for the clinical measures of weight, body fat, and body mass index. Conclusion This therapeutic lifestyle-modification program can significantly improve nutrition and physical activity behavior and can

  7. Career change: in quest of a controllable lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, R W; Simpson, W G; Strodel, W E; Jarecky, R K; Griffen, W O; Young, A B

    1989-09-01

    Over the past decade, top medical students are selecting "controllable lifestyle" (CL) specialties at an increasing rate. CL specialties include anesthesiology, dermatology, emergency medicine, neurology, ophthalmology, pathology, psychiatry, and radiology. The choice of "noncontrollable lifestyle" (NCL) specialties such as family practice, internal medicine, obstetrics/gynecology, and pediatrics was negatively affected by this trend. The effect of CL on the selection of surgical training by top medical students was variable. The purpose of this study was to determine if CL is a factor in career change by young surgeons during and after residency. Graduates of the University of Kentucky College of Medicine from 1975 to 1983 (n = 796) were questioned regarding the specialty they entered after graduation and whether they remained in that specialty as of March, 1988. NCL and surgery specialties showed a net loss of practitioners during the study period (P less than 0.005) and CL showed a net gain (P less than 0.005). When physicians changed specialties, the direction of change occurred from NCL and surgery to CL (P less than 0.05). Change from CL to NCL and surgery occurred infrequently. PMID:2770274

  8. Prevention and lifestyle behaviour change : a competence framework

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, K; De Normanville, Clare; Stansfield, Karen; Barnett, Nicholas; Machaczek, Katarzyna; Qutishat, Dania; Okasheh, Rasha; Ion, V.; Wicks, H; Smewing, Ch

    2010-01-01

    Prevention, Health and Wellbeing and Health Inequalities are key national and regional priorities for the future of our nation and for the NHS. This was highlighted in recent ‘Fair Society, Healthy Lives’ Marmot review. The ‘Prevention and Lifestyle Behaviour Change: A Competence Framework’, has been developed to support NHS Yorkshire and the Humber’s key Public Health strategy ‘Making Every Contact Count’, to which there has already been an excellent response. Delivery on this subject has al...

  9. Percentage of Deaths Attributable to Poor Cardiovascular Health Lifestyle Factors: Findings from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Sui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We assessed the effects of the four newly defined American Heart Association (AHA lifestyle factors on mortality by examining the associated population attributable fractions (PAFs of these factors. Methods. Slightly modified AHA cardiovascular health factors (smoking, body mass index, cardiorespiratory fitness, and diet were measured among 11,240 (24% women participants from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study between 1987 and 1999. The cohort was followed to December 31, 2003, or death. PAFs were calculated as the proportionate reduction in death attributable to identified risk factors. Results. During an average 12 years of followup, 268 deaths occurred. Low fitness had the highest PAFs at the 5th, 10th, and 15th year of followup, respectively: 6.6%, 6.4%, and 5.5%. Current smokers had the second highest PAFs at the 5th, 10th, and 15th year of followup, respectively: 5.4%, 5.2%, and 5.0%. Additional adjusting for other confounders in the model did not change the above associations. The PAFs for overweight or obesity and unhealthy diet were not significant in the current analyses. Conclusions. Assuming a causal relationship between smoking, low fitness, and mortality, avoidance of both would have prevented 13% of the deaths in the current population. Preventive interventions to increase physical activity and stop smoking would most likely promote longevity.

  10. Sustainable occupational responses to climate change through lifestyle choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Clare; Kroksmark, Ulla

    2013-03-01

    Abstract Occupational therapists and occupational scientists are increasingly aware of the relationship between occupation and global climate change, with some working to raise awareness of the issues and others proposing that an occupational perspective can make a valuable contribution to understanding and addressing the issues. In this discussion paper the United Nations Global Survey on Sustainable Lifestyles ( 1 ), which reports young adults' beliefs about everyday occupations that have a substantial impact on the environment (food, housekeeping, and transportation) is introduced. The authors argue that the survey findings are a valuable resource for occupational therapists who are concerned about global climate change and work with young adults (age 18-35), providing valuable insights into their concerns and preferences in relation to sustainability. To illustrate the insights contained in the reports, findings from four countries are presented: New Zealand and Sweden, the authors' countries of origin, and the Philippines and Lebanon which have people living in New Zealand and Sweden. Application to individual and community-based interventions to promote more sustainable lifestyles is suggested, along with studies to examine the perspectives of young adults with a disability, as their concerns and sustainability preferences might differ due to the barriers that limit their participation in educational and vocational occupations.

  11. Healthy lifestyle factors and risk of cardiovascular events and mortality in treatment-resistant hypertension: the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Keith M; Booth, John N; Calhoun, David A; Irvin, Marguerite R; Howard, George; Safford, Monika M; Muntner, Paul; Shimbo, Daichi

    2014-09-01

    Few data exist on whether healthy lifestyle factors are associated with better prognosis among individuals with apparent treatment-resistant hypertension, a high-risk phenotype of hypertension. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of healthy lifestyle factors with cardiovascular events, all-cause mortality, and cardiovascular mortality among individuals with apparent treatment-resistant hypertension. We studied participants (n=2043) from the population-based Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study with apparent treatment-resistant hypertension (blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg despite the use of 3 antihypertensive medication classes or the use of ≥4 classes of antihypertensive medication regardless of blood pressure control). Six healthy lifestyle factors adapted from guidelines for the management of hypertension (normal waist circumference, physical activity ≥4 times/week, nonsmoking, moderate alcohol consumption, high Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet score, and low sodium-to-potassium intake ratio) were examined. A greater number of healthy lifestyle factors were associated with lower risk for cardiovascular events (n=360) during a mean follow-up of 4.5 years. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios [HR (95% confidence interval)] for cardiovascular events comparing individuals with 2, 3, and 4 to 6 versus 0 to 1 healthy lifestyle factors were 0.91 (0.68-1.21), 0.80 (0.57-1.14), and 0.63 (0.41-0.95), respectively (P-trend=0.020). Physical activity and nonsmoking were individual healthy lifestyle factors significantly associated with lower risk for cardiovascular events. Similar associations were observed between healthy lifestyle factors and risk for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. In conclusion, healthy lifestyle factors, particularly physical activity and nonsmoking, are associated with a lower risk for cardiovascular events and mortality among individuals with apparent treatment

  12. Epigenetic Changes in Diabetes and Cardiovascular Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Samuel T; Plutzky, Jorge; El-Osta, Assam

    2016-05-27

    Cardiovascular complications remain the leading causes of morbidity and premature mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus. Studies in humans and preclinical models demonstrate lasting gene expression changes in the vasculopathies initiated by previous exposure to high glucose concentrations and the associated overproduction of reactive oxygen species. The molecular signatures of chromatin architectures that sensitize the genome to these and other cardiometabolic risk factors of the diabetic milieu are increasingly implicated in the biological memory underlying cardiovascular complications and now widely considered as promising therapeutic targets. Atherosclerosis is a complex heterocellular disease where the contributing cell types possess distinct epigenomes shaping diverse gene expression. Although the extent that pathological chromatin changes can be manipulated in human cardiovascular disease remains to be established, the clinical applicability of epigenetic interventions will be greatly advanced by a deeper understanding of the cell type-specific roles played by writers, erasers, and readers of chromatin modifications in the diabetic vasculature. This review details a current perspective of epigenetic mechanisms of macrovascular disease in diabetes mellitus and highlights recent key descriptions of chromatinized changes associated with persistent gene expression in endothelial, smooth muscle, and circulating immune cells relevant to atherosclerosis. Furthermore, we discuss the challenges associated with pharmacological targeting of epigenetic networks to correct abnormal or deregulated gene expression as a strategy to alleviate the clinical burden of diabetic cardiovascular disease. PMID:27230637

  13. The combined impact of five lifestyle factors on all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular mortality – A prospective cohort study among Danish men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kristina Elin; Johnsen, Nina Føns; Olsen, Anja;

    2015-01-01

    Individual lifestyle factors have been associated with lifestyle diseases and premature mortality by an accumulating body of evidence. The impact of a combination of lifestyle factors on mortality has been investigated in several studies, but few have applied a simple index taking national...... guidelines into account. The objective of the present prospective cohort study was to investigate the combined impact of adherence to five lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, waist circumference and diet) on all-cause, cancer and cardiovascular mortality based on international......·70) for cardiovascular mortality. In the present study, adherence to merely one additional health recommendation had a protective effect on mortality risk, indicating a huge potential in enhancing healthy lifestyle behaviours of the population....

  14. Short and long term effects of a lifestyle intervention for construction workers at risk for cardiovascular disease: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groeneveld Iris F

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of overweight and elevated cardiovascular disease (CVD risk among workers in the construction industry is relatively high. Improving lifestyle lowers CVD risk and may have work-related benefits. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects on physical activity (PA, diet, and smoking of a lifestyle intervention consisting of individual counseling among male workers in the construction industry with an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Methods In a randomized controlled trial including 816 male blue- and white-collar workers in the construction industry with an elevated risk of CVD, usual care was compared to a 6-month lifestyle intervention. The intervention consisted of individual counseling using motivational interviewing techniques, and was delivered by an occupational physician or occupational nurse. In three face to face and four telephone contacts, the participant's risk profile, personal determinants, and barriers for behavior change were discussed, and personal goals were set. Participants chose to aim at either diet and PA, or smoking. Data were collected at baseline and after six and 12 months, by means of a questionnaire. To analyse the data, linear and logistic regression analyses were performed. Results The intervention had a statistically significant beneficial effect on snack intake (β-1.9, 95%CI -3.7; -0.02 and fruit intake (β 1.7, 95%CI 0.6; 2.9 at 6 months. The effect on snack intake was sustained until 12 months; 6 months after the intervention had ended (β -1.9, 95%CI -3.6; -0.2. The intervention effects on leisure time PA and metabolic equivalent-minutes were not statistically significant. The beneficial effect on smoking was statistically significant at 6 (OR smoking 0.3, 95%CI 0.1;0.7, but not at 12 months (OR 0.8, 95%CI 0.4; 1.6. Conclusions Beneficial effects on smoking, fruit, and snack intake can be achieved by an individual-based lifestyle intervention among

  15. Changes in lifestyle habits after counselling by nurse practitioners : 1-year results of the Groningen Overweight and Lifestyle study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Bogt, Nancy C. W.; Milder, Ivon E. J.; Bemelmans, Wanda J. E.; Beltman, Frank W.; Broer, Jan; Smit, Andries J.; van der Meer, Klaas

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The Groningen Overweight and Lifestyle (GOAL) study primarily aims at preventing weight gain by nurse practitioners (NP) guided by a standardized computerized software program. Since favourable changes in physical activity (PA) and diet may improve health independently of weight (loss),

  16. How Changing Human Lifestyles are Shaping Europe's Regional Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, L. D.; Lowe, C. D.; Langmead, O.; McQuatters-Gollop, A.; Attrill, M.; Cooper, P.; Gilbert, A.; Knudsen, S.; Garnacho, E.

    2007-05-01

    European society is experiencing unprecedented changes triggered by expansion of the European Union, the fall of Communism, economic growth and the onset of globalisation. Europe's regional seas, the Baltic, Black Sea, Mediterranean and North-East Atlantic (including the North Sea), provide key goods and services to the human population but have suffered from severe degradation in past decades. Their integrity as coupled social and ecological systems depends on how humanity will anticipate potential problems and deal with its ecological footprint in the future. We report the outcome of an EU-funded 15-country, 28 institution project entitled European Lifestyles and Marine Ecosystems (ELME). Our studies were designed to inform new EU policy and legislation that incorporates Ecosystem-Based Management. ELME has modelled the key relationships between economic and social drivers (D), environmental pressures (P) and changes in the state of the environment (S) in Europe's regional seas. We examined four key issues in each sea: habitat change, eutrophication, chemical pollution and fisheries. We developed conceptual models for each regional sea and employed a novel stochastic modelling technique to examine the interrelationship between key components of the conceptual models. We used the models to examine 2-3 decade projections of current trends in D, P and S and how a number of alternative development scenarios might modify these trends. These simulations demonstrate the vulnerability of Europe's seas to human pressure. As affluence increases in countries acceding to the EU, so does the demand for marine goods and services. There are `winners' and `losers' amongst marine species; the winners are often species that are opportunistic invaders or those with low economic value. In the case of eutrophication, semi-enclosed seas such as the Baltic or Black Sea are already affected by the `legacy of the past'; nutrients that have accumulated in soils, ground waters and

  17. Improving patient adherence to lifestyle advice (IMPALA: a cluster-randomised controlled trial on the implementation of a nurse-led intervention for cardiovascular risk management in primary care (protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grol Richard

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many patients at high risk of cardiovascular diseases are managed and monitored in general practice. Recommendations for cardiovascular risk management, including lifestyle change, are clearly described in the Dutch national guideline. Although lifestyle interventions, such as advice on diet, physical exercise, smoking and alcohol, have moderate, but potentially relevant effects in these patients, adherence to lifestyle advice in general practice is not optimal. The IMPALA study intends to improve adherence to lifestyle advice by involving patients in decision making on cardiovascular prevention by nurse-led clinics. The aim of this paper is to describe the design and methods of a study to evaluate an intervention aimed at involving patients in cardiovascular risk management. Methods A cluster-randomised controlled trial in 20 general practices, 10 practices in the intervention arm and 10 in the control arm, starting on October 2005. A total of 720 patients without existing cardiovascular diseases but eligible for cardiovascular risk assessment will be recruited. In both arms, the general practitioners and nurses will be trained to apply the national guideline for cardiovascular risk management. Nurses in the intervention arm will receive an extended training in risk assessment, risk communication, the use of a decision aid and adapted motivational interviewing. This communication technique will be used to support the shared decision-making process about risk reduction. The intervention comprises 2 consultations and 1 follow-up telephone call. The nurses in the control arm will give usual care after the risk estimation, according to the national guideline. Primary outcome measures are self-reported adherence to lifestyle advice and drug treatment. Secondary outcome measures are the patients' perception of risk and their motivation to change their behaviour. The measurements will take place at baseline and after 12 and 52

  18. Effects of an eight-week supervised, structured lifestyle modification programme on anthropometric, metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in severely obese adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Crowe, Catherine

    2015-08-01

    Lifestyle modification is fundamental to obesity treatment, but few studies have described the effects of structured lifestyle programmes specifically in bariatric patients. We sought to describe changes in anthropometric and metabolic characteristics in a cohort of bariatric patients after participation in a nurse-led, structured lifestyle programme.

  19. Promotion to change lifestyle: securing participation and success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Morris; Tanner, John F

    2014-01-01

    Corporate wellness programs designed to promote employee health are becoming increasingly popular due to their improved productivity, lower health care costs, and reduced absenteeism. The success of the lifestyle intervention measures they promote depends on employees' participation, which is a key challenge. The study uses partial least squares (PLS) path modeling and logistic regression to (a) identify, based on the health belief model, the factors likely to influence employee participation in personal coaching and health challenges, and (b) study their impact on lifestyle and overall health among participants. Results show that participation is influenced by initial lifestyle, attendance in educational events, peer influence, and communication through different channels.

  20. It is possible for people suffering from mental illness to change their lifestyle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Krogh, Jesper; Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz;

    2013-01-01

    A significant share of the excess mortality among people suffering from mental illness is due to unhealthy lifestyles. Obesity, smoking, unhealthy diets and sedentary behaviour is twice as frequent among people with mental illness, but the willingness to improve lifestyle is as high as in healthy...... people. Based on a review of the literature we conclude that it is possible for people with mental illness to change their lifestyle, but they encounter a number of barriers to lifestyle changes, including their symptoms, adverse drug effects and their life situations....

  1. Long-term lifestyle and dietary habits in relation to cardiovascular mortality and life expectancy: a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streppel, M.T.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: In prospective cohort studies, information on lifestyle and dietary habits is generally only assessed at the baseline examination, assuming that these habits are relatively constant over the entire study period. Repeated measures can take into account changes in these habits, reduce me

  2. Cardiovascular and nervous system changes during meditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R Steinhubl

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: A number of benefits have been described for the long-term practice of meditation, yet little is known regarding the immediate neurological and cardiovascular responses to meditation. Wireless sensor technology allows, for the first time, multi-parameter and quantitative monitoring of an individual’s responses during meditation. The present study examined inter-individual variations to meditation through continuous monitoring of EEG, blood pressure, heart rate and its variability (HRV in novice and experienced meditators. Methods: Participants were 20 experienced and 20 novice meditators involved in a week-long wellness retreat. Monitoring took place during meditation sessions on the first and last full days of the retreat. All participants wore a patch that continuously streamed ECG data, while half of them also wore a wireless EEG headset plus a non-invasive continuous blood pressure monitor. Results: Meditation produced variable but characteristic EEG changes, significantly different from baseline, even among novice meditators on the first day. In addition, although participants were predominately normotensive, the mean arterial blood pressure fell a small (2-3 mmHg but significant (p<0.0001 amount during meditation. The effect of meditation on HRV was less clear and influenced by calculation technique and respiration. No clear relationship between EEG changes, HRV alterations or mean blood pressure during meditation was found.Conclusion: This is the first study to investigate neurological and cardiovascular responses during meditation in both novice and experienced meditators using novel, wearable, wireless devices. Meditation produced varied inter-individual physiologic responses. These results support the need for further investigation of the short- and long-term cardiovascular effects of mental calm and individualized ways to achieve it.

  3. Cigarette use and cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease: an unappreciated modifiable lifestyle risk factor.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stack, Austin G

    2012-01-31

    Tobacco use is a major modifiable cardiovascular risk factor in the general population and contributes to excess cardiovascular risk. Emerging evidence from large-scale observational studies suggests that continued tobacco use is also an independent cardiovascular risk factor among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The benefits of smoking cessation programs on improving the heath status of patients and reducing mortality are unequivocal in the general population. Despite this, there has been little effort in pursuing tobacco cessation programs in dialysis cohorts or those with lesser degrees of kidney impairment. Most of our attention to date has focused on the development of "kidney-specific" interventions that reduce rates of renal disease progression and improve dialysis outcomes. The purpose of this current review is to describe the epidemiology of tobacco use among patients with CKD, draw attention to its negative impact on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and finally highlight potential strategies for successful intervention. We hope that this study heightens the importance of tobacco use in CKD, stimulates renewed interest in the barriers and challenges that exist in achieving smoking cessation, and endorses the efficacy of intervention strategies and the immeasurable benefits of quitting on cardiovascular and noncardiovascular outcomes.

  4. Improving lifestyle and risk perception through patient involvement in nurse-led cardiovascular risk management: a cluster-randomized controlled trial in primary care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelewijn-van Loon, M.S.; Weijden, G.D.E.M. van der; Ronda, G.; Steenkiste, B.C. van; Winkens, B.; Elwyn, G.; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if lifestyle improved at a short term through an intervention to involve patients in cardiovascular risk management by the practice nurse. METHODS: The IMPALA study (2006, the Netherlands) was a cluster-randomised controlled trial involving 25 general practices and 615 patien

  5. Personalized prevention approach with use of a web-based cardiovascular risk assessment with tailored lifestyle follow-up in primary care practice - a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brekel-Dijkstra, Karolien; Rengers, Antonia H; Niessen, Maurice Aj; de Wit, NJ; Kraaijenhagen, Roderik A

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this prospective implementation study is to evaluate feasibility of a personalized prevention approach with use of a web-based health risk assessment for cardiovascular diseases combined with tailored lifestyle feedback and interventions in the community setting. METHODS: A random s

  6. Long-term lifestyle and dietary habits in relation to cardiovascular mortality and life expectancy: a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Streppel, M T

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: In prospective cohort studies, information on lifestyle and dietary habits is generally only assessed at the baseline examination, assuming that these habits are relatively constant over the entire study period. Repeated measures can take into account changes in these habits, reduce measurement error due to a reduction in within-subject variation, and can give more insight into the etiology of diseases. The main objective of this thesis is to assess the relationships of recent a...

  7. What do most erectile dysfunction guidelines have in common? No evidence-based discussion or recommendation of heart-healthy lifestyle changes and/or Panax ginseng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark A Moyad; Kwangsung Park

    2012-01-01

    Sexual health or erectile dysfunction (ED) state of the art guidelines provide a thorough overview of conventional prescription or other notable extrinsic treatment options.Yet,over the past 10-15 years,a plethora of international researchers have established that individual and comprehensive lifestyle changes can prevent and potentially improve ED.We review the lifestyle evidence that should equate to grade A or level 1 evidence recommendations for ED.We also review the evidence for Panax ginseng,an over-the-counter (OTC) dietary supplement with a 35-year history of laboratory investigations,multiple positive randomized trials over approximately 15 years and several independent meta-analyses and systematic reviews.Perhaps it is time to at least discuss and even emphasize lifestyle and other non-conventional interventions in ED guidelines so that patients can explore a diversity of potentially synergistic choices with their physicians and can improve their quality and quantity of life.Ignoring the consistent,positive data on lifestyle modifications in ED guidelines,for example,is tantamount to ignoring diet and lifestyle changes to reduce the risk of or ameliorate cardiovascular diseases.

  8. Views on Lifestyle Change From Caregivers of People With Cognitive Impairment in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. John Mei

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Lifestyle changes such as in physical exercise, social activity, and diet can mitigate cognitive decline and improve quality of life in caregivers and care recipients with cognitive impairment. However, caregiver perspectives on lifestyle change remain largely unexamined. This study compares perspectives among caregivers for those with dementia and those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Interviews were conducted with caregivers in two sites in China, and thematic similarities and differences were examined between the two groups. Caregivers from both groups identified exercise, social activity, and diet as healthy ways of life. Differences were found in approaching lifestyle change based on health of the care recipient. Caregivers for patients with dementia found more often that they had no time or possibility for change, while caregivers for individuals with MCI were more often hopeful about change.

  9. The effectiveness of adding cognitive behavioural therapy aimed at changing lifestyle to managed diabetes care for patients with type 2 diabetes: design of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Oppen Patricia

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In patients with type 2 diabetes, the risk for cardiovascular disease is substantial. To achieve a more favourable risk profile, lifestyle changes on diet, physical activity and smoking status are needed. This will involve changes in behaviour, which is difficult to achieve. Cognitive behavioural therapies focussing on self-management have been shown to be effective. We have developed an intervention combining techniques of Motivational Interviewing (MI and Problem Solving Treatment (PST. The aim of our study is to investigate if adding a combined behavioural intervention to managed care, is effective in achieving changes in lifestyle and cardiovascular risk profile. Methods Patients with type 2 diabetes will be selected from general practices (n = 13, who are participating in a managed diabetes care system. Patients will be randomised into an intervention group receiving cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT in addition to managed care, and a control group that will receive managed care only. The CBT consists of three to six individual sessions of 30 minutes to increase the patient's motivation, by using principles of MI, and ability to change their lifestyle, by using PST. The first session will start with a risk assessment of diabetes complications that will be used to focus the intervention. The primary outcome measure is the difference between intervention and control group in change in cardiovascular risk score. For this purpose blood pressure, HbA1c, total and HDL-cholesterol and smoking status will be assessed. Secondary outcome measures are quality of life, patient satisfaction, physical activity, eating behaviour, smoking status, depression and determinants of behaviour change. Differences between changes in the two groups will be analysed according to the intention-to-treat principle, with 95% confidence intervals. The power calculation is based on the risk for cardiovascular disease and we calculated that 97 patients

  10. Cardiovascular changes in cirrhosis: Pathogenesis and clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Hamoudi Waleed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver cirrhosis is associated with a wide range of cardiovascular abnormalities including hyperdynamic circulation, cirrhotic cardiomyopathy, and pulmonary vascular abnormalities. The pathogenic mechanisms of these cardiovascular changes are multifactorial and include neurohumoral and vascular dysregulations. Accumulating evidence suggests that cirrhosis-related cardiovascular abnormalities play a major role in the pathogenesis of multiple life-threatening complications including hepatorenal syndrome, ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, gastroesophageal varices, and hepatopulmonary syndrome. Treatment targeting the circulatory dysfunction in these patients may improve the short-term prognosis while awaiting liver transplantation. Careful fluid management in the immediate post-transplant period is extremely important to avoid cardiac-related complications. Liver transplantation results in correction of portal hypertension and reversal of all the pathophysiological mechanisms that lead to the cardiovascular abnormalities, resulting in restoration of a normal circulation. The following is a review of the pathogenesis and clinical implications of the cardiovascular changes in cirrhosis.

  11. Effectiveness of community-based comprehensive healthy lifestyle promotion on cardiovascular disease risk factors in a rural Vietnamese population : a quasi-experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Van Quang; Pham Son; Nguyen Viet; Weinehall Lars; Wall Stig; Bonita Ruth; Byass Peter

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Health promotion is a key component for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study evaluated the impact of healthy lifestyle promotion campaigns on CVD risk factors (CVDRF) in the general population in the context of a community-based programme on hypertension management. Methods A quasi-experimental intervention study was carried out in two rural communes of Vietnam from 2006 to 2009. In the intervention commune, a hypertensive-targeted management prog...

  12. The Dynamics of the Russian Lifestyle during Transition: Changes in Food, Alcohol and Cigarettes Consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herzfeld, T.; Huffman, S.K.; Oskam, A.J.; Rizov, M.I.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines changes in aspects of the lifestyle of Russian adults between 1994 and 2004. We present evidence on the impact of individual as well as regional characteristics on changes in fat, protein, alcohol and cigarette consumption, and on diet’s diversity. The results from a dynamic econ

  13. Association of Parental Overweight and Cardiometabolic Diseases and Pediatric Adiposity and Lifestyle Factors with Cardiovascular Risk Factor Clustering in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chun-Ying; Lin, Wei-Ting; Tsai, Sharon; Hung, Yu-Chan; Wu, Pei-Wen; Yang, Yu-Cheng; Chan, Te-Fu; Huang, Hsiao-Ling; Weng, Yao-Lin; Chiu, Yu-Wen; Huang, Chia-Tsuan; Lee, Chien-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Cardiometabolic risk factors or their precursors are observed in childhood and may continue into adulthood. We investigated the effects of parental overweight and cardiometabolic diseases and pediatric lifestyle factors on the clustering of cardiovascular risk factors among adolescents, and examined the mediating and modifying effects of pediatric adiposity on these associations. Representative adolescents (n = 2727; age, 12–16 years) were randomly recruited through multistage stratified sampling from 36 schools in Southern Taiwan. Adolescent and parent surveys were conducted in schools and participant homes, respectively. Their demographic factors, diet patterns, and physical, anthropometric, and clinical parameters were collected and analyzed. Adolescents with 1–2 and ≥3 risk components for pediatric metabolic syndrome (MetS) were defined as potential MetS (pot-MetS) and MetS, respectively. Adolescents whose parents were overweight/obese, or with diabetes and hypertension had a higher prevalence ratio of pot-MetS and MetS (1.5–1.6 and 1.9–4.2-fold, respectively). Low physical activity (beverage intake (>500 mL/day) were associated with a 3.3- (95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.5–7.3), 2.2- (95% CI = 1.1–4.4), and 26.9-fold (95% CI = 3.2–229.0) odds ratio (OR) of MetS, respectively. Pediatric body mass index (BMI) accounted for 18.8%–95.6% and 16.9%–60.3% increased prevalence ratios of these parental and pediatric risk factors for MetS. The OR of pot-MetS + MetS for sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was multiplicatively enhanced among adolescents with overweight/obesity (combined OR, 8.6-fold (95% CI = 4.3–17.3); p for multiplicative interaction, 0.009). The results suggest that parental overweight and cardiometabolic diseases and pediatric sedentary and high sugar-intake lifestyles correlate with the development of adolescent MetS, and an elevated child BMI explains a part of these associations. Pediatric adiposity might be

  14. Association of Parental Overweight and Cardiometabolic Diseases and Pediatric Adiposity and Lifestyle Factors with Cardiovascular Risk Factor Clustering in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ying Lee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiometabolic risk factors or their precursors are observed in childhood and may continue into adulthood. We investigated the effects of parental overweight and cardiometabolic diseases and pediatric lifestyle factors on the clustering of cardiovascular risk factors among adolescents, and examined the mediating and modifying effects of pediatric adiposity on these associations. Representative adolescents (n = 2727; age, 12–16 years were randomly recruited through multistage stratified sampling from 36 schools in Southern Taiwan. Adolescent and parent surveys were conducted in schools and participant homes, respectively. Their demographic factors, diet patterns, and physical, anthropometric, and clinical parameters were collected and analyzed. Adolescents with 1–2 and ≥3 risk components for pediatric metabolic syndrome (MetS were defined as potential MetS (pot-MetS and MetS, respectively. Adolescents whose parents were overweight/obese, or with diabetes and hypertension had a higher prevalence ratio of pot-MetS and MetS (1.5–1.6 and 1.9–4.2-fold, respectively. Low physical activity (<952.4 MET·min/week, long screen time (≥3 h/day and high sugar-sweetened beverage intake (>500 mL/day were associated with a 3.3- (95% confidence intervals (CI = 1.5–7.3, 2.2- (95% CI = 1.1–4.4, and 26.9-fold (95% CI = 3.2–229.0 odds ratio (OR of MetS, respectively. Pediatric body mass index (BMI accounted for 18.8%–95.6% and 16.9%–60.3% increased prevalence ratios of these parental and pediatric risk factors for MetS. The OR of pot-MetS + MetS for sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was multiplicatively enhanced among adolescents with overweight/obesity (combined OR, 8.6-fold (95% CI = 4.3–17.3; p for multiplicative interaction, 0.009. The results suggest that parental overweight and cardiometabolic diseases and pediatric sedentary and high sugar-intake lifestyles correlate with the development of adolescent MetS, and an elevated child BMI

  15. Association of Parental Overweight and Cardiometabolic Diseases and Pediatric Adiposity and Lifestyle Factors with Cardiovascular Risk Factor Clustering in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chun-Ying; Lin, Wei-Ting; Tsai, Sharon; Hung, Yu-Chan; Wu, Pei-Wen; Yang, Yu-Cheng; Chan, Te-Fu; Huang, Hsiao-Ling; Weng, Yao-Lin; Chiu, Yu-Wen; Huang, Chia-Tsuan; Lee, Chien-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Cardiometabolic risk factors or their precursors are observed in childhood and may continue into adulthood. We investigated the effects of parental overweight and cardiometabolic diseases and pediatric lifestyle factors on the clustering of cardiovascular risk factors among adolescents, and examined the mediating and modifying effects of pediatric adiposity on these associations. Representative adolescents (n = 2727; age, 12-16 years) were randomly recruited through multistage stratified sampling from 36 schools in Southern Taiwan. Adolescent and parent surveys were conducted in schools and participant homes, respectively. Their demographic factors, diet patterns, and physical, anthropometric, and clinical parameters were collected and analyzed. Adolescents with 1-2 and ≥3 risk components for pediatric metabolic syndrome (MetS) were defined as potential MetS (pot-MetS) and MetS, respectively. Adolescents whose parents were overweight/obese, or with diabetes and hypertension had a higher prevalence ratio of pot-MetS and MetS (1.5-1.6 and 1.9-4.2-fold, respectively). Low physical activity (500 mL/day) were associated with a 3.3- (95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.5-7.3), 2.2- (95% CI = 1.1-4.4), and 26.9-fold (95% CI = 3.2-229.0) odds ratio (OR) of MetS, respectively. Pediatric body mass index (BMI) accounted for 18.8%-95.6% and 16.9%-60.3% increased prevalence ratios of these parental and pediatric risk factors for MetS. The OR of pot-MetS + MetS for sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was multiplicatively enhanced among adolescents with overweight/obesity (combined OR, 8.6-fold (95% CI = 4.3-17.3); p for multiplicative interaction, 0.009). The results suggest that parental overweight and cardiometabolic diseases and pediatric sedentary and high sugar-intake lifestyles correlate with the development of adolescent MetS, and an elevated child BMI explains a part of these associations. Pediatric adiposity might be multiplicatively associated with sugar

  16. Cardiovascular and nervous system changes during meditation

    OpenAIRE

    Steinhubl, Steven R.; Wineinger, Nathan E.; Sheila ePatel; Boeldt, Debra L; Geoffrey eMackellar; Valencia ePorter; Jacob eRedmond; Muse, Evan D.; Laura eNicholson; Deepak eChopra; Topol, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A number of benefits have been described for the long-term practice of meditation, yet little is known regarding the immediate neurological and cardiovascular responses to meditation. Wireless sensor technology allows, for the first time, multi-parameter and quantitative monitoring of an individual’s responses during meditation. The present study examined inter-individual variations to meditation through continuous monitoring of EEG, blood pressure, heart rate and its variabilit...

  17. Design of a RCT evaluating the (cost- effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention for male construction workers at risk for cardiovascular disease: The Health under Construction study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Beek Allard J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Of all workers in Dutch construction industry, 20% has an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. A major risk factor for CVD risk is an unhealthy lifestyle. The aim of our study is to design a lifestyle intervention for construction workers with an elevated CVD risk, and to evaluate its (cost- effectiveness. Methods/Design In a RCT, 692 participants will be randomised to either the control or the intervention group. The control group will receive usual care. For the intervention group, a lifestyle intervention has been designed based on interviews and current literature. The intervention will last 6 months and will comprise 3 face-to-face and 4 telephone contacts, consisting of individual counselling aimed at increasing daily physical activity (PA and improving dietary behaviour, and/or smoking cessation. Counselling will take place at the Occupational Health Service (OHS, and will be done according to motivational interviewing (MI. Additional written information about healthy lifestyle will also be provided to those in the intervention group. At baseline, after 6 and after 12 months, measurements will take place. Primary outcome variables will be the lifestyle behaviours of concern, i.e. daily PA, dietary intake, and smoking status. Secondary outcome variables will be body mass index (BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total and HDL blood cholesterol, Hba1c and cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF. Sickness absenteeism and cost-effectiveness will be assessed as well. Multilevel analysis will be performed to compare all outcome measures between the intervention group and the control group. Discussion By improving lifestyle, CVD risk may be lowered, yielding benefits for both employee and employer. If proven effective, this lifestyle intervention will be implemented on a larger scale within the Occupational Health Services in construction industry. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN60545588

  18. The Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing on Lifestyle Changes in Female Addicts under Way for Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamed ghasemi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of motivational interviewing on lifestyle changes in female addicts under way for recovery. Method: A quasi-experimental design along with pretest-posttest and control group was used for this study. The number of 32 female addicts referring to rehab centers constituted the study sample. With regard to the inclusion and exclusion criteria they were selected and randomly assigned to an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group was treated with eight sessions of group motivational interviewing along with lifestyle change program. Lifestyle questionnaire was used for data collection. Results: Intervention led the experimental group to higher lifestyle scores compared to the control group. Conclusion: It can be concluded from the findings of this study that the addition of motivational interviewing to lifestyle change programs is an effective way to change addictive behaviors and, thus, improve lifestyle.

  19. Lifestyle changes of Japanese people on overseas assignment in Michigan, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitamura Kazuya

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Temporary work assignments in the United States (US are widely considered to have negative health outcomes on Asians mostly due to adverse changes in diet and exercise, though there is little research on this phenomenon. This study investigated the impact of lifestyle changes on the biological and psychological health and health behaviours of Japanese people on temporary assignments in the US. Methods In this cross sectional survey, we distributed a 38 item self-administered questionnaire addressing health habits, mental health function, lifestyle changes and dietary habits to adult Japanese patients presenting for general physicals at a family medicine clinic serving Japanese patients. We conducted simple statistics and regression analysis between length of stay and other health outcomes to determine whether length of residence in the US was predictive of negative lifestyle changes. Results Most participants reported increased caloric intake, weight gain, and less exercise. They also reported increased time with family. More women than men reported physical symptoms and anxiety related to stress. Smoking and alcohol intake were essentially unchanged. No associations were identified between length of residence in the US and health lifestyle habits or other health outcomes. Conclusion Negative lifestyle changes occur in diet and exercise for overseas Japanese people, but a positive change in increased family time was found. Women appear to be at a greater risk for somatic disorders than men. As duration of stay does not appear predictive of adverse changes, clinicians should advise patients going abroad of these risks regardless of the term of the work assignment.

  20. Relationship of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, M.B.M; Koppes, L.L.J.; Rodenburg, W.; Steeg, H. van; Proper, K.I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively study the association of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors. Methods: Workers participating in the Netherlands Working Conditions Cohort Study (2008 and 2009) (N = 5951) reported night and shift work, weight and height. Groups included stable

  1. Relationship of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, M.B.M.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Rodenburg, W.; Steeg, H. van; Proper, K.I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively study the association of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors. Methods: Workers participating in the Netherlands Working Conditions Cohort Study (2008 and 2009) (N = 5951) reported night and shift work, weight and height. Groups included stable

  2. Direct-to-Consumer Drug Advertisements Can Paradoxically Increase Intentions to Adopt Lifestyle Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Maya B.; Gould, Michael; Khazeni, Nayer

    2016-01-01

    Background: Direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertisements are thought to induce “boomerang effects,” meaning they reduce the perceived effectiveness of a potential alternative option: non-pharmaceutical treatment via lifestyle change. Past research has observed such effects using artificially created, text-only advertisements that may not adequate capture the complex, conflicting portrayal of lifestyle change in real television advertisements. In other risk domains, individual “problem status” often moderates boomerang effects, such that subjects who currently engage in the risky behavior exhibit the strongest boomerang effects. Objectives: We aimed to assess whether priming with real DTC television advertisements elicited boomerang effects on perceptions of lifestyle change and whether these effects, if present, were moderated by individual problem status. Methods: We assembled a sample of real, previously aired DTC television advertisements in order to naturalistically capture the portrayal of lifestyle change in real advertisements. We randomized 819 adults in the United States recruited via Amazon Mechanical Turk to view or not view an advertisement for a prescription drug. We further randomized subjects to judge either lifestyle change or drugs on three measures: general effectiveness, disease severity for a hypothetical patient, and personal intention to use the intervention if diagnosed with the target health condition. Results: Advertisement exposure induced a statistically significant, but weak, boomerang effect on general effectiveness (p = 0.01, partial R2 = 0.007) and did not affect disease severity score (p = 0.32, partial R2 = 0.0009). Advertisement exposure elicited a reverse boomerang effect of similar effect size on personal intentions, such that advertisement-exposed subjects reported comparatively higher intentions to use lifestyle change relative to drugs (p = 0.006, partial R2 = 0.008). Individual problem status did not

  3. Effectiveness of a Lifestyle Intervention Program among Persons at High Risk for Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes in a Rural Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadheim, Liane M.; Brewer, Kari A.; Kassner, Darcy R.; Vanderwood, Karl K.; Hall, Taryn O.; Butcher, Marcene K.; Helgerson, Steven D.; Harwell, Todd S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of translating the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) lifestyle intervention into practice in a rural community. Methods: In 2008, the Montana Diabetes Control Program worked collaboratively with Holy Rosary Healthcare to implement an adapted group-based DPP lifestyle intervention. Adults at high risk for…

  4. Changing trends of cardiovascular risk factors among Indians:a review of emerging risks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arun Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The global burden of disease due to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is escalating, and the changing trends of CVD risk factors are identified among Indians experiencing rapid health transition. Contributory causes include: growing population with demographic shifts and altered age profile, socio-economic factors, lifestyle changes due to urbanization. Indians are also having genetic predisposition to cardiovascular diseases and adult are susceptible to vascular disease linking possible gene-environment interactions influencing ethnic diversity. Altered diets with more of junk foods along with diminished physical activity are additive factors contributing to the acceleration of CVD epidemics, along with all form of tobacco use. The pace of health transition, however, varies across geographical regions from urban to rural population with consequent variations in the relative burdens of the dominant CVDs. A comprehensive public health response must be looked to plan over all strategies to integrate policies and programs that effectively impact on the multiple determinants of CVDs to provide protection over the life span through primordial, primary and secondary prevention. Populations as well as individuals at risk must be protected through initiatives, enable nutrition-based preventive strategies to protect and promote cardiovascular health.

  5. Changing trends of cardiovascular risk factors among Indians: a review of emerging risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The global burden of disease due to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs is escalating, and the changing trends of CVD risk factors are identified among Indians experiencing rapid health transition. Contributory causes include: growing population with demographic shifts and altered age profile, socio-economic factors, lifestyle changes due to urbanization. Indians are also having genetic predisposition to cardiovascular diseases and adult are susceptible to vascular disease linking possible gene-environment interactions influencing ethnic diversity. Altered diets with more of junk foods along with diminished physical activity are additive factors contributing to the acceleration of CVD epidemics, along with all form of tobacco use. The pace of health transition, however, varies across geographical regions from urban to rural population with consequent variations in the relative burdens of the dominant CVDs. A comprehensive public health response must be looked to plan over all strategies to integrate policies and programs that effectively impact on the multiple determinants of CVDs to provide protection over the life span through primordial, primary and secondary prevention. Populations as well as individuals at risk must be protected through initiatives, enable nutrition-based preventive strategies to protect and promote cardiovascular health.

  6. Changing trends of cardiovascular risk factors among Indians:a review of emerging risks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arun; Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The global burden of disease due to cardiovascular diseases(CVDs) is escalating,and the changing trends of CVD risk factors are identified among Indians experiencing rapid health transition.Contributory causes include:growing population with demographic shifts and altered age profile,socio-economic factors,lifestyle changes due to urbanization.Indians are also having genetic predisposition to cardiovascular diseases and adult are susceptible to vascular disease linking possible gene-environment interactions influencing ethnic diversity.Altered diets with more of junk foods along with diminished physical activity are additive factors contributing to the acceleration of CVD epidemics,along with all form of tobacco use.The pace of health transition,however,varies across geographical regions from urban to rural population with consequent variations in the relative burdens of the dominant CVDs.A comprehensive public health response must be looked to plan over all strategies to integrate policies and programs that effectively impact on the multiple determinants of CVDs to provide protection over the life span through primordial,primary and secondary prevention.Populations as well as individuals at risk must be protected through initiatives,enable nutritionbased preventive strategies to protect and promote cardiovascular health.

  7. Changing lifestyles and oral clefts occurrence in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Camilla; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.; Christensen, Kaare

    2005-01-01

    ; furthermore, smoking among pregnant women decreased considerably. Design and settings There are few places in which ecological studies of oral clefts are possible. Denmark provides a particularly good setting for this kind of study, due to a high ascertainment and a centralized registration of cleft cases...... births, 95% CI=1.37 to 1.52). The introduction of folic acid and the decrease in smoking prevalence among pregnant women do not seem to have reduced the birth prevalence negatively. This may be due to non-compliance in respect to the folic acid recommendation and/or only a weak causal association between......The aim of this project was to access whether any changes in the birth prevalence of cleft lip with/without cleft palate (CL(P)) occurred in Denmark during the period 1988 through 2001. In this period an official recommendation of a supplementation of folic acid to pregnant women was introduced...

  8. Effectiveness of community-based comprehensive healthy lifestyle promotion on cardiovascular disease risk factors in a rural Vietnamese population: a quasi-experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Quang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health promotion is a key component for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD. This study evaluated the impact of healthy lifestyle promotion campaigns on CVD risk factors (CVDRF in the general population in the context of a community-based programme on hypertension management. Methods A quasi-experimental intervention study was carried out in two rural communes of Vietnam from 2006 to 2009. In the intervention commune, a hypertensive-targeted management programme integrated with a community-targeted health promotion was initiated, while no new programme, apart from conventional healthcare services, was provided in the reference commune. Health promotion campaigns focused on smoking cessation, reducing alcohol consumption, encouraging physical activity and reducing salty diets. Repeated cross-sectional surveys in local adult population aged 25 years and over were undertaken to assess changes in blood pressure (BP and behavioural CVDRFs (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and salty diet in both communes before and after the 3-year intervention. Results Overall 4,650 adults above 25 years old were surveyed, in four randomly independent samples covering both communes at baseline and after the 3-year intervention. Although physical inactivity and obesity increased over time in the intervention commune, there was a significant reduction in systolic and diastolic BP (3.3 and 4.7 mmHg in women versus 3.0 and 4.6 mmHg in men respectively in the general population at the intervention commune. Health promotion reduced levels of salty diets but had insignificant impact on the prevalence of daily smoking or heavy alcohol consumption. Conclusion Community-targeted healthy lifestyle promotion can significantly improve some CVDRFs in the general population in a rural area over a relatively short time span. Limited effects on a context-bound CVDRF like smoking suggested that higher intensity of intervention

  9. Pregnancy and childbirth: What changes in the lifestyle of women who become mothers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emília de Carvalho Coutinho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is a period influenced by the interaction of several factors, therefore this study aimed to identify changes in lifestyles due to pregnancy and childbirth in Portuguese and immigrant women in Portugal. This is a qualitative study, using the semi-structured interview, with eighty-two Portuguese and immigrant women. Content analysis was used, with verbatim classification supported by Nvivo 10. It was authorized by an Ethics Commission. Results revealed that the primary changes in lifestyles due to pregnancy were in eating habits (nutrition, daily activity, exposure to danger, sleep and rest patterns, social and family relationships, going out, self-care, work, clothing and footwear, travel, health monitoring and sexual activity and substances consumption. The main change after the birth, manifested by these women, was that their lives began to revolve around their baby.

  10. Changing Lifestyles Towards a Low Carbon Economy: An IPAT Analysis for China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Hubacek

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available China has achieved notable success in developing its economy with approximate 10 percent average annual GDP growth over the last two decades. At the same time, energy consumption and CO2 emissions almost doubled every five years, which led China to be the world top emitter in 2007. In response, China’s government has put forward a carbon mitigation target of 40%–45% reduction of CO2 emission intensity by 2020. To better understand the potential for success or failure of such a policy, it is essential to assess different driving forces such as population, lifestyle and technology and their associated CO2 emissions. This study confirms that increase of affluence has been the main driving force for China’s CO2 emissions since the late 1970s, which outweighs reductions achieved through technical progress. Meanwhile, the contribution of population growth to CO2 emissions was relatively small. We also found a huge disparity between urban and rural households in terms of changes of lifestyle and consumption patterns. Lifestyles in urban China are beginning to resemble Western lifestyles, and approaching their level of CO2 emissions. Therefore, in addition to the apparent inefficiencies in terms of production technologies there is also a lot of room for improvement on the consumption side especially in interaction of current infrastructure investments and future consumption.

  11. Prevention and Control of Cardiovascular Disease in the Rapidly Changing Economy of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yangfeng; Benjamin, Emelia J; MacMahon, Stephen

    2016-06-14

    With one-fifth of the world's total population, China's prevention and control of cardiovascular disease (CVD) may affect the success of worldwide efforts to achieve sustainable CVD reduction. Understanding China's current cardiovascular epidemic requires awareness of the economic development in the past decades. The rapid economic transformations (industrialization, marketization, urbanization, globalization, and informationalization) contributed to the aging demography, unhealthy lifestyles, and environmental changes. The latter have predisposed to increasing cardiovascular risk factors and the CVD pandemic. Rising CVD rates have had a major economic impact, which has challenged the healthcare system and the whole society. With recognition of the importance of health, initial political steps and national actions have been taken to address the CVD epidemic. Looking to the future, we recommend that 4 priorities should be taken: pursue multisectorial government and nongovernment strategies targeting the underlying causes of CVD (the whole-of-government and whole-of-society policy); give priority to prevention; reform the healthcare system to fit the nature of noncommunicable diseases; and conduct research for evidence-based, low-cost, simple, sustainable, and scalable interventions. By pursuing the 4 priorities, the pandemic of CVD and other major noncommunicable diseases in China will be reversed and the global sustainable development goal achieved. PMID:27297347

  12. Relationship of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors.

    OpenAIRE

    Bekkers, M.B.M; Koppes, L.L.J.; Rodenburg, W.; van Steeg, H.; Proper, K.I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively study the association of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors. Methods: Workers participating in the Netherlands Working Conditions Cohort Study (2008 and 2009) (N = 5951) reported night and shift work, weight and height. Groups included stable night or shift work, from day work to night or shift work, from night or shift work to day work, and no night or shift work in 2008 and 2009. Regression analyses were used to study association chan...

  13. Vitamin D status and changes in cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Pisinger, Charlotta;

    2012-01-01

    A low vitamin D level has been associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk but possible mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated the association between vitamin D levels and 5-year changes in blood pressure, lipid profile and incidence of the metabolic syndrome, hypertension and hyper...... hypercholesterolemia....

  14. Development of the Motivation to Change Lifestyle and Health Behaviours for Dementia Risk Reduction Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarang Kim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: It is not yet understood how attitudes concerning dementia risk may affect motivation to change health behaviours and lifestyle. This study was designed to develop a reliable and valid theory-based measure to understand beliefs underpinning the lifestyle and health behavioural changes needed for dementia risk reduction. Methods: 617 participants aged ≥50 years completed a theory-based questionnaire, namely, the Motivation to Change Lifestyle and Health Behaviours for Dementia Risk Reduction (MCLHB-DRR scale. The MCLHB-DRR consists of 53 items, reflecting seven subscales of the Health Belief Model. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis was performed and revealed that a seven-factor solution with 27 items fitted the data (comparative fit index = 0.920, root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.047 better than the original 53 items. Internal reliability (α = 0.608-0.864 and test-retest reliability (α = 0.552-0.776 were moderate to high. Measurement of invariance across gender and age was also demonstrated. Conclusions: These results propose that the MCLHB-DRR is a useful tool in assessing the beliefs and attitudes of males and females aged ≥50 years towards dementia risk reduction. This measure can be used in the development and evaluation of interventions aimed at dementia prevention.

  15. Nurse-led motivational interviewing to change the lifestyle of patients with type 2 diabetes (MILD-project: protocol for a cluster, randomized, controlled trial on implementing lifestyle recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niessen Louis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diabetes of many patients is managed in general practice; healthcare providers aim to promote healthful behaviors, such as healthful diet, adequate physical activity, and smoking cessation. These measures may decrease insulin resistance, improve glycemic control, lipid abnormalities, and hypertension. They may also prevent cardiovascular disease and complications of diabetes. However, professionals do not adhere optimally to guidelines for lifestyle counseling. Motivational interviewing to change the lifestyle of patients with type 2 diabetes is intended to improve diabetes care in accordance with the national guidelines for lifestyle counseling. Primary care nurses will be trained in motivational interviewing embedded in structured care in general practice. The aim of this paper is to describe the design and methods of a study evaluating the effects of the nurses' training on patient outcomes. Methods/Design A cluster, randomized, controlled trial involving 70 general practices (35 practices in the intervention arm and 35 in the control arm starting in March 2007. A total of 700 patients with type 2 diabetes will be recruited. The patients in the intervention arm will receive care from the primary care nurse, who will receive training in an implementation strategy with motivational interviewing as the core component. Other components of this strategy will be adaptation of the diabetes protocol to local circumstances, introduction of a social map for lifestyle support, and educational and supportive tools for sustaining motivational interviewing. The control arm will be encouraged to maintain usual care. The effect measures will be the care process, metabolic parameters (glycosylated hemoglobin, blood pressure and lipids, lifestyle (diet, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol, health-related quality of life, and patients' willingness to change behaviors. The measurements will take place at baseline and after 14 months

  16. A Clinician’s Perspective on Incorporating Therapeutic Lifestyle Change into Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. McIntosh

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the unique perspective of a clinician who was originally trained as an acute care specialist but in recent years had the opportunity to witness the positive impact of therapeutic lifestyle change (TLC programs in managing chronic diseases. Through experience gained from conducting a multi-center clinical trial investigating the effects of TLC program in people with metabolic syndrome, Dr. Mark S. McIntosh discusses various aspects and challenges pertinent to implementing a successful TLC program. Patients, physicians, lifestyle counselors, work places, and home environment are all critical in forming an alliance for transforming the current sick-care approach to preventive, wellness-focused approach that is far more efficient,rewarding, and financially sustainable.

  17. Making and maintaining lifestyle changes after participating in group based type 2 diabetes self-management educations: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marit B Rise

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disease management is crucial in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes self-management education aims to provide the knowledge necessary to make and maintain lifestyle changes. However, few studies have investigated the processes after such courses. The aim of this study was to investigate how participants make and maintain lifestyle changes after participating in group-based type 2 diabetes self-management education. METHODS: Data was collected through qualitative semi-structured interviews with 23 patients who attended educational group programs in Central Norway. The participants were asked how they had used the advice given and what they had changed after the course. RESULTS: Knowledge was essential for making lifestyle changes following education. Three factors affected whether lifestyle changes were implemented: obtaining new knowledge, taking responsibility, and receiving confirmation of an already healthy lifestyle. Four factors motivated individuals to maintain changes: support from others, experiencing an effect, fear of complications, and the formation of new habits. CONCLUSION: Knowledge was used to make and maintain changes in diet, medication and physical activity. Knowledge also acted as confirmation of an already adequate lifestyle. Knowledge led to no changes if diabetes appeared "not that scary" or if changes appeared too time consuming. Those involved in diabetes education need to be aware of the challenges in convincing asymptomatic patients about the benefits of adherence to self-management behaviour.

  18. Health promotion in the Danish maritime setting: challenges and possibilities for changing lifestyle behavior and health among seafarers

    OpenAIRE

    Hjarnoe, Lulu; Leppin, Anja

    2013-01-01

    Background Seafaring is a risky occupation when compared to land-based industries as incidence rates of mortality and morbidity are higher. This trend is partly due to a higher number of accidents but also higher incidence of lifestyle-related diseases like cardiovascular disease and lung cancer. In Denmark, the proportion of smokers as well as of overweight and obese persons is higher among seafarers compared to the general population. This high burden of risk indicates that this occupationa...

  19. [Cardiovascular prevention - 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vértes, András; Szabados, Eszter

    2016-09-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the main causes of premature death worldwide despite the fact that cardiovascular mortality decreased significantly in the last few decades in financially developed countries. This reduction is partly due to the modern medical and revascularisation treatments, and partly because of the effectiveness of prevention strategies such as lowering blood pressure and cholesterol level, as well as successful strategies against smoking. However, this positive trend is undermined by the striking growth in obesity and in type 2 diabetes mellitus, which could also be successfully controlled by lifestyle changes. This summary is based on an overview of the recent (2016) European Guideline for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases. Here the authors describe preventive strategies and goals to be achieved, the most important lifestyle suggestions, and the secondary prevention medical treatment for patients with already established cardiovascular disease. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(38), 1526-1531. PMID:27640620

  20. Development of DASH Mobile: a mHealth lifestyle change intervention for the management of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Devin M; Kudesia, Valmeek; Reddy, Shivani; Weng, Michael; Imler, Daniel; Quintiliani, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Several landmark studies based on the DASH diet have established the effectiveness of a lifestyle approach to blood pressure control that emphasizes a diet rich in fruits and vegetables with moderate portions of low-fat dairy and lean protein along with increased physical activity and reduced sodium intake. However, this evidence base remains underused due feasibility limitations of implementing these intense in-person interventions and poor engagement with desktop computer based versions. Mobile technologies such as smartphones and wireless sensors have the ability to deliver behavioral interventions in-the-moment and with reduced user burden. DASH Mobile is a new mHealth system being developed to deliver this evidence-based lifestyle intervention to hypertensive patients. The system consists of an Android based "app" that facilitates easy tracking of DASH food portions, integrated Bluetooth blood pressure, weight and pedometer monitoring, goal setting, simple data visualizations and multimedia video clips to train patients in the basic concepts of the lifestyle change plan. At present, the system is undergoing usability testing with a pilot clinical trial planned for Spring 2013. PMID:23920747

  1. Making and Maintaining Lifestyle Changes after Participating in Group Based Type 2 Diabetes Self-Management Educations: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rise, Marit B; Anneli Pellerud; Rygg, Lisbeth Ø.; Aslak Steinsbekk

    2013-01-01

    Background: Disease management is crucial in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes self-management education aims to provide the knowledge necessary to make and maintain lifestyle changes. However, few studies have investigated the processes after such courses. The aim of this study was to investigate how participants make and maintain lifestyle changes after participating in group-based type 2 diabetes self-management education. Methods: Data was collected through qualitative semi-st...

  2. Lifestyle changes and beliefs regarding disease severity in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castera, L; Constant, A; Bernard, P-H; de Ledinghen, V; Couzigou, P

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to investigate beliefs regarding disease severity and lifestyle changes following hepatitis C diagnosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). One hundred and eighty-five consecutive CHC patients were interviewed by means of self-questionnaires exploring several aspects of their disease. Most patients (93%) identified cirrhosis and liver cancer as the two main complications of CHC. More than half of patients (59%) thought that CHC was always associated with a fatal outcome whereas 3% thought that they would stay healthy. HCV viral load was the most commonly reported factor associated with disease severity. Sex life changes were reported by 107 patients (58%) whereas dietary intake changes were reported by 88 patients (48%). In multivariate analysis, changes in sex life were associated with male gender [odds ratio (OR): 2.57, 95% CI: 1.30-5.08, P patients' lifestyle. They emphasize the need for improving CHC patient counselling in order to avoid unnecessary sex life and dietary intake changes. PMID:16792542

  3. Effects of Psychosocial Work Factors on Lifestyle Changes: A Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allard, K. O.; Thomsen, J. F.; Mikkelsen, S.;

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To evaluate the effect of the demand-control-support model, the effort-reward imbalance model, and emotional demands on smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and body mass index. METHODS:: This is a 2-year prospective cohort study of 3224 public sector employees. Measures...... were assessed with questionnaires. Multiple regression analyses were used to predict changes in lifestyle factors. RESULTS:: Low reward predicted smoking, low-decision latitude predicted being inactive, and high demands predicted high-alcohol consumption but only for men at follow-up even after...

  4. Cardiovascular Changes in Animal Models of Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre M. Lehnen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome has been defined as a group of risk factors that directly contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance seems to have a fundamental role in the genesis of this syndrome. Over the past years to the present day, basic and translational research has used small animal models to explore the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome and to develop novel therapies that might slow the progression of this prevalent condition. In this paper we discuss the animal models used for the study of metabolic syndrome, with particular focus on cardiovascular changes, since they are the main cause of death associated with the condition in humans.

  5. Lifestyles and the cardiovascular complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus%生活方式与2型糖尿病心血管疾病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋菲; 胡承; 贾伟平

    2013-01-01

    [Summary] Various complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are more harmful than T2DM itself.Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the major causes of diabetes-associated disability and mortality.Most studies have shown a close relationship between the lifestyles of T2DM patients and the development of CVD.Keeping a healthy lifestyle is essential in preventing and treating CVD for patients with T2DM.This article was tried to elucidate the roles of different components of diet,exercises,and sedentary behavior on diabetic CVD.%2型糖尿病的各种并发症带来的危害通常超过糖尿病本身的危害,特别是与之相关的心血管疾病(CVD)的发生是2型糖尿病患者高致残率和高死亡率的主要原因.国内外现有的研究表明,人们的生活方式与糖尿病心血管并发症的发生发展有着密切的关系,如何保持合理的生活方式是糖尿病患者防治CVD的关键.本文试从饮食各成分、运动及静坐对糖尿病患者CVD的可能影响进行阐述.

  6. Link between cognitive status and motivation to make lifestyle changes to prevent Alzheimer’s Disease: The Gray Matters Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hovey, Randi; Dopp, Austin

    2016-01-01

    Research on prevention strategies have shown promising results for delaying onset of Alzheimer's disease with simple lifestyle changes. Preventable medical conditions linked to increase risk for AD include: high blood pressure sedentary lifestyle poorly managed diabetes Several behavioral factors have been associated with risk of developing the disease. These include: sleep quality stress-management social engagement cognitive activity Although there are known genetic factors, ...

  7. Estilos de vida asociados al riesgo cardiovascular global en trabajadores universitarios del Estado de México Lifestyle conditions related to global cardiovascular risk among university workers in the State of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Cerecero

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar la asociación del estilo de vida con el riesgo cardiovascular (RCV en trabajadores universitarios del Estado de México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio de casos y controles anidado en una cohorte. Se evaluaron variables del estilo de vida, sociodemográficas, antropométricas y antecedentes familiares. El análisis estimó razones de momios pareadas crudas y ajustadas a través de regresión logística condicional. RESULTADOS: Se estudiaron 342 casos con RCV y 684 controles. En los trabajadores con sobrepeso u obesidad, el RCV superó al de aquéllos con peso normal. Los antecedentes familiares de infarto del miocardio se asociaron directamente, y la actividad física moderada-vigorosa inversamente con el RCV, en modelos con interacciones entre género y actividad física; esta relación se mantuvo sólo en los hombres. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados muestran el papel preponderante de la actividad física moderada-vigorosa como factor del estilo de vida asociado con menor RCV.OBJETIVES: To assess the relationship between lifestyle and cardiovascular risk (CR among university workers in the State of Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted and lifestyle, sociodemographic, anthropometric, body mass index and family history of cardiovascular disease were assessed. The analysis included the estimation of crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: The study included 342 workers with CR and 684 controls. CR was greater for workers with overweight or obesity than for those with normal weight. Family history of myocardial infarction was directly associated with CR, while physical activity was inversely associated. In models with interactions of gender and physical activity, this relation was observed only for men. CONCLUSIONS: Results show an inverse association between the lifestyle factor of physical activity and CR.

  8. Association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D with lifestyle factors and metabolic and cardiovascular disease markers: population-based cross-sectional study (FIN-D2D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maija E Miettinen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD level has been associated with an increased risk of several chronic diseases. Our aim was to determine lifestyle and clinical factors that are associated with 25OHD level and to investigate connection of 25OHD level with metabolic and cardiovascular disease markers. DESIGN: In total, 2868 Finnish men and women aged 45-74 years participated in FIN-D2D population-based health survey in 2007. Participants that had a serum sample available (98.4%; n = 2822 were included in this study. 25OHD was measured with chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay method. RESULTS: The mean 25OHD level was 58.2 nmol/l in men (n = 1348 and 57.1 nmol/l in women (n = 1474. Mean 25OHD level was lower in the younger age groups than in the older ones (p<0.0001 both in men and women. This study confirmed that low physical activity (p<0.0001 both in men and women, smoking (p = 0.0002 in men and p = 0.03 in women and high BMI (p<0.0001 in women are factors that independently associate with low 25OHD level. Of the metabolic and cardiovascular disease markers high triglyceride concentration (p = 0.02 in men and p = 0.001 in women and high apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio (p = 0.04 in men and p = 0.03 in women were independently associated with low 25OHD level. CONCLUSIONS: Higher age did not predict lower 25OHD level in this study population of aged 45-74 years which may derive from a healthy life-style of "active pensioners". Low physical activity and smoking came up as independent lifestyle factors associated with low 25OHD level. Defining the molecular mechanisms behind the associations of 25OHD with low physical activity and smoking are important objective in future studies. The association of 25OHD with BMI, high triglyceride concentration and apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio may be related to the role of vitamin D in inflammation, but more detailed studies are needed.

  9. Changes in lifestyle and total homocysteine in relation to MTHFR (C677T) genotype: the Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husemoen, LL; Thomsen, TF; Fenger, M;

    2006-01-01

    , changes in tHcy did not differ between participants randomized to low- and high-intensity lifestyle intervention. However, the MTHFR TT genotype was associated with a significant decrease in tHcy compared with the CC/CT genotype in which an increase was observed. In addition, changes in tHcy were...... associated with changes in several of the biological CVD risk markers: weight, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and systolic blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that tHcy may not be reduced by lifestyle changes; additionally, they suggest that tHcy may be related...

  10. A healthy eating and lifestyle school intervention : conceptual and attitudinal change but no behavioural change

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Graça Simões; Vieira, Margarida; Anastácio, Zélia

    2012-01-01

    Low fruit and vegetables intake in adolescence is among main risk factors for obesity and other chronic diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Establishing healthy eating habits in adolescents is of paramount importance to lead to future healthy adults, and school is the best place to take forward an effective approach to improve their food choices. The aim of this study was to investigate how far a specific school intervention is able to promote conceptual, attitudi...

  11. Lifestyle changes for the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a review of observational studies and intervention trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelber-Sagi, Shira; Godos, Justyna; Salomone, Federico

    2016-05-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is emerging as a major public health problem because of its association with increased cardiovascular and liver-related morbidity and mortality. Both genetic factors and lifestyle contribute to the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Lifestyle, including dietary habits and physical activity, is a modifiable risk factor and thus represents the main target for the prevention and treatment of NAFLD. In this review, we summarize the evidence regarding nutritional aspects (i.e. total energy intake, saturated fat and carbohydrates intake, certain foods or drinks and dietary patterns as a whole) in the treatment of NAFLD. In addition, we analyze the evidence concerning the independent effect of physical activity, including aerobic and resistance training, in the treatment of NAFLD. A therapeutic algorithm according to results from intervention trials is also provided for clinicians and other healthcare professionals involved in the management of NAFLD. PMID:27134667

  12. Geographic Determinants of Healthy Lifestyle Change in a Community-Based Exercise Prescription Delivered in Family Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Petrella

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence is unequivocal that exercise training can improve health outcomes. However, despite this evidence, adoption of healthy lifestyles is poor. The physical environment is one possible determinant of successful adoption of healthy lifestyles that could influence outcomes in community-based intervention strategies. We developed a novel exercise prescription delivered in two different cohorts of older sedentary adults—one delivered by family physicians to patients with identified cardiovascular risk factors (CRF and the other delivered at a community exercise facility to a larger cohort of healthy sedentary adults (HSA. We then determined whether the place of residence and proximity to facilities promoting physical activity and healthy or unhealthy eating could influence clinical changes related to these community-based exercise prescriptions.Methods: Two different cohorts of older patients were administered similar exercise prescriptions. The CRF cohort was a sedentary group of 41 older adults with either high-normal blood pressure (120–139 mmHg/85–89 mmHg or impaired glucose tolerance (fasting glucose 6.1–6.9 mmol/l who were prescribed exercise by their family physicians at baseline and followed over 12 months. The HSA cohort consisted of 159 sedentary older adults who were prescribed a similar exercise prescription and then participated in a chronic training program over 5 years at a community-based training facility. Out- comes of interest were change in fitness (VO2max, resting systolic blood pressure (rSBP and body mass index (BMI. GIS-determined shortest distance to local facilities promoting physical activity and healthy versus unhealthy were compared at baseline and follow up using simple logistic regression.Those subjects in CRF group were further identified as responders (exhibited an above average change in VO2max and were then compared to non-responders according to their patterns of proximity to physical

  13. The long-term effect of screening and lifestyle counseling on changes in physical activity and diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Sophie; Toft, Ulla; Aadahl, Mette;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multi-factorial intervention studies have been found to be successful in the initiation of lifestyle changes. However, little is known about the longer-term maintenance of health behavior improvements. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether improvements in physical activ...... on physical activity and dietary habits five years after its discontinuation. The patterns of long-term changes in lifestyle differed across behaviors and between men and women. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT00289237 ).......BACKGROUND: Multi-factorial intervention studies have been found to be successful in the initiation of lifestyle changes. However, little is known about the longer-term maintenance of health behavior improvements. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether improvements in physical...

  14. Exercise and the Cardiovascular System

    OpenAIRE

    Saeid Golbidi; Ismail Laher

    2012-01-01

    There are alarming increases in the incidence of obesity, insulin resistance, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The risk of these diseases is significantly reduced by appropriate lifestyle modifications such as increased physical activity. However, the exact mechanisms by which exercise influences the development and progression of cardiovascular disease are unclear. In this paper we review some important exercise-induced changes in cardiac, vascular, and blood tissues and discuss...

  15. A cluster randomised school-based lifestyle intervention programme for the prevention of childhood obesity and related early cardiovascular disease (JuvenTUM 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haller Bernhard

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is not only associated with adult obesity but also with increased risk of adult onset of type 2 diabetes and subsequent coronary heart disease. The potential effects of school-based health intervention programmes on cardiovascular risk and surrogate markers are unclear, as only few studies have attempted to investigate a complete risk profile including a detailed laboratory analysis or micro- and macrovascular function. In this study a comprehensive school-based randomized intervention programme will be investigated in 10-14-year old children addressing the influence of lifestyle intervention on inactivity, cardiometabolic risk factors and early signs of vascular disease. Methods/Design 15 secondary schools in Southern Germany are randomly assigned to intervention or control schools. Children in the fifth grade (10-11 years will be observed over four years. The study combines a school-based with a home-based approach, aiming at children, teachers and parents. The main components are weekly lifestyle-lessons for children, taught by regular classroom teachers to increase physical activity in- and outside of school, to improve eating patterns at school and at home, to reduce media consumption and to amplify well-being. In 4-6 annual meetings, teachers receive information about health-related topics with worksheets for children and supporting equipment, accounting for school-specific needs and strategies. Parents' trainings are provided on a regular basis. All examinations are performed at the beginning and at the end of every school year. Anthropometry includes measurements of BMI, waist and upper arm circumferences, skinfold thickness as well as peripheral blood pressure. Blood sampling includes lipid parameters, insulin, glucose, hsCRP, adiponectin, and IL-6 as well as testosteron and estrogen to determine maturation status. Vascular function is non-invasively assessed by measuring arterial stiffness in large

  16. Challenges and Opportunities in the Management of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Youth With Type 1 Diabetes: Lifestyle and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Michelle; Giani, Elisa; Laffel, Lori

    2015-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in persons with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Specific risk factors associated with diabetes, such as hyperglycemia and kidney disease, have been demonstrated to increase the incidence and progression of CVD. Nevertheless, few data exist on the effects of traditional risk factors such as dyslipidemia, obesity, and hypertension on CVD risk in youth with T1D. Improvements in understanding and approaches to the evaluation and management of CVD risk factors, specifically for young persons with T1D, are desirable. Recent advances in noninvasive techniques to detect early vascular damage, such as the evaluation of endothelial dysfunction and aortic or carotid intima-media thickness, provide new tools to evaluate the progression of CVD in childhood. In the present review, current CVD risk factor management, challenges, and potential therapeutic interventions in youth with T1D are described.

  17. Relationship of changing social atmosphere, lifestyle and bone mineral density in college students

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In Ja; Ko, Yo Han; Kim, Chung Kyung; Kim, Hee Sol; Park, Da Jeong; Yoon, Hyeo Min; Jeong, Yu Jin [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Dongnam Health college, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    The decrease of bone mineral density gives rise to the outbreak of osteopenia and makes the possibility of a bone fracture. It makes health problems in society. It's very important to prevent osteopenia in advance. Also it's critical to prevent and take care of it in adolescent because it's the most developing period comparing to middle ages because that bone mineral density decreases. There are genetic, physical and environmental factors that affect bone mineral density. Recently, a lifestyle and eating habits are also changing as the society atmosphere is gradually doing. This study have shown that 134 women and 75 men was chosen and responded to the survey of measuring bone mineral density and investigating a lifestyle. The measure of bone mineral density is to use Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry(DEXA) and check femoral neck and lumbar spine. Also questionaries was required to pre-made survey about their lifestyles. Analysis of data was done with SPSS program. Multiple regression analysis was used for the relation of bone mineral density, the heigths and BMI. The sample of Groups are checked for drinking, smoking or excercising about differences by t-test. The results of the experiments were; first, there is statistically significant differences in the comparisons between BMD and BMD. But there isn't any special correlation between drinking, smoking and BMD. Secondly, bone mineral density becomes low related to an intake of caffeine. Particularly, this is statically significant on women. Also there is statically significant correlation between femoral neck and quantity of motion for both men and women. Third, there is significant relation between eating habits and bone mineral density on women's lumbar spine. However, there is no significant relation between men's lumbar spine and women's one. Therefore, to prevent osteopenia, it's good to abstain from intaking caffeine within an hour after a meal. In addition, it

  18. The A-Framework: The Role of Access, Attributes, and Affordance in the Adoption of Distance Education Technology for Lifestyle Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Patrick J.; Moisey, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory mixed methods case study examined the use of distance education technology for lifestyle change within the context of obesity treatment and weight management. In the quantitative phase of the study, 19 adults involved in an obesity-related lifestyle change program or change process completed a questionnaire that determined their…

  19. Effecting Healthy Lifestyle Changes in Overweight and Obese Young Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pett, Marjorie; Clark, Lauren; Eldredge, Alison; Cardell, Beth; Jordan, Kristine; Chambless, Cathy; Burley, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated a 12-week recreation center-based healthy lifestyle intervention for 30 obese home-dwelling young adults (YA) with intellectual disabilities. Three cohorts participated: YA only, YA and parents, and parents only. The YA cohorts received a nutrition/exercise intervention; parents focused on modeling healthy lifestyle behaviors.…

  20. Healthy lifestyle behaviour among Ghanaian adults in the phase of a health policy change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dake Fidelia AA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many countries have adopted health policies that are targeted at reducing the risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases. These policies promote a healthy population by encouraging people to adopt healthy lifestyle behaviours. This paper examines healthy lifestyle behaviour among Ghanaian adults by comparing behaviours before and after the introduction of a national health policy. The paper also explores the socio-economic and demographic factors associated with healthy lifestyle behaviour. Method Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate regression techniques were employed on two nationally representative surveys (2003 World Health Survey (Ghana and 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey to arrive at the results. Results While the prevalence of some negative lifestyle behaviours like smoking has reduced others like alcohol consumption has increased. Relatively fewer people adhered to consuming the recommended amount of fruit and vegetable servings per day in 2008 compared to 2003. While more females (7.0% exhibited healthier lifestyles, more males (9.0% exhibited risky lifestyle behaviours after the introduction of the policy. Conclusion The improvement in healthy lifestyle behaviours among female adult Ghanaians will help promote healthy living and potentially lead to a reduction in the prevalence of obesity among Ghanaian women. The increase in risky lifestyle behaviour among adult male Ghanaians even after the introduction of the health policy could lead to an increase in the risk of non-communicable diseases among men and the resultant burden of disease on them and their families will push more people into poverty.

  1. Comparative Analysis of Korean Television Dramas between 1977 and 1987: Changes of Themes and Lifestyles of Characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Eung-Jun

    To examine how the contents of Korean television serial dramas have changed and to determine trends of their portrayals of male and female characters' lifestyles, a study analyzed Korean television dramas of 1977 and 1987. A sample of three channels' video--22 daily and 14 weekly episodes of 18 different television dramas during weekday prime time…

  2. Consumer willingness to invest money and time for benefits of lifestyle behaviour change: An application of the contingent valuation method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F.G. Alayli-Goebbels (Adrienne F.G.); N.J.A. van Exel (Job); A.J.H.A. Ament (André); N.K. de Vries (Nanne); S.D.M. Bot (Sandra); J.L. Severens (Hans)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Objective: To use contingent valuation (CV) to derive individual consumer values for both health and broader benefits of a public-health intervention directed at lifestyle behaviour change (LBC) and to examine the feasibility and validity of the method. Method: Particip

  3. The Questionnaire of Lifestyle Change in Regard to Problematic Internet Use: Factor Structure and Concurrent and Cross-Year Predictive Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Yu-Chen; Lin, Sunny S. J.; Tseng, Yin-Hsing; Hwang, Fang-Ming

    2012-01-01

    This study constructed a questionnaire, named "Lifestyle Change in Regard to Problematic Internet Use (LC-PIU)," for helping school psychologists detect early indications of PIU-related lifestyle changes in university populations. Our focus is on all university students who use the Internet, not users who already show dependent symptoms. The…

  4. Which Moral Foundations Predict Willingness to Make Lifestyle Changes to Avert Climate Change in the USA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Janis L.; McLeod, Poppy; Bloomfield, Robert; Allred, Shorna

    2016-01-01

    Jonathan Haidt’s Moral Foundations Theory identifies five moral axes that can influence human motivation to take action on vital problems like climate change. The theory focuses on five moral foundations, including compassion, fairness, purity, authority, and ingroup loyalty; these have been found to differ between liberals and conservatives as well as Democrats and Republicans. Here we show, based on the Cornell National Social Survey (USA), that valuations of compassion and fairness were strong, positive predictors of willingness to act on climate change, whereas purity had a non-significant tendency in the positive direction (p = 0.07). Ingroup loyalty and authority were not supported as important predictor variables using model selection (ΔAICc__). Compassion and fairness were more highly valued by liberals, whereas purity, authority, and in-group loyalty were more highly valued by conservatives. As in previous studies, participants who were younger, more liberal, and reported greater belief in climate change, also showed increased willingness to act on climate change. Our research supports the potential importance of moral foundations as drivers of intentions with respect to climate change action, and suggests that compassion, fairness, and to a lesser extent, purity, are potential moral pathways for personal action on climate change in the USA. PMID:27760207

  5. Healthy lifestyle behaviour among Ghanaian adults in the phase of a health policy change

    OpenAIRE

    Dake Fidelia AA; Tagoe Henry A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Many countries have adopted health policies that are targeted at reducing the risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases. These policies promote a healthy population by encouraging people to adopt healthy lifestyle behaviours. This paper examines healthy lifestyle behaviour among Ghanaian adults by comparing behaviours before and after the introduction of a national health policy. The paper also explores the socio-economic and demographic factors associated with he...

  6. African Americans’ Perceptions of Adherence to Medications and Lifestyle Changes Prescribed to Treat Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettey, Christina M.; McSweeney, Jean C.; Stewart, Katharine E.; Cleves, Mario A.; Price, Elvin T.; Heo, Seongkum; Souder, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    More than 80 million Americans have hypertension (HTN), and African Americans (AAs) are disproportionately affected. AAs also have lower rates of adherence to HTN treatment. It is important to understand AAs’ perceptions of adherence to develop effective interventions. The aim of this study is to examine AAs’ perceptions of adherence to medications and lifestyle changes prescribed to treat HTN. In this qualitative study, we used purposive sampling to recruit Southern AAs with HTN aged 21 and older from a free, faith-based clinic. We recorded individual, in-person interviews about perceptions related to adherence to treatment of HTN and analyzed verbatim transcripts using content analysis and constant comparison. We also conducted medical record audits. Twenty-nine AAs participated (52% female, 38% were <50 years of age, 52% had taken anti-HTN medications for ≥5 years). Audits indicated that 65% had uncontrolled HTN during the previous year. Two main themes included causes of HTN and ways to improve blood pressure. Perceived causes of HTN included diet, stress, unhealthy actions, genes, and obesity. Ways to improve HTN included using cultural treatments “passed down,” increasing exercise, reducing stress, and losing weight. Many reported using home remedies to control HTN, including drinking pickle juice. More than half of this sample had uncontrolled HTN. They identified influences of culture on perceptions of adherence including causes and treatment of HTN, and possibly detrimental home remedies. It is imperative that clinicians identify culturally appropriate interventions for this high-risk group. PMID:27148469

  7. African Americans’ Perceptions of Adherence to Medications and Lifestyle Changes Prescribed to Treat Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M. Pettey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 80 million Americans have hypertension (HTN, and African Americans (AAs are disproportionately affected. AAs also have lower rates of adherence to HTN treatment. It is important to understand AAs’ perceptions of adherence to develop effective interventions. The aim of this study is to examine AAs’ perceptions of adherence to medications and lifestyle changes prescribed to treat HTN. In this qualitative study, we used purposive sampling to recruit Southern AAs with HTN aged 21 and older from a free, faith-based clinic. We recorded individual, in-person interviews about perceptions related to adherence to treatment of HTN and analyzed verbatim transcripts using content analysis and constant comparison. We also conducted medical record audits. Twenty-nine AAs participated (52% female, 38% were <50 years of age, 52% had taken anti-HTN medications for ≥5 years. Audits indicated that 65% had uncontrolled HTN during the previous year. Two main themes included causes of HTN and ways to improve blood pressure. Perceived causes of HTN included diet, stress, unhealthy actions, genes, and obesity. Ways to improve HTN included using cultural treatments “passed down,” increasing exercise, reducing stress, and losing weight. Many reported using home remedies to control HTN, including drinking pickle juice. More than half of this sample had uncontrolled HTN. They identified influences of culture on perceptions of adherence including causes and treatment of HTN, and possibly detrimental home remedies. It is imperative that clinicians identify culturally appropriate interventions for this high-risk group.

  8. Keep on cruising: Changes in lifestyle and driving style among male drivers between the age of 18 and 23

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    Despite recent improvements in general road safety levels, young male drivers in most western countries continue to be overrepresented in road traffic accidents. Lifestyle related motivational factors are a key element in the young male driver problem. Based on 379 posted questionnaires completed...... group still showed a similar life style at the age of 23. The study confirmed the importance of lifestyle related motivational factors for driving behaviour among young drivers. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.......Despite recent improvements in general road safety levels, young male drivers in most western countries continue to be overrepresented in road traffic accidents. Lifestyle related motivational factors are a key element in the young male driver problem. Based on 379 posted questionnaires completed...... by the same male drivers at the age of 18 and again at the age of 23, this study examined changes in the relationship between lifestyle and driving style over a 5 year period. A number of changes in car use, driving style and engagement in different leisure time activities were found. Cruising was...

  9. Selling health lifestyles: using social marketing to promote change and prevent disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langill, Donna

    2004-11-01

    As part of its continuing mission to serve trustees and staff of health foundations and corporate giving programs, Grantmakers In Health (GIH) brought together grantmakers, researchers, and public health professionals on May 20, 2004 to discuss the application of social marketing principles to health promotion and chronic disease prevention. As a behavior change technique, social marketing has proven effective in motivating people to make the complex and difficult behavior changes that can improve health and reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes. The Issue Dialogue used the lens of tobacco prevention and cessation, physical activity, and healthy eating to examine how health grantmakers can use social marketing principles and techniques to encourage and support the adoption of healthier behaviors across the lifespan. This Issue Brief incorporates the information and ideas shared at the meeting with a background paper on social marketing that was prepared for participants who attended the Issue Dialogue. It starts with an introduction of social marketing concepts and provides a framework for assessing whether social marketing is an appropriate approach to use in addressing a particular issue. Subsequent sections: (1) describe both the social marketing communications process and techniques, using examples from campaigns developed by health grantmakers and others; (2) describe how social marketing can be used to promote policy change; (3) provide information on communication strategies that can complement social marketing; and (4) present opportunities for grantmakers. PMID:15551499

  10. A randomized lifestyle intervention with 5-year follow-up in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance: pronounced short-term impact but long-term adherence problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl, Bernt; Nilssön, Torbjörn K; Borch-Johnsen, Knut;

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: To compare data on cardiovascular risk factor changes in lipids, insulin, proinsulin, fibrinolysis, leptin and C-reactive protein, and on diabetes incidence, in relation to changes in lifestyle. METHODS: The study was a randomized lifestyle intervention trial conducted in northern Sweden be...

  11. Behaviour Change Techniques embedded in health and lifestyle apps: coding and analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaston Antezana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background There is evidence showing that commercially available health and lifestyle apps can be used as co-adjuvants to clinical interventions and for the prevention of chronic and non-communicable diseases. This can be particularly significant to support and improve wellbeing of young people given their familiarity with these resources. However it is important to understand the content and consistency of Behaviour Change Techniques (BCT’s embedded in the apps to maximise their potential benefits. Objectives This study explores the BCT content of a selected list of health and lifestyle tracking apps in three behavioural dimensions: physical activity, sleep and diet. We identified BCT commonalities within and between categories to detect the most frequently used and arguably more effective techniques in the context of wellbeing and promotion of health behaviours. Methods Apps were selected by using keywords and by reviewing the “health and fitness” category of GooglePlay (477 apps. The selection criteria included free apps (even if they also offered paid versions and being common to GooglePlay and AppStore. A background review of each app was also completed. Selected apps were classified according to user ratings in GooglePlay (apps with less that 4+ star ratings were disregarded. The top ten apps in each category were selected, making it a total of 30 for the analysis. Three coders used the apps for two months and were trained to use a comprehensive 93 items taxonomy (BCTv1 to complete the analysis. Results Strong BCT similarities were found across all three categories, suggesting a consistent basic content composition. Out of all 93 BCTS’s 8 were identified as being present in at least 50% of the apps. 6 of these BCT’s are concentrated in categories “1. Goals and Planning” and “2. Feedback and Monitoring”. BCT “Social support (unspecified” was coded for in 63% of the apps, as it was present through different features in

  12. Secular Changes of Adiposity and Motor Development in Czech Preschool Children: Lifestyle Changes in Fifty-Five Year Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Sedlak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Secular trends of adiposity and motor development in preschool children since the fifties of the last century up to the beginning of this millennium were analyzed so as to reveal possible changes due to continuously differentiating lifestyle. In preschool children (n=3678 height, weight, skinfold thickness over triceps, subscapular, and suprailiac were measured by Harpenden caliper in 1957, 1977, 1980, 1985, 1990, and 2012. Simultaneously, motor performance was tested by evaluating the achievements in broad jump and throwing a ball, as a marker of adaptation to changing level of physical activity, free games, and exercise. Along the period of five decades the values of skinfold thickness increased significantly until 2012, mainly on the trunk. Simultaneously, the level of motor performance significantly decreased. Modifications of the way of life during the mentioned five decades characterized by sedentarism and inadequate food intake as related to energy output influenced negatively both adiposity and motor performance already in preschool children. Mostly increased deposition of fat on the trunk which is considered as a marker of possible development of metabolic syndrome was apparent already in preschool age, indicating the importance of early intervention concerning also physical activity and availability for exercise since early life.

  13. Lifestyle changes in mild asthma during intermittent symptom-related use of terbutaline inhaled via 'Turbohaler'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northfield, M; Patel, R K; Richardson, A; Taylor, M D; Richardson, P D

    1991-01-01

    Beta 2-agonist therapy effectively relieves asthmatic symptoms, but an improvement in patient lifestyle has not been demonstrated. This open study in which patients acted as their own controls, assessed the efficacy and acceptability of intermittent symptom-related use of terbutaline inhaled via 'Turbohaler', and its influence on the lifestyle of 1133 inhaler-naive, mild asthmatics treated in general practice. A 1-week run-in period was followed by 4-weeks' treatment with inhaled terbutaline (500 micrograms as required). Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and 'Turbohaler' technique were assessed at clinic visits. Diary cards, completed daily, assessed: the number of terbutaline inhalations, the relief obtained after use, the severity of asthma symptoms (cough, morning wheeze, nocturnal wheeze and wheeze on activity), and lifestyle indices (sleep disturbance, work/school days lost, limitation of normal activity). After terbutaline treatment, PEFR increased by 54 +/- 2 l/min (p less than 0.001), the severity of asthma symptoms was almost halved (p less than 0.001), with over two-thirds (65% to 76%) of patients reporting improvements in each variable, and the adverse effect of asthma on lifestyle was at least halved (p less than 0.001). Improvements in lung function, asthma symptoms and lifestyle were comparable for all sub-groups: adults (greater than 16 years), school-age children (6 to 16 years) and preschool children (less than or equal to 5 years). This study not only confirmed the efficacy and acceptability of intermittent symptom-related use of terbutaline inhaled via 'Turbohaler', but also demonstrated that its use enhanced patients' lifestyles. PMID:1778086

  14. The bioengineering of changing lifestyle and wearable technology: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geib, Roy W; Swink, Phil J; Vorel, Alyssa J; Shepard, Cynthia S; Gurovich, Alvaro N; Waite, Gabi N

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diseases are a major health concern at the national and global level. According to the CDC, 86% of US health dollars go toward the treatment of chronic diseases. Many chronic diseases are manageable or preventable if individuals make appropriate lifestyle choices. Wearable technology – both consumer and medical – provides a unique opportunity to track lifestyle choices, such as increasing physical activity. It is estimated the market for consumer wearables will grow from $9.2 billion in 2014 to $30 billion by 2018. With such a potential market growth, it is important to understand the potential benefits and limitations of wearable technology to impact chronic disease management and prevention.

  15. Determining how best to support overweight adults to adhere to lifestyle change: protocol for the SWIFT study

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Rachael W; Roy, Melyssa; Jospe, Michelle R.; Osborne, Hamish R; Meredith-Jones, Kim J; Williams, Sheila M.; Brown, Rachel C

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity plays a critical role in health, including for effective weight maintenance, but adherence to guidelines is often poor. Similarly, although debate continues over whether a “best” diet exists for weight control, meta-analyses suggest little difference in outcomes between diets differing markedly in macronutrient composition, particularly over the longer-term. Thus a more important question is how best to encourage adherence to appropriate lifestyle change. While br...

  16. Clinical profile and post-operative lifestyle changes in cancer and non-cancer patients with ostomy

    OpenAIRE

    Anaraki, Fakhryalsadat; Vafaie, Mohamad; Behboo, Roobic; Maghsoodi, Nakisa; Esmaeilpour, Sahar; Safaee, Azadeh

    2012-01-01

    Aim The aim of this was to investigate some clinical profiles and lifestyle changes in stoma patients. Background Stoma patients experienced multiple complications due to their ostomy formation. Patients and methods A cross-sectional study performed on 102 random samples of stoma patients. Any patient with adequate physical and mental capability to participate and having had an ostomy in place for at least 3 months was eligible to enter the study. Participants asked to answer study questions ...

  17. Acute chemotherapy-induced cardiovascular changes in patients with testicular cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuver, J; Smit, AJ; van der Meer, J; van den Berg, MP; van der Graaf, WTA; Meinardi, MT; Sleijfer, DT; Hoekstra, HJ; van Gessel, AI; van Roon, AM; Gietema, JA

    2005-01-01

    Purpose; After cisplatin- and bleomycin-containing chemotherapy for testicular cancer, part of the patient population will develop acute or long-term cardiovascular toxicity. It is largely unknown whether standard tests can be used to assess chemotherapy-induced cardiovascular changes. Patients and

  18. Lifestyle changes and the risk of developing endometrial and ovarian cancers: opportunities for prevention and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavis, Anna L; Smith, Anna Jo Bodurtha; Fader, Amanda Nickles

    2016-01-01

    Modifiable lifestyle factors, such as obesity, lack of physical activity, and smoking, contribute greatly to cancer and chronic disease morbidity and mortality worldwide. This review appraises recent evidence on modifiable lifestyle factors in the prevention of endometrial cancer (EC) and ovarian cancer (OC) as well as new evidence for lifestyle management of EC and OC survivors. For EC, obesity continues to be the strongest risk factor, while new evidence suggests that physical activity, oral contraceptive pills, and bariatric surgery may be protective against EC. Other medications, such as metformin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, may be protective, and interventional research is ongoing. For OC, we find increasing evidence to support the hypothesis that obesity and hormone replacement therapy increase the risk of developing OC. Oral contraceptive pills are protective against OC but are underutilized. Dietary factors such as the Mediterranean diet and alcohol consumption do not seem to affect the risk of either OC or EC. For EC and OC survivors, physical activity and weight loss are associated with improved quality of life. Small interventional trials show promise in increasing physical activity and weight maintenance for EC and OC survivors, although the impact on long-term health, including cancer recurrence and overall mortality, is unknown. Women's health providers should integrate counseling about these modifiable lifestyle factors into both the discussion of prevention for all women and the management of survivors of gynecologic cancers. PMID:27284267

  19. Health consequences of postsocialist transition: dietary and lifestyle determinants of plasma lipids in Yakutia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, M V; Snodgrass, J J; Leonard, W R; Tarskaia, A; Ivanov, K I; Krivoshapkin, V G; Spitsyn, V A

    2005-01-01

    The rapid social and cultural changes introduced by the collapse of the Soviet Union have resulted in important differences in cardiovascular health for indigenous Siberians. This study investigated diet and lifestyle determinants of plasma lipids in the Yakut, an indigenous Siberian herding population. The study used a cross-sectional design with data on 201 subjects in three urbanized towns and three rural communities in northeastern Siberia. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, dietary intake, and material lifestyle were collected, and lipids were analyzed from venous whole blood. Diet was analyzed using patterns of dietary intake based on principal components analysis of a dietary intake (food frequency) questionnaire. We identified three diet patterns: a traditional subsistence diet, a market foods diet, and a mixed diet. The effect of lifestyle on cardiovascular risk factors was measured using an ethnographically defined lifestyle index, with two orthogonal dimensions: subsistence lifestyle and modern lifestyle. Total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were significantly higher among those consuming a traditional subsistence diet of meat and dairy products. A modern lifestyle was associated with lower TC and LDL but higher adiposity and higher risk of obesity. LDL and TC were higher in rural communities and lower in urbanized towns. The significantly higher lipid levels associated with a subsistence diet and indirectly with a subsistence lifestyle indicate the emergence of a significant health problem associated with the social and cultural changes occurring in Yakutia today. These findings underscore the need for dietary modification and promotion of physical activity among those most at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Moreover, these results differ from those commonly seen in "modernizing" populations, in that elements of subsistence lifestyle are associated with an elevated rather than reduced risk of CVD. Such variable

  20. A Widening Gap? Changes in Multiple Lifestyle Risk Behaviours by Socioeconomic Status in New South Wales, Australia, 2002-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Ding

    Full Text Available Socioeconomic inequalities in health outcomes have increased over the past few decades in some countries. However, the trends in inequalities related to multiple health risk behaviours have been infrequently reported. In this study, we examined the trends in individual health risk behaviours and a summary lifestyle risk index in New South Wales, Australia, and whether the absolute and relative inequalities in risk behaviours by socioeconomic positions have changed over time.Using data from the annual New South Wales Adult Population Health Survey during the period of 2002-2012, we examined four individual risk behaviours (smoking, higher than recommended alcohol consumption, insufficient fruit and vegetable intake, and insufficient physical activity and a combined lifestyle risk indicator. Socioeconomic inequalities were assessed based on educational attainment and postal area-level index of relative socio-economic disadvantage (IRSD, and were presented as prevalence difference for absolute inequalities and prevalence ratio for relative inequalities. Trend tests and survey logistic regression models examined whether the degree of absolute and relative inequalities between the most and least disadvantaged subgroups have changed over time.The prevalence of all individual risk behaviours and the summary lifestyle risk indicator declined from 2002 to 2012. Particularly, the prevalence of physical inactivity and smoking decreased from 52.6% and 22% in 2002 to 43.8% and 17.1% in 2012 (p for trend<0.001. However, a significant trend was observed for increasing absolute and relative inequalities in smoking, insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption, and the summary lifestyle risk indicator.The overall improvement in health behaviours in New South Wales, Australia, co-occurred with a widening socioeconomic gap.Governments should address health inequalities through risk factor surveillance and combined strategies of population-wide and targeted

  1. 生活方式干预多重心血管病危险的研究进展%PROGRESS IN THE STUDY OF LIFESTYLE INTERVENTION ON MULTI CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE RISK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卉

    2011-01-01

    With the social development and the improvement of people's living standards, the prevalence of canliovascular disease, morbidity and risk factor level was continuously rising. Cardiovascular disease has become a worldwide public health problem, how to respond to and contain the rise in cardiovascular disease in China is a serious challenge placed in front of each medical worker. Lifestyle intervention is one of the important methods for non-drug treatment of cardiovascular disease. Lifestyle interventions contains following five aspects, smoking cessation, dietary intervention, exercise intenvention, control of drinking and ease the mental stress. In this paper, related to cardiovascular disesse prevention guidelines, we summarizued in a number of lifestyle intervention in multi cardiovascular dipease risk research development, provided comprehensive treatment of cardiovascular disease thoughts for clinical supervisors.%随着社会的发展和人们生活水平的提高,心血管病的患病率、发病率及其危险因素水平呈不断上升趋势.心血管病已成为世界性的公共卫生问题之一,如何应对和遏止我国心血管病的上升是摆在每一位医务工作者面前的严峻挑战.生活方式干预是目前心血管疾病非药物治疗的重要方法之一.生活方式干预包括戒烟、膳食干预、运动干预、控制饮酒、缓解精神压力等五方面.本文结合心血管病防治相关指南,归纳了多项生活方式干预多重心血管病危险的研究进展,为临床指导心血管病综合治疗提供思路.

  2. Lifestyle and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Mental health professionals have significantly underestimated the importance of lifestyle factors (a) as contributors to and treatments for multiple psychopathologies, (b) for fostering individual and social well-being, and (c) for preserving and optimizing cognitive function. Consequently, therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLCs) are underutilized…

  3. Population-level changes to promote cardiovascular health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Jorgensen; S. Capewell (S.); E. Prescott (E.); S. Allender (S.); S. Sans (Susana); T. Zdrojewski (T.); D. de Bacquer (Dirk); J. de Sutter; O.H. Franco (Oscar); S. Løgstrup (S.); G. Volpe (Giampiero); S. Malyutina; W.M.M. Verschuren (W. M. Monique); D. Vanuzzo (Diego)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) cause 1.8 million premature (<75 years) death annually in Europe. The majority of these deaths are preventable with the most efficient and cost-effective approach being on the population level. The aim of this position paper is to assist authorit

  4. Role of diet and lifestyle changes in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    OpenAIRE

    Nseir, William; Hellou, Elias; Assy, Nimer

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one of the most common causes of liver disease worldwide and has been recognized as a major health burden. The prevalence of NAFLD has grown proportionally with the rise in obesity, sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy dietary pattern, and metabolic syndrome. Currently, there is no drug therapy that can be formulated for treating NAFLD. A combination of dietary modifications and increased physical activity remains the mainstay of NAFLD management....

  5. Lifestyle factors and Alzheimer-type dementia: the link between exercise and cognitive change

    OpenAIRE

    Farina, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that results in cognitive and functional impairment. Current pharmacological treatments have limited effect on correcting cognitive deficits. However, there is a growing amount of literature to suggest that lifestyle factors, such as physical activity, may have a positive effect on cognitive function for people with AD. Through a series of four articles I have addressed methodological short-comings in the existing literature, and determ...

  6. Parent Nutrition Education and the Influence on Family Lifestyle Behavior Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Rich, Kelsey

    2012-01-01

    Recently, childhood overweight and obesity has reached epidemic proportions. The co-morbidities associated with adult obesity are now being seen in the pediatric population; therefore, there is a call for preventative efforts. A diet high in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains in conjunction with an active lifestyle discourages the presence of obesity. Currently, most childhood obesity prevention efforts have taken place in the school setting and have only had short-term success. For long-te...

  7. Cognitive changes in cardiovascular patients following a tailored behavioral smoking cessation intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, FJ; Dijkstra, A; de Haes, JCJM; Legemate, DA; Smets, EMA

    2005-01-01

    Background. Action aimed at changing smoking behavior to prevent cardiovascular patients from further impairing their health is advisable. Cognitive behavioral interventions can be effective in this regard since they attempt to influence cognitive determinants that presumably lead to smoking cessati

  8. Efeitos da sauna sobre doenças cardiovasculares e doenças relacionadas com o estilo de vida Efectos de la sauna sobre las enfermedades cardiovasculares y las relacionadas al estilo de vida Effects of sauna on cardiovascular and lifestyle-related diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Talebipour

    2006-08-01

    the impact of the sauna on diseases and on health in general. Sauna can be beneficial or dangerous depending on its use. In the past few years the sauna is being considered beneficial for the cardiovascular diseases' patients, as the heart failure and lifestyle-related diseases, mainly by improving the peripheral endothelial function, through the increase of the cardiac output and peripheral vasodilation. The endothelial dysfunction is present in most of the cardiovascular diseases. The present article intends to review the sauna effects on the cardiovascular system in healthy individuals and in some cardiovascular diseases.

  9. Neuropathological changes in mouse models of cardiovascular diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Bink, D.I.

    2016-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment and dementia are common disorders in the elderly. As the life span of the population in the Western world is increasing, the prevalence of cognitive disorders and the social and economic burden that coincide with that will increase. Recent data indicate that cardiovascular diseases are largely associated with an increased risk of dementia. The presence of atherosclerosis, heart failure, hypertension and small vessel disease are all associated with neuropathological c...

  10. Cardiovascular risk factors over the life course

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsegge, G.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) usually manifests itself at middle age or beyond, but it is the result of an ongoing disease process. This stresses the need for insight into changes in lifestyle and metabolic risk factors that occur throughout the life course, and their effect on CVD. We studied risk f

  11. Can fMRI help optimise lifestyle behaviour change feedback from wearable technologies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxine Whelan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Non-communicable diseases (NCDs place severe financial strain on global health resources. Diabetes mellitus, the second most prevalent NCD, has been attributed to 8.4% of deaths worldwide for adults aged 20-79 years (International Diabetes Federation, 2013 with physical inactivity attributable to 7% of cases (Lee et al., 2012. The recent surge in commercially available wearable technology has begun to allow individuals to self-monitor their physical activity and sedentary behaviour as well as the physiological response to these behaviours (e.g., health markers such as glucose levels. Equipped with feedback obtained from such wearables, individuals are better able to understand the relationship between the lifestyle behaviours they take (e.g. going for a walk after dinner and health consequences (e.g. less glucose excursions (area under the curve. However, in order to achieve true behaviour change, the feedback must be optimised. Innovative communications research suggest that health messages (and in our case feedback that activates brain regions such as the medial prefrontal cortex (Falk, Berkman, Mann, Harrison & Lieberman, 2010 can predict and are associated with successful behaviour change. Fortunately, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI can map this neural activity whilst individuals receive various forms of personalised feedback. Such insight into the optimisation of feedback can improve the design and delivery of future behaviour change interventions. Aim Examine neural activity in response to personalised feedback in order to identify health messages most potent for behaviour change. Methods A mixed gender sample of 30 adults (aged 30-65 years will be recruited through campus advertisements at Loughborough University, UK. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour will be assessed using waist-worn ActiGraph GT3x-BT accelerometer (100Hz and LUMO posture sensor (30Hz, respectively. Both devices will be removed for sleep

  12. Chronic Disease Risk Reduction with a Community-Based Lifestyle Change Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ray M; Aldana, Steven G; Greenlaw, Roger L; Salberg, Audrey; Englert, Heike

    2008-01-01

    Objective To assess whether reduced health risks resulting from the Coronary Health Improvement Project (CHIP) persist through 18 months. Methods: The CHIP is a four-week health education course designed to help individuals reduce cardiovascular risk by improving nutrition and physical activity behaviors. Analyses were based on 211 CHIP enrollees,…

  13. The stability of lifestyle behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, M; Ranchor, AV; Sanderman, R; Bouma, J; van den Heuvel, WJA

    1998-01-01

    Background The stability of Lifestyle behaviour has been studied over a 4-year period in a sample of 1400 men in The Netherlands. The influence of both socioeconomic status and age was studied in relation to lifestyle behaviour change. Methods Lifestyle behaviour was analysed by means of index score

  14. An innovative approach to providing lifestyle education and behaviour change to prevent type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Grady, Katherine; Savas, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes is one of the major health challenges of our time. Diabetes UK recently estimated 10% of the total NHS budget is spent on diabetes care. NICE guidance “Prevention of type 2 diabetes in adults” (2011) and “Prevention of type 2 diabetes in high-risk groups” (currently consultation phase) emphasises the importance of prevention. Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is a precursor for the development of type 2 diabetes and is additionally associated with increased cardiovascular...

  15. What do most erectile dysfunction guidelines have in common? No evidence-based discussion or recommendation of heart-healthy lifestyle changes and/or Panax ginseng

    OpenAIRE

    Moyad, Mark A; Park, Kwangsung

    2012-01-01

    Sexual health or erectile dysfunction (ED) state of the art guidelines provide a thorough overview of conventional prescription or other notable extrinsic treatment options. Yet, over the past 10–15 years, a plethora of international researchers have established that individual and comprehensive lifestyle changes can prevent and potentially improve ED. We review the lifestyle evidence that should equate to grade A or level 1 evidence recommendations for ED. We also review the evidence for Pan...

  16. Estilo de vida e saúde cardiovascular em adolescentes de escolas do município de São Paulo Estilo de vida y salud cardiovascular en adolescentes de escuelas del municipio de São Paulo Lifestyle and cardiovascular health in school adolescents from São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Lancarotte

    2010-07-01

    : Identificar en adolescentes, la prevalencia de sobrepeso y del estilo de vida asociado a riesgo para el desarrollo de enfermedades cardiovasculares, además de los factores que los influyen. MÉTODOS: Fue realizado un estudio observacional de datos individuales, transversal, con adolescentes matriculados en escuelas públicas y privadas del municipio de São Paulo, englobando los grados de 5ª a 8ª de la enseñanza fundamental; las informaciones fueron obtenidas a través de la aplicación de un cuestionario anónimo y de la realización de medidas de peso y altura. RESULTADOS: Fueron analizados 2.125 adolescentes, con edad media de 12,9 años. Del total estudiado: de 14,4% a 32,1% no practicaron deporte o competición; de 56,0% a 73,6% se quedaron más de dos horas frente a la TV, videogame o computadora; aproximadamente 80% consumieron frutas y legumbres de forma considerada inadecuada; de 34,9% a 45,3% relataron consumo aumentado de sal; y de 60,9% a 74,4% consumo de bebidas gaseosas. La prevalencia de sobrepeso varió de 18,7% a 41,6%. CONCLUSIÓN: Es alta la prevalencia en adolescentes escolares de factores de riesgo asociados al desarrollo de enfermedades cardiovasculares en el adulto. Otros estudios son necesarios para comprender mejor como esos factores de riesgo se correlacionan y, así, posibilitar la implementación de medidas preventivas, en la fase de la adolescencia, con vistas a la prevención de las enfermedades cardiovasculares do adulto.BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. There is evidence demonstrating the association of this disease with cardiovascular risk factors related to lifestyle, incorporated in adolescence. OBJECTIVE: To identify, in adolescents, the prevalence of overweight and lifestyle factors associated with risk for developing cardiovascular diseases, and the factors that influence them. METHODS: It was conducted an observational study of individual cross-sectional data with adolescents enrolled in

  17. Let us Get Real! Integrated Approach for Virtual Coaching and Real Time Activity Monitoring in Lifestyle Change Support Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kulyk, Olga; Akker, op den, Harm; Klaassen, Randy; Gemert-Pijnen, van, Julia E.W.C.; Hettinga, M.; Smedberg, A.

    2014-01-01

    There is a fast growing number of eHealth systems aiming at supporting a healthy lifestyle. Tailored lifestyle coaching services offer individual users access to web portals where they can communicate about a growing number of ingredients of everyday life concern: physical activity, nutrition, medication, mood, sleep. Mobile technology in combination with body worn sensors support user’s awareness of their physical condition and lifestyle. Despite the large number of available lifestyle inter...

  18. Disparities in women's cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, Jean C; Pettey, Christina M; Souder, Elaine; Rhoads, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in women, and disparities affect the diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of CVD for women. Biology, genetics, and race contribute to these disparities. Obstetric-gynecologic health care providers routinely encounter women who are at risk for developing CVD and are uniquely positioned as a point of access to intervene to improve/prevent CVD by assessing for risks and discussing healthy lifestyle changes during routine visits.

  19. Affairs of the heart: patients’ personal constructions of a cardiac event and their effect on lifestyle change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EC McKibbin

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The issue of why people do not always make appropriate lifestyle changes in response to a cardiac event has and continues to be of central importance to health practitioners. This paper addresses this issue from the perspective of the lived experience of persons who have suffered an acute myocardial infarction (AMI. The experiences of 10 persons admitted to the coronary care unit (CCU of a South African clinic were richly described, making use of the grounded theory methodology. These descriptions were then used as a basis for the development of a contextualist theory of the experience of heart attacks. A central feature of the results was that the disease was mainly attributed to stress by the participants. This was in contrast to the explanations offered by the medical profession, who attribute this more to other modifiable risk factors such as smoking, high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, and lack of exercise. This tension between lay and professional constructions of the aetiology of the condition is deemed to be of import in the recovery process. The paper further alludes to the goodness of fit which exists between the proposed grounded theory and the personal construct theory of George Kelly. The importance of personal constructions of the event is then used as the basis for a proposed intervention process aimed at addressing the difficulties AMI patients’ experience in making and sustaining lifestyle changes.

  20. Cardiovascular changes in workers exposed to fine particulate dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Bortkiewicz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Epidemiological studies provide evidence that airborne particulate matter may contribute to the increased incidence and mortality rates due to pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases. Only some of them address the problem of occupational exposure to particulate air pollution. The aim of our study was to assess cardiovascular reaction and autonomic regulation in workers exposed to fine particles. Materials and Methods: All workers had medical examination, resting ECG with heart rate variability analysis (HRV, 24-h ECG, and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM performed. The subjects were 20 male workers (mean age: 32.14.0 year of a ceramic ware factory exposed to the dust and 20 workers who were not exposed (mean age: 39.4±7.8 year. The period of employment under exposure amounted to 5.6±2.1 year. Dust exposure was measured using individual dosimeters. Results: The geometric mean total dust concentration was 44±1.5 mg/m3 and the FPD (fine particulate dust concentration amounted to 11.5±1.6 mg/m3. No abnormalities were noted in the resting ECG in both groups, in 24-h ECG 2 subjects, both from exposed and control groups, had ventricular heart rhythm and repolarization disturbances. Blood pressure in ABPM, both systolic as well as diastolic, was normal and did not differ between the groups. Resting heart rate in the exposed group was significantly lower (p = 0.038 than in the control group. In the exposed group STD R-R from short-term records was significantly higher (p = 0.01. Fast Fourier Transform (FFT analysis showed that the low frequency power spectrum (LF did not differ in the exposed and the control group, while high frequency (HF was significantly higher in the exposed group. LF/HF ratio was significantly lower in the exposed in comparison with the control group. Conclusions: Although we did not reveal significant abnormalities in ECG as well as in ABPM in the exposed group, it seems that neurovegetative disturbances

  1. Situated lifestyles: I. How lifestyles change along with the level of urbanization and what the greenhouse gas implications are—a study of Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Jukka; Jalas, Mikko; Juntunen, Jouni K.; Ala-Mantila, Sanna; Junnila, Seppo

    2013-06-01

    An extensive body of literature demonstrates how higher density leads to more efficient energy use and lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from transport and housing. However, our current understanding seems to be limited on the relationships between the urban form and the GHG emissions, namely how the urban form affects the lifestyles and thus the GHGs on a much wider scale than traditionally assumed. The urban form affects housing types, commuting distances, availability of different goods and services, social contacts and emulation, and the alternatives for pastimes, meaning that lifestyles are actually situated instead of personal projects. As almost all consumption, be it services or products, involves GHG emissions, looking at the emissions from transport and housing may not be sufficient to define whether one form would be more desirable than another. In the paper we analyze the urban form-lifestyle relationships in Finland together with the resulting GHG implications, employing both monetary expenditure and time use data to portray lifestyles in different basic urban forms: metropolitan, urban, semi-urban and rural. The GHG implications are assessed with a life cycle assessment (LCA) method that takes into account the GHG emissions embedded in different goods and services. The paper depicts that, while the direct emissions from transportation and housing energy slightly decrease with higher density, the reductions can be easily overridden by sources of indirect emissions. We also highlight that the indirect emissions actually seem to have strong structural determinants, often undermined in studies concerning sustainable urban forms. Further, we introduce a concept of ‘parallel consumption’ to explain how the lifestyles especially in more urbanized areas lead to multiplication of consumption outside of the limits of time budget and the living environment. This is also part I of a two-stage study. In part II we will depict how various other contextual

  2. Situated lifestyles: I. How lifestyles change along with the level of urbanization and what the greenhouse gas implications are—a study of Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extensive body of literature demonstrates how higher density leads to more efficient energy use and lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from transport and housing. However, our current understanding seems to be limited on the relationships between the urban form and the GHG emissions, namely how the urban form affects the lifestyles and thus the GHGs on a much wider scale than traditionally assumed. The urban form affects housing types, commuting distances, availability of different goods and services, social contacts and emulation, and the alternatives for pastimes, meaning that lifestyles are actually situated instead of personal projects. As almost all consumption, be it services or products, involves GHG emissions, looking at the emissions from transport and housing may not be sufficient to define whether one form would be more desirable than another. In the paper we analyze the urban form–lifestyle relationships in Finland together with the resulting GHG implications, employing both monetary expenditure and time use data to portray lifestyles in different basic urban forms: metropolitan, urban, semi-urban and rural. The GHG implications are assessed with a life cycle assessment (LCA) method that takes into account the GHG emissions embedded in different goods and services. The paper depicts that, while the direct emissions from transportation and housing energy slightly decrease with higher density, the reductions can be easily overridden by sources of indirect emissions. We also highlight that the indirect emissions actually seem to have strong structural determinants, often undermined in studies concerning sustainable urban forms. Further, we introduce a concept of ‘parallel consumption’ to explain how the lifestyles especially in more urbanized areas lead to multiplication of consumption outside of the limits of time budget and the living environment. This is also part I of a two-stage study. In part II we will depict how various other contextual

  3. The role of lifestyle changes in the management of chronic liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feldstein Ariel E

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The prevalence of obesity worldwide has dramatically increased during the last three decades. With obesity comes a variety of adverse health outcomes which are grouped under the umbrella of metabolic syndrome. The liver in particular seems to be significantly impacted by fat deposition in the presence of obesity. In this article we discuss several liver conditions which are directly affected by overweight and obese status, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic infection with hepatitis C virus and post-liver transplant status. The deleterious effects of obesity on liver disease and overall health can be significantly impacted by a culture that fosters sustained nutritional improvement and regular physical activity. Here we summarize the current evidence supporting non-pharmacological, lifestyle interventions that lead to weight reduction, improved physical activity and better nutrition as part of the management and treatment of these liver conditions.

  4. Design and baseline characteristics of the PerfectFit study: A multicenter cluster-randomized trial of a lifestyle intervention in employees with increased cardiovascular risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Kouwenhoven-Pasmooij; B. Djikanovic (Bosiljka); S.J.W. Robroek (Suzan); P. Helmhout (Pieter); A. Burdorf (Alex); M.G.M. Hunink (Myriam)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The prevalence of unhealthy lifestyles and preventable chronic diseases is high. They lead to disabilities and sickness absence, which might be reduced if health promotion measures were applied. Therefore, we developed the PerfectFit health promotion intervention with a "blen

  5. Lifestyle modification interventions differing in intensity and dietary stringency improve insulin resistance through changes in lipoprotein profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, N. S.; Blackburn, H. L.; Engler, R. J. M.; Kashani, M.; Vernalis, M. N.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective Metabolic dysfunction characterized by insulin resistance (IR) is an important risk factor for type‐2 diabetes and coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of this study was to determine if clinical lifestyle interventions differing in scope and intensity improve IR, defined by the lipoprotein IR (LPIR) score, in individuals differing in the severity of metabolic dysfunction. Methods Subjects with diagnosed type‐2 diabetes, CAD or significant risk factors participated in one of two clinical lifestyle modification interventions: (i) intensive non‐randomized programme with a strict vegetarian diet (n = 90 participants, 90 matched controls) or (ii) moderate randomized trial following a Mediterranean‐style diet (n = 89 subjects, 58 controls). On‐treatment and intention‐to‐treat analyses assessed changes over 1 year in LPIR, lipoprotein profiles and metabolic risk factors in intervention participants and controls in both programmes. Results In the on‐treatment analysis, both interventions led to weight loss: [−8.9% (95% CI, −10.3 to −7.4), intensive programme; −2.8% (95% CI, −3.8 to −1.9), moderate programme; adjusted P < 0.001] and a decrease in the LPIR score [−13.3% (95% CI, −18.2 to −8.3), intensive; −8.8% (95% CI, −12.9 to −4.7), moderate; adjusted P < 0.01] compared with respective controls. Of the six lipoprotein parameters comprising LPIR, only large very‐low‐density lipoprotein particle concentrations decreased significantly in participants compared with controls in both programmes [−26.3% (95% CI, −43.0 to −9.6), intensive; −14.2% (95% CI, −27.4 to −1.0), moderate; P < 0.05]. Intention‐to‐treat analysis confirmed and strengthened the primary results. Conclusion A stringent lifestyle modification intervention with a vegetarian diet and a moderate lifestyle modification intervention following a Mediterranean diet were both effective for improving IR defined by the

  6. Cardiovascular disease risk models and longitudinal changes in cognition: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie L Harrison

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease and its risk factors have consistently been associated with poor cognitive function and incident dementia. Whether cardiovascular disease prediction models, developed to predict an individual's risk of future cardiovascular disease or stroke, are also informative for predicting risk of cognitive decline and dementia is not known.The objective of this systematic review was to compare cohort studies examining the association between cardiovascular disease risk models and longitudinal changes in cognitive function or risk of incident cognitive impairment or dementia.Medline, PsychINFO, and Embase were searched from inception to March 28, 2014. From 3,413 records initially screened, 21 were included.The association between numerous different cardiovascular disease risk models and cognitive outcomes has been tested, including Framingham and non-Framingham risk models. Five studies examined dementia as an outcome; fourteen studies examined cognitive decline or incident cognitive impairment as an outcome; and two studies examined both dementia and cognitive changes as outcomes. In all studies, higher cardiovascular disease risk scores were associated with cognitive changes or risk of dementia. Only four studies reported model prognostic performance indices, such as Area Under the Curve (AUC, for predicting incident dementia or cognitive impairment and these studies all examined non-Framingham Risk models (AUC range: 0.74 to 0.78.Cardiovascular risk prediction models are associated with cognitive changes over time and risk of dementia. Such models are easily obtainable in clinical and research settings and may be useful for identifying individuals at high risk of future cognitive decline and dementia.

  7. The role of lifestyle change in the prevention and treatment of NAFLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centis, Elena; Marzocchi, Rebecca; Suppini, Alessandro; Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Villanova, Nicola; Hickman, Ingrid J; Marchesini, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    Healthy habits in terms of food intake and physical activity are first-line approach to prevention and treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, but difficulties arise in turning attempts into practice. Independently of the specific role of individual nutrients, not universally proven, overweight, obesity and diabetes are the specific conditions most frequently associated with hepatic fat accumulation. Accordingly, weight loss is mandatory in the majority of patients; this can be achieved by dietary restriction, but is rarely maintained in the long-term. Physical activity programs, both aerobic and resistance exercise may improve cardiorespiratory fitness, reduce the multiple conditions associated with the metabolic syndrome and help weight loss maintenance. However, motivating sedentary individuals to move is difficult and is favored by structured programs carried out along the lines of cognitive-behavior therapy. The role of behavior therapy is now supported by pilot studies, observational studies and finally by a randomized controlled study with histological outcomes. In the future, behavior interventions might be supported by important technological advances, such as smart phone technology and webbased platforms to facilitate interactive engagement amongst patients and with their health care providers. Lifestyle programs must also incorporate methods of overcoming barriers to accessing health service, engaging with workplace health programs and linking with community attempts to improve public health. PMID:23394095

  8. Evaluation of a lifestyle change programme for the treatment of obesity in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsch, Simone; Biedert, Esther; Keller, Ulrich

    2003-03-01

    In order to evaluate the effectiveness of a cognitive behavioural group therapy programme for the treatment of obesity in clinical practice, 122 patients from 14 general practices (n = 70) were randomised into either a treatment or a control arm with a ratio of 3 to 2. The group treatment programme was also assessed in a clinical centre (n = 52; University Hospital Basel). Before therapy, a clinical interview and a mental disorder examination were carried out on all patients. The instructors of the programme (practitioners; clinic physicians) were trained during two afternoon meetings to supervise the group sessions. The treatment programme consisted of 16 group sessions of 90 min each, and contained psycho-educational elements concerning a balanced diet, instruction for the integration of more activity in everyday life (lifestyle activity), problemsolving strategies, and the cognitive restructuring of dysfunctional cognition regarding the own body. All the patients who were treated in the various settings demonstrated a benefit from therapy. Compared to the control groups which received usual medical care, they were able to reduce their starting weight by around 5% (p attractiveness regarding their body and shape (p <0.05). These results support the effectiveness of the integrated cognitive behavioural treatment programme in clinical practice over a duration of 12 months. PMID:12707842

  9. Lifestyle Interventions for Cardiovascular Disease Risk Reduction: A Systematic Review of the Effects of Diet Composition, Food Provision, and Treatment Modality on Weight Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Dutton, Gareth R.; Laitner, Melissa H.; Perri, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate, synthesize, and interpret findings from recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of dietary and lifestyle weight loss interventions examining the effects of 1) diet composition, 2) use of food provision, and 3) modality of treatment delivery on weight loss. Trials comparing different dietary approaches indicated that reducing carbohydrate intake promoted greater initial weight loss than other approaches but did not appear to significant...

  10. Multifactorial lifestyle interventions in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus--a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermayr, Lucia; Melchart, Dieter; Linde, Klaus

    2010-08-01

    This systematic review aims to summarize the available randomized trials of multifactorial lifestyle interventions in the primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Randomized trials investigating the effects of lifestyle interventions including the elements of diet, physical activity, and stress management in people at increased risk for or with manifest coronary heart disease or type 2 diabetes mellitus were searched for in five electronic database and by citation tracking. Quality was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool. Exploratory effect size calculations were performed for a variety of laboratory and clinical outcome measures. Twenty-five trials including a total of 7,703 participants met the inclusion criteria. Fifteen trials were in patients with coronary heart disease, seven in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and three on primary prevention. The interventions varied greatly regarding concept, intensity, and providers. Compared to participants in "usual care" control groups, there were no consistent effects on lipid levels and blood pressure and small effects on body mass index and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Composite cardiac event rates were significantly less in the intervention groups of the few trials reporting these outcomes. Mortality was also lower in the intervention groups, but the difference was not statistically significant, and confidence intervals were wide. The evidence base for multifactorial lifestyle interventions is weak. Effects on surrogate measures seem minor, but there may be clinically relevant effects on major clinical endpoints. PMID:20652464

  11. Motivational interviewing within the different stages of change: an analysis of practice nurse-patient consultations aimed at promoting a healthier lifestyle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordman, J.; Vet, E. de; Weijden, T. van der; Dulmen, S. van

    2013-01-01

    Combining the Stages of Change (SOC) model with Motivational Interviewing (MI) is seen as a helpful strategy for health care providers to guide patients in changing unhealthy lifestyle behaviour. SOC suggests that people are at different stages of motivational readiness for engaging in health behavi

  12. Motivational interviewing within the different stages of change: An analysis of practice nurse-patient consultations aimed at promoting a healthier lifestyle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordman, J.; Vet, de E.; Weijden, v.d. T.; Dulmen, van S.

    2013-01-01

    Combining the Stages of Change (SOC) model with Motivational Interviewing (MI) is seen as a helpful strategy for health care providers to guide patients in changing unhealthy lifestyle behaviour. SOC suggests that people are at different stages of motivational readiness for engaging in health behavi

  13. Motivational interviewing within the different stages of change: an analysis of practice nurse-patient consultations aimed at promoting a healthier lifestyle.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordman, J.; Vet, E. de; Weijden, T. van der; Dulmen, S. van

    2013-01-01

    Combining the Stages of Change (SOC) model with Motivational Interviewing (MI) is seen as a helpful strategy for health care providers to guide patients in changing unhealthy lifestyle behaviour. SOC suggests that people are at different stages of motivational readiness for engaging in health behavi

  14. Developing Food-Based Dietary Guidelines to Promote Healthy Diets and Lifestyles in the Eastern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Janice L.; Samuda, Pauline M.; Molina, Veronika; Regis, Theresa Marietta; Severin, Merlyn; Finlay, Betty; Prevost, Jacqueline Lancaster

    2007-01-01

    Obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes are becoming leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the Eastern Caribbean countries of St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Saint Lucia, Grenada, and Dominica. To promote healthful diets and lifestyles and encourage behavioral changes, Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDG) were developed for the…

  15. Transformative Lifestyle Change: key to sustainable weight loss among women in a post-partum diet and exercise intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertz, Fredrik; Sparud-Lundin, Carina; Winkvist, Anna

    2015-10-01

    The increase in overweight and obesity among women is a growing concern, and reproduction is associated with persistent weight gain. We have shown that dietary behavioural modification treatment, with or without exercise, results in weight loss and maintenance of weight loss. The aim of this study was to provide an explanatory model of how overweight and obese women achieve weight loss during, and after, participating in a post-partum diet and/or exercise intervention. Using Grounded Theory, we performed and analysed 29 interviews with 21 women in a 12-week Swedish post-partum lifestyle intervention with a 9-month follow-up. Interviews were made after the intervention and at the 9-month follow-up. To overcome initial barriers to weight loss, the women needed a 'Catalytic Interaction' (CI) from the care provider. It depended on individualised, concrete, specific and useful information, and an emotional bond through joint commitment, trust and accountability. Weight loss was underpinned by gradual introduction of conventional health behaviours. However, the implementation depended on the experience of the core category process 'Transformative Lifestyle Change' (TLC). This developed through a transformative process of reciprocal changes in cognitions, emotions, body, environment, behaviours and perceived self. Women accomplishing the stages of the TLC process were successful in weight loss, in contrast to those who did not. The TLC process, dependent on initiation through CI, led to implementation and integration of recognised health behaviours, resulting in sustainable weight loss. The TLC model, including the CI construct and definition of barriers, facilitators and strategies provides an explanatory model of this process. PMID:24750689

  16. Dietary patterns and changes in cardiovascular risk factors in apparently healthy Chinese women: a longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Zhang, Meilin; Zhu, Yufeng; Liu, Weiqiao; Zhang, Yuwen; Gao, Yuxia; Huang, Guowei

    2016-01-01

    Little is known of the relationships between dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors in China. We therefore designed a 3-year longitudinal study to evaluate the impacts of dietary patterns on changes in these factors among Chinese women. A total of 1,028 subjects who received health examination in 2011 and 2014 were recruited. Three major dietary patterns (“vegetable pattern”, “meat pattern”, and “animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern”) were derived by principal component analysis based on validated food frequency questionnaires. Cardiovascular risk factors were standardized to create within-cohort z-scores and the changes in them were calculated as the differences between 2011 and 2014. Relationships between dietary patterns and changes in cardiovascular risk factors were assessed using general linear model. After adjustment for potential confounders, changes in total cholesterol and fasting blood glucose decreased across the tertiles of vegetable pattern (p for trend = 0.01 and 0.04, respectively). While, changes in diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol increased across the tertiles of animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern (p for trend = 0.02, 0.01, and 0.02, respectively). The findings suggest that vegetable pattern was beneficially related to cardiovascular risk factors, whereas animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern was detrimental related to these factors among apparently healthy Chinese women. PMID:27257349

  17. Dietary patterns and changes in cardiovascular risk factors in apparently healthy Chinese women: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Zhang, Meilin; Zhu, Yufeng; Liu, Weiqiao; Zhang, Yuwen; Gao, Yuxia; Huang, Guowei

    2016-05-01

    Little is known of the relationships between dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors in China. We therefore designed a 3-year longitudinal study to evaluate the impacts of dietary patterns on changes in these factors among Chinese women. A total of 1,028 subjects who received health examination in 2011 and 2014 were recruited. Three major dietary patterns ("vegetable pattern", "meat pattern", and "animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern") were derived by principal component analysis based on validated food frequency questionnaires. Cardiovascular risk factors were standardized to create within-cohort z-scores and the changes in them were calculated as the differences between 2011 and 2014. Relationships between dietary patterns and changes in cardiovascular risk factors were assessed using general linear model. After adjustment for potential confounders, changes in total cholesterol and fasting blood glucose decreased across the tertiles of vegetable pattern (p for trend = 0.01 and 0.04, respectively). While, changes in diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol increased across the tertiles of animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern (p for trend = 0.02, 0.01, and 0.02, respectively). The findings suggest that vegetable pattern was beneficially related to cardiovascular risk factors, whereas animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern was detrimental related to these factors among apparently healthy Chinese women. PMID:27257349

  18. Considering statins for cholesterol-reduction in children if lifestyle and diet changes do not improve their health: a review of the risks and benefits.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Gorman, Clodagh S M

    2010-12-01

    Children who appear healthy, even if they have one or more recognized cardiovascular risk factors, do not generally have outcomes of cardiovascular or other vascular disease during childhood. Historically, pediatric medicine has not aggressively screened for or treated cardiovascular risk factors in otherwise healthy children. However, studies such as the P-Day Study (Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth), and the Bogalusa Heart Study, indicate that healthy children at remarkably young ages can have evidence of significant atherosclerosis. With the increasing prevalence of pediatric obesity, can we expect more health problems related to the consequences of pediatric dyslipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and atherosclerosis in the future? For many years, medications have been available and used in adult populations to treat dyslipidemia. In recent years, reports of short-term safety of some of these medications in children have been published. However, none of these studies have detailed long-term follow-up, and therefore none have described potential late side-effects of early cholesterol-lowering therapy, or potential benefits in terms of reduction of or delay in cardiovascular or other vascular end-points. In 2007, the American Heart Association published a scientific statement on the use of cholesterol-lowering therapy in pediatric patients. In this review paper, we discuss some of the current literature on cholesterol-lowering therapy in children, including the statins that are currently available for use in children, and some of the cautions with using these and other cholesterol-lowering medications. A central tenet of this review is that medications are not a substitute for dietary and lifestyle interventions, and that even in children on cholesterol-lowering medications, physicians should take every opportunity to encourage children and their parents to make healthy diet and lifestyle choices.

  19. Diabetes mellitus do tipo 2, síndrome metabólica e modificação no estilo de vida Type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and change in lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Cristina Portero McLellan

    2007-10-01

    that are commonly associated with central adiposity and insulin resistance. Changing inadequate feeding habits, losing weight and exercising regularly are considered first-choice therapies in treating the metabolic syndrome since they reduce waist circumference, visceral fat and plasma concentrations of glucose and triglycerides; they improve insulin sensitivity and increase HDL cholesterol; consequently, they reduce the risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. Thus, the objective of this article was to describe and analyze some of the main studies published in the last decades which showed that adopting a healthy lifestyle promotes the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus. An educational intervention that focuses on proper nutrition and exercise and, therefore, reduces the risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases, can help change inadequate lifestyles.

  20. The impact of a population-based multi-factorial lifestyle intervention on changes in long-term dietary habits The Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, U.; Kristoffersen, L.; Ladelund, S.;

    2008-01-01

    group (n=3 324) was followed by questionnaires. Dietary habits were measured by a validated 48-item food frequency questionnaire and changes were analyzed by multilevel analyses. RESULTS: At the 5-year follow-up the intervention group compared to the control group had significantly increased......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a population-based multi-factorial lifestyle intervention on long-term changes in dietary habits compared to a non-intervention control group. METHODS: The study was a randomized controlled lifestyle intervention study, Inter99 (1999-2006), Copenhagen......, Denmark, using a high-risk strategy. Participants in the intervention group (n=6 091) had at baseline a medical health-examination and a face-to-face lifestyle counselling. Individuals at high risk of ischemic heart disease were repeatedly offered both individual and group-based counselling. The control...

  1. Intervention Fidelity for a Complex Behaviour Change Intervention in Community Pharmacy Addressing Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, K. P.; O'Reilly, S. L.; George, J.; Peterson, G. M.; Jackson, S. L.; Duncan, G.; Howarth, H.; Dunbar, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Delivery of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention programs by community pharmacists appears effective and enhances health service access. However, their capacity to implement complex behavioural change processes during patient counselling remains largely unexplored. This study aims to determine intervention fidelity by pharmacists…

  2. Brain imaging changes associated with risk factors for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease in asymptomatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Joseph I; Tang, Cheuk Y; de Haas, Hans J; Changchien, Lisa; Goliasch, Georg; Dabas, Puneet; Wang, Victoria; Fayad, Zahi A; Fuster, Valentin; Narula, Jagat

    2014-10-01

    Reviews of imaging studies assessing the brain effects of vascular risk factors typically include a substantial number of studies with subjects with a history of symptomatic cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease and/or events, limiting our ability to disentangle the primary brain effects of vascular risk factors from those of resulting brain and cardiac damage. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review of brain changes from imaging studies in patients with vascular risk factors but without clinically manifest cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease or events. The 77 studies included in this review demonstrate that in persons without symptomatic cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, or peripheral vascular disease, the vascular risk factors of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, hyperlipidemia, and smoking are all independently associated with brain imaging changes before the clinical manifestation of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease. We conclude that the identification of brain changes associated with vascular risk factors, before the manifestation of clinically significant cerebrovascular damage, presents a window of opportunity wherein adequate treatment of these modifiable vascular risk factors may prevent the development of irreversible deleterious brain changes and potentially alter patients' clinical course.

  3. Gender-specific changes in quality of life following cardiovascular disease: A prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Jaarsveld, C.H.M.; Sanderman, R.; Ranchor, A.V; Ormel, J.; Van Veldhuisen, D.J.; Kempen, G.I J M

    2002-01-01

    Gender-specific changes in Quality of Life (QoL) following cardiovascular disease (CVD) were studied in 208 patients to determine whether gender-related differences in postmorbid QoL result from differences in disease severity, premorbid QoL, or different CVD-related recovery. Premorbid data were av

  4. Gender-specific changes in quality of life following cardiovascular disease : A prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Jaarsveld, C.H.; Sanderman, R.; Ranchor, A.V.; Ormel, J.; van Veldhuisen, D.J.; Kempen, G.I.

    2002-01-01

    Gender-specific changes in Quality of Life (QoL) following cardiovascular disease (CVD) were studied in 208 patients to determine whether gender-related differences in postmorbid QoL result from differences in disease severity, premorbid QoL, or different CVD-related recovery. Premorbid data were av

  5. Knowledge and Perceptions of Overweight Employees about Lifestyle-Related Health Benefit Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang; Linnan, Laura; Finkelstein, Eric A.; Tate, Deborah; Naseer, Carolyn; Evenson, Kelly R.

    2016-01-01

    Background We investigated overweight state employees’ perceptions about health insurance benefit changes designed to reduce the scope of health benefits for employees who were obese or smoked. Methods Prior to implementation of health benefit plan changes, 658 overweight [body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2] state employees enrolled in a weight loss intervention study were asked about their attitudes and beliefs of the new benefit plan changes. Results Thirty-one percent of employees with a BMI≥40 kg/ m2 were unaware that their current BMI would place them in a higher risk benefit plan. More than half reported that the new benefit change would motivate them to make behavioral changes, but less than half felt confident in making changes. Respondents with a BMI≥40 kg/m2 were more likely to oppose the new changes focused on BMI categories compared to respondents in lower BMI categories (P<0.0001). Current smokers were more likely to oppose the new benefit change focused on tobacco use than former smokers and non-smokers (P<0.01). Limitations Participants represented a sample of employees enrolled in a weight loss study, limiting generalizability to the larger population of state employees. Conclusions Benefit plan changes that require employees who are obese or smoke to pay more for health care may motivate some, but not all, individuals to change their behaviors. Since confidence to lose weight was lowest among those in the highest weight categories, health plan benefit modifications may be required to achieve desired health behavior changes. PMID:21901911

  6. Lifestyle, Body Composition, and Physical Fitness Changes in Hungarian School Boys (1975-2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photiou, A.; Anning, J. H.; Meszaros, J.; Vajda, I.; Meszaros, Z.; Sziva, A.; Prokai, A.; Ng, N.

    2008-01-01

    General socioeconomic conditions as well as the physical environment have undergone remarkable changes in Hungary during the past 30 years. Unfortunately, these positive processes have resulted in a reduction of habitual physical activity along with unfavorable changes in dietary habits. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to compare…

  7. Let us Get Real! Integrated Approach for Virtual Coaching and Real Time Activity Monitoring in Lifestyle Change Support Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulyk, Olga; Akker, op den Rieks; Klaassen, Randy; Gemert-Pijnen, van Lisette; Gemert-Pijnen, van J.E.W.C.; Hettinga, M; Smedberg, A.

    2014-01-01

    There is a fast growing number of eHealth systems aiming at supporting a healthy lifestyle. Tailored lifestyle coaching services offer individual users access to web portals where they can communicate about a growing number of ingredients of everyday life concern: physical activity, nutrition, medic

  8. Lifestyle Journalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    From, Unni; Kristensen, Nete Nørgaard

    2013-01-01

    Lifestyle journalism has experienced enormous growth in the media over the past two decades, but scholars in the fields of journalism and communication studies have so far paid relatively little attention to a field that is still sometimes seen as "not real journalism". There is now an urgent need...... for in-depth exploration and contextualisation of this field, with its increasing relevance for 21st century consumer cultures. For the first time, this book presents a wide range of studies which have engaged with the field of lifestyle journalism in order to outline the various political, economic...... of sub-fields such as travel, music, food, health, fashion and personal technology journalism. This volume provides a fascinating account of the different facets of lifestyle journalism, and charts the way forward for a more sustained analysis of the field. This book was originally published as a special...

  9. Subclinical Cardiovascular System Changes in Obese Patients with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Głowińska-Olszewska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We aimed to determine the prevalence of excess body mass in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA children and to investigate the influence of obesity into the early, subclinical changes in cardiovascular system in these patients. Methods. Fifty-eight JIA patients, aged median 13 years, were compared to 36 healthy controls. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors and inflammatory markers (hsCRP, IL-6, TNFα, adiponectin were studied together with IMT (intima-media thickness, FMD (flow mediated dilation, and LVMi (left ventricle mass index as surrogate markers of subclinical atherosclerosis. Results. Thirteen JIA children (22% were obese and had increased systolic blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, HOMA, hsCRP, and IL-6 compared to nonobese JIA and controls. FMD was decreased compared to nonobese JIA and controls, whereas IMT and LVMi were increased. In multivariate regression analysis, TNFα, SDS-BMI, and systolic blood pressure were independent predictors of early CV changes in JIA. Conclusions. Coincident obesity is common in JIA children and is associated with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and increased levels of inflammatory markers leading to early changes in cardiovascular system. Thus, medical care of children with JIA should include strategies preventing cardiovascular disease by maintenance of adequate body weight.

  10. Assessment of Metformin as an Additional Treatment to Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes in Pediatric Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Raub

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the effectiveness of metformin and therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLCs in a clinical setting, compared to TLC alone in adolescents with metabolic syndrome (MS. Methodology. This study was a retrospective trial consisting of 60 patients, aged 8–18 years, who were treated for MS at an outpatient clinic. Two groups were formed: the metformin group (M group and the control group (C group. The M group had been given metformin along with TLC, and the C group had been given TLC alone. Several outcome measures were obtained; the main outcome measure was measuring the change in percentile and z-score of weight and BMI. Results. There were no significant differences between the two groups at the conclusion of the study, except for height percentile (P=0.02 and z-score (P=0.03. Both groups showed promising significant intragroup decreases in weight z-score but BMI percentile and z-score were only significantly decreased in the M group. Conclusion. Metformin at an average dose of 1033 mg, when added to TLC, did not show any clinically important efficacy compared to TLC alone in a pediatric population with MS. However, both groups made significant changes in a positive direction, which may be solely due to TLC.

  11. Participant Adherence Indicators Predict Changes in Blood Pressure, Anthropometric Measures, and Self-Reported Physical Activity in a Lifestyle Intervention: HUB City Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Jessica L.; Landry, Alicia S.; Zoellner, Jamie M.; Connell, Carol; Madson, Michael B.; Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Yadrick, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this secondary analysis was to evaluate the utility of several participant adherence indicators for predicting changes in clinical, anthropometric, dietary, fitness, and physical activity (PA) outcomes in a lifestyle intervention, HUB City Steps, conducted in a southern, African American cohort in 2010. HUB City Steps was a…

  12. Moderators of intervention dose effects on diet quality and physical activity changes in a church-based, multicomponent, lifestyle study: Delta Body and Soul III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many community-based lifestyle interventions targeting African Americans have reported positive effects on participant’s dietary choices and physical activity habits. However, these effects vary and not all participants will have outcome changes. Moderation analysis can help explain differential e...

  13. Goal setting and lifestyle changes in a nurse-led counselling programme for leg ulcer patients: an explorative analysis of nursing records.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glind, I.M. van de; Heinen, M.M.; Evers, A.W.; Achterberg, T. van

    2015-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To describe goals set in individual nurse-led lifestyle counselling sessions in leg ulcer patients, and to explore patient and goal characteristics in relation to health behaviour change. BACKGROUND: Goal setting is increasingly used in nurse-led counselling programmes, but the

  14. The effect of adding group-based counselling to individual lifestyle counselling on changes in dietary intake. The Inter99 study--a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Ulla; Kristoffersen, Lis; Ladelund, Steen;

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the specific effect of single intervention components in randomized controlled trials. The purpose was to investigate the effect of adding group-based diet and exercise counselling to individual life-style counselling on long-term changes in dietary habits....

  15. Communication-related behavior change techniques used in face-to-face lifestyle interventions in primary care: a systematic review of the literature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordman, J.; Weijden, T. van der; Dulmen, S. van

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To systematically review the literature on the relative effectiveness of face-to-face communication-related behavior change techniques (BCTs) provided in primary care by either physicians or nurses to intervene on patients’ lifestyle behavior. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL a

  16. Communication-related behavior change techniques used in face-to-face lifestyle interventions in primary care: A systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordman, J.; Weijden, T. van der; Dulmen, S. van

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the literature on the relative effectiveness of face-to-face communication-related behavior change techniques (BCTs) provided in primary care by either physicians or nurses to intervene on patients' lifestyle behavior. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL a

  17. Improvements in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity after lifestyle intervention are related to changes in serum fatty acid profile and desaturase activities: the SLIM study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corpeleijn, E.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Jansen, E.H.J.M.; Mensink, M.R.; Saris, W.H.M.; Bruin, de T.W.A.; Blaak, E.E.

    2006-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to investigate whether lifestyle intervention-induced changes in serum fatty acid profile of cholesteryl esters and estimated desaturase activities are related to improvements in insulin sensitivity in subjects at risk of type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METH

  18. Improvements in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity after lifestyle intervention are related to changes in serum fatty acid profile and desaturase activities : the SLIM study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corpeleijn, E.; Feskens, E. J. M.; Jansen, E. H. J. M.; Mensink, M.; Saris, W. H. M.; de Bruin, T. W. A.; Blaak, E. E.

    2006-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: The aim of this study was to investigate whether lifestyle intervention-induced changes in serum fatty acid profile of cholesteryl esters and estimated desaturase activities are related to improvements in insulin sensitivity in subjects at risk of type 2 diabetes. Materials and meth

  19. Three-year changes in fitness and adiposity are independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors among young danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jago, Russell; Froberg, Karsten; Cooper, Ashley R;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is not clear the extent to which change in adiposity and cardiovascular fitness (CRF) during early childhood are associated with change in cardiovascular risk factors or if associations are independent or interactive. METHODS: 383 Danish children were examined at ages 6 and 9. CRF...... with change in TC (z = -3.86, P associated with the development of cardiovascular risk factors among young children suggesting a need to increase CRF...... independently or interactively associated with risk variables. RESULTS: Change in SSF was independently associated with change in TC (z = 4.83, P associated...

  20. Lifestyle Interventions Targeting Body Weight Changes during the Menopause Transition: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Jull

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the effectiveness of exercise and/or nutrition interventions and to address body weight changes during the menopause transition. Methods. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using electronic databases, grey literature, and hand searching. Two independent researchers screened for studies using experimental designs to evaluate the impact of exercise and/or nutrition interventions on body weight and/or central weight gain performed during the menopausal transition. Studies were quality appraised using Cochrane risk of bias. Included studies were analyzed descriptively. Results. Of 3,564 unique citations screened, 3 studies were eligible (2 randomized controlled trials, and 1 pre/post study. Study quality ranged from low to high risk of bias. One randomized controlled trial with lower risk of bias concluded that participation in an exercise program combined with dietary interventions might mitigate body adiposity increases, which is normally observed during the menopause transition. The other two studies with higher risk of bias suggested that exercise might attenuate weight loss or weight gain and change abdominal adiposity patterns. Conclusions. High quality studies evaluating the effectiveness of interventions targeting body weight changes in women during their menopause transition are needed. Evidence from one higher quality study indicates an effective multifaceted intervention for women to minimize changes in body adiposity.

  1. Longitudinal effect of a program to change lifestyle on health indicators in adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Ferreira da Silva

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the subjective perception of individuals participating in a long-lasting LSC program with obvious benefits in physical fitness, obesity and related feeding undetected. One hundred and four individuals (54.04 ± 7.7 years, of whom 74% were females with exercise / nutritional counseling for two years, there was random sub-sample comprising 24 individuals (16 females and 8 males was formed, and open non-structured interviews were conducted by using a guiding question. Within the categories found, 96% of respondents mentioned changes related to the physical domain after participating in the project; 67% reported psychological changes, and 83% mentioned changes in the social domain. Males and females showed a similar behavior to the feeling of better health, more energy and weight reduction or maintenance in the physical domain, the feeling of joy and satisfaction for the psychological realm and increased number of friends concerns the social domain. It is concluded that improvements by participating from participating in the LSC program was predominantly related to physical, psychological and social aspects, leading to the assumption that these are important factors that motivate individuals to continue participating in the preventive and therapeutic approach.

  2. The NSW Ambulance Service healthy lifestyle program--a case study in the evaluation of a health promotion program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomel, M; Oldenburg, B

    1990-01-01

    A variety of approaches have been used to reduce Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) risk in the community, including programs based in the workplace. To date, it has been difficult to draw accurate conclusions on the effectiveness of worksite CVD risk reduction programs. Typically, such programs suffer from poor participation and high attrition rates and most lack physical and biochemical validation of self-reported lifestyle changes. The present paper describes an evaluation of four health promotion worksite interventions (screening, education, incentive and lifestyle change) conducted in the NSW Ambulance Service. The study achieved very high participation and low attrition rates. Self-reported changes in lifestyle were validated with physical and biochemical measures. The results suggest greater change in some risk factors for those individuals receiving the incentive and lifestyle change programs compared to screening alone or education. PMID:10109119

  3. No identifiable Hb1Ac or lifestyle change after a comprehensive diabetes programme including motivational interviewing: A cluster randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansink, R.M.E.; Braspenning, J.C.C.; Keizer, E.; Weijden, T. van der; Elwyn, G.; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective. To study the effectiveness of a comprehensive diabetes programme in general practice that integrates patient-centred lifestyle counselling into structured diabetes care. Design and setting. Cluster randomised trial in general practices. Intervention. Nurse-led structured diabetes

  4. 99th Dahlem conference on infection, inflammation and chronic inflammatory disorders: lifestyle changes affecting the host-environment interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, S; Kaufmann, S H E

    2010-04-01

    In industrialized nations and high-income regions of the world, the decline of infectious diseases is paralleled by an increase in allergic, autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases (AACID). Changes in lifestyle in westernized societies, which impact individually and collectively on intestinal microbiota, may - at least in part - account for the AACID pandemic. Many disease genes that contribute to AACID encode pattern recognition and signalling molecules in barrier-associated cells. Interactions between gene products and environmental factors depend highly upon the host's state of maturation, the composition of the skin and gut microflora, and exposure to pollutants, antibiotics and nutrients. Inflammatory stress responses, if regulated appropriately, ensure immunity, health and relative longevity; when they are dysregulated, they can no longer be terminated appropriately and thus precipitate AACID. The 99th Dahlem Conference brought together experts of various disciplines (genetics, evolution biology, molecular biology, structural biology, cell biology, immunology, microbiology, nutrition science, epidemiology and clinical medicine) to discuss the multi-faceted relationships between infection, immunity and inflammation in barrier organs and the development of AACID. In Clinical and Experimental Immunology we are presenting a compilation of background papers that formed the basis of discussions. Controversial viewpoints and gaps in current knowledge were examined and new concepts for prevention and treatment of CID were formulated.

  5. Consumption, lifestyles and constellatoric strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Jeppe

    1996-01-01

    example has to do with consumption as it relates to the general change in modern lifestyle. The second example derives its points from a empiric project about the lifestyles and experiences of "green families". The contribution concludes with a proposal for interdisciplinary constructions...... of "constellatoric strategies"; coordinated interplays between different coordinated efforts which creates synergy effects....

  6. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices on Lifestyle and Cardiovascular Risk Factors Among Metabolic Syndrome Patients in an Urban Tertiary Care Institute in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekara, Priyanwada; de Silva, Angela; Swarnamali, Hasinthi; Senarath, Upul; Katulanda, Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a significant predictor of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). A pretested questionnaire was used to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of CVD and its risks among Sri Lankan urban adults (35-55 years) with MetS. KAP scores were predefined as high, moderate, and low. Of the participants (n = 423), 13% were males and 87% were females. Attitudes scores were high among this population, though their knowledge and practices scores on CVD risk factors were moderate. Participants with high mean knowledge scores had significantly lower waist circumference (WC) and showed a trend toward reduced fasting blood glucose levels. Participants with high practice scores had significantly lower BMI and WC, which signify that better knowledge and practices are associated with decrease in CVD risk markers in these patients. The study reveals that urban MetS patients have a moderate knowledge and practice score, though their attitude score is high regarding CVD risk factors.

  7. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices on Lifestyle and Cardiovascular Risk Factors Among Metabolic Syndrome Patients in an Urban Tertiary Care Institute in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekara, Priyanwada; de Silva, Angela; Swarnamali, Hasinthi; Senarath, Upul; Katulanda, Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a significant predictor of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). A pretested questionnaire was used to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of CVD and its risks among Sri Lankan urban adults (35-55 years) with MetS. KAP scores were predefined as high, moderate, and low. Of the participants (n = 423), 13% were males and 87% were females. Attitudes scores were high among this population, though their knowledge and practices scores on CVD risk factors were moderate. Participants with high mean knowledge scores had significantly lower waist circumference (WC) and showed a trend toward reduced fasting blood glucose levels. Participants with high practice scores had significantly lower BMI and WC, which signify that better knowledge and practices are associated with decrease in CVD risk markers in these patients. The study reveals that urban MetS patients have a moderate knowledge and practice score, though their attitude score is high regarding CVD risk factors. PMID:26512029

  8. Moderators of intervention dose effects on diet quality and physical activity changes in a church-based, multicomponent, lifestyle study: Delta Body and Soul III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, J L; Zoellner, J M; Tussing-Humphreys, L M; Goodman, M H

    2016-06-01

    Many community-based lifestyle interventions targeting African Americans have reported positive effects on participants' dietary choices and physical activity habits. However, these effects vary and not all participants will have outcome changes. Moderation analysis can help explain differential effects observed, but are not often reported. Hence, the objective of this secondary analysis was to explore potential moderators of intervention dose effects on diet quality and physical activity outcomes in an effective lifestyle intervention. Delta Body and Soul III, conducted from 2011 to 2012, was a 6-month, church-based, multicomponent, educational intervention designed to improve diet quality and increase physical activity in rural Southern African American adults. Generalized linear mixed models were used to determine associations among indicators of intervention dose received by participants, potential moderators and health outcome changes. Results indicated only three baseline characteristics-employment status, food shopping frequency and individual with primary responsibility for meal preparation-moderated the effects of education session attendance on diet quality changes. No evidence for moderation of exercise class attendance effects on physical activity changes was found. Thus, this culturally targeted, multicomponent lifestyle intervention did induce positive health changes in participants with a range of sociodemographic characteristics and food shopping and eating behaviors. PMID:26944868

  9. Considering statins for cholesterol-reduction in children if lifestyle and diet changes do not improve their health: a review of the risks and benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clodagh SM O’Gorman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Clodagh SM O’Gorman1, Michael B O’Neill2, Louise S Conwell31Graduate Entry Medical School, University of Limerick, Ireland, and Mid-Western Regional Hospital, Limerick, Ireland; 2Mayo General Hospital, Castlebar, Ireland; 3Royal Children’s Hospital, Brisbane, Discipline of Pediatrics and Child Health, and School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, AustraliaAbstract: Children who appear healthy, even if they have one or more recognized cardiovascular risk factors, do not generally have outcomes of cardiovascular or other vascular disease during childhood. Historically, pediatric medicine has not aggressively screened for or treated cardiovascular risk factors in otherwise healthy children. However, studies such as the P-Day Study (Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth, and the Bogalusa Heart Study, indicate that healthy children at remarkably young ages can have evidence of significant atherosclerosis. With the increasing prevalence of pediatric obesity, can we expect more health problems related to the consequences of pediatric dyslipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and atherosclerosis in the future? For many years, medications have been available and used in adult populations to treat dyslipidemia. In recent years, reports of short-term safety of some of these medications in children have been published. However, none of these studies have detailed long-term follow-up, and therefore none have described potential late side-effects of early cholesterol-lowering therapy, or potential benefits in terms of reduction of or delay in cardiovascular or other vascular end-points. In 2007, the American Heart Association published a scientific statement on the use of cholesterol-lowering therapy in pediatric patients. In this review paper, we discuss some of the current literature on cholesterol-lowering therapy in children, including the statins that are currently available for use in children, and some of the cautions

  10. Functional Task Test: 2. Spaceflight-Induced Cardiovascular Change and Recovery During NASA's Functional Task Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Tiffany; Arzeno, Natalia M.; Stenger, Michael; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Platts, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    The overall objective of the functional task test (FTT) is to correlate spaceflight-induced physiological adaptations with changes in performance of high priority exploration mission-critical tasks. This presentation will focus on the recovery from fall/stand test (RFST), which measures the cardiovascular response to the transition from the prone posture (simulated fall) to standing in normal gravity, as well as heart rate (HR) during 11 functional tasks. As such, this test describes some aspects of spaceflight-induced cardiovascular deconditioning and the course of recovery in Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) astronauts. The sensorimotor and neuromuscular components of the FTT are described in two separate abstracts: Functional Task Test 1 and 3.

  11. Diet and Lifestyle Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... diabetes, digestive and liver diseases, kidney diseases, weight control and nutrition, urologic diseases, endocrine and metabolic diseases, ...

  12. Diet and Lifestyle Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diabetes, control your blood glucose level . Good blood glucose control may help prevent or delay diabetes complications, including ... a healthy weight, and medicines can all help control your blood cholesterol ... well as your blood glucose and blood cholesterol levels. Lose weight if you ...

  13. Lifestyle Behaviors Predict Negative and Positive Changes in Self-reported Health: The Role of Immigration to the United States for Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron-Epel, Orna; Hofstetter, C Richard; Irvin, Veronica L; Kang, Sunny; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2015-10-01

    Studies of changes in health following immigration are inconsistent, and few are based on longitudinal designs to test associations based on change. This study identified factors that predicted changes in self-reported health (SRH) among California residents of Korean descent. A sample of California residents of Korean descent were interviewed and followed-up 2 or 3 times by telephone during 2001-2009. The questionnaires dealt with SRH, lifestyle behaviors (smoking, physical activity, and fast food consumption), and socioeconomic measures. Statistical analysis included random-intercepts longitudinal regression models predicting change in SRH. A similar percentage of respondents reported improved and deteriorating SRH (30.3% and 29.1%, respectively). Smoking, consumption of fast foods, age, percentage of life spent in the United States, and being female were predictors of deteriorating SRH, whereas physical activity, education, and living with a partner were predictive of improvement in SRH. The effect of immigration on SRH is influenced by socioeconomic factors and lifestyle practices. Results support promotion of healthy lifestyle practices among immigrants. PMID:26307145

  14. Longitudinal Patterns of Stages of Change for Exercise and Lifestyle Intervention Outcomes: An Application of Latent Class Analysis with Distal Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Luohua; Chen, Shuai; Zhang, Ben; Beals, Janette; Mitchell, Christina M; Manson, Spero M; Roubideaux, Yvette

    2016-04-01

    Stages of change measure an individual's readiness to alter a health behavior. This study examined the latent longitudinal patterns of stages of change (SoC) for regular exercise over time among individuals participating in a lifestyle intervention project. It also investigated the association between the longitudinal patterns of SoC and intervention outcomes using a new statistical method to assess the relationship between latent class membership and distal outcomes. We analyzed data from the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Diabetes Prevention Program, a lifestyle intervention program to prevent diabetes among American Indians and Alaska Natives. Latent class analysis (LCA) was conducted to identify the longitudinal patterns of SoC for regular exercise reported at three time points. LCA with distal outcomes was performed to investigate the associations between latent class membership and behavioral changes after the intervention. The parameters and standard errors of the LCA with distal outcomes models were estimated using an improved three-step approach. Three latent classes were identified: Pre-action, Transition, and Maintenance classes. The Transition class, where stage progression occurred, had the greatest improvements in physical activity and weight outcomes at both time points post-baseline among female participants. It also had the largest improvements in weight outcomes among male participants. Furthermore, the Pre-action class had more attenuation in the improvements they had achieved initially than the other two classes. These findings suggest the potential importance of motivating participants to modify their readiness for behavioral change in future lifestyle interventions. PMID:26381430

  15. A pilot study on pupillary and cardiovascular changes induced by stereoscopic video movies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugita Norihiro

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taking advantage of developed image technology, it is expected that image presentation would be utilized to promote health in the field of medical care and public health. To accumulate knowledge on biomedical effects induced by image presentation, an essential prerequisite for these purposes, studies on autonomic responses in more than one physiological system would be necessary. In this study, changes in parameters of the pupillary light reflex and cardiovascular reflex evoked by motion pictures were examined, which would be utilized to evaluate the effects of images, and to avoid side effects. Methods Three stereoscopic video movies with different properties were field-sequentially rear-projected through two LCD projectors on an 80-inch screen. Seven healthy young subjects watched movies in a dark room. Pupillary parameters were measured before and after presentation of movies by an infrared pupillometer. ECG and radial blood pressure were continuously monitored. The maximum cross-correlation coefficient between heart rate and blood pressure, ρmax, was used as an index to evaluate changes in the cardiovascular reflex. Results Parameters of pupillary and cardiovascular reflexes changed differently after subjects watched three different video movies. Amplitudes of the pupillary light reflex, CR, increased when subjects watched two CG movies (movies A and D, while they did not change after watching a movie with the real scenery (movie R. The ρmax was significantly larger after presentation of the movie D. Scores of the questionnaire for subjective evaluation of physical condition increased after presentation of all movies, but their relationship with changes in CR and ρmax was different in three movies. Possible causes of these biomedical differences are discussed. Conclusion The autonomic responses were effective to monitor biomedical effects induced by image presentation. Further accumulation of data on multiple autonomic

  16. IPH response to Seanad Consultation Committee on 'Changes in lifestyle can prevent approximately one third of cancers. How does Government and Society respond to this challenge?'

    OpenAIRE

    Institute of Public Health in Ireland

    2012-01-01

    IPH responded to the Seanad Consultation Committee on the consultation topic ‘Changes in lifestyle can prevent approximately one third of cancers.  How does Government and Society respond to this challenge?’. Between 2010 and 2020 the total number of cancers in Ireland is projected to increase by 40% for women and by just over 50% for men (National Cancer Registry).  A focus is needed on developing social, economical and built environments that support healthy choices. I...

  17. Making and maintaining lifestyle changes with the support of a lay health advisor: longitudinal qualitative study of health trainer services in northern England.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelina Visram

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore and document the experiences of those receiving support from a lay health trainer, in order to inform the optimisation and evaluation of such interventions. DESIGN: Longitudinal qualitative study with up to four serial interviews conducted over 12 months. Interviews were transcribed and analysed using the constant comparative approach associated with grounded theory. PARTICIPANTS: 13 health trainers, 5 managers and 26 clients. SETTING: Three health trainer services targeting disadvantaged communities in northern England. RESULTS: The final dataset comprised 116 interviews (88 with clients and 28 with staff. Discussions with health trainers and managers revealed a high degree of heterogeneity between the local services in terms of their primary aims and activities. However, these were found to converge over time. There was agreement that health trainer interventions are generally 'person-centred' in terms of being tailored to the needs of individual clients. This led to a range of self-reported outcomes, including behaviour changes, physical health improvements and increased social activity. Factors impacting on the maintenance of lifestyle changes included the cost and timing of health-promoting activities, ill-health or low mood. Participants perceived a need for ongoing access to low cost facilities to ensure that any lifestyle changes can be maintained in the longer term. CONCLUSIONS: Health trainers may be successful in terms of supporting people from socio-economically disadvantaged communities to make positive lifestyle changes, as well as achieving other health-related outcomes. This is not a 'one-size-fits-all' approach; commissioners and providers should select the intervention models that best meet the needs of their local populations. By delivering holistic interventions that address multiple lifestyle risks and incorporate relapse prevention strategies, health trainers could potentially have a significant impact

  18. The effect of adding group-based counselling to individual lifestyle counselling on changes in dietary intake. The Inter99 study – a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Smith Lisa; Pisinger Charlotta; Lau Cathrine; Ovesen Lars; Ladelund Steen; Kristoffersen Lis; Toft Ulla; Borch-Johnsen Knut; Jørgensen Torben

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Few studies have investigated the specific effect of single intervention components in randomized controlled trials. The purpose was to investigate the effect of adding group-based diet and exercise counselling to individual life-style counselling on long-term changes in dietary habits. Methods The study was a randomized controlled intervention study. From a general Danish population, aged 30 to 60 years (n = 61,301), two random sample were drawn (group A, n = 11,708; grou...

  19. Rates and Determinants of Repeated Participation in a Web-Based Behavior Change Program for Healthy Body Weight and Healthy Lifestyle

    OpenAIRE

    Verheijden, Marieke W; Jans, Marielle P; Hildebrandt, Vincent H; Hopman-Rock, Marijke

    2007-01-01

    Background In recent years, many tailored lifestyle counseling programs have become available through the Internet. Previous research into such programs has shown selective enrollment of relatively healthy people. However, because of the known dose-response relationship between the intensity and frequency of counseling and the behavior change outcomes, selective retention may also be a concern. Objective The aim of this study was to identify rates and determinants of repeat participation in a...

  20. Age and body mass related changes of cardiovascular risk factors in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macut Đuro P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is considered a metabolic disorder closely related to obesity, insulin resistance (IR, hyperinsulinemia and unfavorable lipid profile, all increasing the risk for the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to assess age and body mass index (BMI related changes of cardiovascular risk factors in 90 women with PCOS. The cut-off age point was 30 years and for BMI 27.8 kg/m2. In all patients systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP, metabolic parameters comprising values of glucose and insulin during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, and basal lipid values were determined. Significant increase in blood pressure (BP indices, basal insulin values and insulin resistance (IR assessed by HOMA model were observed with aging and the increase of BMI, while the parameters of glucose metabolism, total cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly elevated only with aging. However, the correlation between the indices of arterial blood pressure, and lipid and glucose metabolism parameters occurred only in patients over 30 years of age, pointing to the causative relation and the consequent deterioration of IR and lipid profile with aging, influencing cardiovascular function in women with PCOS.

  1. Land-use and land-cover assessment for the study of lifestyle change in a rural Mexican community: The Maycoba Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giraldo Mario A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1995, a study was conducted to identify the effects of traditional and westernized environments on the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Pima Indians (Pimas in Mexico and the United States. The study concluded that the more traditional lifestyle in Mexico had a protective effect against this metabolic disorder. In the ensuing 15 years, the environmental circumstances of the Mexican Pimas changed, and a follow-up study was conducted to determine the role environmental change plays in the development of diabetes in this genetically susceptible population. A major element of environmental transition relates to land-use and land-cover (LULC changes that could affect physical activity and promote an obesogenic environment. This study examined changes in the region’s LULC to determine whether there have been transitions in agricultural land use and urbanization that would be consistent with a more sedentary lifestyle. Changes were assessed from 1994 aerial photographs and 2007 satellite images. Results The land-cover analysis showed that mixed vegetation and dense trees cover most of the study area. It suggested a rural environment that includes a low percentage of impermeable areas, and it indicated that the area experiencing human intervention covers 7% of the total area. The land-use-change findings showed a decrease or no change in agricultural or ranching areas and a decrease in farmland due to reforestation or revegetation. Three variables from the land-use-change analysis were examined as proxies for lifestyle change: urban development, dwelling-unit density, and variation in the road network. Two of the measures –the amount of urbanization and the number and density of dwelling units—showed increases, most notably in the town of Maycoba. There were only minor changes in the road network: most of the road segments are short and concentrated in Maycoba where most of the buildings, points of interest (e.g., church

  2. Immediate effect of ice bag application to head and spine on cardiovascular changes in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mooventhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objectives: Ice application is one of the treatment procedures used in hydrotherapy. Though its various physiological/therapeutic effects were reported, ice bag application (IBA to head and spine on cardiovascular changes were not reported. Hence, this study aims at evaluating the immediate effect of IBA to head and spine on cardiovascular changes in healthy volunteers. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight subjects were randomized into three sessions ([i] IBA [ii] tap water bag application [TWBA] and [iii] control and intervention was given in one of the 3-different orders. Systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, and pulse rate (PR was assessed before and after 20-min of each intervention. Pulse pressure, mean pressure (MP, rate pressure product (RPP, and double product (Do-P were derived by standard formula. Statistical analysis was performed by repeated measures of analysis of variance and post-hoc analysis with Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons with the use of Statistical Package for Social Sciences version-16. Results: The results showed no significant difference between sessions in all variables. Within-group analysis showed significant reductions in SBP, PR, RPP, Do-P in IBA and TWBA sessions; Significant reduction in DBP, MP in IBA unlike TWBA; and no significant changes in all the variables of control session. Conclusions: Result of our study suggest that though both IBA and TWBA to head and spine might be considered as having effect on improving cardiovascular function in healthy volunteers, IBA to head and spine could be considered as a better choice than TWBA.

  3. The association between changes in pressure pain sensitivity and changes in cardiovascular physiological factors associated with persistent stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballegaard, Søren; Petersen, Pernille B.; Harboe, Gitte S.;

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objectives. To evaluate the possible association between pressure pain sensitivity of the chest bone (PPS) and cardiovascular physiological factors related to persistent stress in connection with a three-month PPS-guided stress-reducing experimental intervention programme. Methods. Forty...... rate (HR) and work of the heart measured as Pressure-Rate-Product (PRP); Secondary endpoints: Other features of the metabolic syndrome. Results. PPS decreased and changes in PPS after the intervention period were significantly associated with HR, PRP, body mass index (BMI) and visceral fat index (all...... blood pressure, heart rate, work of the heart and serum cholesterols....

  4. Gut microbioma population: an indicator really sensible to any change in age, diet, metabolic syndrome, and life-style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annalisa, Noce; Alessio, Tarantino; Claudette, Tsague Djoutsop; Erald, Vasili; Antonino, De Lorenzo; Nicola, Di Daniele

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has become a pandemic threat in the latest 30 years. The trend of the prevalence of overweight and obesity has got an overall increase in every part of the world, regardless of ethnicity, life-style and social ties. High food intake, genetic, and sedentary have been related to obesity; it has been also hypothesized that gut microbiota could have an impact on the complex mechanism underlying the weight gain. This review aims to illustrate the actual literature about gut microbiota and its relation with obesity and to analyze the possible implications of factors such as diet and life-style onto the composition of gut microbiota, that can lead to overweight/obesity condition.

  5. Gut Microbioma Population: An Indicator Really Sensible to Any Change in Age, Diet, Metabolic Syndrome, and Life-Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noce Annalisa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has become a pandemic threat in the latest 30 years. The trend of the prevalence of overweight and obesity has got an overall increase in every part of the world, regardless of ethnicity, life-style and social ties. High food intake, genetic, and sedentary have been related to obesity; it has been also hypothesized that gut microbiota could have an impact on the complex mechanism underlying the weight gain. This review aims to illustrate the actual literature about gut microbiota and its relation with obesity and to analyze the possible implications of factors such as diet and life-style onto the composition of gut microbiota, that can lead to overweight/obesity condition.

  6. Cardiovascular System Changes and Related Risk Factors in Acromegaly Patients: A Case-Control Study

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    Xiaopeng Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cardiovascular complications are known to be the main determinants of reduced life expectancy and decreased quality of life in acromegaly patients. Our study aimed to provide insight into the cardiovascular changes that occur in acromegaly patients and to investigate the correlative risk factors. Methods. A total of 108 patients definitively diagnosed with acromegaly and 108 controls matched for age and gender were recruited into study and control groups, respectively. Standard echocardiography was performed on all of the participants, and data were collected and analyzed. Results. All acromegaly patients presented with structural cardiac changes, including a larger heart cavity, thicker myocardial walls, and increased great vessel diameters compared with the control group. Additionally, the acromegaly patients presented with reduced diastolic function. Aging and increased body mass index (BMI were correlated with myocardial hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction; a longer disease duration was correlated with larger great vessel diameters. Conclusions. Ageing and increased BMI are independent risk factors for acromegalic cardiomyopathy, and a long disease duration results in the expansion of great vessels. Increased efforts should be made to diagnose acromegaly at an early stage and to advise acromegaly patients to maintain a healthy weight.

  7. Cardiovascular System Changes and Related Risk Factors in Acromegaly Patients: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaopeng; Gao, Lu; Zhang, Shuo; Li, Yilin; Wu, Yue; Fang, Ligang; Deng, Kan; Yao, Yong; Lian, Wei; Wang, Renzhi; Xing, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Background. Cardiovascular complications are known to be the main determinants of reduced life expectancy and decreased quality of life in acromegaly patients. Our study aimed to provide insight into the cardiovascular changes that occur in acromegaly patients and to investigate the correlative risk factors. Methods. A total of 108 patients definitively diagnosed with acromegaly and 108 controls matched for age and gender were recruited into study and control groups, respectively. Standard echocardiography was performed on all of the participants, and data were collected and analyzed. Results. All acromegaly patients presented with structural cardiac changes, including a larger heart cavity, thicker myocardial walls, and increased great vessel diameters compared with the control group. Additionally, the acromegaly patients presented with reduced diastolic function. Aging and increased body mass index (BMI) were correlated with myocardial hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction; a longer disease duration was correlated with larger great vessel diameters. Conclusions. Ageing and increased BMI are independent risk factors for acromegalic cardiomyopathy, and a long disease duration results in the expansion of great vessels. Increased efforts should be made to diagnose acromegaly at an early stage and to advise acromegaly patients to maintain a healthy weight.

  8. Eating Disorder Pathology in Adolescents Participating in a Lifestyle Intervention for Obesity: Associations with Weight Change, General Psychopathology and Health-Related Quality of Life

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    Katrin E. Giel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of eating disorder symptoms in obese adolescents participating in a lifestyle intervention for weight loss and to investigate possible relationships with weight change, general psychopathology, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL. Method: At the beginning and after completion of a 6-month lifestyle intervention, 41 participants (20 females; age: 13.7 ± 1.4 years reported on core symptoms of eating disorders (SCOFF, self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, RSES, and HRQOL (Questionnaire for Measuring Health-Related Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents, KINDL, while parents filled in a questionnaire assessing their children's internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems (Child Behavior Checklist, CBCL. Results: Compared to age-matched normative samples, patients showed increased behavior problems and an impaired HRQOL. 43% of the patients were screened positive for an eating disorder pathology, and this subgroup showed an increased psychopathological burden compared to patients that were screened negative. The lifestyle intervention resulted in a significant weight loss which was unaffected by the presence of an eating disorder pathology. The screening rate for eating disorders remained stable after the intervention. Conclusion: The large overlap, mutual interaction, and high burden of eating and weight problems in children and adolescents underpin the need for an integrated view in both prevention and treatment approaches in pediatric obesity.

  9. Quercetin ameliorates cardiovascular, hepatic, and metabolic changes in diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchal, Sunil K; Poudyal, Hemant; Brown, Lindsay

    2012-06-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We investigated the responses to the flavonol, quercetin, in male Wistar rats (8-9 wk old) divided into 4 groups. Two groups were given either a corn starch-rich (C) or high-carbohydrate, high-fat (H) diet for 16 wk; the remaining 2 groups were given either a C or H diet for 8 wk followed by supplementation with 0.8 g/kg quercetin in the food for the following 8 wk (CQ and HQ, respectively). The H diet contained ~68% carbohydrates, mainly as fructose and sucrose, and ~24% fat from beef tallow; the C diet contained ~68% carbohydrates as polysaccharides and ~0.7% fat. Compared with the C rats, the H rats had greater body weight and abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, higher systolic blood pressure, impaired glucose tolerance, cardiovascular remodeling, and NAFLD. The H rats had lower protein expressions of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-related factor-2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) with greater expression of NF-κB in both the heart and the liver and less expression of caspase-3 in the liver than in C rats. HQ rats had higher expression of Nrf2, HO-1, and CPT1 and lower expression of NF-κB than H rats in both the heart and the liver. HQ rats had less abdominal fat and lower systolic blood pressure along with attenuation of changes in structure and function of the heart and the liver compared with H rats, although body weight and dyslipidemia did not differ between the H and HQ rats. Thus, quercetin treatment attenuated most of the symptoms of metabolic syndrome, including abdominal obesity, cardiovascular remodeling, and NAFLD, with the most likely mechanisms being decreases in oxidative stress and inflammation.

  10. Rural to urban migration and changes in cardiovascular risk factors in Tanzania: a prospective cohort study

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    Tamin Bushiri

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High levels of rural to urban migration are a feature of most African countries. Our aim was to investigate changes, and their determinants, in cardiovascular risk factors on rural to urban migration in Tanzania. Methods Men and women (15 to 59 years intending to migrate from Morogoro rural region to Dar es Salaam for at least 6 months were identified. Measurements were made at least one week but no more than one month prior to migration, and 1 to 3 monthly after migration. Outcome measures included body mass index, blood pressure, fasting lipids, and self reported physical activity and diet. Results One hundred and three men, 106 women, mean age 29 years, were recruited and 132 (63.2% followed to 12 months. All the figures presented here refer to the difference between baseline and 12 months in these 132 individuals. Vigorous physical activity declined (79.4% to 26.5% in men, 37.8% to 15.6% in women, p -1 respectively, p -1, p = 0.01, and triglycerides fell (0.31 mmoll-1, p = 0.034. Blood pressure appeared to fall in both men and women. For example, in men systolic blood pressure fell by 5.4 mmHg, p = 0.007, and in women by 8.6 mmHg, p = 0.001. Conclusion The lower level of physical activity and increasing weight will increase the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, changes in diet were mixed, and may have contributed to mixed changes in lipid profiles and a lack of rise in blood pressure. A better understanding of the changes occurring on rural to urban migration is needed to guide preventive measures.

  11. The concept of Maslow's pyramid for cardiovascular health and its impact on “change cycle”

    OpenAIRE

    Behjati, Mohaddeseh

    2014-01-01

    Since the leading cause of morbidity and mortality is cardiovascular diseases, every individual should think regularly about possessing and maintaining cardiovascular health. In reality, this self-processing is delayed until the occurrence of complications related to cardiovascular inefficiency manifested as chest pain and/or dyspnea. However, people should be trained to think about their cardiovascular health issues as a vital need from early childhood. This goal is achievable by understandi...

  12. Study protocol: a multi-professional team intervention of physical activity referrals in primary care patients with cardiovascular risk factors—the Dalby lifestyle intervention cohort (DALICO study

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    Stenman Emelie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study protocol describes the trial design of a primary care intervention cohort study, which examines whether an extended, multi-professional physical activity referral (PAR intervention is more effective in enhancing and maintaining self-reported physical activity than physical activity prescription in usual care. The study targets patients with newly diagnosed hypertension and/or type 2 diabetes. Secondary outcomes include: need of pharmacological therapy; blood pressure/plasma glucose; physical fitness and anthropometric variables; mental health; health related quality of life; and cost-effectiveness. Methods/Design The study is designed as a long-term intervention. Three primary care centres are involved in the study, each constituting one of three treatment groups: 1 Intervention group (IG: multi-professional team intervention with PAR, 2 Control group A (CA: physical activity prescription in usual care and 3 Control group B: treatment as usual (retrospective data collection. The intervention is based on self-determination theory and follows the principles of motivational interviewing. The primary outcome, physical activity, is measured with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ and expressed as metabolic equivalent of task (MET-minutes per week. Physical fitness is estimated with the 6-minute walk test in IG only. Variables such as health behaviours; health-related quality of life; motivation to change; mental health; demographics and socioeconomic characteristics are assessed with an electronic study questionnaire that submits all data to a patient database, which automatically provides feed-back to the health-care providers on the patients’ health status. Cost-effectiveness of the intervention is evaluated continuously and the intermediate outcomes of the intervention are extrapolated by economic modelling. Discussions By helping patients to overcome practical, social and cultural

  13. Adding liraglutide to lifestyle changes, metformin and testosterone therapy boosts erectile function in diabetic obese men with overt hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giagulli, V A; Carbone, M D; Ramunni, M I; Licchelli, B; De Pergola, G; Sabbà, C; Guastamacchia, E; Triggiani, V

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this retrospective observational study was to evaluate whether adding liraglutide to lifestyle changes, metformin (Met) and testosterone replacement therapy (TRT), by means of improving weight and glycaemic control, could boost erectile function in type 2 diabetic obese men with overt hypogonadism and erectile dysfunction (ED) in a 'real-life setting'. Forty-three obese, diabetic and hypogonadal men (aged 45-59 years) were evaluated because of complaining about the recent onset of ED. They were subdivided into two groups according to whether hypogonadism occurred after puberty (G1; n = 30: 25 with dysfunctional hypogonadism and 5 with acquired hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) or before puberty (G2; n = 13: 10 with Klinefelter's syndrome and 3 with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism). Both G1 and G2 patients were given a combination of testosterone (T) [testosterone undecanoate (TU) 1000 mg/every 12 weeks] and Met (2000-3000 mg/day) for 1 year. In the poor responders (N) to this therapy in terms of glycaemic target (G1N: n = 16; G2N: n = 10), liraglutide (L) (1.2 μg/day) was added for a second year, while the good responders (Y) to T + Met (G1Y: 14/30 and G2Y: 3/13) continued this two drugs regimen therapy for another year. All patients were asked to fill in the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF 15) questionnaire before starting TU plus Met (T1) and after 12 months (T2) and 24 months (T3) of treatment. Patients underwent a clinical examination and a determination of serum sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), total testosterone (T) and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) at T1, T2 and T3. At T2, each patient obtained an improvement of ED (p 7.5% (>58 mmol/mol)], while T turned out to be within the range of young men. L added to TU and Met regimen in G1N and G2N allowed these patients to reach not only the glycaemic target [HbA1c = <7.5% (<58 nmol/mol)] and a significant reduction in body weight (p < 0.01), but also a further increase in SHBG

  14. Impact of Cardiovascular Events on Change in Quality of Life and Utilities in Patients After Myocardial Infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Eldrin F; Li, Yanhong; Pfeffer, Marc A;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine the impact of nonfatal cardiovascular (CV) events on changes in health-related quality of life (HRQL). BACKGROUND: There is limited understanding of the impact of nonfatal CV events on long-term changes in HRQL in survivors of myocardial in...

  15. Sami lifestyle and health : epidemiological studies from northern Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Lena Maria

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this PhD thesis was to expand the current knowledge of “traditional Sami” diet and lifestyle, and to test aspects of the Sami diet and lifestyle, specifically dietary pattern, macronutrient distribution and coffee consumption, in population-based epidemiological studies of mortality and incident cardiovascular disease and cancer in a general population. In Paper I, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 elderly Sami concerning their parent’s lifestyle and diet 50-70 year...

  16. Audit of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Supported Adults with Intellectual Disability Attending an Ageing Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Robyn A.; Schluter, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor profile for older adults with intellectual disability (ID). As many CVD risk factors are treatable by lifestyle changes, confirmation of the risk factor profile for older adults with ID could substantially impact upon preventive health practices for this group. Method:…

  17. Influence of technology of formation of skills of healthy lifestyle on changes of physical activity of students

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    Lydia Shchur

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to define influence of technology of formation of skills of healthy lifestyle on physical activity of students. Material & Methods: 90 students of the III course of the specialty "Fine and decorative and applied arts" of Lviv national academy of arts took part in the research. The following methods were used: theoretical analysis and synthesis of data of scientific and methodical literature, sociological methods (questioning, methods of mathematico-statistical data processing. Results: it is revealed that the optimization of process of formation of skills of healthy lifestyle is possible on condition of logical combination in the program of physical education of theoretical, methodical and practical components; it is found out that the content of the discipline "Physical education" in higher educational institutions of the art direction has to promote the formation of the corresponding skills which will promote the correct physical self-improvement of students. It is defined that students of the experimental group had positive shifts according to all characteristics which were studied. Conclusions: it is proved that the created technology of healthcare education is more effective, than traditional for students of the specialty "Fine and decorative and applied arts".

  18. Plasma proteome changes in cardiovascular disease patients: novel isoforms of apolipoprotein A1

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    Oravec Milan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this proteomic study was to look for changes taking place in plasma proteomes of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI, unstable angina pectoris (UAP, and stable angina pectoris (SAP. Methods Depleted plasma proteins were separated by 2D SDS-PAGE (pI 4-7, and proteomes were compared using Progenesis SameSpots statistical software. Proteins were identified by nanoLC-MS/MS. Proteins were quantified using commercial kits. Apolipoprotein A1 was studied using 1D and 2D SDS-PAGE, together with western blotting. Results Reciprocal comparison revealed 46 unique, significantly different spots; proteins in 34 spots were successfully identified and corresponded to 38 different proteins. Discrete comparisons of patient groups showed 45, 41, and 8 significantly different spots when AMI, UAP, and SAP were compared with the control group. On the basis of our proteomic data, plasma levels of two of them, alpha-1 microglobulin and vitamin D-binding protein, were determined. The data, however, failed to prove the proteins to be suitable markers or risk factors in the studied groups. The plasma level and isoform representation of apolipoprotein A1 were also estimated. Using 1D and 2D SDS-PAGE, together with western blotting, we observed extra high-molecular weight apolipoprotein A1 fractions presented only in the patient groups, indicating that the novel high-molecular weight isoforms of apolipoprotein A1 may be potential new markers or possible risk factors of cardiovascular disease. Conclusion The reported data show plasma proteome changes in patients with AMI, UAP, and SAP. We propose some apolipoprotein A1 fractions as a possible new disease-associated marker of cardiovascular disorders.

  19. Lifestyle changes associated with a new antioxidant formulation in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abenavoli, Ludovico; Peta, Valentina; Milic, Natasa

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a relevant issue in public health owing to its epidemiological burden. It represents the most common chronic liver disease in the general population and is expected to increase in future as a result of an ageing population. The only currently recommended treatment for NAFLD is lifestyle modification. However, literature reports pre-clinical and clinical studies on the use of antioxidant supplementation in NAFLD. A new antioxidant complex, called Bilirel (BIL) (Pharmaluce, Republic of San Marino), have recently introduced in the Italian market. However no data are reported on his effects on liver steatosis. Here we report on a cases series of seven overweight patients with NAFLD, in which the association of an Italian Mediterranean diet, increased physical activity, and daily administration of two pills of BIL for 6 weeks, have induced the rapid improvement of fatty liver accumulation, glucose and lipid metabolism, and weight reduction.

  20. The effect of adding group-based counselling to individual lifestyle counselling on changes in dietary intake. The Inter99 study – a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Lisa

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have investigated the specific effect of single intervention components in randomized controlled trials. The purpose was to investigate the effect of adding group-based diet and exercise counselling to individual life-style counselling on long-term changes in dietary habits. Methods The study was a randomized controlled intervention study. From a general Danish population, aged 30 to 60 years (n = 61,301, two random sample were drawn (group A, n = 11,708; group B, n = 1,308. Subjects were invited for a health screening program. Participation rate was 52.5%. All participants received individual life-style counselling. Individuals at high risk of ischemic heart disease in group A were furthermore offered group-based life-style counselling. The intervention was repeated for high-risk individuals after one and three years. At five-year follow-up all participants were invited for a health examination. High risk individuals were included in this study (n = 2 356 and changes in dietary intake were analyzed using multilevel linear regression analyses. Results At one-year follow-up group A had significantly increased the unsaturated/saturated fat ratio compared to group B and in men a significantly greater decrease in saturated fat intake was found in group A compared to group B (net change: -1.13 E%; P = 0.003. No differences were found between group A and B at three-year follow-up. At five-year follow-up group A had significantly increased the unsaturated/saturated fat ratio (net change: 0.09; P = 0.01 and the fish intake compared to group B (net change: 5.4 g/day; P = 0.05. Further, in men a non-significant tendency of a greater decrease was found at five year follow-up in group A compared to group B (net change: -0.68 E%; P = 0.10. The intake of fibre and vegetables increased in both groups, however, no significant difference was found between the groups. No differences between groups were found for saturated fat

  1. Contribution of Individual Risk Factor Changes to Reductions in Population Absolute Cardiovascular Risk

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    Thomas Cochrane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Few studies have investigated individual risk factor contributions to absolute cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. Even fewer have examined changes in individual risk factors as components of overall modifiable risk change following a CVD prevention intervention. Design. Longitudinal study of population CVD risk factor changes following a health screening and enhanced support programme. Methods. The contribution of individual risk factors to the estimated absolute CVD risk in a population of high risk patients identified from general practice records was evaluated. Further, the proportion of the modifiable risk attributable to each factor that was removed following one year of enhanced support was estimated. Results. Mean age of patients (533 males, 68 females was 63.7 (6.4 years. High cholesterol (57% was most prevalent, followed by smoking (53% and high blood pressure (26%. Smoking (57% made the greatest contribution to the modifiable population CVD risk, followed by raised blood pressure (26% and raised cholesterol (17%. After one year of enhanced support, the modifiable population risk attributed to smoking (56%, high blood pressure (68%, and high cholesterol (53% was removed. Conclusion. Approximately 59% of the modifiable risk attributable to the combination of high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and current smoking was removed after intervention.

  2. Cardiovascular changes in atherosclerotic ApoE-deficient mice exposed to Co60 (γ radiation.

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    Prem Kumarathasan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is evidence for a role of ionizing radiation in cardiovascular diseases. The goal of this work was to identify changes in oxidative and nitrative stress pathways and the status of the endothelinergic system during progression of atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice after single and repeated exposure to ionizing radiation. METHODS AND RESULTS: B6.129P2-ApoE tmlUnc mice on a low-fat diet were acutely exposed (whole body to Co60 (γ (single dose 0, 0.5, and 2 Gy at a dose rate of 36.32 cGy/min, or repeatedly (cumulative dose 0 and 2 Gy at a dose-rate of 0.1 cGy/min for 5 d/wk, over a period of 4 weeks. Biological endpoints were investigated after 3-6 months of recovery post-radiation. The nitrative stress marker 3-nitrotyrosine and the vasoregulator peptides endothelin-1 and endothelin-3 in plasma were increased (p<0.05 in a dose-dependent manner 3-6 months after acute or chronic exposure to radiation. The oxidative stress marker 8-isoprostane was not affected by radiation, while plasma 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine decreased (p<0.05 after treatment. At 2Gy radiation dose, serum cholesterol was increased (p = 0.008 relative to controls. Percent lesion area increased (p = 0.005 with age of animal, but not with radiation treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our observations are consistent with persistent nitrative stress and activation of the endothelinergic system in ApoE-/- mice after low-level ionizing radiation exposures. These mechanisms are known factors in the progression of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases.

  3. Evaluation of effect of highly standardized aqueous extract of roots and leaves of Withania somnifera on cold pressor test induced cardiovascular changes in healthy human subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Raveendranath Pilli; Niranjan Koilagundla; Ramakanth GSH; Usharani Pingali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stress is an important cardiovascular risk factor. Cold pressor test (CPT) is a simple, validated, non-invasive test used to measure stress induced changes in cardiovascular parameters. The objective of this study was to evaluate effect of Withania somnifera extract on cold pressor stress test induced changes on cardiovascular parameters and aortic wave reflections in healthy human subjects. Methods: This was a double-blind, placebo controlled, crossover study. Participants wer...

  4. Cardiovascular benefits of exercise

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    Agarwal SK

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Shashi K AgarwalMedical Director, Agarwal Health Center, NJ, USAAbstract: Regular physical activity during leisure time has been shown to be associated with better health outcomes. The American Heart Association, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine all recommend regular physical activity of moderate intensity for the prevention and complementary treatment of several diseases. The therapeutic role of exercise in maintaining good health and treating diseases is not new. The benefits of physical activity date back to Susruta, a 600 BC physician in India, who prescribed exercise to patients. Hippocrates (460–377 BC wrote “in order to remain healthy, the entire day should be devoted exclusively to ways and means of increasing one's strength and staying healthy, and the best way to do so is through physical exercise.” Plato (427–347 BC referred to medicine as a sister art to physical exercise while the noted ancient Greek physician Galen (129–217 AD penned several essays on aerobic fitness and strengthening muscles. This article briefly reviews the beneficial effects of physical activity on cardiovascular diseases.Keywords: exercise, cardiovascular disease, lifestyle changes, physical activity, good health

  5. Changes in biomarkers of cardiovascular risk after a switch to abacavir in HIV-1-infected individuals receiving combination antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, U S; Kofoed, K; Kronborg, G;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate, using a longitudinal design, whether biomarkers of cardiovascular risk change after a switch to an abacavir (ABC)-containing regimen in HIV-1-infected individuals already receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS: Thirty-five HIV-1-infected individuals...

  6. Nutritionist’s Variation in Counseling Style and the Effect on Weight Change of Patients Attending a Community Based Lifestyle Modification Program

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    Mandy M. M. Sea

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Information concerning the nature of nutritionist-patient relationships is very limited. This qualitative and quantitative study examined nutritionist’s skills, attributes, and beliefs towards nutrition counseling during a lifestyle modification intervention program, and whether this affected the patient’s weight outcome. 24 nutrition consultations were observed during the program and the nutritionists were interviewed for their perception on practice (n = 4. A statistically significant difference was observed between the nutritionists in regard to patient’s weight change after adjustment for age and baseline weight (p < 0.001. Key nutritionist skills identified that influenced weight outcome were meticulous investigation of the underlying obesity cause, identification of the subject’s stage of change, and psychological support.

  7. The effects of adding group-based lifestyle counselling to individual counselling on changes in plasma glucose levels in a randomized controlled trial: The Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, C.; Vistisen, D.; Toft, U.;

    2011-01-01

    participants free of diabetes at baseline (1999–2001) and with at least one FPG and/or 2hPG measurement during 5 years of follow-up were included in the analyses. Differences in changes of plasma glucose between groups A and B were analyzed using multilevel linear regression. ResultsFor FPG, crude 5-year......AimThis study aimed to assess whether group-based lifestyle counselling offered to a high-risk population subgroup had any effect beyond individual multifactorial interventions on fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-h plasma glucose (2hPG) changes. MethodsIn a population-based study of 6784...... participants, 4053 were determined to be at high risk based on a risk estimate of ischaemic heart disease or the presence of risk factors (smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, obesity, impaired glucose tolerance). Of these subjects, 90% were randomized to high-intensity intervention (group A) and 10...

  8. The effect of adding group-based counselling to individual lifestyle counselling on changes in dietary intake. The Inter99 study - a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Ulla; Kristoffersen, Lis; Ladelund, Steen;

    2008-01-01

    participants were invited for a health examination. High risk individuals were included in this study (n = 2 356) and changes in dietary intake were analyzed using multilevel linear regression analyses. RESULTS: At one-year follow-up group A had significantly increased the unsaturated/saturated fat ratio......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the specific effect of single intervention components in randomized controlled trials. The purpose was to investigate the effect of adding group-based diet and exercise counselling to individual life-style counselling on long-term changes...... in dietary habits. METHODS: The study was a randomized controlled intervention study. From a general Danish population, aged 30 to 60 years (n = 61,301), two random sample were drawn (group A, n = 11,708; group B, n = 1,308). Subjects were invited for a health screening program. Participation rate was 52...

  9. Cardiovascular and respiratory changes during slow-wave sleep in rats are associated with electrocorticogram desynchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Dias-dos-Santos

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available In awake rats a single recurrent larger tidal volume (deep breaths occurs at regular intervals, followed by oscillations in arterial pressure and heart rate. In the present study we recorded the changes in blood pressure, heart rate and ventilation during the wakefulness-sleep cycle identified by electrocorticographic records in order to determine whether the deep breaths and cardiovascular oscillations were associated with changes in the electrocorticogram. During several episodes of slow-wave sleep (SWS in 7 rats the deep breaths and oscillations in arterial pressure and heart rate were preceded by SWS desynchronization. The interval between deep breaths during SWS was 71 ± 4 s, the period between initial desynchronization and the generation of deep breaths was 3.98 ± 0.45 s and the duration of SWS desynchronization was 11 ± 0.65 s. Hypotension (-16 ± 1 mmHg and tachycardia (+15 ± 5 bpm were observed during deep breaths in the SWS state. These data indicate that the oscillations in arterial pressure and heart rate during SWS are associated with deep breaths, which in turn are preceded by desynchronization of the electrocorticogram in this state of sleep

  10. A randomized trial of a lifestyle intervention in obese endometrial cancer survivors: quality of life outcomes and mediators of behavior change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavanagh Mary

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the effects of a 6 month lifestyle intervention on quality of life, depression, self-efficacy and eating behavior changes in overweight and obese endometrial cancer survivors. Methods Early stage endometrial cancer survivors were randomized to intervention (n = 23 or usual care (n = 22 groups. Chi-square, Student's t-test and repeated measures analysis of variance were used in intent-to-treat analyses. Outcomes were also examined according to weight loss. Results Morbidly obese patients had significantly lower self-efficacy, specifically when feeling physical discomfort. There was a significant improvement for self-efficacy related to social pressure (p = .03 and restraint (p = .02 in the LI group. There was a significant difference for emotional well-being quality of life (p = .02, self-efficacy related to negative emotions (p Conclusion This pilot lifestyle intervention had no effect on quality of life or depression but did improve self-efficacy and some eating behaviors. Trial Registration http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00420979

  11. The concept of Maslow's pyramid for cardiovascular health and its impact on "change cycle".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behjati, Mohaddeseh

    2014-01-01

    Since the leading cause of morbidity and mortality is cardiovascular diseases, every individual should think regularly about possessing and maintaining cardiovascular health. In reality, this self-processing is delayed until the occurrence of complications related to cardiovascular inefficiency manifested as chest pain and/or dyspnea. However, people should be trained to think about their cardiovascular health issues as a vital need from early childhood. This goal is achievable by understanding it as a "true human derive" and its consecutive "behaviors". Most people are unaware of their real needs, and even if they know all of their cardiovascular needs, this knowledge is not projected in their behaviors. In the present paper, I try to outline the Herzberg two-factor hypothesis and Maslow's hierarchy of needs.

  12. The concept of Maslow's pyramid for cardiovascular health and its impact on “change cycle”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behjati, Mohaddeseh

    2014-01-01

    Since the leading cause of morbidity and mortality is cardiovascular diseases, every individual should think regularly about possessing and maintaining cardiovascular health. In reality, this self-processing is delayed until the occurrence of complications related to cardiovascular inefficiency manifested as chest pain and/or dyspnea. However, people should be trained to think about their cardiovascular health issues as a vital need from early childhood. This goal is achievable by understanding it as a "true human derive" and its consecutive "behaviors". Most people are unaware of their real needs, and even if they know all of their cardiovascular needs, this knowledge is not projected in their behaviors. In the present paper, I try to outline the Herzberg two-factor hypothesis and Maslow's hierarchy of needs. PMID:24963317

  13. Do colleagues influence our lifestyle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quist, Helle Gram; Christensen, Ulla; Carneiro, Isabella Gomes;

    2014-01-01

    ) and physical activity). Further, we examined whether health behaviours of the respondents at group level predicted lifestyle changes. METHODS: In a prospective cohort (n=4730), employees from 250 workgroups in the Danish eldercare sector answered questionnaires at baseline (2005) and follow-up (2006......). Multilevel regression models were used to examine the effect of workgroups. RESULTS: Workgroups accounted for 6.49% of the variation in smoking status, 6.56% of amount smoked and 2.62% of the variation in current BMI. We found no significant workgroup clustering in physical activity or lifestyle changes...

  14. Evaluation of effect of highly standardized aqueous extract of roots and leaves of Withania somnifera on cold pressor test induced cardiovascular changes in healthy human subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raveendranath Pilli

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Withania somnifera extract showed a significant decrease in cold pressor stress test induced changes on aortic wave reflections, suggesting its beneficial effects in reducing stress induced cardiovascular changes. However, further clinical studies are warranted to evaluate these effects in patients with cardiovascular and other associated diseases. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(3.000: 873-878

  15. Could autonomous motivation hold the key to successfully implementing lifestyle changes in affective disorders? A multicentre cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; Madou, Tomas; Moens, Herman; De Backer, Tanja; Vanhalst, Patrick; Helon, Chris; Naert, Pieter; Rosenbaum, Simon; Stubbs, Brendon; Probst, Michel

    2015-07-30

    There is a need for theoretically-based research on the motivational processes linked to the adoption and maintenance of an active lifestyle in people with affective disorders. Within the Self-Determination Theory (SDT) framework, we investigated the SDT tenets in people with major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder by examining the factor structure of the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2 (BREQ-2) and by investigating associations between motivation, the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) and International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) scores. A total of 165 patients (105 ♀) (45.6 ± 14.2 years) agreed to participate. An exploratory factor analysis demonstrated sufficient convergence with the original factor for amotivation, and external and introjected regulation. The items of identified and intrinsic regulation loaded on the same factor, which was labelled autonomous regulation. Significant correlations were found between the total IPAQ score and the subscales amotivation, external regulation, introjected regulation and autonomous regulation. The relative autonomy index (RAI) was associated with the PANAS scores. Differences in RAI were found between physically inactive and active participants. Our results suggest that in people with affective disorders the level of autonomous motivation may play an important role in the adoption and maintenance of health promoting behaviours.

  16. Involvement of catecholaminergic medullary pathways in cardiovascular responses to acute changes in circulating volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Cravo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Water deprivation and hypernatremia are major challenges for water and sodium homeostasis. Cellular integrity requires maintenance of water and sodium concentration within narrow limits. This regulation is obtained through engagement of multiple mechanisms and neural pathways that regulate the volume and composition of the extracellular fluid. The purpose of this short review is to summarize the literature on central neural mechanisms underlying cardiovascular, hormonal and autonomic responses to circulating volume changes, and some of the findings obtained in the last 12 years by our laboratory. We review data on neural pathways that start with afferents in the carotid body that project to medullary relays in the nucleus tractus solitarii and caudal ventrolateral medulla, which in turn project to the median preoptic nucleus in the forebrain. We also review data suggesting that noradrenergic A1 cells in the caudal ventrolateral medulla represent an essential link in neural pathways controlling extracellular fluid volume and renal sodium excretion. Finally, recent data from our laboratory suggest that these structures may also be involved in the beneficial effects of intravenous infusion of hypertonic saline on recovery from hemorrhagic shock.

  17. Tocotrienols Reverse Cardiovascular, Metabolic and Liver Changes in High Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng-Yew Wong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Tocotrienols have been reported to improve lipid profiles, reduce atherosclerotic lesions, decrease blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin concentrations, normalise blood pressure in vivo and inhibit adipogenesis in vitro, yet their role in the metabolic syndrome has not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the effects of palm tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF on high carbohydrate, high fat diet-induced metabolic, cardiovascular and liver dysfunction in rats. Rats fed a high carbohydrate, high fat diet for 16 weeks developed abdominal obesity, hypertension, impaired glucose and insulin tolerance with increased ventricular stiffness, lower systolic function and reduced liver function. TRF treatment improved ventricular function, attenuated cardiac stiffness and hypertension, and improved glucose and insulin tolerance, with reduced left ventricular collagen deposition and inflammatory cell infiltration. TRF improved liver structure and function with reduced plasma liver enzymes, inflammatory cell infiltration, fat vacuoles and balloon hepatocytes. TRF reduced plasma free fatty acid and triglyceride concentrations but only omental fat deposition was decreased in the abdomen. These results suggest that tocotrienols protect the heart and liver, and improve plasma glucose and lipid profiles with minimal changes in abdominal obesity in this model of human metabolic syndrome.

  18. Lifestyle and dietary factors determine age at natural menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapre, Shilpa; Thakur, Ratna

    2014-01-01

    A literature search was done using PubMed. The age at natural menopause (ANM) depends on various factors like genetic, environmental, socioeconomic, reproductive, dietary, and lifestyle of which some like nulliparity, vegetarian diet, smoking, high fat intake, cholesterol, and caffeine accelerates; while others like parity, prior use of oral contraceptive pills, and Japanese ethnicity delays the ANM. ANM is an important risk factor for long-term morbidity and mortality; and hence, the need to identify the modifiable risk factors like diet and lifestyle changes. Delayed menopause is associated with increased risk of endometrial and breast cancer, while early ANM enhances the risk for cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis. The correlation between diet and ANM has not been extensively studied; however, whatever studies have been done till now point towards role of high intake of total calories, fruits, and proteins in delaying the ANM, while high polyunsaturated fat intake accelerates it. The role of dietary soy, total fat, saturated fat, red meat, and dietary fiber in determining the ANM has been controversial and needs further studies to substantiate it. The lifestyle factors like current smoking and vigorous exercise have been significantly associated with early menopause, while moderate alcohol consumption delays the ANM. Large prospective studies are needed to study the association of ANM and other modifiable factors like passive smoking fish consumption, soy, and various types of tea. The knowledge of modifiable determinants of ANM can help in setting up menopausal clinics and initiating health programs specially in developing countries. PMID:24672198

  19. Lifestyle and dietary factors determine age at natural menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapre, Shilpa; Thakur, Ratna

    2014-01-01

    A literature search was done using PubMed. The age at natural menopause (ANM) depends on various factors like genetic, environmental, socioeconomic, reproductive, dietary, and lifestyle of which some like nulliparity, vegetarian diet, smoking, high fat intake, cholesterol, and caffeine accelerates; while others like parity, prior use of oral contraceptive pills, and Japanese ethnicity delays the ANM. ANM is an important risk factor for long-term morbidity and mortality; and hence, the need to identify the modifiable risk factors like diet and lifestyle changes. Delayed menopause is associated with increased risk of endometrial and breast cancer, while early ANM enhances the risk for cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis. The correlation between diet and ANM has not been extensively studied; however, whatever studies have been done till now point towards role of high intake of total calories, fruits, and proteins in delaying the ANM, while high polyunsaturated fat intake accelerates it. The role of dietary soy, total fat, saturated fat, red meat, and dietary fiber in determining the ANM has been controversial and needs further studies to substantiate it. The lifestyle factors like current smoking and vigorous exercise have been significantly associated with early menopause, while moderate alcohol consumption delays the ANM. Large prospective studies are needed to study the association of ANM and other modifiable factors like passive smoking fish consumption, soy, and various types of tea. The knowledge of modifiable determinants of ANM can help in setting up menopausal clinics and initiating health programs specially in developing countries.

  20. Associations of Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression with Diabetes and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Older People with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, C. F.; Hermans, H.; Evenhuis, H. M.; Echteld, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Depression, anxiety, diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors are frequent health problems among older people with intellectual disability (ID). These conditions may be bidirectionally related. Depression and anxiety may have biological effects causing glucose intolerance, fat accumulation and also lifestyle changes causing metabolic…

  1. What is the role of lifestyle behaviour change associated with non-communicable disease risk in managing musculoskeletal health conditions with special reference to chronic pain?

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, E.; Söderlund, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Background: Other than activity and exercise, lifestyle practices such as not smoking and healthy nutrition, well established for preventing and managing lifestyle-related non-communicable diseases (i.e., heart disease, cancer, hypertension, stroke, obstructive lung disease, diabetes, and obesity), are less emphasized in the physical therapy guidelines for addressing chronic pain, e.g., back pain. This state-of-the-art review examines the relationships between lifestyle behaviours and musculo...

  2. Cholinergic signal activated renin angiotensin system associated with cardiovascular changes in the ovine fetus

    OpenAIRE

    Geng, Chunsong; Mao, Caiping; Wu, Lei; Cheng, Yu; Liu, Rulu; Chen, Bingxin; Chen, Ling; Zhang, Lubo; Xu, Zhice

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Cholinergic regulation is important in the control of cardiovascular and endocrine responses. The mechanisms behind cardiovascular responses induced by cholinergic activation are explored by studying hormonal systems, including renin-angiotensin and vasopressin (VP). Results: In chronically prepared fetal sheep, intravenous infusion of the cholinergic agonist carbachol increased fetal systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure accompanied with bradycardia at near-term. Although int...

  3. Metaphylaxis, diet and lifestyle in stone disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. Kok (Dirk)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective: The most common urinary stones (calcium salts, uric acid) form due to genetic factors and lifestyle. This review describes why, if and how medication and lifestyle changes can reduce the risk of formation. Methods: Previous reports were reviewed to obtain information on three

  4. Effect of major lifestyle risk factors, independent and jointly, on life expectancy with and without cardiovascular disease: results from the Consortium on Health and Ageing Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Doherty, Mark G.; Cairns, Karen; O'Neill, Vikki;

    2016-01-01

    -state Markov models to calculate the independent and joint effects of smoking, physical activity, obesity and alcohol consumption on LE with and without CVD. Men and women aged 50 years who have a favourable lifestyle (overweight but not obese, light/moderate drinker, non-smoker and participates in vigorous......-free" years, though a healthy lifestyle was also associated with extra years lived after a CVD event. There are sizeable benefits to LE without CVD and also for survival after CVD onset when people favour a lifestyle characterized by salutary behaviours. Remaining a non-smoker yielded the greatest extra years...... in overall LE, when compared to the effects of routinely taking physical activity, being overweight but not obese, and drinking in moderation. The majority of the overall LE benefit is in disease free years. Therefore, it is important for policy makers and the public to know that prevention through...

  5. Migraine and lifestyle in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casucci, Gerardo; Villani, Veronica; d'Onofrio, Florindo; Russo, Antonio

    2015-05-01

    Migraine is one of the most frequently reported somatic complaints in childhood, with a negative impact on health-related quality of life. The incidence of migraine in childhood has substantially increased over the past 30 years, probably due to both increased awareness of the disease and lifestyle changes in this age group. Indeed, several conditions have been identified as risk factors for migraine in childhood. Amongst these, dysfunctional family situation, the regular consumption of alcohol, caffeine ingestion, low level of physical activity, physical or emotional abuse, bullying by peers, unfair treatment in school and insufficient leisure time seem to play a critical role. Nevertheless, there are only few studies about the association between migraine and lifestyle in childhood, due to previous observations specifically focused on "headache" in children. In this brief review, we will concentrate upon recent studies aimed to explore migraine and lifestyle risk factors in childhood. PMID:26017522

  6. Media communication strategies for climate-friendly lifestyles - Addressing middle and lower class consumers for social-cultural change via Entertainment-Education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubjuhn, S [Institute for Communication Studies, University of Duisburg-Essen, 45117 Essen (Germany); Pratt, N, E-mail: sarah.lubjuhn@uni-due.d, E-mail: nadine.pratt@scp-centre.or [UNEP/Wuppertal Institute Collaborating Center on Sustainable Consumption and Production (CSCP), 42107 Wuppertal (Germany)

    2009-11-01

    This paper argues that Entertainment-Education (E-E) is a striking communication strategy for reaching middle and lower socio-economic classes with climate-friendly lifestyle messages. On the international level (e.g. in the US and the Netherlands) E-E approaches are being theoretically grounded, whereas in Germany they are not yet. Therefore further theoretical discussion and mapping of E-E approaches is central for future research. As a first step towards providing further theoretical foundations for E-E in the field of sustainability, the authors suggest a threefold mapping of E-E approaches. The threefold mapping of E-E approaches for communicating climate-friendly lifestyles to middle and lower class consumers is based on recent results from academic research and practical developments on the media market. The commonalities among the three is that they all promote pro-sustainability messages in an affective-orientated rather than cognitive-orientated, factual manner. Differences can be found in: the sender of the sustainability message, the targeted consumer groups and the media approach in use. Based on this, the paper draws the conclusion that two new paths for further research activities in the field of Entertainment-Education can be proposed: (1) Improving the existing approaches in practice by using theoretical foundation from the E-E field. This comprises at its core (A) to do formative, process and summative effect research on the messages and (B) to use E-E theory from the field of social psychology, sociology and communication science for further improvement and (2) Generating new E-E theories by analyzing the existing practical approaches in the media to communicate climate change.

  7. Media communication strategies for climate-friendly lifestyles - Addressing middle and lower class consumers for social-cultural change via Entertainment-Education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper argues that Entertainment-Education (E-E) is a striking communication strategy for reaching middle and lower socio-economic classes with climate-friendly lifestyle messages. On the international level (e.g. in the US and the Netherlands) E-E approaches are being theoretically grounded, whereas in Germany they are not yet. Therefore further theoretical discussion and mapping of E-E approaches is central for future research. As a first step towards providing further theoretical foundations for E-E in the field of sustainability, the authors suggest a threefold mapping of E-E approaches. The threefold mapping of E-E approaches for communicating climate-friendly lifestyles to middle and lower class consumers is based on recent results from academic research and practical developments on the media market. The commonalities among the three is that they all promote pro-sustainability messages in an affective-orientated rather than cognitive-orientated, factual manner. Differences can be found in: the sender of the sustainability message, the targeted consumer groups and the media approach in use. Based on this, the paper draws the conclusion that two new paths for further research activities in the field of Entertainment-Education can be proposed: (1) Improving the existing approaches in practice by using theoretical foundation from the E-E field. This comprises at its core (A) to do formative, process and summative effect research on the messages and (B) to use E-E theory from the field of social psychology, sociology and communication science for further improvement and (2) Generating new E-E theories by analyzing the existing practical approaches in the media to communicate climate change.

  8. Avocado Oil Supplementation Modifies Cardiovascular Risk Profile Markers in a Rat Model of Sucrose-Induced Metabolic Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Octavio Carvajal-Zarrabal; Cirilo Nolasco-Hipolito; M. Guadalupe Aguilar-Uscanga; Guadalupe Melo-Santiesteban; Patricia M. Hayward-Jones; Barradas-Dermitz, Dulce M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of avocado oil administration on biochemical markers of cardiovascular risk profile in rats with metabolic changes induced by sucrose ingestion. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: a control group (CG; basic diet), a sick group (MC; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution), and three other groups (MCao, MCac, and MCas; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution plus olive oil and avocado oil extracted by centrifugation or using solvent,...

  9. Using the internet to translate an evidence-based lifestyle intervention into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTigue, Kathleen M; Conroy, Molly B; Hess, Rachel; Bryce, Cindy L; Fiorillo, Anthony B; Fischer, Gary S; Milas, N Carole; Simkin-Silverman, Laurey R

    2009-11-01

    Despite evidence-based recommendations for addressing obesity in the clinical setting, lifestyle interventions are lacking in practice. The objective of this study was to translate an evidence-based lifestyle program into the clinical setting by adapting it for delivery via the Internet. We adapted the Diabetes Prevention Program's lifestyle curriculum to an online format, comprising 16 weekly and 8 monthly lessons, and conducted a before-and-after pilot study of program implementation and feasibility. The program incorporates behavioral tools such as e-mail prompts for online self-monitoring of diet, physical activity, and weight, and automated weekly progress reports. Electronic counseling provides further support. Physician referral, automated progress reports, and as-needed communication with lifestyle coaches integrate the intervention with clinical care. We enrolled 50 patients from a large academic general internal practice into a pilot program between November 16, 2006 and February 11, 2007. Patients with a body mass index (BMI) =25 kg/m2, at least one weight-related cardiovascular risk factor, and Internet access were eligible if referring physicians felt the lifestyle goals were safe and medically appropriate. Participants were primarily female (76%), with an average age of 51.94 (standard deviation [SD] 10.82), and BMI of 36.43 (SD 6.78). At 12 months of enrollment, 50% of participants had logged in within 30 days. On average, completers (n = 45) lost 4.79 (SD 8.55) kg. Systolic blood pressure dropped 7.33 (SD 11.36) mm Hg, and diastolic blood pressure changed minimally (+0.44 mm Hg; SD 9.27). An Internet-based lifestyle intervention may overcome significant barriers to preventive counseling and facilitate the incorporation of evidence-based lifestyle interventions into primary care.

  10. Weight-loss changes PPAR expression, reduces atherosclerosis and improves cardiovascular function in obese insulin-resistant mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verreth, Wim; Verhamme, Peter; Pelat, Michael; Ganame, Javier; Bielicki, John K.; Mertens, Ann; Quarck, Rozenn; Benhabiles, Nora; Marguerie, Gerard; Mackness, Bharti; Mackness, Mike; Ninio, Ewa; Herregods, Marie-Christine; Balligand, Jean-Luc; Holvoet, Paul

    2003-09-01

    Weight-loss in obese insulin-resistant, but not in insulin-sensitive, persons reduces CHD risk. It is not known to what extent changes in the adipose gene expression profile are important for reducing CHD risk. We studied the effect of diet restriction-induced weight-loss on gene expression in adipose tissue, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular function in mice with combined leptin and LDL-receptor deficiency. Obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and insulin-resistance are associated with hypertension, impaired left ventricle function and accelerated atherosclerosis in those mice. Diet restriction during 12 weeks caused a 45% weight-loss and changes in the gene expression in adipose tissue of PPARa and PPAR? and of key genes regulating glucose transport and insulin sensitivity, lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and inflammation, most of which are under the transcriptional control of PPARs. These changes were associated with increased insulin-sensitivity, decreased hypertriglyceridemia, reduced mean 24-hour blood pressure and heart rate, restored circadian variations of blood pressure and heart rate, increased ejection fraction, and reduced atherosclerosis. Thus, induction of PPARa and PPAR? in adipose tissue is a key mechanism for reducing atherosclerosis and improving cardiovascular function resulting from weight-loss. Our observations point to the critical role of PPARs in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular features of the metabolic syndrome.

  11. Motivational interviewing for screening and feedback and encouraging lifestyle changes to reduce relative weight in 4-8 year old children: design of the MInT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Barry J

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because parental recognition of overweight in young children is poor, we need to determine how best to inform parents that their child is overweight in a way that enhances their acceptance and supports motivation for positive change. This study will assess 1 whether weight feedback delivered using motivational interviewing increases parental acceptance of their child's weight status and enhances motivation for behaviour change, and 2 whether a family-based individualised lifestyle intervention, delivered primarily by a MInT mentor with limited support from "expert" consultants in psychology, nutrition and physical activity, can improve weight outcomes after 12 and 24 months in young overweight children, compared with usual care. Methods/Design 1500 children aged 4-8 years will be screened for overweight (height, weight, waist, blood pressure, body composition. Parents will complete questionnaires on feeding practices, physical activity, diet, parenting, motivation for healthy lifestyles, and demographics. Parents of children classified as overweight (BMI ≥ CDC 85th will receive feedback about the results using Motivational interviewing or Usual care. Parental responses to feedback will be assessed two weeks later and participants will be invited into the intervention. Additional baseline measurements (accelerometry, diet, quality of life, child behaviour will be collected and families will be randomised to Tailored package or Usual care. Parents in the Usual care condition will meet once with an advisor who will offer general advice regarding healthy eating and activity. Parents in the Tailored package condition will attend a single session with an "expert team" (MInT mentor, dietitian, physical activity advisor, clinical psychologist to identify current challenges for the family, develop tailored goals for change, and plan behavioural strategies that best suit each family. The mentor will continue to provide support to the

  12. The dynamics of the Russian lifestyle during transition: Changes in food, alcohol and cigarette consumption. ISU Economics Working Papers 09019

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herzfeld, T.; Huffman, S.K.; Rizov, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents evidence on the impact of individual as well as regional characteristics on changes in fat, protein, alcohol and cigarette consumption, and on diet’s diversity between 1994 and 2004. The results from a dynamic econometric model suggest that among individual determinants such as i

  13. Lifestyle and hypertension--an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilin, L J

    1999-01-01

    Dietary and other lifestyle factors play a major role in the prevalence of hypertension. Many of the behaviours likely to reduce blood pressure also have independent beneficial effects on other cardiovascular risk factors to general health and survival. This is particularly the case with weight control, exercise, dietary patterns characterised by a low intake of saturated fat and a high intake of fruit, vegetables and fish and moderation of heavy alcohol consumption. High salt intakes remain a major contributor to hypertension, especially when potassium intake is low. Smoking has a dominant effect in increasing cardiovascular risk in hypertensives. Clustering of risk factors is often associated with clustering of unhealthy lifestyle characteristics and both are most prominent in lower socio-economic groups and in Developing Countries adopting a more sedentary lifestyle and Western diet patterns. Recent trials suggest substantial cardiovascular benefits by a combination of weight control and sodium moderation in the elderly, by non-vegetarian diets rich in fruit and vegetables and low in saturated fat, and by incorporation of regular fish meals into weight control diets. PMID:10423098

  14. Effectiveness of a web-based health risk assessment with individually-tailored feedback on lifestyle behaviour: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laan Eva K

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity, unhealthy dietary habits, smoking and high alcohol consumption are recognized risk factors for cardiovascular disease and cancer. Web-based health risk assessments with tailored feedback seem promising in promoting a healthy lifestyle. This study evaluates the effectiveness of a web-based health risk assessment with individually-tailored feedback on lifestyle behaviour, conducted in a worksite setting. Methods/Design The web-based health risk assessment starts with a questionnaire covering socio-demographic variables, family and personal medical history, lifestyle behaviour and psychological variables. Prognostic models are used to estimate individual cardiovascular risks. In case of high risk further biometric and laboratory evaluation is advised. All participants receive individually-tailored feedback on their responses to the health risk assessment questionnaire. The study uses a quasi-experimental design with a waiting list control group. Data are collected at baseline (T0 and after six months (T1. Within each company, clusters of employees are allocated to either the intervention or the control group. Primary outcome is lifestyle behaviour, expressed as the sum of five indicators namely physical activity, nutrition, smoking behaviour, alcohol consumption, and symptoms of burnout. Multilevel regression analysis will be used to answer the main research question and to correct for clustering effects. Baseline differences between the intervention and control group in the distribution of characteristics with a potential effect on lifestyle change will be taken into account in further analyses using propensity scores. Discussion This study will increase insight into the effectiveness of health risk assessments with tailored feedback and into conditions that may modify the effectiveness. This information can be used to design effective interventions for lifestyle behaviour change among employees. Trial

  15. Are lifestyle changes achieved after participation in a screening programme for Type 2 diabetes? The ADDITION Study, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, K S; Sandbaek, A; Borch-Johnsen, K;

    2007-01-01

    . The screening comprised two main steps: identification of high-risk individuals by a mailed risk score questionnaire, and subsequent testing of high-risk individuals by their general practitioner. Questionnaires on physical exercise [International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), short form], smoking...... habits and alcohol consumption were mailed to the target population 1 month prior to the offer of screening, and at 12 months' follow-up. At follow-up, additional questions regarding perceived changes in dietary habits, smoking, alcohol consumption and exercise were included. Three pairs of comparison...... groups were analysed. RESULTS: One year after screening, smokers who underwent further testing reduced smoking by one daily cigarette more than people at low risk of diabetes. The rate of smokers was not reduced, and the result was not confirmed by data regarding perceived change. Alcohol intake...

  16. "When diet and exercise are not enough": an examination of lifestyle change inefficacy claims in direct-to-consumer advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Sahara; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Avery, Rosemary J; Cantor, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Previous research suggests that direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertisements for pharmaceutical drugs have the potential to influence consumers' perceptions of whether symptoms should be treated medically and/or through behavior change. However, the relative frequency of messages emphasizing these approaches in pharmaceutical advertising remains largely unknown. A content analysis of print and television advertisements for cholesterol management medication between 1994 and 2005 (for print) and between 1999 and 2007 (for television) was conducted. First, the extent to which established theoretical constructs drawn from health communication scholarship are depicted in the content of DTC cholesterol advertisements is quantified. Second, specific claims about behavior change inefficacy when a pharmaceutical alternative is available are identified. Findings indicate that DTC ads offer many mixed messages about the efficacy of diet and exercise in reducing cholesterol and risk of heart disease. Theoretical and practical implications of this work are discussed. PMID:23444915

  17. Healthy lifestyle and Czech consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Kubešová, Jana

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is focused on healthy lifestyle. It concentrates specifically on impact on human health and which lifestyle lives Czech population. This work summarizes the principles of helathy lifestyle and reveals lifestyles of Czech people with market segmentation and MML-TGI data in the practical part. This can help firms in targeting and addressing people within healthy lifestyle.

  18. Improvement in Quality of Life Questionnaire Measures (PCOSQ) in Obese Adolescent Females with PCOS treated with Lifestyle Changes and Oral Contraceptives, with or without Metformin

    OpenAIRE

    Harris-Glocker, Miranda; Davidson, Kristin; Kochman, Lynda; Guzick, David; Hoeger, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    We studied the effect of metformin or placebo in a lifestyle modification program (LSM) combined with oral contraceptives (OC) on quality of life parameters measured by the PCOS questionnaire (PCOSQ) in obese adolescent women with validated PCOS.

  19. Eficácia de uma intervenção psicológica no estilo de vida para redução do risco coronariano Efficacy of lifestyle change psychological intervention in coronary risk reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Pugliese

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia de um programa destinado a promover mudanças no estilo de vida por meio de intervenção psicológica associado à terapia farmacológica para redução do risco coronariano em pacientes com hipertensão não-controlada, sobrepeso e dislipidemia acompanhados durante 11 meses. MÉTODOS: Estudo controlado e aleatório com 74 pacientes distribuídos para três programas de tratamento distintos. Um grupo (TC recebeu exclusivamente tratamento farmacológico convencional. O grupo de orientação (GO recebeu tratamento farmacológico e participou de um programa de orientação para controle dos fatores de risco cardiovascular. O terceiro grupo (IPEV recebeu tratamento farmacológico e participou de um programa de intervenção psicológica breve destinado a reduzir o nível de estresse e mudar o comportamento alimentar. A principal medida de avaliação foi o índice de risco de Framingham. RESULTADOS: Os pacientes do grupo TC obtiveram uma redução média de 18% (p = 0,001 no risco coronariano; os pacientes do grupo GO apresentaram um aumento de risco de 0,8% (NS; e os pacientes do grupo IPEV obtiveram uma redução média de 27% no índice de risco de Framingham (p = 0,001. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento farmacológico aliado a um programa de intervenção psicológica destinado a reduzir o nível de estresse e mudar o comportamento alimentar resultou em benefícios adicionais na redução de risco coronariano.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of a program of lifestyle change through psychological intervention, combined with pharmacological therapy, for coronary risk reduction in uncontrolled hypertensive patients with overweight and dyslipidemia over 11 months of follow-up. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial with 74 patients assigned to three different treatment programs. One group (CT only received conventional pharmacological treatment. Another group (OG received pharmacological treatment and participated in a

  20. The CHANGE trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Speyer, Helene; Christian Brix Nørgaard, Hans; Birk, Merete;

    2016-01-01

    Life expectancy in patients with schizophrenia is reduced by 20 years for men and 15 years for women compared to the general population. About 60% of the excess mortality is due to physical illnesses, with cardiovascular disease being dominant. CHANGE was a randomized, parallel-group, superiority...... cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity, weight, diet and smoking. In conclusion, the CHANGE trial did not support superiority of individual lifestyle coaching or care coordination compared to treatment as usual in reducing cardiovascular risk in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and abdominal...

  1. Dynamic changes in the relationship of microglia to cardiovascular neurons in response to increases and decreases in blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Komal; Bhandare, Amol M; Nedoboy, Polina E; Mohammed, Suja; Farnham, Melissa M J; Pilowsky, Paul M

    2016-08-01

    Microglia are present throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and express receptors for every known neurotransmitter. During inflammation, microglia change into a state that either promotes removal of debris (M1), or into a state that promotes soothing (M2). Caudal- and rostral- ventrolateral medullary regions (CVLM and RVLM, respectively) of the brainstem are key nuclei involved in all aspects of the cardiovascular system. In this study, we investigate a novel role for microglia in cardiovascular control in the brainstem of adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat. Here we show, that increases and decreases in blood pressure (BP) triggers alertness in the physiology of microglia in the brainstem region; inducing changes in microglial spatial distribution and the number of synapses in contact with microglial end processes. Following 6h of acute hypertension, the number of synapses in contact with microglia increased by ≈30% in both regions of the brainstem, CVLM and RVLM. Induction of acute hypotension for 6h causes microglia to reduce the number of synaptic contacts by >20% in both, CVLM and RVLM, nuclei of the brainstem. Our analysis of the morphological characteristics of microglia, and expression levels of M1 and M2, reveals that the changes induced in microglial behavior do not require any obvious dramatic changes in their morphology. Taken together, our findings suggest that microglia play a novel, unexpected, physiological role in the uninjured autonomic nuclei of CNS; we therefore speculate that microglia act cooperatively with brainstem cardiovascular neurons to maintain them in a physiologically receptive state. PMID:27155147

  2. A five-year observance of changes in the cardiovascular risk profile in 505 HIV-positive individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Potthoff

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART and the extension of life expectancy, HIV-infected persons have shown an increasing number of cardiovascular events. The reduction of cardiovascular risk factors becomes a new challenge in HIV care. One of the main objectives of the HIV&HEART study is to examine the development of cardiovascular risk factors and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Methods: This study is an on-going, prospective, regional multicentre trial that was conducted to analyse the frequency and clinical course of cardiac disorders as well as cardiovascular risk factors in HIV-infected patients. 505 HIV-infected outpatients were recruited at baseline (BL and re-examined during 5-year follow up (5YFU. Results: 84% of 505 eligible HIV-infected patients were male. The average age was 44.3±9.5 years at BL. The proportion of ART-treated patients increased from 85.7% at BL to 96.4% at 5YFU. During the 5-year observation period mean cardiovascular risk detected by Framingham score increased from 6% at BL to 10% at 5YFU. Even after adjusting for age there was a difference in the Framingham score of 2%. Between BL and 5YFU systolic blood pressure increased from 128.4±19.8 mmHg to 138.3±19.9 mmHg in spite of an intensified use of antihypertensive drugs, from 11.9% at BL to 24.0% at 5YFU. The rate of participants with adiposity, characterised by a BMI>30, increased from 7.9% at BL to 11.2% at 5YFU. Lipid-lowering therapy was applied in 10.3% of the patients at BL and in 13.9% at 5YFU. Triglycerides (TAG≥200 mg/dl reduced from 38.9% at BL to 36.8% at 5YFU; in contrast cholesterol values≥200 mg/dl elevated from 57.8% to 61.8%. The same trend was observed in HDL≤40 mg/dl. Here we found a change from 29.2% versus 31.3%. Doing regular sports elevated from 1.9% to 3.3%. The count of smokers increased for 2.8% and also mean pack-years changes from 24 to 26.5 pack-years. Conclusion: During a 5-year period the

  3. The influence of changes in lifestyle and mercury exposure in riverine populations of the Madeira River (Amazon Basin) near a hydroelectric project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacon, Sandra S; Dórea, José G; Fonseca, Márlon de F; Oliveira, Beatriz A; Mourão, Dennys S; Ruiz, Claudia M V; Gonçalves, Rodrigo A; Mariani, Carolina F; Bastos, Wanderley R

    2014-02-26

    In the Amazon Basin, naturally occurring methylmercury bioaccumulates in fish, which is a key source of protein consumed by riverine populations. The hydroelectric power-plant project at Santo Antônio Falls allows us to compare the Hg exposure of riverine populations sparsely distributed on both sides of the Madeira river before the area is to be flooded. From 2009 to 2011, we concluded a population survey of the area (N = 2,008; representing circa 80% of community residents) that estimated fish consumption and mercury exposure of riverine populations with different degrees of lifestyle related to fish consumption. Fish samples from the Madeira river (N = 1,615) and 110 species were analyzed for Hg. Hair-Hg was significantly lower (p < 0.001) in less isolated communities near to the capital of Porto Velho (median 2.32 ppm) than in subsistence communities in the Cuniã Lake, 180 km from Porto Velho city (median 6.3 ppm). Fish Hg concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 6.06 µg/g, depending on fish size and feeding behavior. Currently available fish in the Madeira river show a wide variability in Hg concentrations. Despite cultural similarities, riparians showed hair-Hg distribution patterns that reflect changes in fish-eating habits driven by subsistence characteristics.

  4. Involvement of catecholaminergic medullary pathways in cardiovascular responses to acute changes in circulating volume

    OpenAIRE

    S.L. Cravo; O.U Lopes; G.R Pedrino

    2011-01-01

    Water deprivation and hypernatremia are major challenges for water and sodium homeostasis. Cellular integrity requires maintenance of water and sodium concentration within narrow limits. This regulation is obtained through engagement of multiple mechanisms and neural pathways that regulate the volume and composition of the extracellular fluid. The purpose of this short review is to summarize the literature on central neural mechanisms underlying cardiovascular, hormonal and autonomic response...

  5. Changes in ideal cardiovascular health status and risk of new-onset type 2 diabetes: The Kailuan prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoxue; Shi, Jihong; Wang, Anxin; Song, Qiaofeng; Huang, Zhe; Zhu, Chenrui; Du, Xin; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Shuohua; Wang, Xizhu; Wu, Shouling

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between the altered ideal cardiovascular health status (ΔCHS) and the risk of developing diabetes mellitus in the Kailuan population of China.We included 50,656 Chinese adults aged 18 years or older (11,704 men and 38,952 women) without baseline diabetes mellitus in this study. Information about 7 individual components of the cardiovascular health metrics during 2006 to 2008 was collected. A ΔCHS score was defined as the changes of ideal cardiovascular health status (CHS) from the year 2006 to 2008. New-onset diabetes was identified based on the history of diabetes, currently treated with insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents, or having a fasting blood glucose concentration ≥7.0 mmol/L during the 2010 to 2011 and 2012 to 2013 surveys. After a mean follow-up period of 3.80 years, a total of 3071 (6.06%) participants developed diabetes mellitus. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate the hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the CHS change and new-onset diabetes.A strong inverse association between the positive CHS changes and lower risks of developing diabetes mellitus was observed. After adjusting for age, sex, alcohol consumption, and other potential confounders, the hazard ratios for new-onset diabetes were 0.73, 0.59, 0.49, and 0.42 (95% confidence interval: 0.37-0.82; P trend diabetes mellitus in this investigated Chinese population. PMID:27559955

  6. 2013 AHA/ACC guideline on lifestyle management to reduce cardiovascular risk: A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force on practice guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goals of the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and the American Heart Association (AHA) are to prevent cardiovascular (CV) diseases, improve the management of people who have these diseases through professional education and research, and develop guidelines, standards and policies that promot...

  7. The changes of serum ferritin and β2-microglobulin in the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and their clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the changes of serum ferritin (SF) and β2-microglobulin (β2-MG) in the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and their clinical significance, serum SF and β2-MG in 22 patients with coronary cardiopathy, 46 patients with hypertension and 21 patients with cerebral infarction were tested by RIA and compared with control group. The results showed that serum SF and β2-MG in patients with the above-mentioned diseases were significantly higher than those in control group (P2-MG participate in the pathophysiological processes, so that they may be used as references to therapeutic effectiveness and prognosis

  8. 退休前后生活方式及肥胖指标的变化%Changes of lifestyles and obesity indexes for retirees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑞红; 丁荔洁; 薛付忠

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore retirees’changes of lifestyles,dietary habits,as well as anthropology indexes before and after retirement.Methods With reference to data of China Health and Nutrition Survey (C HNS)from 1997 to 2011,data of 572 participants (304 female and 268 male)were analyzed.The participants were >40 years old when they were first investigated,had complete professional information and retired during the period of study.Statistical de-scriptions and analyses were made to detect the differences of lifestyles,dietary habits and obesity indexes before and af-ter their retirement.Generalized estimating equations (GEEs)were adopted to analyze the influencing factors of body mass index (BMI)and waist circumference.Results ① In lifestyles,after retirement,the total amount of exercise decreased (P <0.05),and time to do housework was extended (P <0.05)for both physically demanding and sedenta-ry occupations.In dietary habits,for all men and women,energy intake,carbohydrate intake and the prevalence of drinking decreased.② The BMI was significantly increased after retirement for men with physically demanding occupa-tions (P <0.05),but the BMI for men with sedentary job before retirement remained unchanged (P =0.987).In obe-sity indexes,prevalence of central obesity was remarkably higher (P <0.05)in female after retirement.③ The results of GEEs illustrated that smoking was a protective factor for BMI in men.Smoking and drinking were factors which could influence waist circumference in men.For women,high educational level was a protective factor for BMI incen-sement.Furthermore,age,rural area and educational level were associated with waist circumference in women. Conclusion The changes of lifestyles and anthropology indexes for retirees are different in different populations.Tar-geted health education is essential for further health intervention.%目的:探讨退休前后生活行为方式、饮食习惯以及人体测量指标的变化。方法利用1997

  9. The Impact of an Immersive Elective on Learners’ Understanding of Lifestyle Medicine and Its Role in Patients’ Lives

    OpenAIRE

    Mattison, Melissa J.; Nemec, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To design an immersive, active learning, lifestyle medicine (LM) elective and evaluate its impact on a pharmacy learners’ ability to understand the challenges of implementing lifestyle changes.

  10. Cardiovascular changes after PMMA vertebroplasty in sheep: the effect of bone marrow removal using pulsed jet-lavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benneker, Lorin M; Krebs, Jörg; Boner, Vanessa; Boger, Andreas; Hoerstrup, Simon; Heini, Paul F; Gisep, Armando

    2010-11-01

    Clinically, the displacement of intravertebral fat into the circulation during vertebroplasty is reported to lead to problems in elderly patients and can represent a serious complication, especially when multiple levels have to be treated. An in vitro study has shown the feasibility of removing intravertebral fat by pulsed jet-lavage prior to vertebroplasty, potentially reducing the embolization of bone marrow fat from the vertebral bodies and alleviating the cardiovascular changes elicited by pulmonary fat embolism. In this in vivo study, percutaneous vertebroplasty using polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) was performed in three lumbar vertebrae of 11 sheep. In six sheep (lavage group), pulsed jet-lavage was performed prior to injection of PMMA compared to the control group of five sheep receiving only PMMA vertebroplasty. Invasive recording of blood pressures was performed continuously until 60 min after the last injection. Cardiac output and arterial blood gas parameters were measured at selected time points. Post mortem, the injected cement volume was measured using CT and lung biopsies were processed for assessment of intravascular fat. Pulsed jet-lavage was feasible in the in vivo setting. In the control group, the injection of PMMA resulted in pulmonary fat embolism and a sudden and significant increase in mean pulmonary arterial pressure. Pulsed jet-lavage prevented any cardiovascular changes and significantly reduced the severity of bone marrow fat embolization. Even though significantly more cement had been injected into the lavaged vertebral bodies, significantly fewer intravascular fat emboli were identified in the lung tissue. Pulsed jet-lavage prevented the cardiovascular complications after PMMA vertebroplasty in sheep and alleviated the severity of pulmonary fat embolism.

  11. Validity and reliability of a questionnaire on knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors for use in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurelio Lumertz Saffi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Using a sample of patients with coronary artery disease, this methodological study aimed to conduct a cross-cultural adaptation and validation of a questionnaire on knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors (Q-FARCS, lifestyle changes, and treatment adherence for use in Brazil. The questionnaire has three scales: general knowledge of risk factors (RFs; specific knowledge of these RFs; and lifestyle changes achieved. Cross-cultural adaptation included translation, synthesis, back-translation, expert committee review, and pretesting. Face and content validity, reliability, and construct validity were measured. Cronbach’s alpha for the total sample (n = 240 was 0.75. Assessment of psychometric properties revealed adequate face and content validity, and the construct revealed seven components. It was concluded that the Brazilian version of Q-FARCS had adequate reliability and validity for the assessment of knowledge of cardiovascular RFs.

  12. How may consumer policy empower consumers for sustainable lifestyles?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2005-01-01

    Consumer policy can empower consumers for changing lifestyles by reducing personal constraints and limitations, but it should also attempt to loosen some of the external constraints that make changes towards a more sustainable lifestyle difficult. In terms of reducing consumers' subjectively felt...... restrictions on their ability to change lifestyle, the two approaches are equivalent. Policies that increase a feeling of empowerment may also have a positive effect on consumers' motivation to make an effort, thus amplifying its effects. In this paper both types of constraints on lifestyle changes...

  13. [The effect of solar activity on lunar changes in cardiovascular mortality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitar, J

    1989-03-31

    After a 9-year follow-up of mortality due to cardiovascular emergencies (a total of 1,437 cases), the author found its frequency to be correlated with the moon phases. There are two maximum and minimum risk periods during lunation; the differences between them have a high statistical significance. The mortality study which registered the cases according to separate periods of maximum solar activity (spots, eruptions, etc.), medium and minimum activity recorded on three individual curves, showed that the maximum and minimum mortality curves were shifting in time phase so that during high solar activity, the minimum mortality was nearer to the new moon and full moon phases, while the maximum death rate approached the first and last lunar quarters; during the medium and low solar activities, the mortality maxima and minima were shifting counterclockwise the moon's orbit round the Earth, i. e. from the Earth's view with the Sun moving more and more to the west. The author offers some probable explanations for this phenomenon, which can help to make a more exact prognosis of critical days for patients with cardiovascular disorder. In addition, these findings can contribute to basic helio-geophysical research.

  14. Insulin Resistance, Dyslipidemia and Cardiovascular Changes in a Group of Obese Children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, António, E-mail: pires1961@gmail.com; Martins, Paula [Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Pereira, Ana Margarida [Laboratório de Fisiologia - Instituto Biomédico de Investigação da Luz e Imagem da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Silva, Patricia Vaz; Marinho, Joana [Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Marques, Margarida [Laboratório de Estatística da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Coimbra - Instituto Biomédico de Investigação da Luz e Imagem, Coimbra (Portugal); Castela, Eduardo [Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Sena, Cristina; Seiça, Raquel [Laboratório de Fisiologia - Instituto Biomédico de Investigação da Luz e Imagem da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal)

    2015-04-15

    Obesity-related comorbidities are present in young obese children, providing a platform for early adult cardiovascular disorders. To compare and correlate markers of adiposity to metabolic disturbances, vascular and cardiac morphology in a European pediatric obese cohort. We carried out an observational and transversal analysis in a cohort consisting of 121 obese children of both sexes, between the ages of 6 and 17 years. The control group consisted of 40 children with normal body mass index within the same age range. Markers of adiposity, plasma lipids and lipoproteins, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, common carotid artery intima-media thickness and left ventricular diameters were analyzed. There were statistically significant differences between the control and obese groups for the variables analyzed, all higher in the obese group, except for age, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and adiponectin, higher in the control group. In the obese group, body mass index was directly correlated to left ventricular mass (r=0.542; p=0.001), the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (r=0.378; p=<0.001) and mean common carotid artery intima-media thickness (r=0.378; p=<0.001). In that same group, insulin resistance was present in 38.1%, 12.5% had a combined dyslipidemic pattern, and eccentric hypertrophy was the most common left ventricular geometric pattern. These results suggest that these markers may be used in clinical practice to stratify cardiovascular risk, as well as to assess the impact of weight control programs.

  15. Insulin Resistance, Dyslipidemia and Cardiovascular Changes in a Group of Obese Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obesity-related comorbidities are present in young obese children, providing a platform for early adult cardiovascular disorders. To compare and correlate markers of adiposity to metabolic disturbances, vascular and cardiac morphology in a European pediatric obese cohort. We carried out an observational and transversal analysis in a cohort consisting of 121 obese children of both sexes, between the ages of 6 and 17 years. The control group consisted of 40 children with normal body mass index within the same age range. Markers of adiposity, plasma lipids and lipoproteins, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, common carotid artery intima-media thickness and left ventricular diameters were analyzed. There were statistically significant differences between the control and obese groups for the variables analyzed, all higher in the obese group, except for age, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and adiponectin, higher in the control group. In the obese group, body mass index was directly correlated to left ventricular mass (r=0.542; p=0.001), the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (r=0.378; p=<0.001) and mean common carotid artery intima-media thickness (r=0.378; p=<0.001). In that same group, insulin resistance was present in 38.1%, 12.5% had a combined dyslipidemic pattern, and eccentric hypertrophy was the most common left ventricular geometric pattern. These results suggest that these markers may be used in clinical practice to stratify cardiovascular risk, as well as to assess the impact of weight control programs

  16. Changes in ponderal index and body mass index across childhood and their associations with fat mass and cardiovascular risk factors at age 15

    OpenAIRE

    Laura D Howe; Kate Tilling; Li Benfield; Jennifer Logue; Naveed Sattar; Ness, Andy R; George Davey Smith; Debbie A Lawlor

    2010-01-01

    Background: Little is known about whether associations between childhood adiposity and later adverse cardiovascular health outcomes are driven by tracking of overweight from childhood to adulthood and/or by vascular and metabolic changes from childhood overweight that persist into adulthood. Our objective is to characterise associations between trajectories of adiposity across childhood and a wide range of cardiovascular risk factors measured in adolescence, and explore the extent to which th...

  17. Epigenetics and lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegría-Torres, Jorge Alejandro; Baccarelli, Andrea; Bollati, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    The concept of “lifestyle” includes different factors such as nutrition, behavior, stress, physical activity, working habits, smoking and alcohol consumption. Increasing evidence shows that environmental and lifestyle factors may influence epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, histone acetylation and microRNA expression. Several lifestyle factors have been identified that might modify epigenetic patterns, such as diet, obesity, physical activity, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, environmental pollutants, psychological stress, and working on night shifts. Most studies conducted so far have been centered on DNA methylation, whereas only a few investigations have studied lifestyle factors in relation to histone modifications and miRNAs. Here, we review current evidence indicating that lifestyle factors might affect human health via epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:22122337

  18. Cholesterol and lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000099.htm Cholesterol and lifestyle To use the sharing features on ... Stroke Serious heart or blood vessel disease Your Cholesterol Numbers All men should have their blood cholesterol ...

  19. Which interventions offer best value for money in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda J Cobiac

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite many decades of declining mortality rates in the Western world, cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death worldwide. In this research we evaluate the optimal mix of lifestyle, pharmaceutical and population-wide interventions for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In a discrete time Markov model we simulate the ischaemic heart disease and stroke outcomes and cost impacts of intervention over the lifetime of all Australian men and women, aged 35 to 84 years, who have never experienced a heart disease or stroke event. Best value for money is achieved by mandating moderate limits on salt in the manufacture of bread, margarine and cereal. A combination of diuretic, calcium channel blocker, ACE inhibitor and low-cost statin, for everyone with at least 5% five-year risk of cardiovascular disease, is also cost-effective, but lifestyle interventions aiming to change risky dietary and exercise behaviours are extremely poor value for money and have little population health benefit. CONCLUSIONS: There is huge potential for improving efficiency in cardiovascular disease prevention in Australia. A tougher approach from Government to mandating limits on salt in processed foods and reducing excessive statin prices, and a shift away from lifestyle counselling to more efficient absolute risk-based prescription of preventive drugs, could cut health care costs while improving population health.

  20. Nutraceuticals and Bioactive Components from Fish for Dyslipidemia and Cardiovascular Risk Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Giulia Chiesa; Marco Busnelli; Stefano Manzini; Cinzia Parolini

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the most common health problem in developed countries, and residual risk after implementing all current therapies is still high. Permanent changes in lifestyle may be hard to achieve and people may not always be motivated enough to make the recommended modifications. Emerging research has explored the application of natural food-based strategies in disease management. In recent years, much focus has been placed on the beneficial effects of fish consumption. Many...

  1. Insulin Resistance, Dyslipidemia and Cardiovascular Changes in a Group of Obese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Pires

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity-related comorbidities are present in young obese children, providing a platform for early adult cardiovascular disorders. Objectives: To compare and correlate markers of adiposity to metabolic disturbances, vascular and cardiac morphology in a European pediatric obese cohort. Methods: We carried out an observational and transversal analysis in a cohort consisting of 121 obese children of both sexes, between the ages of 6 and 17 years. The control group consisted of 40 children with normal body mass index within the same age range. Markers of adiposity, plasma lipids and lipoproteins, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, common carotid artery intima-media thickness and left ventricular diameters were analyzed. Results: There were statistically significant differences between the control and obese groups for the variables analyzed, all higher in the obese group, except for age, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and adiponectin, higher in the control group. In the obese group, body mass index was directly correlated to left ventricular mass (r=0.542; p=0.001, the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (r=0.378; p=<0.001 and mean common carotid artery intima-media thickness (r=0.378; p=<0.001. In that same group, insulin resistance was present in 38.1%, 12.5% had a combined dyslipidemic pattern, and eccentric hypertrophy was the most common left ventricular geometric pattern. Conclusions: These results suggest that these markers may be used in clinical practice to stratify cardiovascular risk, as well as to assess the impact of weight control programs.

  2. Cardiovascular risk assessment - From individual risk prediction to estimation of global risk and change in risk in the population

    OpenAIRE

    Batsis John A; Lopez-Jimenez Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death and risk prediction formulae such as the Framingham Risk Score have been developed to easily identify patients at high risk that may require therapeutic interventions. Discussion Using cardiovascular risk formulae at a population level to estimate and compare average cardiovascular risk among groups has been recently proposed as a way to facilitate surveillance of net cardiovascular risk and target public health inte...

  3. Association Between Cardiovascular and Intraocular Pressure Changes in a 14-day 6 deg Head Down Tilt (HDT) Bed Rest Study: Possible Implications in Retinal Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, R. L.; Zanello, S. B.; Yarbough, P. O.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Taibbi, G.; Brewer, J. L.; Vizzeri, G.

    2013-01-01

    Mean IOP significantly increased while at 6deg HDT and returned towards pre-bed rest values upon leaving bed rest. While mean IOP increased during bed rest, it remained within the normal limits for subject safety. A diuretic shift and cardiovascular deconditioning occurs during in-bed rest, as expected. There was no demonstrable correlation between the largest change in IOP (pre/post) and cardiovascular measure changes (pre/post). Additional mixed effects linear regression modeling may reveal some subclinical physiological changes that might assist in describing the VIIP syndrome pathophysiology.

  4. Lifestyle counseling in hypertension-related visits: analysis of video-taped general practice visits.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milder, I.E.J.; Blokstra, A.; Groot, J. de; Dulmen, S. van; Bemelmans, W.J.E.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The general practitioner (GP) can play an important role in promoting a healthy lifestyle, which is especially relevant in people with an elevated risk of cardiovascular diseases due to hypertension. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the frequency and content of lifestyle

  5. Effect size estimates of lifestyle and dietary changes on all-cause mortality in coronary artery disease patients. A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iestra, J.A.; Kromhout, D.; Schouw, van der Y.T.; Grobbee, D.E.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2005-01-01

    Background¿Guidelines for lifestyle and dietary modification in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) are mainly supported by evidence from general population studies. CAD patients, however, differ from the general population in age (older) and treatment with preventive drugs. This review seek

  6. Rates and determinants of repeated participation in a web-based behavior change program for healthy body weight and healthy lifestyle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijden, M.W.; Jans, M.P.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: In recent years, many tailored lifestyle counseling programs have become available through the Internet. Previous research into such programs has shown selective enrollment of relatively healthy people. However, because of the known dose-response relationship between the intensity and fr

  7. Effect of low-glycemic load diet on changes in cardiovascular risk factors in poorly controlled diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Afaghi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One dietary strategy aimed at improving both diabetes control and control of cardiovascular risk factors is the use of low glycemic index diets. These diets have been reported to be beneficial in controlling diabetes, and also increase high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, lower serum triglyceride, and reduce glycated protein. Aim: Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect of a low glycemic index-low glycemic load (GL = 67-77 diet on lipids and blood glucose of poorly controlled diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: In an intervention study, 100 poorly controlled diabetic patients (age 52.8 ± 4.5 years who were taking insulin or on oral medication underwent administration of low GL diet (GL = 67-77; energy = 1800-2200 kcal, total fat = 36%, fat derived from olive oil and nuts 15%, carbohydrate = 41%, protein = 22% for 10 weeks. Patients were recommended to follow their regular lifestyle. Total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL, HDL, triglyceride, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, weight, and body mass index (BMI were measured before and 10 weeks after the intervention. Results: Before intervention, initial blood cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were 205.9 ± 21.6 and 181.5 ± 22.2, respectively, and were reduced to 182.6 ± 18.2 and 161.6 ± 16.7, respectively, after 10 weeks intervention (P < 0.001. LDL reduced and HDL increased significantly. The HbA1c percentage reduced by 12% (from 8.85 ± 0.22% to 7.81 ± 0.27% (P < 0.001, and also their weight significantly reduced from 74.0 ± 5 kg to 70.7 ± 4.6 kg (P < 0.001. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that low GL diet having lower carbohydrate amount and higher fat content is an appropriate strategy in blood lipid and glucose response control of poorly controlled diabetic patients.

  8. Heat-Related Mortality Projections for Cardiovascular and Respiratory Disease Under the Changing Climate in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiantian; Ban, Jie; Horton, Radley M.; Bader, Daniel A.; Huang, Ganlin; Sun, Qinghua; Kinney, Patrick L.

    2015-01-01

    Because heat-related health effects tend to become more serious at higher temperatures, there is an urgent need to determine the mortality projection of specific heat-sensitive diseases to provide more detailed information regarding the variation of the sensitivity of such diseases. In this study, the specific mortality of cardiovascular and respiratory disease in Beijing was initially projected under five different global-scale General Circulation Models (GCMs) and two Representative Concentration Pathways scenarios (RCPs) in the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s compared to the 1980s. Multi-model ensembles indicated cardiovascular mortality could increase by an average percentage of 18.4 percent, 47.8 percent, and 69.0 percent in the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s under RCP 4.5, respectively, and by 16.6 percent, 73.8 percent and 134 percent in different decades respectively, under RCP 8.5 compared to the baseline range. The same increasing pattern was also observed in respiratory mortality. The heat-related deaths under the RCP 8.5 scenario were found to reach a higher number and to increase more rapidly during the 21st century compared to the RCP4.5 scenario, especially in the 2050s and the 2080s. The projection results show potential trends in cause-specific mortality in the context of climate change, and provide support for public health interventions tailored to specific climate-related future health risks.

  9. Posterior hypothalamic receptors involved in the cardiovascular changes elicited by electrical stimulation of the rostral ventrolateral medulla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelard, H; Rivest, R; Marsden, C A

    1991-07-01

    The posterior hypothalamic receptors involved in the cardiovascular responses to electrical stimulation of the rostral ventrolateral medulla were investigated in urethane-anaesthetized rats. Electrical stimulation of the rostral ventrolateral medulla produced a significant increase in systolic blood pressure. This response was significantly attenuated by the prior administration of d,l-propranolol (20 micrograms), clonidine (8 micrograms), atropine (8 micrograms) or methysergide (10 micrograms) into the posterior hypothalamus, but not by cimetidine (11 micrograms), chlorpheniramine (12 micrograms), naloxone (10 micrograms) or a vasopressin V1 antagonist (100 ng). The effect of clonidine (8 micrograms) on the pressor response to stimulation of the rostral ventrolateral medulla was antagonized by idazoxan (66 micrograms). These results confirm that the cardiovascular changes elicited by stimulation of the rostral ventrolateral medulla area are, in part, centrally modulated by alpha 2 and beta-adrenoceptors in the posterior hypothalamus which exert respectively, inhibitory and stimulatory effect. Furthermore the results indicate the involvement of posterior hypothalamic cholinergic and serotonergic receptors in the pressor response produced by stimulation of the rostral ventrolateral medulla.

  10. A Pilot Study of a Peer-Group Lifestyle Intervention Enhanced With mHealth Technology and Social Media for Adults With Serious Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Naslund, John A; Shevenell, Megan; Kinney, Elizabeth; Bartels, Stephen J

    2016-06-01

    This pilot study examined the preliminary effectiveness of a peer-group lifestyle intervention enhanced with mobile health technology and social media for obese individuals with serious mental illness. Thirty-two participants with a body mass index of 30 or higher received a 24-week intervention designed to facilitate peer support for lifestyle change through experiential learning and use of wearable activity tracking devices, smartphone applications, and Facebook to reinforce physical activity, healthy eating, and group participation between sessions. The primary outcome was weight loss. Secondary measures included fitness and participants' perceptions of peer-group support. Most participants (72%) lost weight, including 28% achieving clinically significant weight loss, and 17% of participants showed clinically significant improvements in cardiovascular fitness. Weight loss was associated with perceived peer-group support. This evaluation demonstrated the preliminary effectiveness of a potentially scalable peer-group lifestyle intervention delivered in community mental health settings for obese individuals with serious mental illness. PMID:27233056

  11. Six-month changes in ideal cardiovascular health vs. Framingham 10-year coronary heart disease risk among young adults enrolled in a weight loss intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Bethany Barone; King, Wendy C; Belle, Steven H; Jakicic, John M

    2016-05-01

    The Framingham Risk equation uses sex, age, smoking, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and systolic blood pressure to predict 10-year risk of coronary heart disease (FR-10). The American Heart Association's Ideal Cardiovascular Health (IDEAL) score uses smoking, total cholesterol, fasting glucose, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), diet, and physical activity to encourage a healthy cardiovascular phenotype. This study aimed to compare 6-month changes in the FR-10 vs. IDEAL score among young adults with BMI ≥25 to smoking or diet (both p≥0.05). FR-10 was young adults with overweight or obesity enrolled in a weight loss intervention, IDEAL detected positive changes in a majority of participants while the FR-10 did not. These findings suggest that IDEAL score may be more sensitive to positive cardiovascular health changes resulting from a behavioral intervention in this population. PMID:26923555

  12. Structural and functional cardiac changes in myotonic dystrophy type 1: a cardiovascular magnetic resonance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermans Mieke CE

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (MD1 is a neuromuscular disorder with potential involvement of the heart and increased risk of sudden death. Considering the importance of cardiomyopathy as a predictor of prognosis, we aimed to systematically evaluate and describe structural and functional cardiac alterations in patients with MD1. Methods Eighty MD1 patients underwent physical examination, electrocardiography (ECG, echocardiography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR. Blood samples were taken for determination of NT-proBNP plasma levels and CTG repeat length. Results Functional and structural abnormalities were detected in 35 patients (44%. Left ventricular systolic dysfunction was found in 20 cases, left ventricular dilatation in 7 patients, and left ventricular hypertrophy in 6 patients. Myocardial fibrosis was seen in 10 patients (12.5%. In general, patients had low left ventricular mass indexes. Right ventricular involvement was uncommon and only seen together with left ventricular abnormalities. Functional or structural cardiac involvement was associated with age (p = 0.04, male gender (p Conclusions CMR can be useful to detect early structural and functional myocardial abnormalities in patients with MD1. Myocardial involvement is strongly associated with conduction abnormalities, but a normal ECG does not exclude myocardial alterations. These findings lend support to the hypothesis that MD1 patients have a complex cardiac phenotype, including both myocardial and conduction system alteration.

  13. Monosodium glutamate neonatal treatment induces cardiovascular autonomic function changes in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signorá Peres Konrad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate cardiovascular autonomic function in a rodent obesity model induced by monosodium glutamate injections during the first seven days of life. METHOD: The animals were assigned to control (control, n = 10 and monosodium glutamate (monosodium glutamate, n = 13 groups. Thirty-three weeks after birth, arterial and venous catheters were implanted for arterial pressure measurements, drug administration, and blood sampling. Baroreflex sensitivity was evaluated according to the tachycardic and bradycardic responses induced by sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine infusion, respectively. Sympathetic and vagal effects were determined by administering methylatropine and propranolol. RESULTS: Body weight, Lee index, and epididymal white adipose tissue values were higher in the monosodium glutamate group in comparison to the control group. The monosodium glutamate-treated rats displayed insulin resistance, as shown by a reduced glucose/insulin index (-62.5%, an increased area under the curve of total insulin secretion during glucose overload (39.3%, and basal hyperinsulinemia. The mean arterial pressure values were higher in the monosodium glutamate rats, whereas heart rate variability (>7 times, bradycardic responses (>4 times, and vagal (~38% and sympathetic effects (~36% were reduced as compared to the control group. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that obesity induced by neonatal monosodium glutamate treatment impairs cardiac autonomic function and most likely contributes to increased arterial pressure and insulin resistance.

  14. Expanding the definition of hypertension to incorporate global cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Nitin; Black, Henry R

    2006-10-01

    Recent epidemiologic analyses have changed the way that hypertension is viewed. Cardiovascular risk has been found to be elevated at levels of blood pressure previously believed to be normal and not imparting additional risk. Furthermore, the approach to hypertension has been shifted from viewing and treating it in isolation to a more comprehensive approach that incorporates a focus on global cardiovascular risk and the risk factors commonly associated with having an elevated blood pressure. However, control rates not only for hypertension but also for associated risk factors, such as hyperlipidemia and diabetes, remain abysmal, providing an even greater challenge to providers of care. To change this alarming trend, physicians must become aggressive in using the available armamentarium of lifestyle modifications and drugs in treating hypertension and other risk factors that increase the burden of atherosclerosis. PMID:16965724

  15. Five-year change in physical activity is associated with changes in cardiovascular disease risk factors: the Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aadahl, Mette; von Huth Smith, L; Pisinger, Charlotte;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether five-year changes in self-reported physical activity level were associated with changes in waist circumference, weight, serum lipids and blood pressure. METHODS: In the Inter99 study (1999-2006) in Copenhagen, Denmark, 4039 men and women (30-60 years) answered quest....... Change in physical activity level induced a significant change in HDL concentration in men only. Women's use of hormone replacement therapy may partly explain this gender difference....

  16. Lifestyle modifications for GDM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Atul; Ahuja, Kamlesh

    2016-09-01

    Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing worldwide more so in Southeast Asian countries like India and Pakistan. 1 GDM is associated with various adverse foetal and maternal effects. The management of GDM aims at reducing blood glucose to reduce maternal and foetal morbidity and mortality. Various studies have shown that lifestyle modifications are an important tool for reducing blood glucose levels in patients with GDM. Lifestyle modifications consist of dietary modifications and daily physical activity. Dietary modifications aim to achieve glycaemic control by providing adequate calories to the mother and foetus. Exercise is an obvious adjunct to dietary modifications for management of GDM. Therefore the purpose of this review is to summarize the benefits of lifestyle interventions in patients with GDM. PMID:27582149

  17. Health lifestyles in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; James-Hawkins, Laurie; Lawrence, Elizabeth; Fomby, Paula

    2014-12-01

    This study integrates two important developments, the concept of health lifestyles (which has focused on adults and adolescents) and the increased attention to early childhood. We introduce the concept of children's health lifestyles, identifying differences from adult health lifestyles and articulating intergenerational transmission and socialization processes shaping children's health lifestyles. Using the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001-2007; N ≈ 6,150), latent class analyses identify predominant health lifestyles among U.S. preschoolers. Five distinct empirical patterns representing health lifestyles emerge, two capturing low and medium levels of overall risk across domains and three capturing domain-specific risks. Social background predicts children's health lifestyles, but lower household resources often explain these relationships. Across kindergarten measures of cognition, behavior, and health, preschool health lifestyles predict children's development even after controlling for social disadvantage and concurrent household resources. Further research on health lifestyles throughout childhood is warranted.

  18. Health lifestyles in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; James-Hawkins, Laurie; Lawrence, Elizabeth; Fomby, Paula

    2014-12-01

    This study integrates two important developments, the concept of health lifestyles (which has focused on adults and adolescents) and the increased attention to early childhood. We introduce the concept of children's health lifestyles, identifying differences from adult health lifestyles and articulating intergenerational transmission and socialization processes shaping children's health lifestyles. Using the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001-2007; N ≈ 6,150), latent class analyses identify predominant health lifestyles among U.S. preschoolers. Five distinct empirical patterns representing health lifestyles emerge, two capturing low and medium levels of overall risk across domains and three capturing domain-specific risks. Social background predicts children's health lifestyles, but lower household resources often explain these relationships. Across kindergarten measures of cognition, behavior, and health, preschool health lifestyles predict children's development even after controlling for social disadvantage and concurrent household resources. Further research on health lifestyles throughout childhood is warranted. PMID:25413801

  19. Lifestyle Journalism: Blurring boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    From, Unni

    2013-01-01

    , social and cultural tensions within it. Taking a comparative view, the collection includes studies covering four continents, including countries such as Australia, China, Norway, Denmark, Singapore, the UK and the USA. While keeping the broader lifestyle field in mind, the chapters focus on a variety...... of sub-fields such as travel, music, food, health, fashion and personal technology journalism. This volume provides a fascinating account of the different facets of lifestyle journalism, and charts the way forward for a more sustained analysis of the field. This book was originally published as a special...

  20. Nutritionist’s Variation in Counseling Style and the Effect on Weight Change of Patients Attending a Community Based Lifestyle Modification Program

    OpenAIRE

    Sea, Mandy M.M.; Chan, Ruth S.M.; Lok, Kris Y. W.; Jean Woo

    2010-01-01

    Information concerning the nature of nutritionist-patient relationships is very limited. This qualitative and quantitative study examined nutritionist’s skills, attributes, and beliefs towards nutrition counseling during a lifestyle modification intervention program, and whether this affected the patient’s weight outcome. 24 nutrition consultations were observed during the program and the nutritionists were interviewed for their perception on practice (n = 4). A statistically significant diff...

  1. Anorexia Nervosa: A Lifestyle Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Talbot, Yves

    1983-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a real lifestyle disorder. The apparent increase in frequency has been linked to the change of position of women in society. If families have an important role to play in the maintenance of the drama, they also hold the key to its resolution. The family physician in early contact with the anorectic patient is in an important position to involve the family in therapy and maximize the chances of recovery. The steps required are reframing, preparing the family involved for fa...

  2. Electrocardiographic Changes Improve Risk Prediction in Asymptomatic Persons Age 65 Years or Above Without Cardiovascular Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Godsk; Jensen, Jan S; Marott, Jacob L;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Risk prediction in elderly patients is increasingly relevant due to longer life expectancy. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to examine whether electrocardiographic (ECG) changes provide prognostic information incremental to current risk models and to the conventional risk factors. METHODS......: In all, 6,991 participants from the Copenhagen Heart Study attending an examination at age ≥65 years were included. ECG changes were defined as Q waves, ST-segment depression, T-wave changes, ventricular conduction defects, and left ventricular hypertrophy based on the Minnesota code. The primary...

  3. Youth media lifestyles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kruistum, Claudia; Leseman, Paul Pm; de Haan, Mariëtte

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the concept of "media lifestyles" is adopted in order to develop a comprehensive approach toward youth engagement in communication media. We explore how 503 Dutch eighth grade students with full access to new technology combine a broad range of media by focusing on their engagement

  4. Traffic air pollution and mortality from cardiovascular disease and all causes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Jensen, Steen Solvang;

    2012-01-01

    Traffic air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular mortality, which might be due to co-exposure to road traffic noise. Further, personal and lifestyle characteristics might modify any association.......Traffic air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular mortality, which might be due to co-exposure to road traffic noise. Further, personal and lifestyle characteristics might modify any association....

  5. Changes in body weight, body composition and cardiovascular risk factors after long-term nutritional intervention in patients with severe mental illness: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlahavas George

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compared with the general population, individuals with severe mental illness (SMI have increased prevalence rates of obesity and greater risk for cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a long term nutritional intervention on body weight, body fat and cardiovascular risk factors in a large number of patients with SMI. Methods Nine hundred and eighty-nine patients with a mean ± S.D age of 40 ± 11.7 yrs participated in a 9 mo nutritional intervention which provided personalised dietetic treatment and lifestyle counselling every two weeks. Patients had an average body mass index (BMI of 34.3 ± 7.1 kg.m-2 and body weight (BW of 94.9 ± 21.7 kg. Fasted blood samples were collected for the measurement of glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL- cholesterol. All measurements were undertaken at baseline and at 3 mo, 6 mo and 9 mo of the nutritional intervention. Results Four hundred and twenty-three patients of 989 total patients' cases (42.8% dropped out within the first 3 months. Two hundred eighty-five completed 6 months of the program and 145 completed the entire 9 month nutritional intervention. There were progressive statistically significant reductions in mean weight, fat mass, waist and BMI throughout the duration of monitoring (p -2 (p Conclusion The nutritional intervention produced significant reductions in body weight, body fat and improved the cardiometabolic profile in patients with SMI. These findings indicate the importance of weight-reducing nutritional intervention in decreasing the cardiovascular risk in patients with SMI.

  6. Mental health and healthy lifestyle

    OpenAIRE

    Busch, Markus; Hapke, Ulfert; Mensink, Gert

    2011-01-01

    This issue focuses on mental health and the connection with a healthy lifestyle. Data of the German Health Update 2009 (GEDA) show at last that a healthy lifestyle leads to less mental impairments (e.g. depression).

  7. Correlations between Lifestyle and Ischemic Heart Disease in Young Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca IANULA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial infarction in young adults, an important public health issue, is a controversial topic with many issues left unknown. Although its prevalence is low, its consequences are disastrous, as it affects apparently healthy subjects who afterwards suffer important lifestyle changes with profound social, professional and medical implications. In this perspective, the thesis aims to analyze epidemiologic aspects regarding incidence, morbidity of myocardial infarction in young people (patients under 45 years and correlation with traditional cardiovascular risk factors: tobacco use, effort, diet, dyslipidemia, obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus. The present study is descriptive, longitudinal, ambispective: retrospective until 2004 and prospective for next 10 years, including all of the 122 patients consecutively admitted to the Cardiology Department of Bagdasar-Arseni Hospital, aged under 45 and diagnosed with AMI. These represented 9% of all patients with this diagnosis. Considering the time evolution, we can notice an alarming increase in incidence, statistically significant, (p<0,05, for the second half of the analysed time interval. The most common cardiovascular risk factors are: smoking, dyslipidemia, obesity. Diabetes mellitus and hypertension remain risk factors specific for patients over 45 years. A significant number of young patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of metabolic syndrome . Cigarette smoking is the dominant risk factor found in 88 % of patients. An increase in the incidence of smoking during the study is noticed. Dyslipidemia and obesity show a linear increase in the last decade. A statistically significant association between obesity – dyslipidemia – HTN- diabetes among young men with AMI is described . In correlation with these data, 70 % of patients enrolled in the study presented a high-calorie diet in the moment of enrollment, respectively, over 3000 kcal/day, and 63 % of the patients did not practice

  8. Cardiovascular risk profile: Cross-sectional analysis of motivational determinants, physical fitness and physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiers Henri

    2010-10-01

    physical activity, and the latter by physical active behavior. Physical active behavior can be predicted by intention, self-efficacy, descriptive norms and barriers. Intention to engage in physical activity by attitude, self-efficacy, descriptive norms and barriers. An important input for lifestyle changes for people with one or more cardiovascular risk factors was that for ca. 40% of the population the intention to engage in physical activity was in line with their actual physical active behavior.

  9. Effects of Lifestyle Modification on Telomerase Gene Expression in Hypertensive Patients: A Pilot Trial of Stress Reduction and Health Education Programs in African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Shanthi Duraimani; Schneider, Robert H.; Randall, Otelio S.; Nidich, Sanford I.; Shichen Xu; Muluemebet Ketete; Maxwell A Rainforth; Carolyn Gaylord-King; Salerno, John W.; John Fagan

    2015-01-01

    Background African Americans suffer from disproportionately high rates of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Psychosocial stress, lifestyle and telomere dysfunction contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. This study evaluated effects of stress reduction and lifestyle modification on blood pressure, telomerase gene expression and lifestyle factors in African Americans. Methods Forty-eight African American men and women with stage I hypertension who part...

  10. Heat exposure, cardiovascular stress and work productivity in rice harvesters in India: implications for a climate change future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Subhashis; Sett, Moumita; Kjellstrom, Tord

    2013-01-01

    Excessive workplace heat exposures create well-known risks of heat stroke, and it limits the workers' capacity to sustain physical activity. There is very limited evidence available on how these effects reduce work productivity, while the quantitative relationship between heat and work productivity is an essential basis for climate change impact assessments. We measured hourly heat exposure in rice fields in West Bengal and recorded perceived health problems via interviews of 124 rice harvesters. In a sub-group (n = 48) heart rate was recorded every minute in a standard work situation. Work productivity was recorded as hourly rice bundle collection output. The hourly heat levels (WBGT = Wet Bulb Globe Temperature) were 26-32°C (at air temperatures of 30-38°C), exceeding international standards. Most workers reported exhaustion and pain during work on hot days. Heart rate recovered quickly at low heat, but more slowly at high heat, indicating cardiovascular strain. The hourly number of rice bundles collected was significantly reduced at WBGT>26°C (approximately 5% per°C of increased WBGT). We conclude that high heat exposure in agriculture caused heat strain and reduced work productivity. This reduction will be exacerbated by climate change and may undermine the local economy.

  11. Avocado Oil Supplementation Modifies Cardiovascular Risk Profile Markers in a Rat Model of Sucrose-Induced Metabolic Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Carvajal-Zarrabal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of avocado oil administration on biochemical markers of cardiovascular risk profile in rats with metabolic changes induced by sucrose ingestion. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: a control group (CG; basic diet, a sick group (MC; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution, and three other groups (MCao, MCac, and MCas; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution plus olive oil and avocado oil extracted by centrifugation or using solvent, resp.. Glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, low- and high-density lipoproteins (LDL, HDL, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL, lactic dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration were analyzed. Avocado oil reduces TG, VLDL, and LDL levels, in the LDL case significantly so, without affecting HDL levels. An effect was exhibited by avocado oil similar to olive oil, with no significant difference between avocado oil extracted either by centrifugation or solvent in myocardial injury biochemical indicators. Avocado oil decreased hs-CRP levels, indicating that inflammatory processes were partially reversed. These findings suggested that avocado oil supplementation has a positive health outcome because it reduces inflammatory events and produces positive changes in the biochemical indicators studied, related to the development of metabolic syndrome.

  12. Avocado oil supplementation modifies cardiovascular risk profile markers in a rat model of sucrose-induced metabolic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Zarrabal, Octavio; Nolasco-Hipolito, Cirilo; Aguilar-Uscanga, M Guadalupe; Melo-Santiesteban, Guadalupe; Hayward-Jones, Patricia M; Barradas-Dermitz, Dulce M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of avocado oil administration on biochemical markers of cardiovascular risk profile in rats with metabolic changes induced by sucrose ingestion. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: a control group (CG; basic diet), a sick group (MC; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution), and three other groups (MCao, MCac, and MCas; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution plus olive oil and avocado oil extracted by centrifugation or using solvent, resp.). Glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, low- and high-density lipoproteins (LDL, HDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), lactic dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration were analyzed. Avocado oil reduces TG, VLDL, and LDL levels, in the LDL case significantly so, without affecting HDL levels. An effect was exhibited by avocado oil similar to olive oil, with no significant difference between avocado oil extracted either by centrifugation or solvent in myocardial injury biochemical indicators. Avocado oil decreased hs-CRP levels, indicating that inflammatory processes were partially reversed. These findings suggested that avocado oil supplementation has a positive health outcome because it reduces inflammatory events and produces positive changes in the biochemical indicators studied, related to the development of metabolic syndrome.

  13. Uncomplicated hyperemesis gravidarum does not alter the course of cardiovascular changes during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Rani Kovil George

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this prospective longitudinal study was to investigate the maternal cardiac haemodynamic and structural changes that occur in pregnancies with uncomplicated hyperemesis gravidarum in a selected Malaysian population. Nine women underwent serial echocardiography beginning at 12 weeks of gestation and throughout pregnancy at monthly intervals. Their echocardiograms were repeated at 6 and 12 weeks following delivery to reflect the pre-pregnancy haemodynamic state. Cardiac output was measured by continuous wave Doppler at the aortic valve. Interventricular septum thickness was determined by M- mode echocardiography and ventricular diastolic function by assessing flow at the mitral valve with Doppler recording. Cardiac output showed an increase of 32.9% at 36 weeks and maintained till 40 weeks of gestation. Heart rate increased from 79 ± 6 to 96 ± 8 beats/ min at 36 weeks. Stroke volume increased by 16.4 % at 40 weeks of gestation when compared to the baseline value. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure did not appreciably change but showed a lower reading during the mid-trimester period. Early inflow velocity of left ventricle did not show a rise while peak atrial velocity showed an increasing trend; thus the ratio of early inflow to peak atrial transport showed a declining trend from early pregnancy to term. End diastolic dimension of left ventricle and interventricular septum thickness showed an increased value at term. Uncomplicated hyperemesis gravidarum did not alter the haemodynamic changes throughout pregnancy and concur with established data for normal pregnancy

  14. Acute effect of weight loss on levels of total bilirubin in obese, cardiovascular high-risk patients: an analysis from the lead-in period of the Sibutramine Cardiovascular Outcome trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Charlotte; Weeke, Peter; Fosbøl, Emil Loldrup;

    2009-01-01

    Low levels of bilirubin are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular adverse events. Weight reduction is known to reduce several cardiovascular risk factors, but effects on bilirubin levels have not been reported. We studied the response of weight loss therapy with sibutramine...... and lifestyle change on levels of total bilirubin in an overweight or obese, cardiovascular high-risk population. Data from the first 4 weeks of the lead-in period of the Sibutramine Cardiovascular Outcome study were analyzed. A total of 10 198 patients provided body weight measurements before and after 4 weeks......, respectively. At screening, bilirubin concentrations were similar between weight loss groups (around 11 micromol/L, P = .7) and increased linearly as a function of weight loss. The effect was significantly more pronounced in men compared with women (P for interaction = .003). Adjusted for multiple variables...

  15. Testing a Dutch web-based tailored lifestyle programme among adults: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Osch Liesbeth ADM

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking, high alcohol consumption, unhealthy eating habits and physical inactivity often lead to (chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Tailored online interventions have been proven to be effective in changing health behaviours. The aim of this study is to test and compare the effectiveness of two different tailoring strategies for changing lifestyle compared to a control group using a multiple health behaviour web-based approach. Methods In our Internet-based tailored programme, the five lifestyle behaviours of smoking, alcohol intake, fruit consumption, vegetable consumption, and physical activity are addressed. This randomized controlled trial, conducted among Dutch adults, includes two experimental groups (i.e., a sequential behaviour tailoring condition and a simultaneous behaviour tailoring condition and a control group. People in the sequential behaviour tailoring condition obtain feedback on whether their lifestyle behaviours meet the Dutch recommendations. Using a step-by-step approach, they are stimulated to continue with a computer tailored module to change only one unhealthy behaviour first. In the course of the study, they can proceed to change a second behaviour. People in the simultaneous behaviour tailoring condition receive computer tailored feedback about all their unhealthy behaviours during their first visit as a stimulation to change all unhealthy behaviours. The experimental groups can re-visit the website and can then receive ipsative feedback (i.e., current scores are compared to previous scores in order to give feedback about potential changes. The (difference in effectiveness of the different versions of the programme will be tested and compared to a control group, in which respondents only receive a short health risk appraisal. Programme evaluations will assess satisfaction with and appreciation and personal relevance of the intervention among the respondents. Finally

  16. Lifestyle Factors in Cancer Survivorship: Where We Are and Where We Are Headed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata Vijayvergia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Advances in early detection and curative therapies have led to an increased number of cancer survivors over the last twenty years. With this population comes the need to evaluate the late and long term effects of cancer treatment and develop recommendations about how to optimally care for these survivors. Lifestyle factors (diet, body weight, physical activity, and smoking have been linked to a higher risk of many medical comorbidities (cardiovascular, metabolic, etc.. There is increasing evidence linking these factors to the risk of developing cancer and likely cancer-related outcomes. This link has been studied extensively in common cancers like breast, colon, prostate, and lung cancers through observational studies and is now being prospectively evaluated in interventional studies. Realizing that survivors are highly motivated to improve their overall health after a diagnosis of cancer, healthy lifestyle recommendations from oncology providers can serve as a strong tool to motivate survivors to adopt health behavior changes. Our article aims to review the evidence that links lifestyle factors to cancer outcomes and provides clinical recommendations for cancer survivors.

  17. Changes in body composition and cardiovascular risk indicators in healthy Spanish adolescents after lamb- (Ternasco de Aragón or chicken-based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Mesana Graffe

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the effect of lamb consumption (Protected Geographical Indication (PGI, Ternasco de Aragón on health indicators including body composition and cardiovascular risk indicators of healthy young Spanish students living in the area of Aragón, Spain. Methodology: A randomized-controlled and cross-over trial (two periods of 8 weeks duration assessing changes on body composition (body mass index and skinfold thicknesses and cardiovascular risk indicators of 50 participants randomly assigned to follow a normocaloric diet with lamb (Ternasco de Aragón or chicken. Body composition and serum cardiovascular risk profiles were measured both at baseline and follow-up. Results: Healthy men (n = 22 and women (n = 28, aged 19.43 ± 0.85 years were studied. Suprailiac skinfold thickness and waist circumference significantly decreased (p < 0.05 in the lamb-consumption group compared to the chicken based diet group. No significant changes were observed in the rest of the variables in either group. Tryacilglicerol and insulin serum concentrations significantly decreased (p < 0.05 in the lamb-consumption group compared to the chicken based diet group. Conclusions: The results suggest that regular consumption of lamb (Ternasco de Aragón can be integrated into a healthy, varied and well-balanced diet, as body composition and cardiovascular risk profile changes are similar or even healthier to those observed following chicken consumption.

  18. Electrocardiographic Changes in Certain Cardiovascular Physiological and Pathological Settings. Impact on Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar Simov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Review on electrocardiographic changes provoked by aging, diagnostic tests, cardiac surgery, hemodialysis, diabetes, etc., is the objective of the current material. Several electrocardiographic (ECG parameters that are well known risk markers of arrhythmias, incidental heart failure and sudden cardiac death (SCD are discussed: QRS amplitude, QRS morphology, QRS duration, QRS alternans, T-wave amplitude, T-wave morphology, T-wave alternans, negative T-waves, 3D-spatial angle between maximal QRS and T vectors of the vectorcardiographic loops, ST-segment elevation, QT-interval dispersion, and heart rate. All reviewed parameters are compared with the results on the ECG-alterations, induced by coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG surgery. Two parameters showed an improvement in the patients' condition: QRS-T angle and cardiac autonomic innervation while two others (T-wave alternans and heart rate indicated deterioration. We tend to assume that the deterioration in this early post-operative period is an effect of the post-surgery trauma. We speculate that this effect will fade away in a period of a month and more after surgery, and we intend to conduct such a research in the future. The analysis of ECG's changes will help to better assess the impact of the CABG surgery.

  19. Change in DASH diet score and cardiovascular risk factors in youth with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus: The SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, T.L.; Crandell, J. L.; Bell, R. A.; Mayer-Davis, E J; Dabelea, D.; Liese, A D

    2013-01-01

    Youth with diabetes are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet has been shown to improve CVD risk. In this study, we evaluated whether changes in diet quality as characterized by DASH are associated with changes in CVD risk factors in youth with diabetes over time. Longitudinal mixed models were applied to data from 797 participants in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study representing three time points: base...

  20. Primary care nurses struggle with lifestyle counseling in diabetes care: a qualitative analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Elwyn Glyn; van der Weijden Trudy; Braspenning Jozé; Jansink Renate; Grol Richard

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Patient outcomes are poorly affected by lifestyle advice in general practice. Promoting lifestyle behavior change require that nurses shift from simple advice giving to a more counseling-based approach. The current study examines which barriers nurses encounter in lifestyle counseling to patients with type 2 diabetes. Based on this information we will develop an implementation strategy to improve lifestyle behavior change in general practice. Method In a qualitative semi-s...

  1. Considering statins for cholesterol-reduction in children if lifestyle and diet changes do not improve their health: a review of the risks and benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Clodagh SM O’Gorman; Michael B O’Neill; Louise S. Conwell

    2010-01-01

    Clodagh SM O’Gorman1, Michael B O’Neill2, Louise S Conwell31Graduate Entry Medical School, University of Limerick, Ireland, and Mid-Western Regional Hospital, Limerick, Ireland; 2Mayo General Hospital, Castlebar, Ireland; 3Royal Children’s Hospital, Brisbane, Discipline of Pediatrics and Child Health, and School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, AustraliaAbstract: Children who appear healthy, even if they have one or more recognized cardiovascular ...

  2. Digital lifestyle coaches on the move

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, Randy; Akker, op den Rieks; Nijholt, Anton; Ruiz Miyares, Leonel; Alvarez Rosa, Maria; Munoz Alvarado, Silva; Munoz Alvarado, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Persuasive technology refers to research after and development of instruments that can support people, society, institutions or governments to persuade other people of a particular opinion or to behave in a particular way. A digital lifestyle coach is a behavior change support system, a special type

  3. Acute effect of caffeine supplementation on performance of muscular strength and cardiovascular changes during resistance training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Materko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the acute effect of caffeine on the muscular strength performance in addition to the possible hemodynamic changes during a strength training session. Thirteen strength training experienced male subjects were submitted to a protocol of three sets of 10RM for bench press (BP, pull press (PP, leg extension (LE and leg curl (LC, according to three conditions: no supplementation (C; 250 mg of caffeine supplementation (S; placebo (P. All subjects were submitted to an anthropometric evaluation, followed by a 10RM familiarization test. Hemodynamic measurements – heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP – were carried out before, during and after each session. Holding 48 hours time intervals, participants were submitted to three randomly presented 10RM tests according to C, S and P conditions. For conditions S and C, significant differences were found in BP and LE. No significant differences in HR and BP were found. Results seem to suggest an ergogenic effect of caffeine on submaximal muscle strength during a session of strength training.

  4. Early Empowerment Strategies Boost Self-Efficacy to Improve Cardiovascular Health Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani, Mariam; Eliasson, Arn H; Walizer, Elaine M; Fuller, Clarie E; Engler, Renata J; Villines, Todd C; Vernalis, Marina N

    2016-01-01

    Background: Self-efficacy, defined as confidence in the ability to carry out behavior to achieve a desired goal, is considered to be a prerequisite for behavior change. Self-efficacy correlates with cardiovascular health although optimal timing to incorporate self-efficacy strategies is not well established. We sought to study the effect of an empowerment approach implemented in the introductory phase of a multicomponent lifestyle intervention on cardiovascular health outcomes. Design: Prospective intervention cohort study. Methods: Patients in the Integrative Cardiac Health Project Registry, a prospective lifestyle change program for the prevention of cardiovascular disease were analyzed for behavioral changes by survey, at baseline and one year, in the domains of nutrition, exercise, stress management and sleep. Self-efficacy questionnaires were administered at baseline and after the empowerment intervention, at 8 weeks. Results: Of 119 consecutive registry completers, 60 comprised a high self-efficacy group (scoring at or above the median of 36 points) and 59 the low self-efficacy group (scoring below median). Self-efficacy scores increased irrespective of baseline self-efficacy but the largest gains in self-efficacy occurred in patients who ranked in the lower half for self-efficacy at baseline. This lower self-efficacy group demonstrated behavioral gains that erased differences between the high and low self-efficacy groups. Conclusions: A boost to self-efficacy early in a lifestyle intervention program produces significant improvements in behavioral outcomes. Employing empowerment in an early phase may be a critical strategy to improve self-efficacy and lower risk in individuals vulnerable to cardiovascular disease. PMID:27157185

  5. Living in the "land of no"? Consumer perceptions of healthy lifestyle portrayals in direct-to-consumer advertisements of prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosch, Dominick L; May, Suepattra G; Tietbohl, Caroline; Pagán, José A

    2011-10-01

    Direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs is the most common form of health communication Americans are exposed to. The effects of DTCA on prescription requests and utilization are well established, but little is known about the effects of advertisements on health behaviors. Many advertisements, especially those promoting drugs to prevent or treat cardiovascular disease, refer to lifestyle change as a way to improve health. However, no studies have examined how consumers interpret these frequently ambiguous messages. We used in-depth interviews with 45 participants, recruited in Los Angeles, USA between April 2007 and July 2008, to explore perceptions of 5 advertisements for drugs that prevent or treat cardiovascular disease (Lipitor(®), Vytorin(®), Zetia(®), Caduet(®), Plavix(®)). We found that participants interpreted advertising messages within their own life context and identified four trajectories for enacting behavior change versus taking prescription drugs: Negotiators, Avoiders, Embracers and Jumpstarters. Underlying these four typologies were beliefs about whether lifestyle change was something an individual could do or was willing to do. Our results also show how an advertisement narrative could potentially shift perceptions of causality by suggesting that high cholesterol is primarily hereditary, thereby obviating the need for lifestyle change. Some participants stated that they would prefer lifestyle change to a particular prescription drug, but felt that others would be more likely to embrace taking a prescription drug. This "Third Person Effect" may be masking participants' intentions by identifying a more socially desirable route to therapeutic change. These findings raise questions about how the typologies are distributed in the population and how advertising may shift consumers' beliefs over time, thereby contributing to new forms of medicalization. Effective regulation of DTCA may require expanding scrutiny beyond the

  6. Blood pressure changes associated with sibutramine and weight management - an analysis from the 6-week lead-in period of the sibutramine cardiovascular outcomes trial (SCOUT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, A M; Caterson, I D; Coutinho, W;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore vital sign changes among patient subgroups during the 6-week lead-in period of the sibutramine cardiovascular outcomes (SCOUT) trial. METHODS: SCOUT is an ongoing, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled outcome trial in overweight/obese patients at high risk of a cardi......OBJECTIVE: To explore vital sign changes among patient subgroups during the 6-week lead-in period of the sibutramine cardiovascular outcomes (SCOUT) trial. METHODS: SCOUT is an ongoing, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled outcome trial in overweight/obese patients at high risk...... of a cardiovascular event. During the 6-week lead-in period, 10,742 patients received sibutramine and weight management. Vital sign changes were assessed post hoc by initial blood pressure (mmHg) categorized as normal (hypertensive (>or=140/>or=90); weight change...... in the class of antihypertensive medication used and who did not report an increase in antihypertensive medication use were analysed. RESULTS: At entry, approximately 50% of patients were hypertensive and 26% were high-normal. In hypertensive patients, blood pressure changes (mmHg) decreased by median [5th, 95...

  7. Development of a model to assess the cost-effectiveness of gestational diabetes mellitus screening and lifestyle change for the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Nicolai; Marseille, Elliot; Kahn, James G

    2011-11-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasingly recognized as an opportunity for early prevention of diabetes and other diseases over the lifespan, and may be responsible for up to 30% of cases of type 2 diabetes. A newly developed mathematical model (the GDModel) provides provisional estimates of the cost and health impact of various GDM screening and management choices, and calculates averted disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs). The model was piloted in 5 different healthcare facilities in India and Israel. Universal screening of pregnant women followed by postpartum lifestyle management yielded net savings of US$78 per woman with GDM in India and US$1945 per woman in Israel. The estimated DALYs averted were 2.33 in India and 3.10 in Israel. With lower GDM prevalence, intervention efficacy, and type 2 diabetes incidence, the intervention had a net cost in India, with a cost per DALY averted of US$11.32. This was far below the WHO definition of "very cost-effective," set at annual GDP per capita. The intervention in Israel remained cost-saving. GDM screening and postpartum lifestyle management are either cost-saving or have a net cost but an attractive cost-effectiveness ratio. Some input values are currently being refined. Nevertheless, the current findings of cost-savings or favorable cost-effectiveness are robust to a wide range of plausible input values, including highly unfavorable values. The GDModel will be further developed into a user-friendly tool that can guide policy-makers on decisions regarding GDM screening strategies and guidelines.

  8. Lifestyle influences human sperm functional quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mnica Ferreira; Joana Vieira Silva; Vladimiro Silva; Antnio Barros; Margarida Fardilha

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the impact of acute lifestyle changes on human sperm functional quality.Methods:In the academic festivities week, young and apparently healthy male students who voluntarily submit themselves to acute lifestyle alterations(among the potentially important variations are increase in alcohol, caffeine, and tobacco consumption and circadian rhythm shifts) were used as a model system.Sperm samples were obtained before and after the academic week and compared by traditional semen analysis(n=54) and also tested for cleavedPolyADP-ribose polymerase(PARP) protein, an apoptotic marker(n=35).Results:Acute lifestyle changes that occurred during the academic week festivities(the study model) resulted both in a significant reduction in sperm quality, assessed by basic semen analysis(decrease in sperm concentration, total number of spermatozoa, progressive and non-progressive motility and increase in sperm morphological abnormalities) and by an increase in the expression of the apoptotic marker, cleavedPARP, in the ejaculate.Conclusions:Acute lifestyle changes have clear deleterious effects on sperm quality.We propose cleavedPARP as a novel molecular marker, valuable for assessing spermquality in parallel with the basic semen analysis method.

  9. Interactions between genetic variants of folate metabolism genes and lifestyle affect plasma homocysteine concentrations in the Boston Puerto Rican Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results of studies investigating relationships between lifestyle factors and elevated plasma homocysteine (Hcy), an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, are conflicting. The objective of this study was to investigate genetic and lifestyle factors and their interactions on plasma Hcy c...

  10. Silicon Valley Lifestyle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph Leu

    2005-01-01

    @@ As we embrace the rapid developments of the new media age,competitiveness in the field of internet and computer technology is an increasingly crucial factor in stimulating new business,jobs and new industry in the region.Accelerating advancements in new media,internet,software and computer technologies offer new commercial opportunities and sources of economic revenue. Silicon Valley has been a model of the new age since its existence.While the dream place not only has a unique business model,but also has a very special lifestyle.

  11. a lifestyle segmentation study

    OpenAIRE

    Franz, Annabell; Nowak, Beate

    2010-01-01

    Due to increasing health consciousness among consumers, there is an ever‐growing demand for food and beverages with health‐improving components. Not only ‘light’ and low fat products are in demand, but increasingly so‐called well‐being products and food which can prevent certain diseases. The German market for functional food is still growing. But who are the German functional food consumers? In an online‐survey referring to the Food‐ Related Lifestyle by BRUNSØ and GRUNERT (1995) we tried to...

  12. Primary care nurses struggle with lifestyle counseling in diabetes care: a qualitative analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansink, R.M.E.; Braspenning, J.C.C.; Weijden, G.D.E.M. van der; Elwyn, G.; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patient outcomes are poorly affected by lifestyle advice in general practice. Promoting lifestyle behavior change require that nurses shift from simple advice giving to a more counseling-based approach. The current study examines which barriers nurses encounter in lifestyle counseling to

  13. Lifestyle of students PF JCU.

    OpenAIRE

    Nováková, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    This work is focused on lifestyle undergraduate JCU - PF, Health education, full-time and combined studies in Czech Budejovice. From the available material, we focused on quantitative research, where the main method is querying. The work consists of theoretical and practical part. The work describes health, determinants of health, health promotion, physical activity, mental hygiene, etc. It portrays the lifestyle in general terms. It describes the components of lifestyle (sleep, food and drin...

  14. Cardiovascular group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, Gunnar

    1989-01-01

    As a starting point, the group defined a primary goal of maintaining in flight a level of systemic oxygen transport capacity comparable to each individual's preflight upright baseline. The goal of maintaining capacity at preflight levels would seem to be a reasonable objective for several different reasons, including the maintenance of good health in general and the preservation of sufficient cardiovascular reserve capacity to meet operational demands. It is also important not to introduce confounding variables in whatever other physiological studies are being performed. A change in the level of fitness is likely to be a significant confounding variable in the study of many organ systems. The principal component of the in-flight cardiovascular exercise program should be large-muscle activity such as treadmill exercise. It is desirable that at least one session per week be monitored to assure maintenance of proper functional levels and to provide guidance for any adjustments of the exercise prescription. Appropriate measurements include evaluation of the heart-rate/workload or the heart-rate/oxygen-uptake relationship. Respiratory gas analysis is helpful by providing better opportunities to document relative workload levels from analysis of the interrelationships among VO2, VCO2, and ventilation. The committee felt that there is no clear evidence that any particular in-flight exercise regimen is protective against orthostatic hypotension during the early readaptation phase. Some group members suggested that maintenance of the lower body muscle mass and muscle tone may be helpful. There is also evidence that late in-flight interventions to reexpand blood volume to preflight levels are helpful in preventing or minimizing postflight orthostatic hypotension.

  15. Cardiovascular physiology and diseases of amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz-Taheny, Kathleen M

    2009-01-01

    The class Amphibia includes three orders of amphibians: the anurans (frogs and toads), urodeles (salamanders, axolotls, and newts), and caecilians. The diversity of lifestyles across these three orders has accompanying differences in the cardiovascular anatomy and physiology allowing for adaptations to aquatic or terrestrial habitats, pulmonic or gill respiration, hibernation, and body elongation (in the caecilian). This article provides a review of amphibian cardiovascular anatomy and physiology with discussion of unique species adaptations. In addition, amphibians as cardiovascular animal models and commonly encountered natural diseases are covered.

  16. Patient Preferences for Receiving Remote Communication Support for Lifestyle Physical Activity Behaviour Change: The Perspective of Patients with Musculoskeletal Disorders from Three Hospital Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. McPhail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined patients’ preference ratings for receiving support via remote communication to increase their lifestyle physical activity. Methods. People with musculoskeletal disorders (n=221 of 296 eligible accessing one of three clinics provided preference ratings for “how much” they wanted to receive physical activity support via five potential communication modalities. The five ratings were generated on a horizontal analogue rating scale (0 represented “not at all”; 10 represented “very much”. Results. Most (n=155, 70% desired referral to a physical activity promoting intervention. “Print and post” communications had the highest median preference rating (7/10, followed by email and telephone (both 5/10, text messaging (1/10, and private Internet-based social network messages (0/10. Desire to be referred was associated with higher preference for printed materials (coefficient = 2.739, p<0.001, telephone calls (coefficient = 3.000, p<0.001, and email (coefficient = 2.059, p=0.02. Older age was associated with lower preference for email (coefficient = −0.100, p<0.001, texting (coefficient = −0.096, p<0.001, and social network messages (coefficient = −0.065, p<0.001. Conclusion. Patients desiring support to be physically active indicated preferences for interventions with communication via print, email, or telephone calls.

  17. How may consumer policy empower consumers for sustainable lifestyles?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    , if a consumer wants to buy organic food or environment-friendly detergents, limited distribution and premium pricing put restrictions on his or her opportunities for doing so. However, how severely these restrictions are felt depends on the individual consumer's financial and time resources and sometimes...... on other resources (e.g., knowl-edge) as well. Together with the person's level of motivation to do so, this subjective feeling of how difficult it is to make a change towards a more sustainable lifestyle deter-mine how hard the person will strive to do so. Consumer policy can empower consumers...... for changing lifestyles by reducing some of their individual constraints, but it should also attempt to loosen some of the external con-straints that make changes towards a more sustainable lifestyle difficult. In terms of re-ducing consumers' subjectively felt restrictions on their ability to change lifestyle...

  18. Lifestyle and Health Risk Behaviours among Elbasan Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dashuri Cela

    2014-09-01

    CONCLUSION: In students’ lifestyle exist serious problems and these data also provide inside into ways to shape a public health response. We need to change the way society views and treats these problems.

  19. Lower inter-partum interval and unhealthy life-style factors are inversely associated with n-3 essential fatty acids changes during pregnancy: a prospective cohort with Brazilian women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thatiana J P Pinto

    Full Text Available To analyze serum fatty acids concentrations during healthy pregnancy and evaluate whether socioeconomic, demographic, obstetric, nutritional, anthropometric and lifestyle factors are associated with their longitudinal changes.A prospective cohort of 225 pregnant women was followed in the 5th-13th, 20th-26th and 30th-36th weeks of gestation. Serum samples were collected in each trimester of pregnancy and analyzed to determine the fatty acids composition using a high-throughput robotic direct methylation method coupled with fast gas-liquid chromatography. The independent variables comprised the subjects' socioeconomic and demographic status, obstetric history, early pregnancy body mass index (BMI, dietary and lifestyle parameters. Analyses were performed using linear mixed-effects models.The overall absolute concentrations of fatty acids increased from the 1st to the 2nd trimester and slightly increased from the 2nd to the 3rd trimester. Early pregnancy BMI, inter-partum interval and weekly fish intake were the factors associated with changes in eicosapentaenoic + docosahexaenoic acids (EPA+DHA and total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. Early pregnancy BMI, age and monthly per-capita income were inversely associated with the changes in the n-6/n-3 ratio. Alcohol consumption was positively associated with the n-6/n-3 ratio.Early pregnancy BMI was positively associated with EPA+DHA and total n-3 PUFAs, while presenting a reduced weekly fish intake and a lower inter-partum interval were associated with lower levels of n-3 PUFAs. A lower per-capita family income and a drinking habit were factors that were positively associated with a higher n-6/n-3 ratio.

  20. A lifestyle program of exercise and weight loss is effective in preventing and treating type 2 diabetes mellitus: Why are programs not more available?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ades, Philip A

    2015-11-01

    There is substantial evidence that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can be prevented in high-risk individuals by a lifestyle program of regular exercise and weight reduction. Additionally, there is emerging evidence that new onset T2DM (exercise in a majority of motivated individuals, obviating a need for glucose lowering medications. Yet, lifestyle programs to support such behavior change are not widely available. Moreover, health care insurance companies generally do not provide coverage for behavioral weight loss programs to prevent or treat T2DM. Consequently, physicians caring for individuals with T2DM may find it much easier to start a chronic glucose lowering medication rather than attempting to motivate and support patients through long-term behavior change. The cardiac rehabilitation model of disease management, with a network of over 2000 programs in the U.S., is well suited to deliver medically-supervised lifestyle programs. National organizations such as the American Diabetes Association and the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation should support greater availability and use of lifestyle programs for T2DM treatment and prevention. PMID:25818810

  1. Lifestyle and the importance of health education in the cardiac rehabilitation after myocardial revascularization surgery - doi:10.5020/18061230.2007.p213

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Gonçaleves Moura Pinheiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the treatment of ischemic cardiopathy, the prevention has a main role and the modifications in the lifestyle are indispensable for the good prognosis of the disease. The goal of the study was to describe the lifestyle regarding the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, such as smoking, alcohol consumption, dietary habits and sedentary behaviors before myocardial revascularization surgery and during the period of cardiac rehabilitation in a private institution that did not comprise structured health education activities. This was a retrospective, observational study, with a qualitative approach, held with 50 patients submitted to cardiac rehabilitation (36 men and 14 women; age 61±12.74 years. The data were collected from clinical records of the pre-cardiac rehabilitation evaluation which consisted of clinical data and information referring to the patients’ lifestyle. Amongst the most prevalent co-morbidities in the sample, there were: the hypertension (n=24; 48%, the diabetes mellitus (n=18; 36% and dyslipidemias (n=17; 34%. A high rate of smoke cessation (100% and 58% of sedentary behaviors (n=29 was observed after the cardiac surgery. This same number (n=29; 58% referred to have adhered to changes in dietary habits after the myocardial acute infarct. There was also an increase in the prevalence of alcohol consumption (n=21; 42% after myocardial revascularization. We conclude with this research that a cardiac rehabilitation program should provide to their patients, health education actions, for a necessary and real change in lifestyle habits, with the presence of a multidisciplinary team.

  2. Fetal cardiovascular dysfunction in intrauterine growth restriction as a predictive marker of perinatal outcome and cardiovascular disease in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz Lemini, Mónica Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Most risk factors leading to cardiovascular disease are already present in childhood and the importance of early identification of pediatric cardiovascular risk factors is now well recognized. Hypertension in the child has been associated with substantial long-term health risks and considered an indication for lifestyle modifications. Current clinical guidelines contemplate screening for hypertension in children over 3 years of age, in order to provide strategies for promoting cardiovascular ...

  3. NHS health checks through general practice: randomised trial of population cardiovascular risk reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cochrane Thomas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The global burden of the major vascular diseases is projected to rise and to remain the dominant non-communicable disease cluster well into the twenty first century. The Department of Health in England has developed the NHS Health Check service as a policy initiative to reduce population vascular disease risk. The aims of this study were to monitor population changes in cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors over the first year of the new service and to assess the value of tailored lifestyle support, including motivational interview with ongoing support and referral to other services. Methods Randomised trial comparing NHS Health Check service only with NHS Health Check service plus additional lifestyle support in Stoke on Trent, England. Thirty eight general practices and 601 (365 usual care, 236 additional lifestyle support patients were recruited and randomised independently between September 2009 and February 2010. Changes in population CVD risk between baseline and one year follow-up were compared, using intention-to-treat analysis. The primary outcome was the Framingham 10 year CVD risk score. Secondary outcomes included individual modifiable risk measures and prevalence of individual risk categories. Additional lifestyle support included referral to a lifestyle coach and free sessions as needed for: weight management, physical activity, cook and eat and positive thinking. Results Average population CVD risk decreased from 32.9% to 29.4% (p Conclusions The NHS Health Check service in Stoke on Trent resulted in significant reduction in estimated population CVD risk. There was no evidence of further benefit of the additional lifestyle support services in terms of absolute CVD risk reduction.

  4. WHAT CAN WE EXPECT USING ACE INHIBITOR RAMIPRIL IN PERSONS WITH HIGH CARDIOVASCULAR RISK AND EARLY DISORDERS OF CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM? LESSONS OF DREAM TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Mamedov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary prevention of diabetes in persons with high cardiovascular risk is an actual problem. Results of DREAM trial are discussed. Influence of ACE inhibitor, ramipril, on risk of diabetes onset in patients with pre-diabetes and low cardiovascular risk is focused. Metabolic effects of other groups of antihypertensive drugs and their ability to prevent diabetes onset are compared. Ramipril three years therapy resulted in normalization in glucose level but did not have effect on frequency of diabetes onset. Change in life-style and regular usage of ACE inhibitor, ramipril, can contribute in normalization of glycemia level in patients with combination of pre-diabetes and arterial hypertension.

  5. Combined impact of lifestyle factors on prospective change in body weight and waist circumference in participants of the EPIC-PANACEA study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M May

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The evidence that individual dietary and lifestyle factors influence a person's weight and waist circumference is well established; however their combined impact is less well documented. Therefore, we investigated the combined effect of physical activity, nutrition and smoking status on prospective gain in body weight and waist circumference. METHODS: We used data of the prospective EPIC-PANACEA study. Between 1992 and 2000, 325,537 participants (94,445 men and 231,092 women, aged between 25-70 were recruited from nine European countries. Participants were categorised into two groups (positive or negative health behaviours for each of the following being physically active, adherent to a healthy (Mediterranean not including alcohol diet, and never-smoking for a total score ranging from zero to three. Anthropometric measures were taken at baseline and were mainly self-reported after a medium follow-up time of 5 years. RESULTS: Mixed-effects linear regression models adjusted for age, educational level, alcohol consumption, baseline body mass index and follow-up time showed that men and women who reported to be physically active, never-smoking and adherent to the Mediterranean diet gained over a 5-year period 537 (95% CI -706, -368 and 200 (-478, -87 gram less weight and 0.95 (-1.27, -0.639 and 0.99 (-1.29, -0.69 cm less waist circumference, respectively, compared to participants with zero healthy behaviours. CONCLUSION: The combination of positive health behaviours was associated with significantly lower weight and waist circumference gain.

  6. Parenting style, parent-youth conflict, and medication adherence in youth with type 2 diabetes participating in an intensive lifestyle change intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saletsky, Ronald D; Trief, Paula M; Anderson, Barbara J; Rosenbaum, Paula; Weinstock, Ruth S

    2014-06-01

    Parenting behaviors and family conflict relate to type 1 diabetes outcomes in youth. Our purpose was to understand these relationships in parents and youth with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The TODAY (Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth) trial enrolled youth (10-17 years) with T2DM and parent/guardian. For this ancillary study, we enrolled a sample of youth-parent pairs (N = 137) in 1 study arm (metformin plus lifestyle intervention). They completed questionnaires measuring parenting style related to normative (e.g., completing homework) and diabetes self-care (e.g., testing blood glucose) tasks, and parent-youth verbal conflict (baseline, 6, and 12 months). Parenting style was consistent across normative and diabetes tasks, with gradual increases in autonomy perceived by youth. Conversations were generally calm, with greater conflict regarding normative than diabetes tasks at baseline (youth: p parent: p = .01), 6 months (youth: p = .02, parent: p > .05), and 12 months (youth: p > .05., parent: p = .05). A permissive parenting style toward normative tasks and a less authoritarian style toward diabetes tasks, at baseline, predicted better medication adherence (8-12 months) (normative: adjusted R2 = 0.48, p Parent-youth conflict did not predict medication adherence. Youth with T2DM who perceive more autonomy (less parental control) in day-to-day and diabetes tasks are more likely to adhere to medication regimens. It may be valuable to assess youth perceptions of parenting style and help parents understand youths' needs for autonomy. PMID:24548045

  7. Parenting style, parent-youth conflict, and medication adherence in youth with type 2 diabetes participating in an intensive lifestyle change intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saletsky, Ronald D; Trief, Paula M; Anderson, Barbara J; Rosenbaum, Paula; Weinstock, Ruth S

    2014-06-01

    Parenting behaviors and family conflict relate to type 1 diabetes outcomes in youth. Our purpose was to understand these relationships in parents and youth with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The TODAY (Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth) trial enrolled youth (10-17 years) with T2DM and parent/guardian. For this ancillary study, we enrolled a sample of youth-parent pairs (N = 137) in 1 study arm (metformin plus lifestyle intervention). They completed questionnaires measuring parenting style related to normative (e.g., completing homework) and diabetes self-care (e.g., testing blood glucose) tasks, and parent-youth verbal conflict (baseline, 6, and 12 months). Parenting style was consistent across normative and diabetes tasks, with gradual increases in autonomy perceived by youth. Conversations were generally calm, with greater conflict regarding normative than diabetes tasks at baseline (youth: p parent: p = .01), 6 months (youth: p = .02, parent: p > .05), and 12 months (youth: p > .05., parent: p = .05). A permissive parenting style toward normative tasks and a less authoritarian style toward diabetes tasks, at baseline, predicted better medication adherence (8-12 months) (normative: adjusted R2 = 0.48, p Parent-youth conflict did not predict medication adherence. Youth with T2DM who perceive more autonomy (less parental control) in day-to-day and diabetes tasks are more likely to adhere to medication regimens. It may be valuable to assess youth perceptions of parenting style and help parents understand youths' needs for autonomy.

  8. Observation of the effect of therapeutic life-style change intervention in patients with dyslipidemia%治疗性生活方式改变对血脂异常患者的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘思彤; 武韬; 毛宏辉

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of therapeutic life-style change for patients with dyslipidemia. Methods Nintey patients with dyslipidemia, discovered in the physical examination, were divided into observational group and control group randomly. The treatment of therapeutic life-style change on the observational group were carried out, but not in the control group. Within 6 months follow-up, blood lipid levels were measured to check whether it reached the target level. Result Unbalanced diet, lack of exercise and overweight in the observational group were significantly improved after the intervention, and the level of TG, TC, LDL-C were significantly reduced (P <0.05) while the change of HDL-C had no statistical significant difference. Conclusion Therapeutic life-style change can significantly improve the diet of patients, help patients to establish a healthy lifestyle, and it is a simple, effective, low-risk measure for dyslipidemia.%目的 探讨治疗性生活方式改变在轻中度血脂异常人群中的作用.方法 将90例体检中发现血脂异常的患者随机分为观察组和对照组,每组45例.对观察组进行治疗性生活方式改变干预,对照组未进行干预,随访6个月,复查血脂.结果 干预后观察组不合理饮食、缺乏运动、超重情况与干预前比较有明显改善,干预前后膳食评价得分分别为4.86±0.93和2.88±0.84,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);干预后观察组与对照组膳食评价得分差异亦有统计学意义[(2.88±0.84) vs. (5.36±0.39),P<0.05].观察组干预后与干预前比较,甘油三酯[(1.65±1.01)mmol/Lvs.(2.32±1.49)mmol/L]、总胆固醇[(5.32±1.13)mmol/L vs.(6.09±0.87)mmol/L]、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇[(3.53±0.29) mmol/Lvs.(4.83±0.84) mmol/L]均显著降低(P均<0.05);高密度脂蛋白胆固醇[(1.46±0.17) mmol/Lvs.( 1.54±0.34)mmol/L]无显著变化(P>0.05).结论 治疗性生活方式改变能显著改善轻中度血脂异常患者的饮食结构,帮助患

  9. [Cardiovascular disease prevention and life style modifications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudet, M; Daugareil, C; Ferrieres, J

    2012-04-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are mainly caused by atherosclerosis, the development of which is highly dependent on our Western lifestyle. Slowing this pathology depends on the reduction of risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, high blood pressure, smoking, lack of physical activity, excess weight and diabetes. Drug treatment exists and is very effective, but too often they treat the immediate abnormality such as diabetes, high blood pressure and hypercholesterolemia and not the underlying causes: poor eating habits, lack of physical activity and excess weight. These have a negative impact on endothelial function, oxidative stress, and can trigger inflammation, arrythmias and thrombosis. Cardiovascular prevention must therefore target sedentary lifestyle, excess weight, and favor low-calorie, low-salt food and Mediterranean diet. The way this diet works begins to be understood and goes beyond simple cardiovascular prevention. Therapeutic education holds a growing and complementary role in the Public Health system which should call upon the strengths of all healthcare professionals.

  10. Alcohol exposure leads to unrecoverable cardiovascular defects along with edema and motor function changes in developing zebrafish larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu; Gao, Aiai; Wang, Yanan; Chen, Man; Peng, Jun; Yan, Huaying; Zhao, Xin; Feng, Xizeng

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy can cause a series of developmental disorders in the fetus called FAS (fetal alcohol syndrome). In the present study we exposed zebrafish embryos to 1% and 2% alcohol and observed the morphology of heart and blood vessels during and after exposure to investigate motor function alterations, and damage and recovery to the cardiovascular system. The results showed that alcohol exposure could induce heart deformation, slower heart rate, and incomplete blood vessels and pericardium. After stopping exposure, larvae exposed to 1% alcohol could recover only in heart morphology, but larvae in 2% alcohol could not recover either morphology or function of cardiovascular system. The edema-like characteristics in the 2% alcohol group became more conspicuous afterwards, with destruction in the dorsal aorta, coarctation in segmental arteries and a decrease in motor function, implying more serious unrecoverable cardiovascular defects in the 2% group. The damaged blood vessels in the 2% alcohol group resulted in an alteration in permeability and a decrease of blood volume, which were the causes of edema in pathology. These findings contribute towards a better understanding of ethanol-induced cardiovascular abnormalities and co-syndrome in patients with FAS, and warns against excessive maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. PMID:27422904

  11. The level of grammar school students’ knowledge on cardiovascular disease risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaraković Milana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cardiovascular diseases are one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The atherosclerotic process in the aorta starts in childhood, while atheroclerotic changes of coronary heart vessels start in adolescence. The aim of the study was to evaluate the knowledge of the students attending all four grades of grammar school about the risk factors for cardiovascular disease, with special attention to the risk factors that can be influenced by modification of life-style. Material and Methods. Data from the entrance and exit tests were collected from 197 students attending a grammar school in Novi Sad. Chi-square test and Student T-test or Mann-Whitney U test were used to examine the statistical difference between categorized variables and the continuous variables, respectively. Results. The difference between the number of correct answers for all the students on the entrance test and exit test was statistically significant (p<0.0005 and the overall knowledge level after lectures was increased by 29.4%. The lowest level of knowledge on the entrance tests was noted among the students of the third grade of grammar school and after the lectures, the student’s knowledge level was increased by 82.3% (p<0.0005. Conclusion. Children and adolescents from Vojvodina and Serbia should be well informed about the cardiovascular disease risk factors and their prevention with special attention paid to the risk factors that can be influenced by changing lifestyle habits.

  12. Utilizing Technology to Encourage Healthy Lifestyles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Shuster

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In our fast paced world, using technology allows us to connect with people and assist them in developing healthier lifestyles within their time limits due to families, work, and other responsibilities. The goal of our project was the development of online, technology-based, nutrition, health, and fitness education challenges using social media as a means of helping consumers develop healthy lifestyle changes. Participants completed preassessments and postassessments to determine overall program impact and to self-report perceptions of knowledge gained and practice/behavior change. Results from the challenges indicated participants gained knowledge on nutrition, health and fitness topics while making strides towards lifestyle changes and adoption of healthy habits. Results revealed healthier eating habits were developed and physical activity was increased with many participants losing weight. Ease of participating was the most reported reason for participating in the challenges. To determine “best practice,” varying lengths of time for the challenges from four, seven, and thirteen weeks allowed the educators to derive implications for future programming, including branding, length of the challenge, frequency, and participant behavior change. To remain relevant and reach a greater diversity of populations, educators need to continue to explore and utilize various social media tools.

  13. The Cardiovascular Changes Induced by Inspired Oxygen Fraction in Patients Undergoing on-pump Coronary Artery Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Safavi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increased inspired oxygen fractions (FiO2 have significant hemodynamic effects on consciousvolunteers. These changes may be of great importance in cardiac surgery. The inspiratory gas during open heartsurgery with on-pump technique usually consists of 100% oxygen without any N2O because the risks of bubbleembolism during these procedures. We sought to establish whether the cardiovascular effects of increased FiO2are also present in cardiac surgery patients.Patients and Methods: The present study was a randomized double- blind clinical trial on sixty adult patients(40-70 years with the cardiac ejection fraction (EF of more than 40% and ASA II or III undergoing elective onpumpcoronary artery bypass. They received either a mixture of 50% O2 with 50% air (case group=30 or 100%oxygen (control group=30 throughout the anesthesia. Cardiac index (CI was measured by non- invasive cardiacoutput (NICO technique using end tidal PCO2. Measurements of systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure aswell as heart rate (HR and central venous pressure (CVP, PaO2, arterial PH and CI were obtained at pre-bypass,post bypass, end of surgery and 2 hours after ICU admission. Intra- operative requirements for inotropic drugswere also evaluated. Data were analyzed by SPSS software using t-test and Q-square as well as non parametrictests wherever appropriate.Results: No differences were found between the two groups with regard to age, gender, pump time, operationtime and body mass index and preoperative EF. The mean values of systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressureas well as HR and CI were similar in the case and control groups (p>0.05 at all times of measurement. The meanPaO2 was significantly higher in the control group (p<0.05. The mean pH was statistically higher in the controlgroup but not clinically noticeable. The control group required more inotropic drug support than the case group(16 vs. 8 patients respectively; P < 0.05. Likewise, the mean CVP was

  14. Experiences of patients and healthcare professionals of NHS cardiovascular health checks: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, R.; Coghill, N.; Montgomery, A.; Feder, G.; Horwood, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background NHS Health Checks are a national cardiovascular risk assessment and management programme in England and Wales. We examined the experiences of patients attending and healthcare professionals (HCPs) conducting NHS Health Checks. Methods Interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 28 patients and 16 HCPs recruited from eight general practices across a range of socio-economic localities. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, anonymized and analysed thematically. Results Patients were motivated to attend an NHS Health Check because of health beliefs, the perceived value of the programme, a family history of cardiovascular and other diseases and expectations of receiving a general health assessment. Some patients reported benefits including reassurance and reinforcement of healthy lifestyles. Others experienced confusion and frustration about how results and advice were communicated, some having a poor understanding of the implications of their results. HCPs raised concerns about the skill set of some staff to competently communicate risk and lifestyle information. Conclusions To improve the satisfaction of patients attending and improve facilitation of lifestyle change, HCPs conducting the NHS Health Checks require sufficient training to equip them with appropriate skills and knowledge to deliver the service effectively. PMID:26408822

  15. Changes in lifestyle, biological risk factors and total homocysteine in relation to MTHFR C677T genotype: a 5-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husemoen, L L N; Linneberg, A; Fenger, M;

    2009-01-01

    , physical activity, smoking status, coffee, tea, total alcohol or wine consumption. An inverse relationship was observed between changes in tHcy and changes in the intake of beer in TT individuals but not in CC/CT individuals (P (interaction)=0.01). In addition, changes in tHcy were positively associated...... C677T genotype. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The study is a population-based study including 1805 men and women aged 30-60 years participating in a health examination at baseline (1999-2001) and at a 5-year follow-up examination. RESULTS: Changes in tHcy were not associated with changes in dietary habits...

  16. A Regenerative Antioxidant Protocol of Vitamin E and α-Lipoic Acid Ameliorates Cardiovascular and Metabolic Changes in Fructose-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatin Patel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes is a major cause of cardiovascular disease. We have determined whether the metabolic and cardiovascular changes induced by a diet high in fructose in young adult male Wistar rats could be prevented or reversed by chronic intervention with natural antioxidants. We administered a regenerative antioxidant protocol using two natural compounds: α-lipoic acid together with vitamin E (α-tocopherol alone or a tocotrienol-rich fraction, given as either a prevention or reversal protocol in the food. These rats developed glucose intolerance, hypertension, and increased collagen deposition in the heart together with an increased ventricular stiffness. Treatment with a fixed combination of vitamin E (either α-tocopherol or tocotrienol-rich fraction, 0.84 g/kg food and α-lipoic acid (1.6 g/kg food normalized glucose tolerance, blood pressure, cardiac collagen deposition, and ventricular stiffness in both prevention and reversal protocols in these fructose-fed rats. These results suggest that adequate antioxidant therapy can both prevent and reverse the metabolic and cardiovascular damage in type 2 diabetes.

  17. Effects of Lifestyle Modification on Telomerase Gene Expression in Hypertensive Patients: A Pilot Trial of Stress Reduction and Health Education Programs in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanthi Duraimani

    Full Text Available African Americans suffer from disproportionately high rates of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Psychosocial stress, lifestyle and telomere dysfunction contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. This study evaluated effects of stress reduction and lifestyle modification on blood pressure, telomerase gene expression and lifestyle factors in African Americans.Forty-eight African American men and women with stage I hypertension who participated in a larger randomized controlled trial volunteered for this substudy. These subjects participated in either stress reduction with the Transcendental Meditation technique and a basic health education course (SR or an extensive health education program (EHE for 16 weeks. Primary outcomes were telomerase gene expression (hTERT and hTR and clinic blood pressure. Secondary outcomes included lifestyle-related factors. Data were analyzed for within-group and between-group changes.Both groups showed increases in the two measures of telomerase gene expression, hTR mRNA levels (SR: p< 0.001; EHE: p< 0.001 and hTERT mRNA levels (SR: p = 0.055; EHE: p< 0.002. However, no statistically significant between-group changes were observed. Both groups showed reductions in systolic BP. Adjusted changes were SR = -5.7 mm Hg, p< 0.01; EHE = -9.0 mm Hg, p < 0.001 with no statistically significant difference between group difference. There was a significant reduction in diastolic BP in the EHE group (-5.3 mm Hg, p< 0.001 but not in SR (-1.2 mm Hg, p = 0.42; the between-group difference was significant (p = 0.04. The EHE group showed a greater number of changes in lifestyle behaviors.In this pilot trial, both stress reduction (Transcendental Meditation technique plus health education and extensive health education groups demonstrated increased telomerase gene expression and reduced BP. The association between increased telomerase gene expression and reduced BP observed in this high

  18. [Physical activity and cardiovascular health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temporelli, Pier Luigi

    2016-03-01

    It is well known that regular moderate physical activity, in the context of a healthy lifestyle, significantly reduces the likelihood of cardiovascular events, both in primary and secondary prevention. In addition, it is scientifically proven that exercise can reduce the incidence of diabetes, osteoporosis, depression, breast cancer and colon cancer. Despite this strong evidence, sedentary lifestyle remains a widespread habit in the western world. Even in Italy the adult population has a poor attitude to regular physical activity. It is therefore necessary, as continuously recommended by the World Health Organization, to motivate people to "move" since the transition from inactivity to regular light to moderate physical activity has a huge impact on health, resulting in significant savings of resources. We do not need to be athletes to exercise - it should be part of all our daily routines. PMID:27029874

  19. Investigation on Cardiovascular System Functional Changes of Railcar Drivers%轨道车司机心血管系统功能改变的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新纯; 何春华; 刘肖辉

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the effect of railcar driving on the cardiovascular system of drivers. [ Methods ] A total of 241 railcar drivers and 37 the new joined drivers were selected and examined for blood pressure and ECG. [ Results ] The cardiovascular system functional change of the new joined drivers was lower than the railcar drivers group. There was significant difference between the 2 groups in hypertension prevalence rate. (P <0.01). With the extending of service length, the abnormal rate of cardiovascular system increased; hypertension prevalence rate increased significanTLy with extending of service length ( P < 0.01 ). ECG abnormal rate, ST-T changes of new drivers were significantly lower than those of railcar drivers ( P < 0.05 ). [ Conclusion ] The railcar driving work has effect on the cardiovascular system of the railcar drivers to some extent. It is necessary to strength the occupational health surveillance of cardiovascular system of the railcar drivers to ensure the safety of transportation.%目的 探讨轨道车驾驶作业对轨道车司机心血管系统的影响.方法 选择241名轨道车司机和37名新加入人员进行血压测量和常规心电图检查.结果 新加入人员心血管系统功能改变低于轨道车司机组,其中高血压患病率差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);随着工龄增加,轨道车司机心血管系统功能异常检出率增加,其中高血压随着工龄增加,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);新加入人员心电图异常检出率低于轨道车司机组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);同时ST-T段改变发生率也低于轨道车司机组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 轨道车驾驶作业对驾驶人员的心血管系统功能有一定程度的影响,应加强对轨道车司机心血管系统的职业健康监护,以保证行车安全.

  20. A 10-year time-series analysis of respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity in Nicosia, Cyprus: the effect of short-term changes in air pollution and dust storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dockery Douglas W

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, a substantial body of research has shown adverse health effects of short-term changes in levels of air pollution. Such associations have not been investigated in smaller size cities in the Eastern Mediterranean. A particular feature in the region is dust blown from the Sahara a few times a year resulting in extreme PM10 concentrations. It is not entirely clear whether such natural phenomena pose the same risks. Methods The effect of changes in daily levels of particulate matter (PM10 and ozone (O3 on hospitalization for all, cardiovascular and respiratory causes in the two hospitals in Nicosia during 1 January 1995 and 30 December 2004 was investigated using generalized additive Poisson models after controlling for long- and short-term patterns as well as for the effect of weather. Meteorological records were reviewed to identify dust-storm days and analyses were repeated to quantify their effect on cardio-respiratory morbidity. Results For every 10 μg/m3 increase in daily average PM10 concentrations, there was a 0.9% (95%CI: 0.6%, 1.2% increase in all-cause and 1.2% (95%CI: -0.0%, 2.4% increase in cardiovascular admissions. With respect to respiratory causes, an effect was observed only in the warm months. No lagged effects with levels of PM10 were observed. In contrast, positive associations with levels of ozone were only observed the two days prior to admission. These appeared stronger for cardiovascular causes and independent of the effect of PM. All-cause and cardiovascular admissions were 4.8% (95%CI: 0.7%, 9.0% and 10.4% (95%CI: -4.7%, 27.9% higher on dust storm days respectively. In both cases the magnitude of effect was comparable to that seen on the quartile of non-storm days with the highest levels of PM10. Conclusion We observed an increased risk of hospitalization at elevated levels of particulate matter and ozone generally consistent with the magnitude seen across several European cities. We also

  1. Personalized Lifestyle Medicine: Relevance for Nutrition and Lifestyle Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna M. Minich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Public health recommendations for lifestyle modification, including diet and physical activity, have been widely disseminated for the prevention and treatment of disease. These guidelines are intended for the overall population without significant consideration for the individual with respect to one’s genes and environment. Personalized lifestyle medicine is a newly developed term that refers to an approach to medicine in which an individual’s health metrics from point-of-care diagnostics are used to develop lifestyle medicine-oriented therapeutic strategies for improving individual health outcomes in managing chronic disease. Examples of the application of personalized lifestyle medicine to patient care include the identification of genetic variants through laboratory tests and/or functional biomarkers for the purpose of designing patient-specific prescriptions for diet, exercise, stress, and environment. Personalized lifestyle medicine can provide solutions to chronic health problems by harnessing innovative and evolving technologies based on recent discoveries in genomics, epigenetics, systems biology, life and behavioral sciences, and diagnostics and clinical medicine. A comprehensive, personalized approach to medicine is required to promote the safety of therapeutics and reduce the cost of chronic disease. Personalized lifestyle medicine may provide a novel means of addressing a patient’s health by empowering them with information they need to regain control of their health.

  2. Understanding wellness center loyalty through lifestyle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Satya; Ravichandran, Swathi; P, Ganesan

    2011-01-01

    Many changes taking place at a macro-level in Indian society along with the popularity of services that are native to India, such as Yoga and Ayurveda, have generated significant interest in wellness services. To assist wellness centers in gaining loyal clients, the goal of this study was to understand the influence of customer lifestyle factors on wellness center loyalty. The activities, interests, and opinions model was used to understand the lifestyles of wellness center clients. Data were collected from clients of five wellness centers. Regression results indicate that overworked individuals and those seeking a balance between work and family life would be the most loyal to wellness centers. Managerial implications of results are discussed. PMID:21347940

  3. Longitudinal associations between lifestyle and vitamin D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Thuesen, Betina Heinsbæk;

    2016-01-01

    Several lifestyle factors have been found to be associated with vitamin D status in cross-sectional studies, but it is not clear whether a change in these factors can actually affect the vitamin D level. We investigated the association between repeated measurements of physical activity, body mass...... index (BMI), diet, alcohol consumption, and smoking habits, and corresponding levels of vitamin D during 5 years of follow-up of a large general population sample. We included 4185 persons who participated and had vitamin D (serum-25-hydroxyvitamin D, 25-OH-D) measurements in the Inter99 study...... at baseline (1999-2001) and 5-year follow-up. In a subsample, 25-OH-D was also measured at 1- and 3-year follow-ups. We used mixed models to examine the association between repeated measurements of lifestyle factors and 25-OH-D levels. In multivariable analyses of repeated measurements, the difference in 25...

  4. Maintain a Heart Healthy Lifestyle

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... her lifestyle--to quit smoking, control their high blood pressure and cholesterol, control their weight and get ... our exercise class each week, they take our blood pressure and our weight. It's fun because now ...

  5. Maintain a Heart Healthy Lifestyle

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... her lifestyle--to quit smoking, control their high blood pressure and cholesterol, control their weight and get regular ... our exercise class each week, they take our blood pressure and our weight. It's fun because now due ...

  6. An Exploratory Analysis of Dynamic Change of Metabolic Syndrome in Relation to the Risk of Developing Cardiovascular Disease in a Chinese Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Yang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metabolic syndrome (MS is the syndrome closely related to cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors. Few prospective studies have compared the impact of dynamic changes of MS on the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD.Methods: Overall, 3461 subjects were recruited from a cohort study on Prevention of Multiple Metabolic disorders and MS in Jiangsu of China (PMMJS with a follow up of 3.8 years. The associations between the dynamic changes (Difference, the value at first follow-up subtract the value at baseline of MS, component numbers, components and relative risk (RR of CVD were analyzed by using Cox regression model.Results: The total incidence standardized rate of CVD was 2.58%,and the incidence standardized rates of CVD in MS-/follow-up MS-,baseline MS-/follow-up MS+, baseline MS+/follow-up MS- and baseline MS+/follow-up groups were 2.05%,5.01%,1.65% and 4.39% separately. After adjustment confounding factors Difference in FPG, BP and TG have significantly effects on the incidence of CVD.Conclusion: Difference of MS component numbers had the prediction ability of CVD, but MS groups based on baseline and first follow-up MS and/or non-MS had not. In Chinese, the dynamic change of MS component numbers was a useful predict factor for CVD.

  7. Interrupting the natural history of diabetes mellitus: lifestyle, pharmacological and surgical strategies targeting disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavandi, Kaivan; Brownrigg, Jack; Hankir, Mohammed; Sood, Harpreet; Younis, Naveed; Worth, Joy; Greenstein, Adam; Soran, Handrean; Wierzbicki, Anthony; Goldsmith, David J

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades we have seen a surge in the incidence of diabetes in industrialized nations; a threat which has now extended to the developing world. Type 2 diabetes is associated with significant microvascular and macrovascular disease, with considerable impact on morbidity and mortality. Recent evidence has cast uncertainty on the benefits of very tight glycaemic goals in these individuals. The natural history of disease follows an insidious course from disordered glucose metabolism in a pre-diabetic state, often with metabolic syndrome and obesity, before proceeding to diabetes mellitus. In the research setting, lifestyle, pharmacological and surgical intervention targeted against obesity and glycaemia has shown that metabolic disturbances can be halted and indeed regressed if introduced at an early stage of disease. In addition to traditional anti-diabetic medications such as the glinides, sulphonylureas and the glitazones, novel therapies manipulating the endocannabinoid system, neurotransmitters, intestinal absorption and gut hormones have shown dual benefit in weight loss and glycaemic control normalisation. Whilst these treatments will not and should not replace lifestyle change, they will act as invaluable adjuncts for weight loss and aid in normalising the metabolic profile of individuals at risk of diabetes. Utilizing novel therapies to prevent diabetes should be the focus of future research, with the aim of preventing the challenging microvascular and macrovascular complications, and ultimately cardiovascular death.

  8. Life-Style und Hypertonie - Hypertonie und Life-Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoschitzky K

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Unser Life-Style (unser "Lebensstil", unsere "Lebensweise" steht in enger Beziehung zu unserem arteriellen Blutdruck und kann in dreifacher Weise in Verbindung mit einem arteriellen Hypertonus treten: 1. "Schlechter" Life-Style kann arteriellen Hypertonus auslösen oder zumindest fördern. 2. Arterieller Hypertonus kann durch "guten" Life-Style gesenkt bis gänzlich beseitigt werden. 3. Bekannte Folgen des arteriellen Hypertonus (wie Insult, Herzinsuffizienz, Myokardinfarkt, Niereninsuffizenz, paVK, Retinopathie, Aortendissektion, Demenz, usw. können den Patienten letztlich dazu zwingen, seinen Life-Style ganz wesentlich zu ändern - dann allerdings unabhängig davon, ob er "will" oder nicht. Wichtigstes Ziel medizinischen Handelns ist daher vor allem das Vorbeugen der unter Punkt 3 genannten, häufig irreversiblen Folgen des arteriellen Hypertonus. Besser sollte dies jedoch bereits als "Primärprävention" beginnen, indem man durch Verhinderung eines "schlechten" Life-Style einem arteriellen Hypertonus bereits vor seinem Entstehen vorbeugt. Spätestens bei bereits bestehendem arteriellem Hypertonus sollte jedoch eine "Verbesserung" des Life-Styles als ein sehr taugliches Mittel zur Senkung des Blutdrucks bei möglichst jedem Patienten "eingesetzt" werden. Wichtigste Elemente von Life-Style in Verbindung mit arteriellem Hypertonus sind dabei vor allem Adipositas, Bewegungsarmut, Rauchen, Stress, vermehrte Kochsalz-Zufuhr, Alkohol und Koffein. Sie sind sowohl auf der "ursächlichen" als auch auf der "therapeutischen" Seite des arteriellen Hypertonus zu finden und in Form von entsprechender "Umkehr" erfolgversprechend einsetzbar.

  9. Mobile Health Devices as Tools for Worldwide Cardiovascular Risk Reduction and Disease Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piette, John D; List, Justin; Rana, Gurpreet K; Townsend, Whitney; Striplin, Dana; Heisler, Michele

    2015-11-24

    We examined evidence on whether mobile health (mHealth) tools, including interactive voice response calls, short message service, or text messaging, and smartphones, can improve lifestyle behaviors and management related to cardiovascular diseases throughout the world. We conducted a state-of-the-art review and literature synthesis of peer-reviewed and gray literature published since 2004. The review prioritized randomized trials and studies focused on cardiovascular diseases and risk factors, but included other reports when they represented the best available evidence. The search emphasized reports on the potential benefits of mHealth interventions implemented in low- and middle-income countries. Interactive voice response and short message service interventions can improve cardiovascular preventive care in developed countries by addressing risk factors including weight, smoking, and physical activity. Interactive voice response and short message service-based interventions for cardiovascular disease management also have shown benefits with respect to hypertension management, hospital readmissions, and diabetic glycemic control. Multimodal interventions including Web-based communication with clinicians and mHealth-enabled clinical monitoring with feedback also have shown benefits. The evidence regarding the potential benefits of interventions using smartphones and social media is still developing. Studies of mHealth interventions have been conducted in >30 low- and middle-income countries, and evidence to date suggests that programs are feasible and may improve medication adherence and disease outcomes. Emerging evidence suggests that mHealth interventions may improve cardiovascular-related lifestyle behaviors and disease management. Next-generation mHealth programs developed worldwide should be based on evidence-based behavioral theories and incorporate advances in artificial intelligence for adapting systems automatically to patients' unique and changing needs

  10. Mobile Health Devices as Tools for Worldwide Cardiovascular Risk Reduction and Disease Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piette, John D; List, Justin; Rana, Gurpreet K; Townsend, Whitney; Striplin, Dana; Heisler, Michele

    2015-11-24

    We examined evidence on whether mobile health (mHealth) tools, including interactive voice response calls, short message service, or text messaging, and smartphones, can improve lifestyle behaviors and management related to cardiovascular diseases throughout the world. We conducted a state-of-the-art review and literature synthesis of peer-reviewed and gray literature published since 2004. The review prioritized randomized trials and studies focused on cardiovascular diseases and risk factors, but included other reports when they represented the best available evidence. The search emphasized reports on the potential benefits of mHealth interventions implemented in low- and middle-income countries. Interactive voice response and short message service interventions can improve cardiovascular preventive care in developed countries by addressing risk factors including weight, smoking, and physical activity. Interactive voice response and short message service-based interventions for cardiovascular disease management also have shown benefits with respect to hypertension management, hospital readmissions, and diabetic glycemic control. Multimodal interventions including Web-based communication with clinicians and mHealth-enabled clinical monitoring with feedback also have shown benefits. The evidence regarding the potential benefits of interventions using smartphones and social media is still developing. Studies of mHealth interventions have been conducted in >30 low- and middle-income countries, and evidence to date suggests that programs are feasible and may improve medication adherence and disease outcomes. Emerging evidence suggests that mHealth interventions may improve cardiovascular-related lifestyle behaviors and disease management. Next-generation mHealth programs developed worldwide should be based on evidence-based behavioral theories and incorporate advances in artificial intelligence for adapting systems automatically to patients' unique and changing needs.

  11. Changes in cholesterol homeostasis and acute phase response link pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes to risk of cardiovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, Sarah S., E-mail: spo@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Department of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Saber, Anne T., E-mail: ats@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Mortensen, Alicja, E-mail: almo@food.dtu.dk [National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Søborg (Denmark); Szarek, Józef, E-mail: szarek@uwm.edu.pl [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, 10-719 Olsztyn (Poland); Wu, Dongmei, E-mail: dongmei.wu@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); Williams, Andrew, E-mail: andrew.williams@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); Andersen, Ole, E-mail: oa@ruc.dk [Department of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Jacobsen, Nicklas R., E-mail: nrj@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Yauk, Carole L., E-mail: carole.yauk@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); Wallin, Håkan, E-mail: hwa@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, DK-1014 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Halappanavar, Sabina, E-mail: sabina.halappanavar@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); Vogel, Ulla, E-mail: ubv@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-03-15

    Adverse lung effects following pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are well documented in rodents. However, systemic effects are less understood. Epidemiological studies have shown increased cardiovascular disease risk after pulmonary exposure to airborne particles, which has led to concerns that inhalation exposure to MWCNTs might pose similar risks. We analyzed parameters related to cardiovascular disease, including plasma acute phase response (APR) proteins and plasma lipids, in female C57BL/6 mice exposed to a single intratracheal instillation of 0, 18, 54 or 162 μg/mouse of small, entangled (CNT{sub Small}, 0.8 ± 0.1 μm long) or large, thick MWCNTs (CNT{sub Large}, 4 ± 0.4 μm long). Liver tissues and plasma were harvested 1, 3 and 28 days post-exposure. In addition, global hepatic gene expression, hepatic cholesterol content and liver histology were used to assess hepatic effects. The two MWCNTs induced similar systemic responses despite their different physicochemical properties. APR proteins SAA3 and haptoglobin, plasma total cholesterol and low-density/very low-density lipoprotein were significantly increased following exposure to either MWCNTs. Plasma SAA3 levels correlated strongly with pulmonary Saa3 levels. Analysis of global gene expression revealed perturbation of the same biological processes and pathways in liver, including the HMG-CoA reductase pathway. Both MWCNTs induced similar histological hepatic changes, with a tendency towards greater response following CNT{sub Large} exposure. Overall, we show that pulmonary exposure to two different MWCNTs induces similar systemic and hepatic responses, including changes in plasma APR, lipid composition, hepatic gene expression and liver morphology. The results link pulmonary exposure to MWCNTs with risk of cardiovascular disease. - Highlights: • Systemic and hepatic alterations were evaluated in female mice following MWCNT instillation. • Despite being physicochemically

  12. Changes in cholesterol homeostasis and acute phase response link pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes to risk of cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adverse lung effects following pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are well documented in rodents. However, systemic effects are less understood. Epidemiological studies have shown increased cardiovascular disease risk after pulmonary exposure to airborne particles, which has led to concerns that inhalation exposure to MWCNTs might pose similar risks. We analyzed parameters related to cardiovascular disease, including plasma acute phase response (APR) proteins and plasma lipids, in female C57BL/6 mice exposed to a single intratracheal instillation of 0, 18, 54 or 162 μg/mouse of small, entangled (CNTSmall, 0.8 ± 0.1 μm long) or large, thick MWCNTs (CNTLarge, 4 ± 0.4 μm long). Liver tissues and plasma were harvested 1, 3 and 28 days post-exposure. In addition, global hepatic gene expression, hepatic cholesterol content and liver histology were used to assess hepatic effects. The two MWCNTs induced similar systemic responses despite their different physicochemical properties. APR proteins SAA3 and haptoglobin, plasma total cholesterol and low-density/very low-density lipoprotein were significantly increased following exposure to either MWCNTs. Plasma SAA3 levels correlated strongly with pulmonary Saa3 levels. Analysis of global gene expression revealed perturbation of the same biological processes and pathways in liver, including the HMG-CoA reductase pathway. Both MWCNTs induced similar histological hepatic changes, with a tendency towards greater response following CNTLarge exposure. Overall, we show that pulmonary exposure to two different MWCNTs induces similar systemic and hepatic responses, including changes in plasma APR, lipid composition, hepatic gene expression and liver morphology. The results link pulmonary exposure to MWCNTs with risk of cardiovascular disease. - Highlights: • Systemic and hepatic alterations were evaluated in female mice following MWCNT instillation. • Despite being physicochemically different, the two

  13. Do high risk patients alter their lifestyle to reduce risk of colorectal cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Tarr, Gregory P; Crowley, Andrew; John, Rhys; Kok, Jonathan B; Lee, Ho-Nam L; Mustafa, Hasif; Sii, Kia M; Smith, Rebecca; Son, Sung-Eun Q; Weaver, Lauren J; Cameron, Claire; Dockerty, John D.; Schultz, Michael; Murray, Iain A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) may be reduced by healthy lifestyle behaviours. We determined the extent of self-reported lifestyle changes in people at increased risk of CRC, and the association of these reports with anxiety, risk and knowledge-based variables. Methods We randomly selected 250 participants who had undergone surveillance colonoscopy for family history of CRC. A telephone interview was conducted, recording demographics and family history. Self-reported lifestyle change due ...

  14. Cardiovascular Prevention of Cognitive Decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Jacques Monsuez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Midlife cardiovascular risk factors, including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipemia, and an unhealthy lifestyle, have been linked to subsequent incidence, delay of onset, and progression rate of Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia. Conversely, optimal treatment of cardiovascular risk factors prevents and slows down age-related cognitive disorders. The impact of antihypertensive therapy on cognitive outcome in patients with hypertension was assessed in large trials which demonstrated a reduction in progression of MRI white matter hyperintensities, in cognitive decline and in incidence of dementia. Large-scale database correlated statin use and reduction in the incidence of dementia, mainly in patients with documented atherosclerosis, but clinical trials failed to reach similar conclusions. Whether a multitargeted intervention would substantially improve protection, quality of life, and reduce medical cost expenditures in patients with lower risk profile has not been ascertained. This would require appropriately designed trials targeting large populations and focusing on cognitive decline as a primary outcome endpoint.

  15. Evidence for severe atherosclerotic changes in chronic hemodialysis patients: comparative autopsy study against cardiovascular disease patients without chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Chigure; Nakamura, Satoko; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Yoshihara, Fumiki; Kawano, Yuhei

    2011-02-01

    Atherosclerosis is a major cause of mortality and morbidity among hemodialysis patients, but whether it is more severe in hemodialysis patients than in cardiovascular disease patients without chronic kidney disease is unclear. We examined 46 autopsy patients who had undergone hemodialysis, and age and sex-matched 46 patients with cardiovascular disease and an eGFR of >60 mL/min/1.73 m(2). There was no difference in the prevalence of diabetes or hypertension between the groups. We divided the aorta into four segments: A, ascending artery to arch; B, descending artery to diaphragm; C, suprarenal; and D, infrarenal. We used the classification of the American Heart Association to evaluate atherosclerosis progression. Distribution was scored by the extent to which each segment was damaged: 0, none; 1, less than 1/3; 2, more than 1/3 to less than 2/3; 3, more than 2/3. Histological examination revealed that the progression score (P 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Aortic atherosclerosis was aggravated by traditional and chronic kidney disease-related risk factors.

  16. Participants’ perspectives on making and maintaining behavioural changes in a lifestyle intervention for type 2 diabetes prevention: a qualitative study using the theory domain framework

    OpenAIRE

    Penn, Linda; Dombrowski, Stephan U; Sniehotta, Falko F.; White, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Objectives In a qualitative substudy, we sought to elicit participants’ perspectives of their behavioural change and maintenance of new behaviours towards intervention optimisation. Setting The intervention was delivered in leisure and community settings in a local authority, which according to the UK government statistics ranks as 1 of the 10 most socioeconomically deprived areas in England. Participants We recruited 218 adults aged 40–65 years at elevated risk of type 2 diabetes (Finnish Di...

  17. Musculoskeletal architecture of the prey capture apparatus in salamandrid newts with multiphasic lifestyle: does anatomy change during the seasonal habitat switches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiss, Egon; Handschuh, Stephan; Aerts, Peter; Van Wassenbergh, Sam

    2016-05-01

    Some newt species change seasonally between an aquatic and a terrestrial life as adults, and are therefore repeatedly faced with different physical circumstances that affect a wide range of functions of the organism. For example, it has been observed that seasonally habitat-changing newts display notable changes in skin texture and tail fin anatomy, allowing one to distinguish an aquatic and a terrestrial morphotype. One of the main functional challenges is the switch between efficient aquatic and terrestrial prey capture modes. Recent studies have shown that newts adapt quickly by showing a high degree of behavioral flexibility, using suction feeding in their aquatic stage and tongue prehension in their terrestrial stage. As suction feeding and tongue prehension place different functional demands on the prey capture apparatus, this behavioral flexibility may clearly benefit from an associated morphological plasticity. In this study, we provide a detailed morphological analysis of the musculoskeletal system of the prey capture apparatus in the two multiphasic newt species Ichthyosaura alpestris and Lissotriton vulgaris by using histological sections and micro-computed tomography. We then test for quantitative changes of the hyobranchial musculoskeletal system between aquatic and terrestrial morphotypes, The descriptive morphology of the cranio-cervical musculoskeletal system provides new insights on form and function of the prey capture apparatus in newts, and the quantitative approach shows hypertrophy of the hyolingual musculoskeletal system in the terrestrial morphotype of L. vulgaris but hypertrophy in the aquatic morphotype of I. alpestris. It was therefore concluded that the seasonal habitat shifts are accompanied by a species-dependent muscular plasticity of which the potential effect on multiphasic feeding performance in newts remains unclear. PMID:26892189

  18. Cardiovascular Risk Factors - Clinical and Epidemiologic profiles in the subjects of the "Atividade Física na Vila" Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Simon

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The group of atherothrombotic cardiovascular diseases represents one of the leading causes of death around the world. Atherosclerosis is a condition of multifactorial origin, with great genetic and familiar dependence, besides being characterized by an elevated aggravation trend related to lifestyle. Our objective was to describe the prevalence of cardiovascular risk (CVR factors and Metabolic Syndrome (MS, as well as to estimate the cardiovascular risk in the subjects of the "Atividade Física na Vila" Project. By means of a cross sectional study, 48 patients aged between 23 and 74 (41 women and 7 men were screened for the presence of sedentary lifestyle, smoking, family antecedents of Diabetes mellitus type 22 (DM or Coronary artery disease, obesity, abdominal obesity, High Blood Pressure (HBP, DM2, Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG, Lipid abnormalities, and MS. This prevalence was compared to the available general population data. The MS definition was that of the NCEP. The CVR was estimated using the Framingham Score (FS, and compared among the groups with and without MS. 67% of the patients were 50 or older and 46% were 55 or older. There was a high prevalence of CVR factors compared to the population data, specially in the case of sedentary lifestyle (52% x 56%, NS, obesity (men 14% x 9%, NS; women 39% x 13%, P<0.05, HBP (56% x 32%, P<0.05, high total cholesterol (63% x 40%, P<0.05. The prevalence of DM2, IFG, abdominal obesity and MS was 10%, 21%, 60% and 27%, respectively. The mean FS was 5,2 ± 5,5, significantly higher in the patients with MS (9,5 ± 3,1 x 3,5 ± 5,4 p<0.05. These data indicate the high prevalence of CVR factors, and suggest its synergy in elevating the global CVR represented by the FS, as well as strongly support the need for changes in the lifestyle of these patients.

  19. Healthy Satiety Effects of Paleolithic diet on Satiety and Risk factors for Cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jönsson, Tommy

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) exhibits considerable variation across agrarian societies, whereas they are virtually absent in non-agrarian societies such as hunter-gatherer and horticultural societies. When looking for lifestyle factors which could promote CVD, it therefore seems logical to focus on the agrarian lifestyle and ways in which it departs from a non-agrarian lifestyle. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the effect of a hunter-gatherer diet (also called Paleol...

  20. Efficacy of Dietary Behavior Modification for Preserving Cardiovascular Health and Longevity

    OpenAIRE

    Moira McAllister Pryde; William Bernard Kannel

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its predisposing risk factors are major lifestyle and behavioral determinants of longevity. Dietary lifestyle choices such as a heart healthy diet, regular exercise, a lean weight, moderate alcohol consumption, and smoking cessation have been shown to substantially reduce CVD and increase longevity. Recent research has shown that men and women who adhere to this lifestyle can substantially reduce their risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). The preventive bene...

  1. Changes in antioxidant status and cardiovascular risk factors of overweight young men after six weeks supplementation of whey protein isolate and resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikholeslami Vatani, Dariush; Ahmadi Kani Golzar, Farhad

    2012-12-01

    The study's purpose was to examine the effects of whey protein supplementation and resistance training on antioxidant status and cardiovascular risk factors in overweight young men. Thirty healthy male subjects (age, 23.4±3.6years; body mass index, 25-30kg/m(2)) were randomly divided into three groups of 10 persons including; Experimental group 1: resistance training+whey supplement (RW); Experimental group 2: resistance training+placebo (RP), and Control group (C). Subjects in intervention groups underwent 3 resistance training sessions per week, each session with 60-70% 1RM, for 6weeks. No significant changes in fibrinogen level, fasting blood glucose, resting systolic and diastolic blood pressures, waist to hip ratio (WHR), and body mass index were observed in any of the groups. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), cholesterol and HDL varied significantly in the RW group compared with the pre-test. We found significant changes in both RW and RP groups for glutathione, vitamin C, LDL, and triglyceride levels. In addition, in the post-test, TAC, glutathione, and HDL levels were higher in the RW in comparison to C group. Research findings showed that although exercise can lead to antioxidant system improvement and reduce some cardiovascular risk factors among overweight subjects, the combination of resistance training and whey consumption is more effective. PMID:22889987

  2. Healthy Lifestyle of Czech University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Marholdová, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    The thesis deals with the healthy lifestyle of Czech university students. The main objectives are to map the healthy lifestyle of Czech university students, especially to find out whether they follow the principles of healthy lifestyle, to find out their knowledge concerning this issue, to find out if there are any obstacles to follow the healthy lifestyle and to find out whether they know any projects supporting health and healthy lifestyle. In the theoretical part of the thesis the basic te...

  3. Pharmacogenomics and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weeke, Peter; Roden, Dan M

    2013-01-01

    Variability in drug responsiveness is a sine qua non of modern therapeutics, and the contribution of genomic variation is increasingly recognized. Investigating the genomic basis for variable responses to cardiovascular therapies has been a model for pharmacogenomics in general and has established...... resulted in changes to the product labels but also have led to development of initial clinical guidelines that consider how to facilitate incorporating genetic information to the bedside. This review summarizes the state of knowledge in cardiovascular pharmacogenomics and considers how variants described...

  4. Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    2008-01-01

    and electrophysiological abnormalities, an entity that is different from alcoholic heart muscle disease. Being clinically latent, cirrhotic cardiomyopathy can be unmasked by physical or pharmacological strain. Consequently, caution should be exercised in the case of stressful procedures, such as large volume paracentesis......Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis include cardiac dysfunction and abnormalities in the central, splanchnic and peripheral circulation, and haemodynamic changes caused by humoral and nervous dysregulation. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy implies systolic and diastolic dysfunction....... The clinical significance of cardiovascular complications and cirrhotic cardiomyopathy is an important topic for future research, and the initiation of new randomised studies of potential treatments for these complications is needed.  ...

  5. Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    2008-01-01

    and electrophysiological abnormalities, an entity that is different from alcoholic heart muscle disease. Being clinically latent, cirrhotic cardiomyopathy can be unmasked by physical or pharmacological strain. Consequently, caution should be exercised in the case of stressful procedures, such as large volume paracentesis......Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis include cardiac dysfunction and abnormalities in the central, splanchnic and peripheral circulation, and haemodynamic changes caused by humoral and nervous dysregulation. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy implies systolic and diastolic dysfunction....... The clinical significance of cardiovascular complications and cirrhotic cardiomyopathy is an important topic for future research, and the initiation of new randomised studies of potential treatments for these complications is needed....

  6. Effects of lifestyle interventions on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussell, Michael A; Kris-Etherton, Penny

    2007-03-01

    This review summarizes intervention studies that evaluated the effects of lifestyle behaviors on high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Current diet and lifestyle recommendations beneficially affect HDL-C. Individual lifestyle interventions that increase HDL-C include: a healthful diet that is low (7-10% of calories) in saturated fat and sufficient in unsaturated fat (15-20% of calories), regular physical activity, attaining a healthy weight, with moderate alcohol consumption, and cessation of cigarette smoking. Combining a healthy diet with weight loss and physical activity can increase HDL-C 10% to 13%. When combined with interventions that beneficially affect other cardiovascular disease risk factors, this increase in HDL-C is expected to contribute to a overall reduction in cardiovascular disease risk.

  7. Update on Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Light of Recent Evidence: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association and the American Diabetes Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Caroline S; Golden, Sherita Hill; Anderson, Cheryl; Bray, George A; Burke, Lora E; de Boer, Ian H; Deedwania, Prakash; Eckel, Robert H; Ershow, Abby G; Fradkin, Judith; Inzucchi, Silvio E; Kosiborod, Mikhail; Nelson, Robert G; Patel, Mahesh J; Pignone, Michael; Quinn, Laurie; Schauer, Philip R; Selvin, Elizabeth; Vafiadis, Dorothea K

    2015-08-25

    Cardiovascular disease risk factor control as primary prevention in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus has changed substantially in the past few years. The purpose of this scientific statement is to review the current literature and key clinical trials pertaining to blood pressure and blood glucose control, cholesterol management, aspirin therapy, and lifestyle modification. We present a synthesis of the recent literature, new guidelines, and clinical targets, including screening for kidney and subclinical cardiovascular disease for the contemporary management of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  8. Functional ingredients——Change your lifestyle, improve your life quality%功能配料——改变生活方式,提升生活质量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘峰

    2011-01-01

    人们生活方式的改变,生活质量的提高都源自健康的饮食,通过"大众食品功能化、功能食品大众化",寓医于食,寓食于健,达到提高人类健康的目的.功能食品的基础是功能配料,功能配料已成为功能食品的"核心"和不竭动力.本文通过市场研究简要介绍具有肠道健康、体重控制、口腔健康、免疫调节等功效的功能配料的应用及发展带给人类的健康新动向.%The change of lifestyle and Improvement of life quality are both derived from healthy diet. Through focusing on "Add functional factors to popular food, let functional food be popular", combining treatment with diet and bringing health to diet to achieve the purpose of improving human health. As basement of functional food, functional ingredients have already become the core and inexhaustible drive force of functional food. This article, resourced from market research, mainly describes the application of the functional ingredients with different function such like intestine health,weight management, oral health and immune regulation etc. and human health new trend activated by these ingredients' development.

  9. Urban lifestyle and urban biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, L. K.; Lyytimäki, J.; Normander, B.;

    2007-01-01

    This report is concerned with the relations between lifestyles of urban populations on one hand and protection of biodiversity in urban areas on the other. Urban areas are of importance for the general protection of biodiversity. In the surroundings of cities and within urban sprawls there can...... biodiversity, recreational, educational and other needs. However, uncovered and unsealed space is constantly under pressure for building and infrastructure development in the urban landscape, and the design and usages of urban green structure is a matter of differing interests and expectations. Integrating...... the green needs of urban lifestyle in the planning process does not come by itself. Nor does finding the synergies between urban lifestyle and urban biodiversity. Careful planning including stakeholder involvement is required. In this process various mapping techniques and use of indicators can be most...

  10. Chinese Women's Lifestyle Changes in the Era of Big Data%大数据时代下中国女性生活方式的变革

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董艾辉; 吴广莉; 吴杨梅

    2016-01-01

    大数据时代下中国女性一方面将率先完成由消费者到消费商的革命,休闲方式正在由传统扁平走向现代立体的自由选择,社会交往范围由熟人圈走向了地球村,同时诱发了中国女性无限的工作潜能;另一方面,受快餐文化思维惰性的影响容易演变成单向度的女人,面对面交流的缺失可能导致人际关系的异化,个人信息的泄露成为中国女性安全的一大隐患,精准的广告投放引诱女性非理性消费情况增多。%On the one hand,Chinese women will be the first to complete the revolution from the consumer to the pro-sumer at the age of big data;their traditional leisure styles have been changed into more diverse with plenty alterna-tives,and social contacts have been expanded from the circle of acquaintances to the global village.At the same time, the age of big date also inspired Chinese women's unlimited work potential.On the other hand,at the age of big data, Chinese women are easy to become one-dimension women under the influence of fast food culture;lacking face to face communication may lead to the alienation of interpersonal relationships;personal information leakage becomes a major risk of Chinese women's security;women-targeted advertisements have increased women's irrational consump-tion.

  11. Environmental & lifestyle factors in deterioration of male reproductive health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Male reproductive function in the general population has been receiving attention in recent years due to reports of various reproductive and developmental defects, which might be associated with various lifestyle and environmental factors. This study was carried out to determine the role of various lifestyle and environmental factors in male reproduction and their possible association with declining semen quality, increased oxidative stress as well as sperm DNA damage. Methods: Semen samples were obtained from 240 male partners of the couples consulting for infertility problem. Semen analysis was carried out using WHO criteria and subjects were categorized on the basis of self reported history of lifestyle as well as environmental exposure. The oxidative and antioxidant markers; lipid peroxidation (LPO, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT as well as DNA damage by acridine orange test (AO were determined. Results: The presence of abnormal semen parameters was significantly higher among the lifestyle and/or environmental exposed subjects as compared to the non-exposed population. Further, the levels of antioxidants were reduced and sperm DNA damage was more among the lifestyle and/or environmental exposed subjects, though the changes were not significant. Interpretation & conclusions: These findings indicated that various lifestyle factors such as tobacco smoking, chewing and alcohol use as well as exposure to toxic agents might be attributed to the risk of declining semen quality and increase in oxidative stress and sperm DNA damage.

  12. Cardiovascular changes in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism%原发性甲状旁腺功能亢进症患者的心血管改变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱燕; 邢小平

    2010-01-01

    原发性甲状旁腺功能亢进症(甲旁亢)患者的死亡率明显增高,而其主要死亡原因为心血管系统疾病.目前,原发性甲旁亢的临床谱已经发生了明显变化,无症状原发性甲旁亢的比例逐渐增加.然而,即使在疾病早期原发性甲旁亢患者也会发生-系列心血管异常,包括:左室肥厚、瓣膜钙化、血管反应受损、高血压、血糖及血脂代谢异常等,而这些心血管病变在手术后可以得到一定程度的改善.%Primary hyperparathyroidism(PHPT) has been associated with increased mortality,which mainly due to cardiovascular disease. Nowadays, the clinical spectrum of PHPT have changed to an asymptomatic form. However,even in the early stage,PHPT have overpresented cardiovascular abnormalities including left ventricular hypertrophy, valvular calcification, impaired vascular reaction, hypertension,impaired glucose metabolism and dislipidemia, which can be improved to certain degree after surgery.

  13. Caloric Intake, Dietary Lifestyles, Macronutrient Composition, and Alzheimer’ Disease Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Maria Pasinetti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease is a devastating neurodegenerative condition currently affecting over 5 million elderly individuals in the United States. There is much evidence suggesting that certain dietary lifestyles can help to prevent and possibly treat Alzheimer's disease. In this paper, we discuss how certain cardiovascular and diabetic conditions can induce an increased susceptibility for Alzheimer's disease and the mechanisms through which this occurs. We further discuss how the consumption of certain foods or food components can help to reduce one's risk for Alzheimer's disease and may possibly be developed as a therapeutic agent.

  14. Working Conditions, Lifestyles and Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cottini, Elena; Ghinetti, Paolo

    The aim of this paper is to investigate whether employee health is affected by the environment in which the individual works - in terms of both physical and psychosocial working conditions - and by his or her lifestyle. Health measures are computed from Danish data, and refer to both self assessed...... general health and two more objective health measures: mental health specific to work-related problems, and physical health. We find that both bad working conditions and bad lifestyles reduce health, especially in its self-assessed component. The impact of lifetsyle indicators have a more modest health...

  15. Cardiovascular health education intervention in the Prison of Soria

    OpenAIRE

    M.M. Martínez-Delgado; C. Ramírez-López

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To promote awareness of healthy lifestyles, to help decrease the risk factors that cause cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia, through Health Education (HE). Material and Methods: Between November and December 2014 in the prison of Soria, HE intervention in cardiovascular diseases was performed. Participation was offered to 160 inmates at the Prison. The intervention consisted of individual interviews with anthropometric assessment and review o...

  16. Video game addiction: Impact on teenagers' lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Mahindru, Poornima

    2015-01-01

    Use of video games as a leisure-time activity has increased among teenagers. Excessive use of video games is associated with psychosocial dysfunctions in the user's life. Two teenagers came for consultation to our Service for Healthy Use of Technology (SHUT) clinic for management of addiction due to video games. They were assessed using a clinical interview as well as the General Health Questionnaire and Griffith criteria for video games. The cases emphasize the addictive potential of video games and their association with lifestyle changes. Addiction to video games has implications for screening and intervention among teenagers.

  17. Video game addiction: Impact on teenagers' lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Mahindru, Poornima

    2015-01-01

    Use of video games as a leisure-time activity has increased among teenagers. Excessive use of video games is associated with psychosocial dysfunctions in the user's life. Two teenagers came for consultation to our Service for Healthy Use of Technology (SHUT) clinic for management of addiction due to video games. They were assessed using a clinical interview as well as the General Health Questionnaire and Griffith criteria for video games. The cases emphasize the addictive potential of video games and their association with lifestyle changes. Addiction to video games has implications for screening and intervention among teenagers. PMID:27294452

  18. The impact of ageing and changing utilization patterns on future cardiovascular drug expenditure: a pharmacoepidemiological projection approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildemoes, Helle Wallach; Andersen, Morten; Støvring, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    To develop a method for projecting the impact of ageing and changing drug utilization patterns on future drug expenditure.......To develop a method for projecting the impact of ageing and changing drug utilization patterns on future drug expenditure....

  19. The role of lifestyle modification in dysmetabolic syndrome management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, John P

    2006-01-01

    Lifestyle modification should be the primary therapeutic intervention in individuals with the dysmetabolic syndrome, given the fact that obesity, unhealthy diet, and physical inactivity are primary underlying risk factors for its development. Most individuals with the dysmetabolic syndrome need to lose weight through dietary changes and increases in physical activity. Modest weight losses may significantly improve all aspects of the syndrome. Because individuals differ in their lifestyles, tailoring interventions to meet the specific needs of each person will maximize the chances of success. Assessment of the individual with the dysmetabolic syndrome involves quantification of obesity, diets and dietary patterns, physical activity, emotional problems, and motivation. To help individuals make lifestyle changes, a number of behavior modification strategies have shown good efficacy. These strategies include a tailored problem-solving intervention, involving goal-setting, self-monitoring, stimulus control, cognitive restructuring, stress management, relapse prevention, social support, and contracting. The frequency of self-monitoring is an especially important strategy for continued success. Research studies have clearly demonstrated the power of lifestyle modification for long-term behavioral change. Lifestyle modification appears effective in delaying or preventing the development of the dysmetabolic syndrome.

  20. The Use of Behavior Change Techniques and Theory in Technologies for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Treatment in Adults: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Sandra J; Sheats, Jylana L; King, Abby C

    2016-01-01

    This review examined the use of health behavior change techniques and theory in technology-enabled interventions targeting risk factors and indicators for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention and treatment. Articles targeting physical activity, weight loss, smoking cessation and management of hypertension, lipids and blood glucose were sourced from PubMed (November 2010-2015) and coded for use of 1) technology, 2) health behavior change techniques (using the CALO-RE taxonomy), and 3) health behavior theories. Of the 984 articles reviewed, 304 were relevant (240=intervention, 64=review). Twenty-two different technologies were used (M=1.45, SD=+/-0.719). The most frequently used behavior change techniques were self-monitoring and feedback on performance (M=5.4, SD=+/-2.9). Half (52%) of the intervention studies named a theory/model - most frequently Social Cognitive Theory, the Trans-theoretical Model, and the Theory of Planned Behavior/Reasoned Action. To optimize technology-enabled interventions targeting CVD risk factors, integrated behavior change theories that incorporate a variety of evidence-based health behavior change techniques are needed.

  1. The Use of Behavior Change Techniques and Theory in Technologies for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Treatment in Adults: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Sandra J; Sheats, Jylana L; King, Abby C

    2016-01-01

    This review examined the use of health behavior change techniques and theory in technology-enabled interventions targeting risk factors and indicators for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention and treatment. Articles targeting physical activity, weight loss, smoking cessation and management of hypertension, lipids and blood glucose were sourced from PubMed (November 2010-2015) and coded for use of 1) technology, 2) health behavior change techniques (using the CALO-RE taxonomy), and 3) health behavior theories. Of the 984 articles reviewed, 304 were relevant (240=intervention, 64=review). Twenty-two different technologies were used (M=1.45, SD=+/-0.719). The most frequently used behavior change techniques were self-monitoring and feedback on performance (M=5.4, SD=+/-2.9). Half (52%) of the intervention studies named a theory/model - most frequently Social Cognitive Theory, the Trans-theoretical Model, and the Theory of Planned Behavior/Reasoned Action. To optimize technology-enabled interventions targeting CVD risk factors, integrated behavior change theories that incorporate a variety of evidence-based health behavior change techniques are needed. PMID:26902519

  2. The lifestylisation of healthcare? ‘Consumer genomics’ and mobile health as technologies for healthy lifestyle

    OpenAIRE

    Federica Lucivero; Barbara Prainsack

    2015-01-01

    Consumer genomics and mobile health provide health-related information to individuals and offer advice for lifestyle change. These 'technologies for healthy lifestyle' occupy an ambiguous space between the highly regulated medical domain and the less regulated consumer market. We argue that this ambiguity challenges implicit distinctions between what is medical and what is related to personal lifestyle choices within current regulatory systems. In this article, we discuss how consumer genomic...

  3. THE TEACHER’S HEALTHY LIFESTYLE FORMATION IN THE PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Елена Владимировна Лопуга

    2014-01-01

    The article is devoted to representation of results of experimental work on formation of a healthy lifestyle of teachers with a various pedagogical experience in the conditions of professional development.Purpose: to analyse dynamics of formation of components of a healthy lifestyle and changes of levels of dominance of the relation to health and a healthy lifestyle in groups of teachers where the developed model of advanced training courses was applied.Methodology: express assessment of indi...

  4. Coffee Consumption and Cardiovascular Diseases – Has the Time Come to Change Dietary Advice? A Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wierzejska Regina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The question whether coffee has a negative or a positive impact on human health has been the topic of much heated debate for years. Nevertheless, recent studies have not only failed to confirm earlier concerns, but in fact suggested a positive effect of coffee intake. Latest studies revealed that people who drink at least 3 cups of coffee per day are at a lower risk for type 2 diabetes, as well as liver and colon cancer. The reports on a possible correlation between coffee drinking and heart diseases have also generated optimistic results. No adverse associations between coffee consumption and coronary heart disease, stroke, and hypertension have been found. What is more, some authors demonstrated that coffee drinking may prevent cardiovascular diseases. Composition of coffee is determined by the strength of the brew and brewing methods. Unfiltered coffee is rich in cholesterol-raising diterpenes, therefore patients with dyslipidemia should be advised to drink filtered rather than non-filtered coffee. On the other hand coffee contains polyphenols which act as antioxidants, and these compounds are probably responsible for the suggested beneficial effect of coffee on health. This article summarizes the current literature reports on this controversial topic.

  5. Virtual coaches for healthy lifestyle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akker, op den H.J.A.; Klaassen, R.; Nijholt, A.; Esposito, Anna; Jain, Lakhmi C.

    2016-01-01

    Since the introduction of the idea of the software interface agent the question recurs whether these agents should be personified and graphically visualized in the interface. In this chapter we look at the use of virtual humans in the interface of healthy lifestyle coaching systems. Based on theory

  6. Dietary strategies, policy and cardiovascular disease risk reduction in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, L B

    2013-11-01

    Diet-related chronic diseases are major public health concerns in England and the associated costs to the National Health Service and society are considerable. Poor diet and other lifestyle factors are estimated to account for about one-third of all deaths from CVD in England. UK dietary recommendations were set by the Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy and are now set by the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition. For cardiovascular health, dietary recommendations are set for nutrients (saturated fat, trans-fat and carbohydrates), foods (fruits, vegetables and oily fish) and salt. The National Diet and Nutrition Survey demonstrates that the majority of the UK population have poor diets. Average intakes of saturated fat and salt are above recommendations while fruit, vegetables, fibre and oily fish are below recommendations. The Department of Health in England is committed to working to improve diet and lifestyle. Current work includes the Public Health Responsibility Deal, under which organisations pledge to increase fruits and vegetables and reduce levels of salt, trans-fat and energy in manufactured foods and menus, the provision of information to help improve food choice through better food labels and provision of information, including a NHS Choices website and the social marketing campaign Change4Life. PMID:23842106

  7. Cardiovascular, renal, electrolyte, and hormonal changes in man during gravitational stress, weightlessness, and simulated weightlessness: Lower body positive pressure applied by the antigravity suit. Thesis - Oslo Univ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravik, Stein E.

    1989-01-01

    Because of their erect posture, humans are more vulnerable to gravitational changes than any other animal. During standing or walking man must constantly use his antigravity muscles and his two columns, his legs, to balance against the force of gravity. At the same time, blood is surging downward to the dependent portions of the body, draining blood away from the brain and heart, and requiring a series of complex cardiovascular adjustments to maintain the human in a bipedal position. It was not until 12 April 1961, when Yuri Gagarin became the first human being to orbit Earth, that we could confirm man's ability to maintain vital functions in space -- at least for 90 min. Nevertheless, man's adaptation to weightlessness entails the deconditioning of various organs in the body. Muscles atrophy, and calcium loss leads to loss of bone strength as the demands on the musculoskeletal system are almost nonexistent in weightlessness. Because of the lack of hydrostatic pressures in space, blood rushes to the upper portions of the body, initiating a complex series of cardioregulatory responses. Deconditioning during spaceflight, however, first becomes a potentially serious problem in humans returning to Earth, when the cardiovascular system, muscles and bones are suddenly exposed to the demanding counterforce of gravity -- weight. One of the main purposes of our studies was to test the feasibility of using Lower Body Positive Pressure, applied with an antigravity suit, as a new and alternative technique to bed rest and water immersion for studying cardioregulatory, renal, electrolyte, and hormonal changes in humans. The results suggest that Lower Body Positive Pressure can be used as an analog of microgravity-induced physiological responses in humans.

  8. A movement, a spirit, a lifestyle change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberlee, J

    1994-04-01

    The Philippines' Department of Health (DOH) has found that young children face the most risk of pneumonia and other respiratory infections. Those from areas not served by physicians face the greatest risk. During the 1980s, DOH set up a 5-year pilot project in 8 rural areas in the southern Philippines to see whether midwives could diagnose and treat acute respiratory infections (ARIs). The midwives used a simple diagnostic method (WHO/ARI algorithm) based on two ARI signs: a respiratory rate of at least 50 breaths/minute and an indrawn chest. An indrawn chest indicated a need to refer a child to the hospital. The midwives did well at diagnosing and treating ARIs. DOH has since introduced the algorithm nationwide. This research addressed an important problem and was well planned and implemented. IDRC and the Council on Health Research for Development in Geneva sponsors the Essential National Health Research (ENHR) initiative in the Philippines. The ENHR strategy aims to better people's health by establishing priorities among different health problems. After priority setting, a participatory process involving communities, researchers, and policy and decision makers determines the relevant research questions. ENHR should result in better, more effective, and more equitable health care and reduce the burden of illness. The first ENHR agenda includes the following research priorities: impact of indigenous beliefs and practices on health; baseline epidemiologic studies on mental health problems; infectious diseases (especially tuberculosis); evaluation of implementation of national health programs; and development of strategies to encourage rational use of drugs in hospitals. It took more than 2 years to agree on these priorities--a complicated and democratic process. The next step is to obtain funding for these projects. The ENHR project wants to attempt advocacy work--creating demand for research and preparing policy makers for the data. Its goal is to be a catalyst in the revolution of health research. PMID:12288582

  9. Homeschooling as a Fundamental Change in Lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Ari; Aviram, Aharon

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses home education (homeschooling) in Israel. The first section reviews the legal situation, the scope and the current status of homeschooling in Israel. The second section presents data from qualitative research conducted in Israel, which shows, among other things, that homeschooling is perceived by those who practice it as a…

  10. Lifestyle Changes After Having Gallbladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... time, your doctor may have you see a nutritionist, who can work with you and give you ... who follow an exercise program tailored to their personal needs feel better physically and emotionally and can ...

  11. Lifestyle Changes for Heart Attack Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Can a Heart Attack Be Prevented? Lowering your risk factors for coronary ... This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is a heart attack? 05/22/2014 Describes how a heart attack ...

  12. Lifestyle Changes Recommended for PTSD Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PTSD Basics Return from War Specific to Women Types of Trauma War Terrorism Violence and Abuse Disasters Is it PTSD? Treatment and Coping Treatment Self-Help and Coping PTSD Research Where to Get Help for PTSD Help with VA PTSD Care or ... Overview Types of Trauma Trauma Basics Disaster and Terrorism Military ...

  13. Metabolic Risk: Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Patient’s Guide The number of people at risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) ... lifestyle therapies because studies suggest it will reduce cardiovascular risk. Medications to lower LDL cholesterol may be added ...

  14. Selected mucolytic, anti-inflammatory and cardiovascular drugs change the ability of neutrophils to form extracellular traps (NETs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawrotniak, Marcin; Kozik, Andrzej; Rapala-Kozik, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophils form the first line of host defense against infections that combat pathogens using two major mechanisms, the phagocytosis or the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). The netosis (NET formation) exerts additional, unfavorable effects on the fitness of host cells and is also involved at the sites of lung infection, increasing the mucus viscosity and in the circulatory system where it can influence the intravascular clot formation. Although molecular mechanisms underlying the netosis are still incompletely understood, a role of NADPH oxidase that activates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during the initiation of NETs has been well documented. Since several commonly used drugs can affects the netosis, our current study was aimed to determine the effects of selected mucolytic, anti-inflammatory and cardiovascular drugs on NET formation, with a special emphasis on ROS production and NADPH oxidase activity. The treatment of neutrophils with N-acetylcysteine, ketoprofen and ethamsylate reduced the production of ROS by these cells in a dose-dependent manner. NET formation was also modulated by selected drugs. N-acetylcysteine inhibited the netosis but in the presence of H2O2 this neutrophil ability was restored, indicating that N-acetylcysteine may influence the NET formation by modulating ROS productivity. The administration of ethamsylate led to a significant reduction in NET formation and this effect was not restored by H2O2 or S. aureus, suggesting the unexpected additional side effects of this drug. Ketoprofen seemed to promote ROS-independent NET release, simultaneously inhibiting ROS production. The results, obtained in this study strongly suggest that the therapeutic strategies applied in many neutrophil-mediated diseases should take into account the NET-associated effects.

  15. Selected mucolytic, anti-inflammatory and cardiovascular drugs change the ability of neutrophils to form extracellular traps (NETs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawrotniak, Marcin; Kozik, Andrzej; Rapala-Kozik, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophils form the first line of host defense against infections that combat pathogens using two major mechanisms, the phagocytosis or the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). The netosis (NET formation) exerts additional, unfavorable effects on the fitness of host cells and is also involved at the sites of lung infection, increasing the mucus viscosity and in the circulatory system where it can influence the intravascular clot formation. Although molecular mechanisms underlying the netosis are still incompletely understood, a role of NADPH oxidase that activates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during the initiation of NETs has been well documented. Since several commonly used drugs can affects the netosis, our current study was aimed to determine the effects of selected mucolytic, anti-inflammatory and cardiovascular drugs on NET formation, with a special emphasis on ROS production and NADPH oxidase activity. The treatment of neutrophils with N-acetylcysteine, ketoprofen and ethamsylate reduced the production of ROS by these cells in a dose-dependent manner. NET formation was also modulated by selected drugs. N-acetylcysteine inhibited the netosis but in the presence of H2O2 this neutrophil ability was restored, indicating that N-acetylcysteine may influence the NET formation by modulating ROS productivity. The administration of ethamsylate led to a significant reduction in NET formation and this effect was not restored by H2O2 or S. aureus, suggesting the unexpected additional side effects of this drug. Ketoprofen seemed to promote ROS-independent NET release, simultaneously inhibiting ROS production. The results, obtained in this study strongly suggest that the therapeutic strategies applied in many neutrophil-mediated diseases should take into account the NET-associated effects. PMID:26291043

  16. Cardiovascular Disease in South Asian Migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Eshan; Razak, Fahad; Lear, Scott A; Anand, Sonia S

    2015-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) represents a significant cause of global mortality and morbidity. South Asians (SAs) have a particularly high burden of coronary artery disease (CAD). This review describes current literature regarding the prevalence, incidence, etiology, and prognosis of CVD in SA migrants to high-income nations. We conducted a narrative review of CVD in the SA diaspora through a search of MEDLINE and PubMed. We included observational studies, randomized clinical trials, nonsystematic reviews, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses written in English. Of 15,231 articles identified, 827 articles were screened and 124 formed the basis for review. SA migrants have a 1.5-2 times greater prevalence of CAD than age- and sex-adjusted Europids. Increased abdominal obesity and body fat and increased burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia appear to be primary drivers of the excess CAD burden in SAs. Sedentary lifestyle and changes in diet after immigration are important contributors to weight gain and adiposity. Early life factors, physical activity patterns and, in some cases, reduced adherence to medical therapy may contribute to increased CVD risks in SAs. Novel biomarkers like leptin and adipokines may show distinct patterns in SAs and provide insights into cardiometabolic risk determinants. In conclusion, SAs have distinct CVD risk predispositions, with a complex relationship to cultural, innate, and acquired factors. Although CVD risk factor management and treatment among SAs is improving, opportunities exist for further advances. PMID:26321436

  17. Epigenetics and cardiovascular risk in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Francesco; Magenta, Alessandra; Pannarale, Giuseppe; Martino, Eliana; Zanoni, Cristina; Perla, Francesco M; Puddu, Paolo E; Barillà, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) can arise at the early stages of development and growth. Genetic and environmental factors may interact resulting in epigenetic modifications with abnormal phenotypic expression of genetic information without any change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA. Maternal dietary imbalance, inadequate to meet the nutritional needs of the fetus can lead to intrauterine growth retardation, decreased gestational age, low birth weight, excessive post-natal growth and metabolic alterations, with subsequent appearance of CVD risk factors. Fetal exposure to high cholesterol, diabetes and maternal obesity is associated with increased risk and progression of atherosclerosis. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and exposure to various environmental pollutants induce epigenetic alterations of gene expression relevant to the onset or progression of CVD. In children with hypercholesterolemia and/or obesity, oxidative stress activates platelets and monocytes, which release proinflammatory and proatherogenic substances, inducing endothelial dysfunction, decreased Doppler flow-mediated dilation and increased carotid intima-media thickness. Primary prevention of atherosclerosis should be implemented early. It is necessary to identify, through screening, high-risk apparently healthy children and take care of them enforcing healthy lifestyle (mainly consisting of Mediterranean diet and physical activity), prescribing nutraceuticals and eventual medications, if required by a high-risk profile. The key issue is the restoration of endothelial function in the reversible stage of atherosclerosis. Epigenetics may provide new markers for an early identification of children at risk and thereby develop innovative therapies and specific nutritional interventions in critical times. PMID:27367935

  18. Amish Lifestyle Brings Unexpected Benefit: Less Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160228.html Amish Lifestyle Brings Unexpected Benefit: Less Asthma Finding suggests exposing ... are very similar genetically. They also share many lifestyle factors: low rates of childhood obesity, large family ...

  19. Medication or Lifestyle for Pre-Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is possible. By committing to and maintaining a healthy lifestyle, some people are able to reverse their pre- ... can avoid many diabetes complications by adopting a healthy lifestyle. How much can be avoided usually depends on ...

  20. Nutraceuticals and Bioactive Components from Fish for Dyslipidemia and Cardiovascular Risk Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, Giulia; Busnelli, Marco; Manzini, Stefano; Parolini, Cinzia

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the most common health problem in developed countries, and residual risk after implementing all current therapies is still high. Permanent changes in lifestyle may be hard to achieve and people may not always be motivated enough to make the recommended modifications. Emerging research has explored the application of natural food-based strategies in disease management. In recent years, much focus has been placed on the beneficial effects of fish consumption. Many of the positive effects of fish consumption on dyslipidemia and heart diseases have been attributed to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs, i.e., EPA and DHA); however, fish is also an excellent source of protein and, recently, fish protein hydrolysates containing bioactive peptides have shown promising activities for the prevention/management of cardiovascular disease and associated health complications. The present review will focus on n-3 PUFAs and bioactive peptides effects on cardiovascular disease risk factors. Moreover, since considerable controversy exists regarding the association between n-3 PUFAs and major cardiovascular endpoints, we have also reviewed the main clinical trials supporting or not this association. PMID:27338419

  1. Nutraceuticals and Bioactive Components from Fish for Dyslipidemia and Cardiovascular Risk Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, Giulia; Busnelli, Marco; Manzini, Stefano; Parolini, Cinzia

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the most common health problem in developed countries, and residual risk after implementing all current therapies is still high. Permanent changes in lifestyle may be hard to achieve and people may not always be motivated enough to make the recommended modifications. Emerging research has explored the application of natural food-based strategies in disease management. In recent years, much focus has been placed on the beneficial effects of fish consumption. Many of the positive effects of fish consumption on dyslipidemia and heart diseases have been attributed to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs, i.e., EPA and DHA); however, fish is also an excellent source of protein and, recently, fish protein hydrolysates containing bioactive peptides have shown promising activities for the prevention/management of cardiovascular disease and associated health complications. The present review will focus on n-3 PUFAs and bioactive peptides effects on cardiovascular disease risk factors. Moreover, since considerable controversy exists regarding the association between n-3 PUFAs and major cardiovascular endpoints, we have also reviewed the main clinical trials supporting or not this association. PMID:27338419

  2. Molecular Mechanisms of Cardiovascular Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The average lifespan of humans is increasing, and with it the percentage of people entering the 65 and older age group is growing rapidly and will continue to do so in the next 20 years. Within this age group, cardiovascular disease will remain the leading cause of death, and the cost associated with treatment will continue to increase. Aging is an inevitable part of life and unfortunately poses the largest risk factor for cardiovascular disease. CONTENT: We provide an overview of some of the molecular mechanisms involved in regulating lifespan and health, including mitochondria, telomeres, stem cells, sirtuins, Adenosine Monophosphate-activated Protein Kinase, Mammalian Target of Rapamycin and Insulin-like Growth Factor 1. We also provide future perspectives of lifespan and health, which are intimately linked fields. SUMMARY: Aging remains the biggest non-modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The biological, structural and mechanical changes in senescent cardiovascular system are thought to contribute in increasing incidence of cardiovascular disease in aging. Understanding the mechanisms contributing to such changes is therefore crucial for both prevention and development of treatment for cardiovascular diseases. KEYWORDS: cardiovascular aging, mitochondria, telomeres, sirtuin, stem cells.

  3. Gaining pounds by losing pounds: preferences for lifestyle interventions to reduce obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Mandy; Yi, Deokhee; Avenell, Alison; Douglas, Flora; Aucott, Lorna; van Teijlingen, Edwin; Vale, Luke

    2015-04-01

    While there is evidence that weight-loss interventions reduce morbidity, indications of their acceptability are limited. Understanding preferences for lifestyle interventions will help policymakers design interventions. We used a discrete choice experiment to investigate preferences for lifestyle interventions to reduce adult obesity. Attributes focused on: the components of the programme; weight change; short-term and longer-term health gains; time spent on the intervention and financial costs incurred. Data were collected through a web-based questionnaire, with 504 UK adults responding. Despite evidence that dietary interventions are the most effective way to lose weight, respondents preferred lifestyle interventions involving physical activity. While the evidence suggests that behaviour change support improves effectiveness of interventions, its value to participants was limited. A general preference to maintain current lifestyles, together with the sensitivity of take up to financial costs, suggests financial incentives could be used to help maximise uptake of healthy lifestyle interventions. An important target group for change, men, required more compensation to take up healthier lifestyles. Those of normal weight, who will increase in weight over time if they do not change their lifestyle, required the highest compensation. Policymakers face challenges in inducing people to change their behaviour and adopt healthy lifestyles. PMID:25348049

  4. Use of Item Response Theory to Examine a Cardiovascular Health Knowledge Measure for Adolescents with Elevated Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie L. Fitzpatrick

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of a cardiovascular health knowledge measure for adolescents using item response theory. The measure was developed in the context of a cardiovascular lifestyle intervention for adolescents with elevated blood pressure. Sample consisted of 167 adolescents (mean age = 16.2 years who completed the Cardiovascular Health Knowledge Assessment (CHKA, a 34-item multiple choice test, at baseline and post-intervention. The CHKA was unidimensional and internal consistency was .65 at pretest and .74 at posttest. Rasch analysis results indicated that at pretest the items targeted adolescents with variable levels of health knowledge. However, based on results at posttest, additional hard items are needed to account for the increase in level of cardiovascular health knowledge at post-intervention. Change in knowledge scores was examined using Rasch analysis. Findings indicated there was significant improvement in health knowledge over time [t(119 = -10.3, p< .0001]. In summary, the CHKA appears to contain items that are good approximations of the construct cardiovascular health knowledge and items that target adolescents with moderate levels of knowledge.  DOI: 10.2458/azu_jmmss.v3i1.16111

  5. Health-related quality of life of children with a positive carrier status for inherited cardiovascular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smets, Ellen M. A.; Stam, Marinka M. H.; Meulenkamp, Tineke M.; Van Langen, Irene M.; Wilde, Arthur A. M.; Wiegman, Albert; De Wert, Guido M.; Tibben, Aad

    2008-01-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and long QT Syndrome are genetic cardiovascular conditions which may lead to sudden cardiac death at a young age. Preventive measures include lifestyle modifications, medications, and/or cardiac devices. Hence, identification of carrier chi

  6. Cardiovascular Molecular Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Khanicheh, Elham

    2009-01-01

    Although there have been significant improvements in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases they still remain the main cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Currently available diagnostic approaches may not be adequate to detect pathologic changes during the early disease stages, which may be valuable for risk stratification and also to assess a response to a therapy. Therefore molecular imaging techniques such as Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound (CEU) molecular imaging to noninvasively i...

  7. Beliefs, Barriers, and Preferences of European Overweight Women to Adopt a Healthier Lifestyle in Pregnancy to Minimize Risk of Developing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsma, Judith G M; van Leeuwen, Karen M; Oostdam, Nicolette;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We explored beliefs, perceived barriers, and preferences regarding lifestyle changes among overweight European pregnant women to help inform the development of future lifestyle interventions in the prevention of gestational diabetes mellitus. METHODS: An explorative mixed methods, two...

  8. Cardiovascular Update: Risk, Guidelines, and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Tamera

    2015-09-01

    This article provides an update of the current status of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the United States, including a brief review of the underlying pathophysiology and epidemiology. This article presents a discussion of the latest American Heart Association guidelines that introduce the concept of promoting ideal cardiovascular health, defined by seven identified metrics. Specific CVD risk factors and utilization of the 10-year CVD event prediction calculator are discussed. In addition, current management recommendations of health-related conditions that increase risk for CVD, such as hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, are provided. Finally, a discussion of detailed evidence-based lifestyle recommendations to promote cardiovascular health and reduce CVD risks concludes the update. PMID:26156147

  9. [New indications for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenconi, Maria Teresa

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases represent the first cause of death and disability in Italy. The main reversible risk factors are high levels of LDL-cholesterol, hypertension, tobacco-smoking, diabetes and/or metabolic syndrome and poor physical activity (at leisure). The prevalence of these risk factors is high in adult Italian population. Cardiovascular diseases prevention should start early in life, with health promotion programs aimed at the acquisition of a healthy lifestyle in communities such as schools and worksites. Besides the "cardiovascular risk score" should be used by general practitioners in order to screen adult population and to lower risk factors levels.

  10. Averting comfortable lifestyle crises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilton, Rod

    2013-01-01

    How have climate change and diet shaped the evolution of human energy metabolism, and responses to vitamin C, fructose and uric acid? Through the last three millennia observant physicians have noted the association of inappropriate diets with increased incidence of obesity, heart disease, diabetes and cancer, and over the past 300 years doctors in the UK observed that overeating increased the incidence of these diseases. Anthropological studies of the Inuit culture in the mid-nineteenth century revealed that humans can survive and thrive in the virtual absence of dietary carbohydrate. In the 1960s, Cahill revealed the flexibility of human metabolism in response to partial and total starvation and demonstrated that type 2 diabetics were better adapted than healthy subjects to conserving protein during fasting. The potential role for brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in temperature maintenance and dietary calorie control was suggested by Rothwell and Stock from their experiments with 'cafeteria fed rats' in the 1980s. Recent advances in gene array studies and PET scanning support a role for this process in humans. The industrialisation of food processing in the twentieth century has led to increases in palatability and digestibility with a parallel loss of quality leading to overconsumption and the current obesity epidemic. The switch from animal to vegetable fats at the beginning of the twentieth century, followed by the rapid increase in sugar and fructose consumption from 1979 is mirrored by a steep increase in obesity in the 1980s, in the UK and USA. Containment of the obesity epidemic is compounded by the addictive properties of sugar which involve the same dopamine receptors in the pleasure centres of the brain as for cocaine, nicotine and alcohol. Of the many other toxic effects of excessive sugar consumption, immunocompromisation, kidney damage, atherosclerosis, oxidative stress and cancer are highlighted. The WHO and guidelines on sugar consumption include

  11. The Influence of Lifestyle on Cardio-metabolic Risk in Students from Timisoara University Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela ORAVIȚAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is a part of the activities in a cross border cooperation project that has proposed the management of obesity and cardiometabolic risk at students from Timisoara and Szeged university centres. The target group of Timisoara University Center was formed out of 600 students enrolled in the four major universities from Timisoara; target group students were questioned about their lifestyle and were evaluated anthropometric parameters, body composition and arterial stiffness; based on questionnaires was determine too the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and/or diabetes mellitus type II. Analysis of the results revealed the strong correlations between lifestyle and cardio-metabolic risk in these students.

  12. Personalized Virtual Coaching for Lifestyle Support: Principles for Design and Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulyk, Olga; Akker, op den Rieks; Klaassen, Randy; Gemert-Pijnen, van Lisette

    2014-01-01

    There is a fast growing number of behavior change support systems (BCSS) aiming at supporting a healthy lifestyle. Existing lifestyle coaching services offer individual users access to web portals where they can communicate about a growing number of ingredients of everyday life concern: physical act

  13. Basic human needs affected for arterial hypertension and Lifestyle

    OpenAIRE

    Gleudson Alves Xavier; Maysa Oliveira Rolim; Vera Maria da Conceição Lopes de Sousa; Maria Euridéa de Castro

    2003-01-01

    Knowing that hypertension is a chronic disease, in which the individual may have his basic needs changed, resulting in having to learn to deal with a new life-style, we considered it appropriate to study this theme. It was designed to identify the affected basic needs and to discover the influence of life-style and of hypertension in alteration of those needs. The study is a descriptive-exploratory, accomplished at the Campus of a State Public University in Fortaleza – Ceará, Brazil. This stu...

  14. Burnout And Lifestyle Of Principals And Entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Lavrenčič

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: What kind of lifestyle do the principals and entrepreneurs lead? Does the lifestyle of principals and entrepreneurs influence burnout? Purpose: To find out, based on the results of a questionnaire, what kind of lifestyle both researched groups lead. Does lifestyle have an influence on the occurrence of the phenomenon of burnout. Method: We used the method of data collection by questionnaire. Acquired data were analyzed using SPSS, descriptive and inference statistics. Results: Results showed, that both groups lead a similar lifestyle and that lifestyle influences burnout with principals, as well as entrepreneurs. Organization: School principals and entrepreneurs are the heads of individual organizations or companies, the goal of which is success. To be successful in their work, they must adapt their lifestyle, which can be healthy or unhealthy. If their lifestyle is unhealthy, it can lead to burnout. Society: With results of the questionnaire we would like to answer the question about the lifestyle of both groups and its influence on the occurrence of burnout. Originality: The study of lifestyle and the occurrence of burnout in these two groups is the first study in this area. Limitations/Future Research: In continuation, research groups could be submitted to the research fields of effort physiology and tracking of certain haematological parameters, such as cholesterol, blood sugar and stress hormones - adrenaline, noradrenalin, cortisol. Thus, we could carry out an even more in depth research of the connection between lifestyle and burnout.

  15. Behaviour change techniques in home-based cardiac rehabilitation: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Heron, Neil; Kee, Frank; Donnelly, Michael; Cardwell, Christopher; Tully, Mark A; Cupples, Margaret E

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programmes offering secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease (CVD) advise healthy lifestyle behaviours, with the behaviour change techniques (BCTs) of goals and planning, feedback and monitoring, and social support recommended. More information is needed about BCT use in home-based CR to support these programmes in practice.AIM: To identify and describe the use of BCTs in home-based CR programmes.DESIGN AND SETTING: Randomised controlled trials o...

  16. Growing-Related Changes in Arterial Properties of Healthy Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults Nonexposed to Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Analysis of Gender-Related Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcio, S; García-Espinosa, V; Arana, M; Farro, I; Chiesa, P; Giachetto, G; Zócalo, Y; Bia, D

    2016-01-01

    The aims of our work were to determine normal aging rates for structural and functional arterial parameters in healthy children, adolescents, and young adults and to identify gender-related differences in these aging rates. Methods. 161 subjects (mean: 15 years (range: 4-28 years), 69 females) were studied. Subjects included had no congenital or chronic diseases, nor had they been previously exposed to traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Arterial parameters assessed were (1) central blood pressure (BP) and aortic pulse wave analysis, (2) arterial local (pressure-strain elastic modulus) and regional (pulse wave velocity, PWV) stiffness, and (3) arterial diameters and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). Simple linear regression models (age as the independent variable) were obtained for all the parameters and the resulting rates of change were compared between genders. Results. No gender-related differences were found in mean values of arterial structural and functional parameters in prepubertal ages (4-8 years), but they started to appear at ~15 years. Boys showed a greater rate of change for central systolic BP, central pulse pressure, CIMT, and carotid-femoral PWV. Conclusion. Gender-related differences in arterial characteristics of adults can be explained on the basis of different growing-related patterns between boys and girls, with no existing differences in prepubertal ages.

  17. Spectral components of human cardiovascular responses to step changes in Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP) before and after 22 hour of 6 deg head down bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, C. F.; Evans, J. M.; Grande, K. J.; Murphy, C. D.; Patwardhan, A. R.

    1992-01-01

    Changes in autonomic outflow to peripheral organs during the development of bedrest induced orthostatic intolerance have not been determined. Recent studies have indicated that spectral analysis provides an indirect assessment of these changes. Eight male subjects were studied before and after 22 hours of 6 degree head down bedrest plus Lasix (40 mg. P.P.). Cardiovascular spectra (using an autoregressive technique) were determined for heart rate (HR, ECG), arterial pressure (AP, Finapres), radial artery flow (RF, Hokansen) and respiration rate (RR, BoMed). Spectra were obtained from 2.5 minute segments during control, lower body negative pressure (minus 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 mmHg) and recovery. Bedrest increased HR spectra power in the low frequency (.001 to .041 Hz) range, increased RF power in the low and mid (.04 to .18 Hz) range and increased AP power in the high (.18 to .50 Hz) frequency range. Increasing levels of lower body negative pressure decreased HR power and increased RF power in the high frequency range and decreased AP power in the low frequency range. Since spectral power of HR in the high frequency range has been shown to indicate parasympathetically mediated regulation and power in the low and mid frequency ranges indicates a sympathetic / parasympathetic mixture, then both bedrest and lower body negative pressure appeared to shift sympathetic / parasympathetic balance toward sympathetic regulation of HR. The interpretation of the spectral content of AP and RF with respect to their autonomic origins remains unclear.

  18. CHANGE OF CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN YOUNG HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS AS A RESULT OF PREVENTIVE CONSULTATION IN PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Shupina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate changes of quality of life (QL in young hypertensive patients having «Health School» educational course in comparison with patients having standard non-drug therapy.Material and methods. 114 young patients with arterial hypertension, stage 1, and low and moderate cardiovascular risk were involved in the study. Patients were randomized in 2 groups. Patients of the 1st group (n=59 were trained at «Health School». Patients of the 2nd group had the routine doctor consultation. Changes of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP and QL were evaluated in 6, 12 and 36 months.Results. Decrease of systolic and diastolic BP as well as improvement of QL was observed in both groups. However «Health School» demonstrated significantly higher efficacy in comparison with routine consultation.Conclusion. Non-drug correction of the risk factors is effective method of BP control in young hypertensive patients. High efficacy of «Health School» educational course allows recommending it for implementation in practical medicine. 

  19. Changes in subclinical organ damage vs. in Framingham risk score for assessing cardiovascular risk reduction during continued antihypertensive treatment: a LIFE substudy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Michael H; Wachtell, Kristian; Ibsen, Hans;

    2011-01-01

    To investigate whether in-treatment measurements of subclinical organ damage (SOD) assessed by elevated urine albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR) or electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy improved the prediction of the composite cardiovascular endpoint of cardiovascular death, nonfatal...... myocardial infarction and stroke beyond in-treatment Framingham risk score (FRS)....

  20. Renal effects of anti-gravity suit inflation in man in relation to cardiovascular and hormonal changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelen, G.; Kravik, S. E.; Hadj-Aissa, A.; Vincent, M.; Sem-Jacobsen, C. W.; Greenleaf, J.; Gharib, C.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that inflation for 3 hr of an antigravity suit that covered the legs and abdomen of normal standing subjects results in significant increases in urine flow, osmolar and free water clearances, total and fractional sodium excretion, and potassium excretion, while glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow are transiently increased. Such changes in kidney function are the consequence of the increase in thoracic blood volume induced by inflation which also results in an immediate increase in blood pressure and reflex bradycardia, together with a progressive lowering of plasma renin activity and aldosterone. The changes in kidney excretory patterns brought about by suit inflation appear to be similar in nature and magnitude to those observed during water immersion or in the early phase of bed rest, situations known to result in a headward redistribution of blood.

  1. Cardiovascular alterations at different stages of hypertension development during ethanol consumption: Time-course of vascular and autonomic changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crestani, Carlos C. [Department of Natural Active Principles and Toxicology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Univ. Estadual Paulista—UNESP (Brazil); Lopes da Silva, Andréia [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Scopinho, América A. [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Ruginsk, Silvia G.; Uchoa, Ernane T. [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Correa, Fernando M.A. [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Elias, Lucila L.K.; Antunes-Rodrigues, José [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Resstel, Leonardo B.M., E-mail: leoresstel@yahoo.com.br [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-10-15

    The aim of the present work was to establish a time-course correlation between vascular and autonomic changes that contribute to the development of hypertension during ethanol ingestion in rats. For this, male Wistar rats were subjected to the intake of increasing ethanol concentrations in their drinking water during four weeks. Ethanol effects were investigated at the end of each week. Mild hypertension was already observed at the first week of treatment, and a progressive blood pressure increase was observed along the evaluation period. Increased pressor response to phenylephrine was observed from first to fourth week. α{sub 1}-adrenoceptor protein in the mesenteric bed was enhanced at the first week, whereas β{sub 2}-adrenoceptor protein in the aorta was reduced after the second week. In the third week, ethanol intake facilitated the depressor response to sodium nitroprusside, whereas in the fourth week it reduced nitrate content in aorta and increased it plasma. The bradycardic component of the baroreflex was impaired, whereas baroreflex tachycardia was enhanced at the third and fourth weeks. AT{sub 1A} receptor and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) mRNAs in the nucleus tractus solitarius were increased at the fourth week. These findings suggest that increased vascular responsiveness to vasoconstrictor agents is possibly a link factor in the development and maintenance of the progressive hypertension induced by ethanol consumption. Additionally, baroreflex changes are possibly mediated by alterations in angiotensinergic mechanisms and CNP content within the brainstem, which contribute to maintaining the hypertensive state in later phases of ethanol ingestion. Facilitated vascular responsiveness to nitric oxide seems to counteract ethanol-induced hypertension. - Highlights: • Mild hypertension was observed during the entire period of ethanol ingestion. • Ethanol facilitated vascular reactivity to vasoactive agents. • Changes in baroreflex activity

  2. Changes in electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy and risk of major cardiovascular events in isolated systolic hypertension: the LIFE study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larstorp, A C K; Okin, P M; Devereux, R B;

    2011-01-01

    The predictive value of changes in the severity of electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy (ECG-LVH) during antihypertensive therapy remains unclear in isolated systolic hypertension (ISH). In a Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension substudy, we included 1320...... patients aged 54–83 years with systolic blood pressure (BP) of 160–200¿mm¿Hg, diastolic BP losartan- or atenolol-based treatment with a mean follow-up of 4.8 years. The composite end point...

  3. Cardiovascular alterations at different stages of hypertension development during ethanol consumption: Time-course of vascular and autonomic changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present work was to establish a time-course correlation between vascular and autonomic changes that contribute to the development of hypertension during ethanol ingestion in rats. For this, male Wistar rats were subjected to the intake of increasing ethanol concentrations in their drinking water during four weeks. Ethanol effects were investigated at the end of each week. Mild hypertension was already observed at the first week of treatment, and a progressive blood pressure increase was observed along the evaluation period. Increased pressor response to phenylephrine was observed from first to fourth week. α1-adrenoceptor protein in the mesenteric bed was enhanced at the first week, whereas β2-adrenoceptor protein in the aorta was reduced after the second week. In the third week, ethanol intake facilitated the depressor response to sodium nitroprusside, whereas in the fourth week it reduced nitrate content in aorta and increased it plasma. The bradycardic component of the baroreflex was impaired, whereas baroreflex tachycardia was enhanced at the third and fourth weeks. AT1A receptor and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) mRNAs in the nucleus tractus solitarius were increased at the fourth week. These findings suggest that increased vascular responsiveness to vasoconstrictor agents is possibly a link factor in the development and maintenance of the progressive hypertension induced by ethanol consumption. Additionally, baroreflex changes are possibly mediated by alterations in angiotensinergic mechanisms and CNP content within the brainstem, which contribute to maintaining the hypertensive state in later phases of ethanol ingestion. Facilitated vascular responsiveness to nitric oxide seems to counteract ethanol-induced hypertension. - Highlights: • Mild hypertension was observed during the entire period of ethanol ingestion. • Ethanol facilitated vascular reactivity to vasoactive agents. • Changes in baroreflex activity contribute to ethanol

  4. Qualitative Study of Typology of Lifestyles: Study of the Youth in Mahabad City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Ghaderzadeh

    2014-05-01

    In addition, these people accept separate styles with presence in different types of social status. In sum, we can conclude that along with the increasing importance of lifestyle in the recent period, this problem was apparent in the youth of our study, and their lifestyle typically leads life and determines identity. The variety of lifestyles in the present era can be found in this study, and there are six lifestyles (pre-modern, modern, scientific, sports-oriented, joyful and global-local that prove this claim. As the most active population of society, the youth are not passive, and they value their agency. They try to shape their own lifestyles, and have access to a certain lifestyle according to the social status and influence of the prevailing global trends. Choosing any lifestyle forms patterns, norms, actions, thoughts, and generally an identity in a person, and distinguishes him/her from other people who choose different lifestyles. The modern world and its identifiers and changes, the increasing cultural capital in families, plenty of access to new elements and facilities, and special attention to the youth in this process all have enormous and undeniable influences in shaping lifestyles and consequently identities that fit within them.

  5. Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheung Angela

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health Issue Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death in Canadian women and men. In general, women present with a wider range of symptoms, are more likely to delay seeking medial care and are less likely to be investigated and treated with evidence-based medications, angioplasty or coronary artery bypass graft than men. Key Findings In 1998, 78,964 Canadians died from CVD, almost half (39,197 were women. Acute myocardial infarction, which increases significantly after menopause, was the leading cause of death among women. Cardiovascular disease accounted for 21% of all hospital admissions for Canadian women over age 50 in 1999. Admissions to hospital for ischemic heart disease were more frequent for men, but the mean length of hospital stay was longer for women. Mean blood pressure increases with age in both men and women. After age 65, however, high blood pressure is more common among Canadian women. More than one-third of postmenopausal Canadian women have hypertension. Diabetes increases the mortality and morbidity associated with CVD in women more than it does in men. Depression also contributes to the incidence and recovery from CVD, particularly for women who experience twice the rate of depression as men. Data Gaps and Recommendations CVD needs to be recognized as a woman's health issue given Canadian mortality projections (particularly heart failure. Health professionals should be trained to screen, track, and address CVD risk factors among women, including hypertension, elevated lipid levels, smoking, physical inactivity, depression, diabetes and low socio-economic status.

  6. Lifestyle modification in the management of the metabolic syndrome: achievements and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Dalle Grave

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Riccardo Dalle Grave1, Simona Calugi1, Elena Centis2, Rebecca Marzocchi2, Marwan El Ghoch1, Giulio Marchesini21Department of Eating & Weight Disorder, Villa Garda Hospital, Garda (VR, Italy; 2Unit of Metabolic Diseases & Clinical Dietetics, Alma Mater Studiorum – University of Bologna, Bologna, ItalyAbstract: Lifestyle modification based on behavior therapy is the most important and effective strategy to manage the metabolic syndrome. Modern lifestyle modification therapy combines specific recommendations on diet and exercise with behavioral and cognitive strategies. The intervention may be delivered face-to-face or in groups, or in groups combined with individual sessions. The main challenge of treatment is helping patients maintain healthy behavior changes in the long term. In the last few years, several strategies have been evaluated to improve the long-term effect of lifestyle modification. Promising results have been achieved by combining lifestyle modification with pharmacotherapy, using meals replacement, setting higher physical activity goals, and long-term care. The key role of cognitive processes in the success/failure of weight loss and maintenance suggests that new cognitive procedures and strategies should be included in the traditional lifestyle modification interventions, in order to help patients build a mind-set favoring long-term lifestyle changes. These new strategies raise optimistic expectations for an effective treatment of metabolic syndrome with lifestyle modifications, provided public health programs to change the environment where patients live support them.Keywords: metabolic syndrome, obesity, lifestyle modification, cognitive behavior therapy

  7. Psychological Health and Lifestyle Management Preconception and in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Briony; McPhie, Skye; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Gillman, Matthew W; Skouteris, Helen

    2016-03-01

    Healthful lifestyles before and during pregnancy are important to facilitate healthy outcomes for mother and baby. For example, behaviors such as a sedentary lifestyle and consuming an energy-dense/nutrient-poor diet increase the risk of overweight/obesity before pregnancy and excessive weight gain during pregnancy, leading to adverse maternal and child health outcomes. Maternal psychopathology may be implicated in the development of suboptimal maternal lifestyle behaviors before and during pregnancy, perhaps through impacts on motivation. This article explores this notion using maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain as examples of the health impacts of psychological states. We suggest that factors such as psychological well-being, individual motivation for behavior change, and broader environmental influences that affect both individual and system-wide determinants all play important roles in promoting healthy lifestyles periconception and are key modifiable aspects for intervention designers to consider when trying to improve dietary behaviors and increase physical activity before and during pregnancy. In addition, implementing system-wide changes that impact positively on individual and environmental barriers to behavior change that are sustainable, measureable, and effective is required. PMID:26859253

  8. Actividad física y cambios cardiovasculares y bioquímicos del caballo chileno a la competencia de rodeo Physical activity, cardiovascular and biochemical changes of Chilean purebred horses to rodeo competitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. PEREZ

    1997-01-01

    concentration were the most significant changes observed in the hydrosaline balance. It is concluded that for Chilean horses, the rodeo represents an exercise of force, speed and resistance which induces changes in their cardiovascular, hydrosaline, metabolic and endocrine activity, responses which are similar to those observed in high intensity exercises

  9. Changes in biomarkers of cardiovascular risk after a switch to abacavir in HIV-1-infected individuals receiving combination antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    -CRP increased from 3.3 to 4.2 microg/mL after 3 months (P = 0.031) but was not increased after 12 months of exposure (2.8 microg/mL). Neither sVCAM-1 nor sICAM-1 changed after the initiation of ABC. No changes were observed in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: MMP9, MPO and hs-CRP all increased after a switch...... who switched ART to an ABC-containing regimen were identified. Twenty-two HIV-1-infected individuals who switched ART from and to a non-ABC-containing regimen served as controls. Plasma concentrations of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM......-1), matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured in blood samples before the switch in ART, and 3 months and 12 months afterwards. Log10-transformed data were compared with paired t-tests. RESULTS: Median MMP9 increased from...

  10. Predictors of primary care referrals to a vascular disease prevention lifestyle program among participants in a cluster randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passey Megan E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease accounts for a large burden of disease, but is amenable to prevention through lifestyle modification. This paper examines patient and practice predictors of referral to a lifestyle modification program (LMP offered as part of a cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT of prevention of vascular disease in primary care. Methods Data from the intervention arm of a cluster RCT which recruited 36 practices through two rural and three urban primary care organisations were used. In each practice, 160 eligible high risk patients were invited to participate. Practices were randomly allocated to intervention or control groups. Intervention practice staff were trained in screening, motivational interviewing and counselling and encouraged to refer high risk patients to a LMP involving individual and group sessions. Data include patient surveys; clinical audit; practice survey on capacity for preventive care; referral records from the LMP. Predictors of referral were examined using multi-level logistic regression modelling after adjustment for confounding factors. Results Of 301 eligible patients, 190 (63.1% were referred to the LMP. Independent predictors of referral were baseline BMI ≥ 25 (OR 2.87 95%CI:1.10, 7.47, physical inactivity (OR 2.90 95%CI:1.36,6.14, contemplation/preparation/action stage of change for physical activity (OR 2.75 95%CI:1.07, 7.03, rural location (OR 12.50 95%CI:1.43, 109.7 and smaller practice size (1–3 GPs (OR 16.05 95%CI:2.74, 94.24. Conclusions Providing a well-structured evidence-based lifestyle intervention, free of charge to patients, with coordination and support for referral processes resulted in over 60% of participating high risk patients being referred for disease prevention. Contrary to expectations, referrals were more frequent from rural and smaller practices suggesting that these practices may be more ready to engage with these programs. Trial registration ACTRN

  11. Anxiety Disorders and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celano, Christopher M; Daunis, Daniel J; Lokko, Hermioni N; Campbell, Kirsti A; Huffman, Jeff C

    2016-11-01

    Anxiety and its associated disorders are common in patients with cardiovascular disease and may significantly influence cardiac health. Anxiety disorders are associated with the onset and progression of cardiac disease, and in many instances have been linked to adverse cardiovascular outcomes, including mortality. Both physiologic (autonomic dysfunction, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, changes in platelet aggregation) and health behavior mechanisms may help to explain the relationships between anxiety disorders and cardiovascular disease. Given the associations between anxiety disorders and poor cardiac health, the timely and accurate identification and treatment of these conditions is of the utmost importance. Fortunately, pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic interventions for the management of anxiety disorders are generally safe and effective. Further study is needed to determine whether interventions to treat anxiety disorders ultimately impact both psychiatric and cardiovascular health. PMID:27671918

  12. Nutrição e exercício na prevenção e controle das doenças cardiovasculares Nutrition and exercise on cardiovascular disease prevention and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz Ribeiro Rique

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available As doenças cardiovasculares constituem a principal causa de mortalidade no mundo e o seu crescimento significativo nos países em desenvolvimento alerta para o potencial impacto nas classes menos favorecidas. São influenciadas por um conjunto de fatores de risco, alguns modificáveis mediante alterações no estilo de vida, como a dieta adequada e o exercício regular. O objetivo da presente revisão é abordar esses aspectos a fim de prevenir e controlar as doenças cardiovasculares. O consumo de vegetais, frutas, grãos integrais, soja, azeite e peixes deve ser aumentado, ainda que limitando a quantidade de gordura. Os alimentos ricos em ácidos graxos saturados e trans devem ser evitados, assim como o uso excessivo de sal e bebidas alcoólicas. Além do exercício aeróbio, as atividades contra resistência vêm aumentando sua importância na reabilitação cardíaca. Essas mudanças de estilo de vida deveriam ser prioridades na Saúde Pública a fim de deter o avanço das doenças cardiovasculares em nosso país.Cardiovascular diseases represent the major worldwide cause of death, and their significant growth in developing countries alerts against their impact on underprivileged classes. Cardiovascular diseases are subject to a set of risk factors, some of which can be altered through changes in lifestyle, such as balanced diet and regular exercising. The purpose of this review is to approach these factors in order to prevent and control cardiovascular diseases. The consumption of vegetables, fruit, whole grains, soybeans, olive oil, and fish must be increased, although limiting the amount of fat. Saturated and trans fatty acids must be avoided, as well as excessive use of salt and alcoholic beverages. Besides aerobics, resistance training activities are increasing their importance in cardiac rehabilitation. Such lifestyle changes should be prioritized by Public Health authorities in order to hold back cardiovascular disease occurrence in

  13. Mediterranean Diet, Lifestyle Factors, and 10-year Mortality in Elderly European Men and Women. The HALE Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoops, K.T.B.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Kromhout, D.; Perrin, A.E.; Moreiras-Varela, O.; Menotti, A.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2004-01-01

    Context Dietary patterns and lifestyle factors are associated with mortality from all causes, coronary heart disease, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer, but few studies have investigated these factors in combination. Objective To investigate the single and combined effect of Mediterranean diet, be

  14. Halal Lifestyle: Understanding Muslim Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Halal Lifestyle: Understanding Muslim Consumers November 25th, 2013 Parallel Session 1C Hall C my talk starts at: 16:15-25:00 my answers start at 42:20 [to questions starting at 36:30] The Global Islamic Economy Summit 2013 was organized by Dubai Chamber of Commerce & Industry and Thomson Reuters, held on 25th-26th November, 2013 at Madinat Jumeirah, Dubai, UAE under the patronage of HH Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Vice President and Prime Minister of the UAE a...

  15. A Data Mining Project to Identify Cardiovascular Related Factors That May Contribute to Changes in Visual Acuity Within the US Astronaut Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westby, Christian M.; Stein, Sydney P.; Platts, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    Many of the cardiovascular-related adaptations that occur in the microgravity environment are due, in part, to a well-characterized cephalad-fluid shift that is evidenced by facial edema and decreased lower limb circumference. It is believed that most of these alterations occur as a compensatory response necessary to maintain a "normal" blood pressure and cardiac output while in space. However, data from both flight and analog research suggest that in some instances these microgravity-induced alterations may contribute to cardiovascular-related pathologies. Most concerning is the potential relation between the vision disturbances experienced by some long duration crewmembers and changes in cerebral blood flow and intra-ocular pressure. The purpose of this project was to identify cardiovascular measures that may potentially distinguish individuals at risk for visual disturbances after long duration space flight. Toward this goal, we constructed a dataset from Medical Operation tilt/stand test evaluations pre- (days L-15-L-5) and immediate post-flight (day R+0) on 20 (3 females, 17 males). We restricted our evaluation to only crewmembers who participated in both shuttle and space station missions. Data analysis was performed using both descriptive and analytical methods (Stata 11.2, College Station, TX) and are presented as means +/- 95% CI. Crewmembers averaged 5207 (3447 - 8934) flight hours across both long (MIR-23 through Expedition16) and short (STS-27 through STS-101) duration missions between 1988 and 2008. The mean age of the crew at the time of their most recent shuttle flight was 41 (34-44) compared to 47 (40-54) years during their time on station. In order to focus our analysis (we did not have codes to separate out subjects by symptomotology) , we performed a visual inspection of each cardiovascular measures captured during testing and plotted them against stand time, pre- to post-flight, and between mission duration. It was found that pulse pressure most

  16. Cardiac magnetic resonance: Impact on diagnosis and management of patients with congenital cardiovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secchi, F., E-mail: francescosecchimd@gmail.com [Scuola di Specializzazione in Radiodiagnostica, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milan (Italy); Di Leo, G. [S.C. di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, San Donato Milanese, Milan (Italy); Papini, G.D.E. [Scuola di Specializzazione in Radiodiagnostica, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milan (Italy); Nardella, V.G. [Facolta di Medicina e Chirurgia, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milan (Italy); Negura, D.; Carminati, M. [S.C. di Cardiologia Pediatrica, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, San Donato Milanese, Milan (Italy); Sardanelli, F. [S.C. di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, San Donato Milanese, Milan (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Medico-Chirurgiche, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milan (Italy)

    2011-08-15

    Aim: To estimate the clinical impact of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients with congenital cardiovascular disease (CCD). Materials and methods: Since 2003, 1.5 T CMR was used at our university hospital to evaluate morphology, cardiac kinetics, aortic and pulmonary flow, and vascular anatomy in patients with CCD. The present study considered a consecutive series of these patients from 2003 to 2006. A paediatric cardiologist judged our reports as expected or unexpected and, secondarily, as not reliable (level 0), describing findings already known (level 1), not changing therapy/suggested lifestyle (level 2), changing therapy/suggested lifestyle (level 3) or changing diagnosis (level 4). Results: CMR reports were judged to be expected in 187/214 (87%) and unexpected in 27/214 (13%). Less than 2% of CMRs were judged as levels 0 or 1, 66% as level 2, and 5% as level 4. During 2005-2006 the clinical impact improved toward higher impact levels (p < 0.001, chi-square test). Conclusions: In patients with CCD, more than one in 10 CMR reports were unexpected to cardiologists and over seven in 10 prompted a change of diagnosis or therapy.

  17. Efficacy of lifestyle interventions in physical health management of patients with severe mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gervás-Ríos Alicia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Awareness of the importance of maintaining physical health for patients with severe mental illnesses has recently been on the increase. Although there are several elements contributing to poor physical health among these patients as compared with the general population, risk factors for cardiovascular disease such as smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, and obesity are of particular significance due to their relationship with mortality and morbidity. These patients present higher vulnerability to cardiovascular risk factors based on several issues, such as genetic predisposition to certain pathologies, poor eating habits and sedentary lifestyles, high proportions of smokers and drug abusers, less access to regular health care services, and potential adverse events during pharmacological treatment. Nevertheless, there is ample scientific evidence supporting the benefits of lifestyle interventions based on diet and exercise designed to minimize and reduce the negative impact of these risk factors on the physical health of patients with severe mental illnesses.

  18. Examination of lifestyle factors and diseases in teaching periodontology in dental education in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Christensen, Lisa Bøge

    2016-01-01

    in the content across the dental schools, there were also similarities. So, at all schools smoking, medication, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes type 2 had a high priority. Education of other factors such as alcohol, psychological stress, oral hygiene habits, hypotension and obesity varied. CONCLUSION......INTRODUCTION: Lifestyle and general diseases are important for the development of periodontitis and other diseases in the oral cavity. Therefore, knowledge on lifestyle factors must be part of the dental curriculum. However, a search for information in the literature databases gave meagre results....... The aim of this study was to describe education of lifestyle in relation to diseases in the oral cavity with focus on periodontitis and to elucidate how education is practiced and reflected in dental education in the Nordic countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire, which consisted of 18 questions...

  19. The parasexual lifestyle of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Richard J

    2015-12-01

    Candida albicans is both a prevalent human commensal and the most commonly encountered human fungal pathogen. This lifestyle is dependent on the ability of the fungus to undergo rapid genetic and epigenetic changes, often in response to specific environmental cues. A parasexual cycle in C. albicans has been defined that includes several unique properties when compared to the related model yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Novel features include strict regulation of mating via a phenotypic switch, enhanced conjugation within a sexual biofilm, and a program of concerted chromosome loss in place of a conventional meiosis. It is expected that several of these adaptations co-evolved with the ability of C. albicans to colonize the mammalian host.

  20. [Insomnia and lifestyle-related diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchimura, Naohisa

    2012-07-01

    As both insomnia and lifestyle-related diseases are associated with a variety of underlying factors, they have been considered to occur as a complication of each other. Moreover, evidence has been presented in recent studies that they are closely related to each other as risks of development and exacerbation. As unhealthy lifestyle-habits have long been recognized to increase the risks of lifestyle-related diseases and their worsening, it is natural that sleep, which takes up one third of a person's life, is markedly associated with disorders such as hypertension and diabetes. It is important to provide interventions for insomnia and other sleep disorders based on the same viewpoint as for lifestyle-related diseases, and understand that lifestyle advice, including sleep hygiene, and drug treatment with sleeping pills are also effective for the treatment of lifestyle-related diseases themselves. PMID:22844789