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Sample records for cardiovascular lifestyle change

  1. Lifestyle in Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.O. Younge (John)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Globally, the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still increasing. However, in recent decades, better treatment modalities have led to less cardiovascular related deaths. After years of research, we now generally accept that lifestyle factors are the most importa

  2. Lifestyle Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Lifestyle Changes for Heart Attack Prevention Updated:Jul 28, ... factors for heart disease , heart attack and stroke. Lifestyle Changes Stop smoking If you smoke, quit. If ...

  3. A systematic review of patient reported factors associated with uptake and completion of cardiovascular lifestyle behaviour change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Jenni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthy lifestyles are an important facet of cardiovascular risk management. Unfortunately many individuals fail to engage with lifestyle change programmes. There are many factors that patients report as influencing their decisions about initiating lifestyle change. This is challenging for health care professionals who may lack the skills and time to address a broad range of barriers to lifestyle behaviour. Guidance on which factors to focus on during lifestyle consultations may assist healthcare professionals to hone their skills and knowledge leading to more productive patient interactions with ultimately better uptake of lifestyle behaviour change support. The aim of our study was to clarify which influences reported by patients predict uptake and completion of formal lifestyle change programmes. Methods A systematic narrative review of quantitative observational studies reporting factors (influences associated with uptake and completion of lifestyle behaviour change programmes. Quantitative observational studies involving patients at high risk of cardiovascular events were identified through electronic searching and screened against pre-defined selection criteria. Factors were extracted and organised into an existing qualitative framework. Results 374 factors were extracted from 32 studies. Factors most consistently associated with uptake of lifestyle change related to support from family and friends, transport and other costs, and beliefs about the causes of illness and lifestyle change. Depression and anxiety also appear to influence uptake as well as completion. Many factors show inconsistent patterns with respect to uptake and completion of lifestyle change programmes. Conclusion There are a small number of factors that consistently appear to influence uptake and completion of cardiovascular lifestyle behaviour change. These factors could be considered during patient consultations to promote a tailored approach to

  4. Lifestyle Changes in Young Adulthood and Middle Age and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and All-Cause Mortality : The Doetinchem Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hulsegge, Gerben; Looman, Moniek; Smit, Henriëtte A.; Daviglus, Martha L; Van Der Schouw, Yvonne T; Verschuren, W.M. Monique

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The associations between overall lifestyle profile and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and death have been mainly investigated in cross-sectional studies. The full benefits of a healthy lifestyle may therefore be underestimated, and the magnitude of benefits associated with changes in lifestyle remains unclear. We quantified the association of changes in lifestyle profiles over 5 years with risk of CVD and all-cause mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: Lifestyle factors (ie, diet, physica...

  5. Preventing a Cardiovascular Disease Epidemic among Indigenous Populations through Lifestyle Changes

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    Lee Stoner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the driving force behind the discrepancy in life expectancy between indigenous and non-indigenous groups in many countries. Preceding CVD many indigenous groups exhibit a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, including overweight-obesity, diabetes, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure. In turn, modifiable lifestyle risk factors contribute to the development of this cluster of cardiometabolic conditions. Modifiable lifestyle risk factors include, but are not limited to, physical inactivity, poor nutrition, excessive alcohol consumption, and cigarette smoking. Notably, these metabolic and lifestyle risk factors are relatively simple to monitor and track. The current review will look at modifiable cardiometabolic (overweight-obesity, diabetes mellitus, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure and lifestyle (physical inactivity, poor nutrition, risky alcohol behavior, and cigarette smoking risk factors among indigenous populations from Australia (Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders, New Zealand (Mβori and the United States (Native Americans. Discussion will focus on the causal relationship between modifiable lifestyle risk factors and cardiometabolic outcomes, as well as, simple measurements for tracking these risk factors.

  6. Body & Lifestyle Changes

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    ... Close X Home > Pregnancy > Body & lifestyle changes Body & lifestyle changes E-mail to a friend Please fill ... between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Body & lifestyle changes Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care ...

  7. Lifestyle Changes in Young Adulthood and Middle Age and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and All-Cause Mortality : The Doetinchem Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsegge, Gerben; Looman, Moniek; Smit, Henriëtte A; Daviglus, Martha L; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Verschuren, W M Monique

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The associations between overall lifestyle profile and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and death have been mainly investigated in cross-sectional studies. The full benefits of a healthy lifestyle may therefore be underestimated, and the magnitude of benefits associated with changes in lifes

  8. Lifestyle Changes and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Lifestyle Changes and Cholesterol Updated:Oct 26,2015 As ... disease and stroke, your doctor may suggest some lifestyle changes. Regardless of whether your plan includes drug ...

  9. Lifestyle Decreases Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Slavíček, Jaroslav; Kittnar, Otomar; Fraser, Gary E.; Medová, Eva; Konečná, Jana; Žižka, Robert; Dohnalová, Alena; Novák, Vladimír

    2008-01-01

    The morbidity and mortality of the cardiovascular diseases is high in the developed countries. The lifestyle changes are capable to decrease it by 50%. The aim of the present study was to measure the parameters of some risk factors before and after a one-week NEW START rehabilitative retreat. 1,349 volunteers, 320 men, 1,029 woman, mean age 51±14.5 (SD) years participated in 30 rehabilitative retreats from 1999–2006 in the Czech Republic, using a low-fat, low-energy, lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet...

  10. Lifestyle decreases risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavícek, Jaroslav; Kittnar, Otomar; Fraser, Gary E; Medová, Eva; Konecná, Jana; Zizka, Robert; Dohnalová, Alena; Novák, Vladimir

    2008-12-01

    The morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases is high in the developed countries. The lifestyle changes are capable to decrease it by 50%. The aim of the present study was to measure the parameters of some risk factors before and after a one-week NEW START rehabilitative retreat. 1349 volunteers, 320 men, 1029 woman, mean age 51 +/- 14.5 (SD) years participated in 30 rehabilitative retreats from 1999-2006 in the Czech Republic, using a low-fat, low-energy, lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and exercise, in a stress-free environment. Body weight, height, BMI, blood pressure, heart rate, serum cholesterol and blood glucose were measured. Body weight decreased in 1223 measured persons from 71.2 +/- 14.38 (SD) to 70.6 +/- 14.02 kg (placto-ovo vegetarians and Seventh-day Adventists than in controls who never observed the diet and avail the lifestyle programs. The parameters were nonsignificantly changed one year after finishing the retreat in the sample of 68 persons showing the positive effect of retreats. Our results showed, that the intake of a low-fat, low-energy diet, over the course of one week in a stress-free environment, had positive impact on the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:19256282

  11. Lifestyle factors and risk of cardiovascular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoevenaar-Blom, M.P.

    2013-01-01

     Background Evidence is accumulating that lifestyle factors influence the incidence of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular diseases (CVD). A healthy diet, being physically active, moderate alcohol consumption and not smoking are associated with a lower CVD risk. In addition to

  12. Lifestyle Medicine-Related Cardiovascular Risk Factor Changes in Employees Participating in a Pharmacist-Run Risk Reduction Program

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    Yongyue Qi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD remains the leading cause of death among American adults accounting for approximately one-third of all deaths. It has been shown, however, that the actual causes of death are related to lifestyle behaviors such as tobacco use, poor diet and physical activity and alcohol consumption. A pharmacist-run employee health program, started in 2008, sought to lower CVD risk through the use of individualized lifestyle behavior programming, medication therapy management, and care coordination activities. Following one year of participation in the program, employee participants were shown to significantly increase exercise quantity (p < 0.001, fruit and vegetable consumption (p < 0.001, and decrease self-reported stress level (p = 0.006. The percentage of program participants simultaneously adherent to the recommended levels of exercise, combined fruit and vegetable intake and tobacco abstinence at one-year was 34.5% vs. 5.5% at baseline. This compares with only 5.1% of the U.S. population adherent to the same three behaviors. Pharmacists can positively impact healthy lifestyle behaviors when working in an employee health setting.

  13. Lifestyle dominates cardiovascular risks in Malaysia

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    Khalib A. Latiff

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular problem is one of the leading cause of death in Malaysia and now invaded to the sub-urban and rural areas. To prevent and control of this problem, several main risk factors needed to be known and shall be reexamined and ranked according to the priority. The objectives of this research paper was to identify several dominant risk factor related to cardiovascular problem. A cross sectional study was carried out from March 2000 – June 2001 on a total of 8159 rural population aged 18 and above to measure the prevalence of the common cardiovascular risk factors. Those risk factors are systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, serum cholesterol level, obesity index, blood glucose level, smoking, physical activity and mental stress. Overall prevalence of common cardiovascular risk factors were higher, dominated by physical inactivity (65.7%, hypercholesterolemia – TC:HC (62.3%, mental stress (55.5% and obesity (53.7%. Smoking was also high at 49.9% especially among men. However systolic hypertension, diastolic hypertension and diabetes mellitus; although increased by age, its prevalence is relatively low at 23.7%, 19.2%, and 6.3% respectively. Cardiovascular risk factors related to lifestyle are much evidenced as compared to risk factors related to the biological influence. Therefore, all initiatives in community health intervention should be mobilized specifically on prevention and control of lifestyle-related risk factors. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 50-6Keywords: cardiovascular problem, community intervention, lifestyle-linked risk factors

  14. Lifestyle Changes for Heart Failure

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    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Lifestyle Changes for Heart Failure Updated:May 4,2016 ... so it becomes a regular part of your lifestyle. Managing stress Take 15 to 20 minutes a ...

  15. Cardiovascular effects of intensive lifestyle intervention in type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weight loss is recommended for overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes on the basis of short-term studies, but long-term effects on cardiovascular disease remain unknown. We examined whether an intensive lifestyle intervention for weight loss would decrease cardiovascular morbidity and mor...

  16. The CHANGE trial: no superiority of lifestyle coaching plus care coordination plus treatment as usual compared to treatment as usual alone in reducing risk of cardiovascular disease in adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and abdominal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speyer, Helene; Christian Brix Nørgaard, Hans; Birk, Merete; Karlsen, Mette; Storch Jakobsen, Ane; Pedersen, Kamilla; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Pisinger, Charlotta; Gluud, Christian; Mors, Ole; Krogh, Jesper; Nordentoft, Merete

    2016-06-01

    Life expectancy in patients with schizophrenia is reduced by 20 years for men and 15 years for women compared to the general population. About 60% of the excess mortality is due to physical illnesses, with cardiovascular disease being dominant. CHANGE was a randomized, parallel-group, superiority, multi-centre trial with blinded outcome assessment, testing the efficacy of an intervention aimed to improve cardiovascular risk profile and hereby potentially reduce mortality. A total of 428 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and abdominal obesity were recruited and centrally randomized 1:1:1 to 12 months of lifestyle coaching plus care coordination plus treatment as usual (N=138), or care coordination plus treatment as usual (N=142), or treatment as usual alone (N=148). The primary outcome was 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease assessed post-treatment and standardized to age 60. At follow-up, the mean 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease was 8.4 ± 6.7% in the group receiving lifestyle coaching, 8.5 ± 7.5% in the care coordination group, and 8.0 ± 6.5% in the treatment as usual group (p=0.41). We found no intervention effects for any secondary or exploratory outcomes, including cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity, weight, diet and smoking. In conclusion, the CHANGE trial did not support superiority of individual lifestyle coaching or care coordination compared to treatment as usual in reducing cardiovascular risk in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and abdominal obesity. PMID:27265706

  17. The CHANGE trial: no superiority of lifestyle coaching plus care coordination plus treatment as usual compared to treatment as usual alone in reducing risk of cardiovascular disease in adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and abdominal obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speyer, Helene; Christian Brix Nørgaard, Hans; Birk, Merete; Karlsen, Mette; Storch Jakobsen, Ane; Pedersen, Kamilla; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Pisinger, Charlotta; Gluud, Christian; Mors, Ole; Krogh, Jesper; Nordentoft, Merete

    2016-01-01

    Life expectancy in patients with schizophrenia is reduced by 20 years for men and 15 years for women compared to the general population. About 60% of the excess mortality is due to physical illnesses, with cardiovascular disease being dominant. CHANGE was a randomized, parallel‐group, superiority, multi‐centre trial with blinded outcome assessment, testing the efficacy of an intervention aimed to improve cardiovascular risk profile and hereby potentially reduce mortality. A total of 428 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and abdominal obesity were recruited and centrally randomized 1:1:1 to 12 months of lifestyle coaching plus care coordination plus treatment as usual (N=138), or care coordination plus treatment as usual (N=142), or treatment as usual alone (N=148). The primary outcome was 10‐year risk of cardiovascular disease assessed post‐treatment and standardized to age 60. At follow‐up, the mean 10‐year risk of cardiovascular disease was 8.4 ± 6.7% in the group receiving lifestyle coaching, 8.5 ± 7.5% in the care coordination group, and 8.0 ± 6.5% in the treatment as usual group (p=0.41). We found no intervention effects for any secondary or exploratory outcomes, including cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity, weight, diet and smoking. In conclusion, the CHANGE trial did not support superiority of individual lifestyle coaching or care coordination compared to treatment as usual in reducing cardiovascular risk in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and abdominal obesity. PMID:27265706

  18. Lifestyle dominates cardiovascular risks in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Khalib A. Latiff; Khairul H. Yusof

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular problem is one of the leading cause of death in Malaysia and now invaded to the sub-urban and rural areas. To prevent and control of this problem, several main risk factors needed to be known and shall be reexamined and ranked according to the priority. The objectives of this research paper was to identify several dominant risk factor related to cardiovascular problem. A cross sectional study was carried out from March 2000 – June 2001 on a total of 8159 rural population aged 1...

  19. Lifestyle Changes After Laryngeal or Hypopharyngeal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... laryngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer affect your emotional health? Lifestyle changes after laryngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer You can’ ... people want to know if there are specific lifestyle changes they can make to reduce their risk ...

  20. Improving patient adherence to lifestyle advice (IMPALA): a cluster-randomised controlled trial on the implementation of a nurse-led intervention for cardiovascular risk management in primary care (protocol).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, M.S. Koelewijn-van; Steenkiste, B. van; Ronda, G.; Wensing, M.J.P.; Stoffers, H.E.; Elwyn, G.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Weijden, T.T. van der

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many patients at high risk of cardiovascular diseases are managed and monitored in general practice. Recommendations for cardiovascular risk management, including lifestyle change, are clearly described in the Dutch national guideline. Although lifestyle interventions, such as advice on

  1. Gene expression profiling during intensive cardiovascular lifestyle modification: Relationships with vascular function and weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L. Blackburn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Heart disease and related sequelae are a leading cause of death and healthcare expenditure throughout the world. Although many patients opt for surgical interventions, lifestyle modification programs focusing on nutrition and exercise have shown substantial health benefits and are becoming increasing popular. We conducted a year-long lifestyle modification program to mediate cardiovascular risk through traditional risk factors and to investigate how molecular changes, if present, may contribute to long-term risk reduction. Here we describe the lifestyle intervention, including clinical and molecular data collected, and provide details of the experimental methods and quality control parameters for the gene expression data generated from participants and non-intervention controls. Our findings suggest successful and sustained modulation of gene expression through healthy lifestyle changes may have beneficial effects on vascular health that cannot be discerned from traditional risk factor profiles. The data are deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus, series GSE46097 and GSE66175.

  2. A retrospective cohort study on lifestyle habits of cardiovascular patients: how informative are medical records?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Fouwels; S.J.H. Bredie; H. Wollersheim; G.M. Schippers

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: To evaluate the vigilance of medical specialists as to the lifestyle of their cardiovascular outpatients by comparing lifestyle screening as registered in medical records versus a lifestyle questionnaire (LSQ), a study was carried out at the cardiovascular outpatient clinic of

  3. A retrospective cohort study on lifestyle habits of cardiovascular patients: how informative are medical records?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fouwels, A.J.; Bredie, S.J.H.; Wollersheim, H.C.H.; Schippers, G.M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To evaluate the vigilance of medical specialists as to the lifestyle of their cardiovascular outpatients by comparing lifestyle screening as registered in medical records versus a lifestyle questionnaire (LSQ), a study was carried out at the cardiovascular outpatient clinic of the univer

  4. Primary prevention of diabetes mellitus type 2 and cardiovascular diseases using a cognitive behavior program aimed at lifestyle changes in people at risk: Design of a randomized controlled trial

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    Chinapaw Marijke J

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of people with cardiovascular disease (CVD and diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM is growing rapidly. To a large extend, this increase is due to lifestyle-dependent risk factors, such as overweight, reduced physical activity, and an unhealthy diet. Changing these risk factors has the potential to postpone or prevent the development of T2DM and CVD. It is hypothesized that a cognitive behavioral program (CBP, focused in particular on motivation and self-management in persons who are at high risk for CVD and/or T2DM, will improve their lifestyle behavior and, as a result, will reduce their risk of developing T2DM and CVD. Methods 12,000 inhabitants, 30-50 years of age living in several municipalities in the semi-rural region of West-Friesland will receive an invitation from their general practitioner (n = 13 to measure their own waist circumference with a tape measure. People with abdominal obesity (male waist ≥ 102 cm, female waist ≥ 88 cm will be invited to participate in the second step of the screening which includes blood pressure, a blood sample and anthropometric measurements. T2DM and CVD risk scores will then be calculated according to the ARIC and the SCORE formulae, respectively. People with a score that indicates a high risk of developing T2DM and/or CVD will then be randomly assigned to the intervention group (n = 300 or the control group (n = 300. Participants in the intervention group will follow a CBP aimed at modifying their dietary behavior, physical activity, and smoking behavior. The counseling methods that will be used are motivational interviewing (MI and problem solving treatment (PST, which focus in particular on intrinsic motivation for change and self-management of problems of the participants. The CBP will be provided by trained nurse practitioners in the participant's general practice, and will consists of a maximum of six individual sessions of 30 minutes, followed by 3-monthly booster

  5. Lifestyle change as therapy for obesity

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    Adrian Vlad

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Lifestyle change (comprising adequate diet, physical activity, and behavior therapy represents the cornerstone of obesitytherapy. Dietary intervention consists primarily in reducing the energy content of the diet and secondarily in altering the relativemacronutrient composition. It is recommended to ingest low-calorie diets rather than very-low-calorie diets, because they aresafer and better accepted and provide at least similar long-term results. Low-fat diets have traditionally been prescribed forweight loss, because they facilitate energy restriction. Low-carbohydrate diets are helpful because they favor energy restriction,as well. Physical activity has favorable effects in obese patients: it prevents the decline in resting energy expenditure thataccompanies diet-induced weight loss, reduces the amount of free-fat mass lost, decreases the risk of developing type 2diabetes mellitus and of dying from cardiovascular disease, increases the rate of weight loss, and helps maintaining the resultson long term. Behavior therapy aims at altering eating and activity habits that promote obesity. It usually involves multiplestrategies, including stimulus control, self-monitoring, problem solving skills, cognitive restructuring, social support, andrelapse prevention. Many obese persons can achieve short-term weight loss by dieting alone. However, successful log-termresults are much more difficult to obtain and require a more complex strategy, including physical activity and behavior therapy.

  6. Individual influences on lifestyle change to reduce vascular risk: a qualitative literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Jenni; Honey, Stephanie; Hill, Kate; Craigs, Cheryl; House, Allan

    2012-01-01

    Background Management of cardiovascular risk includes adoption of healthy lifestyles. Uptake and completion rates for lifestyle programmes are low and many barriers and facilitators to lifestyle behaviour change have been reported in the literature. Clarity on which barriers and facilitators to target during consultations in primary care may support a more systematic approach to lifestyle behaviour change in those at high risk of cardiovascular events. Aim To identify the main barriers and facilitators to lifestyle behaviour change in individuals at high risk of cardiovascular events. Design A content synthesis of the qualitative literature reporting patient-level influences on lifestyle change. Method Qualitative studies involving patients at high risk of cardiovascular events were identified through electronic searching and screening against predefined selection criteria. Factors (reported influences) were extracted and, using a clustering technique, organised into categories that were then linked to key themes through relationship mapping. Results A total of 348 factors were extracted from 33 studies. Factors were organised into 20 categories and from these categories five key themes were identified: emotions, beliefs, information and communication, friends and family support, and cost/transport. Conclusion It is possible to organise the large number of self-reported individual influences on lifestyle behaviours into a small number of themes. Further research is needed to clarify which of these patient-level barriers and facilitators are the best predictors of uptake and participation in programmes aimed at helping people to change lifestyle. PMID:22687232

  7. Obesity-related inflammation & cardiovascular disease: Efficacy of a yoga-based lifestyle intervention

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    Kumar Sarvottam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a global health burden and its prevalence is increasing substantially due to changing lifestyle. Chronic adiposity is associated with metabolic imbalance leading to dyslipidaemia, diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases (CVD. Adipose tissue acts as an endocrine organ releasing several adipocytokines, and is associated with increased levels of tissue and circulating inflammatory biomolecules causing vascular inflammation and atherogenesis. Further, inflammation is also associated independently with obesity as well as CVD. Keeping this in view, it is possible that a reduction in weight may lead to a decrease in inflammation, resulting in CVD risk reduction, and better management of patients with CVD. Lifestyle intervention has been endorsed by several health authorities in prevention and management of chronic diseases. A yoga-based lifestyle intervention appears to be a promising option in reducing the risk for CVD as well as management of patients with CVD as it is simple to follow and cost-effective with high compliance. The efficacy of such lifestyle intervention programmes is multifaceted, and is achieved via reduction in weight, obesity-related inflammation and stress, thereby culminating into risk reduction towards several chronic diseases including CVD. In this review, the association between obesity-related inflammation and CVD, and the role of yoga-based lifestyle intervention in prevention and management of CVD are discussed.

  8. Low muscle mass in older men: the role of lifestyle, diet and cardiovascular risk factors.

    OpenAIRE

    Atkins, J. L.; Whincup, P. H.; Morris, R. W.; Wannamethee, S.G.

    2014-01-01

    To explore associations between low muscle mass and a wide range of lifestyle, dietary and cardiovascular risk factors in older men including metabolic risk factors, markers of inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and coagulation.

  9. The effect of a comprehensive lifestyle intervention on cardiovascular risk factors in pharmacologically treated patients with stable cardiovascular disease compared to usual care: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJzelenberg Wilhelmina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The additional benefit of lifestyle interventions in patients receiving cardioprotective drug treatment to improve cardiovascular risk profile is not fully established. The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of a target-driven multidisciplinary structured lifestyle intervention programme of 6 months duration aimed at maximum reduction of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD compared with usual care. Methods A single centre, two arm, parallel group randomised controlled trial was performed. Patients with stable established CVD and at least one lifestyle-related risk factor were recruited from the vascular and cardiology outpatient departments of the university hospital. Blocked randomisation was used to allocate patients to the intervention (n = 71 or control group (n = 75 using an on-site computer system combined with allocations in computer-generated tables of random numbers kept in a locked computer file. The intervention group received the comprehensive lifestyle intervention offered in a specialised outpatient clinic in addition to usual care. The control group continued to receive usual care. Outcome measures were the lifestyle-related cardiovascular risk factors: smoking, physical activity, physical fitness, diet, blood pressure, plasma total/HDL/LDL cholesterol concentrations, BMI, waist circumference, and changes in medication. Results The intervention led to increased physical activity/fitness levels and an improved cardiovascular risk factor profile (reduced BMI and waist circumference. In this setting, cardiovascular risk management for blood pressure and lipid levels by prophylactic treatment for CVD in usual care was already close to optimal as reflected in baseline levels. There was no significant improvement in any other risk factor. Conclusions Even in CVD patients receiving good clinical care and using cardioprotective drug treatment, a comprehensive

  10. Lifestyle changes and childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Neil; Douwes, Jeroen

    2013-03-01

    In recent decades there have been marked increases in asthma prevalence in Western countries. More recently, asthma prevalence has peaked, or even begun to decline, in Western countries, but many low and middle income countries are now beginning to experience increases in prevalence (although there is no evidence of increases in prevalence in India to date). "Established" risk factors for asthma cannot account for the global prevalence increases, or the international patterns that have been observed, or the recent declines in prevalence in some Western countries. It seems that as a result of the "package" of changes in the intrauterine and infant environment that are occurring with "Westernization", we are seeing an increased susceptibility to the development of asthma and/or allergy. There are a number of elements of this "package" including changes in maternal diet, increased fetal growth, smaller family size, reduced infant infections and increased use of antibiotics and paracetamol, and immunization, all of which have been (inconsistently) associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma, but none of which can alone explain the increases in prevalence. It is likely that the "package" is more than the sum of its parts, and that these social and environmental changes are all pushing the infants' immune systems towards an increased risk of asthma. PMID:22555908

  11. Effect of major lifestyle risk factors, independent and jointly, on life expectancy with and without cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Doherty, Mark G; Cairns, Karen; O'Neill, Vikki;

    2016-01-01

    -free" years, though a healthy lifestyle was also associated with extra years lived after a CVD event. There are sizeable benefits to LE without CVD and also for survival after CVD onset when people favour a lifestyle characterized by salutary behaviours. Remaining a non-smoker yielded the greatest extra years......Seldom have studies taken account of changes in lifestyle habits in the elderly, or investigated their impact on disease-free life expectancy (LE) and LE with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Using data on subjects aged 50+ years from three European cohorts (RCPH, ESTHER and Tromsø), we used multi......-state Markov models to calculate the independent and joint effects of smoking, physical activity, obesity and alcohol consumption on LE with and without CVD. Men and women aged 50 years who have a favourable lifestyle (overweight but not obese, light/moderate drinker, non-smoker and participates in vigorous...

  12. The Role of Healthy Lifestyle in the Primordial Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claas, Steven A; Arnett, Donna K

    2016-06-01

    Whereas primary prevention seeks to forestall development of disease in individuals with elevated risk, primordial prevention seeks to preempt the development of risk factors. Health behaviors-characterized as "lifestyle" factors-are key interventional targets in primordial prevention of cardiovascular disease. Appropriate dietary intake, including limiting salt and saturated fat consumption, can reduce the risk of developing hypertension and dyslipidemias. Regular physical activity is associated with lower blood pressure and healthier lipid profiles. Diet and exercise are critical to maintaining weight conducive to cardiovascular health. Behavioral factors such as stress management, sleep duration, portion control, and meal timing may play a role in weight management and offer additional routes of intervention. Any smoking elevates cardiovascular risk. Although lifestyle modification programs can be instrumental in reaching public health goals, maintaining cardiovascular health should not be a matter solely of willpower. Ideally, structural and social forces should make healthy lifestyles the default option. PMID:27142061

  13. IIASA's Population Project: Aging and Changing Lifestyles

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, A

    1982-01-01

    Low fertility levels in IIASA countries are creating aging populations whose demands for health care and income maintenance (social security) will increase to unprecedented levels, thereby calling forth policies that will seek to promote increased family care and worklife flexibility. The Population Project will examine current patterns of population aging and changing lifestyles in IIASA countries, project the needs for health and income support that such patterns are likely to generate duri...

  14. Lifestyle changes for prevention of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hashemi, Seyed Hesam Bani; Karimi, Samieh; Mahboobi, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cause of death from cancer among women. Lifestyle changes are shown to be important in the prevention of breast cancer. Diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol use, and vitamin and mineral use are key factors influencing the risk of breast cancer among women. Because these factors are related to each other, it is difficult to assess their individual roles in breast cancer. Some of these factors are alterable, meaning that women can decrease their risk...

  15. Changes in lifestyle and total homocysteine in relation to MTHFR (C677T) genotype: the Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husemoen, LL; Thomsen, TF; Fenger, M;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reduction in total homocysteine (tHcy) may be clinically relevant in the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of changes in various lifestyle habits and lifestyle related biological CVD risk markers on changes in t...

  16. Education to a Healthy Lifestyle Improves Symptoms and Cardiovascular Risk Factors – AsuRiesgo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Chaves

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular diseases are the current leading causes of death and disability globally. Objective: To assess the effects of a basic educational program for cardiovascular prevention in an unselected outpatient population. Methods: All participants received an educational program to change to a healthy lifestyle. Assessments were conducted at study enrollment and during follow-up. Symptoms, habits, ATP III parameters for metabolic syndrome, and American Heart Association’s 2020 parameters of cardiovascular health were assessed. Results: A total of 15,073 participants aged ≥ 18 years entered the study. Data analysis was conducted in 3,009 patients who completed a second assessment. An improvement in weight (from 76.6 ± 15.3 to 76.4 ± 15.3 kg, p = 0.002, dyspnea on exertion NYHA grade II (from 23.4% to 21.0% and grade III (from 15.8% to 14.0% and a decrease in the proportion of current active smokers (from 3.6% to 2.9%, p = 0.002 could be documented. The proportion of patients with levels of triglycerides > 150 mg/dL (from 46.3% to 42.4%, p 100 mg/dL (from 69.3% to 65.5%, p < 0.001 improved. A ≥ 20% improvement of AHA 2020 metrics at the level graded as poor was found for smoking (-21.1%, diet (-29.8%, and cholesterol level (-23.6%. A large dropout as a surrogate indicator for low patient adherence was documented throughout the first 5 visits, 80% between the first and second assessments, 55.6% between the second and third assessments, 43.6% between the third and fourth assessments, and 38% between the fourth and fifth assessments. Conclusion: A simple, basic educational program may improve symptoms and modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, but shows low patient adherence.

  17. Lifestyle changes in the management of adulthood and childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orio, Francesco; Tafuri, Domenico; Ascione, Antonio; Marciano, Francesca; Savastano, Silvia; Colarieti, Giorgio; Orio, Marcello; Colao, Annamaria; Palomba, Stefano; Muscogiuri, Giovanna

    2016-12-01

    Adulthood and childhood obesity is rapidly becoming an epidemic problem and it has a short and long-term impact on health. Short-term consequences are mostly represented by psychological effects; in fact obese children have more chances to develop psychological or psychiatric problems than non-obese children. The main long-term effect is represented by the fact that childhood obesity continues into adulthood obesity and this results in negative effects in young adult life, since obesity increases the risk to develop morbidity and premature mortality. The obesity-related diseases are mostly represented by hypertension, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular diseases. Medical treatment should be discouraged in childhood because of the side effects and it should be only reserved for obese children with related medical complications. Lifestyle changes should be encouraged in both adulthood and childhood obesity. This review focuses on the management of obesity both in adulthood and in childhood, paying particular attention to lifestyle changes that should be recommended. PMID:27600645

  18. Lifestyle Risk Factors and Cardiovascular Disease in Cubans and Cuban Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa S. Burroughs Peña

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in Cuba. Lifestyle risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD in Cubans have not been compared to risk factors in Cuban Americans. Articles spanning the last 20 years were reviewed. The data on Cuban Americans are largely based on the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES, 1982–1984, while more recent data on epidemiological trends in Cuba are available. The prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus remains greater in Cuban Americans than in Cubans. However, dietary preferences, low physical activity, and tobacco use are contributing to the rising rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and CHD in Cuba, putting Cubans at increased cardiovascular risk. Comprehensive national strategies for cardiovascular prevention that address these modifiable lifestyle risk factors are necessary to address the increasing threat to public health in Cuba.

  19. How can consumers be empowered for sustainable lifestyle changes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    Consumers can be empowered for changing lifestyles by reducing some of their individual limitations, but it is also important to reduce some of the external constraints that make changes towards a more sustainable lifestyle difficult. In terms of reducing consumers' subjectively felt restrictions...... on their ability to change lifestyle, the two approaches are equivalent. Policy that increases a feeling of empowerment may also have a positive effect on consumers' motivation to make an effort, thus amplifying its effects. In this paper I discuss both types of constraints on lifestyle changes in a...

  20. Stage of Change and Motivation to a Healthier Lifestyle before and after an Intensive Lifestyle Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Buratta Livia; Reginato Elisa; Ranucci Claudia; Pippi Roberto; Aiello Cristina; Sbroma Tomaro Emilia; Perrone Chiara; Tirimagni Alberto; Russo Angelo; De Feo Pierpaolo; Mazzeschi Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Lifestyle modification programs are different but typically include both nutritional aspects and physical activity as main domains with different behavioral and/or psychological strategies designed to affect change. A fundamental role in modifying unhealthy habits is played by personal motivation for change. The present study sought to investigate, in a group of 100 overweight/obese outpatients with and/or without TMD2, treatment seeking, the effect of an intensive lifestyle progra...

  1. Changes in lifestyle and total homocysteine in relation to MTHFR (C677T) genotype: the Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husemoen, LL; Thomsen, TF; Fenger, M;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reduction in total homocysteine (tHcy) may be clinically relevant in the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of changes in various lifestyle habits and lifestyle related biological CVD risk markers on changes in tHcy in...... intervention and re-examination after one year. RESULTS: None of the studied lifestyle changes-- smoking, physical activity, dietary habits, and coffee, tea, and alcohol consumption-- was significantly associated with changes in tHcy, either overall, or in any of the MTHFR genotype subgroups. In addition...

  2. Lifestyle modifies obesity-associated risk of cardiovascular disease in a genetically homogeneous population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marit E; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The association between obesity and cardiovascular disease risk differs across populations. Whether such differences in obesity-related risk factors exist within population groups of the same genetic origin but with differences in lifestyle remains to be determined. OBJECTIVE: The aim...... was to analyze whether obesity was associated with the same degree of metabolic disturbances in 2 groups of genetically homogeneous Inuit who were exposed to considerable differences in lifestyle. DESIGN: We studied obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in a cross-sectional population survey...... insulin than did the Inuit migrants in Denmark. The trend in the association with obesity categories was different only for HDL cholesterol, with higher concentrations observed in women Inuit migrants in Denmark than in women Inuit residents in Greenland. CONCLUSIONS: The health risk associated with...

  3. Cardiovascular risk profile and lifestyle habits in a cohort of Italian cardiologists (from the SOCRATES Survey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temporelli, Pier Luigi; Zito, Giovanni; Faggiano, Pompilio

    2013-07-15

    Cardiologists' cardiovascular profile and lifestyle habits are poorly known worldwide. To offer a snapshot of the personal health habits of Italian cardiologists, the Survey on Cardiac Risk Profile and Lifestyle Habits in a Cohort of Italian Cardiologists (SOCRATES) was undertaken. A Web-based electronic self-reported survey, accessible through a dedicated Web site, was used for data entry, and data were transferred through the Web to a central database. The survey was divided into 4 sections: baseline characteristics, medical illnesses and traditional cardiovascular risk factors, lifestyle habits, and selected medication use. The e-mail databases of 3 national scientific societies were used to survey a large and representative sample of Italian cardiologists. During the 3-month period of the survey, 1,770 of the 5,240 cardiologists contacted (33.7%) completed and returned ≥1 sections of the questionnaire. More than 49% of the participants had 1 of the 5 classic risk factors (hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, active smoking, diabetes, and previous vascular events). More than 28% of respondents had 2 to 5 risk factors, and only 22.1% had none and therefore, according to age and gender, could be considered at low to intermediate risk. Despite the reported risk factors, >90% of cardiologists had a self-reported risk perception quantified as mild, such as low or intermediate. Furthermore, overweight and obesity, physical inactivity, and stress at work or at home were commonly reported, as well as limited use of cardiovascular drugs, such as statins or aspirin. In conclusion, the average cardiovascular profile of Italian cardiologist is unlikely to be considered ideal or even favorable according to recent statements and guidelines regarding cardiovascular risk. PMID:23587277

  4. Let's Talk about Lifestyle Changes to Prevent Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevention let’s talk about Lifestyle Changes To Prevent Stroke You can do plenty to make your heart and blood vessels healthy, even if you’ve had a stroke. A healthy lifestyle plays a big part in decreasing your risk ...

  5. Changes in Healthy Childhood Lifestyle Behaviors in Japanese Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Takahiro; Kasuga, Kosho; Murase, Tomohiko; Suzuki, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Background: Unhealthy lifestyles during childhood constitute a public health problem in Japan. However, current health education in Japan is ineffective in counteracting them. Previous studies contend that healthy lifestyles in children vary by academic grade and sex. This study examined changes throughout childhood suggests some intervention…

  6. Sociocultural Tailoring of a Healthy Lifestyle Intervention to Reduce Cardiovascular Disease and Type 2 Diabetes Risk Among Latinos

    OpenAIRE

    Mudd-Martin, Gia; Martinez, Maria C.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Gokun, Yevgeniya; Meininger, Janet C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Suboptimal lifestyle factors in combination with genetic susceptibility contribute to cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes risk among Latinos. We describe a community–academic collaboration that developed and explored the feasibility of implementing a socioculturally tailored, healthy lifestyle intervention integrating genomics and family history education to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes among Latinos. Community Context The community-based partici...

  7. Metabolic Syndrome in African Americans: Views on Making Lifestyle Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkendoll, Kenya D.; Clark, Patricia C.; Grossniklaus, Daurice A.; Igho-Pemu, Priscilla; Mullis, Rebecca M.; Dunbar, Sandra B.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores African American adults’ understanding of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and their motivations for making lifestyle changes. African Americans have a greater risk for components of MetS, such as hypertension.

  8. Diet, Lifestyle, Biomarkers, Genetic Factors, and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in the Nurses’ Health Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Edward; Rimm, Eric; Qi, Lu; Rexrode, Kathryn; Albert, Christine M.; Sun, Qi; Willett, Walter C.; Manson, JoAnn E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To review the contributions of the Nurses’ Health Studies (NHSs) to the understanding of cardiovascular disease etiology in women. Methods. We performed a narrative review of the publications of the NHS and NHS II between 1976 and 2016. Results. Diets low in trans fat, saturated fat, refined carbohydrates, and sugar-sweetened beverages and rich in fruits and vegetables, whole grains, and sources of unsaturated fats are associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Healthy lifestyle choices include smoking avoidance, regular physical activity, maintaining a normal body mass index, and moderate alcohol consumption. Adherence to a combination of these healthy diet and lifestyle behaviors may prevent most vascular events. Studies also covered oral contraceptive use, postmenopausal hormone therapy, shift work, sleep duration, psychosocial factors, and various biomarkers and genetic factors. Findings, such as the association of trans fat with cardiovascular disease, have helped shaped medical guidelines and government policies. Conclusions. The NHS has provided compelling evidence that the majority of vascular events may be prevented by avoiding smoking, participating in regular physical activity, maintaining normal body mass index, and eating a healthy diet. PMID:27459449

  9. Lifestyle, Cardiovascular Drugs and Risk Factors in Younger and Elder Adults: The PEP Family Heart Study

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Schwandt; Evelyn Liepold; Thomas Bertsch; Gerda-Maria Haas

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to compare cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, lifestyle habits and pharmacological treatment in two groups of elder adults with 20 years difference in their mean age. Methods: This study comprised 590 women including two groups with mean age of 42.4±5.5 vs. 66.5±4.0 years, and 486 men of two groups with mean age of 44.1±5.6 vs. 63.9±7.0 years. Data on physical examination, fasting blood analyses, 7-day dietary re-cords, physical activity, smoking and a...

  10. The combined impact of adherence to five lifestyle factors on all-cause, cancer and cardiovascular mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kristina E N; Johnsen, Nina F; Olsen, Anja;

    2015-01-01

    Individual lifestyle factors have been associated with lifestyle diseases and premature mortality by an accumulating body of evidence. The impact of a combination of lifestyle factors on mortality has been investigated in several studies, but few have applied a simple index taking national guidel......·70) for cardiovascular mortality. In the present study, adherence to merely one additional health recommendation had a protective effect on mortality risk, indicating a huge potential in enhancing healthy lifestyle behaviours of the population.......Individual lifestyle factors have been associated with lifestyle diseases and premature mortality by an accumulating body of evidence. The impact of a combination of lifestyle factors on mortality has been investigated in several studies, but few have applied a simple index taking national...... guidelines into account. The objective of the present prospective cohort study was to investigate the combined impact of adherence to five lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, waist circumference and diet) on all-cause, cancer and cardiovascular mortality based on international and...

  11. Do lifestyle changes work for improving erectile dysfunction?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaya Horasanli; Ugur Boylu; Muammer Kendirci; Cengiz Miroglu

    2008-01-01

    The main cause of erectile dysfunction (ED) is organic in nature, with vascular etiologies being the most common risk factors. Although there have been sufficient data on the relationship between ED and several well-recognized risk factors, including aging, coronary artery disease, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, high blood pressure,and pelvic surgeries, little attention has been paid by the urologists to the role of lifestyle factors in ED. However,accumulating data from basic science and clinical studies have determined a link between the occurrence of ED and a number of lifestyle factors, such as smoking, obesity, alcohol consumption, and lack of physical activity. The application of findings from animal and human studies to the clinical practice regarding the modification of lifestyle factors could help improving ED as well as reducing the risks of developing cardiovascular diseases. This communication addresses the impact of lifestyle factors on erectile function and the potential benefits of modifying these factors to improve ED in respect to the current evidence.

  12. [Nutritional status, lifestyle and cardiovascular risk in lacto-ovo vegetarians and omnivore].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes Dourado, Keila; Campos, Florisbela de Arruda Câmara e Siqueira; Rojas, Hernando Flores; Simiões, Shirley Kelly dos Santos; de Siqueira, Leonardo Pereira

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess socioeconomic characteristics, dietary intake, nutritional status and cardiovascular risk (using anthropometric indicators of central obesity) in lacto-ovo vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Two non-vegetarians were selected for each vegetarian (paired for gender and age) in order to increase the power of the statistical tests. The sample was made up of 87 individuals (58.6% males; 29 vegetarians and 58 non-vegetarians) with a mean age of 40 +/- 13 years. Among the socioeconomic characteristics, only the number of residents per household differed between groups, with a greater percentage of homes with five or more residents in the vegetarian group. Concerning lifestyle, the groups differed with regard to smoking habits (p fat and cholesterol was higher among the non-vegetarians, whereas carbohydrate and fiber intake was higher among the vegetarians. The results of the present study suggest that, although a lacto-ovo vegetarian diet is considered healthier due to the lower consumption of total fat, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, there are no significant differences in nutritional status or anthropometric indicators of cardiovascular risk when lifestyle and total calorie intake are similar. PMID:21614817

  13. Healthy Lifestyle Behaviours are Associated with Lower Probability of Having Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Akbartabartoori

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Healthy lifestyle behaviors are associated with lower risk of having cardiovascular disease (CVD. There is a cluster of risk factors that predisposes people to CVD. Overweight/obesity, unhealthy diet, inactivity, and smoking are major lifestyle risk factors for CVD, which are also associated with other potent clinical risk factors including raised plasma lipids, coagulation factors and measures of inflammation. This study aimed to evaluate the association between lifestyle factors and some established clinical cardiovascular risk factors: C-reactive protein (CRP, total cholesterol, HDL-C, non-HDL-C and fibrinogen in Scottish adults with a high prevalence of CVD. Cross-sectional data from 5460 participants aged 16-74 years whom had valid biochemical measurements in the Scottish Health Survey (SHS 1998 were analysed. Trained staff obtained anthropometric measures. Levels of physical activity, cigarette smoking, alcohol intake and dietary habits were measured by questionnaires. Non-HDL-C was calculated by subtracting HDL-C from total cholesterol. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS with different statistical tests. After adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI was significantly associated with all risk factors in both sexes as obese subjects had the highest concentrations of CRP, total and non-HDL-C and fibrinogen, and the lowest concentrations of HDL-C (P 4 mmol/l and HDL-c ≤ 1 mmol/l for obese subjects compared with BMI<25 kg/m² were 4.8, 2.2, 4.8, 3.6 respectively. These figures for current smokers compared with non-smokers were 2.0, 2.1 2, and 1.5 respectively (P< 0.01. After BMI and smoking, physical activity was most important factor that showed significant association with CRP, fibrinogen and HDL-C. Total fruit and vegetable consumption had a significant association with CRP, and alcohol intake with HDL-C. Overweight/obesity, cigarette smoking and physical inactivity were the main independent variables associated with the clinical

  14. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MOTIVATION METHODSAPPLIED TO HAVE THE KRASNOYARSK REGION RESIDENTS CHANGE THEIR LIFESTYLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Yurevna Kutumova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The sociological research carried showed that provision of educational information is the main method of motivating people to change their lifestyle and break harmful habits. The mass media are in the first position in the rating as the most effective public awareness development means and healthcare professional advice goes second.A patient usually receives such advice when visiting a healthcare institution to be given diagnosis or treatment or in the course of health assessment or scheduled preventive medical examination. 45% of the Krasnoyarsk Region smokers considered changing their lifestyle and quitting smoking, 36,9% of the residents made such attempt and 8,4% broke the harmful habit after watching television features and under the influence of outdoor advertising. Information that was received from a doctor about risks of developing major no communicable diseases (cardiovascular, oncology, respiratory due to smoking motivated only 36, 9% of the population to change the lifestyle, which mostly included young people aged 18-24. For 63,6% of the region residents there was no positive effect of health professional advice received during a visit to a healthcare institution for a certain purpose. Thus, the received results testify to the bigger importance of educational promotion of mass media in motivation to change of a way of life and refusal of smoking, in comparison with information received from health workers.

  15. Lifestyle, Cardiovascular Drugs and Risk Factors in Younger and Elder Adults: The PEP Family Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schwandt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to compare cardiovascular disease(CVD risk factors, lifestyle habits and pharmacological treatmentin two groups of elder adults with 20 years difference in theirmean age.Methods: This study comprised 590 women including two groupswith mean age of 42.4±5.5 vs. 66.5±4.0 years, and 486 men of twogroups with mean age of 44.1±5.6 vs. 63.9±7.0 years. Data onphysical examination, fasting blood analyses, 7-day dietary records,physical activity, smoking and actual medication use wererecorded.Results: Compared with younger individuals, seniors had a moreadverse risk factor profile in terms of abdominal obesity, overweight,hyperglycemia, hypertension, dyslipoproteinemia withoutdifferences in HDL-C. But this is not reflected by lifestyle behavior.Less than 2% of the elderly and 17% of the younger adultswere current smoker. Furthermore, the pattern of physical activitywas different in terms of more continuous sports in seniorscontrasting with extremes between no sports and more than twicea week in the younger group. Seniors consumed significantly lesscarbohydrates including more monosaccharide and less polysaccharides,more alcohol and water. The intake of fat and proteinwas higher in elder women than in all other groups. One third ofseniors took antihypertensive medications and 12% used lipidmodifying drugs.Conclusions: Different levels of prevention against CVDs andtheir risk factors shall be considered for various age groups ofpopulation. The findings of this study emphasize on the necessityof preventive measures against smoking and physical inactivity inyounger adults and dietary habits in seniors.

  16. Lifestyle, cardiovascular drugs and risk factors in younger and elder adults: The PEP family heart study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schwandt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to compare cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors, lifestyle habits and pharmacological treatment in two groups of elder adults with 20 years difference in their mean age. Methods: This study comprised 590 women including two groups with mean age of 42.4±5.5 vs. 66.5±4.0 years, and 486 men of two groups with mean age of 44.1±5.6 vs. 63.9±7.0 years. Data on physical examination, fasting blood analyses, 7-day dietary re-cords, physical activity, smoking and actual medication use were recorded. Results: Compared with younger individuals, seniors had a more adverse risk factor profile in terms of abdominal obesity, over-weight, hyperglycemia, hypertension, dyslipoproteinemia without differences in HDL-C. But this is not reflected by lifestyle behav-ior. Less than 2% of the elderly and 17% of the younger adults were current smoker. Furthermore, the pattern of physical activ-ity was different in terms of more continuous sports in seniors contrasting with extremes between no sports and more than twice a week in the younger group. Seniors consumed significantly less carbohydrates including more monosaccharide and less polysaccharides, more alcohol and water. The intake of fat and protein was higher in elder women than in all other groups. One third of seniors took antihypertensive medications and 12% used lipid modifying drugs. Conclusions: Different levels of prevention against CVDs and their risk factors shall be considered for various age groups of population. The findings of this study emphasize on the necessity of preventive measures against smoking and physical inactivity in younger adults and dietary habits in seniors.

  17. Depression, coronary artery disease and change of lifestyle

    OpenAIRE

    Söderman, Eva

    2001-01-01

    Depression has been identified as a risk factor for the development of coronary artery disease (CAD) and has been associated with functional impairment and disability, poor outcome of lifestyle changes, incomplete and prolonged recovery, repeated coronary events, and mortality. Thus, there is substantial evidence that depression has a negative impact on CAD. The thesis consists of two interdependent approaches. The aim of the first approach (Studies I- II) was to evaluat...

  18. A 3-year randomized trial of lifestyle intervention for cardiovascular risk reduction in the primary care setting: the Swedish Bjorknas study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta K Eriksson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Successfully transferring the findings of expensive and tightly controlled programmes of intensive lifestyle modification to the primary care setting is necessary if such knowledge is to be of clinical utility. The objective of this study was to test whether intensive lifestyle modification, shown previously in tightly-controlled clinical trials to be efficacious for diabetes risk-reduction among high-risk individuals, can reduce cardiovascular risk factor levels in the primary care setting. METHODOLOGY / PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Swedish Björknäs study was a randomized controlled trial conducted from 2003 to 2006 with follow-up on cardiovascular risk factors at 3, 12, 24 and 36 months. A total of 151 middle-aged men and women at moderate- to high-risk of cardiovascular disease from northern Sweden were randomly assigned to either an intensive lifestyle intervention (n = 75 or control (n = 76 group. The intervention was based broadly on the protocol of the Diabetes Prevention Program. The three-month intervention period was administered in the primary care setting and consisted of supervised exercise sessions and diet counselling, followed by regular group meetings during three years. The control group was given general advice about diet and exercise and received standard clinical care. Outcomes were changes in anthropometrics, aerobic fitness, self-reported physical activity, blood pressure, and metabolic traits. At 36 months post-randomisation, intensive lifestyle modification reduced waist circumference (-2.2 cm: p = 0.001, waist-hip ratio (-0.02: p<0.0001, systolic blood pressure (-4.9 mmHg: p = 0.036, and diastolic blood pressure (-1.6 mmHg: p = 0.005, and improved aerobic fitness (5%; p = 0.038. Changes in lipid or glucose values did not differ statistically between groups. At 36 months, self-reported time spent exercising and total physical activity had increased more in the intervention group than in the control group (p<0

  19. No significant improvement of cardiovascular disease risk indicators by a lifestyle intervention in people with Familial Hypercholesterolemia compared to usual care: results of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broekhuizen Karen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH may benefit from lifestyle changes supporting their primary treatment of dyslipidaemia. This project evaluated the efficacy of an individualised tailored lifestyle intervention on lipids (low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, total cholesterol (TC and triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, glucose, body mass index (BMI and waist circumference in people with FH. Methods Adults with FH (n = 340, recruited from a Dutch cascade screening program, were randomly assigned to either a control group or an intervention group. The personalised intervention consisted of web-based tailored lifestyle advice and personal counselling. The control group received care as usual. Lipids, systolic blood pressure, glucose, BMI, and waist circumference were measured at baseline and after 12 months. Regression analyses were conducted to examine differences between both groups. Results After 12 months, no significant between-group differences of cardiovascular disease (CVD risk indicators were observed. LDL-C levels had decreased in both the intervention and control group. This difference between intervention and control group was not statistically significant. Conclusions This project suggests that an individually tailored lifestyle intervention did not have an additional effect in improving CVD risk indicators among people with FH. The cumulative effect of many small improvements in all indicators on long term CVD risk remains to be assessed in future studies. Trial registration NTR1899 at ww.trialregister.nl

  20. Percentage of Deaths Attributable to Poor Cardiovascular Health Lifestyle Factors: Findings from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Xuemei Sui; Hongjuan Li; Jiajia Zhang; Li Chen; Ling Zhu; Blair, Steven N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. We assessed the effects of the four newly defined American Heart Association (AHA) lifestyle factors on mortality by examining the associated population attributable fractions (PAFs) of these factors. Methods. Slightly modified AHA cardiovascular health factors (smoking, body mass index, cardiorespiratory fitness, and diet) were measured among 11,240 (24% women) participants from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study between 1987 and 1999. The cohort was followed to December 31, 200...

  1. Lifestyle Modifications Versus Antihypertensive Medications in Reducing Cardiovascular Events in an Aging Society: A Success Rate-oriented Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Yoichi; Shibazaki, Satomi; Araki, Ryuichiro; Miyazaki, Takashi; Sato, Makiko; Takahashi, Sachiko; Suwa, Emi; Takenaka, Tsuneo; Suzuki, Hiromichi

    2016-01-01

    Objective It is difficult to compare directly the practical effects of lifestyle modifications and antihypertensive medications on reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD). The purpose of this study was to compare the hypothetical potential of lifestyle modifications with that of antihypertensive medications in reducing CVD in an aging society using a success rate-oriented simulation. Methods We constructed a simulation model for virtual Japanese subpopulations according to sex and age at 10-year intervals from 40 years of age as an example of an aging society. The fractional incidence rate of CVD was calculated as the product of the incidence rate at each systolic blood pressure (SBP) level and the proportion of the SBP frequency distribution in the fractional subpopulations of each SBP. The total incidence rate was calculated by the definite integral of the fractional incidence rate at each SBP level in the sex- and age-specific subpopulations. Results If we consider the effects of lifestyle modifications on metabolic factors and transfer them onto SBP, the reductions in the total incidence rate of CVD were competitive between lifestyle modifications and antihypertensive medications in realistic scenarios. In middle-aged women, the preventive effects of both approaches were limited due to a low incidence rate. In middle-aged men and extremely elderly subjects whose adherence to antihypertensive medications is predicted to be low, lifestyle modifications could be an alternative choice. Conclusion The success rate-oriented simulation suggests that the effectiveness of lifestyle modifications or antihypertensive medications in preventing cardiovascular events largely depends on the baseline incidence rate and sex- and age-specific behavioral factors. PMID:27522993

  2. The Behavioral and Clinical Effects of Therapeutic Lifestyle Change on Middle-aged Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven G. Aldana, PhD

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Chronic diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and diabetes are responsible for most deaths in the United States. Lifestyle factors — poor nutrition, sedentary living, and tobacco use — appear to play a prominent role in the development of many chronic diseases. This study determined the behavioral and clinical impact of a therapeutic lifestyle-modification intervention on a group of community volunteers. Methods Participants included 348 volunteers aged 24 to 81 years from the Rockford, Ill, metropolitan area who participated in a randomized clinical trial. The intervention group attended a 40-hour educational course delivered as lectures during a 4-week period. Participants learned the importance of making better lifestyle choices and how to make improvements in nutrition and physical activity. Changes in nutrition, physical activity behavior, and several chronic disease risk factors were assessed at baseline and 6 months. Results Intervention participants showed significant 6-month improvement in all nutrition and physical activity measures except calories from protein and whole-grain servings and all clinical measures except blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were worse after 6 months in both groups but only significantly worse in the control group. The control group experienced small but significant improvements in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and high-density lipoproteins. Change-score comparisons between the intervention and control groups were significant for all nutrition and physical activity variables except total steps per week and daily sodium intake and were also significant for the clinical measures of weight, body fat, and body mass index. Conclusion This therapeutic lifestyle-modification program can significantly improve nutrition and physical activity behavior and can

  3. Percentage of Deaths Attributable to Poor Cardiovascular Health Lifestyle Factors: Findings from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Sui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We assessed the effects of the four newly defined American Heart Association (AHA lifestyle factors on mortality by examining the associated population attributable fractions (PAFs of these factors. Methods. Slightly modified AHA cardiovascular health factors (smoking, body mass index, cardiorespiratory fitness, and diet were measured among 11,240 (24% women participants from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study between 1987 and 1999. The cohort was followed to December 31, 2003, or death. PAFs were calculated as the proportionate reduction in death attributable to identified risk factors. Results. During an average 12 years of followup, 268 deaths occurred. Low fitness had the highest PAFs at the 5th, 10th, and 15th year of followup, respectively: 6.6%, 6.4%, and 5.5%. Current smokers had the second highest PAFs at the 5th, 10th, and 15th year of followup, respectively: 5.4%, 5.2%, and 5.0%. Additional adjusting for other confounders in the model did not change the above associations. The PAFs for overweight or obesity and unhealthy diet were not significant in the current analyses. Conclusions. Assuming a causal relationship between smoking, low fitness, and mortality, avoidance of both would have prevented 13% of the deaths in the current population. Preventive interventions to increase physical activity and stop smoking would most likely promote longevity.

  4. Prevention and lifestyle behaviour change : a competence framework

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, K; De Normanville, Clare; Stansfield, Karen; Barnett, Nicholas; Machaczek, Katarzyna; Qutishat, Dania; Okasheh, Rasha; Ion, V.; Wicks, H; Smewing, Ch

    2010-01-01

    Prevention, Health and Wellbeing and Health Inequalities are key national and regional priorities for the future of our nation and for the NHS. This was highlighted in recent ‘Fair Society, Healthy Lives’ Marmot review. The ‘Prevention and Lifestyle Behaviour Change: A Competence Framework’, has been developed to support NHS Yorkshire and the Humber’s key Public Health strategy ‘Making Every Contact Count’, to which there has already been an excellent response. Delivery on this subject has al...

  5. Epigenetic Changes in Diabetes and Cardiovascular Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Samuel T; Plutzky, Jorge; El-Osta, Assam

    2016-05-27

    Cardiovascular complications remain the leading causes of morbidity and premature mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus. Studies in humans and preclinical models demonstrate lasting gene expression changes in the vasculopathies initiated by previous exposure to high glucose concentrations and the associated overproduction of reactive oxygen species. The molecular signatures of chromatin architectures that sensitize the genome to these and other cardiometabolic risk factors of the diabetic milieu are increasingly implicated in the biological memory underlying cardiovascular complications and now widely considered as promising therapeutic targets. Atherosclerosis is a complex heterocellular disease where the contributing cell types possess distinct epigenomes shaping diverse gene expression. Although the extent that pathological chromatin changes can be manipulated in human cardiovascular disease remains to be established, the clinical applicability of epigenetic interventions will be greatly advanced by a deeper understanding of the cell type-specific roles played by writers, erasers, and readers of chromatin modifications in the diabetic vasculature. This review details a current perspective of epigenetic mechanisms of macrovascular disease in diabetes mellitus and highlights recent key descriptions of chromatinized changes associated with persistent gene expression in endothelial, smooth muscle, and circulating immune cells relevant to atherosclerosis. Furthermore, we discuss the challenges associated with pharmacological targeting of epigenetic networks to correct abnormal or deregulated gene expression as a strategy to alleviate the clinical burden of diabetic cardiovascular disease. PMID:27230637

  6. Changes in lifestyle after hypertension diagnosis in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Neutel, C Ineke; Campbell, Norm RC

    2008-01-01

    Lifestyle modification should be an important part of therapy when hypertension is first diagnosed, with or without starting antihypertensive medication. The objective of the present study was to determine the extent to which recently diagnosed hypertensive Canadians modify their lifestyles and to examine how lifestyle modification relates to antihypertensive medication use. The longitudinal National Population Health Survey in Canada was conducted between 1994 and 2002, including five interv...

  7. Improving patient adherence to lifestyle advice (IMPALA: a cluster-randomised controlled trial on the implementation of a nurse-led intervention for cardiovascular risk management in primary care (protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grol Richard

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many patients at high risk of cardiovascular diseases are managed and monitored in general practice. Recommendations for cardiovascular risk management, including lifestyle change, are clearly described in the Dutch national guideline. Although lifestyle interventions, such as advice on diet, physical exercise, smoking and alcohol, have moderate, but potentially relevant effects in these patients, adherence to lifestyle advice in general practice is not optimal. The IMPALA study intends to improve adherence to lifestyle advice by involving patients in decision making on cardiovascular prevention by nurse-led clinics. The aim of this paper is to describe the design and methods of a study to evaluate an intervention aimed at involving patients in cardiovascular risk management. Methods A cluster-randomised controlled trial in 20 general practices, 10 practices in the intervention arm and 10 in the control arm, starting on October 2005. A total of 720 patients without existing cardiovascular diseases but eligible for cardiovascular risk assessment will be recruited. In both arms, the general practitioners and nurses will be trained to apply the national guideline for cardiovascular risk management. Nurses in the intervention arm will receive an extended training in risk assessment, risk communication, the use of a decision aid and adapted motivational interviewing. This communication technique will be used to support the shared decision-making process about risk reduction. The intervention comprises 2 consultations and 1 follow-up telephone call. The nurses in the control arm will give usual care after the risk estimation, according to the national guideline. Primary outcome measures are self-reported adherence to lifestyle advice and drug treatment. Secondary outcome measures are the patients' perception of risk and their motivation to change their behaviour. The measurements will take place at baseline and after 12 and 52

  8. The combined impact of five lifestyle factors on all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular mortality – A prospective cohort study among Danish men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kristina Elin; Johnsen, Nina Føns; Olsen, Anja;

    2015-01-01

    Individual lifestyle factors have been associated with lifestyle diseases and premature mortality by an accumulating body of evidence. The impact of a combination of lifestyle factors on mortality has been investigated in several studies, but few have applied a simple index taking national guidel......·70) for cardiovascular mortality. In the present study, adherence to merely one additional health recommendation had a protective effect on mortality risk, indicating a huge potential in enhancing healthy lifestyle behaviours of the population.......Individual lifestyle factors have been associated with lifestyle diseases and premature mortality by an accumulating body of evidence. The impact of a combination of lifestyle factors on mortality has been investigated in several studies, but few have applied a simple index taking national...... guidelines into account. The objective of the present prospective cohort study was to investigate the combined impact of adherence to five lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, waist circumference and diet) on all-cause, cancer and cardiovascular mortality based on international and...

  9. Effects of an eight-week supervised, structured lifestyle modification programme on anthropometric, metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in severely obese adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Crowe, Catherine

    2015-08-01

    Lifestyle modification is fundamental to obesity treatment, but few studies have described the effects of structured lifestyle programmes specifically in bariatric patients. We sought to describe changes in anthropometric and metabolic characteristics in a cohort of bariatric patients after participation in a nurse-led, structured lifestyle programme.

  10. Long-term lifestyle and dietary habits in relation to cardiovascular mortality and life expectancy: a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streppel, M.T.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: In prospective cohort studies, information on lifestyle and dietary habits is generally only assessed at the baseline examination, assuming that these habits are relatively constant over the entire study period. Repeated measures can take into account changes in these habits, reduce me

  11. It is possible for people suffering from mental illness to change their lifestyle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Krogh, Jesper; Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz;

    2013-01-01

    A significant share of the excess mortality among people suffering from mental illness is due to unhealthy lifestyles. Obesity, smoking, unhealthy diets and sedentary behaviour is twice as frequent among people with mental illness, but the willingness to improve lifestyle is as high as in healthy...... people. Based on a review of the literature we conclude that it is possible for people with mental illness to change their lifestyle, but they encounter a number of barriers to lifestyle changes, including their symptoms, adverse drug effects and their life situations....

  12. Cardiovascular and nervous system changes during meditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R Steinhubl

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: A number of benefits have been described for the long-term practice of meditation, yet little is known regarding the immediate neurological and cardiovascular responses to meditation. Wireless sensor technology allows, for the first time, multi-parameter and quantitative monitoring of an individual’s responses during meditation. The present study examined inter-individual variations to meditation through continuous monitoring of EEG, blood pressure, heart rate and its variability (HRV in novice and experienced meditators. Methods: Participants were 20 experienced and 20 novice meditators involved in a week-long wellness retreat. Monitoring took place during meditation sessions on the first and last full days of the retreat. All participants wore a patch that continuously streamed ECG data, while half of them also wore a wireless EEG headset plus a non-invasive continuous blood pressure monitor. Results: Meditation produced variable but characteristic EEG changes, significantly different from baseline, even among novice meditators on the first day. In addition, although participants were predominately normotensive, the mean arterial blood pressure fell a small (2-3 mmHg but significant (p<0.0001 amount during meditation. The effect of meditation on HRV was less clear and influenced by calculation technique and respiration. No clear relationship between EEG changes, HRV alterations or mean blood pressure during meditation was found.Conclusion: This is the first study to investigate neurological and cardiovascular responses during meditation in both novice and experienced meditators using novel, wearable, wireless devices. Meditation produced varied inter-individual physiologic responses. These results support the need for further investigation of the short- and long-term cardiovascular effects of mental calm and individualized ways to achieve it.

  13. Cigarette use and cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease: an unappreciated modifiable lifestyle risk factor.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stack, Austin G

    2012-01-31

    Tobacco use is a major modifiable cardiovascular risk factor in the general population and contributes to excess cardiovascular risk. Emerging evidence from large-scale observational studies suggests that continued tobacco use is also an independent cardiovascular risk factor among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The benefits of smoking cessation programs on improving the heath status of patients and reducing mortality are unequivocal in the general population. Despite this, there has been little effort in pursuing tobacco cessation programs in dialysis cohorts or those with lesser degrees of kidney impairment. Most of our attention to date has focused on the development of "kidney-specific" interventions that reduce rates of renal disease progression and improve dialysis outcomes. The purpose of this current review is to describe the epidemiology of tobacco use among patients with CKD, draw attention to its negative impact on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and finally highlight potential strategies for successful intervention. We hope that this study heightens the importance of tobacco use in CKD, stimulates renewed interest in the barriers and challenges that exist in achieving smoking cessation, and endorses the efficacy of intervention strategies and the immeasurable benefits of quitting on cardiovascular and noncardiovascular outcomes.

  14. Personalized prevention approach with use of a web-based cardiovascular risk assessment with tailored lifestyle follow-up in primary care practice - a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brekel-Dijkstra, Karolien; Rengers, Antonia H; Niessen, Maurice Aj; de Wit, NJ; Kraaijenhagen, Roderik A

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this prospective implementation study is to evaluate feasibility of a personalized prevention approach with use of a web-based health risk assessment for cardiovascular diseases combined with tailored lifestyle feedback and interventions in the community setting. METHODS: A random s

  15. Improving lifestyle and risk perception through patient involvement in nurse-led cardiovascular risk management: a cluster-randomized controlled trial in primary care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelewijn-van Loon, M.S.; Weijden, G.D.E.M. van der; Ronda, G.; Steenkiste, B.C. van; Winkens, B.; Elwyn, G.; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if lifestyle improved at a short term through an intervention to involve patients in cardiovascular risk management by the practice nurse. METHODS: The IMPALA study (2006, the Netherlands) was a cluster-randomised controlled trial involving 25 general practices and 615 patien

  16. Long-term lifestyle and dietary habits in relation to cardiovascular mortality and life expectancy: a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Streppel, M T

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: In prospective cohort studies, information on lifestyle and dietary habits is generally only assessed at the baseline examination, assuming that these habits are relatively constant over the entire study period. Repeated measures can take into account changes in these habits, reduce measurement error due to a reduction in within-subject variation, and can give more insight into the etiology of diseases. The main objective of this thesis is to assess the relationships of recent a...

  17. Association between depressive mood and cardiovascular disease: social disparities and role of education, lifestyle, and disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Chau, Nearkasen; Baumann, Michèle

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) may be associated with depressive mood (DM), with a range of confounding effects depending on socioeconomic factors. This study assessed the associations between DM and CVD, their social disparities and the impact of education, living alone, smoking, alcohol abuse, and physical and cognitive disabilities. Methods: A random sample of 6216 people (2959 men and 3257 women), aged 15 years or over in north-eastern France, completed a postal survey covering alcohol ...

  18. Depression and cardiovascular disease: The role of diet, lifestyle and health

    OpenAIRE

    Kamphuis, M.H.

    2006-01-01

    Engelstalig abstract Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) were the main causes of mortality world wide in 2002 and are also projected to stay the main causes of mortality till 2030. In addition, depression and CVD are both predicted to become main contributors of disability in 2030. Not only are depression and CVD highly prevalent and main contributors of disability, many studies have also shown that they are more closely related and indicate that depression may be causally related to CVD. However, ...

  19. Adolphe Abrahams memorial lecture, 1988. Exercise and lifestyle change.

    OpenAIRE

    Shephard, R. J.

    1989-01-01

    While the evidence for a clustering of health habits is not particularly strong, there are both pedagogic and economic arguments in favour of a multifaceted approach to health education. The present review thus examines the impact of regular physical exercise upon other forms of health behaviour, testing the extent to which an activity programme can be a catalyst of improved lifestyle in both primary and secondary preventive therapy. The conceptual framework of health promotion is examined wi...

  20. What do most erectile dysfunction guidelines have in common? No evidence-based discussion or recommendation of heart-healthy lifestyle changes and/or Panax ginseng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark A Moyad; Kwangsung Park

    2012-01-01

    Sexual health or erectile dysfunction (ED) state of the art guidelines provide a thorough overview of conventional prescription or other notable extrinsic treatment options.Yet,over the past 10-15 years,a plethora of international researchers have established that individual and comprehensive lifestyle changes can prevent and potentially improve ED.We review the lifestyle evidence that should equate to grade A or level 1 evidence recommendations for ED.We also review the evidence for Panax ginseng,an over-the-counter (OTC) dietary supplement with a 35-year history of laboratory investigations,multiple positive randomized trials over approximately 15 years and several independent meta-analyses and systematic reviews.Perhaps it is time to at least discuss and even emphasize lifestyle and other non-conventional interventions in ED guidelines so that patients can explore a diversity of potentially synergistic choices with their physicians and can improve their quality and quantity of life.Ignoring the consistent,positive data on lifestyle modifications in ED guidelines,for example,is tantamount to ignoring diet and lifestyle changes to reduce the risk of or ameliorate cardiovascular diseases.

  1. The effectiveness of adding cognitive behavioural therapy aimed at changing lifestyle to managed diabetes care for patients with type 2 diabetes: design of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Oppen Patricia

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In patients with type 2 diabetes, the risk for cardiovascular disease is substantial. To achieve a more favourable risk profile, lifestyle changes on diet, physical activity and smoking status are needed. This will involve changes in behaviour, which is difficult to achieve. Cognitive behavioural therapies focussing on self-management have been shown to be effective. We have developed an intervention combining techniques of Motivational Interviewing (MI and Problem Solving Treatment (PST. The aim of our study is to investigate if adding a combined behavioural intervention to managed care, is effective in achieving changes in lifestyle and cardiovascular risk profile. Methods Patients with type 2 diabetes will be selected from general practices (n = 13, who are participating in a managed diabetes care system. Patients will be randomised into an intervention group receiving cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT in addition to managed care, and a control group that will receive managed care only. The CBT consists of three to six individual sessions of 30 minutes to increase the patient's motivation, by using principles of MI, and ability to change their lifestyle, by using PST. The first session will start with a risk assessment of diabetes complications that will be used to focus the intervention. The primary outcome measure is the difference between intervention and control group in change in cardiovascular risk score. For this purpose blood pressure, HbA1c, total and HDL-cholesterol and smoking status will be assessed. Secondary outcome measures are quality of life, patient satisfaction, physical activity, eating behaviour, smoking status, depression and determinants of behaviour change. Differences between changes in the two groups will be analysed according to the intention-to-treat principle, with 95% confidence intervals. The power calculation is based on the risk for cardiovascular disease and we calculated that 97 patients

  2. Cardiovascular and nervous system changes during meditation

    OpenAIRE

    Steinhubl, Steven R.; Wineinger, Nathan E.; Sheila ePatel; Boeldt, Debra L; Geoffrey eMackellar; Valencia ePorter; Jacob eRedmond; Muse, Evan D.; Laura eNicholson; Deepak eChopra; Topol, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A number of benefits have been described for the long-term practice of meditation, yet little is known regarding the immediate neurological and cardiovascular responses to meditation. Wireless sensor technology allows, for the first time, multi-parameter and quantitative monitoring of an individual’s responses during meditation. The present study examined inter-individual variations to meditation through continuous monitoring of EEG, blood pressure, heart rate and its variabilit...

  3. The Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing on Lifestyle Changes in Female Addicts under Way for Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamed ghasemi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of motivational interviewing on lifestyle changes in female addicts under way for recovery. Method: A quasi-experimental design along with pretest-posttest and control group was used for this study. The number of 32 female addicts referring to rehab centers constituted the study sample. With regard to the inclusion and exclusion criteria they were selected and randomly assigned to an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group was treated with eight sessions of group motivational interviewing along with lifestyle change program. Lifestyle questionnaire was used for data collection. Results: Intervention led the experimental group to higher lifestyle scores compared to the control group. Conclusion: It can be concluded from the findings of this study that the addition of motivational interviewing to lifestyle change programs is an effective way to change addictive behaviors and, thus, improve lifestyle.

  4. Lifestyle changes of Japanese people on overseas assignment in Michigan, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitamura Kazuya

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Temporary work assignments in the United States (US are widely considered to have negative health outcomes on Asians mostly due to adverse changes in diet and exercise, though there is little research on this phenomenon. This study investigated the impact of lifestyle changes on the biological and psychological health and health behaviours of Japanese people on temporary assignments in the US. Methods In this cross sectional survey, we distributed a 38 item self-administered questionnaire addressing health habits, mental health function, lifestyle changes and dietary habits to adult Japanese patients presenting for general physicals at a family medicine clinic serving Japanese patients. We conducted simple statistics and regression analysis between length of stay and other health outcomes to determine whether length of residence in the US was predictive of negative lifestyle changes. Results Most participants reported increased caloric intake, weight gain, and less exercise. They also reported increased time with family. More women than men reported physical symptoms and anxiety related to stress. Smoking and alcohol intake were essentially unchanged. No associations were identified between length of residence in the US and health lifestyle habits or other health outcomes. Conclusion Negative lifestyle changes occur in diet and exercise for overseas Japanese people, but a positive change in increased family time was found. Women appear to be at a greater risk for somatic disorders than men. As duration of stay does not appear predictive of adverse changes, clinicians should advise patients going abroad of these risks regardless of the term of the work assignment.

  5. Relationship of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, M.B.M.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Rodenburg, W.; Steeg, H. van; Proper, K.I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively study the association of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors. Methods: Workers participating in the Netherlands Working Conditions Cohort Study (2008 and 2009) (N = 5951) reported night and shift work, weight and height. Groups included stable

  6. Relationship of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, M.B.M; Koppes, L.L.J.; Rodenburg, W.; Steeg, H. van; Proper, K.I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively study the association of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors. Methods: Workers participating in the Netherlands Working Conditions Cohort Study (2008 and 2009) (N = 5951) reported night and shift work, weight and height. Groups included stable

  7. Effectiveness of a Lifestyle Intervention Program among Persons at High Risk for Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes in a Rural Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadheim, Liane M.; Brewer, Kari A.; Kassner, Darcy R.; Vanderwood, Karl K.; Hall, Taryn O.; Butcher, Marcene K.; Helgerson, Steven D.; Harwell, Todd S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of translating the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) lifestyle intervention into practice in a rural community. Methods: In 2008, the Montana Diabetes Control Program worked collaboratively with Holy Rosary Healthcare to implement an adapted group-based DPP lifestyle intervention. Adults at high risk for…

  8. Changing lifestyles and oral clefts occurrence in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Camilla; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.; Christensen, Kaare

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this project was to access whether any changes in the birth prevalence of cleft lip with/without cleft palate (CL(P)) occurred in Denmark during the period 1988 through 2001. In this period an official recommendation of a supplementation of folic acid to pregnant women was introduced; ...

  9. Changing trends of cardiovascular risk factors among Indians: a review of emerging risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The global burden of disease due to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs is escalating, and the changing trends of CVD risk factors are identified among Indians experiencing rapid health transition. Contributory causes include: growing population with demographic shifts and altered age profile, socio-economic factors, lifestyle changes due to urbanization. Indians are also having genetic predisposition to cardiovascular diseases and adult are susceptible to vascular disease linking possible gene-environment interactions influencing ethnic diversity. Altered diets with more of junk foods along with diminished physical activity are additive factors contributing to the acceleration of CVD epidemics, along with all form of tobacco use. The pace of health transition, however, varies across geographical regions from urban to rural population with consequent variations in the relative burdens of the dominant CVDs. A comprehensive public health response must be looked to plan over all strategies to integrate policies and programs that effectively impact on the multiple determinants of CVDs to provide protection over the life span through primordial, primary and secondary prevention. Populations as well as individuals at risk must be protected through initiatives, enable nutrition-based preventive strategies to protect and promote cardiovascular health.

  10. Changing trends of cardiovascular risk factors among Indians:a review of emerging risks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arun; Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The global burden of disease due to cardiovascular diseases(CVDs) is escalating,and the changing trends of CVD risk factors are identified among Indians experiencing rapid health transition.Contributory causes include:growing population with demographic shifts and altered age profile,socio-economic factors,lifestyle changes due to urbanization.Indians are also having genetic predisposition to cardiovascular diseases and adult are susceptible to vascular disease linking possible gene-environment interactions influencing ethnic diversity.Altered diets with more of junk foods along with diminished physical activity are additive factors contributing to the acceleration of CVD epidemics,along with all form of tobacco use.The pace of health transition,however,varies across geographical regions from urban to rural population with consequent variations in the relative burdens of the dominant CVDs.A comprehensive public health response must be looked to plan over all strategies to integrate policies and programs that effectively impact on the multiple determinants of CVDs to provide protection over the life span through primordial,primary and secondary prevention.Populations as well as individuals at risk must be protected through initiatives,enable nutritionbased preventive strategies to protect and promote cardiovascular health.

  11. Changing trends of cardiovascular risk factors among Indians:a review of emerging risks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arun Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The global burden of disease due to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is escalating, and the changing trends of CVD risk factors are identified among Indians experiencing rapid health transition. Contributory causes include: growing population with demographic shifts and altered age profile, socio-economic factors, lifestyle changes due to urbanization. Indians are also having genetic predisposition to cardiovascular diseases and adult are susceptible to vascular disease linking possible gene-environment interactions influencing ethnic diversity. Altered diets with more of junk foods along with diminished physical activity are additive factors contributing to the acceleration of CVD epidemics, along with all form of tobacco use. The pace of health transition, however, varies across geographical regions from urban to rural population with consequent variations in the relative burdens of the dominant CVDs. A comprehensive public health response must be looked to plan over all strategies to integrate policies and programs that effectively impact on the multiple determinants of CVDs to provide protection over the life span through primordial, primary and secondary prevention. Populations as well as individuals at risk must be protected through initiatives, enable nutrition-based preventive strategies to protect and promote cardiovascular health.

  12. Effectiveness of community-based comprehensive healthy lifestyle promotion on cardiovascular disease risk factors in a rural Vietnamese population: a quasi-experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Quang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health promotion is a key component for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD. This study evaluated the impact of healthy lifestyle promotion campaigns on CVD risk factors (CVDRF in the general population in the context of a community-based programme on hypertension management. Methods A quasi-experimental intervention study was carried out in two rural communes of Vietnam from 2006 to 2009. In the intervention commune, a hypertensive-targeted management programme integrated with a community-targeted health promotion was initiated, while no new programme, apart from conventional healthcare services, was provided in the reference commune. Health promotion campaigns focused on smoking cessation, reducing alcohol consumption, encouraging physical activity and reducing salty diets. Repeated cross-sectional surveys in local adult population aged 25 years and over were undertaken to assess changes in blood pressure (BP and behavioural CVDRFs (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and salty diet in both communes before and after the 3-year intervention. Results Overall 4,650 adults above 25 years old were surveyed, in four randomly independent samples covering both communes at baseline and after the 3-year intervention. Although physical inactivity and obesity increased over time in the intervention commune, there was a significant reduction in systolic and diastolic BP (3.3 and 4.7 mmHg in women versus 3.0 and 4.6 mmHg in men respectively in the general population at the intervention commune. Health promotion reduced levels of salty diets but had insignificant impact on the prevalence of daily smoking or heavy alcohol consumption. Conclusion Community-targeted healthy lifestyle promotion can significantly improve some CVDRFs in the general population in a rural area over a relatively short time span. Limited effects on a context-bound CVDRF like smoking suggested that higher intensity of intervention

  13. Lifestyle changes of Japanese people on overseas assignment in Michigan, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Kitamura Kazuya; Fetters Michael D; Sano Kiyoshi; Sato Juichi; Ban Nobutaro

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Temporary work assignments in the United States (US) are widely considered to have negative health outcomes on Asians mostly due to adverse changes in diet and exercise, though there is little research on this phenomenon. This study investigated the impact of lifestyle changes on the biological and psychological health and health behaviours of Japanese people on temporary assignments in the US. Methods In this cross sectional survey, we distributed a 38 item self-administe...

  14. Pregnancy and childbirth: What changes in the lifestyle of women who become mothers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emília de Carvalho Coutinho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is a period influenced by the interaction of several factors, therefore this study aimed to identify changes in lifestyles due to pregnancy and childbirth in Portuguese and immigrant women in Portugal. This is a qualitative study, using the semi-structured interview, with eighty-two Portuguese and immigrant women. Content analysis was used, with verbatim classification supported by Nvivo 10. It was authorized by an Ethics Commission. Results revealed that the primary changes in lifestyles due to pregnancy were in eating habits (nutrition, daily activity, exposure to danger, sleep and rest patterns, social and family relationships, going out, self-care, work, clothing and footwear, travel, health monitoring and sexual activity and substances consumption. The main change after the birth, manifested by these women, was that their lives began to revolve around their baby.

  15. Prevention and Control of Cardiovascular Disease in the Rapidly Changing Economy of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yangfeng; Benjamin, Emelia J; MacMahon, Stephen

    2016-06-14

    With one-fifth of the world's total population, China's prevention and control of cardiovascular disease (CVD) may affect the success of worldwide efforts to achieve sustainable CVD reduction. Understanding China's current cardiovascular epidemic requires awareness of the economic development in the past decades. The rapid economic transformations (industrialization, marketization, urbanization, globalization, and informationalization) contributed to the aging demography, unhealthy lifestyles, and environmental changes. The latter have predisposed to increasing cardiovascular risk factors and the CVD pandemic. Rising CVD rates have had a major economic impact, which has challenged the healthcare system and the whole society. With recognition of the importance of health, initial political steps and national actions have been taken to address the CVD epidemic. Looking to the future, we recommend that 4 priorities should be taken: pursue multisectorial government and nongovernment strategies targeting the underlying causes of CVD (the whole-of-government and whole-of-society policy); give priority to prevention; reform the healthcare system to fit the nature of noncommunicable diseases; and conduct research for evidence-based, low-cost, simple, sustainable, and scalable interventions. By pursuing the 4 priorities, the pandemic of CVD and other major noncommunicable diseases in China will be reversed and the global sustainable development goal achieved. PMID:27297347

  16. Changing Lifestyles Towards a Low Carbon Economy: An IPAT Analysis for China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Hubacek

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available China has achieved notable success in developing its economy with approximate 10 percent average annual GDP growth over the last two decades. At the same time, energy consumption and CO2 emissions almost doubled every five years, which led China to be the world top emitter in 2007. In response, China’s government has put forward a carbon mitigation target of 40%–45% reduction of CO2 emission intensity by 2020. To better understand the potential for success or failure of such a policy, it is essential to assess different driving forces such as population, lifestyle and technology and their associated CO2 emissions. This study confirms that increase of affluence has been the main driving force for China’s CO2 emissions since the late 1970s, which outweighs reductions achieved through technical progress. Meanwhile, the contribution of population growth to CO2 emissions was relatively small. We also found a huge disparity between urban and rural households in terms of changes of lifestyle and consumption patterns. Lifestyles in urban China are beginning to resemble Western lifestyles, and approaching their level of CO2 emissions. Therefore, in addition to the apparent inefficiencies in terms of production technologies there is also a lot of room for improvement on the consumption side especially in interaction of current infrastructure investments and future consumption.

  17. Lifestyle after Cardiac Rehabilitation: Did the Message Come across, and Was It Feasible? An Analysis of Patients’ Narratives

    OpenAIRE

    Marie Veje Knudsen; Sussie Laustsen; Annemette Krintel Petersen; Sanne Angel

    2014-01-01

    Lifestyle following heart disease is considered important to prevent and reduce cardiovascular risk factors. Thus, cardiac rehabilitation is focused on potential lifestyle changes. Further insight into patients’ perspective on lifestyle after cardiac rehabilitation is needed as changing habits following heart disease is a complex matter. The objective of this study was to explore the characteristics of lifestyle after cardiac rehabilitation. A phenomenological-hermeneutic approach with qualit...

  18. Vitamin D status and changes in cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Pisinger, Charlotta;

    2012-01-01

    A low vitamin D level has been associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk but possible mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated the association between vitamin D levels and 5-year changes in blood pressure, lipid profile and incidence of the metabolic syndrome, hypertension and hyper...... hypercholesterolemia....

  19. Relationship of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors.

    OpenAIRE

    Bekkers, M.B.M; Koppes, L.L.J.; Rodenburg, W.; van Steeg, H.; Proper, K.I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively study the association of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors. Methods: Workers participating in the Netherlands Working Conditions Cohort Study (2008 and 2009) (N = 5951) reported night and shift work, weight and height. Groups included stable night or shift work, from day work to night or shift work, from night or shift work to day work, and no night or shift work in 2008 and 2009. Regression analyses were used to study association chan...

  20. Short-term lifestyle intervention significantly increases fasting adiponectin and induces a decline in serum adiponectin during oral glucose tolerance test, without changes in insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof C. Lewandowski

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Metabolic syndrome is associated with insulin resistance (IR and low concentrations of adiponectin, an adipocytokine that improves insulin sensitivity and has anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties. An increase in circulating adiponectin may, therefore, have beneficial effects in terms of reduction of cardiovascular risk. We aimed to establish whether short-term (two-week lifestyle intervention alters serum concentrations of adiponectin, and whether there are changes in adiponectin during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. Material and methods: We measured adiponectin levels during 75.0 gram OGTT before and after two weeks of a hospital-based lifestyle modification programme that consisted of hypocaloric diet and moderate exercise in 16 severely obese, non-diabetic subjects (4 males, aged 42.0±14.18 years, BMI 42.65±7.82 kg/m2 (mean ±SD. IR indices were assessed before and after intervention. Results: Exercise and diet programme resulted in a decline of BMI (to 40.21±7.14 kg/m2, p<0.001 and fasting glucose (p=0.002, although without significant improvement in IR. There was, however, a significant rise in fasting adiponectin (from 32.1±13.2 nmol/l to 35.38±11.04 nmol/l, p=0.008. Furthermore, though initially there was no change in serum adiponectin levels during OGTT, there was a significant decline in serum adiponectin during OGTT at the end of the study (p<0.001. Conclusions: A two-week period of lifestyle modification (hypocaloric diet and moderate exercise increases fasting adiponectin and induces a decline in serum adiponectin during OGTT in severely obese subjects. Favourable changes in serum adiponectin in subjects at high risk of cardiovascular disease are observed after a relatively short period and precede significant changes in insulin resistance.

  1. Nurse-led motivational interviewing to change the lifestyle of patients with type 2 diabetes (MILD-project: protocol for a cluster, randomized, controlled trial on implementing lifestyle recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niessen Louis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diabetes of many patients is managed in general practice; healthcare providers aim to promote healthful behaviors, such as healthful diet, adequate physical activity, and smoking cessation. These measures may decrease insulin resistance, improve glycemic control, lipid abnormalities, and hypertension. They may also prevent cardiovascular disease and complications of diabetes. However, professionals do not adhere optimally to guidelines for lifestyle counseling. Motivational interviewing to change the lifestyle of patients with type 2 diabetes is intended to improve diabetes care in accordance with the national guidelines for lifestyle counseling. Primary care nurses will be trained in motivational interviewing embedded in structured care in general practice. The aim of this paper is to describe the design and methods of a study evaluating the effects of the nurses' training on patient outcomes. Methods/Design A cluster, randomized, controlled trial involving 70 general practices (35 practices in the intervention arm and 35 in the control arm starting in March 2007. A total of 700 patients with type 2 diabetes will be recruited. The patients in the intervention arm will receive care from the primary care nurse, who will receive training in an implementation strategy with motivational interviewing as the core component. Other components of this strategy will be adaptation of the diabetes protocol to local circumstances, introduction of a social map for lifestyle support, and educational and supportive tools for sustaining motivational interviewing. The control arm will be encouraged to maintain usual care. The effect measures will be the care process, metabolic parameters (glycosylated hemoglobin, blood pressure and lipids, lifestyle (diet, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol, health-related quality of life, and patients' willingness to change behaviors. The measurements will take place at baseline and after 14 months

  2. Assessment of the Role of Education in Changing Lifestyle in Patients with Coronary Heart Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Yavarikia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The idea which the progression of coronary artery disease is regularly reversible was previously radical concept but today it has become the most common. A number of interventions have been reported to arrest or reverse the progression of coronary atherosclerosis, many of which have been detailed in the time those include comprehensive changes in lifestyle. Methods: A total of 100 patients aged less than 65 years were interrogated, 50 patients in case groups and 50 in control groups. All severely ill patients, and patients aged more than 65 years were excluded. We used educational packages for all of our patients, to teach all of them risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD and how to change their lifestyle to reduce those risk factors. Data were analyzed by SPSS software. Results: Patients in intervention group significantly reduce the intake of saturated fat, sugar, and cholesterol (p<0.001, increased their exercises (p<0.001, and stopped smoking (p<0.05, when compared with the usual case group. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that education has a very important role in changing lifestyles of CHD patents and it helped to reduce risk factors of CHD.

  3. Development of the Motivation to Change Lifestyle and Health Behaviours for Dementia Risk Reduction Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarang Kim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: It is not yet understood how attitudes concerning dementia risk may affect motivation to change health behaviours and lifestyle. This study was designed to develop a reliable and valid theory-based measure to understand beliefs underpinning the lifestyle and health behavioural changes needed for dementia risk reduction. Methods: 617 participants aged ≥50 years completed a theory-based questionnaire, namely, the Motivation to Change Lifestyle and Health Behaviours for Dementia Risk Reduction (MCLHB-DRR scale. The MCLHB-DRR consists of 53 items, reflecting seven subscales of the Health Belief Model. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis was performed and revealed that a seven-factor solution with 27 items fitted the data (comparative fit index = 0.920, root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.047 better than the original 53 items. Internal reliability (α = 0.608-0.864 and test-retest reliability (α = 0.552-0.776 were moderate to high. Measurement of invariance across gender and age was also demonstrated. Conclusions: These results propose that the MCLHB-DRR is a useful tool in assessing the beliefs and attitudes of males and females aged ≥50 years towards dementia risk reduction. This measure can be used in the development and evaluation of interventions aimed at dementia prevention.

  4. A Clinician’s Perspective on Incorporating Therapeutic Lifestyle Change into Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. McIntosh

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the unique perspective of a clinician who was originally trained as an acute care specialist but in recent years had the opportunity to witness the positive impact of therapeutic lifestyle change (TLC programs in managing chronic diseases. Through experience gained from conducting a multi-center clinical trial investigating the effects of TLC program in people with metabolic syndrome, Dr. Mark S. McIntosh discusses various aspects and challenges pertinent to implementing a successful TLC program. Patients, physicians, lifestyle counselors, work places, and home environment are all critical in forming an alliance for transforming the current sick-care approach to preventive, wellness-focused approach that is far more efficient,rewarding, and financially sustainable.

  5. Making and maintaining lifestyle changes after participating in group based type 2 diabetes self-management educations: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marit B Rise

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disease management is crucial in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes self-management education aims to provide the knowledge necessary to make and maintain lifestyle changes. However, few studies have investigated the processes after such courses. The aim of this study was to investigate how participants make and maintain lifestyle changes after participating in group-based type 2 diabetes self-management education. METHODS: Data was collected through qualitative semi-structured interviews with 23 patients who attended educational group programs in Central Norway. The participants were asked how they had used the advice given and what they had changed after the course. RESULTS: Knowledge was essential for making lifestyle changes following education. Three factors affected whether lifestyle changes were implemented: obtaining new knowledge, taking responsibility, and receiving confirmation of an already healthy lifestyle. Four factors motivated individuals to maintain changes: support from others, experiencing an effect, fear of complications, and the formation of new habits. CONCLUSION: Knowledge was used to make and maintain changes in diet, medication and physical activity. Knowledge also acted as confirmation of an already adequate lifestyle. Knowledge led to no changes if diabetes appeared "not that scary" or if changes appeared too time consuming. Those involved in diabetes education need to be aware of the challenges in convincing asymptomatic patients about the benefits of adherence to self-management behaviour.

  6. Health promotion in the Danish maritime setting: challenges and possibilities for changing lifestyle behavior and health among seafarers

    OpenAIRE

    Hjarnoe, Lulu; Leppin, Anja

    2013-01-01

    Background Seafaring is a risky occupation when compared to land-based industries as incidence rates of mortality and morbidity are higher. This trend is partly due to a higher number of accidents but also higher incidence of lifestyle-related diseases like cardiovascular disease and lung cancer. In Denmark, the proportion of smokers as well as of overweight and obese persons is higher among seafarers compared to the general population. This high burden of risk indicates that this occupationa...

  7. Behavior change in a lifestyle intervention for type 2 diabetes prevention in Dutch primary care: opportunities for intervention content

    OpenAIRE

    Vermunt, P.W.A.; Milder, I.E.J.; Wielaard, F.; Baan, C.A.; Schelfhout, J.D.M.; Westert, G.P.; van Oers, J.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the favorable effects of behavior change interventions on diabetes risk, lifestyle modification is a complicated process. In this study we therefore investigated opportunities for refining a lifestyle intervention for type 2 diabetes prevention, based on participant perceptions of behavior change progress. Methods A 30 month intervention was performed in Dutch primary care among high-risk individuals (FINDRISC-score ≥ 13) and was compared to usual care. Participant percepti...

  8. Making and Maintaining Lifestyle Changes after Participating in Group Based Type 2 Diabetes Self-Management Educations: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rise, Marit B; Anneli Pellerud; Rygg, Lisbeth Ø.; Aslak Steinsbekk

    2013-01-01

    Background: Disease management is crucial in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes self-management education aims to provide the knowledge necessary to make and maintain lifestyle changes. However, few studies have investigated the processes after such courses. The aim of this study was to investigate how participants make and maintain lifestyle changes after participating in group-based type 2 diabetes self-management education. Methods: Data was collected through qualitative semi-st...

  9. Lifestyle changes and beliefs regarding disease severity in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castera, L; Constant, A; Bernard, P-H; de Ledinghen, V; Couzigou, P

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to investigate beliefs regarding disease severity and lifestyle changes following hepatitis C diagnosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). One hundred and eighty-five consecutive CHC patients were interviewed by means of self-questionnaires exploring several aspects of their disease. Most patients (93%) identified cirrhosis and liver cancer as the two main complications of CHC. More than half of patients (59%) thought that CHC was always associated with a fatal outcome whereas 3% thought that they would stay healthy. HCV viral load was the most commonly reported factor associated with disease severity. Sex life changes were reported by 107 patients (58%) whereas dietary intake changes were reported by 88 patients (48%). In multivariate analysis, changes in sex life were associated with male gender [odds ratio (OR): 2.57, 95% CI: 1.30-5.08, P patients' lifestyle. They emphasize the need for improving CHC patient counselling in order to avoid unnecessary sex life and dietary intake changes. PMID:16792542

  10. Effectiveness of a Web-Based Computer-Tailored Multiple-Lifestyle Intervention for People Interested in Reducing their Cardiovascular Risk: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörenkämper, Julia; Reinwand, Dominique Alexandra; Wienert, Julian; De Vries, Hein; Lippke, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Background Web-based computer-tailored interventions for multiple health behaviors can improve the strength of behavior habits in people who want to reduce their cardiovascular risk. Nonetheless, few randomized controlled trials have tested this assumption to date. Objective The study aim was to test an 8-week Web-based computer-tailored intervention designed to improve habit strength for physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption among people who want to reduce their cardiovascular risk. In a randomized controlled design, self-reported changes in perceived habit strength, self-efficacy, and planning across different domains of physical activity as well as fruit and vegetable consumption were evaluated. Methods This study was a randomized controlled trial involving an intervention group (n=403) and a waiting control group (n=387). Web-based data collection was performed in Germany and the Netherlands during 2013-2015. The intervention content was based on the Health Action Process Approach and involved personalized feedback on lifestyle behaviors, which indicated whether participants complied with behavioral guidelines for physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption. There were three Web-based assessments: baseline (T0, N=790), a posttest 8 weeks after the baseline (T1, n=206), and a follow-up 3 months after the baseline (T2, n=121). Data analysis was conducted by analyzing variances and structural equation analysis. Results Significant group by time interactions revealed superior treatment effects for the intervention group, with substantially higher increases in self-reported habit strength for physical activity (F1,199=7.71, P=.006, Cohen’s d=0.37) and fruit and vegetable consumption (F1,199=7.71, P=.006, Cohen’s d=0.30) at posttest T1 for the intervention group. Mediation analyses yielded behavior-specific sequential mediator effects for T1 planning and T1 self-efficacy between the intervention and habit strength at follow-up T2 (fruit

  11. Effects of Psychosocial Work Factors on Lifestyle Changes: A Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allard, K. O.; Thomsen, J. F.; Mikkelsen, S.;

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To evaluate the effect of the demand-control-support model, the effort-reward imbalance model, and emotional demands on smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and body mass index. METHODS:: This is a 2-year prospective cohort study of 3224 public sector employees. Measures...... were assessed with questionnaires. Multiple regression analyses were used to predict changes in lifestyle factors. RESULTS:: Low reward predicted smoking, low-decision latitude predicted being inactive, and high demands predicted high-alcohol consumption but only for men at follow-up even after...

  12. Effect of lifestyle intervention plus rosiglitazone or placebo therapy on left ventricular mass assessed with cardiovascular magnetic resonance in the metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamsma Jouke T

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the effect of lifestyle intervention in conjunction with rosiglitazone or placebo therapy on left ventricular (LV mass, using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR in the metabolic syndrome. Methods The present study was a pre-specified substudy of a double-blind randomized controlled trial evaluating the effect of lifestyle intervention in conjunction with rosiglitazone or placebo therapy on carotid artery atherosclerosis in the metabolic syndrome. From this original study population, 10 subjects from the placebo group and 10 from the rosiglitazone group were randomly selected. At baseline and follow-up (52 weeks, clinical and laboratory measurements were assessed and a CMR-examination was performed to evaluate LV mass indexed for body surface area (LV mass-I. Subsequently, the effect of therapy (rosiglitazone vs. placebo and clinical and laboratory variables on LV mass-I was evaluated. Results In both groups, body mass index, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure significantly decreased during follow-up. Interestingly, LV mass-I significantly decreased in the placebo group (48.9 ± 5.3 g/m2 vs. 44.3 ± 5.6 g/m2, p 2 vs. 53.7 ± 9.2 g/m2, p = 0.3. After correction for systolic and diastolic blood pressure and triglyceride, the kind of therapy (rosiglitazone vs. placebo remained the only significant predictor of LV mass-I reduction. Conclusions Lifestyle intervention resulted in a reduction of LV mass-I in the metabolic syndrome, indicating reverse remodeling. However, rosiglitazone therapy may have inhibited this positive reverse remodeling. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN54951661.

  13. Cardiovascular Changes in Animal Models of Metabolic Syndrome

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    Alexandre M. Lehnen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome has been defined as a group of risk factors that directly contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance seems to have a fundamental role in the genesis of this syndrome. Over the past years to the present day, basic and translational research has used small animal models to explore the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome and to develop novel therapies that might slow the progression of this prevalent condition. In this paper we discuss the animal models used for the study of metabolic syndrome, with particular focus on cardiovascular changes, since they are the main cause of death associated with the condition in humans.

  14. Estilos de vida asociados al riesgo cardiovascular global en trabajadores universitarios del Estado de México Lifestyle conditions related to global cardiovascular risk among university workers in the State of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Cerecero

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar la asociación del estilo de vida con el riesgo cardiovascular (RCV en trabajadores universitarios del Estado de México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio de casos y controles anidado en una cohorte. Se evaluaron variables del estilo de vida, sociodemográficas, antropométricas y antecedentes familiares. El análisis estimó razones de momios pareadas crudas y ajustadas a través de regresión logística condicional. RESULTADOS: Se estudiaron 342 casos con RCV y 684 controles. En los trabajadores con sobrepeso u obesidad, el RCV superó al de aquéllos con peso normal. Los antecedentes familiares de infarto del miocardio se asociaron directamente, y la actividad física moderada-vigorosa inversamente con el RCV, en modelos con interacciones entre género y actividad física; esta relación se mantuvo sólo en los hombres. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados muestran el papel preponderante de la actividad física moderada-vigorosa como factor del estilo de vida asociado con menor RCV.OBJETIVES: To assess the relationship between lifestyle and cardiovascular risk (CR among university workers in the State of Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted and lifestyle, sociodemographic, anthropometric, body mass index and family history of cardiovascular disease were assessed. The analysis included the estimation of crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: The study included 342 workers with CR and 684 controls. CR was greater for workers with overweight or obesity than for those with normal weight. Family history of myocardial infarction was directly associated with CR, while physical activity was inversely associated. In models with interactions of gender and physical activity, this relation was observed only for men. CONCLUSIONS: Results show an inverse association between the lifestyle factor of physical activity and CR.

  15. Link between cognitive status and motivation to make lifestyle changes to prevent Alzheimer’s Disease: The Gray Matters Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hovey, Randi; Dopp, Austin

    2016-01-01

    Research on prevention strategies have shown promising results for delaying onset of Alzheimer's disease with simple lifestyle changes. Preventable medical conditions linked to increase risk for AD include: high blood pressure sedentary lifestyle poorly managed diabetes Several behavioral factors have been associated with risk of developing the disease. These include: sleep quality stress-management social engagement cognitive activity Although there are known genetic factors, ...

  16. Targeting Lifestyle Behavior Change in Adults with NAFLD During a 20-min Consultation: Summary of the Dietary and Exercise Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Hallsworth, Kate; Avery, Leah; Trenell, Michael I.

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is largely linked to poor diet, lack of physical activity/exercise, and being overweight. In the absence of approved pharmaceutical agents, lifestyle modification, encompassing dietary change and increased physical activity/exercise to initiate weight loss, is the recommended therapy for NAFLD. Despite this, the use of lifestyle therapy within clinical settings is lacking with limited guidance available about what it should involve, how it should be d...

  17. Association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D with lifestyle factors and metabolic and cardiovascular disease markers: population-based cross-sectional study (FIN-D2D.

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    Maija E Miettinen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD level has been associated with an increased risk of several chronic diseases. Our aim was to determine lifestyle and clinical factors that are associated with 25OHD level and to investigate connection of 25OHD level with metabolic and cardiovascular disease markers. DESIGN: In total, 2868 Finnish men and women aged 45-74 years participated in FIN-D2D population-based health survey in 2007. Participants that had a serum sample available (98.4%; n = 2822 were included in this study. 25OHD was measured with chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay method. RESULTS: The mean 25OHD level was 58.2 nmol/l in men (n = 1348 and 57.1 nmol/l in women (n = 1474. Mean 25OHD level was lower in the younger age groups than in the older ones (p<0.0001 both in men and women. This study confirmed that low physical activity (p<0.0001 both in men and women, smoking (p = 0.0002 in men and p = 0.03 in women and high BMI (p<0.0001 in women are factors that independently associate with low 25OHD level. Of the metabolic and cardiovascular disease markers high triglyceride concentration (p = 0.02 in men and p = 0.001 in women and high apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio (p = 0.04 in men and p = 0.03 in women were independently associated with low 25OHD level. CONCLUSIONS: Higher age did not predict lower 25OHD level in this study population of aged 45-74 years which may derive from a healthy life-style of "active pensioners". Low physical activity and smoking came up as independent lifestyle factors associated with low 25OHD level. Defining the molecular mechanisms behind the associations of 25OHD with low physical activity and smoking are important objective in future studies. The association of 25OHD with BMI, high triglyceride concentration and apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio may be related to the role of vitamin D in inflammation, but more detailed studies are needed.

  18. Lifestyle changes for the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a review of observational studies and intervention trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelber-Sagi, Shira; Godos, Justyna; Salomone, Federico

    2016-05-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is emerging as a major public health problem because of its association with increased cardiovascular and liver-related morbidity and mortality. Both genetic factors and lifestyle contribute to the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Lifestyle, including dietary habits and physical activity, is a modifiable risk factor and thus represents the main target for the prevention and treatment of NAFLD. In this review, we summarize the evidence regarding nutritional aspects (i.e. total energy intake, saturated fat and carbohydrates intake, certain foods or drinks and dietary patterns as a whole) in the treatment of NAFLD. In addition, we analyze the evidence concerning the independent effect of physical activity, including aerobic and resistance training, in the treatment of NAFLD. A therapeutic algorithm according to results from intervention trials is also provided for clinicians and other healthcare professionals involved in the management of NAFLD. PMID:27134667

  19. A healthy eating and lifestyle school intervention : conceptual and attitudinal change but no behavioural change

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Graça Simões; Vieira, Margarida; Anastácio, Zélia

    2012-01-01

    Low fruit and vegetables intake in adolescence is among main risk factors for obesity and other chronic diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Establishing healthy eating habits in adolescents is of paramount importance to lead to future healthy adults, and school is the best place to take forward an effective approach to improve their food choices. The aim of this study was to investigate how far a specific school intervention is able to promote conceptual, attitudi...

  20. Geographic Determinants of Healthy Lifestyle Change in a Community-Based Exercise Prescription Delivered in Family Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Petrella

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence is unequivocal that exercise training can improve health outcomes. However, despite this evidence, adoption of healthy lifestyles is poor. The physical environment is one possible determinant of successful adoption of healthy lifestyles that could influence outcomes in community-based intervention strategies. We developed a novel exercise prescription delivered in two different cohorts of older sedentary adults—one delivered by family physicians to patients with identified cardiovascular risk factors (CRF and the other delivered at a community exercise facility to a larger cohort of healthy sedentary adults (HSA. We then determined whether the place of residence and proximity to facilities promoting physical activity and healthy or unhealthy eating could influence clinical changes related to these community-based exercise prescriptions.Methods: Two different cohorts of older patients were administered similar exercise prescriptions. The CRF cohort was a sedentary group of 41 older adults with either high-normal blood pressure (120–139 mmHg/85–89 mmHg or impaired glucose tolerance (fasting glucose 6.1–6.9 mmol/l who were prescribed exercise by their family physicians at baseline and followed over 12 months. The HSA cohort consisted of 159 sedentary older adults who were prescribed a similar exercise prescription and then participated in a chronic training program over 5 years at a community-based training facility. Out- comes of interest were change in fitness (VO2max, resting systolic blood pressure (rSBP and body mass index (BMI. GIS-determined shortest distance to local facilities promoting physical activity and healthy versus unhealthy were compared at baseline and follow up using simple logistic regression.Those subjects in CRF group were further identified as responders (exhibited an above average change in VO2max and were then compared to non-responders according to their patterns of proximity to physical

  1. Exercise and the Cardiovascular System

    OpenAIRE

    Saeid Golbidi; Ismail Laher

    2012-01-01

    There are alarming increases in the incidence of obesity, insulin resistance, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The risk of these diseases is significantly reduced by appropriate lifestyle modifications such as increased physical activity. However, the exact mechanisms by which exercise influences the development and progression of cardiovascular disease are unclear. In this paper we review some important exercise-induced changes in cardiac, vascular, and blood tissues and discuss...

  2. Integrative approaches for cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneri, Mimi; Mercado, Nestor; Suhar, Christopher

    2009-12-01

    In the United States, $2.5 trillion is spent on healthcare annually. Seven chronic diseases account for half of all this expense. Of these 7, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, stroke, and diabetes mellitus are largely preventable. Integrative cardiology programs that focus on risk-factor modification through lifestyle change combined with early detection and advanced lipid management offer a new paradigm to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:19955547

  3. An investigation of changes in regional gray matter volume in cardiovascular disease patients, pre and post cardiovascular rehabilitation ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Anazodo, U.C.; Shoemaker, J. K.; Suskin, N; St. Lawrence, K.S.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive function decline secondary to cardiovascular disease has been reported. However, little is known about the impact of coronary artery disease (CAD) on the aging brain macrostructure or whether exercise training, in the context of cardiovascular rehabilitation, can affect brain structure following a coronary event. This study employed voxel-based morphometry of high resolution structural MRI images to investigate; 1) changes in regional gray matter volume (GMV) in CAD patients compare...

  4. A cluster randomised school-based lifestyle intervention programme for the prevention of childhood obesity and related early cardiovascular disease (JuvenTUM 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haller Bernhard

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is not only associated with adult obesity but also with increased risk of adult onset of type 2 diabetes and subsequent coronary heart disease. The potential effects of school-based health intervention programmes on cardiovascular risk and surrogate markers are unclear, as only few studies have attempted to investigate a complete risk profile including a detailed laboratory analysis or micro- and macrovascular function. In this study a comprehensive school-based randomized intervention programme will be investigated in 10-14-year old children addressing the influence of lifestyle intervention on inactivity, cardiometabolic risk factors and early signs of vascular disease. Methods/Design 15 secondary schools in Southern Germany are randomly assigned to intervention or control schools. Children in the fifth grade (10-11 years will be observed over four years. The study combines a school-based with a home-based approach, aiming at children, teachers and parents. The main components are weekly lifestyle-lessons for children, taught by regular classroom teachers to increase physical activity in- and outside of school, to improve eating patterns at school and at home, to reduce media consumption and to amplify well-being. In 4-6 annual meetings, teachers receive information about health-related topics with worksheets for children and supporting equipment, accounting for school-specific needs and strategies. Parents' trainings are provided on a regular basis. All examinations are performed at the beginning and at the end of every school year. Anthropometry includes measurements of BMI, waist and upper arm circumferences, skinfold thickness as well as peripheral blood pressure. Blood sampling includes lipid parameters, insulin, glucose, hsCRP, adiponectin, and IL-6 as well as testosteron and estrogen to determine maturation status. Vascular function is non-invasively assessed by measuring arterial stiffness in large

  5. Challenges and Opportunities in the Management of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Youth With Type 1 Diabetes: Lifestyle and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Michelle; Giani, Elisa; Laffel, Lori

    2015-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in persons with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Specific risk factors associated with diabetes, such as hyperglycemia and kidney disease, have been demonstrated to increase the incidence and progression of CVD. Nevertheless, few data exist on the effects of traditional risk factors such as dyslipidemia, obesity, and hypertension on CVD risk in youth with T1D. Improvements in understanding and approaches to the evaluation and management of CVD risk factors, specifically for young persons with T1D, are desirable. Recent advances in noninvasive techniques to detect early vascular damage, such as the evaluation of endothelial dysfunction and aortic or carotid intima-media thickness, provide new tools to evaluate the progression of CVD in childhood. In the present review, current CVD risk factor management, challenges, and potential therapeutic interventions in youth with T1D are described. PMID:26520142

  6. Relationship of changing social atmosphere, lifestyle and bone mineral density in college students

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In Ja; Ko, Yo Han; Kim, Chung Kyung; Kim, Hee Sol; Park, Da Jeong; Yoon, Hyeo Min; Jeong, Yu Jin [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Dongnam Health college, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    The decrease of bone mineral density gives rise to the outbreak of osteopenia and makes the possibility of a bone fracture. It makes health problems in society. It's very important to prevent osteopenia in advance. Also it's critical to prevent and take care of it in adolescent because it's the most developing period comparing to middle ages because that bone mineral density decreases. There are genetic, physical and environmental factors that affect bone mineral density. Recently, a lifestyle and eating habits are also changing as the society atmosphere is gradually doing. This study have shown that 134 women and 75 men was chosen and responded to the survey of measuring bone mineral density and investigating a lifestyle. The measure of bone mineral density is to use Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry(DEXA) and check femoral neck and lumbar spine. Also questionaries was required to pre-made survey about their lifestyles. Analysis of data was done with SPSS program. Multiple regression analysis was used for the relation of bone mineral density, the heigths and BMI. The sample of Groups are checked for drinking, smoking or excercising about differences by t-test. The results of the experiments were; first, there is statistically significant differences in the comparisons between BMD and BMD. But there isn't any special correlation between drinking, smoking and BMD. Secondly, bone mineral density becomes low related to an intake of caffeine. Particularly, this is statically significant on women. Also there is statically significant correlation between femoral neck and quantity of motion for both men and women. Third, there is significant relation between eating habits and bone mineral density on women's lumbar spine. However, there is no significant relation between men's lumbar spine and women's one. Therefore, to prevent osteopenia, it's good to abstain from intaking caffeine within an hour after a meal. In addition, it

  7. Relationship of changing social atmosphere, lifestyle and bone mineral density in college students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decrease of bone mineral density gives rise to the outbreak of osteopenia and makes the possibility of a bone fracture. It makes health problems in society. It's very important to prevent osteopenia in advance. Also it's critical to prevent and take care of it in adolescent because it's the most developing period comparing to middle ages because that bone mineral density decreases. There are genetic, physical and environmental factors that affect bone mineral density. Recently, a lifestyle and eating habits are also changing as the society atmosphere is gradually doing. This study have shown that 134 women and 75 men was chosen and responded to the survey of measuring bone mineral density and investigating a lifestyle. The measure of bone mineral density is to use Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry(DEXA) and check femoral neck and lumbar spine. Also questionaries was required to pre-made survey about their lifestyles. Analysis of data was done with SPSS program. Multiple regression analysis was used for the relation of bone mineral density, the heigths and BMI. The sample of Groups are checked for drinking, smoking or excercising about differences by t-test. The results of the experiments were; first, there is statistically significant differences in the comparisons between BMD and BMD. But there isn't any special correlation between drinking, smoking and BMD. Secondly, bone mineral density becomes low related to an intake of caffeine. Particularly, this is statically significant on women. Also there is statically significant correlation between femoral neck and quantity of motion for both men and women. Third, there is significant relation between eating habits and bone mineral density on women's lumbar spine. However, there is no significant relation between men's lumbar spine and women's one. Therefore, to prevent osteopenia, it's good to abstain from intaking caffeine within an hour after a meal. In addition, it

  8. The A-Framework: The Role of Access, Attributes, and Affordance in the Adoption of Distance Education Technology for Lifestyle Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Patrick J.; Moisey, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory mixed methods case study examined the use of distance education technology for lifestyle change within the context of obesity treatment and weight management. In the quantitative phase of the study, 19 adults involved in an obesity-related lifestyle change program or change process completed a questionnaire that determined their…

  9. Lifestyle-induced maternal body composition changes and birthweight in overweight/obese pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Bruno

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity and excessive gestational weight gain (GWG have been associated with higher occurrence of large for gestational age (LGA babies, and several interventions have been proposed to limit GWG, which, however, does not reflect adequately the subtle changes in body composition that happens during pregnancy. The aim of this study is to evaluate if the variations of body composition, induced by a lifestyle program intended to limit GWG and measured through bioelectrical impedence analysis (BIA, could affect the newborns’ weight in overweight/obese women.Methods: One hundred and thirty-nine women with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 were enrolled between 9th-12th week and a lifestyle program, consisting of low glycemic diet with caloric restriction and physical activity, was prescribed to them. BIA was performed at enrolment and at 35th-36th week. Data regarding the newborns’ weight were collected from clinical charts after delivery.Results: Women who exceeded recommended range of GWG had an higher occurrence of LGA babies. Analysing the body composition, fat free mass (FFM showed a direct correlation with the birthweight centile, even after correcting for BMI at enrolment, age and gestational diabetes mellitus. Interestingly, women who had an increase in fat mass (FM and visceral FM throughout pregnancy had an higher occurrence of small for gestational age (SGA babies.Conclusion: The increase in FM and visceral FM during pregnancy in overweight/obese women is linked to a higher occurrence of SGA babies. Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology and Satellite Meetings · Cagliari (Italy · October 26th-31st, 2015 · From the womb to the adultGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos (Cagliari, Italy, Michele Mussap (Genoa, Italy, Antonio Del Vecchio (Bari, Italy, Bo Sun (Shanghai, China, Dorret I. Boomsma (Amsterdam, the Netherlands, Gavino Faa (Cagliari, Italy, Antonio Giordano (Philadelphia, USA

  10. Lifestyle interventions targeting changes in body weight and composition among youth with an intellectual disability: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maïano, Christophe; Normand, Claude L; Aimé, Annie; Bégarie, Jérôme

    2014-08-01

    Over the past three decades, the potential effects of lifestyle interventions targeting changes in body weight and composition (weight, body mass index, fat mass, waist circumference) among adults with an intellectual disability (ID) have been examined in various systematic reviews. Nevertheless, since the middle of the 1980s, the potential effects of these interventions for youth with an ID remain an open question. The purpose of this article is to review the effects of lifestyle interventions targeting changes in body weight and composition among youth with an ID. This review will focus on changes in body weight and composition, healthy lifestyle, and secondary health conditions. A systematic review of English- and French-language studies, published between 1981 and 2013, was performed on Academic Search Complete, PsycARTICLES, Medline and Scopus. The nine studies included in this review focused mainly on: a sample with a wide age range (e.g., 7-22 years); males; overweight-obese youth having a mild-to-moderate ID with Down or Prader-Willi syndrome; physical activity interventions; cohort pre- and post-test designs with/without a control group; and changes in body weight and composition. Taken together, results from these studies suggest successful changes in weight, body mass index and fat mass. However, intervention effects on healthy lifestyle and secondary health conditions are scarce and inconclusive. Given the weaknesses of the reviewed studies, the present findings should be considered preliminary and indicative of the need for future research. PMID:24830882

  11. Effecting Healthy Lifestyle Changes in Overweight and Obese Young Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pett, Marjorie; Clark, Lauren; Eldredge, Alison; Cardell, Beth; Jordan, Kristine; Chambless, Cathy; Burley, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated a 12-week recreation center-based healthy lifestyle intervention for 30 obese home-dwelling young adults (YA) with intellectual disabilities. Three cohorts participated: YA only, YA and parents, and parents only. The YA cohorts received a nutrition/exercise intervention; parents focused on modeling healthy lifestyle behaviors.…

  12. Healthy lifestyle behaviour among Ghanaian adults in the phase of a health policy change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dake Fidelia AA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many countries have adopted health policies that are targeted at reducing the risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases. These policies promote a healthy population by encouraging people to adopt healthy lifestyle behaviours. This paper examines healthy lifestyle behaviour among Ghanaian adults by comparing behaviours before and after the introduction of a national health policy. The paper also explores the socio-economic and demographic factors associated with healthy lifestyle behaviour. Method Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate regression techniques were employed on two nationally representative surveys (2003 World Health Survey (Ghana and 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey to arrive at the results. Results While the prevalence of some negative lifestyle behaviours like smoking has reduced others like alcohol consumption has increased. Relatively fewer people adhered to consuming the recommended amount of fruit and vegetable servings per day in 2008 compared to 2003. While more females (7.0% exhibited healthier lifestyles, more males (9.0% exhibited risky lifestyle behaviours after the introduction of the policy. Conclusion The improvement in healthy lifestyle behaviours among female adult Ghanaians will help promote healthy living and potentially lead to a reduction in the prevalence of obesity among Ghanaian women. The increase in risky lifestyle behaviour among adult male Ghanaians even after the introduction of the health policy could lead to an increase in the risk of non-communicable diseases among men and the resultant burden of disease on them and their families will push more people into poverty.

  13. Giving offspring a healthy start: parents' experiences of health promotion and lifestyle change during pregnancy and early parenthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvardsson Kristina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are good opportunities in Sweden for health promotion targeting expectant parents and parents of young children, as almost all are reached by antenatal and child health care. In 2005, a multisectoral child health promotion programme (the Salut Programme was launched to further strengthen such efforts. Methods Between June and December 2010 twenty-four in-depth interviews were conducted separately with first-time mothers and fathers when their child had reached 18 months of age. The aim was to explore their experiences of health promotion and lifestyle change during pregnancy and early parenthood. Qualitative manifest and latent content analysis was applied. Results Parents reported undertaking lifestyle changes to secure the health of the fetus during pregnancy, and in early parenthood to create a health-promoting environment for the child. Both women and men portrayed themselves as highly receptive to health messages regarding the effect of their lifestyle on fetal health, and they frequently mentioned risks related to tobacco and alcohol, as well as toxins and infectious agents in specific foods. However, health promotion strategies in pregnancy and early parenthood did not seem to influence parents to make lifestyle change primarily to promote their own health; a healthy lifestyle was simply perceived as 'common knowledge'. Although trust in health care was generally high, both women and men described some resistance to what they saw as preaching, or very directive counselling about healthy living and the lack of a holistic approach from health care providers. They also reported insufficient engagement with fathers in antenatal care and child health care. Conclusion Perceptions about risks to the offspring's health appear to be the primary driving force for lifestyle change during pregnancy and early parenthood. However, as parents' motivation to prioritise their own health per se seems to be low during this period

  14. Comparative Analysis of Korean Television Dramas between 1977 and 1987: Changes of Themes and Lifestyles of Characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Eung-Jun

    To examine how the contents of Korean television serial dramas have changed and to determine trends of their portrayals of male and female characters' lifestyles, a study analyzed Korean television dramas of 1977 and 1987. A sample of three channels' video--22 daily and 14 weekly episodes of 18 different television dramas during weekday prime time…

  15. Consumer willingness to invest money and time for benefits of lifestyle behaviour change: An application of the contingent valuation method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F.G. Alayli-Goebbels (Adrienne F.G.); N.J.A. van Exel (Job); A.J.H.A. Ament (André); N.K. de Vries (Nanne); S.D.M. Bot (Sandra); J.L. Severens (Hans)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Objective: To use contingent valuation (CV) to derive individual consumer values for both health and broader benefits of a public-health intervention directed at lifestyle behaviour change (LBC) and to examine the feasibility and validity of the method. Method: Particip

  16. Psychosocial Constructs and Postintervention Changes in Physical Activity and Dietary Outcomes in a Lifestyle Intervention, Hub City Steps, 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Landry, Alicia S; Thomson, Jessica L.; Madson, Michael B.; Zoellner, Jamie M.; Mohn, Richard S.; Noble, Jeremy; Connell, Carol L.; Yadrick, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although modifications to dietary and physical activity (PA) behavior can reduce blood pressure, racial disparities in prevalence and control of hypertension persist. Psychosocial constructs (PSCs) of self-regulation, processes of change, and social support are associated with initiation and maintenance of PA in African Americans; which PSCs best predict lifestyle behavior changes is unclear. This study’s objective was to examine relationships among PSC changes and postinterventi...

  17. The Questionnaire of Lifestyle Change in Regard to Problematic Internet Use: Factor Structure and Concurrent and Cross-Year Predictive Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Yu-Chen; Lin, Sunny S. J.; Tseng, Yin-Hsing; Hwang, Fang-Ming

    2012-01-01

    This study constructed a questionnaire, named "Lifestyle Change in Regard to Problematic Internet Use (LC-PIU)," for helping school psychologists detect early indications of PIU-related lifestyle changes in university populations. Our focus is on all university students who use the Internet, not users who already show dependent symptoms. The…

  18. Our Changing Lifestyle: Its Effects on Child Nutrition and Dental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanning, Elizabeth A.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the general standard of health of Australians, the trend towards a lifestyle of fast foods and less excercise, and the relation between diet and three major diseases: heart disease, cancer, and stroke. (Author/SS)

  19. Healthy lifestyle behaviour among Ghanaian adults in the phase of a health policy change

    OpenAIRE

    Dake Fidelia AA; Tagoe Henry A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Many countries have adopted health policies that are targeted at reducing the risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases. These policies promote a healthy population by encouraging people to adopt healthy lifestyle behaviours. This paper examines healthy lifestyle behaviour among Ghanaian adults by comparing behaviours before and after the introduction of a national health policy. The paper also explores the socio-economic and demographic factors associated with he...

  20. Keep on cruising: Changes in lifestyle and driving style among male drivers between the age of 18 and 23

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    Despite recent improvements in general road safety levels, young male drivers in most western countries continue to be overrepresented in road traffic accidents. Lifestyle related motivational factors are a key element in the young male driver problem. Based on 379 posted questionnaires completed...... group still showed a similar life style at the age of 23. The study confirmed the importance of lifestyle related motivational factors for driving behaviour among young drivers. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.......Despite recent improvements in general road safety levels, young male drivers in most western countries continue to be overrepresented in road traffic accidents. Lifestyle related motivational factors are a key element in the young male driver problem. Based on 379 posted questionnaires completed...... by the same male drivers at the age of 18 and again at the age of 23, this study examined changes in the relationship between lifestyle and driving style over a 5 year period. A number of changes in car use, driving style and engagement in different leisure time activities were found. Cruising was...

  1. Targeting Lifestyle Behavior Change in Adults with NAFLD During a 20-min Consultation: Summary of the Dietary and Exercise Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallsworth, Kate; Avery, Leah; Trenell, Michael I

    2016-03-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is largely linked to poor diet, lack of physical activity/exercise, and being overweight. In the absence of approved pharmaceutical agents, lifestyle modification, encompassing dietary change and increased physical activity/exercise to initiate weight loss, is the recommended therapy for NAFLD. Despite this, the use of lifestyle therapy within clinical settings is lacking with limited guidance available about what it should involve, how it should be delivered, and whether it can be feasibly delivered as part of standard care. This paper highlights the evidence for the use of lifestyle modification in NAFLD. While there is evidence to support use of behavioral strategies to support lifestyle behavior change in other clinical populations, these are yet to be assessed in people with NAFLD. However, there is sufficient evidence to suggest that behavioral intervention targeting diet and physical activity to promote weight loss in general is effective and a number of practical strategies are presented on how this could be achieved. PMID:26908279

  2. Impact of lifestyle factors on preneoplastic changes in prophylactic oophorectomies of BRCA mutation carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primas, Helga; Kroiss, Regina; Kalteis, Karin; Rappaport, Christine; Muhr, Daniela; Primas, Christian; Kubista, Ernst; Horvat, Reinhard; Oefner, Peter; Singer, Christian; Wagner And The Austrian Hereditary Breast And Ovarian Cancer Group, Teresa

    2012-03-01

    BRCA mutation carriers are at high risk of developing ovarian cancer. Ovarian malignancies are usually identified at an advanced stage with poor prognosis, attributed to inadequate options of early detection. Because of its risk-reducing effect of nearly 96%, prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy is still the leading option for risk-reduction in women with a positive BRCA mutation status. The presence of ovarian cancer precursor lesions, such as epithelial inclusion cysts (EICs) or cortical invaginations (CIs), has previously been discussed in several studies with diverse conclusions. We retrospectively investigated a large and consistent population (n=94) of BRCA mutation carriers for the presence of potential preneoplastic and neoplastic changes. We also examined the role of specific lifestyle factors. Ninety-four women with disease-associated germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations were included in this retrospective study. All women had undergone genetic counseling and prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy, which was performed at a mean age of 43.33 years (range 27-66). Histological slides of both ovaries were reviewed by an independent pathologist. Data concerning lifestyle factors were collected from medical files and questionnaires. Two malignant lesions (2.1%), one bilateral serous papillary adenocarcinoma of the epithelial surface and one adenocarcinoma of the peritoneum with involvement of the left adnexa, and one lesion (1.1%) with obvious malignant potential, one mucinous borderline tumor of the right ovary, have been identified. We registered a high prevalence of CIs (30; 31.9%) and EICs (44; 46.8%) in prophylactically removed ovaries of BRCA mutation carriers. A significant correlation (P=0.002) was found with regard to the presence of EICs in women with increased BMI. Concerning the regular consumption of alcohol as a risk factor for premalignant lesions, in particular CIs, a statistically insignificant trend (P=0.083) was noted. Overweight women seem to be at

  3. Selling health lifestyles: using social marketing to promote change and prevent disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langill, Donna

    2004-11-01

    As part of its continuing mission to serve trustees and staff of health foundations and corporate giving programs, Grantmakers In Health (GIH) brought together grantmakers, researchers, and public health professionals on May 20, 2004 to discuss the application of social marketing principles to health promotion and chronic disease prevention. As a behavior change technique, social marketing has proven effective in motivating people to make the complex and difficult behavior changes that can improve health and reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes. The Issue Dialogue used the lens of tobacco prevention and cessation, physical activity, and healthy eating to examine how health grantmakers can use social marketing principles and techniques to encourage and support the adoption of healthier behaviors across the lifespan. This Issue Brief incorporates the information and ideas shared at the meeting with a background paper on social marketing that was prepared for participants who attended the Issue Dialogue. It starts with an introduction of social marketing concepts and provides a framework for assessing whether social marketing is an appropriate approach to use in addressing a particular issue. Subsequent sections: (1) describe both the social marketing communications process and techniques, using examples from campaigns developed by health grantmakers and others; (2) describe how social marketing can be used to promote policy change; (3) provide information on communication strategies that can complement social marketing; and (4) present opportunities for grantmakers. PMID:15551499

  4. Behaviour Change Techniques embedded in health and lifestyle apps: coding and analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaston Antezana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background There is evidence showing that commercially available health and lifestyle apps can be used as co-adjuvants to clinical interventions and for the prevention of chronic and non-communicable diseases. This can be particularly significant to support and improve wellbeing of young people given their familiarity with these resources. However it is important to understand the content and consistency of Behaviour Change Techniques (BCT’s embedded in the apps to maximise their potential benefits. Objectives This study explores the BCT content of a selected list of health and lifestyle tracking apps in three behavioural dimensions: physical activity, sleep and diet. We identified BCT commonalities within and between categories to detect the most frequently used and arguably more effective techniques in the context of wellbeing and promotion of health behaviours. Methods Apps were selected by using keywords and by reviewing the “health and fitness” category of GooglePlay (477 apps. The selection criteria included free apps (even if they also offered paid versions and being common to GooglePlay and AppStore. A background review of each app was also completed. Selected apps were classified according to user ratings in GooglePlay (apps with less that 4+ star ratings were disregarded. The top ten apps in each category were selected, making it a total of 30 for the analysis. Three coders used the apps for two months and were trained to use a comprehensive 93 items taxonomy (BCTv1 to complete the analysis. Results Strong BCT similarities were found across all three categories, suggesting a consistent basic content composition. Out of all 93 BCTS’s 8 were identified as being present in at least 50% of the apps. 6 of these BCT’s are concentrated in categories “1. Goals and Planning” and “2. Feedback and Monitoring”. BCT “Social support (unspecified” was coded for in 63% of the apps, as it was present through different features in

  5. The bioengineering of changing lifestyle and wearable technology: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geib, Roy W; Swink, Phil J; Vorel, Alyssa J; Shepard, Cynthia S; Gurovich, Alvaro N; Waite, Gabi N

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diseases are a major health concern at the national and global level. According to the CDC, 86% of US health dollars go toward the treatment of chronic diseases. Many chronic diseases are manageable or preventable if individuals make appropriate lifestyle choices. Wearable technology – both consumer and medical – provides a unique opportunity to track lifestyle choices, such as increasing physical activity. It is estimated the market for consumer wearables will grow from $9.2 billion in 2014 to $30 billion by 2018. With such a potential market growth, it is important to understand the potential benefits and limitations of wearable technology to impact chronic disease management and prevention. PMID:25996701

  6. Determining how best to support overweight adults to adhere to lifestyle change: protocol for the SWIFT study

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Rachael W; Roy, Melyssa; Jospe, Michelle R.; Osborne, Hamish R; Meredith-Jones, Kim J; Williams, Sheila M.; Brown, Rachel C

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity plays a critical role in health, including for effective weight maintenance, but adherence to guidelines is often poor. Similarly, although debate continues over whether a “best” diet exists for weight control, meta-analyses suggest little difference in outcomes between diets differing markedly in macronutrient composition, particularly over the longer-term. Thus a more important question is how best to encourage adherence to appropriate lifestyle change. While br...

  7. Clinical profile and post-operative lifestyle changes in cancer and non-cancer patients with ostomy

    OpenAIRE

    Anaraki, Fakhryalsadat; Vafaie, Mohamad; Behboo, Roobic; Maghsoodi, Nakisa; Esmaeilpour, Sahar; Safaee, Azadeh

    2012-01-01

    Aim The aim of this was to investigate some clinical profiles and lifestyle changes in stoma patients. Background Stoma patients experienced multiple complications due to their ostomy formation. Patients and methods A cross-sectional study performed on 102 random samples of stoma patients. Any patient with adequate physical and mental capability to participate and having had an ostomy in place for at least 3 months was eligible to enter the study. Participants asked to answer study questions ...

  8. Lifestyle and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Mental health professionals have significantly underestimated the importance of lifestyle factors (a) as contributors to and treatments for multiple psychopathologies, (b) for fostering individual and social well-being, and (c) for preserving and optimizing cognitive function. Consequently, therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLCs) are underutilized…

  9. Efeitos da sauna sobre doenças cardiovasculares e doenças relacionadas com o estilo de vida Efectos de la sauna sobre las enfermedades cardiovasculares y las relacionadas al estilo de vida Effects of sauna on cardiovascular and lifestyle-related diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Talebipour

    2006-08-01

    the impact of the sauna on diseases and on health in general. Sauna can be beneficial or dangerous depending on its use. In the past few years the sauna is being considered beneficial for the cardiovascular diseases' patients, as the heart failure and lifestyle-related diseases, mainly by improving the peripheral endothelial function, through the increase of the cardiac output and peripheral vasodilation. The endothelial dysfunction is present in most of the cardiovascular diseases. The present article intends to review the sauna effects on the cardiovascular system in healthy individuals and in some cardiovascular diseases.

  10. Role of diet and lifestyle changes in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    OpenAIRE

    Nseir, William; Hellou, Elias; Assy, Nimer

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one of the most common causes of liver disease worldwide and has been recognized as a major health burden. The prevalence of NAFLD has grown proportionally with the rise in obesity, sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy dietary pattern, and metabolic syndrome. Currently, there is no drug therapy that can be formulated for treating NAFLD. A combination of dietary modifications and increased physical activity remains the mainstay of NAFLD management....

  11. Lifestyle changes and the risk of developing endometrial and ovarian cancers: opportunities for prevention and management

    OpenAIRE

    Beavis AL; Smith AJB; Fader AN

    2016-01-01

    Anna L Beavis,1,* Anna Jo Bodurtha Smith,2,* Amanda Nickles Fader1 1Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The Kelly Gynecologic Oncology Service, Johns Hopkins Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 2Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Modifiable lifestyle factors, such as obesity, lack of physical activity, and smoking, contribute greatly to cancer and chronic disease morbidity and mortality worldwide. This review appraises recent evidenc...

  12. Parent Nutrition Education and the Influence on Family Lifestyle Behavior Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Rich, Kelsey

    2012-01-01

    Recently, childhood overweight and obesity has reached epidemic proportions. The co-morbidities associated with adult obesity are now being seen in the pediatric population; therefore, there is a call for preventative efforts. A diet high in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains in conjunction with an active lifestyle discourages the presence of obesity. Currently, most childhood obesity prevention efforts have taken place in the school setting and have only had short-term success. For long-te...

  13. Lifestyle factors and Alzheimer-type dementia: the link between exercise and cognitive change

    OpenAIRE

    Farina, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that results in cognitive and functional impairment. Current pharmacological treatments have limited effect on correcting cognitive deficits. However, there is a growing amount of literature to suggest that lifestyle factors, such as physical activity, may have a positive effect on cognitive function for people with AD. Through a series of four articles I have addressed methodological short-comings in the existing literature, and determ...

  14. Neuropathological changes in mouse models of cardiovascular diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Bink, D.I.

    2016-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment and dementia are common disorders in the elderly. As the life span of the population in the Western world is increasing, the prevalence of cognitive disorders and the social and economic burden that coincide with that will increase. Recent data indicate that cardiovascular diseases are largely associated with an increased risk of dementia. The presence of atherosclerosis, heart failure, hypertension and small vessel disease are all associated with neuropathological c...

  15. Estilo de vida e saúde cardiovascular em adolescentes de escolas do município de São Paulo Estilo de vida y salud cardiovascular en adolescentes de escuelas del municipio de São Paulo Lifestyle and cardiovascular health in school adolescents from São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Lancarotte

    2010-07-01

    : Identificar en adolescentes, la prevalencia de sobrepeso y del estilo de vida asociado a riesgo para el desarrollo de enfermedades cardiovasculares, además de los factores que los influyen. MÉTODOS: Fue realizado un estudio observacional de datos individuales, transversal, con adolescentes matriculados en escuelas públicas y privadas del municipio de São Paulo, englobando los grados de 5ª a 8ª de la enseñanza fundamental; las informaciones fueron obtenidas a través de la aplicación de un cuestionario anónimo y de la realización de medidas de peso y altura. RESULTADOS: Fueron analizados 2.125 adolescentes, con edad media de 12,9 años. Del total estudiado: de 14,4% a 32,1% no practicaron deporte o competición; de 56,0% a 73,6% se quedaron más de dos horas frente a la TV, videogame o computadora; aproximadamente 80% consumieron frutas y legumbres de forma considerada inadecuada; de 34,9% a 45,3% relataron consumo aumentado de sal; y de 60,9% a 74,4% consumo de bebidas gaseosas. La prevalencia de sobrepeso varió de 18,7% a 41,6%. CONCLUSIÓN: Es alta la prevalencia en adolescentes escolares de factores de riesgo asociados al desarrollo de enfermedades cardiovasculares en el adulto. Otros estudios son necesarios para comprender mejor como esos factores de riesgo se correlacionan y, así, posibilitar la implementación de medidas preventivas, en la fase de la adolescencia, con vistas a la prevención de las enfermedades cardiovasculares do adulto.BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. There is evidence demonstrating the association of this disease with cardiovascular risk factors related to lifestyle, incorporated in adolescence. OBJECTIVE: To identify, in adolescents, the prevalence of overweight and lifestyle factors associated with risk for developing cardiovascular diseases, and the factors that influence them. METHODS: It was conducted an observational study of individual cross-sectional data with adolescents enrolled in

  16. Can fMRI help optimise lifestyle behaviour change feedback from wearable technologies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxine Whelan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Non-communicable diseases (NCDs place severe financial strain on global health resources. Diabetes mellitus, the second most prevalent NCD, has been attributed to 8.4% of deaths worldwide for adults aged 20-79 years (International Diabetes Federation, 2013 with physical inactivity attributable to 7% of cases (Lee et al., 2012. The recent surge in commercially available wearable technology has begun to allow individuals to self-monitor their physical activity and sedentary behaviour as well as the physiological response to these behaviours (e.g., health markers such as glucose levels. Equipped with feedback obtained from such wearables, individuals are better able to understand the relationship between the lifestyle behaviours they take (e.g. going for a walk after dinner and health consequences (e.g. less glucose excursions (area under the curve. However, in order to achieve true behaviour change, the feedback must be optimised. Innovative communications research suggest that health messages (and in our case feedback that activates brain regions such as the medial prefrontal cortex (Falk, Berkman, Mann, Harrison & Lieberman, 2010 can predict and are associated with successful behaviour change. Fortunately, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI can map this neural activity whilst individuals receive various forms of personalised feedback. Such insight into the optimisation of feedback can improve the design and delivery of future behaviour change interventions. Aim Examine neural activity in response to personalised feedback in order to identify health messages most potent for behaviour change. Methods A mixed gender sample of 30 adults (aged 30-65 years will be recruited through campus advertisements at Loughborough University, UK. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour will be assessed using waist-worn ActiGraph GT3x-BT accelerometer (100Hz and LUMO posture sensor (30Hz, respectively. Both devices will be removed for sleep

  17. What do most erectile dysfunction guidelines have in common? No evidence-based discussion or recommendation of heart-healthy lifestyle changes and/or Panax ginseng

    OpenAIRE

    Moyad, Mark A; Park, Kwangsung

    2012-01-01

    Sexual health or erectile dysfunction (ED) state of the art guidelines provide a thorough overview of conventional prescription or other notable extrinsic treatment options. Yet, over the past 10–15 years, a plethora of international researchers have established that individual and comprehensive lifestyle changes can prevent and potentially improve ED. We review the lifestyle evidence that should equate to grade A or level 1 evidence recommendations for ED. We also review the evidence for Pan...

  18. An innovative approach to providing lifestyle education and behaviour change to prevent type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Grady, Katherine; Savas, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes is one of the major health challenges of our time. Diabetes UK recently estimated 10% of the total NHS budget is spent on diabetes care. NICE guidance “Prevention of type 2 diabetes in adults” (2011) and “Prevention of type 2 diabetes in high-risk groups” (currently consultation phase) emphasises the importance of prevention. Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is a precursor for the development of type 2 diabetes and is additionally associated with increased cardiovascular...

  19. Cardiovascular changes in workers exposed to fine particulate dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Bortkiewicz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Epidemiological studies provide evidence that airborne particulate matter may contribute to the increased incidence and mortality rates due to pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases. Only some of them address the problem of occupational exposure to particulate air pollution. The aim of our study was to assess cardiovascular reaction and autonomic regulation in workers exposed to fine particles. Materials and Methods: All workers had medical examination, resting ECG with heart rate variability analysis (HRV, 24-h ECG, and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM performed. The subjects were 20 male workers (mean age: 32.14.0 year of a ceramic ware factory exposed to the dust and 20 workers who were not exposed (mean age: 39.4±7.8 year. The period of employment under exposure amounted to 5.6±2.1 year. Dust exposure was measured using individual dosimeters. Results: The geometric mean total dust concentration was 44±1.5 mg/m3 and the FPD (fine particulate dust concentration amounted to 11.5±1.6 mg/m3. No abnormalities were noted in the resting ECG in both groups, in 24-h ECG 2 subjects, both from exposed and control groups, had ventricular heart rhythm and repolarization disturbances. Blood pressure in ABPM, both systolic as well as diastolic, was normal and did not differ between the groups. Resting heart rate in the exposed group was significantly lower (p = 0.038 than in the control group. In the exposed group STD R-R from short-term records was significantly higher (p = 0.01. Fast Fourier Transform (FFT analysis showed that the low frequency power spectrum (LF did not differ in the exposed and the control group, while high frequency (HF was significantly higher in the exposed group. LF/HF ratio was significantly lower in the exposed in comparison with the control group. Conclusions: Although we did not reveal significant abnormalities in ECG as well as in ABPM in the exposed group, it seems that neurovegetative disturbances

  20. Let us Get Real! Integrated Approach for Virtual Coaching and Real Time Activity Monitoring in Lifestyle Change Support Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kulyk, Olga; Akker, op den, Harm; Klaassen, Randy; Gemert-Pijnen, van, Julia E.W.C.; Hettinga, M.; Smedberg, A.

    2014-01-01

    There is a fast growing number of eHealth systems aiming at supporting a healthy lifestyle. Tailored lifestyle coaching services offer individual users access to web portals where they can communicate about a growing number of ingredients of everyday life concern: physical activity, nutrition, medication, mood, sleep. Mobile technology in combination with body worn sensors support user’s awareness of their physical condition and lifestyle. Despite the large number of available lifestyle inter...

  1. Affairs of the heart: patients’ personal constructions of a cardiac event and their effect on lifestyle change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EC McKibbin

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The issue of why people do not always make appropriate lifestyle changes in response to a cardiac event has and continues to be of central importance to health practitioners. This paper addresses this issue from the perspective of the lived experience of persons who have suffered an acute myocardial infarction (AMI. The experiences of 10 persons admitted to the coronary care unit (CCU of a South African clinic were richly described, making use of the grounded theory methodology. These descriptions were then used as a basis for the development of a contextualist theory of the experience of heart attacks. A central feature of the results was that the disease was mainly attributed to stress by the participants. This was in contrast to the explanations offered by the medical profession, who attribute this more to other modifiable risk factors such as smoking, high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, and lack of exercise. This tension between lay and professional constructions of the aetiology of the condition is deemed to be of import in the recovery process. The paper further alludes to the goodness of fit which exists between the proposed grounded theory and the personal construct theory of George Kelly. The importance of personal constructions of the event is then used as the basis for a proposed intervention process aimed at addressing the difficulties AMI patients’ experience in making and sustaining lifestyle changes.

  2. Design and baseline characteristics of the PerfectFit study: A multicenter cluster-randomized trial of a lifestyle intervention in employees with increased cardiovascular risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Kouwenhoven-Pasmooij; B. Djikanovic (Bosiljka); S.J.W. Robroek (Suzan); P. Helmhout (Pieter); A. Burdorf (Alex); M.G.M. Hunink (Myriam)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The prevalence of unhealthy lifestyles and preventable chronic diseases is high. They lead to disabilities and sickness absence, which might be reduced if health promotion measures were applied. Therefore, we developed the PerfectFit health promotion intervention with a "blen

  3. Situated lifestyles: I. How lifestyles change along with the level of urbanization and what the greenhouse gas implications are—a study of Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extensive body of literature demonstrates how higher density leads to more efficient energy use and lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from transport and housing. However, our current understanding seems to be limited on the relationships between the urban form and the GHG emissions, namely how the urban form affects the lifestyles and thus the GHGs on a much wider scale than traditionally assumed. The urban form affects housing types, commuting distances, availability of different goods and services, social contacts and emulation, and the alternatives for pastimes, meaning that lifestyles are actually situated instead of personal projects. As almost all consumption, be it services or products, involves GHG emissions, looking at the emissions from transport and housing may not be sufficient to define whether one form would be more desirable than another. In the paper we analyze the urban form–lifestyle relationships in Finland together with the resulting GHG implications, employing both monetary expenditure and time use data to portray lifestyles in different basic urban forms: metropolitan, urban, semi-urban and rural. The GHG implications are assessed with a life cycle assessment (LCA) method that takes into account the GHG emissions embedded in different goods and services. The paper depicts that, while the direct emissions from transportation and housing energy slightly decrease with higher density, the reductions can be easily overridden by sources of indirect emissions. We also highlight that the indirect emissions actually seem to have strong structural determinants, often undermined in studies concerning sustainable urban forms. Further, we introduce a concept of ‘parallel consumption’ to explain how the lifestyles especially in more urbanized areas lead to multiplication of consumption outside of the limits of time budget and the living environment. This is also part I of a two-stage study. In part II we will depict how various other contextual

  4. The role of lifestyle changes in the management of chronic liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feldstein Ariel E

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The prevalence of obesity worldwide has dramatically increased during the last three decades. With obesity comes a variety of adverse health outcomes which are grouped under the umbrella of metabolic syndrome. The liver in particular seems to be significantly impacted by fat deposition in the presence of obesity. In this article we discuss several liver conditions which are directly affected by overweight and obese status, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic infection with hepatitis C virus and post-liver transplant status. The deleterious effects of obesity on liver disease and overall health can be significantly impacted by a culture that fosters sustained nutritional improvement and regular physical activity. Here we summarize the current evidence supporting non-pharmacological, lifestyle interventions that lead to weight reduction, improved physical activity and better nutrition as part of the management and treatment of these liver conditions.

  5. Cardiovascular disease risk models and longitudinal changes in cognition: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie L Harrison

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease and its risk factors have consistently been associated with poor cognitive function and incident dementia. Whether cardiovascular disease prediction models, developed to predict an individual's risk of future cardiovascular disease or stroke, are also informative for predicting risk of cognitive decline and dementia is not known.The objective of this systematic review was to compare cohort studies examining the association between cardiovascular disease risk models and longitudinal changes in cognitive function or risk of incident cognitive impairment or dementia.Medline, PsychINFO, and Embase were searched from inception to March 28, 2014. From 3,413 records initially screened, 21 were included.The association between numerous different cardiovascular disease risk models and cognitive outcomes has been tested, including Framingham and non-Framingham risk models. Five studies examined dementia as an outcome; fourteen studies examined cognitive decline or incident cognitive impairment as an outcome; and two studies examined both dementia and cognitive changes as outcomes. In all studies, higher cardiovascular disease risk scores were associated with cognitive changes or risk of dementia. Only four studies reported model prognostic performance indices, such as Area Under the Curve (AUC, for predicting incident dementia or cognitive impairment and these studies all examined non-Framingham Risk models (AUC range: 0.74 to 0.78.Cardiovascular risk prediction models are associated with cognitive changes over time and risk of dementia. Such models are easily obtainable in clinical and research settings and may be useful for identifying individuals at high risk of future cognitive decline and dementia.

  6. Cardiovascular and respiratory changes and convalescence in laparoscopic colonic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, S; Lyng, K M; Bugge, K; Perner, A; Bendtsen, A; Thorup, J; Nielsen, H J; Rasmussen, V; Rosenberg, J

    1999-01-01

    Gasless laparoscopy produces smaller cardiopulmonary and systemic changes than carbon dioxide (CO2) laparoscopy during colonic surgery.......Gasless laparoscopy produces smaller cardiopulmonary and systemic changes than carbon dioxide (CO2) laparoscopy during colonic surgery....

  7. Identity transformation and a changed lifestyle following dramatic weight loss and body-contouring surgery: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmartin, Jo; Long, Andrew; Soldin, Mark

    2015-10-01

    This article reports on two major quality-of-life perception changes for patients who had undergone plastic surgery following dramatic weight loss. The exploratory, qualitative study was undertaken with 20 patients from one teaching hospital. In-depth interviews were conducted, and a thematic analysis of the data was undertaken. The results provide unique glimpses of surgical consumption empowering and facilitating 'identity transformation', embracing improved physical function and enhanced self-esteem, confidence and quality of life, and a 'changed lifestyle'. For a minority, identity transformation was sometimes interrupted by 'identity lag', posing the need for additional health-care support throughout the adjustment process. The study provides additional insight into existing quantitative studies, adding to the body of knowledge in this area. PMID:24296742

  8. Design and baseline characteristics of the PerfectFit study: a multicenter cluster-randomized trial of a lifestyle intervention in employees with increased cardiovascular risk

    OpenAIRE

    Kouwenhoven-Pasmooij, Tessa A.; Djikanovic, Bosiljka; Robroek, Suzan J. W.; Helmhout, Pieter; Burdorf, Alex; Hunink, M. G. Myriam

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence of unhealthy lifestyles and preventable chronic diseases is high. They lead to disabilities and sickness absence, which might be reduced if health promotion measures were applied. Therefore, we developed the PerfectFit health promotion intervention with a “blended care”-approach, which consists of a web-based health risk assessment (HRA) including tailored and personalized advice, followed by motivational interviewing (MI). We hypothesize that adding MI to a web-base...

  9. Lifestyle Interventions for Cardiovascular Disease Risk Reduction: A Systematic Review of the Effects of Diet Composition, Food Provision, and Treatment Modality on Weight Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Dutton, Gareth R.; Laitner, Melissa H.; Perri, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate, synthesize, and interpret findings from recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of dietary and lifestyle weight loss interventions examining the effects of 1) diet composition, 2) use of food provision, and 3) modality of treatment delivery on weight loss. Trials comparing different dietary approaches indicated that reducing carbohydrate intake promoted greater initial weight loss than other approaches but did not appear to significant...

  10. The role of lifestyle change in the prevention and treatment of NAFLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centis, Elena; Marzocchi, Rebecca; Suppini, Alessandro; Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Villanova, Nicola; Hickman, Ingrid J; Marchesini, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    Healthy habits in terms of food intake and physical activity are first-line approach to prevention and treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, but difficulties arise in turning attempts into practice. Independently of the specific role of individual nutrients, not universally proven, overweight, obesity and diabetes are the specific conditions most frequently associated with hepatic fat accumulation. Accordingly, weight loss is mandatory in the majority of patients; this can be achieved by dietary restriction, but is rarely maintained in the long-term. Physical activity programs, both aerobic and resistance exercise may improve cardiorespiratory fitness, reduce the multiple conditions associated with the metabolic syndrome and help weight loss maintenance. However, motivating sedentary individuals to move is difficult and is favored by structured programs carried out along the lines of cognitive-behavior therapy. The role of behavior therapy is now supported by pilot studies, observational studies and finally by a randomized controlled study with histological outcomes. In the future, behavior interventions might be supported by important technological advances, such as smart phone technology and webbased platforms to facilitate interactive engagement amongst patients and with their health care providers. Lifestyle programs must also incorporate methods of overcoming barriers to accessing health service, engaging with workplace health programs and linking with community attempts to improve public health. PMID:23394095

  11. Developing Food-Based Dietary Guidelines to Promote Healthy Diets and Lifestyles in the Eastern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Janice L.; Samuda, Pauline M.; Molina, Veronika; Regis, Theresa Marietta; Severin, Merlyn; Finlay, Betty; Prevost, Jacqueline Lancaster

    2007-01-01

    Obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes are becoming leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the Eastern Caribbean countries of St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Saint Lucia, Grenada, and Dominica. To promote healthful diets and lifestyles and encourage behavioral changes, Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDG) were developed for the…

  12. Dietary patterns and changes in cardiovascular risk factors in apparently healthy Chinese women: a longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Zhang, Meilin; Zhu, Yufeng; Liu, Weiqiao; Zhang, Yuwen; Gao, Yuxia; Huang, Guowei

    2016-01-01

    Little is known of the relationships between dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors in China. We therefore designed a 3-year longitudinal study to evaluate the impacts of dietary patterns on changes in these factors among Chinese women. A total of 1,028 subjects who received health examination in 2011 and 2014 were recruited. Three major dietary patterns (“vegetable pattern”, “meat pattern”, and “animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern”) were derived by principal component analysis based on validated food frequency questionnaires. Cardiovascular risk factors were standardized to create within-cohort z-scores and the changes in them were calculated as the differences between 2011 and 2014. Relationships between dietary patterns and changes in cardiovascular risk factors were assessed using general linear model. After adjustment for potential confounders, changes in total cholesterol and fasting blood glucose decreased across the tertiles of vegetable pattern (p for trend = 0.01 and 0.04, respectively). While, changes in diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol increased across the tertiles of animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern (p for trend = 0.02, 0.01, and 0.02, respectively). The findings suggest that vegetable pattern was beneficially related to cardiovascular risk factors, whereas animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern was detrimental related to these factors among apparently healthy Chinese women. PMID:27257349

  13. Dietary patterns and changes in cardiovascular risk factors in apparently healthy Chinese women: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Zhang, Meilin; Zhu, Yufeng; Liu, Weiqiao; Zhang, Yuwen; Gao, Yuxia; Huang, Guowei

    2016-05-01

    Little is known of the relationships between dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors in China. We therefore designed a 3-year longitudinal study to evaluate the impacts of dietary patterns on changes in these factors among Chinese women. A total of 1,028 subjects who received health examination in 2011 and 2014 were recruited. Three major dietary patterns ("vegetable pattern", "meat pattern", and "animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern") were derived by principal component analysis based on validated food frequency questionnaires. Cardiovascular risk factors were standardized to create within-cohort z-scores and the changes in them were calculated as the differences between 2011 and 2014. Relationships between dietary patterns and changes in cardiovascular risk factors were assessed using general linear model. After adjustment for potential confounders, changes in total cholesterol and fasting blood glucose decreased across the tertiles of vegetable pattern (p for trend = 0.01 and 0.04, respectively). While, changes in diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol increased across the tertiles of animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern (p for trend = 0.02, 0.01, and 0.02, respectively). The findings suggest that vegetable pattern was beneficially related to cardiovascular risk factors, whereas animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern was detrimental related to these factors among apparently healthy Chinese women. PMID:27257349

  14. The impact of a population-based multi-factorial lifestyle intervention on changes in long-term dietary habits The Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, U.; Kristoffersen, L.; Ladelund, S.;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a population-based multi-factorial lifestyle intervention on long-term changes in dietary habits compared to a non-intervention control group. METHODS: The study was a randomized controlled lifestyle intervention study, Inter99 (1999-2006), Copenhagen...... group (n=3 324) was followed by questionnaires. Dietary habits were measured by a validated 48-item food frequency questionnaire and changes were analyzed by multilevel analyses. RESULTS: At the 5-year follow-up the intervention group compared to the control group had significantly increased their...

  15. Considering statins for cholesterol-reduction in children if lifestyle and diet changes do not improve their health: a review of the risks and benefits.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Gorman, Clodagh S M

    2010-12-01

    Children who appear healthy, even if they have one or more recognized cardiovascular risk factors, do not generally have outcomes of cardiovascular or other vascular disease during childhood. Historically, pediatric medicine has not aggressively screened for or treated cardiovascular risk factors in otherwise healthy children. However, studies such as the P-Day Study (Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth), and the Bogalusa Heart Study, indicate that healthy children at remarkably young ages can have evidence of significant atherosclerosis. With the increasing prevalence of pediatric obesity, can we expect more health problems related to the consequences of pediatric dyslipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and atherosclerosis in the future? For many years, medications have been available and used in adult populations to treat dyslipidemia. In recent years, reports of short-term safety of some of these medications in children have been published. However, none of these studies have detailed long-term follow-up, and therefore none have described potential late side-effects of early cholesterol-lowering therapy, or potential benefits in terms of reduction of or delay in cardiovascular or other vascular end-points. In 2007, the American Heart Association published a scientific statement on the use of cholesterol-lowering therapy in pediatric patients. In this review paper, we discuss some of the current literature on cholesterol-lowering therapy in children, including the statins that are currently available for use in children, and some of the cautions with using these and other cholesterol-lowering medications. A central tenet of this review is that medications are not a substitute for dietary and lifestyle interventions, and that even in children on cholesterol-lowering medications, physicians should take every opportunity to encourage children and their parents to make healthy diet and lifestyle choices.

  16. Metabolic disorders and cardiovascular risk in treatment-naive HIV-infected patients of sub-saharan origin starting antiretrovirals: impact of westernized lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eholié, Serge Paul; Lacombe, Karine; Krain, Alysa; Diallo, Zelica; Ouiminga, Mariama; Campa, Pauline; Bouchaud, Olivier; Bissagnene, Emmanuel; Girard, Pierre-Marie

    2015-04-01

    In a cohort of HIV-infected patients of sub-Saharan origin we describe the incidence of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and lipodystrophy after 3 years of combined antiretroviral therapy, and model the 10-year risk of cardiovascular diseases, while taking into account environmental factors. This is a multinational, prospective cohort study conducted in HIV outpatient clinics from four tertiary care centers set in France and Côte d'Ivoire. The participants were HIV-infected, treatment-naive patients eligible to start antiretroviral treatment and were of sub-Saharan African origin. The main outcome measures were the incidence of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and lipodystrophy, and the assessment of the 10-year risk of cardiovascular diseases using Framingham risk prediction, D.A.D. Cardiovascular Disease Risk, and WHO/ISH prediction charts. Of 245 patients followed for up to 3 years, the incidence of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and lipodystrophy was 5.5, 8.5, and 6.8 per 100 person-years of follow-up (cumulative incidence: 14.4%, 19.2%, and 18.1%, respectively). Living in France as well as female gender and being overweight were risk factors for metabolic disorders as whole and only first generation protease inhibitors were marginally associated with metabolic syndrome. Cardiovascular risk as modeled through the three equations was high in all patients with the synergistic and deleterious effect of living in France compared to Côte d'Ivoire. This cohort study shows how the synergy between HIV, antiretroviral (ARV) exposure, and westernization of life style in a cohort of HIV-infected patients of sub-Saharan origin leads to a progressive increase in the risk of lipodystrophy, as well as metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance, all associated with increased cardiovascular risk. PMID:25707418

  17. Intervention Fidelity for a Complex Behaviour Change Intervention in Community Pharmacy Addressing Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, K. P.; O'Reilly, S. L.; George, J.; Peterson, G. M.; Jackson, S. L.; Duncan, G.; Howarth, H.; Dunbar, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Delivery of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention programs by community pharmacists appears effective and enhances health service access. However, their capacity to implement complex behavioural change processes during patient counselling remains largely unexplored. This study aims to determine intervention fidelity by pharmacists…

  18. Does change in hip circumference predict cardiovascular disease and overall mortality in Danish and Swedish women?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanfer, Anne; Mehlig, Kirsten; Heitmann, Berit L; Lissner, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence consistently shows that small hip circumference (HC) is related to increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary heart disease, diabetes, and premature death in women. This study aims to clarify whether this inverse association can be found in both normal- and ove...... overweight individuals and if change in HC over time relates to morbidity and mortality risk....

  19. Lifestyle Journalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    From, Unni; Kristensen, Nete Nørgaard

    2013-01-01

    Lifestyle journalism has experienced enormous growth in the media over the past two decades, but scholars in the fields of journalism and communication studies have so far paid relatively little attention to a field that is still sometimes seen as "not real journalism". There is now an urgent need......, social and cultural tensions within it. Taking a comparative view, the collection includes studies covering four continents, including countries such as Australia, China, Norway, Denmark, Singapore, the UK and the USA. While keeping the broader lifestyle field in mind, the chapters focus on a variety of...... sub-fields such as travel, music, food, health, fashion and personal technology journalism. This volume provides a fascinating account of the different facets of lifestyle journalism, and charts the way forward for a more sustained analysis of the field. This book was originally published as a special...

  20. Let us Get Real! Integrated Approach for Virtual Coaching and Real Time Activity Monitoring in Lifestyle Change Support Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulyk, Olga; Akker, op den Rieks; Klaassen, Randy; Gemert-Pijnen, van Lisette; Gemert-Pijnen, van J.E.W.C.; Hettinga, M; Smedberg, A.

    2014-01-01

    There is a fast growing number of eHealth systems aiming at supporting a healthy lifestyle. Tailored lifestyle coaching services offer individual users access to web portals where they can communicate about a growing number of ingredients of everyday life concern: physical activity, nutrition, medic

  1. Effectiveness of a Web-Based Computer-Tailored Multiple-Lifestyle Intervention for People Interested in Reducing their Cardiovascular Risk: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Storm, Vera; Dörenkämper, Julia; Reinwand, Dominique A; Wienert, Julian; Vries, Hein de; Lippke, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Background Web-based computer-tailored interventions for multiple health behaviors can improve the strength of behavior habits in people who want to reduce their cardiovascular risk. Nonetheless, few randomized controlled trials have tested this assumption to date. Objective The study aim was to test an 8-week Web-based computer-tailored intervention designed to improve habit strength for physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption among people who want to reduce their cardiovascula...

  2. Lifestyle, Body Composition, and Physical Fitness Changes in Hungarian School Boys (1975-2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photiou, A.; Anning, J. H.; Meszaros, J.; Vajda, I.; Meszaros, Z.; Sziva, A.; Prokai, A.; Ng, N.

    2008-01-01

    General socioeconomic conditions as well as the physical environment have undergone remarkable changes in Hungary during the past 30 years. Unfortunately, these positive processes have resulted in a reduction of habitual physical activity along with unfavorable changes in dietary habits. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to compare…

  3. Assessment of Metformin as an Additional Treatment to Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes in Pediatric Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Raub

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the effectiveness of metformin and therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLCs in a clinical setting, compared to TLC alone in adolescents with metabolic syndrome (MS. Methodology. This study was a retrospective trial consisting of 60 patients, aged 8–18 years, who were treated for MS at an outpatient clinic. Two groups were formed: the metformin group (M group and the control group (C group. The M group had been given metformin along with TLC, and the C group had been given TLC alone. Several outcome measures were obtained; the main outcome measure was measuring the change in percentile and z-score of weight and BMI. Results. There were no significant differences between the two groups at the conclusion of the study, except for height percentile (P=0.02 and z-score (P=0.03. Both groups showed promising significant intragroup decreases in weight z-score but BMI percentile and z-score were only significantly decreased in the M group. Conclusion. Metformin at an average dose of 1033 mg, when added to TLC, did not show any clinically important efficacy compared to TLC alone in a pediatric population with MS. However, both groups made significant changes in a positive direction, which may be solely due to TLC.

  4. The association between self-reported lifestyle changes and health-related quality of life in coronary patients: the EUROASPIRE III survey.

    OpenAIRE

    De Smedt, Delphine; Clays, Els; Annemans, Lieven; Boudrez, Hedwig; De Sutter, Johan; Doyle, Frank; Jennings, Catriona; Kotseva, Kornelia; Pajak, Andrzej; Pardaens, Sofie; Prugger, Christof; Wood, David; De Bacquer, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Patients with coronary heart disease often suffer from an impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL). A healthier lifestyle not only extends individuals' lengths of life but might also improve their HRQoL. The aim of this study was to explore the relation between self-reported lifestyle changes and HRQoL in European coronary patients.MethodsData on 8745 coronary patients, from 22 countries, participating in the EUROASPIRE III survey (2006-2007) were used. These patients hospitalized for ...

  5. A 1-year lifestyle intervention for weight loss in individuals with type 2 diabetes reduces high C-reactive protein levels and identifies metabolic predictors of change

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECTIVE: We examined whether a 1-year intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) for weight loss reduced elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in obese individuals with diabetes and identified metabolic and fitness predictors of hs-CRP change. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Look A...

  6. The effect of adding group-based counselling to individual lifestyle counselling on changes in dietary intake. The Inter99 study--a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Ulla; Kristoffersen, Lis; Ladelund, Steen;

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the specific effect of single intervention components in randomized controlled trials. The purpose was to investigate the effect of adding group-based diet and exercise counselling to individual life-style counselling on long-term changes in dietary habits....

  7. Participant Adherence Indicators Predict Changes in Blood Pressure, Anthropometric Measures, and Self-Reported Physical Activity in a Lifestyle Intervention: HUB City Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Jessica L.; Landry, Alicia S.; Zoellner, Jamie M.; Connell, Carol; Madson, Michael B.; Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Yadrick, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this secondary analysis was to evaluate the utility of several participant adherence indicators for predicting changes in clinical, anthropometric, dietary, fitness, and physical activity (PA) outcomes in a lifestyle intervention, HUB City Steps, conducted in a southern, African American cohort in 2010. HUB City Steps was a…

  8. Improvements in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity after lifestyle intervention are related to changes in serum fatty acid profile and desaturase activities: the SLIM study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corpeleijn, E.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Jansen, E.H.J.M.; Mensink, M.R.; Saris, W.H.M.; Bruin, de T.W.A.; Blaak, E.E.

    2006-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to investigate whether lifestyle intervention-induced changes in serum fatty acid profile of cholesteryl esters and estimated desaturase activities are related to improvements in insulin sensitivity in subjects at risk of type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METH

  9. Improvements in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity after lifestyle intervention are related to changes in serum fatty acid profile and desaturase activities : the SLIM study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corpeleijn, E.; Feskens, E. J. M.; Jansen, E. H. J. M.; Mensink, M.; Saris, W. H. M.; de Bruin, T. W. A.; Blaak, E. E.

    2006-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: The aim of this study was to investigate whether lifestyle intervention-induced changes in serum fatty acid profile of cholesteryl esters and estimated desaturase activities are related to improvements in insulin sensitivity in subjects at risk of type 2 diabetes. Materials and meth

  10. The effect of adding group-based counselling to individual lifestyle counselling on changes in dietary intake. The Inter99 study - a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Ulla; Kristoffersen, Lis; Ladelund, Steen;

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the specific effect of single intervention components in randomized controlled trials. The purpose was to investigate the effect of adding group-based diet and exercise counselling to individual life-style counselling on long-term changes in.......5%. All participants received individual life-style counselling. Individuals at high risk of ischemic heart disease in group A were furthermore offered group-based life-style counselling. The intervention was repeated for high-risk individuals after one and three years. At five-year follow-up all...... of fibre and vegetables increased in both groups, however, no significant difference was found between the groups. No differences between groups were found for saturated fat intake in women. CONCLUSION: Offering group-based counselling in addition to individual counselling resulted in small, but...

  11. The NSW Ambulance Service healthy lifestyle program--a case study in the evaluation of a health promotion program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomel, M; Oldenburg, B

    1990-01-01

    A variety of approaches have been used to reduce Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) risk in the community, including programs based in the workplace. To date, it has been difficult to draw accurate conclusions on the effectiveness of worksite CVD risk reduction programs. Typically, such programs suffer from poor participation and high attrition rates and most lack physical and biochemical validation of self-reported lifestyle changes. The present paper describes an evaluation of four health promotion worksite interventions (screening, education, incentive and lifestyle change) conducted in the NSW Ambulance Service. The study achieved very high participation and low attrition rates. Self-reported changes in lifestyle were validated with physical and biochemical measures. The results suggest greater change in some risk factors for those individuals receiving the incentive and lifestyle change programs compared to screening alone or education. PMID:10109119

  12. Consumption, lifestyles and constellatoric strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Jeppe

    1996-01-01

    example has to do with consumption as it relates to the general change in modern lifestyle. The second example derives its points from a empiric project about the lifestyles and experiences of "green families". The contribution concludes with a proposal for interdisciplinary constructions of...

  13. Change in Profile of Entrants in a Brazilian Large Cardiovascular Rehabilitation Service

    OpenAIRE

    Pietro Felice Tomazini Nesello; Guilherme Foletto; Eduardo Pflug Comparsi; Olga Sergueevna Tairova

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are references regarding physical activity and cardiovascular disease since the nineteenth century. New evidences support that cardiac rehabilitation is closely related to therapeutic success after major coronary events. Although the benefits of cardiac rehabilitation programs are well established, referencing and enrolment in such services remain low. AIM: The aim of this paper is to describe the profile changes throughout the years in a large cardiac rehabilitation ser...

  14. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices on Lifestyle and Cardiovascular Risk Factors Among Metabolic Syndrome Patients in an Urban Tertiary Care Institute in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekara, Priyanwada; de Silva, Angela; Swarnamali, Hasinthi; Senarath, Upul; Katulanda, Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a significant predictor of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). A pretested questionnaire was used to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of CVD and its risks among Sri Lankan urban adults (35-55 years) with MetS. KAP scores were predefined as high, moderate, and low. Of the participants (n = 423), 13% were males and 87% were females. Attitudes scores were high among this population, though their knowledge and practices scores on CVD risk factors were moderate. Participants with high mean knowledge scores had significantly lower waist circumference (WC) and showed a trend toward reduced fasting blood glucose levels. Participants with high practice scores had significantly lower BMI and WC, which signify that better knowledge and practices are associated with decrease in CVD risk markers in these patients. The study reveals that urban MetS patients have a moderate knowledge and practice score, though their attitude score is high regarding CVD risk factors. PMID:26512029

  15. Effecting change through dialogue: Habermas' theory of communicative action as a tool in medical lifestyle interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walseth, Liv Tveit; Schei, Edvin

    2011-02-01

    Adjustments of everyday life in order to prevent disease or treat illness afflict partly unconscious preferences and cultural expectations that are often difficult to change. How should one, in medical contexts, talk with patients about everyday life in ways that might penetrate this blurred complexity, and help people find goals and make decisions that are both compatible with a good life and possible to accomplish? In this article we pursue the question by discussing how Habermas' theory of communicative action can be implemented in decision-making processes in general practice. The theory of deliberative decision-making offers practical guidelines for what to talk about and how to do it. For a decision to be rooted in patients' everyday life it has to take into consideration the patient's practical circumstances, emotions and preferences, and what he or she perceives as ethically right behaviour towards other people. The aim is a balanced conversation, demonstrating respect, consistency and sincerity, as well as offering information and clarifying reasons. Verbalising reasons for one's preferences may increase awareness of values and norms, which can then be reflected upon, producing decisions rooted in what the patient perceives as good and right behaviour. The asymmetry of medical encounters is both a resource and a challenge, demanding patient-centred medical leadership, characterised by empathy and ability to take the patient's perspective. The implementation and adjustments of Habermas' theory in general practice is illustrated by a case story. Finally, applications of the theory are discussed. PMID:20552281

  16. The ethical Dilemma of lifestyle change: designing for sustainable schools and sustainable citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Wheeler

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how participation and sustainability are being addressed by architects within the Building Schools for the Future (BSF programme in the UK. The intentions promoted by the programme are certainly ambitious, but the ways to fulfil these aims are ill-explored. Simply focusing on providing innovative learning technologies, or indeed teaching young people about physical sustainability features in buildings, will not necessarily teach them the skills they will need to respond to the environmental and social challenges of a rapidly changing world. However, anticipating those skills is one of the most problematic issues of the programme. The involvement of young people in the design of schools is used to suggest empowerment, place-making and to promote social cohesion but this is set against government design literature which advocates for exemplars, standard layouts and best practice, all leading to forms of standardisation. The potentials for tokenistic student involvement and conflict with policy aims are evident. This paper explores two issues: how to foster in young people an ethic towards future generations, and the role of co-design practices in this process. Michael Oakeshott calls teaching the conversation of mankind. In this paper, I look at the philosophy of Hannah Arendt, Emmanuel Levinas, Maurice Merleau-Ponty and Luce Irigaray to argue that investigating the ethical dilemmas of the programme through critical dialogue with students offers an approach to meeting government objectives, building sustainable schools, and fostering sustainable citizenship.

  17. Estilos de vida asociados al riesgo cardiovascular global en trabajadores universitarios del Estado de México Lifestyle conditions related to global cardiovascular risk among university workers in the State of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Cerecero; Bernardo Hernández; Dalia Aguirre; Roxana Valdés; Gerardo Huitrón

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Evaluar la asociación del estilo de vida con el riesgo cardiovascular (RCV) en trabajadores universitarios del Estado de México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio de casos y controles anidado en una cohorte. Se evaluaron variables del estilo de vida, sociodemográficas, antropométricas y antecedentes familiares. El análisis estimó razones de momios pareadas crudas y ajustadas a través de regresión logística condicional. RESULTADOS: Se estudiaron 342 casos con RCV y 684 controles. En los tr...

  18. Moderators of intervention dose effects on diet quality and physical activity changes in a church-based, multicomponent, lifestyle study: Delta Body and Soul III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, J L; Zoellner, J M; Tussing-Humphreys, L M; Goodman, M H

    2016-06-01

    Many community-based lifestyle interventions targeting African Americans have reported positive effects on participants' dietary choices and physical activity habits. However, these effects vary and not all participants will have outcome changes. Moderation analysis can help explain differential effects observed, but are not often reported. Hence, the objective of this secondary analysis was to explore potential moderators of intervention dose effects on diet quality and physical activity outcomes in an effective lifestyle intervention. Delta Body and Soul III, conducted from 2011 to 2012, was a 6-month, church-based, multicomponent, educational intervention designed to improve diet quality and increase physical activity in rural Southern African American adults. Generalized linear mixed models were used to determine associations among indicators of intervention dose received by participants, potential moderators and health outcome changes. Results indicated only three baseline characteristics-employment status, food shopping frequency and individual with primary responsibility for meal preparation-moderated the effects of education session attendance on diet quality changes. No evidence for moderation of exercise class attendance effects on physical activity changes was found. Thus, this culturally targeted, multicomponent lifestyle intervention did induce positive health changes in participants with a range of sociodemographic characteristics and food shopping and eating behaviors. PMID:26944868

  19. Considering statins for cholesterol-reduction in children if lifestyle and diet changes do not improve their health: a review of the risks and benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clodagh SM O’Gorman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Clodagh SM O’Gorman1, Michael B O’Neill2, Louise S Conwell31Graduate Entry Medical School, University of Limerick, Ireland, and Mid-Western Regional Hospital, Limerick, Ireland; 2Mayo General Hospital, Castlebar, Ireland; 3Royal Children’s Hospital, Brisbane, Discipline of Pediatrics and Child Health, and School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, AustraliaAbstract: Children who appear healthy, even if they have one or more recognized cardiovascular risk factors, do not generally have outcomes of cardiovascular or other vascular disease during childhood. Historically, pediatric medicine has not aggressively screened for or treated cardiovascular risk factors in otherwise healthy children. However, studies such as the P-Day Study (Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth, and the Bogalusa Heart Study, indicate that healthy children at remarkably young ages can have evidence of significant atherosclerosis. With the increasing prevalence of pediatric obesity, can we expect more health problems related to the consequences of pediatric dyslipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and atherosclerosis in the future? For many years, medications have been available and used in adult populations to treat dyslipidemia. In recent years, reports of short-term safety of some of these medications in children have been published. However, none of these studies have detailed long-term follow-up, and therefore none have described potential late side-effects of early cholesterol-lowering therapy, or potential benefits in terms of reduction of or delay in cardiovascular or other vascular end-points. In 2007, the American Heart Association published a scientific statement on the use of cholesterol-lowering therapy in pediatric patients. In this review paper, we discuss some of the current literature on cholesterol-lowering therapy in children, including the statins that are currently available for use in children, and some of the cautions

  20. Functional Task Test: 2. Spaceflight-Induced Cardiovascular Change and Recovery During NASA's Functional Task Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Tiffany; Arzeno, Natalia M.; Stenger, Michael; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Platts, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    The overall objective of the functional task test (FTT) is to correlate spaceflight-induced physiological adaptations with changes in performance of high priority exploration mission-critical tasks. This presentation will focus on the recovery from fall/stand test (RFST), which measures the cardiovascular response to the transition from the prone posture (simulated fall) to standing in normal gravity, as well as heart rate (HR) during 11 functional tasks. As such, this test describes some aspects of spaceflight-induced cardiovascular deconditioning and the course of recovery in Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) astronauts. The sensorimotor and neuromuscular components of the FTT are described in two separate abstracts: Functional Task Test 1 and 3.

  1. Cardiovascular changes during induced emotion: an application of lang's theory of emotional imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prkachin, K M; Williams-Avery, R M; Zwaal, C; Mills, D E

    1999-09-01

    Studies of emotion have provided occasional support for physiological differentiation of affective states; however, the evidence has been inconsistent. The aims of the present study were to investigate cardiovascular changes associated with relived experiences of happiness, sadness, anger, fear, and disgust and to examine the utility of methods designed to optimize the induction of emotional responses. Thirty-four undergraduates who scored 0.5 sd above the mean on Larsen and Diener's Affect Intensity Measure described their most intense experiences of five emotions. These descriptions were then used to induce those emotions while blood pressure and other hemodynamic measures were monitored. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and stroke volume differentiated among emotions. The results support the suggestion that cardiovascular activity differentiates emotional states and provide some insight into the physiological adjustments subserving such effects. The study demonstrates a method that may be applied to studies of discrete emotions. PMID:10576474

  2. A pilot study on pupillary and cardiovascular changes induced by stereoscopic video movies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugita Norihiro

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taking advantage of developed image technology, it is expected that image presentation would be utilized to promote health in the field of medical care and public health. To accumulate knowledge on biomedical effects induced by image presentation, an essential prerequisite for these purposes, studies on autonomic responses in more than one physiological system would be necessary. In this study, changes in parameters of the pupillary light reflex and cardiovascular reflex evoked by motion pictures were examined, which would be utilized to evaluate the effects of images, and to avoid side effects. Methods Three stereoscopic video movies with different properties were field-sequentially rear-projected through two LCD projectors on an 80-inch screen. Seven healthy young subjects watched movies in a dark room. Pupillary parameters were measured before and after presentation of movies by an infrared pupillometer. ECG and radial blood pressure were continuously monitored. The maximum cross-correlation coefficient between heart rate and blood pressure, ρmax, was used as an index to evaluate changes in the cardiovascular reflex. Results Parameters of pupillary and cardiovascular reflexes changed differently after subjects watched three different video movies. Amplitudes of the pupillary light reflex, CR, increased when subjects watched two CG movies (movies A and D, while they did not change after watching a movie with the real scenery (movie R. The ρmax was significantly larger after presentation of the movie D. Scores of the questionnaire for subjective evaluation of physical condition increased after presentation of all movies, but their relationship with changes in CR and ρmax was different in three movies. Possible causes of these biomedical differences are discussed. Conclusion The autonomic responses were effective to monitor biomedical effects induced by image presentation. Further accumulation of data on multiple autonomic

  3. Longitudinal Patterns of Stages of Change for Exercise and Lifestyle Intervention Outcomes: An Application of Latent Class Analysis with Distal Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Luohua; Chen, Shuai; Zhang, Ben; Beals, Janette; Mitchell, Christina M; Manson, Spero M; Roubideaux, Yvette

    2016-04-01

    Stages of change measure an individual's readiness to alter a health behavior. This study examined the latent longitudinal patterns of stages of change (SoC) for regular exercise over time among individuals participating in a lifestyle intervention project. It also investigated the association between the longitudinal patterns of SoC and intervention outcomes using a new statistical method to assess the relationship between latent class membership and distal outcomes. We analyzed data from the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Diabetes Prevention Program, a lifestyle intervention program to prevent diabetes among American Indians and Alaska Natives. Latent class analysis (LCA) was conducted to identify the longitudinal patterns of SoC for regular exercise reported at three time points. LCA with distal outcomes was performed to investigate the associations between latent class membership and behavioral changes after the intervention. The parameters and standard errors of the LCA with distal outcomes models were estimated using an improved three-step approach. Three latent classes were identified: Pre-action, Transition, and Maintenance classes. The Transition class, where stage progression occurred, had the greatest improvements in physical activity and weight outcomes at both time points post-baseline among female participants. It also had the largest improvements in weight outcomes among male participants. Furthermore, the Pre-action class had more attenuation in the improvements they had achieved initially than the other two classes. These findings suggest the potential importance of motivating participants to modify their readiness for behavioral change in future lifestyle interventions. PMID:26381430

  4. Diet and Lifestyle Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diabetes, control your blood glucose level . Good blood glucose control may help prevent or delay diabetes complications, including ... a healthy weight, and medicines can all help control your blood cholesterol ... well as your blood glucose and blood cholesterol levels. Lose weight if you ...

  5. Diet and Lifestyle Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... diabetes, digestive and liver diseases, kidney diseases, weight control and nutrition, urologic diseases, endocrine and metabolic diseases, ...

  6. IPH response to Seanad Consultation Committee on 'Changes in lifestyle can prevent approximately one third of cancers. How does Government and Society respond to this challenge?'

    OpenAIRE

    Institute of Public Health in Ireland

    2012-01-01

    IPH responded to the Seanad Consultation Committee on the consultation topic ‘Changes in lifestyle can prevent approximately one third of cancers.  How does Government and Society respond to this challenge?’. Between 2010 and 2020 the total number of cancers in Ireland is projected to increase by 40% for women and by just over 50% for men (National Cancer Registry).  A focus is needed on developing social, economical and built environments that support healthy choices. I...

  7. Making and maintaining lifestyle changes with the support of a lay health advisor: longitudinal qualitative study of health trainer services in northern England.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelina Visram

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore and document the experiences of those receiving support from a lay health trainer, in order to inform the optimisation and evaluation of such interventions. DESIGN: Longitudinal qualitative study with up to four serial interviews conducted over 12 months. Interviews were transcribed and analysed using the constant comparative approach associated with grounded theory. PARTICIPANTS: 13 health trainers, 5 managers and 26 clients. SETTING: Three health trainer services targeting disadvantaged communities in northern England. RESULTS: The final dataset comprised 116 interviews (88 with clients and 28 with staff. Discussions with health trainers and managers revealed a high degree of heterogeneity between the local services in terms of their primary aims and activities. However, these were found to converge over time. There was agreement that health trainer interventions are generally 'person-centred' in terms of being tailored to the needs of individual clients. This led to a range of self-reported outcomes, including behaviour changes, physical health improvements and increased social activity. Factors impacting on the maintenance of lifestyle changes included the cost and timing of health-promoting activities, ill-health or low mood. Participants perceived a need for ongoing access to low cost facilities to ensure that any lifestyle changes can be maintained in the longer term. CONCLUSIONS: Health trainers may be successful in terms of supporting people from socio-economically disadvantaged communities to make positive lifestyle changes, as well as achieving other health-related outcomes. This is not a 'one-size-fits-all' approach; commissioners and providers should select the intervention models that best meet the needs of their local populations. By delivering holistic interventions that address multiple lifestyle risks and incorporate relapse prevention strategies, health trainers could potentially have a significant impact

  8. Do colleagues influence our lifestyle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quist, Helle Gram; Christensen, Ulla; Carneiro, Isabella Gomes;

    2014-01-01

    physical activity). Further, we examined whether health behaviours of the respondents at group level predicted lifestyle changes. METHODS: In a prospective cohort (n=4730), employees from 250 workgroups in the Danish eldercare sector answered questionnaires at baseline (2005) and follow-up (2006......). Multilevel regression models were used to examine the effect of workgroups. RESULTS: Workgroups accounted for 6.49% of the variation in smoking status, 6.56% of amount smoked and 2.62% of the variation in current BMI. We found no significant workgroup clustering in physical activity or lifestyle changes...... workgroups. Future health promotion programmes at worksites should recognize the potential clustering of lifestyle behaviours within workgroups....

  9. Three-year changes in fitness and adiposity are independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors among young danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jago, Russell; Froberg, Karsten; Cooper, Ashley R;

    2010-01-01

    independently or interactively associated with risk variables. RESULTS: Change in SSF was independently associated with change in TC (z = 4.83, P < .001), LDL-C (z = 4.38, P < .001), systolic (z = 3.45, P < .001), and diastolic (z = 2.45, P = .014) blood pressure. CRF change was independently associated with......BACKGROUND: It is not clear the extent to which change in adiposity and cardiovascular fitness (CRF) during early childhood are associated with change in cardiovascular risk factors or if associations are independent or interactive. METHODS: 383 Danish children were examined at ages 6 and 9. CRF...... change in TC (z = -3.86, P < .001), HDL-C (z = 3.85, P < .001), and systolic blood pressure (z = 2.06, P = .040). CONCLUSIONS: Change in fitness and adiposity were independently associated with the development of cardiovascular risk factors among young children suggesting a need to increase CRF and...

  10. Land-use and land-cover assessment for the study of lifestyle change in a rural Mexican community: The Maycoba Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giraldo Mario A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1995, a study was conducted to identify the effects of traditional and westernized environments on the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Pima Indians (Pimas in Mexico and the United States. The study concluded that the more traditional lifestyle in Mexico had a protective effect against this metabolic disorder. In the ensuing 15 years, the environmental circumstances of the Mexican Pimas changed, and a follow-up study was conducted to determine the role environmental change plays in the development of diabetes in this genetically susceptible population. A major element of environmental transition relates to land-use and land-cover (LULC changes that could affect physical activity and promote an obesogenic environment. This study examined changes in the region’s LULC to determine whether there have been transitions in agricultural land use and urbanization that would be consistent with a more sedentary lifestyle. Changes were assessed from 1994 aerial photographs and 2007 satellite images. Results The land-cover analysis showed that mixed vegetation and dense trees cover most of the study area. It suggested a rural environment that includes a low percentage of impermeable areas, and it indicated that the area experiencing human intervention covers 7% of the total area. The land-use-change findings showed a decrease or no change in agricultural or ranching areas and a decrease in farmland due to reforestation or revegetation. Three variables from the land-use-change analysis were examined as proxies for lifestyle change: urban development, dwelling-unit density, and variation in the road network. Two of the measures –the amount of urbanization and the number and density of dwelling units—showed increases, most notably in the town of Maycoba. There were only minor changes in the road network: most of the road segments are short and concentrated in Maycoba where most of the buildings, points of interest (e.g., church

  11. Electrocardiographic Changes Improve Risk Prediction in Asymptomatic Persons Age 65 Years or Above Without Cardiovascular Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Godsk; Jensen, Jan S; Marott, Jacob L;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Risk prediction in elderly patients is increasingly relevant due to longer life expectancy. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to examine whether electrocardiographic (ECG) changes provide prognostic information incremental to current risk models and to the conventional risk factors. METHODS......: In all, 6,991 participants from the Copenhagen Heart Study attending an examination at age ≥65 years were included. ECG changes were defined as Q waves, ST-segment depression, T-wave changes, ventricular conduction defects, and left ventricular hypertrophy based on the Minnesota code. The primary...... endpoint was fatal cardiovascular disease (CVD) event and the secondary was fatal or nonfatal CVD event. In our study, 2,236 fatal CVD and 3,849 fatal or nonfatal CVD events occurred during a median of 11.9 and 9.8 years of follow-up. RESULTS: ECG changes were frequently present (30.6%) and associated with...

  12. Immediate effect of ice bag application to head and spine on cardiovascular changes in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mooventhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objectives: Ice application is one of the treatment procedures used in hydrotherapy. Though its various physiological/therapeutic effects were reported, ice bag application (IBA to head and spine on cardiovascular changes were not reported. Hence, this study aims at evaluating the immediate effect of IBA to head and spine on cardiovascular changes in healthy volunteers. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight subjects were randomized into three sessions ([i] IBA [ii] tap water bag application [TWBA] and [iii] control and intervention was given in one of the 3-different orders. Systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, and pulse rate (PR was assessed before and after 20-min of each intervention. Pulse pressure, mean pressure (MP, rate pressure product (RPP, and double product (Do-P were derived by standard formula. Statistical analysis was performed by repeated measures of analysis of variance and post-hoc analysis with Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons with the use of Statistical Package for Social Sciences version-16. Results: The results showed no significant difference between sessions in all variables. Within-group analysis showed significant reductions in SBP, PR, RPP, Do-P in IBA and TWBA sessions; Significant reduction in DBP, MP in IBA unlike TWBA; and no significant changes in all the variables of control session. Conclusions: Result of our study suggest that though both IBA and TWBA to head and spine might be considered as having effect on improving cardiovascular function in healthy volunteers, IBA to head and spine could be considered as a better choice than TWBA.

  13. Communes and Changing Family Norms: Marriage and Life-Style Choice among Former Members of Communal Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidala, Angela A.

    1989-01-01

    Examined by follow-up interviews the attitudes and behavior about marriage, parenting, and lifestyle among former commune members (N=344) previously interviewed in 1974-76. Found ex-commune members: (l) less likely to have married, (2) more likely to live in multi-adult households and, (3) more receptive to possible collective living arrangements…

  14. A randomised controlled trial of a tele-based lifestyle intervention for colorectal cancer survivors ('CanChange': study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Louisa G

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer survivors may suffer from a range of ongoing psychosocial and physical problems that negatively impact on quality of life. This paper presents the study protocol for a novel telephone-delivered intervention to improve lifestyle factors and health outcomes for colorectal cancer survivors. Methods/Design Approximately 350 recently diagnosed colorectal cancer survivors will be recruited through the Queensland Cancer Registry and randomised to the intervention or control condition. The intervention focuses on symptom management, lifestyle and psychosocial support to assist participants to make improvements in lifestyle factors (physical activity, healthy diet, weight management, and smoking cessation and health outcomes. Participants will receive up to 11 telephone-delivered sessions over a 6 month period from a qualified health professional or 'health coach'. Data collection will occur at baseline (Time 1, post-intervention or six months follow-up (Time 2, and at 12 months follow-up for longer term effects (Time 3. Primary outcome measures will include physical activity, cancer-related fatigue and quality of life. A cost-effective analysis of the costs and outcomes for survivors in the intervention and control conditions will be conducted from the perspective of health care costs to the government. Discussion The study will provide valuable information about an innovative intervention to improve lifestyle factors and health outcomes for colorectal cancer survivors. Trial Registration ACTRN12608000399392

  15. Lifestyle after Cardiac Rehabilitation: Did the Message Come across, and Was It Feasible? An Analysis of Patients’ Narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Marie Veje; Laustsen, Sussie; Petersen, Annemette Krintel; Angel, Sanne

    2014-01-01

    Lifestyle following heart disease is considered important to prevent and reduce cardiovascular risk factors. Thus, cardiac rehabilitation is focused on potential lifestyle changes. Further insight into patients’ perspective on lifestyle after cardiac rehabilitation is needed as changing habits fol......- lowing heart disease is a complex matter. The objective of this study was to explore the character- istics of lifestyle after cardiac rehabilitation. A phenomenological-hermeneutic approach with qualitative interviews was performed in 20 patients six months after completing a hospital-based cardiac...... rehabilitation programme in 2012 at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. The patients were diagnosed with ischemic heart disease, heart failure or left heart valve disease. The interviews were analysed using the interpretation theory by Ricoeur. The variation in reactions to car- diac rehabilitation were: 1...

  16. The effects of adding group-based lifestyle counselling to individual counselling on changes in plasma glucose levels in a randomized controlled trial: The Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, C.; Vistisen, D.; Toft, U.;

    2011-01-01

    participants, 4053 were determined to be at high risk based on a risk estimate of ischaemic heart disease or the presence of risk factors (smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, obesity, impaired glucose tolerance). Of these subjects, 90% were randomized to high-intensity intervention (group A) and 10......% to low-intensity intervention (group B). All participants went through health examinations, risk assessments and individual lifestyle counselling. Participants in group A were further offered group-based lifestyle counselling. The intervention was repeated after 1 and 3 years. A total of 2738...... participants free of diabetes at baseline (1999–2001) and with at least one FPG and/or 2hPG measurement during 5 years of follow-up were included in the analyses. Differences in changes of plasma glucose between groups A and B were analyzed using multilevel linear regression. ResultsFor FPG, crude 5-year...

  17. Gut microbioma population: an indicator really sensible to any change in age, diet, metabolic syndrome, and life-style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annalisa, Noce; Alessio, Tarantino; Claudette, Tsague Djoutsop; Erald, Vasili; Antonino, De Lorenzo; Nicola, Di Daniele

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has become a pandemic threat in the latest 30 years. The trend of the prevalence of overweight and obesity has got an overall increase in every part of the world, regardless of ethnicity, life-style and social ties. High food intake, genetic, and sedentary have been related to obesity; it has been also hypothesized that gut microbiota could have an impact on the complex mechanism underlying the weight gain. This review aims to illustrate the actual literature about gut microbiota and its relation with obesity and to analyze the possible implications of factors such as diet and life-style onto the composition of gut microbiota, that can lead to overweight/obesity condition. PMID:24999296

  18. Gut Microbioma Population: An Indicator Really Sensible to Any Change in Age, Diet, Metabolic Syndrome, and Life-Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noce Annalisa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has become a pandemic threat in the latest 30 years. The trend of the prevalence of overweight and obesity has got an overall increase in every part of the world, regardless of ethnicity, life-style and social ties. High food intake, genetic, and sedentary have been related to obesity; it has been also hypothesized that gut microbiota could have an impact on the complex mechanism underlying the weight gain. This review aims to illustrate the actual literature about gut microbiota and its relation with obesity and to analyze the possible implications of factors such as diet and life-style onto the composition of gut microbiota, that can lead to overweight/obesity condition.

  19. Gut Microbioma Population: An Indicator Really Sensible to Any Change in Age, Diet, Metabolic Syndrome, and Life-Style

    OpenAIRE

    Noce Annalisa; Tarantino Alessio; Tsague Djoutsop Claudette; Vasili Erald; De Lorenzo Antonino; Di Daniele Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has become a pandemic threat in the latest 30 years. The trend of the prevalence of overweight and obesity has got an overall increase in every part of the world, regardless of ethnicity, life-style and social ties. High food intake, genetic, and sedentary have been related to obesity; it has been also hypothesized that gut microbiota could have an impact on the complex mechanism underlying the weight gain. This review aims to illustrate the actual literature about gut microbiota and ...

  20. Eating Disorder Pathology in Adolescents Participating in a Lifestyle Intervention for Obesity: Associations with Weight Change, General Psychopathology and Health-Related Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin E. Giel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of eating disorder symptoms in obese adolescents participating in a lifestyle intervention for weight loss and to investigate possible relationships with weight change, general psychopathology, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL. Method: At the beginning and after completion of a 6-month lifestyle intervention, 41 participants (20 females; age: 13.7 ± 1.4 years reported on core symptoms of eating disorders (SCOFF, self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, RSES, and HRQOL (Questionnaire for Measuring Health-Related Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents, KINDL, while parents filled in a questionnaire assessing their children's internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems (Child Behavior Checklist, CBCL. Results: Compared to age-matched normative samples, patients showed increased behavior problems and an impaired HRQOL. 43% of the patients were screened positive for an eating disorder pathology, and this subgroup showed an increased psychopathological burden compared to patients that were screened negative. The lifestyle intervention resulted in a significant weight loss which was unaffected by the presence of an eating disorder pathology. The screening rate for eating disorders remained stable after the intervention. Conclusion: The large overlap, mutual interaction, and high burden of eating and weight problems in children and adolescents underpin the need for an integrated view in both prevention and treatment approaches in pediatric obesity.

  1. The concept of Maslow's pyramid for cardiovascular health and its impact on “change cycle”

    OpenAIRE

    Behjati, Mohaddeseh

    2014-01-01

    Since the leading cause of morbidity and mortality is cardiovascular diseases, every individual should think regularly about possessing and maintaining cardiovascular health. In reality, this self-processing is delayed until the occurrence of complications related to cardiovascular inefficiency manifested as chest pain and/or dyspnea. However, people should be trained to think about their cardiovascular health issues as a vital need from early childhood. This goal is achievable by understandi...

  2. Rural to urban migration and changes in cardiovascular risk factors in Tanzania: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamin Bushiri

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High levels of rural to urban migration are a feature of most African countries. Our aim was to investigate changes, and their determinants, in cardiovascular risk factors on rural to urban migration in Tanzania. Methods Men and women (15 to 59 years intending to migrate from Morogoro rural region to Dar es Salaam for at least 6 months were identified. Measurements were made at least one week but no more than one month prior to migration, and 1 to 3 monthly after migration. Outcome measures included body mass index, blood pressure, fasting lipids, and self reported physical activity and diet. Results One hundred and three men, 106 women, mean age 29 years, were recruited and 132 (63.2% followed to 12 months. All the figures presented here refer to the difference between baseline and 12 months in these 132 individuals. Vigorous physical activity declined (79.4% to 26.5% in men, 37.8% to 15.6% in women, p -1 respectively, p -1, p = 0.01, and triglycerides fell (0.31 mmoll-1, p = 0.034. Blood pressure appeared to fall in both men and women. For example, in men systolic blood pressure fell by 5.4 mmHg, p = 0.007, and in women by 8.6 mmHg, p = 0.001. Conclusion The lower level of physical activity and increasing weight will increase the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, changes in diet were mixed, and may have contributed to mixed changes in lipid profiles and a lack of rise in blood pressure. A better understanding of the changes occurring on rural to urban migration is needed to guide preventive measures.

  3. Study protocol: a multi-professional team intervention of physical activity referrals in primary care patients with cardiovascular risk factors—the Dalby lifestyle intervention cohort (DALICO study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenman Emelie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study protocol describes the trial design of a primary care intervention cohort study, which examines whether an extended, multi-professional physical activity referral (PAR intervention is more effective in enhancing and maintaining self-reported physical activity than physical activity prescription in usual care. The study targets patients with newly diagnosed hypertension and/or type 2 diabetes. Secondary outcomes include: need of pharmacological therapy; blood pressure/plasma glucose; physical fitness and anthropometric variables; mental health; health related quality of life; and cost-effectiveness. Methods/Design The study is designed as a long-term intervention. Three primary care centres are involved in the study, each constituting one of three treatment groups: 1 Intervention group (IG: multi-professional team intervention with PAR, 2 Control group A (CA: physical activity prescription in usual care and 3 Control group B: treatment as usual (retrospective data collection. The intervention is based on self-determination theory and follows the principles of motivational interviewing. The primary outcome, physical activity, is measured with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ and expressed as metabolic equivalent of task (MET-minutes per week. Physical fitness is estimated with the 6-minute walk test in IG only. Variables such as health behaviours; health-related quality of life; motivation to change; mental health; demographics and socioeconomic characteristics are assessed with an electronic study questionnaire that submits all data to a patient database, which automatically provides feed-back to the health-care providers on the patients’ health status. Cost-effectiveness of the intervention is evaluated continuously and the intermediate outcomes of the intervention are extrapolated by economic modelling. Discussions By helping patients to overcome practical, social and cultural

  4. Audit of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Supported Adults with Intellectual Disability Attending an Ageing Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Robyn A.; Schluter, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor profile for older adults with intellectual disability (ID). As many CVD risk factors are treatable by lifestyle changes, confirmation of the risk factor profile for older adults with ID could substantially impact upon preventive health practices for this group. Method:…

  5. Adding liraglutide to lifestyle changes, metformin and testosterone therapy boosts erectile function in diabetic obese men with overt hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giagulli, V A; Carbone, M D; Ramunni, M I; Licchelli, B; De Pergola, G; Sabbà, C; Guastamacchia, E; Triggiani, V

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this retrospective observational study was to evaluate whether adding liraglutide to lifestyle changes, metformin (Met) and testosterone replacement therapy (TRT), by means of improving weight and glycaemic control, could boost erectile function in type 2 diabetic obese men with overt hypogonadism and erectile dysfunction (ED) in a 'real-life setting'. Forty-three obese, diabetic and hypogonadal men (aged 45-59 years) were evaluated because of complaining about the recent onset of ED. They were subdivided into two groups according to whether hypogonadism occurred after puberty (G1; n = 30: 25 with dysfunctional hypogonadism and 5 with acquired hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) or before puberty (G2; n = 13: 10 with Klinefelter's syndrome and 3 with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism). Both G1 and G2 patients were given a combination of testosterone (T) [testosterone undecanoate (TU) 1000 mg/every 12 weeks] and Met (2000-3000 mg/day) for 1 year. In the poor responders (N) to this therapy in terms of glycaemic target (G1N: n = 16; G2N: n = 10), liraglutide (L) (1.2 μg/day) was added for a second year, while the good responders (Y) to T + Met (G1Y: 14/30 and G2Y: 3/13) continued this two drugs regimen therapy for another year. All patients were asked to fill in the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF 15) questionnaire before starting TU plus Met (T1) and after 12 months (T2) and 24 months (T3) of treatment. Patients underwent a clinical examination and a determination of serum sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), total testosterone (T) and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) at T1, T2 and T3. At T2, each patient obtained an improvement of ED (p 7.5% (>58 mmol/mol)], while T turned out to be within the range of young men. L added to TU and Met regimen in G1N and G2N allowed these patients to reach not only the glycaemic target [HbA1c = <7.5% (<58 nmol/mol)] and a significant reduction in body weight (p < 0.01), but also a further increase in SHBG

  6. Sami lifestyle and health : epidemiological studies from northern Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Lena Maria

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this PhD thesis was to expand the current knowledge of “traditional Sami” diet and lifestyle, and to test aspects of the Sami diet and lifestyle, specifically dietary pattern, macronutrient distribution and coffee consumption, in population-based epidemiological studies of mortality and incident cardiovascular disease and cancer in a general population. In Paper I, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 elderly Sami concerning their parent’s lifestyle and diet 50-70 year...

  7. Early cardiovascular changes occurring in diet-induced, obese insulin-resistant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisamen, Barbara; Dietrich, Daneel; Bezuidenhout, Nicole; Lopes, John; Flepisi, Brian; Blackhurst, Dee; Lochner, Amanda

    2012-09-01

    The metabolic syndrome is recognized as a cluster of disturbances associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Over the past two decades, the number of people with the metabolic syndrome has increased at an alarming rate. This increase is associated with the global epidemic of both obesity and diabetes. Cardiovascular mortality is increased among diabetics and obesity-related insulin-resistant patients, and obesity is currently recognized as independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We aimed to establish the effects of a short period of an altered diet on the heart using a rat model of hyperphagia-induced obesity (diet supplemented with sucrose and condensed milk for 8 weeks = DIO) compared to age-matched controls. Isolated, perfused hearts were subjected to global or regional ischaemia/reperfusion. Function on reperfusion was recorded and infarct size determined. A plasma lipid profile was established via HPLC-based methods and proteins involved in metabolic signalling determined either by western blotting or RT-PCR. 8 weeks of diet resulted in whole-body but not myocardial insulin resistance, increased plasma triglyceride and phospholipid levels as well as increased lipid peroxidation. Despite the similar baseline function, hearts from DIO animals showed significantly poorer postischaemic recovery than controls (41.9 % RPP recovery vs 57.9 %, P < 0.05, n = 7-11/group) but surprisingly, smaller infarct size (24.95 ± 1.97 vs 47.26 ± 4.05 % of the area at risk, P < 0.005, n = 8/group). Basal phosphorylation of PKB/Akt was elevated but IRS-1 and SERCA-2 expression severely downregulated. In conclusion, after only 8 weeks of a slight change in diet, the rat heart shows signs of metabolic remodelling. Some of these changes may be protective but others may be detrimental and eventually lead to maladaptation. PMID:22638648

  8. Plasma proteome changes in cardiovascular disease patients: novel isoforms of apolipoprotein A1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oravec Milan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this proteomic study was to look for changes taking place in plasma proteomes of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI, unstable angina pectoris (UAP, and stable angina pectoris (SAP. Methods Depleted plasma proteins were separated by 2D SDS-PAGE (pI 4-7, and proteomes were compared using Progenesis SameSpots statistical software. Proteins were identified by nanoLC-MS/MS. Proteins were quantified using commercial kits. Apolipoprotein A1 was studied using 1D and 2D SDS-PAGE, together with western blotting. Results Reciprocal comparison revealed 46 unique, significantly different spots; proteins in 34 spots were successfully identified and corresponded to 38 different proteins. Discrete comparisons of patient groups showed 45, 41, and 8 significantly different spots when AMI, UAP, and SAP were compared with the control group. On the basis of our proteomic data, plasma levels of two of them, alpha-1 microglobulin and vitamin D-binding protein, were determined. The data, however, failed to prove the proteins to be suitable markers or risk factors in the studied groups. The plasma level and isoform representation of apolipoprotein A1 were also estimated. Using 1D and 2D SDS-PAGE, together with western blotting, we observed extra high-molecular weight apolipoprotein A1 fractions presented only in the patient groups, indicating that the novel high-molecular weight isoforms of apolipoprotein A1 may be potential new markers or possible risk factors of cardiovascular disease. Conclusion The reported data show plasma proteome changes in patients with AMI, UAP, and SAP. We propose some apolipoprotein A1 fractions as a possible new disease-associated marker of cardiovascular disorders.

  9. Longitudinal Patterns of Change in Systolic Blood Pressure and Incidence of Cardiovascular Disease: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruski-Ivleva, Natalia; Viera, Anthony J; Shimbo, Daichi; Muntner, Paul; Avery, Christy L; Schneider, Andrea L C; Couper, David; Kucharska-Newton, Anna

    2016-06-01

    Elevated blood pressure in midlife contributes significantly to the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, patterns of blood pressure increase may differ among individuals and may result in differential risk. Our goal was to examine the contribution of longitudinal patterns of blood pressure change to incidence of heart failure, coronary heart disease, stroke, and cardiovascular disease mortality. Latent class growth models were used to identify patterns of change in blood pressure across 4 clinical examinations (1987-1998) among 9845 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort participants (mean age, 53.7 [SD 5.7] years). Patterns of change in systolic blood pressure included slowly and steeply increasing, a decreasing and a sustained elevated blood pressure. Changes in diastolic and mid-blood pressure (½ systolic+½ diastolic) were less pronounced. The association of blood pressure pattern group membership with incidence of clinical outcomes was examined in follow-up from the fourth clinical examination (1996-1998) to December 31, 2011, using Poisson regression models adjusted for demographic and metabolic characteristics, and hypertension medication use. A gradient of rates of all events was observed across the identified patterns. Associations were attenuated after adjustment for covariates. Cumulative systolic blood pressure load, rather than the temporal pattern of change in systolic blood pressure itself, plays a role in determining the risk of cardiovascular disease, in particular, of heart failure and cardiovascular disease mortality, independent of blood pressure level measured at one point in time. PMID:27045024

  10. Contribution of Individual Risk Factor Changes to Reductions in Population Absolute Cardiovascular Risk

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    Thomas Cochrane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Few studies have investigated individual risk factor contributions to absolute cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. Even fewer have examined changes in individual risk factors as components of overall modifiable risk change following a CVD prevention intervention. Design. Longitudinal study of population CVD risk factor changes following a health screening and enhanced support programme. Methods. The contribution of individual risk factors to the estimated absolute CVD risk in a population of high risk patients identified from general practice records was evaluated. Further, the proportion of the modifiable risk attributable to each factor that was removed following one year of enhanced support was estimated. Results. Mean age of patients (533 males, 68 females was 63.7 (6.4 years. High cholesterol (57% was most prevalent, followed by smoking (53% and high blood pressure (26%. Smoking (57% made the greatest contribution to the modifiable population CVD risk, followed by raised blood pressure (26% and raised cholesterol (17%. After one year of enhanced support, the modifiable population risk attributed to smoking (56%, high blood pressure (68%, and high cholesterol (53% was removed. Conclusion. Approximately 59% of the modifiable risk attributable to the combination of high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and current smoking was removed after intervention.

  11. Cardiovascular changes in atherosclerotic ApoE-deficient mice exposed to Co60 (γ radiation.

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    Prem Kumarathasan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is evidence for a role of ionizing radiation in cardiovascular diseases. The goal of this work was to identify changes in oxidative and nitrative stress pathways and the status of the endothelinergic system during progression of atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice after single and repeated exposure to ionizing radiation. METHODS AND RESULTS: B6.129P2-ApoE tmlUnc mice on a low-fat diet were acutely exposed (whole body to Co60 (γ (single dose 0, 0.5, and 2 Gy at a dose rate of 36.32 cGy/min, or repeatedly (cumulative dose 0 and 2 Gy at a dose-rate of 0.1 cGy/min for 5 d/wk, over a period of 4 weeks. Biological endpoints were investigated after 3-6 months of recovery post-radiation. The nitrative stress marker 3-nitrotyrosine and the vasoregulator peptides endothelin-1 and endothelin-3 in plasma were increased (p<0.05 in a dose-dependent manner 3-6 months after acute or chronic exposure to radiation. The oxidative stress marker 8-isoprostane was not affected by radiation, while plasma 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine decreased (p<0.05 after treatment. At 2Gy radiation dose, serum cholesterol was increased (p = 0.008 relative to controls. Percent lesion area increased (p = 0.005 with age of animal, but not with radiation treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our observations are consistent with persistent nitrative stress and activation of the endothelinergic system in ApoE-/- mice after low-level ionizing radiation exposures. These mechanisms are known factors in the progression of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases.

  12. Cardiovascular benefits of exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal SK

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Shashi K AgarwalMedical Director, Agarwal Health Center, NJ, USAAbstract: Regular physical activity during leisure time has been shown to be associated with better health outcomes. The American Heart Association, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine all recommend regular physical activity of moderate intensity for the prevention and complementary treatment of several diseases. The therapeutic role of exercise in maintaining good health and treating diseases is not new. The benefits of physical activity date back to Susruta, a 600 BC physician in India, who prescribed exercise to patients. Hippocrates (460–377 BC wrote “in order to remain healthy, the entire day should be devoted exclusively to ways and means of increasing one's strength and staying healthy, and the best way to do so is through physical exercise.” Plato (427–347 BC referred to medicine as a sister art to physical exercise while the noted ancient Greek physician Galen (129–217 AD penned several essays on aerobic fitness and strengthening muscles. This article briefly reviews the beneficial effects of physical activity on cardiovascular diseases.Keywords: exercise, cardiovascular disease, lifestyle changes, physical activity, good health

  13. Evaluation of effect of highly standardized aqueous extract of roots and leaves of Withania somnifera on cold pressor test induced cardiovascular changes in healthy human subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Raveendranath Pilli; Niranjan Koilagundla; Ramakanth GSH; Usharani Pingali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stress is an important cardiovascular risk factor. Cold pressor test (CPT) is a simple, validated, non-invasive test used to measure stress induced changes in cardiovascular parameters. The objective of this study was to evaluate effect of Withania somnifera extract on cold pressor stress test induced changes on cardiovascular parameters and aortic wave reflections in healthy human subjects. Methods: This was a double-blind, placebo controlled, crossover study. Participants wer...

  14. Cardiovascular disease – coronary heart disease – qualitative research

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide (World Health Organisation, 2008). This study focuses coronary heart disease and the management of lifestyle changes in prevention and ongoing treatment. In doing this, cardiac rehabilitation most useful. Through this process, individuals may experience a variety of issues, which may influence their overall health status. Despite the importance of rehabilitation being acknowledged, there is need for a...

  15. Changes in biomarkers of cardiovascular risk after a switch to abacavir in HIV-1-infected individuals receiving combination antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, U S; Kofoed, K; Kronborg, G;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate, using a longitudinal design, whether biomarkers of cardiovascular risk change after a switch to an abacavir (ABC)-containing regimen in HIV-1-infected individuals already receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS: Thirty-five HIV-1-infected individuals...

  16. Cardiovascular and respiratory changes during slow-wave sleep in rats are associated with electrocorticogram desynchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Dias-dos-Santos

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available In awake rats a single recurrent larger tidal volume (deep breaths occurs at regular intervals, followed by oscillations in arterial pressure and heart rate. In the present study we recorded the changes in blood pressure, heart rate and ventilation during the wakefulness-sleep cycle identified by electrocorticographic records in order to determine whether the deep breaths and cardiovascular oscillations were associated with changes in the electrocorticogram. During several episodes of slow-wave sleep (SWS in 7 rats the deep breaths and oscillations in arterial pressure and heart rate were preceded by SWS desynchronization. The interval between deep breaths during SWS was 71 ± 4 s, the period between initial desynchronization and the generation of deep breaths was 3.98 ± 0.45 s and the duration of SWS desynchronization was 11 ± 0.65 s. Hypotension (-16 ± 1 mmHg and tachycardia (+15 ± 5 bpm were observed during deep breaths in the SWS state. These data indicate that the oscillations in arterial pressure and heart rate during SWS are associated with deep breaths, which in turn are preceded by desynchronization of the electrocorticogram in this state of sleep

  17. A Prelimenary Result of the Cardiovascular Risk factors Intervention Study (Pikom Study): Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension and their Associated Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Mafauzy; WINN, Than; Rampal, GR Lekhraj; Abdul Rashid, AR; Mustaffa, BE

    2005-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the number one cause of death since the last three decades in Malaysia and diabetes mellitus and hypertension are considered as major risk factors. A study to reduce risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in the community (PIKOM) through education and lifestyle changes was undertaken. The study population was from four different areas in Peninsular Malaysia – Kota Bharu and Bachok in Kelantan ; Raub in Pahang; Gunung Besout in Perak and Felda Palong in ...

  18. Nutritionist’s Variation in Counseling Style and the Effect on Weight Change of Patients Attending a Community Based Lifestyle Modification Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy M. M. Sea

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Information concerning the nature of nutritionist-patient relationships is very limited. This qualitative and quantitative study examined nutritionist’s skills, attributes, and beliefs towards nutrition counseling during a lifestyle modification intervention program, and whether this affected the patient’s weight outcome. 24 nutrition consultations were observed during the program and the nutritionists were interviewed for their perception on practice (n = 4. A statistically significant difference was observed between the nutritionists in regard to patient’s weight change after adjustment for age and baseline weight (p < 0.001. Key nutritionist skills identified that influenced weight outcome were meticulous investigation of the underlying obesity cause, identification of the subject’s stage of change, and psychological support.

  19. A randomized trial of a lifestyle intervention in obese endometrial cancer survivors: quality of life outcomes and mediators of behavior change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavanagh Mary

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the effects of a 6 month lifestyle intervention on quality of life, depression, self-efficacy and eating behavior changes in overweight and obese endometrial cancer survivors. Methods Early stage endometrial cancer survivors were randomized to intervention (n = 23 or usual care (n = 22 groups. Chi-square, Student's t-test and repeated measures analysis of variance were used in intent-to-treat analyses. Outcomes were also examined according to weight loss. Results Morbidly obese patients had significantly lower self-efficacy, specifically when feeling physical discomfort. There was a significant improvement for self-efficacy related to social pressure (p = .03 and restraint (p = .02 in the LI group. There was a significant difference for emotional well-being quality of life (p = .02, self-efficacy related to negative emotions (p Conclusion This pilot lifestyle intervention had no effect on quality of life or depression but did improve self-efficacy and some eating behaviors. Trial Registration http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00420979

  20. Age-related changes in the ``complexity'' of cardiovascular dynamics: A potential marker of vulnerability to disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, D. A. Lipsitz M.

    1995-03-01

    Healthy physiologic control of cardiovascular function is a result of complex interactions between multiple regulatory processes that operate over different time scales. These include the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems which regulate beat-to-beat heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP), as well as extravascular volume, body temperature, and sleep which influence HR and BP over the longer term. Interactions between these control systems generate highly variable fluctuations in continuous HR and BP signals. Techniques derived from nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory are now being adapted to quantify the dynamic behavior of physiologic time series and study their changes with age or disease. We have shown significant age-related changes in the 1/fx relationship between the log amplitude and log frequency of the heart rate power spectrum, as well as declines in approximate dimension and approximate entropy of both heart rate and blood pressure time series. These changes in the ``complexity'' of cardiovascular dynamics reflect the breakdown and decoupling of integrated physiologic regulatory systems with aging, and may signal an impairment in cardiovascular ability to adapt to external and internal perturbations. Studies are currently underway to determine whether the complexity of HR or BP time series can distinguish patients with fainting spells due to benign vasovagal reactions from those due to life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. Thus, measures of the complexity of physiologic variability may provide novel methods to monitor cardiovascular aging and test the efficacy of specific interventions to improve adaptive capacity in old age.

  1. Could autonomous motivation hold the key to successfully implementing lifestyle changes in affective disorders? A multicentre cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; Madou, Tomas; Moens, Herman; De Backer, Tanja; Vanhalst, Patrick; Helon, Chris; Naert, Pieter; Rosenbaum, Simon; Stubbs, Brendon; Probst, Michel

    2015-07-30

    There is a need for theoretically-based research on the motivational processes linked to the adoption and maintenance of an active lifestyle in people with affective disorders. Within the Self-Determination Theory (SDT) framework, we investigated the SDT tenets in people with major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder by examining the factor structure of the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2 (BREQ-2) and by investigating associations between motivation, the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) and International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) scores. A total of 165 patients (105 ♀) (45.6 ± 14.2 years) agreed to participate. An exploratory factor analysis demonstrated sufficient convergence with the original factor for amotivation, and external and introjected regulation. The items of identified and intrinsic regulation loaded on the same factor, which was labelled autonomous regulation. Significant correlations were found between the total IPAQ score and the subscales amotivation, external regulation, introjected regulation and autonomous regulation. The relative autonomy index (RAI) was associated with the PANAS scores. Differences in RAI were found between physically inactive and active participants. Our results suggest that in people with affective disorders the level of autonomous motivation may play an important role in the adoption and maintenance of health promoting behaviours. PMID:25956760

  2. Involvement of catecholaminergic medullary pathways in cardiovascular responses to acute changes in circulating volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Cravo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Water deprivation and hypernatremia are major challenges for water and sodium homeostasis. Cellular integrity requires maintenance of water and sodium concentration within narrow limits. This regulation is obtained through engagement of multiple mechanisms and neural pathways that regulate the volume and composition of the extracellular fluid. The purpose of this short review is to summarize the literature on central neural mechanisms underlying cardiovascular, hormonal and autonomic responses to circulating volume changes, and some of the findings obtained in the last 12 years by our laboratory. We review data on neural pathways that start with afferents in the carotid body that project to medullary relays in the nucleus tractus solitarii and caudal ventrolateral medulla, which in turn project to the median preoptic nucleus in the forebrain. We also review data suggesting that noradrenergic A1 cells in the caudal ventrolateral medulla represent an essential link in neural pathways controlling extracellular fluid volume and renal sodium excretion. Finally, recent data from our laboratory suggest that these structures may also be involved in the beneficial effects of intravenous infusion of hypertonic saline on recovery from hemorrhagic shock.

  3. Associations of Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression with Diabetes and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Older People with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, C. F.; Hermans, H.; Evenhuis, H. M.; Echteld, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Depression, anxiety, diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors are frequent health problems among older people with intellectual disability (ID). These conditions may be bidirectionally related. Depression and anxiety may have biological effects causing glucose intolerance, fat accumulation and also lifestyle changes causing metabolic…

  4. Lifestyle and dietary factors determine age at natural menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapre, Shilpa; Thakur, Ratna

    2014-01-01

    A literature search was done using PubMed. The age at natural menopause (ANM) depends on various factors like genetic, environmental, socioeconomic, reproductive, dietary, and lifestyle of which some like nulliparity, vegetarian diet, smoking, high fat intake, cholesterol, and caffeine accelerates; while others like parity, prior use of oral contraceptive pills, and Japanese ethnicity delays the ANM. ANM is an important risk factor for long-term morbidity and mortality; and hence, the need to identify the modifiable risk factors like diet and lifestyle changes. Delayed menopause is associated with increased risk of endometrial and breast cancer, while early ANM enhances the risk for cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis. The correlation between diet and ANM has not been extensively studied; however, whatever studies have been done till now point towards role of high intake of total calories, fruits, and proteins in delaying the ANM, while high polyunsaturated fat intake accelerates it. The role of dietary soy, total fat, saturated fat, red meat, and dietary fiber in determining the ANM has been controversial and needs further studies to substantiate it. The lifestyle factors like current smoking and vigorous exercise have been significantly associated with early menopause, while moderate alcohol consumption delays the ANM. Large prospective studies are needed to study the association of ANM and other modifiable factors like passive smoking fish consumption, soy, and various types of tea. The knowledge of modifiable determinants of ANM can help in setting up menopausal clinics and initiating health programs specially in developing countries. PMID:24672198

  5. Obesity-Induced Changes in Adipose Tissue Microenvironment and Their Impact on Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, José J; Ouchi, Noriyuki; Gokce, Noyan; Walsh, Kenneth

    2016-05-27

    Obesity is causally linked with the development of cardiovascular disorders. Accumulating evidence indicates that cardiovascular disease is the collateral damage of obesity-driven adipose tissue dysfunction that promotes a chronic inflammatory state within the organism. Adipose tissues secrete bioactive substances, referred to as adipokines, which largely function as modulators of inflammation. The microenvironment of adipose tissue will affect the adipokine secretome, having actions on remote tissues. Obesity typically leads to the upregulation of proinflammatory adipokines and the downregulation of anti-inflammatory adipokines, thereby contributing to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we focus on the microenvironment of adipose tissue and how it influences cardiovascular disorders, including atherosclerosis and ischemic heart diseases, through the systemic actions of adipokines. PMID:27230642

  6. Cholinergic signal activated renin angiotensin system associated with cardiovascular changes in the ovine fetus

    OpenAIRE

    Geng, Chunsong; Mao, Caiping; Wu, Lei; Cheng, Yu; Liu, Rulu; Chen, Bingxin; Chen, Ling; Zhang, Lubo; Xu, Zhice

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Cholinergic regulation is important in the control of cardiovascular and endocrine responses. The mechanisms behind cardiovascular responses induced by cholinergic activation are explored by studying hormonal systems, including renin-angiotensin and vasopressin (VP). Results: In chronically prepared fetal sheep, intravenous infusion of the cholinergic agonist carbachol increased fetal systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure accompanied with bradycardia at near-term. Although int...

  7. What is the role of lifestyle behaviour change associated with non-communicable disease risk in managing musculoskeletal health conditions with special reference to chronic pain?

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, E.; Söderlund, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Background: Other than activity and exercise, lifestyle practices such as not smoking and healthy nutrition, well established for preventing and managing lifestyle-related non-communicable diseases (i.e., heart disease, cancer, hypertension, stroke, obstructive lung disease, diabetes, and obesity), are less emphasized in the physical therapy guidelines for addressing chronic pain, e.g., back pain. This state-of-the-art review examines the relationships between lifestyle behaviours and musculo...

  8. Maintain a Heart Healthy Lifestyle

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... no problem convincing a heart attack survivor to change his or her lifestyle--to quit smoking, control their high blood pressure and cholesterol, control their weight and get regular physical activity. BOB WELTNER: My heart stopped and in theory, I guess I was dead. But through the ...

  9. Migraine and lifestyle in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casucci, Gerardo; Villani, Veronica; d'Onofrio, Florindo; Russo, Antonio

    2015-05-01

    Migraine is one of the most frequently reported somatic complaints in childhood, with a negative impact on health-related quality of life. The incidence of migraine in childhood has substantially increased over the past 30 years, probably due to both increased awareness of the disease and lifestyle changes in this age group. Indeed, several conditions have been identified as risk factors for migraine in childhood. Amongst these, dysfunctional family situation, the regular consumption of alcohol, caffeine ingestion, low level of physical activity, physical or emotional abuse, bullying by peers, unfair treatment in school and insufficient leisure time seem to play a critical role. Nevertheless, there are only few studies about the association between migraine and lifestyle in childhood, due to previous observations specifically focused on "headache" in children. In this brief review, we will concentrate upon recent studies aimed to explore migraine and lifestyle risk factors in childhood. PMID:26017522

  10. Cardiovascular changes after PMMA vertebroplasty in sheep: the effect of bone marrow removal using pulsed jet-lavage

    OpenAIRE

    Benneker, Lorin M.; Krebs, Jörg; Boner, Vanessa; Boger, Andreas; Hoerstrup, Simon; Heini, Paul F.; Gisep, Armando

    2010-01-01

    Clinically, the displacement of intravertebral fat into the circulation during vertebroplasty is reported to lead to problems in elderly patients and can represent a serious complication, especially when multiple levels have to be treated. An in vitro study has shown the feasibility of removing intravertebral fat by pulsed jet-lavage prior to vertebroplasty, potentially reducing the embolization of bone marrow fat from the vertebral bodies and alleviating the cardiovascular changes elicited b...

  11. Changes in cardiovascular risk factors and hormones during a comprehensive residential three month kriya yoga training and vegetarian nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, T; Wijga, A; Von Zur Mühlen, A; Brabant, G; Wagner, T O

    1997-01-01

    In participants of a comprehensive residential three month yoga and mediation training programme living on a low fat lacto-vegetarian diet changes in cardiovascular risk factors and hormones were studied. Substantial risk factor reduction was found. Body mass index, total serum and LDL cholesterol, fibrinogen, and blood pressure were significantly reduced especially in those with elevated levels. Urinary excretion of adrenaline, noradrenaline, dopamine, aldosterone, as well as serum testosterone and luteinizing hormone levels were reduced, while cortisol excretion increased significantly. PMID:9401632

  12. Avocado Oil Supplementation Modifies Cardiovascular Risk Profile Markers in a Rat Model of Sucrose-Induced Metabolic Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Octavio Carvajal-Zarrabal; Cirilo Nolasco-Hipolito; M. Guadalupe Aguilar-Uscanga; Guadalupe Melo-Santiesteban; Patricia M. Hayward-Jones; Barradas-Dermitz, Dulce M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of avocado oil administration on biochemical markers of cardiovascular risk profile in rats with metabolic changes induced by sucrose ingestion. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: a control group (CG; basic diet), a sick group (MC; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution), and three other groups (MCao, MCac, and MCas; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution plus olive oil and avocado oil extracted by centrifugation or using solvent,...

  13. Effects of sudden air pressure changes on hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases in Prague, 1994–2009

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plavcová, Eva; Kyselý, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 6 (2014), s. 1327-1337. ISSN 0020-7128 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/11/1985 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : weather * pressure change * cardiovascular disease * morbidity * mortality * Central Europe Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.246, year: 2014 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00484-013-0735-y

  14. Media communication strategies for climate-friendly lifestyles - Addressing middle and lower class consumers for social-cultural change via Entertainment-Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubjuhn, S.; Pratt, N.

    2009-11-01

    This paper argues that Entertainment-Education (E-E) is a striking communication strategy for reaching middle and lower socio-economic classes with climate-friendly lifestyle messages. On the international level (e.g. in the US and the Netherlands) E-E approaches are being theoretically grounded, whereas in Germany they are not yet. Therefore further theoretical discussion and mapping of E-E approaches is central for future research. As a first step towards providing further theoretical foundations for E-E in the field of sustainability, the authors suggest a threefold mapping of E-E approaches. The threefold mapping of E-E approaches for communicating climate-friendly lifestyles to middle and lower class consumers is based on recent results from academic research and practical developments on the media market. The commonalities among the three is that they all promote pro-sustainability messages in an affective-orientated rather than cognitive-orientated, factual manner. Differences can be found in: the sender of the sustainability message, the targeted consumer groups and the media approach in use. Based on this, the paper draws the conclusion that two new paths for further research activities in the field of Entertainment-Education can be proposed: (1) Improving the existing approaches in practice by using theoretical foundation from the E-E field. This comprises at its core (A) to do formative, process and summative effect research on the messages and (B) to use E-E theory from the field of social psychology, sociology and communication science for further improvement and (2) Generating new E-E theories by analyzing the existing practical approaches in the media to communicate climate change.

  15. Media communication strategies for climate-friendly lifestyles - Addressing middle and lower class consumers for social-cultural change via Entertainment-Education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper argues that Entertainment-Education (E-E) is a striking communication strategy for reaching middle and lower socio-economic classes with climate-friendly lifestyle messages. On the international level (e.g. in the US and the Netherlands) E-E approaches are being theoretically grounded, whereas in Germany they are not yet. Therefore further theoretical discussion and mapping of E-E approaches is central for future research. As a first step towards providing further theoretical foundations for E-E in the field of sustainability, the authors suggest a threefold mapping of E-E approaches. The threefold mapping of E-E approaches for communicating climate-friendly lifestyles to middle and lower class consumers is based on recent results from academic research and practical developments on the media market. The commonalities among the three is that they all promote pro-sustainability messages in an affective-orientated rather than cognitive-orientated, factual manner. Differences can be found in: the sender of the sustainability message, the targeted consumer groups and the media approach in use. Based on this, the paper draws the conclusion that two new paths for further research activities in the field of Entertainment-Education can be proposed: (1) Improving the existing approaches in practice by using theoretical foundation from the E-E field. This comprises at its core (A) to do formative, process and summative effect research on the messages and (B) to use E-E theory from the field of social psychology, sociology and communication science for further improvement and (2) Generating new E-E theories by analyzing the existing practical approaches in the media to communicate climate change.

  16. Weight-loss changes PPAR expression, reduces atherosclerosis and improves cardiovascular function in obese insulin-resistant mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verreth, Wim; Verhamme, Peter; Pelat, Michael; Ganame, Javier; Bielicki, John K.; Mertens, Ann; Quarck, Rozenn; Benhabiles, Nora; Marguerie, Gerard; Mackness, Bharti; Mackness, Mike; Ninio, Ewa; Herregods, Marie-Christine; Balligand, Jean-Luc; Holvoet, Paul

    2003-09-01

    Weight-loss in obese insulin-resistant, but not in insulin-sensitive, persons reduces CHD risk. It is not known to what extent changes in the adipose gene expression profile are important for reducing CHD risk. We studied the effect of diet restriction-induced weight-loss on gene expression in adipose tissue, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular function in mice with combined leptin and LDL-receptor deficiency. Obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and insulin-resistance are associated with hypertension, impaired left ventricle function and accelerated atherosclerosis in those mice. Diet restriction during 12 weeks caused a 45% weight-loss and changes in the gene expression in adipose tissue of PPARa and PPAR? and of key genes regulating glucose transport and insulin sensitivity, lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and inflammation, most of which are under the transcriptional control of PPARs. These changes were associated with increased insulin-sensitivity, decreased hypertriglyceridemia, reduced mean 24-hour blood pressure and heart rate, restored circadian variations of blood pressure and heart rate, increased ejection fraction, and reduced atherosclerosis. Thus, induction of PPARa and PPAR? in adipose tissue is a key mechanism for reducing atherosclerosis and improving cardiovascular function resulting from weight-loss. Our observations point to the critical role of PPARs in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular features of the metabolic syndrome.

  17. Motivational interviewing for screening and feedback and encouraging lifestyle changes to reduce relative weight in 4-8 year old children: design of the MInT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Barry J

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because parental recognition of overweight in young children is poor, we need to determine how best to inform parents that their child is overweight in a way that enhances their acceptance and supports motivation for positive change. This study will assess 1 whether weight feedback delivered using motivational interviewing increases parental acceptance of their child's weight status and enhances motivation for behaviour change, and 2 whether a family-based individualised lifestyle intervention, delivered primarily by a MInT mentor with limited support from "expert" consultants in psychology, nutrition and physical activity, can improve weight outcomes after 12 and 24 months in young overweight children, compared with usual care. Methods/Design 1500 children aged 4-8 years will be screened for overweight (height, weight, waist, blood pressure, body composition. Parents will complete questionnaires on feeding practices, physical activity, diet, parenting, motivation for healthy lifestyles, and demographics. Parents of children classified as overweight (BMI ≥ CDC 85th will receive feedback about the results using Motivational interviewing or Usual care. Parental responses to feedback will be assessed two weeks later and participants will be invited into the intervention. Additional baseline measurements (accelerometry, diet, quality of life, child behaviour will be collected and families will be randomised to Tailored package or Usual care. Parents in the Usual care condition will meet once with an advisor who will offer general advice regarding healthy eating and activity. Parents in the Tailored package condition will attend a single session with an "expert team" (MInT mentor, dietitian, physical activity advisor, clinical psychologist to identify current challenges for the family, develop tailored goals for change, and plan behavioural strategies that best suit each family. The mentor will continue to provide support to the

  18. Effectiveness of a web-based health risk assessment with individually-tailored feedback on lifestyle behaviour: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laan Eva K

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity, unhealthy dietary habits, smoking and high alcohol consumption are recognized risk factors for cardiovascular disease and cancer. Web-based health risk assessments with tailored feedback seem promising in promoting a healthy lifestyle. This study evaluates the effectiveness of a web-based health risk assessment with individually-tailored feedback on lifestyle behaviour, conducted in a worksite setting. Methods/Design The web-based health risk assessment starts with a questionnaire covering socio-demographic variables, family and personal medical history, lifestyle behaviour and psychological variables. Prognostic models are used to estimate individual cardiovascular risks. In case of high risk further biometric and laboratory evaluation is advised. All participants receive individually-tailored feedback on their responses to the health risk assessment questionnaire. The study uses a quasi-experimental design with a waiting list control group. Data are collected at baseline (T0 and after six months (T1. Within each company, clusters of employees are allocated to either the intervention or the control group. Primary outcome is lifestyle behaviour, expressed as the sum of five indicators namely physical activity, nutrition, smoking behaviour, alcohol consumption, and symptoms of burnout. Multilevel regression analysis will be used to answer the main research question and to correct for clustering effects. Baseline differences between the intervention and control group in the distribution of characteristics with a potential effect on lifestyle change will be taken into account in further analyses using propensity scores. Discussion This study will increase insight into the effectiveness of health risk assessments with tailored feedback and into conditions that may modify the effectiveness. This information can be used to design effective interventions for lifestyle behaviour change among employees. Trial

  19. Lifestyle and hypertension--an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilin, L J

    1999-01-01

    Dietary and other lifestyle factors play a major role in the prevalence of hypertension. Many of the behaviours likely to reduce blood pressure also have independent beneficial effects on other cardiovascular risk factors to general health and survival. This is particularly the case with weight control, exercise, dietary patterns characterised by a low intake of saturated fat and a high intake of fruit, vegetables and fish and moderation of heavy alcohol consumption. High salt intakes remain a major contributor to hypertension, especially when potassium intake is low. Smoking has a dominant effect in increasing cardiovascular risk in hypertensives. Clustering of risk factors is often associated with clustering of unhealthy lifestyle characteristics and both are most prominent in lower socio-economic groups and in Developing Countries adopting a more sedentary lifestyle and Western diet patterns. Recent trials suggest substantial cardiovascular benefits by a combination of weight control and sodium moderation in the elderly, by non-vegetarian diets rich in fruit and vegetables and low in saturated fat, and by incorporation of regular fish meals into weight control diets. PMID:10423098

  20. Efficient Technology and Appropriate Life-styles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The paper suggests that the energy chain model of converting primary energy into energy services should be extended to include also the lifestyles. A pittfall from looking solely at the technical efficiency is revealed. Various examples indicates economic saturations among consumers in the most...... wealthy countries. Similarly, examples of alternatives to Gross Domestic Product as an indicator of progress show steady declines in the countries with high GDP, which is suggesting a decline in the efficiencies in the economies and the lifestyles. The potentials for reducing electricity consumption in...... Europe by combining changes in technology with changes in lifestyles and economy are demonstrated with results from a Low Electricity Europe study....

  1. Are lifestyle changes achieved after participation in a screening programme for Type 2 diabetes? The ADDITION Study, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, K S; Sandbaek, A; Borch-Johnsen, K; Lauritzen, T

    2007-01-01

    screening comprised two main steps: identification of high-risk individuals by a mailed risk score questionnaire, and subsequent testing of high-risk individuals by their general practitioner. Questionnaires on physical exercise [International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), short form], smoking...... habits and alcohol consumption were mailed to the target population 1 month prior to the offer of screening, and at 12 months' follow-up. At follow-up, additional questions regarding perceived changes in dietary habits, smoking, alcohol consumption and exercise were included. Three pairs of comparison...... exercise were unchanged. Data on perceived changes showed that more people undertook increased exercise in the group at low risk than in the further examined group, but this was not seen when comparing high-risk attenders with non-attenders. Dietary habits were unchanged, except that slightly more people...

  2. "When diet and exercise are not enough": an examination of lifestyle change inefficacy claims in direct-to-consumer advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Sahara; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Avery, Rosemary J; Cantor, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Previous research suggests that direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertisements for pharmaceutical drugs have the potential to influence consumers' perceptions of whether symptoms should be treated medically and/or through behavior change. However, the relative frequency of messages emphasizing these approaches in pharmaceutical advertising remains largely unknown. A content analysis of print and television advertisements for cholesterol management medication between 1994 and 2005 (for print) and between 1999 and 2007 (for television) was conducted. First, the extent to which established theoretical constructs drawn from health communication scholarship are depicted in the content of DTC cholesterol advertisements is quantified. Second, specific claims about behavior change inefficacy when a pharmaceutical alternative is available are identified. Findings indicate that DTC ads offer many mixed messages about the efficacy of diet and exercise in reducing cholesterol and risk of heart disease. Theoretical and practical implications of this work are discussed. PMID:23444915

  3. Sustainable Mobility and Lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Anna La Rocca

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available “If you think green you move green”. This could be the slogan to summarize the goal this article try to affirm.  Green mobility should be a new way of thinking and living tending to state a new culture of moving. Making people aware of environmental and social impacts of unsustainable travel choise and educating people are the key of success for any sustanable policy. Starting from this consideration this article selects and examimes some reports and documents that are particularly significant in research for greener ways of living. As shown in Ifort report on Usance of italian in mobility, car trips are always predominant over other ways of moving even though an inclination towards the change in using the car has been pointed out. Transport is the fastest growing sector in term of energy use and it is also the sector producing about 300 million tonnes of CO2 per year in the cities. The european commitment to achive at least a 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions in 2020 calls to do something about this situation.Somethings is happening at least at social level. People seem to be more conscious and disposable to modify own lifestyle, at same time is hard to please and less patient toward timimg of governmental procedures. This is “the social capital” able to govern the changement towards more livable cities.The experience of transition towns for example shows a “bottom down” solution based on engagement in changing actual development model strongly dependent on oil. The experiment involves about seven hundred cities around the world and is also expanding in Italy. It is a cultural movement that involves the community in accordance with local government. In the transition town model, collective action plays both a significant and active role in identifying the possibility to address the environmental emergency that involves all the existing cities.Other examples discussed in this article refer to “bottom up” solutions to

  4. Healthy lifestyle and Czech consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Kubešová, Jana

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is focused on healthy lifestyle. It concentrates specifically on impact on human health and which lifestyle lives Czech population. This work summarizes the principles of helathy lifestyle and reveals lifestyles of Czech people with market segmentation and MML-TGI data in the practical part. This can help firms in targeting and addressing people within healthy lifestyle.

  5. Reduction in weight and cardiovascular diasease risk factors in individuals with type 2 diabetes: One-year results of the Look AHEAD trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of intentional weight loss in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in type 2 diabetes is unknown. This report describes 1-year changes in CVD risk factors in a trial designed to examine the long-term effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention on the incidence of major C...

  6. Dynamic changes in the relationship of microglia to cardiovascular neurons in response to increases and decreases in blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Komal; Bhandare, Amol M; Nedoboy, Polina E; Mohammed, Suja; Farnham, Melissa M J; Pilowsky, Paul M

    2016-08-01

    Microglia are present throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and express receptors for every known neurotransmitter. During inflammation, microglia change into a state that either promotes removal of debris (M1), or into a state that promotes soothing (M2). Caudal- and rostral- ventrolateral medullary regions (CVLM and RVLM, respectively) of the brainstem are key nuclei involved in all aspects of the cardiovascular system. In this study, we investigate a novel role for microglia in cardiovascular control in the brainstem of adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat. Here we show, that increases and decreases in blood pressure (BP) triggers alertness in the physiology of microglia in the brainstem region; inducing changes in microglial spatial distribution and the number of synapses in contact with microglial end processes. Following 6h of acute hypertension, the number of synapses in contact with microglia increased by ≈30% in both regions of the brainstem, CVLM and RVLM. Induction of acute hypotension for 6h causes microglia to reduce the number of synaptic contacts by >20% in both, CVLM and RVLM, nuclei of the brainstem. Our analysis of the morphological characteristics of microglia, and expression levels of M1 and M2, reveals that the changes induced in microglial behavior do not require any obvious dramatic changes in their morphology. Taken together, our findings suggest that microglia play a novel, unexpected, physiological role in the uninjured autonomic nuclei of CNS; we therefore speculate that microglia act cooperatively with brainstem cardiovascular neurons to maintain them in a physiologically receptive state. PMID:27155147

  7. A five-year observance of changes in the cardiovascular risk profile in 505 HIV-positive individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Potthoff

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART and the extension of life expectancy, HIV-infected persons have shown an increasing number of cardiovascular events. The reduction of cardiovascular risk factors becomes a new challenge in HIV care. One of the main objectives of the HIV&HEART study is to examine the development of cardiovascular risk factors and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Methods: This study is an on-going, prospective, regional multicentre trial that was conducted to analyse the frequency and clinical course of cardiac disorders as well as cardiovascular risk factors in HIV-infected patients. 505 HIV-infected outpatients were recruited at baseline (BL and re-examined during 5-year follow up (5YFU. Results: 84% of 505 eligible HIV-infected patients were male. The average age was 44.3±9.5 years at BL. The proportion of ART-treated patients increased from 85.7% at BL to 96.4% at 5YFU. During the 5-year observation period mean cardiovascular risk detected by Framingham score increased from 6% at BL to 10% at 5YFU. Even after adjusting for age there was a difference in the Framingham score of 2%. Between BL and 5YFU systolic blood pressure increased from 128.4±19.8 mmHg to 138.3±19.9 mmHg in spite of an intensified use of antihypertensive drugs, from 11.9% at BL to 24.0% at 5YFU. The rate of participants with adiposity, characterised by a BMI>30, increased from 7.9% at BL to 11.2% at 5YFU. Lipid-lowering therapy was applied in 10.3% of the patients at BL and in 13.9% at 5YFU. Triglycerides (TAG≥200 mg/dl reduced from 38.9% at BL to 36.8% at 5YFU; in contrast cholesterol values≥200 mg/dl elevated from 57.8% to 61.8%. The same trend was observed in HDL≤40 mg/dl. Here we found a change from 29.2% versus 31.3%. Doing regular sports elevated from 1.9% to 3.3%. The count of smokers increased for 2.8% and also mean pack-years changes from 24 to 26.5 pack-years. Conclusion: During a 5-year period the

  8. Improvement in Quality of Life Questionnaire Measures (PCOSQ) in Obese Adolescent Females with PCOS treated with Lifestyle Changes and Oral Contraceptives, with or without Metformin

    OpenAIRE

    Harris-Glocker, Miranda; Davidson, Kristin; Kochman, Lynda; Guzick, David; Hoeger, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    We studied the effect of metformin or placebo in a lifestyle modification program (LSM) combined with oral contraceptives (OC) on quality of life parameters measured by the PCOS questionnaire (PCOSQ) in obese adolescent women with validated PCOS.

  9. Eficácia de uma intervenção psicológica no estilo de vida para redução do risco coronariano Efficacy of lifestyle change psychological intervention in coronary risk reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Pugliese

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia de um programa destinado a promover mudanças no estilo de vida por meio de intervenção psicológica associado à terapia farmacológica para redução do risco coronariano em pacientes com hipertensão não-controlada, sobrepeso e dislipidemia acompanhados durante 11 meses. MÉTODOS: Estudo controlado e aleatório com 74 pacientes distribuídos para três programas de tratamento distintos. Um grupo (TC recebeu exclusivamente tratamento farmacológico convencional. O grupo de orientação (GO recebeu tratamento farmacológico e participou de um programa de orientação para controle dos fatores de risco cardiovascular. O terceiro grupo (IPEV recebeu tratamento farmacológico e participou de um programa de intervenção psicológica breve destinado a reduzir o nível de estresse e mudar o comportamento alimentar. A principal medida de avaliação foi o índice de risco de Framingham. RESULTADOS: Os pacientes do grupo TC obtiveram uma redução média de 18% (p = 0,001 no risco coronariano; os pacientes do grupo GO apresentaram um aumento de risco de 0,8% (NS; e os pacientes do grupo IPEV obtiveram uma redução média de 27% no índice de risco de Framingham (p = 0,001. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento farmacológico aliado a um programa de intervenção psicológica destinado a reduzir o nível de estresse e mudar o comportamento alimentar resultou em benefícios adicionais na redução de risco coronariano.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of a program of lifestyle change through psychological intervention, combined with pharmacological therapy, for coronary risk reduction in uncontrolled hypertensive patients with overweight and dyslipidemia over 11 months of follow-up. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial with 74 patients assigned to three different treatment programs. One group (CT only received conventional pharmacological treatment. Another group (OG received pharmacological treatment and participated in a

  10. Involvement of catecholaminergic medullary pathways in cardiovascular responses to acute changes in circulating volume

    OpenAIRE

    S.L. Cravo; O.U Lopes; G.R Pedrino

    2011-01-01

    Water deprivation and hypernatremia are major challenges for water and sodium homeostasis. Cellular integrity requires maintenance of water and sodium concentration within narrow limits. This regulation is obtained through engagement of multiple mechanisms and neural pathways that regulate the volume and composition of the extracellular fluid. The purpose of this short review is to summarize the literature on central neural mechanisms underlying cardiovascular, hormonal and autonomic response...

  11. The Impact of Technological Change and Lifestyles on the Energy Demand of Households. A Combination of Aggregate and Individual Household Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kratena, Kurt; Meyer, Ina; Wüger, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with integrating technology as well as lifestyles as driving forces of energy demand into a model of total private consumption. Private consumption is determined by economic variables like income and prices as well as these other factors. Technology is represented by variables measuring the efficiency of households' capital stocks and lifestyles by socio-demographic variables. Data for both types of variables are available in cross section consumer surveys and in time series ...

  12. The long-term effect of screening and lifestyle counseling on changes in physical activity and diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Sophie; Toft, Ulla; Aadahl, Mette;

    2015-01-01

    . Both groups were followed one, three, five, and ten years after baseline. Changes in physical activity and dietary habits (intake of vegetables, fruit, fish, and saturated fat) during and after the intervention were investigated using random-coefficient models. RESULTS: Five years after the...... intervention, women in the intervention group reported greater improvements in the intake of fruit (M Δ = 90.2 g/week, p = 0.041) and less intake of saturated fat (OR = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.17-0.54) than the control group. Men in the intervention group reported greater improvements in physical activity (M Δ = 19...

  13. 2013 AHA/ACC guideline on lifestyle management to reduce cardiovascular risk: A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force on practice guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goals of the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and the American Heart Association (AHA) are to prevent cardiovascular (CV) diseases, improve the management of people who have these diseases through professional education and research, and develop guidelines, standards and policies that promot...

  14. Changes in ideal cardiovascular health status and risk of new-onset type 2 diabetes: The Kailuan prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoxue; Shi, Jihong; Wang, Anxin; Song, Qiaofeng; Huang, Zhe; Zhu, Chenrui; Du, Xin; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Shuohua; Wang, Xizhu; Wu, Shouling

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between the altered ideal cardiovascular health status (ΔCHS) and the risk of developing diabetes mellitus in the Kailuan population of China.We included 50,656 Chinese adults aged 18 years or older (11,704 men and 38,952 women) without baseline diabetes mellitus in this study. Information about 7 individual components of the cardiovascular health metrics during 2006 to 2008 was collected. A ΔCHS score was defined as the changes of ideal cardiovascular health status (CHS) from the year 2006 to 2008. New-onset diabetes was identified based on the history of diabetes, currently treated with insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents, or having a fasting blood glucose concentration ≥7.0 mmol/L during the 2010 to 2011 and 2012 to 2013 surveys. After a mean follow-up period of 3.80 years, a total of 3071 (6.06%) participants developed diabetes mellitus. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate the hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the CHS change and new-onset diabetes.A strong inverse association between the positive CHS changes and lower risks of developing diabetes mellitus was observed. After adjusting for age, sex, alcohol consumption, and other potential confounders, the hazard ratios for new-onset diabetes were 0.73, 0.59, 0.49, and 0.42 (95% confidence interval: 0.37-0.82; P trend diabetes mellitus in this investigated Chinese population. PMID:27559955

  15. The changes of serum ferritin and β2-microglobulin in the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and their clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the changes of serum ferritin (SF) and β2-microglobulin (β2-MG) in the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and their clinical significance, serum SF and β2-MG in 22 patients with coronary cardiopathy, 46 patients with hypertension and 21 patients with cerebral infarction were tested by RIA and compared with control group. The results showed that serum SF and β2-MG in patients with the above-mentioned diseases were significantly higher than those in control group (P2-MG participate in the pathophysiological processes, so that they may be used as references to therapeutic effectiveness and prognosis

  16. The Impact of an Immersive Elective on Learners’ Understanding of Lifestyle Medicine and Its Role in Patients’ Lives

    OpenAIRE

    Mattison, Melissa J.; Nemec, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To design an immersive, active learning, lifestyle medicine (LM) elective and evaluate its impact on a pharmacy learners’ ability to understand the challenges of implementing lifestyle changes.

  17. Validity and reliability of a questionnaire on knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors for use in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurelio Lumertz Saffi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Using a sample of patients with coronary artery disease, this methodological study aimed to conduct a cross-cultural adaptation and validation of a questionnaire on knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors (Q-FARCS, lifestyle changes, and treatment adherence for use in Brazil. The questionnaire has three scales: general knowledge of risk factors (RFs; specific knowledge of these RFs; and lifestyle changes achieved. Cross-cultural adaptation included translation, synthesis, back-translation, expert committee review, and pretesting. Face and content validity, reliability, and construct validity were measured. Cronbach’s alpha for the total sample (n = 240 was 0.75. Assessment of psychometric properties revealed adequate face and content validity, and the construct revealed seven components. It was concluded that the Brazilian version of Q-FARCS had adequate reliability and validity for the assessment of knowledge of cardiovascular RFs.

  18. How may consumer policy empower consumers for sustainable lifestyles?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2005-01-01

    Consumer policy can empower consumers for changing lifestyles by reducing personal constraints and limitations, but it should also attempt to loosen some of the external constraints that make changes towards a more sustainable lifestyle difficult. In terms of reducing consumers' subjectively felt...... restrictions on their ability to change lifestyle, the two approaches are equivalent. Policies that increase a feeling of empowerment may also have a positive effect on consumers' motivation to make an effort, thus amplifying its effects. In this paper both types of constraints on lifestyle changes in a...

  19. Which interventions offer best value for money in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda J Cobiac

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite many decades of declining mortality rates in the Western world, cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death worldwide. In this research we evaluate the optimal mix of lifestyle, pharmaceutical and population-wide interventions for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In a discrete time Markov model we simulate the ischaemic heart disease and stroke outcomes and cost impacts of intervention over the lifetime of all Australian men and women, aged 35 to 84 years, who have never experienced a heart disease or stroke event. Best value for money is achieved by mandating moderate limits on salt in the manufacture of bread, margarine and cereal. A combination of diuretic, calcium channel blocker, ACE inhibitor and low-cost statin, for everyone with at least 5% five-year risk of cardiovascular disease, is also cost-effective, but lifestyle interventions aiming to change risky dietary and exercise behaviours are extremely poor value for money and have little population health benefit. CONCLUSIONS: There is huge potential for improving efficiency in cardiovascular disease prevention in Australia. A tougher approach from Government to mandating limits on salt in processed foods and reducing excessive statin prices, and a shift away from lifestyle counselling to more efficient absolute risk-based prescription of preventive drugs, could cut health care costs while improving population health.

  20. The study of cardiovascular changes by intravascular injection of contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation was aimed to study the effect of contrast media on the cardiovascular system. So in this study, pithed rats were used whether alteration in cardiovascular system by contrast media were controlled centrally. Furthermore, several hypertonic solutions were also used to clarify the effect of contrast media. The results are as follows: 1. Intravenous injection of contrast media in rats (2.5 ml/kg) caused hypotension and bradycardia. The effects were neither blocked by pretreatment of atropine nor pyribenzamine+atropine. 2. NaCI 4.7%, dextrose 24.8%, urea 9.0% and glycerol 10.1% (v/v) which were equiosmolar with contrast media, caused hypotension, but did not affect the heart rate. 3. In pithed rats, intravenous injection of Angiografin increased blood pressure in a dose-dependant manner, and caused decrease in heart rate compared with those of control rats. 4. In pithed rats, bradycardia by intravascular injection with Angiografin was partially blocked by atropine. 5. Metrizamide of which iodine content was adjusted to 280 mg/ml caused increased in blood pressure when was injected intravenously in pithed rats with little effect on heart rate. 6. When perfused with contrast media in rat hindlimb at 15 ml/min./kg speed both perfusion pressure and flow effluent increased, simultaneously. These results suggest that hypotension might be caused by the central effect due to hyperosmolarity of contrast media and bradycardia caused by both parasympathetic stimulation and direct inhibitory action on the cardiac conductive system.

  1. Insulin Resistance, Dyslipidemia and Cardiovascular Changes in a Group of Obese Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obesity-related comorbidities are present in young obese children, providing a platform for early adult cardiovascular disorders. To compare and correlate markers of adiposity to metabolic disturbances, vascular and cardiac morphology in a European pediatric obese cohort. We carried out an observational and transversal analysis in a cohort consisting of 121 obese children of both sexes, between the ages of 6 and 17 years. The control group consisted of 40 children with normal body mass index within the same age range. Markers of adiposity, plasma lipids and lipoproteins, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, common carotid artery intima-media thickness and left ventricular diameters were analyzed. There were statistically significant differences between the control and obese groups for the variables analyzed, all higher in the obese group, except for age, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and adiponectin, higher in the control group. In the obese group, body mass index was directly correlated to left ventricular mass (r=0.542; p=0.001), the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (r=0.378; p=<0.001) and mean common carotid artery intima-media thickness (r=0.378; p=<0.001). In that same group, insulin resistance was present in 38.1%, 12.5% had a combined dyslipidemic pattern, and eccentric hypertrophy was the most common left ventricular geometric pattern. These results suggest that these markers may be used in clinical practice to stratify cardiovascular risk, as well as to assess the impact of weight control programs

  2. Insulin Resistance, Dyslipidemia and Cardiovascular Changes in a Group of Obese Children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, António, E-mail: pires1961@gmail.com; Martins, Paula [Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Pereira, Ana Margarida [Laboratório de Fisiologia - Instituto Biomédico de Investigação da Luz e Imagem da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Silva, Patricia Vaz; Marinho, Joana [Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Marques, Margarida [Laboratório de Estatística da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Coimbra - Instituto Biomédico de Investigação da Luz e Imagem, Coimbra (Portugal); Castela, Eduardo [Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Sena, Cristina; Seiça, Raquel [Laboratório de Fisiologia - Instituto Biomédico de Investigação da Luz e Imagem da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal)

    2015-04-15

    Obesity-related comorbidities are present in young obese children, providing a platform for early adult cardiovascular disorders. To compare and correlate markers of adiposity to metabolic disturbances, vascular and cardiac morphology in a European pediatric obese cohort. We carried out an observational and transversal analysis in a cohort consisting of 121 obese children of both sexes, between the ages of 6 and 17 years. The control group consisted of 40 children with normal body mass index within the same age range. Markers of adiposity, plasma lipids and lipoproteins, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, common carotid artery intima-media thickness and left ventricular diameters were analyzed. There were statistically significant differences between the control and obese groups for the variables analyzed, all higher in the obese group, except for age, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and adiponectin, higher in the control group. In the obese group, body mass index was directly correlated to left ventricular mass (r=0.542; p=0.001), the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (r=0.378; p=<0.001) and mean common carotid artery intima-media thickness (r=0.378; p=<0.001). In that same group, insulin resistance was present in 38.1%, 12.5% had a combined dyslipidemic pattern, and eccentric hypertrophy was the most common left ventricular geometric pattern. These results suggest that these markers may be used in clinical practice to stratify cardiovascular risk, as well as to assess the impact of weight control programs.

  3. Systematic review of the use of behaviour change techniques (BCTs) in home-based cardiac rehabilitation programmes for patients with cardiovascular disease—protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Heron, Neil; Kee, Frank; Donnelly, Michael; Tully, Mark A; Margaret E. Cupples

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), including myocardial infarction, heart failure, peripheral arterial disease and strokes, are highly prevalent conditions and are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is an effective form of secondary prevention for CVD but there is a lack of information regarding which specific behaviour change techniques (BCTs) are included in programmes that are associated with improvements in cardiovascular risk factors. This s...

  4. Nutraceuticals and Bioactive Components from Fish for Dyslipidemia and Cardiovascular Risk Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Giulia Chiesa; Marco Busnelli; Stefano Manzini; Cinzia Parolini

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the most common health problem in developed countries, and residual risk after implementing all current therapies is still high. Permanent changes in lifestyle may be hard to achieve and people may not always be motivated enough to make the recommended modifications. Emerging research has explored the application of natural food-based strategies in disease management. In recent years, much focus has been placed on the beneficial effects of fish consumption. Many...

  5. Associations of cardiovascular risk factors in Al Ain- United Arab Emirates

    OpenAIRE

    Nazirudeen Mohammad K; Ahmed Nader M; Omar Aziza O; Jaber Tariq M; Nagelkerke Nico JD; Revel Anthony D; Baynouna Latifa M; Al Sayed Mamdouh F; Nour Fuad A; Abdouni Sameh

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Over the last 30 years the citizens of the United Arab Emirates have experienced major changes in life-style secondary to increased affluence. Currently, 1 in 5 adults have diabetes mellitus, but the associations (clustering) among risk factors, as well as the relevance of the concept of the metabolic syndrome, in this population is unknown. Aim To investigate the prevalence and associations among cardiovascular risk factors in this population, and explore to what extent a...

  6. Cholesterol and lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000099.htm Cholesterol and lifestyle To use the sharing features on ... Stroke Serious heart or blood vessel disease Your Cholesterol Numbers All men should have their blood cholesterol ...

  7. [CHANGES IN LIFESTYLE FACTORS AFFECT THE LEVELS OF NEUROPEPTIDES, INVOLVED IN THE CONTROL OF EATING BEHAVIOR, INSULIN RESISTANCE AND LEVEL OF CHRONIC SYSTEMIC INFLAMMATION IN YOUNG OVERWEIGHT PERSONS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Yu; Mamontova, T; Baranova, A; Vesnina, L; Kaidashev, I

    2015-11-01

    The continuous rise of overweight and obesity is a major concern for present and future healthcare management. The aim of our study was to evaluate the influence of lifestyle changes on central regulatory mechanisms of maintaining energy homeostasis, insulin resistance and chronic systemic inflammation in 18-25 year old overweight patients. The anthropometric measurements were done for each patient, including body weight, height, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist to hip ratio, and body mass index (BMI). Patients were divided into two groups according to their BMI. 20 males and 21 females with BMI > 25 kg/m2 were included in the first, study, group. The second, control, group consisted of 16 males and 11 females with BMI - 18.5 - 24.9 kg/m 2. Lipid profile, fasting glucose and insulin levels, HOMA-IR, TNF-α, ceruloplasmin, neuropeptides Agouti-related protein - AgRP and kokain- and amphetamine-mediated transcript - CART were examined at the beginning of the study (Day 1) and after 10 week treatment period (Day 70). During the 10 week treatment period, people in the study group underwent physical exercise programs of 40-60 minute duration three times per week, and brisk walking during the remaining days. The mean calorie expenditure during the exercise was 500 kcal/day. Each patient in the study group was given balanced, healthy diet with 20% calorie restriction from baseline diet. Our study reveled that negative energy balance caused a statistically significant decrease in AgRP, reduction of visceral fat stores, increase of HDL, reduction of TNF-α and dissolution of insulin resistance signs. Significant but not statistically significant reduction of CART level was observed after increased physical activity program and calorie restriction diet, which might play an important role in the mechanism of decreasing weight. However, further investigations are required in order to determine its place in body weight regulation. PMID:26656551

  8. Insulin Resistance, Dyslipidemia and Cardiovascular Changes in a Group of Obese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Pires

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity-related comorbidities are present in young obese children, providing a platform for early adult cardiovascular disorders. Objectives: To compare and correlate markers of adiposity to metabolic disturbances, vascular and cardiac morphology in a European pediatric obese cohort. Methods: We carried out an observational and transversal analysis in a cohort consisting of 121 obese children of both sexes, between the ages of 6 and 17 years. The control group consisted of 40 children with normal body mass index within the same age range. Markers of adiposity, plasma lipids and lipoproteins, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, common carotid artery intima-media thickness and left ventricular diameters were analyzed. Results: There were statistically significant differences between the control and obese groups for the variables analyzed, all higher in the obese group, except for age, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and adiponectin, higher in the control group. In the obese group, body mass index was directly correlated to left ventricular mass (r=0.542; p=0.001, the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (r=0.378; p=<0.001 and mean common carotid artery intima-media thickness (r=0.378; p=<0.001. In that same group, insulin resistance was present in 38.1%, 12.5% had a combined dyslipidemic pattern, and eccentric hypertrophy was the most common left ventricular geometric pattern. Conclusions: These results suggest that these markers may be used in clinical practice to stratify cardiovascular risk, as well as to assess the impact of weight control programs.

  9. Cardiovascular risk assessment - From individual risk prediction to estimation of global risk and change in risk in the population

    OpenAIRE

    Batsis John A; Lopez-Jimenez Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death and risk prediction formulae such as the Framingham Risk Score have been developed to easily identify patients at high risk that may require therapeutic interventions. Discussion Using cardiovascular risk formulae at a population level to estimate and compare average cardiovascular risk among groups has been recently proposed as a way to facilitate surveillance of net cardiovascular risk and target public health inte...

  10. Effect of low-glycemic load diet on changes in cardiovascular risk factors in poorly controlled diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Afaghi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One dietary strategy aimed at improving both diabetes control and control of cardiovascular risk factors is the use of low glycemic index diets. These diets have been reported to be beneficial in controlling diabetes, and also increase high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, lower serum triglyceride, and reduce glycated protein. Aim: Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect of a low glycemic index-low glycemic load (GL = 67-77 diet on lipids and blood glucose of poorly controlled diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: In an intervention study, 100 poorly controlled diabetic patients (age 52.8 ± 4.5 years who were taking insulin or on oral medication underwent administration of low GL diet (GL = 67-77; energy = 1800-2200 kcal, total fat = 36%, fat derived from olive oil and nuts 15%, carbohydrate = 41%, protein = 22% for 10 weeks. Patients were recommended to follow their regular lifestyle. Total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL, HDL, triglyceride, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, weight, and body mass index (BMI were measured before and 10 weeks after the intervention. Results: Before intervention, initial blood cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were 205.9 ± 21.6 and 181.5 ± 22.2, respectively, and were reduced to 182.6 ± 18.2 and 161.6 ± 16.7, respectively, after 10 weeks intervention (P < 0.001. LDL reduced and HDL increased significantly. The HbA1c percentage reduced by 12% (from 8.85 ± 0.22% to 7.81 ± 0.27% (P < 0.001, and also their weight significantly reduced from 74.0 ± 5 kg to 70.7 ± 4.6 kg (P < 0.001. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that low GL diet having lower carbohydrate amount and higher fat content is an appropriate strategy in blood lipid and glucose response control of poorly controlled diabetic patients.

  11. Heat-related mortality projections for cardiovascular and respiratory disease under the changing climate in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiantian; Ban, Jie; Horton, Radley M.; Bader, Daniel A.; Huang, Ganlin; Sun, Qinghua; Kinney, Patrick L.

    2015-08-01

    Because heat-related health effects tend to become more serious at higher temperatures, there is an urgent need to determine the mortality projection of specific heat-sensitive diseases to provide more detailed information regarding the variation of the sensitivity of such diseases. In this study, the specific mortality of cardiovascular and respiratory disease in Beijing was initially projected under five different global-scale General Circulation Models (GCMs) and two Representative Concentration Pathways scenarios (RCPs) in the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s compared to the 1980s. Multi-model ensembles indicated cardiovascular mortality could increase by an average percentage of 18.4%, 47.8%, and 69.0% in the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s under RCP 4.5, respectively, and by 16.6%,73.8% and 134% in different decades respectively, under RCP 8.5 compared to the baseline range. The same increasing pattern was also observed in respiratory mortality. The heat-related deaths under the RCP8.5 scenario were found to reach a higher number and to increase more rapidly during the 21st century compared to the RCP4.5 scenario, especially in the 2050s and the 2080s. The projection results show potential trends in cause-specific mortality in the context of climate change, and provide support for public health interventions tailored to specific climate-related future health risks.

  12. Heat-Related Mortality Projections for Cardiovascular and Respiratory Disease Under the Changing Climate in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiantian; Ban, Jie; Horton, Radley M.; Bader, Daniel A.; Huang, Ganlin; Sun, Qinghua; Kinney, Patrick L.

    2015-01-01

    Because heat-related health effects tend to become more serious at higher temperatures, there is an urgent need to determine the mortality projection of specific heat-sensitive diseases to provide more detailed information regarding the variation of the sensitivity of such diseases. In this study, the specific mortality of cardiovascular and respiratory disease in Beijing was initially projected under five different global-scale General Circulation Models (GCMs) and two Representative Concentration Pathways scenarios (RCPs) in the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s compared to the 1980s. Multi-model ensembles indicated cardiovascular mortality could increase by an average percentage of 18.4 percent, 47.8 percent, and 69.0 percent in the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s under RCP 4.5, respectively, and by 16.6 percent, 73.8 percent and 134 percent in different decades respectively, under RCP 8.5 compared to the baseline range. The same increasing pattern was also observed in respiratory mortality. The heat-related deaths under the RCP 8.5 scenario were found to reach a higher number and to increase more rapidly during the 21st century compared to the RCP4.5 scenario, especially in the 2050s and the 2080s. The projection results show potential trends in cause-specific mortality in the context of climate change, and provide support for public health interventions tailored to specific climate-related future health risks.

  13. Sudden Death Due to Association between NAFLD and Cardiovascular Changes in a 37-Year-Old Man: a Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, Maryam; Mehrpisheh, Shahrokh; Memarian, Azadeh; Balvayeh, Payam

    2016-04-01

    Fatty liver disease (FLD) is the most prevalent form of liver disease worldwide. Overnutrition can induce nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a spectrum of conditions ranging from simple steatosis [or nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL)] to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. Some of the epidemiological and pathological studies have also suggested an association between the presence of fatty liver and sudden death. A 37-year-old man was found dead when he was asleep in the bed at home. According to his family, he was single and a costermonger. He was not an athlete, and there was no history of any physical and mental disorder. He was not addicted and did not use any drugs or alcohol. The positive points, in this case, were: a large heart with mild coronary stenosis and steatohepatitis in autopsy and sudden death. Since steatohepatitis did not have any complication such as fat embolism, it can be concluded that the combination of steatohepatitis and cardiovascular disorder led to sudden unexpected death. Heart more than 450 gr is susceptible to arrhythmia, and fatty liver disease can cause cardiovascular changes. PMID:27309272

  14. A Pilot Study of a Peer-Group Lifestyle Intervention Enhanced With mHealth Technology and Social Media for Adults With Serious Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Naslund, John A; Shevenell, Megan; Kinney, Elizabeth; Bartels, Stephen J

    2016-06-01

    This pilot study examined the preliminary effectiveness of a peer-group lifestyle intervention enhanced with mobile health technology and social media for obese individuals with serious mental illness. Thirty-two participants with a body mass index of 30 or higher received a 24-week intervention designed to facilitate peer support for lifestyle change through experiential learning and use of wearable activity tracking devices, smartphone applications, and Facebook to reinforce physical activity, healthy eating, and group participation between sessions. The primary outcome was weight loss. Secondary measures included fitness and participants' perceptions of peer-group support. Most participants (72%) lost weight, including 28% achieving clinically significant weight loss, and 17% of participants showed clinically significant improvements in cardiovascular fitness. Weight loss was associated with perceived peer-group support. This evaluation demonstrated the preliminary effectiveness of a potentially scalable peer-group lifestyle intervention delivered in community mental health settings for obese individuals with serious mental illness. PMID:27233056

  15. A lifestyle program of exercise and weight loss is effective in preventing and treating type 2 diabetes mellitus: Why are programs not more available?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ades, Philip A

    2015-11-01

    There is substantial evidence that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can be prevented in high-risk individuals by a lifestyle program of regular exercise and weight reduction. Additionally, there is emerging evidence that new onset T2DM (insurance companies generally do not provide coverage for behavioral weight loss programs to prevent or treat T2DM. Consequently, physicians caring for individuals with T2DM may find it much easier to start a chronic glucose lowering medication rather than attempting to motivate and support patients through long-term behavior change. The cardiac rehabilitation model of disease management, with a network of over 2000 programs in the U.S., is well suited to deliver medically-supervised lifestyle programs. National organizations such as the American Diabetes Association and the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation should support greater availability and use of lifestyle programs for T2DM treatment and prevention. PMID:25818810

  16. Continued improvement of cardiovascular mortality in Hungary - impact of increased cardio-metabolic prescriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozan Peter

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the last 35 years the poor ranking of Hungary on the list of life expectancy at birth among European countries, has not changed. In 1970 our lag behind the leading European countries was the smallest. The gap was growing between 1970 and 1993 but from 1994 onwards the life expectancy at birth in Hungary has increased continuously and somewhat faster than in other European countries. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between decreasing cardiovascular mortality rates, as a main cause of death and the increase in cardio-metabolic prescriptions and possible changes in lifestyle behavior. Methods Analyses were conducted on national data concerning cardiovascular mortality and the number of cardio-metabolic drug prescription per capita. The association between yearly rates of cardiovascular events and changes in antihypertensive, antilipidemic and antidiabetic prescription rates was analyzed. The changes in other cardiovascular risk factors, like lifestyle were also considered. Results We observed a remarkable decline of mortality due to stroke and acute myocardial infarction (AMI. The fall was significantly associated with all prescription rates. The proportion of each treatment type responsible for suppression of specific mortality rates is different. All treatment types comparably improved stroke mortality, while antilipidemic therapy improved AMI outcome. Conclusions These results emphasize the importance of a comprehensive strategy that maximizes the population coverage of effective treatments. Hungary appears to be at the beginning of the fourth stage of epidemiologic transition, i.e. it has entered the stage of delayed chronic noninfectious diseases.

  17. Expanding the definition of hypertension to incorporate global cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Nitin; Black, Henry R

    2006-10-01

    Recent epidemiologic analyses have changed the way that hypertension is viewed. Cardiovascular risk has been found to be elevated at levels of blood pressure previously believed to be normal and not imparting additional risk. Furthermore, the approach to hypertension has been shifted from viewing and treating it in isolation to a more comprehensive approach that incorporates a focus on global cardiovascular risk and the risk factors commonly associated with having an elevated blood pressure. However, control rates not only for hypertension but also for associated risk factors, such as hyperlipidemia and diabetes, remain abysmal, providing an even greater challenge to providers of care. To change this alarming trend, physicians must become aggressive in using the available armamentarium of lifestyle modifications and drugs in treating hypertension and other risk factors that increase the burden of atherosclerosis. PMID:16965724

  18. Structural and functional cardiac changes in myotonic dystrophy type 1: a cardiovascular magnetic resonance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermans Mieke CE

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (MD1 is a neuromuscular disorder with potential involvement of the heart and increased risk of sudden death. Considering the importance of cardiomyopathy as a predictor of prognosis, we aimed to systematically evaluate and describe structural and functional cardiac alterations in patients with MD1. Methods Eighty MD1 patients underwent physical examination, electrocardiography (ECG, echocardiography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR. Blood samples were taken for determination of NT-proBNP plasma levels and CTG repeat length. Results Functional and structural abnormalities were detected in 35 patients (44%. Left ventricular systolic dysfunction was found in 20 cases, left ventricular dilatation in 7 patients, and left ventricular hypertrophy in 6 patients. Myocardial fibrosis was seen in 10 patients (12.5%. In general, patients had low left ventricular mass indexes. Right ventricular involvement was uncommon and only seen together with left ventricular abnormalities. Functional or structural cardiac involvement was associated with age (p = 0.04, male gender (p Conclusions CMR can be useful to detect early structural and functional myocardial abnormalities in patients with MD1. Myocardial involvement is strongly associated with conduction abnormalities, but a normal ECG does not exclude myocardial alterations. These findings lend support to the hypothesis that MD1 patients have a complex cardiac phenotype, including both myocardial and conduction system alteration.

  19. Lifestyle modifications for GDM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Atul; Ahuja, Kamlesh

    2016-09-01

    Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing worldwide more so in Southeast Asian countries like India and Pakistan. 1 GDM is associated with various adverse foetal and maternal effects. The management of GDM aims at reducing blood glucose to reduce maternal and foetal morbidity and mortality. Various studies have shown that lifestyle modifications are an important tool for reducing blood glucose levels in patients with GDM. Lifestyle modifications consist of dietary modifications and daily physical activity. Dietary modifications aim to achieve glycaemic control by providing adequate calories to the mother and foetus. Exercise is an obvious adjunct to dietary modifications for management of GDM. Therefore the purpose of this review is to summarize the benefits of lifestyle interventions in patients with GDM. PMID:27582149

  20. Lifestyle Journalism: Blurring boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    From, Unni

    2013-01-01

    Lifestyle journalism has experienced enormous growth in the media over the past two decades, but scholars in the fields of journalism and communication studies have so far paid relatively little attention to a field that is still sometimes seen as "not real journalism". There is now an urgent need......, social and cultural tensions within it. Taking a comparative view, the collection includes studies covering four continents, including countries such as Australia, China, Norway, Denmark, Singapore, the UK and the USA. While keeping the broader lifestyle field in mind, the chapters focus on a variety of...... sub-fields such as travel, music, food, health, fashion and personal technology journalism. This volume provides a fascinating account of the different facets of lifestyle journalism, and charts the way forward for a more sustained analysis of the field. This book was originally published as a special...

  1. Five-year change in physical activity is associated with changes in cardiovascular disease risk factors: the Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aadahl, Mette; von Huth Smith, L; Pisinger, Charlotte;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether five-year changes in self-reported physical activity level were associated with changes in waist circumference, weight, serum lipids and blood pressure. METHODS: In the Inter99 study (1999-2006) in Copenhagen, Denmark, 4039 men and women (30-60 years) answered quest....... Change in physical activity level induced a significant change in HDL concentration in men only. Women's use of hormone replacement therapy may partly explain this gender difference....

  2. Health lifestyles in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; James-Hawkins, Laurie; Lawrence, Elizabeth; Fomby, Paula

    2014-12-01

    This study integrates two important developments, the concept of health lifestyles (which has focused on adults and adolescents) and the increased attention to early childhood. We introduce the concept of children's health lifestyles, identifying differences from adult health lifestyles and articulating intergenerational transmission and socialization processes shaping children's health lifestyles. Using the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001-2007; N ≈ 6,150), latent class analyses identify predominant health lifestyles among U.S. preschoolers. Five distinct empirical patterns representing health lifestyles emerge, two capturing low and medium levels of overall risk across domains and three capturing domain-specific risks. Social background predicts children's health lifestyles, but lower household resources often explain these relationships. Across kindergarten measures of cognition, behavior, and health, preschool health lifestyles predict children's development even after controlling for social disadvantage and concurrent household resources. Further research on health lifestyles throughout childhood is warranted. PMID:25413801

  3. Anorexia Nervosa: A Lifestyle Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Talbot, Yves

    1983-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a real lifestyle disorder. The apparent increase in frequency has been linked to the change of position of women in society. If families have an important role to play in the maintenance of the drama, they also hold the key to its resolution. The family physician in early contact with the anorectic patient is in an important position to involve the family in therapy and maximize the chances of recovery. The steps required are reframing, preparing the family involved for fa...

  4. Traffic air pollution and mortality from cardiovascular disease and all causes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Jensen, Steen Solvang;

    2012-01-01

    Traffic air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular mortality, which might be due to co-exposure to road traffic noise. Further, personal and lifestyle characteristics might modify any association.......Traffic air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular mortality, which might be due to co-exposure to road traffic noise. Further, personal and lifestyle characteristics might modify any association....

  5. Nutritionist’s Variation in Counseling Style and the Effect on Weight Change of Patients Attending a Community Based Lifestyle Modification Program

    OpenAIRE

    Sea, Mandy M.M.; Chan, Ruth S.M.; Lok, Kris Y. W.; Jean Woo

    2010-01-01

    Information concerning the nature of nutritionist-patient relationships is very limited. This qualitative and quantitative study examined nutritionist’s skills, attributes, and beliefs towards nutrition counseling during a lifestyle modification intervention program, and whether this affected the patient’s weight outcome. 24 nutrition consultations were observed during the program and the nutritionists were interviewed for their perception on practice (n = 4). A statistically significant diff...

  6. Youth media lifestyles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kruistum, Claudia; Leseman, Paul Pm; de Haan, Mariëtte

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the concept of "media lifestyles" is adopted in order to develop a comprehensive approach toward youth engagement in communication media. We explore how 503 Dutch eighth grade students with full access to new technology combine a broad range of media by focusing on their engagement

  7. Cardiovascular risk profile: Cross-sectional analysis of motivational determinants, physical fitness and physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiers Henri

    2010-10-01

    physical activity, and the latter by physical active behavior. Physical active behavior can be predicted by intention, self-efficacy, descriptive norms and barriers. Intention to engage in physical activity by attitude, self-efficacy, descriptive norms and barriers. An important input for lifestyle changes for people with one or more cardiovascular risk factors was that for ca. 40% of the population the intention to engage in physical activity was in line with their actual physical active behavior.

  8. Effects of Lifestyle Modification on Telomerase Gene Expression in Hypertensive Patients: A Pilot Trial of Stress Reduction and Health Education Programs in African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Shanthi Duraimani; Schneider, Robert H.; Randall, Otelio S.; Nidich, Sanford I.; Shichen Xu; Muluemebet Ketete; Maxwell A Rainforth; Carolyn Gaylord-King; Salerno, John W.; John Fagan

    2015-01-01

    Background African Americans suffer from disproportionately high rates of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Psychosocial stress, lifestyle and telomere dysfunction contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. This study evaluated effects of stress reduction and lifestyle modification on blood pressure, telomerase gene expression and lifestyle factors in African Americans. Methods Forty-eight African American men and women with stage I hypertension who part...

  9. Estimating the future burden of cardiovascular disease and the value of lipid and blood pressure control therapies in China

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Warren; Peneva, Desi; Li, Jim Z; Liu, Larry Z.; Liu, Gordon; Gao, Runlin; Lakdawalla, Darius N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Lifestyle and dietary changes reflect an ongoing epidemiological transition in China, with cardiovascular disease (CVD) playing an ever-increasing role in China’s disease burden. This study assessed the burden of CVD and the potential value of lipid and blood pressure control strategies in China. Methods We estimated the likely burden of CVD between 2016 and 2030 and how expanded use of lipid lowering and blood pressure control medication would impact that burden in the next 15 yea...

  10. Correlations between Lifestyle and Ischemic Heart Disease in Young Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca IANULA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial infarction in young adults, an important public health issue, is a controversial topic with many issues left unknown. Although its prevalence is low, its consequences are disastrous, as it affects apparently healthy subjects who afterwards suffer important lifestyle changes with profound social, professional and medical implications. In this perspective, the thesis aims to analyze epidemiologic aspects regarding incidence, morbidity of myocardial infarction in young people (patients under 45 years and correlation with traditional cardiovascular risk factors: tobacco use, effort, diet, dyslipidemia, obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus. The present study is descriptive, longitudinal, ambispective: retrospective until 2004 and prospective for next 10 years, including all of the 122 patients consecutively admitted to the Cardiology Department of Bagdasar-Arseni Hospital, aged under 45 and diagnosed with AMI. These represented 9% of all patients with this diagnosis. Considering the time evolution, we can notice an alarming increase in incidence, statistically significant, (p<0,05, for the second half of the analysed time interval. The most common cardiovascular risk factors are: smoking, dyslipidemia, obesity. Diabetes mellitus and hypertension remain risk factors specific for patients over 45 years. A significant number of young patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of metabolic syndrome . Cigarette smoking is the dominant risk factor found in 88 % of patients. An increase in the incidence of smoking during the study is noticed. Dyslipidemia and obesity show a linear increase in the last decade. A statistically significant association between obesity – dyslipidemia – HTN- diabetes among young men with AMI is described . In correlation with these data, 70 % of patients enrolled in the study presented a high-calorie diet in the moment of enrollment, respectively, over 3000 kcal/day, and 63 % of the patients did not practice

  11. Mental health and healthy lifestyle

    OpenAIRE

    Busch, Markus; Hapke, Ulfert; Mensink, Gert

    2011-01-01

    This issue focuses on mental health and the connection with a healthy lifestyle. Data of the German Health Update 2009 (GEDA) show at last that a healthy lifestyle leads to less mental impairments (e.g. depression).

  12. The North Karelia lessons for prevention of cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina Laatikainen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: As a result of the high cardiovascular disease (CVD rates in Finland in late 1960’s, which became a source of national concern, a major community based programme for CVD prevention called the North Karelia project was established. Aim: The aim of the project was to carry out a programme of comprehensive community based interventions to reduce coronary heart disease (CHD mortality and morbidity.

    Methods: Using lifestyle modification methods and strategies for environmental change the programme aimed to reduce three main risk factors: smoking, elevated blood cholesterol and blood pressure. Several intervention settings and strategies in the community were used.

    Results: Since the 1970’s the CHD mortality in North Karelia has declined by more than 80%. Major reductions have been seen across the main three cardiovascular risk factors. Among both men and women, total serum cholesterol levels within the population declined by almost 20% and systolic blood pressure by about 10%. Smoking among men decreased from 52% to 33%, while among women a slight increase in smoking prevalence was recorded.

    Conclusions: The North Karelia project has shown that a comprehensive, determined, theory-based community program can have a meaningful and positive effect on risk factors and lifestyles. Furthermore, these changes are associated with favorable changes in chronic disease rates and the health of the population.

  13. Avocado Oil Supplementation Modifies Cardiovascular Risk Profile Markers in a Rat Model of Sucrose-Induced Metabolic Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Carvajal-Zarrabal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of avocado oil administration on biochemical markers of cardiovascular risk profile in rats with metabolic changes induced by sucrose ingestion. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: a control group (CG; basic diet, a sick group (MC; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution, and three other groups (MCao, MCac, and MCas; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution plus olive oil and avocado oil extracted by centrifugation or using solvent, resp.. Glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, low- and high-density lipoproteins (LDL, HDL, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL, lactic dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration were analyzed. Avocado oil reduces TG, VLDL, and LDL levels, in the LDL case significantly so, without affecting HDL levels. An effect was exhibited by avocado oil similar to olive oil, with no significant difference between avocado oil extracted either by centrifugation or solvent in myocardial injury biochemical indicators. Avocado oil decreased hs-CRP levels, indicating that inflammatory processes were partially reversed. These findings suggested that avocado oil supplementation has a positive health outcome because it reduces inflammatory events and produces positive changes in the biochemical indicators studied, related to the development of metabolic syndrome.

  14. Heat exposure, cardiovascular stress and work productivity in rice harvesters in India: implications for a climate change future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Subhashis; Sett, Moumita; Kjellstrom, Tord

    2013-01-01

    Excessive workplace heat exposures create well-known risks of heat stroke, and it limits the workers' capacity to sustain physical activity. There is very limited evidence available on how these effects reduce work productivity, while the quantitative relationship between heat and work productivity is an essential basis for climate change impact assessments. We measured hourly heat exposure in rice fields in West Bengal and recorded perceived health problems via interviews of 124 rice harvesters. In a sub-group (n = 48) heart rate was recorded every minute in a standard work situation. Work productivity was recorded as hourly rice bundle collection output. The hourly heat levels (WBGT = Wet Bulb Globe Temperature) were 26-32°C (at air temperatures of 30-38°C), exceeding international standards. Most workers reported exhaustion and pain during work on hot days. Heart rate recovered quickly at low heat, but more slowly at high heat, indicating cardiovascular strain. The hourly number of rice bundles collected was significantly reduced at WBGT>26°C (approximately 5% per°C of increased WBGT). We conclude that high heat exposure in agriculture caused heat strain and reduced work productivity. This reduction will be exacerbated by climate change and may undermine the local economy. PMID:23685851

  15. Uncomplicated hyperemesis gravidarum does not alter the course of cardiovascular changes during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Sheila Rani Kovil George; Sivalingam Nalliah

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective longitudinal study was to investigate the maternal cardiac haemodynamic and structural changes that occur in pregnancies with uncomplicated hyperemesis gravidarum in a selected Malaysian population. Nine women underwent serial echocardiography beginning at 12 weeks of gestation and throughout pregnancy at monthly intervals. Their echocardiograms were repeated at 6 and 12 weeks following delivery to reflect the pre-pregnancy haemodynam...

  16. Uncomplicated hyperemesis gravidarum does not alter the course of cardiovascular changes during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Rani Kovil George

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this prospective longitudinal study was to investigate the maternal cardiac haemodynamic and structural changes that occur in pregnancies with uncomplicated hyperemesis gravidarum in a selected Malaysian population. Nine women underwent serial echocardiography beginning at 12 weeks of gestation and throughout pregnancy at monthly intervals. Their echocardiograms were repeated at 6 and 12 weeks following delivery to reflect the pre-pregnancy haemodynamic state. Cardiac output was measured by continuous wave Doppler at the aortic valve. Interventricular septum thickness was determined by M- mode echocardiography and ventricular diastolic function by assessing flow at the mitral valve with Doppler recording. Cardiac output showed an increase of 32.9% at 36 weeks and maintained till 40 weeks of gestation. Heart rate increased from 79 ± 6 to 96 ± 8 beats/ min at 36 weeks. Stroke volume increased by 16.4 % at 40 weeks of gestation when compared to the baseline value. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure did not appreciably change but showed a lower reading during the mid-trimester period. Early inflow velocity of left ventricle did not show a rise while peak atrial velocity showed an increasing trend; thus the ratio of early inflow to peak atrial transport showed a declining trend from early pregnancy to term. End diastolic dimension of left ventricle and interventricular septum thickness showed an increased value at term. Uncomplicated hyperemesis gravidarum did not alter the haemodynamic changes throughout pregnancy and concur with established data for normal pregnancy

  17. Subclinical cardiovascular changes in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Nasser, Yasser; Moura, Marta C; Mertens, Luc; McCrindle, Brian W; Parekh, Rulan S; Ng, Vicky L; Church, Peter C; Mouzaki, Marialena

    2016-06-01

    CV disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality following solid organ transplantation in adults. While the prevalence of multiple cardiometabolic risk factors is increased in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients, it is not clear whether they have subclinical CV changes. cIMT, central pWV, and CAC are indicative of subclinical CV disease, and, in adults, predict future CV events. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the prevalence of subclinical CV changes, as measured by cIMT, pWV, and CAC among pediatric solid organ transplant recipients. We searched MEDLINE(®) and EMBASE and conducted meta-analysis for studies that evaluated cIMT, central pWV, and CAC among pediatric solid organ transplant recipients (kidney, lung, intestine and liver). The search identified nine eligible studies that included a total of 259 patients and 685 healthy controls. Eight studies reported on kidney transplant recipients and one study on a combined cohort of kidney and liver transplant recipients. The mean cIMT of transplant recipients was significantly higher than that of healthy controls (mean difference = 0.05 mm, 95% CI 0.02-0.07; p transplant recipients compared to healthy controls. No studies assessing for CAC were found. There were limited data regarding subclinical CV disease following pediatric solid organ transplantation. In conclusion, kidney transplantation in childhood is associated with a higher prevalence of subclinical CV changes compared to healthy children. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether children have increased CV morbidity and mortality after transplantation. PMID:26890272

  18. Electrocardiographic Changes in Certain Cardiovascular Physiological and Pathological Settings. Impact on Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar Simov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Review on electrocardiographic changes provoked by aging, diagnostic tests, cardiac surgery, hemodialysis, diabetes, etc., is the objective of the current material. Several electrocardiographic (ECG parameters that are well known risk markers of arrhythmias, incidental heart failure and sudden cardiac death (SCD are discussed: QRS amplitude, QRS morphology, QRS duration, QRS alternans, T-wave amplitude, T-wave morphology, T-wave alternans, negative T-waves, 3D-spatial angle between maximal QRS and T vectors of the vectorcardiographic loops, ST-segment elevation, QT-interval dispersion, and heart rate. All reviewed parameters are compared with the results on the ECG-alterations, induced by coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG surgery. Two parameters showed an improvement in the patients' condition: QRS-T angle and cardiac autonomic innervation while two others (T-wave alternans and heart rate indicated deterioration. We tend to assume that the deterioration in this early post-operative period is an effect of the post-surgery trauma. We speculate that this effect will fade away in a period of a month and more after surgery, and we intend to conduct such a research in the future. The analysis of ECG's changes will help to better assess the impact of the CABG surgery.

  19. Lifestyle and diet

    OpenAIRE

    Opie, Lionel H

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Currently, there is widespread interest in many different diets. The best-known diets include the New Atkins diet in the USA, the Dukan diet in France, and in South Africa the Noakes diet. Two different approaches have emerged, one focusing on a life-long healthy lifestyle and the other emphasising weight loss. These are in fact complementary aims, as will be reviewed and reconciled. Furthermore, besides the dietary approach, there is a valid case for added drug therapy for selected ...

  20. GRYPHON : Airborne lifestyle concept

    OpenAIRE

    Evers, Erik

    2014-01-01

    The result of the project, the Gryphon, is a helicopter concept designed for private use. The intention of the project has been to investigate how safe, personal airborne mobility could be an attractive transportation alternative in the future. As an aspirational concept the goal has been to inspire and show an exciting way to enjoy a modern, sustainable lifestyle close to nature without the need for conventional infrastructure.

  1. Lifestyles of plant viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Roossinck, Marilyn J.

    2010-01-01

    The vast majority of well-characterized eukaryotic viruses are those that cause acute or chronic infections in humans and domestic plants and animals. However, asymptomatic persistent viruses have been described in animals, and are thought to be sources for emerging acute viruses. Although not previously described in these terms, there are also many viruses of plants that maintain a persistent lifestyle. They have been largely ignored because they do not generally cause disease. The persisten...

  2. Change in DASH diet score and cardiovascular risk factors in youth with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus: The SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, T.L.; Crandell, J. L.; Bell, R. A.; Mayer-Davis, E J; Dabelea, D.; Liese, A D

    2013-01-01

    Youth with diabetes are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet has been shown to improve CVD risk. In this study, we evaluated whether changes in diet quality as characterized by DASH are associated with changes in CVD risk factors in youth with diabetes over time. Longitudinal mixed models were applied to data from 797 participants in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study representing three time points: base...

  3. Primary care nurses struggle with lifestyle counseling in diabetes care: a qualitative analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Elwyn Glyn; van der Weijden Trudy; Braspenning Jozé; Jansink Renate; Grol Richard

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Patient outcomes are poorly affected by lifestyle advice in general practice. Promoting lifestyle behavior change require that nurses shift from simple advice giving to a more counseling-based approach. The current study examines which barriers nurses encounter in lifestyle counseling to patients with type 2 diabetes. Based on this information we will develop an implementation strategy to improve lifestyle behavior change in general practice. Method In a qualitative semi-s...

  4. Lifestyle and Depression among Hong Kong Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teris Cheung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent longitudinal data suggest a close association between depression and lifestyle. Little work to date has estimated the prevalence of depression in the nursing workforce in China, nor considered what lifestyle factors might be correlated with it—a gap filled by the present study. The study’s web-based cross-sectional survey solicited data from qualified nurses aged between 21 and 65 registered with the Hong Kong Nursing Council. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 was used to measure 850 nurses for depression, anxiety and symptoms of stress; a generalized linear regression model examined associations between lifestyle factors and depression. Mean depression symptom scores show a downward linear trend for male and female participants. Gender and age, however, did not emerge as significant predictors of depression. Three lifestyles factors (sleep, entertainment and hobbies showed a significant association with depression. Nurses should make therapeutic lifestyle changes to improve their work-life balance and safeguard their functioning at work and personal well-being.

  5. Longitudinal associations between lifestyle and vitamin D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Thuesen, Betina Heinsbæk;

    2016-01-01

    Several lifestyle factors have been found to be associated with vitamin D status in cross-sectional studies, but it is not clear whether a change in these factors can actually affect the vitamin D level. We investigated the association between repeated measurements of physical activity, body mass...... baseline (1999-2001) and 5-year follow-up. In a subsample, 25-OH-D was also measured at 1- and 3-year follow-ups. We used mixed models to examine the association between repeated measurements of lifestyle factors and 25-OH-D levels. In multivariable analyses of repeated measurements, the difference in 25...

  6. A wize mirror for lifestyle improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassi, Antonio; Colantonio, Sara; Giorgi, Daniela; Magrini, Massimo; Martinelli, Massimo; Pascali, Maria Antonietta; Righi, Marco; Salvetti, Ovidio

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the problem of fostering lifestyle changes towards healthier habits via tailored user guidance. We present a novel multisensory device, the Wize Mirror, which will be able to detect semeiotic face signs related to cardio-metabolic risk, and encourage users to reduce their risk by improving their lifestyle. Offering a proper user guidance requires solving three main issues: user profiling, definition of a wellness index based on biophysical data, and personalized guidance by means of coaching and supportive messages. For each of these issues, the solutions proposed in the EU FP7 Project SEMEOTICONS are presented, highlighting their advantages with respect to the state-of-the-art. PMID:25488245

  7. Relationship between changes in coronary atherosclerotic plaque burden measured by intravascular ultrasound and cardiovascular disease outcomes: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Carol; Quek, Ruben G W; Deshpande, Sohan; Worthy, Gill; Ross, Janine; Kleijnen, Jos; Gandra, Shravanthi R; Kassahun, Helina; Wong, Nathan D; Nicholls, Stephen J

    2016-06-01

    Objective Evidence from coronary imaging studies suggests an association between increased atherosclerotic plaque burden and cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes. A systematic review was performed to evaluate the relationship between coronary atherosclerotic plaque burden changes measured by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and CVD outcomes. Research design and methods Rigorous systematic review methodology was used to identify prospective studies of any design assessing the relationship between atherosclerotic plaque volume (percentage or total atheroma volume [PAV or TAV]) changes and CVD outcomes, using multivariable analyses. Main outcome measures CVD outcomes including major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs). Results Literature searches from inception to February 2015 retrieved 6958 records after de-duplication. From these four studies (14 papers) were included. One study reported a significantly lower rate of CVD outcomes associated with a greater reduction in PAV (hazard ratio [HR] 0.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.07-0.83). One study reported that large plaque volume was significantly associated with a greater risk of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) (HR 1.73, 95% CI: 1.02-2.96). Similarly, a third study reported a significant increase in MACE with an increase in baseline PAV (HR 1.51, 95% CI: 1.06-2.51). Only one potentially inadequately powered Japanese study did not find a statistically significant relationship between PAV changes and MACE. Conclusions The current evidence suggests an independent and statistically significant association between increases in coronary atherosclerotic plaque burden measured by IVUS and greater long-term risk of future CVD outcomes. However, this evidence comes from a limited number of studies which mainly focus on Japanese populations and populations after PCI. Further large prospective studies are required to confirm these findings. PMID:26949994

  8. The association between changes in pressure pain sensitivity and changes in cardiovascular physiological factors associated with persistent stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballegaard, Søren; Petersen, Pernille B.; Harboe, Gitte S.;

    2014-01-01

    -two office workers with an elevated PPS (≥ 60 arbitrary units) as a sign of increased level of persistent stress, completed a single-blinded cluster randomized controlled trial. The active treatment was a PPS (self-measurement)-guided stress management programme. Primary endpoints: Blood pressure (BP), heart...... rate (HR) and work of the heart measured as Pressure-Rate-Product (PRP); Secondary endpoints: Other features of the metabolic syndrome. Results. PPS decreased and changes in PPS after the intervention period were significantly associated with HR, PRP, body mass index (BMI) and visceral fat index (all...

  9. Considering statins for cholesterol-reduction in children if lifestyle and diet changes do not improve their health: a review of the risks and benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Clodagh SM O’Gorman; Michael B O’Neill; Louise S. Conwell

    2010-01-01

    Clodagh SM O’Gorman1, Michael B O’Neill2, Louise S Conwell31Graduate Entry Medical School, University of Limerick, Ireland, and Mid-Western Regional Hospital, Limerick, Ireland; 2Mayo General Hospital, Castlebar, Ireland; 3Royal Children’s Hospital, Brisbane, Discipline of Pediatrics and Child Health, and School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, AustraliaAbstract: Children who appear healthy, even if they have one or more recognized cardiovascular ...

  10. Acute effect of caffeine supplementation on performance of muscular strength and cardiovascular changes during resistance training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Materko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the acute effect of caffeine on the muscular strength performance in addition to the possible hemodynamic changes during a strength training session. Thirteen strength training experienced male subjects were submitted to a protocol of three sets of 10RM for bench press (BP, pull press (PP, leg extension (LE and leg curl (LC, according to three conditions: no supplementation (C; 250 mg of caffeine supplementation (S; placebo (P. All subjects were submitted to an anthropometric evaluation, followed by a 10RM familiarization test. Hemodynamic measurements – heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP – were carried out before, during and after each session. Holding 48 hours time intervals, participants were submitted to three randomly presented 10RM tests according to C, S and P conditions. For conditions S and C, significant differences were found in BP and LE. No significant differences in HR and BP were found. Results seem to suggest an ergogenic effect of caffeine on submaximal muscle strength during a session of strength training.

  11. Living in the "land of no"? Consumer perceptions of healthy lifestyle portrayals in direct-to-consumer advertisements of prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosch, Dominick L; May, Suepattra G; Tietbohl, Caroline; Pagán, José A

    2011-10-01

    Direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs is the most common form of health communication Americans are exposed to. The effects of DTCA on prescription requests and utilization are well established, but little is known about the effects of advertisements on health behaviors. Many advertisements, especially those promoting drugs to prevent or treat cardiovascular disease, refer to lifestyle change as a way to improve health. However, no studies have examined how consumers interpret these frequently ambiguous messages. We used in-depth interviews with 45 participants, recruited in Los Angeles, USA between April 2007 and July 2008, to explore perceptions of 5 advertisements for drugs that prevent or treat cardiovascular disease (Lipitor(®), Vytorin(®), Zetia(®), Caduet(®), Plavix(®)). We found that participants interpreted advertising messages within their own life context and identified four trajectories for enacting behavior change versus taking prescription drugs: Negotiators, Avoiders, Embracers and Jumpstarters. Underlying these four typologies were beliefs about whether lifestyle change was something an individual could do or was willing to do. Our results also show how an advertisement narrative could potentially shift perceptions of causality by suggesting that high cholesterol is primarily hereditary, thereby obviating the need for lifestyle change. Some participants stated that they would prefer lifestyle change to a particular prescription drug, but felt that others would be more likely to embrace taking a prescription drug. This "Third Person Effect" may be masking participants' intentions by identifying a more socially desirable route to therapeutic change. These findings raise questions about how the typologies are distributed in the population and how advertising may shift consumers' beliefs over time, thereby contributing to new forms of medicalization. Effective regulation of DTCA may require expanding scrutiny beyond the

  12. Heterogeneity in cost-effectiveness of lifestyle counseling for metabolic syndrome risk groups -primary care patients in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Feldman, Inna; Hellström, Lennart; Johansson, Pia

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical trials have indicated that lifestyle interventions for patients with lifestyle-related cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors (the metabolic syndrome) are cost-effective. However, patient characteristics in primary care practice vary considerably, i.e. they exhibit heterogeneity in risk factors. The cost-effectiveness of lifestyle interventions is likely to differ over heterogeneous patient groups. METHODS: Patients (62 men, 80 women) in the Kalmar Metabolic Syndrome Pr...

  13. Interactions between genetic variants of folate metabolism genes and lifestyle affect plasma homocysteine concentrations in the Boston Puerto Rican Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results of studies investigating relationships between lifestyle factors and elevated plasma homocysteine (Hcy), an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, are conflicting. The objective of this study was to investigate genetic and lifestyle factors and their interactions on plasma Hcy c...

  14. Lifestyle influences human sperm functional quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mnica Ferreira; Joana Vieira Silva; Vladimiro Silva; Antnio Barros; Margarida Fardilha

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the impact of acute lifestyle changes on human sperm functional quality.Methods:In the academic festivities week, young and apparently healthy male students who voluntarily submit themselves to acute lifestyle alterations(among the potentially important variations are increase in alcohol, caffeine, and tobacco consumption and circadian rhythm shifts) were used as a model system.Sperm samples were obtained before and after the academic week and compared by traditional semen analysis(n=54) and also tested for cleavedPolyADP-ribose polymerase(PARP) protein, an apoptotic marker(n=35).Results:Acute lifestyle changes that occurred during the academic week festivities(the study model) resulted both in a significant reduction in sperm quality, assessed by basic semen analysis(decrease in sperm concentration, total number of spermatozoa, progressive and non-progressive motility and increase in sperm morphological abnormalities) and by an increase in the expression of the apoptotic marker, cleavedPARP, in the ejaculate.Conclusions:Acute lifestyle changes have clear deleterious effects on sperm quality.We propose cleavedPARP as a novel molecular marker, valuable for assessing spermquality in parallel with the basic semen analysis method.

  15. [Diet as a cardiovascular risk factor in family medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman Marković, Biserka; Katić, Milica; Vrdoljak, Davorka; Kranjcević, Ksenija; Jasna, Vucak; Ivezić Lalić, Dragica

    2010-05-01

    Although Mediterranean country by its geographic position, according to cardiovascular mortality (CVM) rate, Croatia belongs to Central-East European countries with high CV mortality. Prevention by changing nutritional habits is population (public health programmes) or individually targeted. General practitioner (GP) provides care for whole person in its environment and GP's team plays a key role in achieving lifestyle changes. GPs intervention is individually/group/family targeted by counselling or using printed leaflets (individual manner, organized programmes). Adherence to lifestyle changes is not an easy task; it is higher when recommendations are simple and part of individually tailored programme with follow- ups included. Motivation is essential, but obstacles to implementation (by patient and GPs) are also important. Nutritional intervention influences most important CV risk factors: cholesterol level, blood pressure (BP), diabetes. Restriction in total energy intake with additional nutritional interventions is recommended. Lower animal fat intake causes CVM reduction by 12%, taking additional serving of fruit/day by 7% and vegetables by 4%. Restriction of dietary salt intake (3 g/day) lowers BP by 2-8 mm Hg, CVM by 16%. Nutritional intervention gains CHD and stroke redact in healthy adults (12%, 11% respectively). Respecting individual lifestyle and nutrition, GP should suggest both home cooking and careful food declaration reading and discourage salt adding. Recommended daily salt intake is < or =6 g. In BP lowering, salt intake restriction (10-12 to 5-6 g/day) is as efficient as taking one antihypertensive drug. Lifestyle intervention targeting nutritional habits and pharmacotherapy is the most efficient combination in CV risk factors control. PMID:20649077

  16. Nutrition and lifestyle in european adolescents: the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Luis A; Gottrand, Frédéric; Huybrechts, Inge; Ruiz, Jonatan R; González-Gross, Marcela; DeHenauw, Stefaan

    2014-09-01

    Adolescence is a critical period, because major physical and psychologic changes occur during a very short period of time. Changes in dietary habits may induce different types of nutritional disorders and are likely to track into adulthood. The aim of this review is to describe the key findings related to nutritional status in European adolescents participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study. We performed a cross-sectional study in 3528 (1845 females) adolescents aged 12.5–17.5 y. Birth weight was negatively associated with abdominal fat mass in adolescents and serum leptin concentrations (in female adolescents), providing additional evidence for a programming effect of birth weight on energy homeostasis control. Breakfast consumption was associated with lower body fat content and healthier cardiovascular profile. Adolescents eat half of the recommended amount of fruit and vegetables and less than two-thirds of the recommended amount of milk and milk products but consume more meat and meat products, fats, and sweets than recommended. For beverage consumption, sugar-sweetened beverages, sweetened milk, low-fat milk, and fruit juice provided the highest amount of energy. Although the intakes of saturated fatty acids (FAs) and salt were high, the intake of polyunsaturated FAs was low. Adolescents spent, on average, 9 h/d of their waking time (66–71% and 70–73% of the registered time in boys and girls, respectively) in sedentary activities. Factors associated with adolescents’ sedentary behavior included the following: 1) age; 2) media availability in the bedroom; 3) sleeping time; 4) breakfast consumption; and 5) season. Sedentary time was also associated with cardiovascular risk factors and bone mineral content. In European adolescents, deficient concentrations were identified for plasma folate (15%), vitamin D (15%), pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (5%), β-carotene (25%), and vitamin E (5%). Scientists and public

  17. Role of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in cardiovascular changes following chronic treatment with cocaine and testosterone: a role beyond drug seeking in addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, F C; Alves, F H F; Leão, R M; Planeta, C S; Crestani, C C

    2013-12-01

    Neural plasticity has been observed in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) following exposure to both cocaine and androgenic-anabolic steroids. Here we investigated the involvement of the BNST on changes in cardiovascular function and baroreflex activity following either single or combined administration of cocaine and testosterone for 10 consecutive days in rats. Single administration of testosterone increased values of arterial pressure, evoked rest bradycardia and reduced baroreflex-mediated bradycardia. These effects of testosterone were not affected by BNST inactivation caused by local bilateral microinjections of the nonselective synaptic blocker CoCl2. The single administration of cocaine as well as the combined treatment with testosterone and cocaine increased both bradycardiac and tachycardiac responses of the baroreflex. Cocaine-evoked baroreflex changes were totally reversed after BNST inactivation. However, BNST inhibition in animals subjected to combined treatment with cocaine and testosterone reversed only the increase in reflex tachycardia, whereas facilitation of reflex bradycardia was not affected by local BNST treatment with CoCl2. In conclusion, the present study provides the first direct evidence that the BNST play a role in cardiovascular changes associated with drug abuse. Our findings suggest that alterations in cardiovascular function following subchronic exposure to cocaine are mediated by neural plasticity in the BNST. The single treatment with cocaine and the combined administration of testosterone and cocaine had similar effects on baroreflex activity, however the association with testosterone inhibited cocaine-induced changes in the BNST control of reflex bradycardia. Testosterone-induced cardiovascular changes seem to be independent of the BNST. PMID:23994153

  18. Cardiovascular effects of phentermine and topiramate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Jens; Astrup, Arne; Engeli, Stefan;

    2014-01-01

    approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration as an adjunct to lifestyle intervention for the chronic treatment of overweight/obese adults. This review summarizes and evaluates the cardiovascular risk/benefit profile associated with phentermine and topiramate, individually and in combination...

  19. Lifestyle and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opie, Lionel H

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there is widespread interest in many different diets. The best-known diets include the New Atkins diet in the USA, the Dukan diet in France, and in South Africa the Noakes diet. Two different approaches have emerged, one focusing on a life-long healthy lifestyle and the other emphasising weight loss. These are in fact complementary aims, as will be reviewed and reconciled. Furthermore, besides the dietary approach, there is a valid case for added drug therapy for selected lipid disorders with the use statins. In addition, new drugs are emerging that in the future might eventually considerably reduce the negative health impact of coronary artery disease. PMID:25629717

  20. a lifestyle segmentation study

    OpenAIRE

    Franz, Annabell; Nowak, Beate

    2010-01-01

    Due to increasing health consciousness among consumers, there is an ever‐growing demand for food and beverages with health‐improving components. Not only ‘light’ and low fat products are in demand, but increasingly so‐called well‐being products and food which can prevent certain diseases. The German market for functional food is still growing. But who are the German functional food consumers? In an online‐survey referring to the Food‐ Related Lifestyle by BRUNSØ and GRUNERT (1995) we tried to...

  1. Silicon Valley Lifestyle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph Leu

    2005-01-01

    @@ As we embrace the rapid developments of the new media age,competitiveness in the field of internet and computer technology is an increasingly crucial factor in stimulating new business,jobs and new industry in the region.Accelerating advancements in new media,internet,software and computer technologies offer new commercial opportunities and sources of economic revenue. Silicon Valley has been a model of the new age since its existence.While the dream place not only has a unique business model,but also has a very special lifestyle.

  2. Can lifestyle modification affect men’s erectile function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehemann, Marah C.

    2016-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common condition affecting millions of men worldwide. The pathophysiology and epidemiologic links between ED and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) are well-established. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, weight reduction, dietary modification, physical activity, and psychological stress reduction have been increasingly recognized as foundational to the prevention and treatment of ED. The aim of this review is to outline behavioral choices which may increase ones risk of developing ED, to present relevant studies addressing lifestyle factors correlated with ED, and to highlight proposed mechanisms for intervention aimed at improving erectile function in men with ED. These recommendations can provide a framework for counseling patients with ED about lifestyle modification.

  3. Cardiovascular group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, Gunnar

    1989-01-01

    As a starting point, the group defined a primary goal of maintaining in flight a level of systemic oxygen transport capacity comparable to each individual's preflight upright baseline. The goal of maintaining capacity at preflight levels would seem to be a reasonable objective for several different reasons, including the maintenance of good health in general and the preservation of sufficient cardiovascular reserve capacity to meet operational demands. It is also important not to introduce confounding variables in whatever other physiological studies are being performed. A change in the level of fitness is likely to be a significant confounding variable in the study of many organ systems. The principal component of the in-flight cardiovascular exercise program should be large-muscle activity such as treadmill exercise. It is desirable that at least one session per week be monitored to assure maintenance of proper functional levels and to provide guidance for any adjustments of the exercise prescription. Appropriate measurements include evaluation of the heart-rate/workload or the heart-rate/oxygen-uptake relationship. Respiratory gas analysis is helpful by providing better opportunities to document relative workload levels from analysis of the interrelationships among VO2, VCO2, and ventilation. The committee felt that there is no clear evidence that any particular in-flight exercise regimen is protective against orthostatic hypotension during the early readaptation phase. Some group members suggested that maintenance of the lower body muscle mass and muscle tone may be helpful. There is also evidence that late in-flight interventions to reexpand blood volume to preflight levels are helpful in preventing or minimizing postflight orthostatic hypotension.

  4. Cardiovascular risk during early adult life. Risk markers among participants in "Live for Life" health promotion programme in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, L. G.; Lindstrom, K.; Lingfors, H; Bengtsson, C; Lissner, L

    1998-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To study differences in cardiovascular lifestyle risk factors and biological risk markers in early adult life, with special attention to age and sex differences. Lifestyle cardiovascular risk factors included dietary habits, physical inactivity, smoking, alcohol habits, psychosocial strain, and mental stress. Biological risk markers included anthropometric variables, arterial blood pressure, and serum cholesterol concentration. DESIGN: A combined individual and communit...

  5. Primary care nurses struggle with lifestyle counseling in diabetes care: a qualitative analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansink, R.M.E.; Braspenning, J.C.C.; Weijden, G.D.E.M. van der; Elwyn, G.; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patient outcomes are poorly affected by lifestyle advice in general practice. Promoting lifestyle behavior change require that nurses shift from simple advice giving to a more counseling-based approach. The current study examines which barriers nurses encounter in lifestyle counseling to

  6. Urban lifestyle and urban biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, L. K.; Lyytimäki, J.; Normander, B.;

    2007-01-01

    green needs of urban lifestyle in the planning process does not come by itself. Nor does finding the synergies between urban lifestyle and urban biodiversity. Careful planning including stakeholder involvement is required. In this process various mapping techniques and use of indicators can be most...... useful, both for the purpose of information collection through which linkages between urban lifestyles and biodiversity can be identified and for the purpose of stakeholder analysis and involvement....

  7. Lifestyle and cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2010-11-01

    The main behavioural and environmental risk factors for cancer mortality in the world are related to diet and physical inactivity, use of addictive substances, sexual and reproductive health, exposure to air pollution and use of contaminated needles. The population attributable fraction for all cancer sites worldwide considering the joint effect of these factors is about 35% (34 % for low-and middle-income countries and 37% for high-income countries). Seventy-one percent(71%) of lung cancer deaths are caused by tobacco use (lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death globally). The combined effects of tobacco use, low fruit and vegetable intake, urban air pollution, and indoor smoke from household use of solid fuels cause 76% of lung cancer deaths. Exposure to these behavioural and environmental factors is preventable; modifications in lifestyle could have a large impact in reducing the cancer burden worldwide (WHO, 2009). The evidence of association between lifestyle factors and cancer, as well as the main international recommendations for prevention are briefly reviewed and commented upon here. PMID:21139406

  8. Fetal cardiovascular dysfunction in intrauterine growth restriction as a predictive marker of perinatal outcome and cardiovascular disease in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz Lemini, Mónica Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Most risk factors leading to cardiovascular disease are already present in childhood and the importance of early identification of pediatric cardiovascular risk factors is now well recognized. Hypertension in the child has been associated with substantial long-term health risks and considered an indication for lifestyle modifications. Current clinical guidelines contemplate screening for hypertension in children over 3 years of age, in order to provide strategies for promoting cardiovascular ...

  9. Lifestyle and Health Risk Behaviours among Elbasan Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dashuri Cela

    2014-09-01

    CONCLUSION: In students’ lifestyle exist serious problems and these data also provide inside into ways to shape a public health response. We need to change the way society views and treats these problems.

  10. Assessment and management of lifestyle risk factors in rural and urban general practices in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passey, Megan; Fanaian, Mahnaz; Lyle, David; Harris, Mark F

    2010-01-01

    Prevention of cardiovascular disease is a major public health challenge. Many chronic health problems are amenable to lifestyle interventions, which can ameliorate progression of disease and contribute to primary prevention. Prior to a large randomised controlled trial we assessed preventive care in trial practices. General practitioners and practice nurses completed a preventive care questionnaire covering frequency of assessing and managing behavioural and physiological risk factors, which was developed from previously validated instruments. Factor analysis confirmed 10 scales. Scores for rural and urban respondents were contrasted using univariate statistics. Sixty-three general practitioners and practice nurses completed the questionnaire (27 urban and 36 rural). The clinicians reported high levels of assessment and advice for cardiovascular risk factors but less frequent referral. There were no differences between urban and rural practitioners in relation to assessment of risk or stage of change, referral or barriers to referral or management of high blood pressure. Rural practitioners had lower scores for frequency of advice, and management of obesity/overweight, pre-diabetes and high lipids. Although clinicians report frequently advising high risk patients to exercise more, there remain significant gaps in provision of dietary advice and referral. Greater attention to addressing these issues is required to maximise the potential benefits for cardiovascular disease prevention in general practice. PMID:21133303

  11. Secondary Prevention in the Clinical Management of Patients With Cardiovascular Diseases. Core Components, Standards and Outcome Measures for Referral and Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Piepoli, Massimo F.; Corra, Ugo; Adamopoulos, Stamatis; Benzer, Werner; Bjarnason-Wehrens, Birna; Cupples, Margaret; Dendale, Paul; Doherty, Patrick; Gaita, Dan; Hofer, Stefan; McGee, Hannah; Mendes, Miguel; Niebauer, Josef; Pogosova, Nana; Garcia-Porrero, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    Despite major improvements in diagnostics and interventional therapies, cardiovascular diseases remain a major health care and socio-economic burden both in western and developing countries, in which this burden is increasing in close correlation to economic growth. Health authorities and the general population have started to recognize that the fight against these diseases can only be won if their burden is faced by increasing our investment on interventions in lifestyle changes and preventi...

  12. NHS health checks through general practice: randomised trial of population cardiovascular risk reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cochrane Thomas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The global burden of the major vascular diseases is projected to rise and to remain the dominant non-communicable disease cluster well into the twenty first century. The Department of Health in England has developed the NHS Health Check service as a policy initiative to reduce population vascular disease risk. The aims of this study were to monitor population changes in cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors over the first year of the new service and to assess the value of tailored lifestyle support, including motivational interview with ongoing support and referral to other services. Methods Randomised trial comparing NHS Health Check service only with NHS Health Check service plus additional lifestyle support in Stoke on Trent, England. Thirty eight general practices and 601 (365 usual care, 236 additional lifestyle support patients were recruited and randomised independently between September 2009 and February 2010. Changes in population CVD risk between baseline and one year follow-up were compared, using intention-to-treat analysis. The primary outcome was the Framingham 10 year CVD risk score. Secondary outcomes included individual modifiable risk measures and prevalence of individual risk categories. Additional lifestyle support included referral to a lifestyle coach and free sessions as needed for: weight management, physical activity, cook and eat and positive thinking. Results Average population CVD risk decreased from 32.9% to 29.4% (p Conclusions The NHS Health Check service in Stoke on Trent resulted in significant reduction in estimated population CVD risk. There was no evidence of further benefit of the additional lifestyle support services in terms of absolute CVD risk reduction.

  13. Lifestyle and the importance of health education in the cardiac rehabilitation after myocardial revascularization surgery - doi:10.5020/18061230.2007.p213

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Gonçaleves Moura Pinheiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the treatment of ischemic cardiopathy, the prevention has a main role and the modifications in the lifestyle are indispensable for the good prognosis of the disease. The goal of the study was to describe the lifestyle regarding the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, such as smoking, alcohol consumption, dietary habits and sedentary behaviors before myocardial revascularization surgery and during the period of cardiac rehabilitation in a private institution that did not comprise structured health education activities. This was a retrospective, observational study, with a qualitative approach, held with 50 patients submitted to cardiac rehabilitation (36 men and 14 women; age 61±12.74 years. The data were collected from clinical records of the pre-cardiac rehabilitation evaluation which consisted of clinical data and information referring to the patients’ lifestyle. Amongst the most prevalent co-morbidities in the sample, there were: the hypertension (n=24; 48%, the diabetes mellitus (n=18; 36% and dyslipidemias (n=17; 34%. A high rate of smoke cessation (100% and 58% of sedentary behaviors (n=29 was observed after the cardiac surgery. This same number (n=29; 58% referred to have adhered to changes in dietary habits after the myocardial acute infarct. There was also an increase in the prevalence of alcohol consumption (n=21; 42% after myocardial revascularization. We conclude with this research that a cardiac rehabilitation program should provide to their patients, health education actions, for a necessary and real change in lifestyle habits, with the presence of a multidisciplinary team.

  14. Patient Preferences for Receiving Remote Communication Support for Lifestyle Physical Activity Behaviour Change: The Perspective of Patients with Musculoskeletal Disorders from Three Hospital Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. McPhail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined patients’ preference ratings for receiving support via remote communication to increase their lifestyle physical activity. Methods. People with musculoskeletal disorders (n=221 of 296 eligible accessing one of three clinics provided preference ratings for “how much” they wanted to receive physical activity support via five potential communication modalities. The five ratings were generated on a horizontal analogue rating scale (0 represented “not at all”; 10 represented “very much”. Results. Most (n=155, 70% desired referral to a physical activity promoting intervention. “Print and post” communications had the highest median preference rating (7/10, followed by email and telephone (both 5/10, text messaging (1/10, and private Internet-based social network messages (0/10. Desire to be referred was associated with higher preference for printed materials (coefficient = 2.739, p<0.001, telephone calls (coefficient = 3.000, p<0.001, and email (coefficient = 2.059, p=0.02. Older age was associated with lower preference for email (coefficient = −0.100, p<0.001, texting (coefficient = −0.096, p<0.001, and social network messages (coefficient = −0.065, p<0.001. Conclusion. Patients desiring support to be physically active indicated preferences for interventions with communication via print, email, or telephone calls.

  15. Lower inter-partum interval and unhealthy life-style factors are inversely associated with n-3 essential fatty acids changes during pregnancy: a prospective cohort with Brazilian women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thatiana J P Pinto

    Full Text Available To analyze serum fatty acids concentrations during healthy pregnancy and evaluate whether socioeconomic, demographic, obstetric, nutritional, anthropometric and lifestyle factors are associated with their longitudinal changes.A prospective cohort of 225 pregnant women was followed in the 5th-13th, 20th-26th and 30th-36th weeks of gestation. Serum samples were collected in each trimester of pregnancy and analyzed to determine the fatty acids composition using a high-throughput robotic direct methylation method coupled with fast gas-liquid chromatography. The independent variables comprised the subjects' socioeconomic and demographic status, obstetric history, early pregnancy body mass index (BMI, dietary and lifestyle parameters. Analyses were performed using linear mixed-effects models.The overall absolute concentrations of fatty acids increased from the 1st to the 2nd trimester and slightly increased from the 2nd to the 3rd trimester. Early pregnancy BMI, inter-partum interval and weekly fish intake were the factors associated with changes in eicosapentaenoic + docosahexaenoic acids (EPA+DHA and total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. Early pregnancy BMI, age and monthly per-capita income were inversely associated with the changes in the n-6/n-3 ratio. Alcohol consumption was positively associated with the n-6/n-3 ratio.Early pregnancy BMI was positively associated with EPA+DHA and total n-3 PUFAs, while presenting a reduced weekly fish intake and a lower inter-partum interval were associated with lower levels of n-3 PUFAs. A lower per-capita family income and a drinking habit were factors that were positively associated with a higher n-6/n-3 ratio.

  16. Diet and lifestyle: its association with cholesterol levels among Nomad tribal populations of Rajasthan

    OpenAIRE

    Bandana S

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dietary pattern and lifestyle may enhance the risk factors associated with cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Aim: This study examine the dietary pattern and other lifestyle known to be associated with threatening features related to metabolic disorders. Material and Method: 1440 subjects made up of 633 males and 807 females with age group >18 years were studied from a cluster of three districts. All subjects lived in different locations of these districts of Rajasthan. Dietar...

  17. Lifestyle and Non-Communicable Diseases: A double edged sword for future India

    OpenAIRE

    Joy Kumar Chakma; Sanjay Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Lifestyle has long been associated with the development of many chronic diseases. WHO has recognized diabetes, cardiovascular disease and stroke, cancer and chronic lung disease/COPD as major non-communicable diseases (NCDs). These major NCDs share common lifestyle related risk factors like physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, tobacco use and harmful use of alcohol. Globally, the current scenario of NCDs is the major cause of morbidity and mortality. According to WHO Report 2004, they account...

  18. Endotoxin levels correlate positively with a sedentary lifestyle and negatively with highly trained subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Oyama Lila M; Damaso Ana R; Seelaender Marília; Carnevali Luiz C; Caperuto Erico C; Souza Hélio A; Pimentel Gustavo D; Rosa Jose C; Lira Fabio S; de Mello Marco T; Santos Ronaldo V

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Introduction A sedentary lifestyle increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, obesity, and diabetes. This phenomenon is supported by recent studies suggesting a chronic, low-grade inflammation status. Endotoxin derived from gut flora may be key to the development of inflammation by stimulating the secretion of inflammatory factors. This study aimed to examine plasma inflammatory markers and endotoxin levels in individuals with a sedentary lifestyle and/or in highly trai...

  19. Lifestyle modification and endothelial function in obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, Osama

    2005-03-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic and vascular abnormalities that include central obesity, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, hypertension, dyslipidemia, hypercoagulability and an increased risk of coronary and cerebral vascular disease. These metabolic and vascular abnormalities are the main cause of cardiovascular mortality in western societies. Endothelial dysfunction, an early step in the development of atherosclerosis, has been reported in obese nondiabetic individuals and in patients with Type 2 diabetes. It has also been observed in individuals at high risk for Type 2 diabetes, including those with impaired glucose tolerance and the normoglycemic first-degree relatives of Type 2 diabetic patients. Recent evidence points to adipocytes as a complex and active endocrine tissue whose secretory products, including free fatty acids and several cytokines (i.e., leptin, adiponectin, tissue necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and resistin) play a major role in the regulation of human metabolic and vascular biology. These adipocytokines have been claimed to be the missing link between insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. Interventions designed to improve endothelial and/or adipose-tissue functions may reduce cardiovascular events in obese individuals with either the metabolic syndrome or Type 2 diabetes. Lifestyle modification in the form of caloric restriction and increased physical activity are the most common modalities used for treating those individuals at risk and is unanimously agreed to be the initial step in managing Type 2 diabetes. Several recent studies have demonstrated favorable impacts of lifestyle modifications in improving endothelial function and insulin sensitivity, in addition to altering serum levels of adipocytokines and possibly reducing cardiovascular events. This review discusses current knowledge of the role of lifestyle modifications in ameliorating cardiovascular risk in obese subjects with

  20. The level of grammar school students’ knowledge on cardiovascular disease risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaraković Milana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cardiovascular diseases are one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The atherosclerotic process in the aorta starts in childhood, while atheroclerotic changes of coronary heart vessels start in adolescence. The aim of the study was to evaluate the knowledge of the students attending all four grades of grammar school about the risk factors for cardiovascular disease, with special attention to the risk factors that can be influenced by modification of life-style. Material and Methods. Data from the entrance and exit tests were collected from 197 students attending a grammar school in Novi Sad. Chi-square test and Student T-test or Mann-Whitney U test were used to examine the statistical difference between categorized variables and the continuous variables, respectively. Results. The difference between the number of correct answers for all the students on the entrance test and exit test was statistically significant (p<0.0005 and the overall knowledge level after lectures was increased by 29.4%. The lowest level of knowledge on the entrance tests was noted among the students of the third grade of grammar school and after the lectures, the student’s knowledge level was increased by 82.3% (p<0.0005. Conclusion. Children and adolescents from Vojvodina and Serbia should be well informed about the cardiovascular disease risk factors and their prevention with special attention paid to the risk factors that can be influenced by changing lifestyle habits.

  1. Alcohol exposure leads to unrecoverable cardiovascular defects along with edema and motor function changes in developing zebrafish larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu; Gao, Aiai; Wang, Yanan; Chen, Man; Peng, Jun; Yan, Huaying; Zhao, Xin; Feng, Xizeng

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy can cause a series of developmental disorders in the fetus called FAS (fetal alcohol syndrome). In the present study we exposed zebrafish embryos to 1% and 2% alcohol and observed the morphology of heart and blood vessels during and after exposure to investigate motor function alterations, and damage and recovery to the cardiovascular system. The results showed that alcohol exposure could induce heart deformation, slower heart rate, and incomplete blood vessels and pericardium. After stopping exposure, larvae exposed to 1% alcohol could recover only in heart morphology, but larvae in 2% alcohol could not recover either morphology or function of cardiovascular system. The edema-like characteristics in the 2% alcohol group became more conspicuous afterwards, with destruction in the dorsal aorta, coarctation in segmental arteries and a decrease in motor function, implying more serious unrecoverable cardiovascular defects in the 2% group. The damaged blood vessels in the 2% alcohol group resulted in an alteration in permeability and a decrease of blood volume, which were the causes of edema in pathology. These findings contribute towards a better understanding of ethanol-induced cardiovascular abnormalities and co-syndrome in patients with FAS, and warns against excessive maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. PMID:27422904

  2. Using lifestyle medicine in U.S. health care to treat obesity: too many bariatric surgeries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trilk, Jennifer L; Kennedy, Ann Blair

    2015-01-01

    More than one-third of Americans are classified as obese. Many clinicians perform bariatric surgery (BSx) when it is said that lifestyle intervention failed. However, BSx is medically complex, with extremely variable success, certain failures, major complications, and sometimes death. Although many studies declare BSx as more effective for producing weight loss than nonsurgical lifestyle management, these conclusions are flawed when lifestyle management between cohorts are not identical. Lifestyle behavior change is essential to success for both surgical and nonsurgical weight loss, as over 50% of BSx patients regain weight without lifestyle modification. Indeed, programs that include self-reward and reinforcement are extremely effective. It is therefore possible that successful BSx is simply an intrinsic reward for an intensive change in lifestyle behavior. Accounting for the costs and risks associated with BSx, providing state and federal resources for lifestyle behavior change programs could provide a key opportunity for the war against obesity. PMID:25757003

  3. Combined impact of lifestyle factors on prospective change in body weight and waist circumference in participants of the EPIC-PANACEA study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M May

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The evidence that individual dietary and lifestyle factors influence a person's weight and waist circumference is well established; however their combined impact is less well documented. Therefore, we investigated the combined effect of physical activity, nutrition and smoking status on prospective gain in body weight and waist circumference. METHODS: We used data of the prospective EPIC-PANACEA study. Between 1992 and 2000, 325,537 participants (94,445 men and 231,092 women, aged between 25-70 were recruited from nine European countries. Participants were categorised into two groups (positive or negative health behaviours for each of the following being physically active, adherent to a healthy (Mediterranean not including alcohol diet, and never-smoking for a total score ranging from zero to three. Anthropometric measures were taken at baseline and were mainly self-reported after a medium follow-up time of 5 years. RESULTS: Mixed-effects linear regression models adjusted for age, educational level, alcohol consumption, baseline body mass index and follow-up time showed that men and women who reported to be physically active, never-smoking and adherent to the Mediterranean diet gained over a 5-year period 537 (95% CI -706, -368 and 200 (-478, -87 gram less weight and 0.95 (-1.27, -0.639 and 0.99 (-1.29, -0.69 cm less waist circumference, respectively, compared to participants with zero healthy behaviours. CONCLUSION: The combination of positive health behaviours was associated with significantly lower weight and waist circumference gain.

  4. Parenting style, parent-youth conflict, and medication adherence in youth with type 2 diabetes participating in an intensive lifestyle change intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saletsky, Ronald D; Trief, Paula M; Anderson, Barbara J; Rosenbaum, Paula; Weinstock, Ruth S

    2014-06-01

    Parenting behaviors and family conflict relate to type 1 diabetes outcomes in youth. Our purpose was to understand these relationships in parents and youth with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The TODAY (Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth) trial enrolled youth (10-17 years) with T2DM and parent/guardian. For this ancillary study, we enrolled a sample of youth-parent pairs (N = 137) in 1 study arm (metformin plus lifestyle intervention). They completed questionnaires measuring parenting style related to normative (e.g., completing homework) and diabetes self-care (e.g., testing blood glucose) tasks, and parent-youth verbal conflict (baseline, 6, and 12 months). Parenting style was consistent across normative and diabetes tasks, with gradual increases in autonomy perceived by youth. Conversations were generally calm, with greater conflict regarding normative than diabetes tasks at baseline (youth: p parent: p = .01), 6 months (youth: p = .02, parent: p > .05), and 12 months (youth: p > .05., parent: p = .05). A permissive parenting style toward normative tasks and a less authoritarian style toward diabetes tasks, at baseline, predicted better medication adherence (8-12 months) (normative: adjusted R2 = 0.48, p Parent-youth conflict did not predict medication adherence. Youth with T2DM who perceive more autonomy (less parental control) in day-to-day and diabetes tasks are more likely to adhere to medication regimens. It may be valuable to assess youth perceptions of parenting style and help parents understand youths' needs for autonomy. PMID:24548045

  5. The Cardiovascular Changes Induced by Inspired Oxygen Fraction in Patients Undergoing on-pump Coronary Artery Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Safavi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increased inspired oxygen fractions (FiO2 have significant hemodynamic effects on consciousvolunteers. These changes may be of great importance in cardiac surgery. The inspiratory gas during open heartsurgery with on-pump technique usually consists of 100% oxygen without any N2O because the risks of bubbleembolism during these procedures. We sought to establish whether the cardiovascular effects of increased FiO2are also present in cardiac surgery patients.Patients and Methods: The present study was a randomized double- blind clinical trial on sixty adult patients(40-70 years with the cardiac ejection fraction (EF of more than 40% and ASA II or III undergoing elective onpumpcoronary artery bypass. They received either a mixture of 50% O2 with 50% air (case group=30 or 100%oxygen (control group=30 throughout the anesthesia. Cardiac index (CI was measured by non- invasive cardiacoutput (NICO technique using end tidal PCO2. Measurements of systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure aswell as heart rate (HR and central venous pressure (CVP, PaO2, arterial PH and CI were obtained at pre-bypass,post bypass, end of surgery and 2 hours after ICU admission. Intra- operative requirements for inotropic drugswere also evaluated. Data were analyzed by SPSS software using t-test and Q-square as well as non parametrictests wherever appropriate.Results: No differences were found between the two groups with regard to age, gender, pump time, operationtime and body mass index and preoperative EF. The mean values of systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressureas well as HR and CI were similar in the case and control groups (p>0.05 at all times of measurement. The meanPaO2 was significantly higher in the control group (p<0.05. The mean pH was statistically higher in the controlgroup but not clinically noticeable. The control group required more inotropic drug support than the case group(16 vs. 8 patients respectively; P < 0.05. Likewise, the mean CVP was

  6. Utilizing Technology to Encourage Healthy Lifestyles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Shuster

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In our fast paced world, using technology allows us to connect with people and assist them in developing healthier lifestyles within their time limits due to families, work, and other responsibilities. The goal of our project was the development of online, technology-based, nutrition, health, and fitness education challenges using social media as a means of helping consumers develop healthy lifestyle changes. Participants completed preassessments and postassessments to determine overall program impact and to self-report perceptions of knowledge gained and practice/behavior change. Results from the challenges indicated participants gained knowledge on nutrition, health and fitness topics while making strides towards lifestyle changes and adoption of healthy habits. Results revealed healthier eating habits were developed and physical activity was increased with many participants losing weight. Ease of participating was the most reported reason for participating in the challenges. To determine “best practice,” varying lengths of time for the challenges from four, seven, and thirteen weeks allowed the educators to derive implications for future programming, including branding, length of the challenge, frequency, and participant behavior change. To remain relevant and reach a greater diversity of populations, educators need to continue to explore and utilize various social media tools.

  7. Commentary on the clinical management of metabolic syndrome: why a healthy lifestyle is important.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lorgeril, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. There is no recognized method to manage MS. Many physicians treat the individual characteristics of MS (high blood pressure, high triglycerides, and so on) instead of the syndrome as a whole, placing particular emphasis on those components that are easily amenable to drug treatment. However, regular physical exercise and a healthy diet have been demonstrated to improve the health of a number of populations, but few studies have assessed their effects in patients with MS. A meta-analysis by Yamaoka and Tango in BMC Medicine found that a lifestyle change program (dietary counseling and encouragement to exercise) resulted in improvements in components of MS and in reducing the proportion of patients with MS. The effects may not be impressive in absolute terms, but the data should be interpreted with the heterogeneity of the included studies in mind. Because of the many adverse side effects of the drugs used to correct individual aspects of MS, this meta-analysis provides strong evidence that lifestyle changes must be the first-line approach to manage MS.See related article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/10/138/abstract. PMID:23151252

  8. Commentary on the clinical management of metabolic syndrome: why a healthy lifestyle is important

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Lorgeril Michel

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Metabolic syndrome (MS is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. There is no recognized method to manage MS. Many physicians treat the individual characteristics of MS (high blood pressure, high triglycerides, and so on instead of the syndrome as a whole, placing particular emphasis on those components that are easily amenable to drug treatment. However, regular physical exercise and a healthy diet have been demonstrated to improve the health of a number of populations, but few studies have assessed their effects in patients with MS. A meta-analysis by Yamaoka and Tango in BMC Medicine found that a lifestyle change program (dietary counseling and encouragement to exercise resulted in improvements in components of MS and in reducing the proportion of patients with MS. The effects may not be impressive in absolute terms, but the data should be interpreted with the heterogeneity of the included studies in mind. Because of the many adverse side effects of the drugs used to correct individual aspects of MS, this meta-analysis provides strong evidence that lifestyle changes must be the first-line approach to manage MS. See related article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/10/138/abstract

  9. Knowledge of healthy lifestyle in Iran: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanei, Mostafa; Ahmady, Khodabakhsh; Babaei, Mansour; Tavana, Ali Mehrabi; Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Ebadi, Abbas; Poursaid, Syed Masood

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Lifestyle is a set of goals, plans, values, attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs manifested in the personal and family life of the individual and in her or his social interactions. It is an interdisciplinary concept that involves a health-oriented view of the physical, psychological, social, and spiritual domains of life. Despite their great importance, there is not much knowledge in Iran about healthy lifestyles. The present study is an attempt to address the knowledge of healthy lifestyle in Iran through a review of the literature on the subject. Methods The present systematic review searched Elsevier, SID, Pub Med, Magiran, IranMedex, and Google Scholar databases for relevant articles published between 2000 and 2014. We used various keywords for the searches, including knowledge, lifestyle, health, and Iran. As a result, 62 articles were included in the study. Results There has been a dramatic increase in the publication of articles on lifestyle in Iran over the past 10 years. The results obtained showed that 64% of the articles addressed physical health, 14% addressed psychological health, 10% addressed social health, and 12% addressed spiritual health. Most lifestyle studies conducted in Iran have focused on physical health, and a few have examined the psychological, social, and spiritual aspects of lifestyle. None of the studies has examined the knowledge map of healthy lifestyles in Iran. Conclusion Given the changes in the causes of mortality from infectious and chronic diseases that impose greater medication and treatment costs on the society, and since diseases caused by unhealthy lifestyles have become the leading cause of death, it is essential for health researchers to focus on the root cause of these diseases, i.e., lifestyle and human behaviors.

  10. Blood pressure changes associated with sibutramine and weight management - an analysis from the 6-week lead-in period of the sibutramine cardiovascular outcomes trial (SCOUT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, A M; Caterson, I D; Coutinho, W;

    2009-01-01

    cardiovascular event. During the 6-week lead-in period, 10,742 patients received sibutramine and weight management. Vital sign changes were assessed post hoc by initial blood pressure (mmHg) categorized as normal (<130/<85), high-normal (130 to <140/85 to <90) or hypertensive (>or=140/>or=90); weight change...... in the class of antihypertensive medication used and who did not report an increase in antihypertensive medication use were analysed. RESULTS: At entry, approximately 50% of patients were hypertensive and 26% were high-normal. In hypertensive patients, blood pressure changes (mmHg) decreased by...... categories (weight gain/no weight change, >0 to 2.5% weight loss, >2.5 to 5% weight loss and >5% weight loss) and current antihypertensive medication class use (none, one, or two or more). To assess the impact of sibutramine on blood pressure and pulse rate, only patients (N = 10,025) who reported no change...

  11. Changes in lifestyle, biological risk factors and total homocysteine in relation to MTHFR C677T genotype: a 5-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husemoen, L L N; Linneberg, A; Fenger, M;

    2009-01-01

    , physical activity, smoking status, coffee, tea, total alcohol or wine consumption. An inverse relationship was observed between changes in tHcy and changes in the intake of beer in TT individuals but not in CC/CT individuals (P (interaction)=0.01). In addition, changes in tHcy were positively associated...... with changes in several biological risk factors, such as waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol (Pinteraction)=0.03). CONCLUSIONS...

  12. Lifestyles: propellants factors of obesity in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Filomena; Antão, Celeste; Anes, Eugénia; Fernandes, Adília; Mata, Maria Augusta; Sousa, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Although a large collection of results that can identify the causes of obesity is available, it is not an easy task to characterize its etiology. Outstanding among the factors related to overweight and obesity the changes in eating patterns and physical activity, occurred in several societies. About 95% of obesity cases in childhood and adolescence involve exogenous obesity, that is, dependent on environmental factors. Objectives: To analyze lifestyles and eating factors in school adolescents...

  13. [Physical activity and cardiovascular health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temporelli, Pier Luigi

    2016-03-01

    It is well known that regular moderate physical activity, in the context of a healthy lifestyle, significantly reduces the likelihood of cardiovascular events, both in primary and secondary prevention. In addition, it is scientifically proven that exercise can reduce the incidence of diabetes, osteoporosis, depression, breast cancer and colon cancer. Despite this strong evidence, sedentary lifestyle remains a widespread habit in the western world. Even in Italy the adult population has a poor attitude to regular physical activity. It is therefore necessary, as continuously recommended by the World Health Organization, to motivate people to "move" since the transition from inactivity to regular light to moderate physical activity has a huge impact on health, resulting in significant savings of resources. We do not need to be athletes to exercise - it should be part of all our daily routines. PMID:27029874

  14. Effects of Lifestyle Modification on Telomerase Gene Expression in Hypertensive Patients: A Pilot Trial of Stress Reduction and Health Education Programs in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanthi Duraimani

    Full Text Available African Americans suffer from disproportionately high rates of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Psychosocial stress, lifestyle and telomere dysfunction contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. This study evaluated effects of stress reduction and lifestyle modification on blood pressure, telomerase gene expression and lifestyle factors in African Americans.Forty-eight African American men and women with stage I hypertension who participated in a larger randomized controlled trial volunteered for this substudy. These subjects participated in either stress reduction with the Transcendental Meditation technique and a basic health education course (SR or an extensive health education program (EHE for 16 weeks. Primary outcomes were telomerase gene expression (hTERT and hTR and clinic blood pressure. Secondary outcomes included lifestyle-related factors. Data were analyzed for within-group and between-group changes.Both groups showed increases in the two measures of telomerase gene expression, hTR mRNA levels (SR: p< 0.001; EHE: p< 0.001 and hTERT mRNA levels (SR: p = 0.055; EHE: p< 0.002. However, no statistically significant between-group changes were observed. Both groups showed reductions in systolic BP. Adjusted changes were SR = -5.7 mm Hg, p< 0.01; EHE = -9.0 mm Hg, p < 0.001 with no statistically significant difference between group difference. There was a significant reduction in diastolic BP in the EHE group (-5.3 mm Hg, p< 0.001 but not in SR (-1.2 mm Hg, p = 0.42; the between-group difference was significant (p = 0.04. The EHE group showed a greater number of changes in lifestyle behaviors.In this pilot trial, both stress reduction (Transcendental Meditation technique plus health education and extensive health education groups demonstrated increased telomerase gene expression and reduced BP. The association between increased telomerase gene expression and reduced BP observed in this high

  15. Personalized Lifestyle Medicine: Relevance for Nutrition and Lifestyle Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Minich, Deanna M; Jeffrey S. Bland

    2013-01-01

    Public health recommendations for lifestyle modification, including diet and physical activity, have been widely disseminated for the prevention and treatment of disease. These guidelines are intended for the overall population without significant consideration for the individual with respect to one’s genes and environment. Personalized lifestyle medicine is a newly developed term that refers to an approach to medicine in which an individual’s health metrics from point-of-care diagnostics are...

  16. A 10-year time-series analysis of respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity in Nicosia, Cyprus: the effect of short-term changes in air pollution and dust storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dockery Douglas W

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, a substantial body of research has shown adverse health effects of short-term changes in levels of air pollution. Such associations have not been investigated in smaller size cities in the Eastern Mediterranean. A particular feature in the region is dust blown from the Sahara a few times a year resulting in extreme PM10 concentrations. It is not entirely clear whether such natural phenomena pose the same risks. Methods The effect of changes in daily levels of particulate matter (PM10 and ozone (O3 on hospitalization for all, cardiovascular and respiratory causes in the two hospitals in Nicosia during 1 January 1995 and 30 December 2004 was investigated using generalized additive Poisson models after controlling for long- and short-term patterns as well as for the effect of weather. Meteorological records were reviewed to identify dust-storm days and analyses were repeated to quantify their effect on cardio-respiratory morbidity. Results For every 10 μg/m3 increase in daily average PM10 concentrations, there was a 0.9% (95%CI: 0.6%, 1.2% increase in all-cause and 1.2% (95%CI: -0.0%, 2.4% increase in cardiovascular admissions. With respect to respiratory causes, an effect was observed only in the warm months. No lagged effects with levels of PM10 were observed. In contrast, positive associations with levels of ozone were only observed the two days prior to admission. These appeared stronger for cardiovascular causes and independent of the effect of PM. All-cause and cardiovascular admissions were 4.8% (95%CI: 0.7%, 9.0% and 10.4% (95%CI: -4.7%, 27.9% higher on dust storm days respectively. In both cases the magnitude of effect was comparable to that seen on the quartile of non-storm days with the highest levels of PM10. Conclusion We observed an increased risk of hospitalization at elevated levels of particulate matter and ozone generally consistent with the magnitude seen across several European cities. We also

  17. Evaluation of lifestyle interventions to treat elevated cardiometabolic risk in primary care (E-LITE: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Sandra R

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficacy research has shown that intensive individual lifestyle intervention lowers the risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and the metabolic syndrome. Translational research is needed to test real-world models of lifestyle interventions in primary care settings. Design E-LITE is a three-arm randomized controlled clinical trial aimed at testing the feasibility and potential effectiveness of two lifestyle interventions: information technology-assisted self-management, either alone or in combination with care management by a dietitian and exercise counselor, in comparison to usual care. Overweight or obese adults with pre-diabetes and/or metabolic syndrome (n = 240 recruited from a community-based primary care clinic are randomly assigned to one of three treatment conditions. Treatment will last 15 months and involves a three-month intensive treatment phase followed by a 12-month maintenance phase. Follow-up assessment occurs at three, six, and 15 months. The primary outcome is change in body mass index. The target sample size will provide 80% power for detecting a net difference of half a standard deviation in body mass index at 15 months between either of the self-management or care management interventions and usual care at a two-sided α level of 0.05, assuming up to a 20% rate of loss to 15-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes include glycemic control, additional cardiovascular risk factors, and health-related quality of life. Potential mediators (e.g., treatment adherence, caloric intake, physical activity level and moderators (e.g., age, gender, race/ethnicity, baseline mental status of the intervention's effect on weight change also will be examined. Discussion This study will provide objective evidence on the extent of reductions in body mass index and related cardiometabolic risk factors from two lifestyle intervention programs of varying intensity that could be implemented as part of routine health care

  18. Kogyaru and Otaku: Youth Subcultures Lifestyles in Postmodern Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Maya Keliyan

    2011-01-01

    The article studies social-group peculiarities and lifestyles of kogyaru and otaku as significant groups in contemporary Japanese youth subcultures. They are typical for postmodern society, with its characteristic consumption, communication, and lifestyle. Kogyaru and otaku are investigated as examples of postmodern changes in the dissemination and perception of fashion trends, hobby activities, and innovative products. The causes of their emergence and growth are related to the general probl...

  19. Maintain a Heart Healthy Lifestyle

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... her lifestyle--to quit smoking, control their high blood pressure and cholesterol, control their weight and get regular ... our exercise class each week, they take our blood pressure and our weight. It's fun because now due ...

  20. Maintain a Heart Healthy Lifestyle

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... her lifestyle--to quit smoking, control their high blood pressure and cholesterol, control their weight and get ... our exercise class each week, they take our blood pressure and our weight. It's fun because now ...

  1. The CHANGE trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Speyer, Helene; Christian Brix Nørgaard, Hans; Birk, Merete;

    2016-01-01

    Life expectancy in patients with schizophrenia is reduced by 20 years for men and 15 years for women compared to the general population. About 60% of the excess mortality is due to physical illnesses, with cardiovascular disease being dominant. CHANGE was a randomized, parallel-group, superiority......:1:1 to 12 months of lifestyle coaching plus care coordination plus treatment as usual (N=138), or care coordination plus treatment as usual (N=142), or treatment as usual alone (N=148). The primary outcome was 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease assessed post-treatment and standardized to age 60. At...... follow-up, the mean 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease was 8.4 ± 6.7% in the group receiving lifestyle coaching, 8.5 ± 7.5% in the care coordination group, and 8.0 ± 6.5% in the treatment as usual group (p=0.41). We found no intervention effects for any secondary or exploratory outcomes, including...

  2. Mobile Health Devices as Tools for Worldwide Cardiovascular Risk Reduction and Disease Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piette, John D; List, Justin; Rana, Gurpreet K; Townsend, Whitney; Striplin, Dana; Heisler, Michele

    2015-11-24

    We examined evidence on whether mobile health (mHealth) tools, including interactive voice response calls, short message service, or text messaging, and smartphones, can improve lifestyle behaviors and management related to cardiovascular diseases throughout the world. We conducted a state-of-the-art review and literature synthesis of peer-reviewed and gray literature published since 2004. The review prioritized randomized trials and studies focused on cardiovascular diseases and risk factors, but included other reports when they represented the best available evidence. The search emphasized reports on the potential benefits of mHealth interventions implemented in low- and middle-income countries. Interactive voice response and short message service interventions can improve cardiovascular preventive care in developed countries by addressing risk factors including weight, smoking, and physical activity. Interactive voice response and short message service-based interventions for cardiovascular disease management also have shown benefits with respect to hypertension management, hospital readmissions, and diabetic glycemic control. Multimodal interventions including Web-based communication with clinicians and mHealth-enabled clinical monitoring with feedback also have shown benefits. The evidence regarding the potential benefits of interventions using smartphones and social media is still developing. Studies of mHealth interventions have been conducted in >30 low- and middle-income countries, and evidence to date suggests that programs are feasible and may improve medication adherence and disease outcomes. Emerging evidence suggests that mHealth interventions may improve cardiovascular-related lifestyle behaviors and disease management. Next-generation mHealth programs developed worldwide should be based on evidence-based behavioral theories and incorporate advances in artificial intelligence for adapting systems automatically to patients' unique and changing needs

  3. Cardiovascular Prevention of Cognitive Decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Jacques Monsuez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Midlife cardiovascular risk factors, including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipemia, and an unhealthy lifestyle, have been linked to subsequent incidence, delay of onset, and progression rate of Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia. Conversely, optimal treatment of cardiovascular risk factors prevents and slows down age-related cognitive disorders. The impact of antihypertensive therapy on cognitive outcome in patients with hypertension was assessed in large trials which demonstrated a reduction in progression of MRI white matter hyperintensities, in cognitive decline and in incidence of dementia. Large-scale database correlated statin use and reduction in the incidence of dementia, mainly in patients with documented atherosclerosis, but clinical trials failed to reach similar conclusions. Whether a multitargeted intervention would substantially improve protection, quality of life, and reduce medical cost expenditures in patients with lower risk profile has not been ascertained. This would require appropriately designed trials targeting large populations and focusing on cognitive decline as a primary outcome endpoint.

  4. Life-Style und Hypertonie - Hypertonie und Life-Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoschitzky K

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Unser Life-Style (unser "Lebensstil", unsere "Lebensweise" steht in enger Beziehung zu unserem arteriellen Blutdruck und kann in dreifacher Weise in Verbindung mit einem arteriellen Hypertonus treten: 1. "Schlechter" Life-Style kann arteriellen Hypertonus auslösen oder zumindest fördern. 2. Arterieller Hypertonus kann durch "guten" Life-Style gesenkt bis gänzlich beseitigt werden. 3. Bekannte Folgen des arteriellen Hypertonus (wie Insult, Herzinsuffizienz, Myokardinfarkt, Niereninsuffizenz, paVK, Retinopathie, Aortendissektion, Demenz, usw. können den Patienten letztlich dazu zwingen, seinen Life-Style ganz wesentlich zu ändern - dann allerdings unabhängig davon, ob er "will" oder nicht. Wichtigstes Ziel medizinischen Handelns ist daher vor allem das Vorbeugen der unter Punkt 3 genannten, häufig irreversiblen Folgen des arteriellen Hypertonus. Besser sollte dies jedoch bereits als "Primärprävention" beginnen, indem man durch Verhinderung eines "schlechten" Life-Style einem arteriellen Hypertonus bereits vor seinem Entstehen vorbeugt. Spätestens bei bereits bestehendem arteriellem Hypertonus sollte jedoch eine "Verbesserung" des Life-Styles als ein sehr taugliches Mittel zur Senkung des Blutdrucks bei möglichst jedem Patienten "eingesetzt" werden. Wichtigste Elemente von Life-Style in Verbindung mit arteriellem Hypertonus sind dabei vor allem Adipositas, Bewegungsarmut, Rauchen, Stress, vermehrte Kochsalz-Zufuhr, Alkohol und Koffein. Sie sind sowohl auf der "ursächlichen" als auch auf der "therapeutischen" Seite des arteriellen Hypertonus zu finden und in Form von entsprechender "Umkehr" erfolgversprechend einsetzbar.

  5. Changes in cholesterol homeostasis and acute phase response link pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes to risk of cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adverse lung effects following pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are well documented in rodents. However, systemic effects are less understood. Epidemiological studies have shown increased cardiovascular disease risk after pulmonary exposure to airborne particles, which has led to concerns that inhalation exposure to MWCNTs might pose similar risks. We analyzed parameters related to cardiovascular disease, including plasma acute phase response (APR) proteins and plasma lipids, in female C57BL/6 mice exposed to a single intratracheal instillation of 0, 18, 54 or 162 μg/mouse of small, entangled (CNTSmall, 0.8 ± 0.1 μm long) or large, thick MWCNTs (CNTLarge, 4 ± 0.4 μm long). Liver tissues and plasma were harvested 1, 3 and 28 days post-exposure. In addition, global hepatic gene expression, hepatic cholesterol content and liver histology were used to assess hepatic effects. The two MWCNTs induced similar systemic responses despite their different physicochemical properties. APR proteins SAA3 and haptoglobin, plasma total cholesterol and low-density/very low-density lipoprotein were significantly increased following exposure to either MWCNTs. Plasma SAA3 levels correlated strongly with pulmonary Saa3 levels. Analysis of global gene expression revealed perturbation of the same biological processes and pathways in liver, including the HMG-CoA reductase pathway. Both MWCNTs induced similar histological hepatic changes, with a tendency towards greater response following CNTLarge exposure. Overall, we show that pulmonary exposure to two different MWCNTs induces similar systemic and hepatic responses, including changes in plasma APR, lipid composition, hepatic gene expression and liver morphology. The results link pulmonary exposure to MWCNTs with risk of cardiovascular disease. - Highlights: • Systemic and hepatic alterations were evaluated in female mice following MWCNT instillation. • Despite being physicochemically different, the two

  6. Changes in cholesterol homeostasis and acute phase response link pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes to risk of cardiovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, Sarah S., E-mail: spo@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Department of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Saber, Anne T., E-mail: ats@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Mortensen, Alicja, E-mail: almo@food.dtu.dk [National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Søborg (Denmark); Szarek, Józef, E-mail: szarek@uwm.edu.pl [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, 10-719 Olsztyn (Poland); Wu, Dongmei, E-mail: dongmei.wu@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); Williams, Andrew, E-mail: andrew.williams@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); Andersen, Ole, E-mail: oa@ruc.dk [Department of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Jacobsen, Nicklas R., E-mail: nrj@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Yauk, Carole L., E-mail: carole.yauk@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); Wallin, Håkan, E-mail: hwa@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, DK-1014 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Halappanavar, Sabina, E-mail: sabina.halappanavar@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); Vogel, Ulla, E-mail: ubv@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-03-15

    Adverse lung effects following pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are well documented in rodents. However, systemic effects are less understood. Epidemiological studies have shown increased cardiovascular disease risk after pulmonary exposure to airborne particles, which has led to concerns that inhalation exposure to MWCNTs might pose similar risks. We analyzed parameters related to cardiovascular disease, including plasma acute phase response (APR) proteins and plasma lipids, in female C57BL/6 mice exposed to a single intratracheal instillation of 0, 18, 54 or 162 μg/mouse of small, entangled (CNT{sub Small}, 0.8 ± 0.1 μm long) or large, thick MWCNTs (CNT{sub Large}, 4 ± 0.4 μm long). Liver tissues and plasma were harvested 1, 3 and 28 days post-exposure. In addition, global hepatic gene expression, hepatic cholesterol content and liver histology were used to assess hepatic effects. The two MWCNTs induced similar systemic responses despite their different physicochemical properties. APR proteins SAA3 and haptoglobin, plasma total cholesterol and low-density/very low-density lipoprotein were significantly increased following exposure to either MWCNTs. Plasma SAA3 levels correlated strongly with pulmonary Saa3 levels. Analysis of global gene expression revealed perturbation of the same biological processes and pathways in liver, including the HMG-CoA reductase pathway. Both MWCNTs induced similar histological hepatic changes, with a tendency towards greater response following CNT{sub Large} exposure. Overall, we show that pulmonary exposure to two different MWCNTs induces similar systemic and hepatic responses, including changes in plasma APR, lipid composition, hepatic gene expression and liver morphology. The results link pulmonary exposure to MWCNTs with risk of cardiovascular disease. - Highlights: • Systemic and hepatic alterations were evaluated in female mice following MWCNT instillation. • Despite being physicochemically

  7. Relation Between Change in Renal Function and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Atorvastatin-Treated Patients (from the Treating to New Targets [TNT] Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, James; Breazna, Andrei; Deedwania, Prakash C; LaRosa, John C; Wenger, Nanette K; Messig, Michael; Wilson, Daniel J

    2016-04-15

    Statins may have nephroprotective as well as cardioprotective effects in patients with cardiovascular disease. In the Treating to New Targets (TNT) study (NCT00327691), patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) were randomized to atorvastatin 10 or 80 mg/day and followed for 4.9 years. The relation between intrastudy change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from baseline and the risk of major cardiovascular events (MCVEs, defined as CHD death, nonfatal non-procedure-related myocardial infarction, resuscitated cardiac arrest, or fatal or nonfatal stroke) was assessed among 9,500 patients stratified by renal function: improving (change in eGFR more than +2 ml/min/1.73 m(2)), stable (-2 to +2 ml/min/1.73 m(2)), and worsening (less than -2 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). Compared with patients with worsening renal function (1,479 patients, 15.6%), the rate of MCVEs was 28% lower in patients with stable renal function (2,241 patients, 23.6%) (hazard ratio [HR] 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.60 to 0.87; p = 0.0005) and 64% lower in patients with improving renal function (5,780 patients, 60.8%; HR 0.36; 95% CI 0.30 to 0.43; p atorvastatin 10 mg and 3.3% with atorvastatin 80 mg. In conclusion, intrastudy stabilization or increase in eGFR in atorvastatin-treated patients with CHD from the TNT study was associated with a reduced rate of MCVEs. Statin-treated CHD patients with progressive renal impairment are at high risk for future cardiovascular events. PMID:26940556

  8. Do high risk patients alter their lifestyle to reduce risk of colorectal cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Tarr, Gregory P; Crowley, Andrew; John, Rhys; Kok, Jonathan B; Lee, Ho-Nam L; Mustafa, Hasif; Sii, Kia M; Smith, Rebecca; Son, Sung-Eun Q; Weaver, Lauren J; Cameron, Claire; Dockerty, John D.; Schultz, Michael; Murray, Iain A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) may be reduced by healthy lifestyle behaviours. We determined the extent of self-reported lifestyle changes in people at increased risk of CRC, and the association of these reports with anxiety, risk and knowledge-based variables. Methods We randomly selected 250 participants who had undergone surveillance colonoscopy for family history of CRC. A telephone interview was conducted, recording demographics and family history. Self-reported lifestyle change due ...

  9. Healthy Satiety Effects of Paleolithic diet on Satiety and Risk factors for Cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jönsson, Tommy

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) exhibits considerable variation across agrarian societies, whereas they are virtually absent in non-agrarian societies such as hunter-gatherer and horticultural societies. When looking for lifestyle factors which could promote CVD, it therefore seems logical to focus on the agrarian lifestyle and ways in which it departs from a non-agrarian lifestyle. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the effect of a hunter-gatherer diet (also called Paleol...

  10. Efficacy of Dietary Behavior Modification for Preserving Cardiovascular Health and Longevity

    OpenAIRE

    Moira McAllister Pryde; William Bernard Kannel

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its predisposing risk factors are major lifestyle and behavioral determinants of longevity. Dietary lifestyle choices such as a heart healthy diet, regular exercise, a lean weight, moderate alcohol consumption, and smoking cessation have been shown to substantially reduce CVD and increase longevity. Recent research has shown that men and women who adhere to this lifestyle can substantially reduce their risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). The preventive bene...

  11. Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, C. David

    1988-01-01

    Reviews epidemiological studies of cardiovascular diseases especially coronary heart disease (CHD), to document their major public health importance, changes in mortality during this century, and international comparisons of trends. Finds major risk factors for CHD are determined in large part by psychosocial and behavioral mechanisms. Asserts…

  12. Pharmacogenomics and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weeke, Peter; Roden, Dan M

    2013-01-01

    Variability in drug responsiveness is a sine qua non of modern therapeutics, and the contribution of genomic variation is increasingly recognized. Investigating the genomic basis for variable responses to cardiovascular therapies has been a model for pharmacogenomics in general and has established...... resulted in changes to the product labels but also have led to development of initial clinical guidelines that consider how to facilitate incorporating genetic information to the bedside. This review summarizes the state of knowledge in cardiovascular pharmacogenomics and considers how variants described...

  13. Changes in antioxidant status and cardiovascular risk factors of overweight young men after six weeks supplementation of whey protein isolate and resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikholeslami Vatani, Dariush; Ahmadi Kani Golzar, Farhad

    2012-12-01

    The study's purpose was to examine the effects of whey protein supplementation and resistance training on antioxidant status and cardiovascular risk factors in overweight young men. Thirty healthy male subjects (age, 23.4±3.6years; body mass index, 25-30kg/m(2)) were randomly divided into three groups of 10 persons including; Experimental group 1: resistance training+whey supplement (RW); Experimental group 2: resistance training+placebo (RP), and Control group (C). Subjects in intervention groups underwent 3 resistance training sessions per week, each session with 60-70% 1RM, for 6weeks. No significant changes in fibrinogen level, fasting blood glucose, resting systolic and diastolic blood pressures, waist to hip ratio (WHR), and body mass index were observed in any of the groups. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), cholesterol and HDL varied significantly in the RW group compared with the pre-test. We found significant changes in both RW and RP groups for glutathione, vitamin C, LDL, and triglyceride levels. In addition, in the post-test, TAC, glutathione, and HDL levels were higher in the RW in comparison to C group. Research findings showed that although exercise can lead to antioxidant system improvement and reduce some cardiovascular risk factors among overweight subjects, the combination of resistance training and whey consumption is more effective. PMID:22889987

  14. Healthy Lifestyle of Czech University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Marholdová, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    The thesis deals with the healthy lifestyle of Czech university students. The main objectives are to map the healthy lifestyle of Czech university students, especially to find out whether they follow the principles of healthy lifestyle, to find out their knowledge concerning this issue, to find out if there are any obstacles to follow the healthy lifestyle and to find out whether they know any projects supporting health and healthy lifestyle. In the theoretical part of the thesis the basic te...

  15. Green Lifestyle Dimensions : An Empirical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Arfida Handoyo; Popy

    2012-01-01

    Exploring green lifestyles is an interesting subject. Given the increase of awareness among global customers worldwide, investigating green lifestyle dimensions is a challenging task, particularly in a developing country like Indonesia. The purpose of this paper is to identify the green lifestyle among Indonesians by using lifestyle patterns. The dimensions applied for this study use the nine-dimension green lifestyle from Arminda do Pac¸o & Ma´rio Raposo (2008:371). These are environmentally...

  16. Can a statin neutralize the cardiovascular risk of unhealthy dietary choices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferenczi, Emily A; Asaria, Perviz; Hughes, Alun D; Chaturvedi, Nishi; Francis, Darrel P

    2010-08-15

    The cardiovascular risk reduction associated with different statins for the prevention of cardiovascular disease and the cardiovascular risk increase associated with excess dietary intake of fat have been quantified. However, these relative risks have never been directly juxtaposed to determine whether an increase in relative risk by 1 activity could be neutralized by an opposing change in relative risk from a second activity. The investigators compared the increase in relative risk for cardiovascular disease associated with the total fat and trans fat content of fast foods against the relative risk decrease provided by daily statin consumption from a meta-analysis of statins in primary prevention of coronary artery disease (7 randomized controlled trials including 42,848 patients). The risk reduction associated with the daily consumption of most statins, with the exception of pravastatin, is more powerful than the risk increase caused by the daily extra fat intake associated with a 7-oz hamburger (Quarter Pounder) with cheese and a small milkshake. In conclusion, statin therapy can neutralize the cardiovascular risk caused by harmful diet choices. In other spheres of human activity, individuals choosing risky pursuits (motorcycling, smoking, driving) are advised or compelled to use measures to minimize the risk (safety equipment, filters, seatbelts). Likewise, some individuals eat unhealthily. Routine accessibility of statins in establishments providing unhealthy food might be a rational modern means to offset the cardiovascular risk. Fast food outlets already offer free condiments to supplement meals. A free statin-containing accompaniment would offer cardiovascular benefits, opposite to the effects of equally available salt, sugar, and high-fat condiments. Although no substitute for systematic lifestyle improvements, including healthy diet, regular exercise, weight loss, and smoking cessation, complimentary statin packets would add, at little cost, 1 positive

  17. Ozone and cardiovascular injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainaldi Giuseppe

    2009-06-01

    and mortality 3. Most of the evidence comes from studies of ambient particles concentrations. However, in Europe and elsewhere, the air pollution profile has gradually changed toward a more pronounced photochemical component. Ozone is one of the most toxic components of the photochemical air pollution mixture. Indeed, the biological basis for these observations has not been elucidated. In the present review, the role of ozone as chemical molecule will be firstly considered. Secondly, pathogenetic mechanisms connecting the atmospheric ozone level and cardiovascular pathology will be examined. Thirdly, the literature relating hospitalization frequency, morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular causes and ozone concentration will be studied. The correlation between ozone level and occurrence of acute myocardial infarction will be eventually discussed.

  18. Functional ingredients——Change your lifestyle, improve your life quality%功能配料——改变生活方式,提升生活质量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘峰

    2011-01-01

    人们生活方式的改变,生活质量的提高都源自健康的饮食,通过"大众食品功能化、功能食品大众化",寓医于食,寓食于健,达到提高人类健康的目的.功能食品的基础是功能配料,功能配料已成为功能食品的"核心"和不竭动力.本文通过市场研究简要介绍具有肠道健康、体重控制、口腔健康、免疫调节等功效的功能配料的应用及发展带给人类的健康新动向.%The change of lifestyle and Improvement of life quality are both derived from healthy diet. Through focusing on "Add functional factors to popular food, let functional food be popular", combining treatment with diet and bringing health to diet to achieve the purpose of improving human health. As basement of functional food, functional ingredients have already become the core and inexhaustible drive force of functional food. This article, resourced from market research, mainly describes the application of the functional ingredients with different function such like intestine health,weight management, oral health and immune regulation etc. and human health new trend activated by these ingredients' development.

  19. Environmental & lifestyle factors in deterioration of male reproductive health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Male reproductive function in the general population has been receiving attention in recent years due to reports of various reproductive and developmental defects, which might be associated with various lifestyle and environmental factors. This study was carried out to determine the role of various lifestyle and environmental factors in male reproduction and their possible association with declining semen quality, increased oxidative stress as well as sperm DNA damage. Methods: Semen samples were obtained from 240 male partners of the couples consulting for infertility problem. Semen analysis was carried out using WHO criteria and subjects were categorized on the basis of self reported history of lifestyle as well as environmental exposure. The oxidative and antioxidant markers; lipid peroxidation (LPO, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT as well as DNA damage by acridine orange test (AO were determined. Results: The presence of abnormal semen parameters was significantly higher among the lifestyle and/or environmental exposed subjects as compared to the non-exposed population. Further, the levels of antioxidants were reduced and sperm DNA damage was more among the lifestyle and/or environmental exposed subjects, though the changes were not significant. Interpretation & conclusions: These findings indicated that various lifestyle factors such as tobacco smoking, chewing and alcohol use as well as exposure to toxic agents might be attributed to the risk of declining semen quality and increase in oxidative stress and sperm DNA damage.

  20. [The significance of lifestyle as a risk factor for the metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujii, Satoru; Kuzuya, Hideshi

    2004-06-01

    The metabolic syndrome is featured by obesity, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, additionally associated with inflammatory and fibrinolytic dysfunctions, all of which are risk factors of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. The lifestyle factors that could cause and aggravate the metabolic syndrome are physical inactivity, calorie-dense diet, habitual alcohol drinking and smoking, and psychosocial stress. Energy excess along with a lot of saturated fat, i.e. more fast food and sugar-containing drinks, and sedentary lifestyle like television viewing are contributing to the epidemic of obesity. The significance of lifestyle from birth to adulthood will be reviewed in the context of the metabolic syndrome, as well as the background and environment in which the convenient lifestyle spread far and wide among us. PMID:15206140

  1. Childhood obesity and cardiovascular disease: links and prevention strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Nadeau, Kristen J.; Maahs, David M; Daniels, Stephen R.; Eckel, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence and severity of pediatric obesity have dramatically increased since the late 1980s, raising concerns about a subsequent increase in cardiovascular outcomes. Strong evidence, particularly from autopsy studies, supports the concept that precursors of adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) begin in childhood, and that pediatric obesity has an important influence on overall CVD risk. Lifestyle patterns also begin early and impact CVD risk. In addition, obesity and other CVD risk factor...

  2. Cardiovascular health education intervention in the Prison of Soria

    OpenAIRE

    M.M. Martínez-Delgado; C. Ramírez-López

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To promote awareness of healthy lifestyles, to help decrease the risk factors that cause cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia, through Health Education (HE). Material and Methods: Between November and December 2014 in the prison of Soria, HE intervention in cardiovascular diseases was performed. Participation was offered to 160 inmates at the Prison. The intervention consisted of individual interviews with anthropometric assessment and review o...

  3. Adrenergic System Activation Mediates Changes in Cardiovascular and Psychomotoric Reactions in Young Individuals after Red Bull© Energy Drink Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cavka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To assess the effect of Red Bull© on (1 blood glucose and catecholamine levels, (2 cardiovascular and respiratory function changes before, during, and after exercise, (3 reaction time, (4 cognitive functions, and (5 response to mental stress test and emotions in young healthy individuals (N=38. Methods. Heart rate (HR and arterial blood pressure (ABP, blood glucose, adrenaline, and noradrenalin plasma levels were measured before and after Red Bull© intake. Participants were subjected to 4 different study protocols by randomized order, before and 30 minutes after consumption of 500 mL of Red Bull©. Results. Mean ABP and HR were significantly increased at rest after Red Bull© intake. Blood glucose level and plasma catecholamine levels significantly increased after Red Bull© consumption. Heart rate, respiration rate, and respiratory flow rate were significantly increased during exercise after Red Bull© consumption compared to control condition. Intake of Red Bull© significantly improved reaction time, performance in immediate memory test, verbal fluency, and subject’s attention as well as performance in mental stress test. Conclusion. This study demonstrated that Red Bull© has beneficial effect on some cognitive functions and effect on cardiovascular and respiratory system at rest and during exercise by increasing activity of the sympathetic nervous system.

  4. Cardiovascular changes in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism%原发性甲状旁腺功能亢进症患者的心血管改变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱燕; 邢小平

    2010-01-01

    原发性甲状旁腺功能亢进症(甲旁亢)患者的死亡率明显增高,而其主要死亡原因为心血管系统疾病.目前,原发性甲旁亢的临床谱已经发生了明显变化,无症状原发性甲旁亢的比例逐渐增加.然而,即使在疾病早期原发性甲旁亢患者也会发生-系列心血管异常,包括:左室肥厚、瓣膜钙化、血管反应受损、高血压、血糖及血脂代谢异常等,而这些心血管病变在手术后可以得到一定程度的改善.%Primary hyperparathyroidism(PHPT) has been associated with increased mortality,which mainly due to cardiovascular disease. Nowadays, the clinical spectrum of PHPT have changed to an asymptomatic form. However,even in the early stage,PHPT have overpresented cardiovascular abnormalities including left ventricular hypertrophy, valvular calcification, impaired vascular reaction, hypertension,impaired glucose metabolism and dislipidemia, which can be improved to certain degree after surgery.

  5. Caloric Intake, Dietary Lifestyles, Macronutrient Composition, and Alzheimer’ Disease Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Maria Pasinetti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease is a devastating neurodegenerative condition currently affecting over 5 million elderly individuals in the United States. There is much evidence suggesting that certain dietary lifestyles can help to prevent and possibly treat Alzheimer's disease. In this paper, we discuss how certain cardiovascular and diabetic conditions can induce an increased susceptibility for Alzheimer's disease and the mechanisms through which this occurs. We further discuss how the consumption of certain foods or food components can help to reduce one's risk for Alzheimer's disease and may possibly be developed as a therapeutic agent.

  6. Working Conditions, Lifestyles and Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cottini, Elena; Ghinetti, Paolo

    The aim of this paper is to investigate whether employee health is affected by the environment in which the individual works - in terms of both physical and psychosocial working conditions - and by his or her lifestyle. Health measures are computed from Danish data, and refer to both self assessed...... general health and two more objective health measures: mental health specific to work-related problems, and physical health. We find that both bad working conditions and bad lifestyles reduce health, especially in its self-assessed component. The impact of lifetsyle indicators have a more modest health...

  7. Chinese Women's Lifestyle Changes in the Era of Big Data%大数据时代下中国女性生活方式的变革

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董艾辉; 吴广莉; 吴杨梅

    2016-01-01

    大数据时代下中国女性一方面将率先完成由消费者到消费商的革命,休闲方式正在由传统扁平走向现代立体的自由选择,社会交往范围由熟人圈走向了地球村,同时诱发了中国女性无限的工作潜能;另一方面,受快餐文化思维惰性的影响容易演变成单向度的女人,面对面交流的缺失可能导致人际关系的异化,个人信息的泄露成为中国女性安全的一大隐患,精准的广告投放引诱女性非理性消费情况增多。%On the one hand,Chinese women will be the first to complete the revolution from the consumer to the pro-sumer at the age of big data;their traditional leisure styles have been changed into more diverse with plenty alterna-tives,and social contacts have been expanded from the circle of acquaintances to the global village.At the same time, the age of big date also inspired Chinese women's unlimited work potential.On the other hand,at the age of big data, Chinese women are easy to become one-dimension women under the influence of fast food culture;lacking face to face communication may lead to the alienation of interpersonal relationships;personal information leakage becomes a major risk of Chinese women's security;women-targeted advertisements have increased women's irrational consump-tion.

  8. Domains of Chronic Stress, Lifestyle Factors, and Allostatic Load in Middle-Aged Mexican-American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Gallo, Linda C.; Jiménez, Jessica A.; Shivpuri, Smriti; Espinosa de los Monteros, Karla; Mills, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Little research has examined how chronic stress in different domains relates to allostatic load (AL). Purpose We examined the relationship between multiple chronic stressors with AL, and evaluated lifestyle factors as possible mediating factors. Methods Three hundred one middle-aged Mexican-American women underwent a physical exam and completed measures of lifestyle factors and chronic stress in eight domains. A composite of 12 neuroendocrine, metabolic, cardiovascular, and inflamm...

  9. Video game addiction: Impact on teenagers' lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Mahindru, Poornima

    2015-01-01

    Use of video games as a leisure-time activity has increased among teenagers. Excessive use of video games is associated with psychosocial dysfunctions in the user's life. Two teenagers came for consultation to our Service for Healthy Use of Technology (SHUT) clinic for management of addiction due to video games. They were assessed using a clinical interview as well as the General Health Questionnaire and Griffith criteria for video games. The cases emphasize the addictive potential of video games and their association with lifestyle changes. Addiction to video games has implications for screening and intervention among teenagers. PMID:27294452

  10. The lifestylisation of healthcare? ‘Consumer genomics’ and mobile health as technologies for healthy lifestyle

    OpenAIRE

    Federica Lucivero; Barbara Prainsack

    2015-01-01

    Consumer genomics and mobile health provide health-related information to individuals and offer advice for lifestyle change. These 'technologies for healthy lifestyle' occupy an ambiguous space between the highly regulated medical domain and the less regulated consumer market. We argue that this ambiguity challenges implicit distinctions between what is medical and what is related to personal lifestyle choices within current regulatory systems. In this article, we discuss how consumer genomic...

  11. Effects of a self-regulation lifestyle program for post-cardiac rehabilitation patients

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Veronica Regina

    2012-01-01

    Background As maintenance of lifestyle change and risk factor modification following completion of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) has been shown to be notoriously difficult, we developed a brief self-regulation lifestyle program for post-CR patients. Design Randomized-controlled trial. Method Following completion of CR 210 patients were randomized to receive either a lifestyle maintenance program (n=112) or standard care (n=98). The program was based on self-regulation principles and consisted o...

  12. Personalized Virtual Coaching for Lifestyle Support: Principles for Design and Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Kulyk, Olga; Akker, op den, H.J.A.; Klaassen, Randy; Gemert-Pijnen, van, J.E.W.C. (Lisette)

    2014-01-01

    There is a fast growing number of behavior change support systems (BCSS) aiming at supporting a healthy lifestyle. Existing lifestyle coaching services offer individual users access to web portals where they can communicate about a growing number of ingredients of everyday life concern: physical activity, nutrition, medication, mood, sleep and sexual health. Mobile technology in combination with body worn sensors support user’s awareness of their physical condition and lifestyle. Despite the ...

  13. THE TEACHER’S HEALTHY LIFESTYLE FORMATION IN THE PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Елена Владимировна Лопуга

    2014-01-01

    The article is devoted to representation of results of experimental work on formation of a healthy lifestyle of teachers with a various pedagogical experience in the conditions of professional development.Purpose: to analyse dynamics of formation of components of a healthy lifestyle and changes of levels of dominance of the relation to health and a healthy lifestyle in groups of teachers where the developed model of advanced training courses was applied.Methodology: express assessment of indi...

  14. The impact of ageing and changing utilization patterns on future cardiovascular drug expenditure: a pharmacoepidemiological projection approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildemoes, Helle Wallach; Andersen, Morten; Støvring, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    To develop a method for projecting the impact of ageing and changing drug utilization patterns on future drug expenditure.......To develop a method for projecting the impact of ageing and changing drug utilization patterns on future drug expenditure....

  15. The role of lifestyle modification in dysmetabolic syndrome management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, John P

    2006-01-01

    Lifestyle modification should be the primary therapeutic intervention in individuals with the dysmetabolic syndrome, given the fact that obesity, unhealthy diet, and physical inactivity are primary underlying risk factors for its development. Most individuals with the dysmetabolic syndrome need to lose weight through dietary changes and increases in physical activity. Modest weight losses may significantly improve all aspects of the syndrome. Because individuals differ in their lifestyles, tailoring interventions to meet the specific needs of each person will maximize the chances of success. Assessment of the individual with the dysmetabolic syndrome involves quantification of obesity, diets and dietary patterns, physical activity, emotional problems, and motivation. To help individuals make lifestyle changes, a number of behavior modification strategies have shown good efficacy. These strategies include a tailored problem-solving intervention, involving goal-setting, self-monitoring, stimulus control, cognitive restructuring, stress management, relapse prevention, social support, and contracting. The frequency of self-monitoring is an especially important strategy for continued success. Research studies have clearly demonstrated the power of lifestyle modification for long-term behavioral change. Lifestyle modification appears effective in delaying or preventing the development of the dysmetabolic syndrome. PMID:16820741

  16. The Use of Behavior Change Techniques and Theory in Technologies for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Treatment in Adults: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Sandra J; Sheats, Jylana L; King, Abby C

    2016-01-01

    This review examined the use of health behavior change techniques and theory in technology-enabled interventions targeting risk factors and indicators for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention and treatment. Articles targeting physical activity, weight loss, smoking cessation and management of hypertension, lipids and blood glucose were sourced from PubMed (November 2010-2015) and coded for use of 1) technology, 2) health behavior change techniques (using the CALO-RE taxonomy), and 3) health behavior theories. Of the 984 articles reviewed, 304 were relevant (240=intervention, 64=review). Twenty-two different technologies were used (M=1.45, SD=+/-0.719). The most frequently used behavior change techniques were self-monitoring and feedback on performance (M=5.4, SD=+/-2.9). Half (52%) of the intervention studies named a theory/model - most frequently Social Cognitive Theory, the Trans-theoretical Model, and the Theory of Planned Behavior/Reasoned Action. To optimize technology-enabled interventions targeting CVD risk factors, integrated behavior change theories that incorporate a variety of evidence-based health behavior change techniques are needed. PMID:26902519

  17. Dietary strategies, policy and cardiovascular disease risk reduction in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, L B

    2013-11-01

    Diet-related chronic diseases are major public health concerns in England and the associated costs to the National Health Service and society are considerable. Poor diet and other lifestyle factors are estimated to account for about one-third of all deaths from CVD in England. UK dietary recommendations were set by the Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy and are now set by the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition. For cardiovascular health, dietary recommendations are set for nutrients (saturated fat, trans-fat and carbohydrates), foods (fruits, vegetables and oily fish) and salt. The National Diet and Nutrition Survey demonstrates that the majority of the UK population have poor diets. Average intakes of saturated fat and salt are above recommendations while fruit, vegetables, fibre and oily fish are below recommendations. The Department of Health in England is committed to working to improve diet and lifestyle. Current work includes the Public Health Responsibility Deal, under which organisations pledge to increase fruits and vegetables and reduce levels of salt, trans-fat and energy in manufactured foods and menus, the provision of information to help improve food choice through better food labels and provision of information, including a NHS Choices website and the social marketing campaign Change4Life. PMID:23842106

  18. Coffee Consumption and Cardiovascular Diseases – Has the Time Come to Change Dietary Advice? A Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wierzejska Regina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The question whether coffee has a negative or a positive impact on human health has been the topic of much heated debate for years. Nevertheless, recent studies have not only failed to confirm earlier concerns, but in fact suggested a positive effect of coffee intake. Latest studies revealed that people who drink at least 3 cups of coffee per day are at a lower risk for type 2 diabetes, as well as liver and colon cancer. The reports on a possible correlation between coffee drinking and heart diseases have also generated optimistic results. No adverse associations between coffee consumption and coronary heart disease, stroke, and hypertension have been found. What is more, some authors demonstrated that coffee drinking may prevent cardiovascular diseases. Composition of coffee is determined by the strength of the brew and brewing methods. Unfiltered coffee is rich in cholesterol-raising diterpenes, therefore patients with dyslipidemia should be advised to drink filtered rather than non-filtered coffee. On the other hand coffee contains polyphenols which act as antioxidants, and these compounds are probably responsible for the suggested beneficial effect of coffee on health. This article summarizes the current literature reports on this controversial topic.

  19. The PreCardio-study protocol – a randomized clinical trial of a multidisciplinary electronic cardiovascular prevention programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobs Nele

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular diseases (CVD are the leading cause of death and the third cause of disability in Europe. Prevention programmes should include interventions aimed at a reduction of medical risk factors (hypertension, hypercholesterol, hyperglycemia, overweight and obesity as well as behavioural risk factors (sedentary lifestyle, high fat intake and low fruit and vegetable intake, smoking. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of a multifaceted, multidisciplinary electronic prevention programme on cardiovascular risk factors. Methods/Design In a randomized controlled trial, one group will receive a maximal intervention (= intervention group. The intervention group will be compared to the control group receiving a minimal intervention. An inclusion of 350 patients in total, with a follow-up of 3 years is foreseen. The inclusion criteria are age between 25–65 and insured by the Onderlinge Ziekenkas, insuring for guaranteed income in case of illness for self-employed. The maximal intervention group receives several prevention consultations by their general practitioner (GP using a new type of cardiovascular risk calculator with personalised feedback on behavioural risk factors. These patients receive a follow-up with intensive support of health behaviour change via different methods, i.e. a tailored website and personal advice of a multidisciplinary team (psychologist, physiotherapist and dietician. The aim of this strategy is to reduce cardiovascular risk factors according to the guidelines. The primary outcome measures will be cardiovascular risk factors. The secondary outcome measures are cardiovascular events, quality of life, costs and incremental cost effectiveness ratios. The control group receives prevention consultations using a new type of cardiovascular risk calculator and general feedback. Discussion This trial incorporates interventions by GPs and other health professionals aiming at a reduction of

  20. Metabolic Risk: Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Patient’s Guide The number of people at risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) ... lifestyle therapies because studies suggest it will reduce cardiovascular risk. Medications to lower LDL cholesterol may be added ...

  1. Cardiovascular Disease in South Asian Migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Eshan; Razak, Fahad; Lear, Scott A; Anand, Sonia S

    2015-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) represents a significant cause of global mortality and morbidity. South Asians (SAs) have a particularly high burden of coronary artery disease (CAD). This review describes current literature regarding the prevalence, incidence, etiology, and prognosis of CVD in SA migrants to high-income nations. We conducted a narrative review of CVD in the SA diaspora through a search of MEDLINE and PubMed. We included observational studies, randomized clinical trials, nonsystematic reviews, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses written in English. Of 15,231 articles identified, 827 articles were screened and 124 formed the basis for review. SA migrants have a 1.5-2 times greater prevalence of CAD than age- and sex-adjusted Europids. Increased abdominal obesity and body fat and increased burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia appear to be primary drivers of the excess CAD burden in SAs. Sedentary lifestyle and changes in diet after immigration are important contributors to weight gain and adiposity. Early life factors, physical activity patterns and, in some cases, reduced adherence to medical therapy may contribute to increased CVD risks in SAs. Novel biomarkers like leptin and adipokines may show distinct patterns in SAs and provide insights into cardiometabolic risk determinants. In conclusion, SAs have distinct CVD risk predispositions, with a complex relationship to cultural, innate, and acquired factors. Although CVD risk factor management and treatment among SAs is improving, opportunities exist for further advances. PMID:26321436

  2. Epigenetics and cardiovascular risk in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Francesco; Magenta, Alessandra; Pannarale, Giuseppe; Martino, Eliana; Zanoni, Cristina; Perla, Francesco M; Puddu, Paolo E; Barillà, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) can arise at the early stages of development and growth. Genetic and environmental factors may interact resulting in epigenetic modifications with abnormal phenotypic expression of genetic information without any change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA. Maternal dietary imbalance, inadequate to meet the nutritional needs of the fetus can lead to intrauterine growth retardation, decreased gestational age, low birth weight, excessive post-natal growth and metabolic alterations, with subsequent appearance of CVD risk factors. Fetal exposure to high cholesterol, diabetes and maternal obesity is associated with increased risk and progression of atherosclerosis. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and exposure to various environmental pollutants induce epigenetic alterations of gene expression relevant to the onset or progression of CVD. In children with hypercholesterolemia and/or obesity, oxidative stress activates platelets and monocytes, which release proinflammatory and proatherogenic substances, inducing endothelial dysfunction, decreased Doppler flow-mediated dilation and increased carotid intima-media thickness. Primary prevention of atherosclerosis should be implemented early. It is necessary to identify, through screening, high-risk apparently healthy children and take care of them enforcing healthy lifestyle (mainly consisting of Mediterranean diet and physical activity), prescribing nutraceuticals and eventual medications, if required by a high-risk profile. The key issue is the restoration of endothelial function in the reversible stage of atherosclerosis. Epigenetics may provide new markers for an early identification of children at risk and thereby develop innovative therapies and specific nutritional interventions in critical times. PMID:27367935

  3. Virtual coaches for healthy lifestyle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akker, op den H.J.A.; Klaassen, R.; Nijholt, A.; Esposito, Anna; Jain, Lakhmi C.

    2016-01-01

    Since the introduction of the idea of the software interface agent the question recurs whether these agents should be personified and graphically visualized in the interface. In this chapter we look at the use of virtual humans in the interface of healthy lifestyle coaching systems. Based on theory

  4. Cardiovascular, renal, electrolyte, and hormonal changes in man during gravitational stress, weightlessness, and simulated weightlessness: Lower body positive pressure applied by the antigravity suit. Thesis - Oslo Univ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravik, Stein E.

    1989-01-01

    Because of their erect posture, humans are more vulnerable to gravitational changes than any other animal. During standing or walking man must constantly use his antigravity muscles and his two columns, his legs, to balance against the force of gravity. At the same time, blood is surging downward to the dependent portions of the body, draining blood away from the brain and heart, and requiring a series of complex cardiovascular adjustments to maintain the human in a bipedal position. It was not until 12 April 1961, when Yuri Gagarin became the first human being to orbit Earth, that we could confirm man's ability to maintain vital functions in space -- at least for 90 min. Nevertheless, man's adaptation to weightlessness entails the deconditioning of various organs in the body. Muscles atrophy, and calcium loss leads to loss of bone strength as the demands on the musculoskeletal system are almost nonexistent in weightlessness. Because of the lack of hydrostatic pressures in space, blood rushes to the upper portions of the body, initiating a complex series of cardioregulatory responses. Deconditioning during spaceflight, however, first becomes a potentially serious problem in humans returning to Earth, when the cardiovascular system, muscles and bones are suddenly exposed to the demanding counterforce of gravity -- weight. One of the main purposes of our studies was to test the feasibility of using Lower Body Positive Pressure, applied with an antigravity suit, as a new and alternative technique to bed rest and water immersion for studying cardioregulatory, renal, electrolyte, and hormonal changes in humans. The results suggest that Lower Body Positive Pressure can be used as an analog of microgravity-induced physiological responses in humans.

  5. Nutraceuticals and Bioactive Components from Fish for Dyslipidemia and Cardiovascular Risk Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, Giulia; Busnelli, Marco; Manzini, Stefano; Parolini, Cinzia

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the most common health problem in developed countries, and residual risk after implementing all current therapies is still high. Permanent changes in lifestyle may be hard to achieve and people may not always be motivated enough to make the recommended modifications. Emerging research has explored the application of natural food-based strategies in disease management. In recent years, much focus has been placed on the beneficial effects of fish consumption. Many of the positive effects of fish consumption on dyslipidemia and heart diseases have been attributed to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs, i.e., EPA and DHA); however, fish is also an excellent source of protein and, recently, fish protein hydrolysates containing bioactive peptides have shown promising activities for the prevention/management of cardiovascular disease and associated health complications. The present review will focus on n-3 PUFAs and bioactive peptides effects on cardiovascular disease risk factors. Moreover, since considerable controversy exists regarding the association between n-3 PUFAs and major cardiovascular endpoints, we have also reviewed the main clinical trials supporting or not this association. PMID:27338419

  6. Selected mucolytic, anti-inflammatory and cardiovascular drugs change the ability of neutrophils to form extracellular traps (NETs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawrotniak, Marcin; Kozik, Andrzej; Rapala-Kozik, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophils form the first line of host defense against infections that combat pathogens using two major mechanisms, the phagocytosis or the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). The netosis (NET formation) exerts additional, unfavorable effects on the fitness of host cells and is also involved at the sites of lung infection, increasing the mucus viscosity and in the circulatory system where it can influence the intravascular clot formation. Although molecular mechanisms underlying the netosis are still incompletely understood, a role of NADPH oxidase that activates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during the initiation of NETs has been well documented. Since several commonly used drugs can affects the netosis, our current study was aimed to determine the effects of selected mucolytic, anti-inflammatory and cardiovascular drugs on NET formation, with a special emphasis on ROS production and NADPH oxidase activity. The treatment of neutrophils with N-acetylcysteine, ketoprofen and ethamsylate reduced the production of ROS by these cells in a dose-dependent manner. NET formation was also modulated by selected drugs. N-acetylcysteine inhibited the netosis but in the presence of H2O2 this neutrophil ability was restored, indicating that N-acetylcysteine may influence the NET formation by modulating ROS productivity. The administration of ethamsylate led to a significant reduction in NET formation and this effect was not restored by H2O2 or S. aureus, suggesting the unexpected additional side effects of this drug. Ketoprofen seemed to promote ROS-independent NET release, simultaneously inhibiting ROS production. The results, obtained in this study strongly suggest that the therapeutic strategies applied in many neutrophil-mediated diseases should take into account the NET-associated effects. PMID:26291043

  7. Amish Lifestyle Brings Unexpected Benefit: Less Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160228.html Amish Lifestyle Brings Unexpected Benefit: Less Asthma Finding suggests exposing ... are very similar genetically. They also share many lifestyle factors: low rates of childhood obesity, large family ...

  8. Medication or Lifestyle for Pre-Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is possible. By committing to and maintaining a healthy lifestyle, some people are able to reverse their pre- ... can avoid many diabetes complications by adopting a healthy lifestyle. How much can be avoided usually depends on ...

  9. Molecular Mechanisms of Cardiovascular Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The average lifespan of humans is increasing, and with it the percentage of people entering the 65 and older age group is growing rapidly and will continue to do so in the next 20 years. Within this age group, cardiovascular disease will remain the leading cause of death, and the cost associated with treatment will continue to increase. Aging is an inevitable part of life and unfortunately poses the largest risk factor for cardiovascular disease. CONTENT: We provide an overview of some of the molecular mechanisms involved in regulating lifespan and health, including mitochondria, telomeres, stem cells, sirtuins, Adenosine Monophosphate-activated Protein Kinase, Mammalian Target of Rapamycin and Insulin-like Growth Factor 1. We also provide future perspectives of lifespan and health, which are intimately linked fields. SUMMARY: Aging remains the biggest non-modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The biological, structural and mechanical changes in senescent cardiovascular system are thought to contribute in increasing incidence of cardiovascular disease in aging. Understanding the mechanisms contributing to such changes is therefore crucial for both prevention and development of treatment for cardiovascular diseases. KEYWORDS: cardiovascular aging, mitochondria, telomeres, sirtuin, stem cells.

  10. Energy and sustainable lifestyle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sustainable development sets limits to our energy use within our economy. The main reason is the anthropologic greenhouse effect, limiting our fossil fuel consumption. It is important to emphasise that the greenhouse effect is not a political slogan but a well established scientific fact, with solid evidence brought into limelight about the phenomena over the last hundred years. But care should be taken about energy use even if we switch over to renewable s, for the sun radiation energy is not unlimited either. There is no danger that limitations on energy use would bring our life quality down, for we could produce all the needed goods and services with lower energy intensity, increasing the efficiency of our production processes and switching over from fossil fuels to renewable s. One should notice that it is impossible to solve the problems of excessive energy use only on the economical level. It's needed to change the public attitudes to ensure the proper support in combating the climate change and meeting the requirements of sustainable development

  11. Homeschooling as a Fundamental Change in Lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Ari; Aviram, Aharon

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses home education (homeschooling) in Israel. The first section reviews the legal situation, the scope and the current status of homeschooling in Israel. The second section presents data from qualitative research conducted in Israel, which shows, among other things, that homeschooling is perceived by those who practice it as a…

  12. Lifestyle Changes for Heart Attack Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Can a Heart Attack Be Prevented? Lowering your risk factors for coronary ... This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is a heart attack? 05/22/2014 Describes how a heart attack ...

  13. Lifestyle Changes Recommended for PTSD Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PTSD Basics Return from War Specific to Women Types of Trauma War Terrorism Violence and Abuse Disasters Is it PTSD? Treatment and Coping Treatment Self-Help and Coping PTSD Research Where to Get Help for PTSD Help with VA PTSD Care or ... Overview Types of Trauma Trauma Basics Disaster and Terrorism Military ...

  14. Lifestyle Changes After Having Gallbladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... time, your doctor may have you see a nutritionist, who can work with you and give you ... who follow an exercise program tailored to their personal needs feel better physically and emotionally and can ...

  15. Gaining pounds by losing pounds: preferences for lifestyle interventions to reduce obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Mandy; Yi, Deokhee; Avenell, Alison; Douglas, Flora; Aucott, Lorna; van Teijlingen, Edwin; Vale, Luke

    2015-04-01

    While there is evidence that weight-loss interventions reduce morbidity, indications of their acceptability are limited. Understanding preferences for lifestyle interventions will help policymakers design interventions. We used a discrete choice experiment to investigate preferences for lifestyle interventions to reduce adult obesity. Attributes focused on: the components of the programme; weight change; short-term and longer-term health gains; time spent on the intervention and financial costs incurred. Data were collected through a web-based questionnaire, with 504 UK adults responding. Despite evidence that dietary interventions are the most effective way to lose weight, respondents preferred lifestyle interventions involving physical activity. While the evidence suggests that behaviour change support improves effectiveness of interventions, its value to participants was limited. A general preference to maintain current lifestyles, together with the sensitivity of take up to financial costs, suggests financial incentives could be used to help maximise uptake of healthy lifestyle interventions. An important target group for change, men, required more compensation to take up healthier lifestyles. Those of normal weight, who will increase in weight over time if they do not change their lifestyle, required the highest compensation. Policymakers face challenges in inducing people to change their behaviour and adopt healthy lifestyles. PMID:25348049

  16. Cardiovascular Molecular Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Khanicheh, Elham

    2009-01-01

    Although there have been significant improvements in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases they still remain the main cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Currently available diagnostic approaches may not be adequate to detect pathologic changes during the early disease stages, which may be valuable for risk stratification and also to assess a response to a therapy. Therefore molecular imaging techniques such as Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound (CEU) molecular imaging to noninvasively i...

  17. Cardiovascular Update: Risk, Guidelines, and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Tamera

    2015-09-01

    This article provides an update of the current status of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the United States, including a brief review of the underlying pathophysiology and epidemiology. This article presents a discussion of the latest American Heart Association guidelines that introduce the concept of promoting ideal cardiovascular health, defined by seven identified metrics. Specific CVD risk factors and utilization of the 10-year CVD event prediction calculator are discussed. In addition, current management recommendations of health-related conditions that increase risk for CVD, such as hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, are provided. Finally, a discussion of detailed evidence-based lifestyle recommendations to promote cardiovascular health and reduce CVD risks concludes the update. PMID:26156147

  18. Changes in electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy and risk of major cardiovascular events in isolated systolic hypertension: the LIFE study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larstorp, A C K; Okin, P M; Devereux, R B;

    2011-01-01

    The predictive value of changes in the severity of electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy (ECG-LVH) during antihypertensive therapy remains unclear in isolated systolic hypertension (ISH). In a Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension substudy, we included 1320...

  19. Physical activity, obesity and cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakka, T A; Bouchard, C

    2005-01-01

    Sedentary lifestyle and overweight are major public health, clinical, and economical problems in modern societies. The worldwide epidemic of excess weight is due to imbalance between physical activity and dietary energy intake. Sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy diet, and consequent overweight and obesity markedly increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Regular physical activity 45-60 min per day prevents unhealthy weight gain and obesity, whereas sedentary behaviors such as watching television promote them. Regular exercise can markedly reduce body weight and fat mass without dietary caloric restriction in overweight individuals. An increase in total energy expenditure appears to be the most important determinant of successful exercise-induced weight loss. The best long-term results may be achieved when physical activity produces an energy expenditure of at least 2,500 kcal/week. Yet, the optimal approach in weight reduction programs appears to be a combination of regular physical activity and caloric restriction. A minimum of 60 min, but most likely 80-90 min of moderate-intensity physical activity per day may be needed to avoid or limit weight regain in formerly overweight or obese individuals. Regular moderate intensity physical activity, a healthy diet, and avoiding unhealthy weight gain are effective and safe ways to prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases and to reduce premature mortality in all population groups. Although the efforts to promote cardiovascular health concern the whole population, particular attention should be paid to individuals who are physically inactive, have unhealthy diets or are prone to weight gain. They have the highest risk for worsening of the cardiovascular risk factor profile and for cardiovascular disease. To combat the epidemic of overweight and to improve cardiovascular health at a population level, it is important to develop strategies to increase habitual physical activity and to prevent overweight and obesity in

  20. The Influence of Lifestyle on Cardio-metabolic Risk in Students from Timisoara University Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela ORAVIȚAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is a part of the activities in a cross border cooperation project that has proposed the management of obesity and cardiometabolic risk at students from Timisoara and Szeged university centres. The target group of Timisoara University Center was formed out of 600 students enrolled in the four major universities from Timisoara; target group students were questioned about their lifestyle and were evaluated anthropometric parameters, body composition and arterial stiffness; based on questionnaires was determine too the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and/or diabetes mellitus type II. Analysis of the results revealed the strong correlations between lifestyle and cardio-metabolic risk in these students.

  1. Personalized Virtual Coaching for Lifestyle Support: Principles for Design and Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulyk, Olga; Akker, op den Rieks; Klaassen, Randy; Gemert-Pijnen, van Lisette

    2014-01-01

    There is a fast growing number of behavior change support systems (BCSS) aiming at supporting a healthy lifestyle. Existing lifestyle coaching services offer individual users access to web portals where they can communicate about a growing number of ingredients of everyday life concern: physical act

  2. The role of noninvasive imaging in promoting cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, Valentin; Vahl, Torsten P

    2010-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide, and its prevalence is likely to increase in the near future. The morbidity and mortality associated with CVD causes an enormous economic burden, which has become a major problem for many societies across the globe. The current prevention strategies are aimed at identifying and reducing established risk factors for atherosclerosis including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, obesity, smoking, and sedentary lifestyle. However, some of our prevention goals, such as reducing LDL cholesterol, change dramatically once a subject has been diagnosed with coronary atherosclerosis. At the present time, atherosclerosis is frequently diagnosed relatively late in the course of the disease, when a patient develops symptoms or presents with acute events such as an acute coronary syndrome or a stroke. Several studies have demonstrated that novel noninvasive imaging techniques have the potential to identify subclinical atherosclerosis and high-risk plaques. Early detection of subclinical atherosclerosis may enable clinicians to improve the control of cardiovascular risk factors in affected patients earlier, thereby helping to prevent some of the manifestations of CVD. PMID:20574768

  3. Lifestyle, pregnancy and epigenetic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Subit; Junaid, Mohammed A

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly growing evidences link maternal lifestyle and prenatal factors with serious health consequences and diseases later in life. Extensive epidemiological studies have identified a number of factors such as diet, stress, gestational diabetes, exposure to tobacco and alcohol during gestation as influencing normal fetal development. In light of recent discoveries, epigenetic mechanisms such as alteration of DNA methylation, chromatin modifications and modulation of gene expression during gestation are believed to possibly account for various types of plasticity such as neural tube defects, autism spectrum disorder, congenital heart defects, oral clefts, allergies and cancer. The purpose of this article is to review a number of published studies to fill the gap in our understanding of how maternal lifestyle and intrauterine environment influence molecular modifications in the offspring, with an emphasis on epigenetic alterations. To support these associations, we highlighted laboratory studies of rodents and epidemiological studies of human based on sampling population cohorts. PMID:25687469

  4. Averting comfortable lifestyle crises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilton, Rod

    2013-01-01

    How have climate change and diet shaped the evolution of human energy metabolism, and responses to vitamin C, fructose and uric acid? Through the last three millennia observant physicians have noted the association of inappropriate diets with increased incidence of obesity, heart disease, diabetes and cancer, and over the past 300 years doctors in the UK observed that overeating increased the incidence of these diseases. Anthropological studies of the Inuit culture in the mid-nineteenth century revealed that humans can survive and thrive in the virtual absence of dietary carbohydrate. In the 1960s, Cahill revealed the flexibility of human metabolism in response to partial and total starvation and demonstrated that type 2 diabetics were better adapted than healthy subjects to conserving protein during fasting. The potential role for brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in temperature maintenance and dietary calorie control was suggested by Rothwell and Stock from their experiments with 'cafeteria fed rats' in the 1980s. Recent advances in gene array studies and PET scanning support a role for this process in humans. The industrialisation of food processing in the twentieth century has led to increases in palatability and digestibility with a parallel loss of quality leading to overconsumption and the current obesity epidemic. The switch from animal to vegetable fats at the beginning of the twentieth century, followed by the rapid increase in sugar and fructose consumption from 1979 is mirrored by a steep increase in obesity in the 1980s, in the UK and USA. Containment of the obesity epidemic is compounded by the addictive properties of sugar which involve the same dopamine receptors in the pleasure centres of the brain as for cocaine, nicotine and alcohol. Of the many other toxic effects of excessive sugar consumption, immunocompromisation, kidney damage, atherosclerosis, oxidative stress and cancer are highlighted. The WHO and guidelines on sugar consumption include

  5. Kogyaru and Otaku: Youth Subcultures Lifestyles in Postmodern Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Keliyan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article studies social-group peculiarities and lifestyles of kogyaru and otaku as significant groups in contemporary Japanese youth subcultures. They are typical for postmodern society, with its characteristic consumption, communication, and lifestyle. Kogyaru and otaku are investigated as examples of postmodern changes in the dissemination and perception of fashion trends, hobby activities, and innovative products. The causes of their emergence and growth are related to the general problems facing postmodern Japan: its economy, educational institutions, family, and value system. Their influence is considered to be an important source of growth for a large and profitable market.

  6. Basic human needs affected for arterial hypertension and Lifestyle

    OpenAIRE

    Gleudson Alves Xavier; Maysa Oliveira Rolim; Vera Maria da Conceição Lopes de Sousa; Maria Euridéa de Castro

    2003-01-01

    Knowing that hypertension is a chronic disease, in which the individual may have his basic needs changed, resulting in having to learn to deal with a new life-style, we considered it appropriate to study this theme. It was designed to identify the affected basic needs and to discover the influence of life-style and of hypertension in alteration of those needs. The study is a descriptive-exploratory, accomplished at the Campus of a State Public University in Fortaleza – Ceará, Brazil. This stu...

  7. Burnout And Lifestyle Of Principals And Entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Lavrenčič

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: What kind of lifestyle do the principals and entrepreneurs lead? Does the lifestyle of principals and entrepreneurs influence burnout? Purpose: To find out, based on the results of a questionnaire, what kind of lifestyle both researched groups lead. Does lifestyle have an influence on the occurrence of the phenomenon of burnout. Method: We used the method of data collection by questionnaire. Acquired data were analyzed using SPSS, descriptive and inference statistics. Results: Results showed, that both groups lead a similar lifestyle and that lifestyle influences burnout with principals, as well as entrepreneurs. Organization: School principals and entrepreneurs are the heads of individual organizations or companies, the goal of which is success. To be successful in their work, they must adapt their lifestyle, which can be healthy or unhealthy. If their lifestyle is unhealthy, it can lead to burnout. Society: With results of the questionnaire we would like to answer the question about the lifestyle of both groups and its influence on the occurrence of burnout. Originality: The study of lifestyle and the occurrence of burnout in these two groups is the first study in this area. Limitations/Future Research: In continuation, research groups could be submitted to the research fields of effort physiology and tracking of certain haematological parameters, such as cholesterol, blood sugar and stress hormones - adrenaline, noradrenalin, cortisol. Thus, we could carry out an even more in depth research of the connection between lifestyle and burnout.

  8. Behaviour change techniques in home-based cardiac rehabilitation: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Heron, Neil; Kee, Frank; Donnelly, Michael; Cardwell, Christopher; Tully, Mark A; Cupples, Margaret E

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programmes offering secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease (CVD) advise healthy lifestyle behaviours, with the behaviour change techniques (BCTs) of goals and planning, feedback and monitoring, and social support recommended. More information is needed about BCT use in home-based CR to support these programmes in practice.AIM: To identify and describe the use of BCTs in home-based CR programmes.DESIGN AND SETTING: Randomised controlled trials o...

  9. Spectral components of human cardiovascular responses to step changes in Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP) before and after 22 hour of 6 deg head down bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, C. F.; Evans, J. M.; Grande, K. J.; Murphy, C. D.; Patwardhan, A. R.

    1992-01-01

    Changes in autonomic outflow to peripheral organs during the development of bedrest induced orthostatic intolerance have not been determined. Recent studies have indicated that spectral analysis provides an indirect assessment of these changes. Eight male subjects were studied before and after 22 hours of 6 degree head down bedrest plus Lasix (40 mg. P.P.). Cardiovascular spectra (using an autoregressive technique) were determined for heart rate (HR, ECG), arterial pressure (AP, Finapres), radial artery flow (RF, Hokansen) and respiration rate (RR, BoMed). Spectra were obtained from 2.5 minute segments during control, lower body negative pressure (minus 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 mmHg) and recovery. Bedrest increased HR spectra power in the low frequency (.001 to .041 Hz) range, increased RF power in the low and mid (.04 to .18 Hz) range and increased AP power in the high (.18 to .50 Hz) frequency range. Increasing levels of lower body negative pressure decreased HR power and increased RF power in the high frequency range and decreased AP power in the low frequency range. Since spectral power of HR in the high frequency range has been shown to indicate parasympathetically mediated regulation and power in the low and mid frequency ranges indicates a sympathetic / parasympathetic mixture, then both bedrest and lower body negative pressure appeared to shift sympathetic / parasympathetic balance toward sympathetic regulation of HR. The interpretation of the spectral content of AP and RF with respect to their autonomic origins remains unclear.

  10. Qualitative Study of Typology of Lifestyles: Study of the Youth in Mahabad City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Ghaderzadeh

    2014-05-01

    In addition, these people accept separate styles with presence in different types of social status. In sum, we can conclude that along with the increasing importance of lifestyle in the recent period, this problem was apparent in the youth of our study, and their lifestyle typically leads life and determines identity. The variety of lifestyles in the present era can be found in this study, and there are six lifestyles (pre-modern, modern, scientific, sports-oriented, joyful and global-local that prove this claim. As the most active population of society, the youth are not passive, and they value their agency. They try to shape their own lifestyles, and have access to a certain lifestyle according to the social status and influence of the prevailing global trends. Choosing any lifestyle forms patterns, norms, actions, thoughts, and generally an identity in a person, and distinguishes him/her from other people who choose different lifestyles. The modern world and its identifiers and changes, the increasing cultural capital in families, plenty of access to new elements and facilities, and special attention to the youth in this process all have enormous and undeniable influences in shaping lifestyles and consequently identities that fit within them.

  11. Renal effects of anti-gravity suit inflation in man in relation to cardiovascular and hormonal changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelen, G.; Kravik, S. E.; Hadj-Aissa, A.; Vincent, M.; Sem-Jacobsen, C. W.; Greenleaf, J.; Gharib, C.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that inflation for 3 hr of an antigravity suit that covered the legs and abdomen of normal standing subjects results in significant increases in urine flow, osmolar and free water clearances, total and fractional sodium excretion, and potassium excretion, while glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow are transiently increased. Such changes in kidney function are the consequence of the increase in thoracic blood volume induced by inflation which also results in an immediate increase in blood pressure and reflex bradycardia, together with a progressive lowering of plasma renin activity and aldosterone. The changes in kidney excretory patterns brought about by suit inflation appear to be similar in nature and magnitude to those observed during water immersion or in the early phase of bed rest, situations known to result in a headward redistribution of blood.

  12. Cardiovascular alterations at different stages of hypertension development during ethanol consumption: Time-course of vascular and autonomic changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present work was to establish a time-course correlation between vascular and autonomic changes that contribute to the development of hypertension during ethanol ingestion in rats. For this, male Wistar rats were subjected to the intake of increasing ethanol concentrations in their drinking water during four weeks. Ethanol effects were investigated at the end of each week. Mild hypertension was already observed at the first week of treatment, and a progressive blood pressure increase was observed along the evaluation period. Increased pressor response to phenylephrine was observed from first to fourth week. α1-adrenoceptor protein in the mesenteric bed was enhanced at the first week, whereas β2-adrenoceptor protein in the aorta was reduced after the second week. In the third week, ethanol intake facilitated the depressor response to sodium nitroprusside, whereas in the fourth week it reduced nitrate content in aorta and increased it plasma. The bradycardic component of the baroreflex was impaired, whereas baroreflex tachycardia was enhanced at the third and fourth weeks. AT1A receptor and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) mRNAs in the nucleus tractus solitarius were increased at the fourth week. These findings suggest that increased vascular responsiveness to vasoconstrictor agents is possibly a link factor in the development and maintenance of the progressive hypertension induced by ethanol consumption. Additionally, baroreflex changes are possibly mediated by alterations in angiotensinergic mechanisms and CNP content within the brainstem, which contribute to maintaining the hypertensive state in later phases of ethanol ingestion. Facilitated vascular responsiveness to nitric oxide seems to counteract ethanol-induced hypertension. - Highlights: • Mild hypertension was observed during the entire period of ethanol ingestion. • Ethanol facilitated vascular reactivity to vasoactive agents. • Changes in baroreflex activity contribute to ethanol

  13. Cardiovascular alterations at different stages of hypertension development during ethanol consumption: Time-course of vascular and autonomic changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crestani, Carlos C. [Department of Natural Active Principles and Toxicology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Univ. Estadual Paulista—UNESP (Brazil); Lopes da Silva, Andréia [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Scopinho, América A. [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Ruginsk, Silvia G.; Uchoa, Ernane T. [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Correa, Fernando M.A. [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Elias, Lucila L.K.; Antunes-Rodrigues, José [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Resstel, Leonardo B.M., E-mail: leoresstel@yahoo.com.br [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-10-15

    The aim of the present work was to establish a time-course correlation between vascular and autonomic changes that contribute to the development of hypertension during ethanol ingestion in rats. For this, male Wistar rats were subjected to the intake of increasing ethanol concentrations in their drinking water during four weeks. Ethanol effects were investigated at the end of each week. Mild hypertension was already observed at the first week of treatment, and a progressive blood pressure increase was observed along the evaluation period. Increased pressor response to phenylephrine was observed from first to fourth week. α{sub 1}-adrenoceptor protein in the mesenteric bed was enhanced at the first week, whereas β{sub 2}-adrenoceptor protein in the aorta was reduced after the second week. In the third week, ethanol intake facilitated the depressor response to sodium nitroprusside, whereas in the fourth week it reduced nitrate content in aorta and increased it plasma. The bradycardic component of the baroreflex was impaired, whereas baroreflex tachycardia was enhanced at the third and fourth weeks. AT{sub 1A} receptor and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) mRNAs in the nucleus tractus solitarius were increased at the fourth week. These findings suggest that increased vascular responsiveness to vasoconstrictor agents is possibly a link factor in the development and maintenance of the progressive hypertension induced by ethanol consumption. Additionally, baroreflex changes are possibly mediated by alterations in angiotensinergic mechanisms and CNP content within the brainstem, which contribute to maintaining the hypertensive state in later phases of ethanol ingestion. Facilitated vascular responsiveness to nitric oxide seems to counteract ethanol-induced hypertension. - Highlights: • Mild hypertension was observed during the entire period of ethanol ingestion. • Ethanol facilitated vascular reactivity to vasoactive agents. • Changes in baroreflex activity

  14. Lifestyle modification in the management of the metabolic syndrome: achievements and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Dalle Grave

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Riccardo Dalle Grave1, Simona Calugi1, Elena Centis2, Rebecca Marzocchi2, Marwan El Ghoch1, Giulio Marchesini21Department of Eating & Weight Disorder, Villa Garda Hospital, Garda (VR, Italy; 2Unit of Metabolic Diseases & Clinical Dietetics, Alma Mater Studiorum – University of Bologna, Bologna, ItalyAbstract: Lifestyle modification based on behavior therapy is the most important and effective strategy to manage the metabolic syndrome. Modern lifestyle modification therapy combines specific recommendations on diet and exercise with behavioral and cognitive strategies. The intervention may be delivered face-to-face or in groups, or in groups combined with individual sessions. The main challenge of treatment is helping patients maintain healthy behavior changes in the long term. In the last few years, several strategies have been evaluated to improve the long-term effect of lifestyle modification. Promising results have been achieved by combining lifestyle modification with pharmacotherapy, using meals replacement, setting higher physical activity goals, and long-term care. The key role of cognitive processes in the success/failure of weight loss and maintenance suggests that new cognitive procedures and strategies should be included in the traditional lifestyle modification interventions, in order to help patients build a mind-set favoring long-term lifestyle changes. These new strategies raise optimistic expectations for an effective treatment of metabolic syndrome with lifestyle modifications, provided public health programs to change the environment where patients live support them.Keywords: metabolic syndrome, obesity, lifestyle modification, cognitive behavior therapy

  15. Dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate is associated with cardiovascular reactivity to stress in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirokawa, Kumi; Ohira, Tetsuya; Nagayoshi, Mako; Kajiura, Mitsugu; Imano, Hironori; Kitamura, Akihiko; Kiyama, Masahiko; Okada, Takeo; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2016-07-01

    Cardiovascular stress reactivity is a predictor of atherosclerosis and cardiac events. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) protects against cardiovascular diseases, but results among previous studies have been inconsistent. We investigated the association between dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-s) and cardiovascular stress reactivity in Japanese women and men. Among 979 healthy Japanese subjects (641 women and 338 men), serum levels of DHEA-s, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate, heart rate variability, and peripheral blood flow were measured under rest and two types of task. Mean differences in measured variables during tasks and a post-task period were calculated as changes in stress reactivity. Variables of stress reactivity were adjusted for multiple potential confounding factors. In women, DHEA-s levels showed positive associations with changes in SBP and DBP (standardized beta=0.12, p=0.020; 0.17, 0.002, respectively). Stratification by menopausal status and other lifestyle factors (e.g., smoking status, alcohol consumption) were conducted. Significant positive associations remained in pre-menopausal (standardized beta=0.13, p=0.037; 0.18, 0.005), non-smoking (0.12, 0.010; 0.18, blood-pressure reactivity to stress in women, and being menopausal, smoking, and alcohol consumption modified this association. PMID:27104812

  16. Actividad física y cambios cardiovasculares y bioquímicos del caballo chileno a la competencia de rodeo Physical activity, cardiovascular and biochemical changes of Chilean purebred horses to rodeo competitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. PEREZ

    1997-01-01

    concentration were the most significant changes observed in the hydrosaline balance. It is concluded that for Chilean horses, the rodeo represents an exercise of force, speed and resistance which induces changes in their cardiovascular, hydrosaline, metabolic and endocrine activity, responses which are similar to those observed in high intensity exercises

  17. Predictors of primary care referrals to a vascular disease prevention lifestyle program among participants in a cluster randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passey Megan E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease accounts for a large burden of disease, but is amenable to prevention through lifestyle modification. This paper examines patient and practice predictors of referral to a lifestyle modification program (LMP offered as part of a cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT of prevention of vascular disease in primary care. Methods Data from the intervention arm of a cluster RCT which recruited 36 practices through two rural and three urban primary care organisations were used. In each practice, 160 eligible high risk patients were invited to participate. Practices were randomly allocated to intervention or control groups. Intervention practice staff were trained in screening, motivational interviewing and counselling and encouraged to refer high risk patients to a LMP involving individual and group sessions. Data include patient surveys; clinical audit; practice survey on capacity for preventive care; referral records from the LMP. Predictors of referral were examined using multi-level logistic regression modelling after adjustment for confounding factors. Results Of 301 eligible patients, 190 (63.1% were referred to the LMP. Independent predictors of referral were baseline BMI ≥ 25 (OR 2.87 95%CI:1.10, 7.47, physical inactivity (OR 2.90 95%CI:1.36,6.14, contemplation/preparation/action stage of change for physical activity (OR 2.75 95%CI:1.07, 7.03, rural location (OR 12.50 95%CI:1.43, 109.7 and smaller practice size (1–3 GPs (OR 16.05 95%CI:2.74, 94.24. Conclusions Providing a well-structured evidence-based lifestyle intervention, free of charge to patients, with coordination and support for referral processes resulted in over 60% of participating high risk patients being referred for disease prevention. Contrary to expectations, referrals were more frequent from rural and smaller practices suggesting that these practices may be more ready to engage with these programs. Trial registration ACTRN

  18. Psychological Health and Lifestyle Management Preconception and in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Briony; McPhie, Skye; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Gillman, Matthew W; Skouteris, Helen

    2016-03-01

    Healthful lifestyles before and during pregnancy are important to facilitate healthy outcomes for mother and baby. For example, behaviors such as a sedentary lifestyle and consuming an energy-dense/nutrient-poor diet increase the risk of overweight/obesity before pregnancy and excessive weight gain during pregnancy, leading to adverse maternal and child health outcomes. Maternal psychopathology may be implicated in the development of suboptimal maternal lifestyle behaviors before and during pregnancy, perhaps through impacts on motivation. This article explores this notion using maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain as examples of the health impacts of psychological states. We suggest that factors such as psychological well-being, individual motivation for behavior change, and broader environmental influences that affect both individual and system-wide determinants all play important roles in promoting healthy lifestyles periconception and are key modifiable aspects for intervention designers to consider when trying to improve dietary behaviors and increase physical activity before and during pregnancy. In addition, implementing system-wide changes that impact positively on individual and environmental barriers to behavior change that are sustainable, measureable, and effective is required. PMID:26859253

  19. Nutrição e exercício na prevenção e controle das doenças cardiovasculares Nutrition and exercise on cardiovascular disease prevention and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz Ribeiro Rique

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available As doenças cardiovasculares constituem a principal causa de mortalidade no mundo e o seu crescimento significativo nos países em desenvolvimento alerta para o potencial impacto nas classes menos favorecidas. São influenciadas por um conjunto de fatores de risco, alguns modificáveis mediante alterações no estilo de vida, como a dieta adequada e o exercício regular. O objetivo da presente revisão é abordar esses aspectos a fim de prevenir e controlar as doenças cardiovasculares. O consumo de vegetais, frutas, grãos integrais, soja, azeite e peixes deve ser aumentado, ainda que limitando a quantidade de gordura. Os alimentos ricos em ácidos graxos saturados e trans devem ser evitados, assim como o uso excessivo de sal e bebidas alcoólicas. Além do exercício aeróbio, as atividades contra resistência vêm aumentando sua importância na reabilitação cardíaca. Essas mudanças de estilo de vida deveriam ser prioridades na Saúde Pública a fim de deter o avanço das doenças cardiovasculares em nosso país.Cardiovascular diseases represent the major worldwide cause of death, and their significant growth in developing countries alerts against their impact on underprivileged classes. Cardiovascular diseases are subject to a set of risk factors, some of which can be altered through changes in lifestyle, such as balanced diet and regular exercising. The purpose of this review is to approach these factors in order to prevent and control cardiovascular diseases. The consumption of vegetables, fruit, whole grains, soybeans, olive oil, and fish must be increased, although limiting the amount of fat. Saturated and trans fatty acids must be avoided, as well as excessive use of salt and alcoholic beverages. Besides aerobics, resistance training activities are increasing their importance in cardiac rehabilitation. Such lifestyle changes should be prioritized by Public Health authorities in order to hold back cardiovascular disease occurrence in

  20. Diabetes risk: antioxidants or lifestyle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The global prevalence of type-2 diabetes and its associated cardiovascular disease is increasing, possibly due to the present pandemic of obesity and overweight. It is projected that by the year 2025, more than 300 million people worldwide will have diabetes. In the United States, between the two NH...

  1. Cardiac magnetic resonance: Impact on diagnosis and management of patients with congenital cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To estimate the clinical impact of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients with congenital cardiovascular disease (CCD). Materials and methods: Since 2003, 1.5 T CMR was used at our university hospital to evaluate morphology, cardiac kinetics, aortic and pulmonary flow, and vascular anatomy in patients with CCD. The present study considered a consecutive series of these patients from 2003 to 2006. A paediatric cardiologist judged our reports as expected or unexpected and, secondarily, as not reliable (level 0), describing findings already known (level 1), not changing therapy/suggested lifestyle (level 2), changing therapy/suggested lifestyle (level 3) or changing diagnosis (level 4). Results: CMR reports were judged to be expected in 187/214 (87%) and unexpected in 27/214 (13%). Less than 2% of CMRs were judged as levels 0 or 1, 66% as level 2, and 5% as level 4. During 2005-2006 the clinical impact improved toward higher impact levels (p < 0.001, chi-square test). Conclusions: In patients with CCD, more than one in 10 CMR reports were unexpected to cardiologists and over seven in 10 prompted a change of diagnosis or therapy.

  2. Mediterranean Diet, Lifestyle Factors, and 10-year Mortality in Elderly European Men and Women. The HALE Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoops, K.T.B.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Kromhout, D.; Perrin, A.E.; Moreiras-Varela, O.; Menotti, A.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2004-01-01

    Context Dietary patterns and lifestyle factors are associated with mortality from all causes, coronary heart disease, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer, but few studies have investigated these factors in combination. Objective To investigate the single and combined effect of Mediterranean diet, be

  3. A Data Mining Project to Identify Cardiovascular Related Factors That May Contribute to Changes in Visual Acuity Within the US Astronaut Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westby, Christian M.; Stein, Sydney P.; Platts, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    Many of the cardiovascular-related adaptations that occur in the microgravity environment are due, in part, to a well-characterized cephalad-fluid shift that is evidenced by facial edema and decreased lower limb circumference. It is believed that most of these alterations occur as a compensatory response necessary to maintain a "normal" blood pressure and cardiac output while in space. However, data from both flight and analog research suggest that in some instances these microgravity-induced alterations may contribute to cardiovascular-related pathologies. Most concerning is the potential relation between the vision disturbances experienced by some long duration crewmembers and changes in cerebral blood flow and intra-ocular pressure. The purpose of this project was to identify cardiovascular measures that may potentially distinguish individuals at risk for visual disturbances after long duration space flight. Toward this goal, we constructed a dataset from Medical Operation tilt/stand test evaluations pre- (days L-15-L-5) and immediate post-flight (day R+0) on 20 (3 females, 17 males). We restricted our evaluation to only crewmembers who participated in both shuttle and space station missions. Data analysis was performed using both descriptive and analytical methods (Stata 11.2, College Station, TX) and are presented as means +/- 95% CI. Crewmembers averaged 5207 (3447 - 8934) flight hours across both long (MIR-23 through Expedition16) and short (STS-27 through STS-101) duration missions between 1988 and 2008. The mean age of the crew at the time of their most recent shuttle flight was 41 (34-44) compared to 47 (40-54) years during their time on station. In order to focus our analysis (we did not have codes to separate out subjects by symptomotology) , we performed a visual inspection of each cardiovascular measures captured during testing and plotted them against stand time, pre- to post-flight, and between mission duration. It was found that pulse pressure most

  4. Halal Lifestyle: Understanding Muslim Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Halal Lifestyle: Understanding Muslim Consumers November 25th, 2013 Parallel Session 1C Hall C my talk starts at: 16:15-25:00 my answers start at 42:20 [to questions starting at 36:30] The Global Islamic Economy Summit 2013 was organized by Dubai Chamber of Commerce & Industry and Thomson Reuters, held on 25th-26th November, 2013 at Madinat Jumeirah, Dubai, UAE under the patronage of HH Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Vice President and Prime Minister of the UAE a...

  5. Non-invasive quick diagnosis of cardiovascular problems from visible and invisible abnormal changes with increased cardiac troponin I appearing on cardiovascular representation areas of the eyebrows, left upper lip, etc. of the face & hands: beneficial manual stimulation of hands for acute anginal chest pain, and important factors in safe, effective treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Yoshiaki; Jones, Marilyn K; Duvvi, Harsha; Shimotsuura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu; Rodriques, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Our previous study indicated that there are at least 7 cardiovascular representation areas on the face, including the "Eyebrows", both sides of the "Nose", "Lelt Upper Lip" and the "Outside of the corner of both sides of the mouth," in addition to 2 areas in each hand. When there are cardiovascular problems, some of the heart representation areas of these areas often show the following changes: 1) Most distinctive visible changes such as the initial whitening with or without long white hair, then hair loss and complete disappearance of the hairs of the heart representation area of "Eyebrows" 2) Invisible biochemical changes that happen in heart representation areas at the "Left Upper Lips", 3) "Nose" below eye level as well as 4) "3rd segment of Middle Finger of Hands." Most distinctive visible & invisible changes are found in heart representation areas on the "Eyebrow", located nearest to the midline of face, where the color of the hairs becomes white compared with the rest of the Eyebrow. Then the cardiovascular problem advances, and hair starts disappearing. When there are no hairs at the heart representation areas of the Eyebrow, usually Cardiac Troponin I is increased to a very serious, abnormal high value. Most of the cardiovascular representation areas of the face show, regardless of presence or absence of visible change. When there is a cardiovascular problem, not only simple Bi-Digital O-Ring Test can detect without using any instrument in several minutes but also, corresponding biochemical changes of abnormally increased Cardiac Troponin I level can often be detected non-invasively from these Organ Representation Areas of Face & Hands, although changes in Eyebrows, L-Upper Lip & 3rd segment of middle fingers are clinically the most reliable changes & easy to identify the locations. Manual Stimulation of Hand's heart representation areas often eliminated acute anginal chest pain before medical help became available. Important factors for safe, effective

  6. Changing lifestyles and health Background paper for Technical Discussions at 43rd Session of Regional Committee, September, 1991, World Health Organization, Regional Office for the Western Pacific, Manila, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powles, J

    1992-06-01

    By early next century a majority of deaths in the countries classed as 'developing' will be due to chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Such countries must now seek to counter the rise of NCDs while continuing the fight against traditional killers. 'Lifestyles'--socially sustained styles of living viewed in their material aspect--are major determinants of most diseases that vary markedly across cultures and through time, not just of those NCDs that typically increase with socio-economic modernization. Earlier phases of socio-economic development also brought with them adverse as well as beneficial effects on health. Living in cities greatly increased the transmissibility of infection but has since been made compatible with good health. The 'lifestyle diseases' associated with socio-economic modernization pose difficult public health challenges: they often arise from the otherwise welcome 'first fruits of affluence' and there is typically a long delay between the behaviours involved and their health effects. Major efforts may be required, over several decades, to first contain adverse trends and then to encourage favourable trends. The first task may be to help build constituencies for action by documenting and publicizing the likely health impact of the elements of lifestyle involved. In most industrialized countries, earlier adverse trends in the NCDs have been either reversed (heart attack, traffic injuries) or contained (lung cancer) in the last 2 decades, showing that such health costs are not a price that must inevitably be paid for by the other benefits of modernization. PMID:24323089

  7. Demographic and lifestyle factors and selenium levels in men and women in the U.S.

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Kyong; Rimm, Eric; Siscovick, David; Spiegelman, Donna; Morris, J. Steven; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2011-01-01

    Selenium is an antioxidant trace element linked to cardiovascular disease and cancer. Although diet is a major source, relatively little else is known about independent determinants of selenium levels in free-living humans. In this study, we aimed to investigate the independent demographic, lifestyle, and dietary determinants of selenium levels in 1,997 men and 1,905 women in two large prospective U.S. cohorts. Toenail selenium levels were quantified using neutron activation analysis. Diet, g...

  8. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and mitochondria in relation to lifestyle-related diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Røst, Therese Halvorsen

    2008-01-01

    Obesity is a growing life-style related health problem, and is often accompanied by dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and inflammation. This may in turn lead to hyperinsulinemia, increased risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Together, these abnormalities have been clustered into the metabolic syndrome. The present thesis focuses on two modified fatty acids, tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) and tetradecylselenoacetic acid...

  9. A systematic review of lifestyle interventions for chronic diseases in rural communities

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Selina A.; Ansa, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Background Rural Americans suffer disproportionately from lifestyle-related chronic diseases (e.g., obesity, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and breast cancer). Interventions that consider the distinctive characteristics of rural communities (e.g., access to healthcare, income, and education) are needed. As an initial step in planning future research, we completed a systematic review of dietary intake and physical activity interventions targeting rural populations. Methods Man...

  10. LIFESTYLE OF PATIENTS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS

    OpenAIRE

    Kanauchi, Masao; Kawano, Takahiro; Akai, Mayumi; Nishioka, Hisayuki; Yashima, Isao; Nakashima, Yasuo; Yabuta, Matahiro; Nishiura, Kimiaki; Dohi, Kazuhiro

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated the lifestyle of 214 patients with diabetes mellitus to deter- mine which aspects were affected by their disease and diabetic complications. Information concerning lifestyle was obtained from 15-item questionnaires, and a total lifestyle score (TLS) was calculated. Clinical characteristics including duration of diabetes, glycemic control, current treatment, obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and macro- and microvas- cular complications were evaluated. Patients in their 40s ha...

  11. Association between lifestyle factors and plasma adiponectin levels in Japanese men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakayama Kunio

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin is an adipocyte-specific protein that plays a role in obesity, insulin resistant, lipid metabolism, and anti-inflammation. Hypoadiponectinemia may be associated with a higher risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Some studies suggest that adiponectin levels are modulated by lifestyle factors, but little is known about the associations between lifestyle factors and plasma adiponectin levels in Japanese people. We therefore investigated the associations between lifestyle factors and plasma adiponectin levels in general Japanese men. Methods The subjects were 202 Japanese male workers who participated in an annual health check. They provided details about anthropometrical data, blood collection, their use of prescribed medication, and the clinical history of their families. They also completed a self-administered questionnaire about their lifestyles. Results Subjects with plasma adiponectin levels below 4.0 μg/ml had significantly lower levels of HDL cholesterol and higher levels of BMI, SBP, DBP, total cholesterol, FBG, and platelets than did subjects with higher adiponectin levels. In multiple logistic regression after multiple adjustment, a plasma adiponectin level below 4.0 μg/ml was significantly associated with smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 2.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01–4.30, a daily diet rich in deep-yellow vegetables (OR = 0.25, 95% CI= 0.07–0.91, frequent eating out (OR = 2.45, 95% CI = 1.19–5.08, and physical exercise two or more times a week (OR = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.06–0.74. Conclusion Our findings show that adiponectin levels in general Japanese men are independently related to smoking, dietary factors, and physical exercise. We think that lifestyle habits might independently modulate adiponectin levels and that adiponectin might be the useful biomarker helping people to avoid developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease by modifying their lifestyles.

  12. Changes in cholesterol homeostasis and acute phase response link pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes to risk of cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Poulsen, Sarah S.; Saber, Anne T.; Mortensen, Alicja; Szarek, Jozef; Wu, Dongmei; Williams, Andrew; Andersen, Ole; Nicklas R. Jacobsen; Yauk, Carole L.; Wallin, Hakan; Halappanavar, Sabina; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte

    2015-01-01

    Adverse lung effects following pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are well documented in rodents. However, systemic effects are less understood. Epidemiological studies have shown increased cardiovascular disease risk after pulmonary exposure to airborne particles, which has led to concerns that inhalation exposure to MWCNTs might pose similar risks. We analyzed parameters related to cardiovascular disease, including plasma acute phase response (APR) proteins and pla...

  13. Accuracy of a new method for semi-quantitative assessment of right ventricular ejection fraction by cardiovascular magnetic resonance: Right ventricular fractional diameter changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Longitudinal shortening is traditionally considered the predominant part of global right ventricular (RV) systolic function. Less attention has been paid to transverse contraction. The aim of this study was to evaluate RV transverse motion by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in a large cohort of patients and to assess its relationship with RV ejection fraction (RVEF). Study design: We retrospectively analyzed the CMR scans of 300 patients referred to our center in 2010. RVEF was determined from short axis sequences using the volumetric method. Transverse parameters called RV fractional diameter changes were calculated after measuring RV diastolic and systolic diameters at basal and mid-level in short axis view (respectively FBDC and FMDC). We also measured the tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) as a longitudinal reference. Results: Our population was divided into 2 groups according to RVEF. 250 patients had a preserved RVEF (>40%) and 50 had a RV dysfunction (RVEF ≤40%). Transverse and longitudinal motions were significantly reduced in the group with RV dysfunction (p < .0001). After ROC analysis, areas under the curve for FBDC, FMDC and TAPSE, were respectively 0.79, 0.82 and 0.72, with the highest specificity and sensitivity respectively of 88% and 68% for FMDC (threshold at 20%) for predicting RV dysfunction. FMDC had an excellent negative predictive value of 93%. Conclusion: RV fractional diameter changes, especially at the mid-level, appear to be accurate for semi-quantitative assessment of RV function by CMR. A cut-off of 20% for FMDC differentiates patients with a low (EF ≤ 40%) or a preserved RVEF

  14. Global cardiovascular risk stratification among hypertensive patients treated in a Family Health Unit of Parnaíba, Piauí - doi: 10.5020/18061230.2012.p287

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elce de Seixas Nascimento

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To stratify the global cardiovascular risk among hypertensive patients attended in a Family Health Unit (FHU. Methods: A quantitative, cross-sectional and descriptive study with population of hypertensive patients undergoing treatment in a FHU, module 34, in Parnaíba, Piauí, Brazil, in the period from July to August 2011. The sample consisted of 45 volunteers, selected by free demand conglomerate, who filled a form with questions that support the analysis and Global Cardiovascular Risk stratification (GCR, according to the VI Brazilian Guidelines on Hypertension (VI BGH - 2010, The European Society of Cardiology (ESC and European Society of Hypertension (ESH - 2007. The subjects were then submitted to measurement of blood pressure (BP, waist circumference (WC and body mass index (BMI. Results: The most evident risk factor in the sample was overweight/obesity in 75.5% (n=34, followed by sedentary lifestyle in 73.3% (n=33 and hypercholesterolemia in 55.5% (n=25. The data collected resulted in a stratification in which 84.4% (n=38 presented high added risk and 15.5% (n=7 a very high added risk of presenting cardiovascular events in the next 10 years. Conclusion: The stratification in the population studied indicated high incidence of such factors, pointing to the need of interfering in this population segment, in order to promote changes in lifestyle that generate prevention and control of cardiovascular diseases.

  15. Self-management for obesity and cardio-metabolic fitness: Description and evaluation of the lifestyle modification program of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coates Alison M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sustainable lifestyle modification strategies are needed to address obesity and cardiovascular risk factors. Intensive, individualised programs have been successful, but are limited by time and resources. We have formulated a group-based lifestyle education program based upon national diet and physical activity (PA recommendations to manage obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors. This article describes the content and delivery of this program, with information on compliance and acceptability. Methods Overweight/obese adults (n = 153 with metabolic syndrome were recruited from the community and randomly allocated to intervention (INT or control (CON. Written copies of Australian national dietary and PA guidelines were provided to all participants. INT took part in a 16-week lifestyle program which provided a curriculum and practical strategies on 1 dietary and PA information based on national guidelines, 2 behavioural self-management tools, 3 food-label reading, supermarkets tour and cooking, 4 exercise sessions, and 5 peer-group support. Compliance was assessed using attendance records and weekly food/PA logs. Participants' motivations, perceived benefits and goals were assessed through facilitated discussion. Program acceptability feedback was collected through structured focus groups. Results Although completion of weekly food/PA records was poor, attendance at information/education sessions (77% overall and exercise participation (66% overall was high, and compared with CON, multiple markers of body composition and cardio-metabolic health improved in INT. Participants reported that the most useful program components included food-label reading, cooking sessions, and learning new and different physical exercises, including home-based options. Participants also reported finding self-management techniques helpful, namely problem solving and short-term goal setting. The use of a group setting and supportive 'peer' leaders

  16. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the Ga-Rankuwa community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.Q. Li

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the most common and yet one of the most preventable causes of death in the world. Rapid urbanization in South Africa is accompanied by rapid changes in lifestyle and environmental exposure that increase the burden of chronic cardiovascular diseases. Risk factors, modifiable or nonmodifiable, exist that increases a person’s chances of developing cardiovascular disease. Though some knowledge is available about the prevalence of the risk factors in South Africa, no information is available regarding the community of Ga-Rankuwa. The purpose of the study was therefore to investigate the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease amongst the working-age people (18-40 years in Ga-Rankuwa community. A quantitative survey was done and the sample was selected from zone 1,2,4, and 16 of Ga-Rankuwa from July 2005 to October 2005. The sampling method was census sampling (n=604. The data-gathering was self-report using a structured questionnaire as well as physical measurement. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. The results indicated that risk factors, specifically obesity, physical inactivity and hypertension, were very prevalent in Ga-Rankuwa community. Different distributions of risk factors exist in the various sex and age groups. This finding again emphasises the importance of not developing health interventions with a single focus, for example hypertension or obesity. The risk factors are interwoven and affect each other. It is important to initiate a comprehensive health project to lower the risk factors of cardiovascular disease in the Ga-Rankuwa community.

  17. The role of increased levels of homocysteine in the development of cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čeperković Zoran

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Homocysteine is a sulphur amino acid produced by demethylation of the essential amino acid methionine. Dysfunction of certain enzymes or insufficient intake of nutrients may cause increase of intracellular homocysteine, which is then exported into plasma. Etiopathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases accompanied with higher level of homocysteine. McCully's theory suggests that high levels of homocysteine are associated with cardiovascular diseases, arteriosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction. Harmful effects of homocysteine are associated with LDL cholesterol oxidation, increased production of collagen, lower availability of nitric oxide as well as prothrombotic activity. Reduction of homocysteine levels. The most recent researches show that hyperhomocysteinemia is responsible for about 10% of total risk of cardiovascular diseases. Vitamin BJ2 plays a major role in the remethylation of homocysteine. Reducing the homocysteine concentration in blood by 3 mol/l (with daily intake of 0.8 mg of folic acid reduces the risk of ishemic heart diseases by 16%, vein thrombosis by 25%, and stroke by 24%. A six-month therapy with folic acid (Img/d, vitamin B12 (400g/d and vitamin B6 (10mg/d, reduces the frequency of cardiovascular occurrences after successful PTCA. Plasma homocysteine concentration over 12/1 doubles the risk of myocardial infarction. Conclusion. A lack of folates, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 increases the level of homocysteine and thus increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Changes in lifestyle and diet, as well as intake of food supplements, are of great importance in reducing homocysteine levels in plasma and therefore in reducing the occurrence and acceleration of arteriosclerosis. .

  18. Protocol for CHANGE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Speyer, Helene; Nørgaard, Hans Christian Brix; Hjorthøj, Carsten;

    2015-01-01

    lifestyle coaching plus care coordination or care coordination alone to treatment as usual. The primary outcome is the 10-year risks of cardiovascular disease assessed at 12 months after randomization. DISCUSSION: The premature mortality observed in this vulnerable population has not formerly been addressed....../DESIGN: The CHANGE trial is an investigator-initiated, independently funded, randomized, parallel-group, superiority, multi-centre trial with blinded outcome assessment. 450 patients aged 18 years or above, diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and increased waist circumference, will be recruited...... and randomized 1:1:1 to 12-months interventions. We will compare the effects of 1) affiliation to the CHANGE team, offering a tailored, manual-based intervention targeting physical inactivity, unhealthy dietary habits, and smoking, and facilitating contact to their general practitioner to secure...

  19. Lifestyle modification and metformin as long-term treatment options for obese adolescents: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Margaret

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is a serious health concern affecting over 155 million children in developed countries worldwide. Childhood obesity is associated with significantly increased risk for development of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and psychosocial functioning problems (i.e., depression and decreased quality of life. The two major strategies for management of obesity and associated metabolic abnormalities are lifestyle modification and pharmacologic therapy. This paper will provide the background rationale and methods of the REACH childhood obesity treatment program. Methods/design The REACH study is a 2-year multidisciplinary, family-based, childhood obesity treatment program. Seventy-two obese adolescents (aged 10-16 years and their parents are being recruited to participate in this randomized placebo controlled trial. Participants are randomized to receive either metformin or placebo, and are then randomized to a moderate or a vigorous intensity supervised exercise program for the first 12-weeks. After the 12-week exercise program, participants engage in weekly exercise sessions with an exercise facilitator at a local community center. Participants engage in treatment sessions with a dietitian and social worker monthly for the first year, and then every three months for the second year. The primary outcome measure is change in body mass index and the secondary outcome measures are changes in body composition, risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, changes in diet, physical activity, and psychosocial well-being (e.g., quality of life. It is hypothesized that participants who take metformin and engage in vigorous intensity exercise will show the greatest improvements in body mass index. In addition, it is hypothesized that participants who adhere to the REACH program will show improvements in body composition, physical activity, diet, psychosocial functioning and risk factor profiles for type 2

  20. DiAlert: a lifestyle education programme aimed at people with a positive family history of type 2 diabetes and overweight, study protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Wit Maartje

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Family history is a known risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2DM, and more so in the presence of overweight. This study aims to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a new lifestyle education programme 'DiAlert' targeted at 1st degree relatives of people with T2DM and overweight. In view of the high risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease in immigrants from Turkish origin living in Western Europe, a culturally appropriate Turkish version of DiAlert will be developed and tested. Methods/design In this RCT, 268 (134 Dutch and 134 Turkish overweight 1st degree relatives of patients with T2DM will be allocated to either the intervention or control group (leaflet. The intervention DiAlert aims to promote intrinsic motivation to change lifestyle, and sustain achieved behaviour changes during follow-up. Primary outcome is weight loss. Secondary outcomes include biological, behavioural and psychological indices, along with process indicators. Measurements will take place at baseline and after 3 and 9 months. Changes in outcomes are tested between intervention and control group at 3 months; effects over time are tested within and between both ethnic groups at 3 and 9 months. Discussion The DiAlert intervention is expected to be more effective than the control condition in achieving significant weight loss at 3 months, in both Dutch and Turkish Dutch participants. Trial registration Netherlands National Trial Register (NTR: NTR2036

  1. Nutrition and Lifestyle in European Adolescents: The HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study123

    OpenAIRE

    Luis A. Moreno; Gottrand, Frédéric; Huybrechts, Inge; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; González-Gross, Marcela; DeHenauw, Stefaan

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period, because major physical and psychologic changes occur during a very short period of time. Changes in dietary habits may induce different types of nutritional disorders and are likely to track into adulthood. The aim of this review is to describe the key findings related to nutritional status in European adolescents participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study. We performed a cross-sectional study in...

  2. Integrating lifestyle approaches into osteoarthritis care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garver MJ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Matthew J Garver,1 Brian C Focht,2 Sarah J Taylor3 1Department of Kinesiology and Nutrition, Abilene Christian University, Abilene, TX, 2Department of Human Sciences, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 3School of Occupational Therapy, Texas Woman's University, Dallas, TX, USA Abstract: As the lifetime risk, societal cost, and overall functional impact of osteoarthritis (OA is imposing, it is imperative that clinicians provide an individualized care model for patients. Patients must be offered a multiplicity of care strategies and encouraged to embrace lifestyle approaches for self-managing the effects and symptoms of OA. Certainly, the attitude of the clinician and patient will directly influence receptivity and implementation of lifestyle approaches. This work proposes how the use of structured and routine assessments and cognitive therapy ideologies may complement a comprehensive treatment plan. Assessments described herein include objective and/or self-report measures of physical function, pain, attitude about social support, and sleep quality. Baseline assessments followed by systematic monitoring of the results may give patients and clinicians valuable insight into the effectiveness of the care plan. Empirical evidence from randomized trials with OA patients highlights the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral change strategies for addressing salient concerns for OA (pain control, mobility performance, and sleep quality. Cognitive restructuring can provide patients with renewed power in managing their disease. Cognitive therapy topics discussed presently include: 1 what is OA?, 2 effectiveness of exercise and FITT (frequency, intensity, time, and type principles for OA patients, 3 goal-setting and barriers, and 4 translating to independent care. Woven within the discussion about cognitive therapy are ideas about how the results from baseline assessments and group-mediated dynamics might assist more favorable outcomes. There are a plethora

  3. Phytochemical Compounds and Protection from Cardiovascular Diseases: A State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beniamino Pagliaro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases represent a worldwide relevant socioeconomical problem. Cardiovascular disease prevention relies also on lifestyle changes, including dietary habits. The cardioprotective effects of several foods and dietary supplements in both animal models and in humans have been explored. It was found that beneficial effects are mainly dependent on antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, also involving modulation of mitochondrial function. Resveratrol is one of the most studied phytochemical compounds and it is provided with several benefits in cardiovascular diseases as well as in other pathological conditions (such as cancer. Other relevant compounds are Brassica oleracea, curcumin, and berberine, and they all exert beneficial effects in several diseases. In the attempt to provide a comprehensive reference tool for both researchers and clinicians, we summarized in the present paper the existing literature on both preclinical and clinical cardioprotective effects of each mentioned phytochemical. We structured the discussion of each compound by analyzing, first, its cellular molecular targets of action, subsequently focusing on results from applications in both ex vivo and in vivo models, finally discussing the relevance of the compound in the context of human diseases.

  4. Lifestyle Factors in Hypertension Drug Research: Systematic Analysis of Articles in a Leading Cochrane Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan E. Wilson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Established standards for first-line hypertension management include lifestyle modification and behavior change. The degree to which and how lifestyle modification is systematically integrated into studies of first-line drug management for hypertension is of methodological and clinical relevance. This study systematically reviewed the methodology of articles from a recent Cochrane review that had been designed to inform first-line medical treatment of hypertension and was representative of high quality established clinical trials in the field. Source articles (n=34 were systematically reviewed for lifestyle interventions including smoking cessation, diet, weight loss, physical activity and exercise, stress reduction, and moderate alcohol consumption. 54% of articles did not mention lifestyle modification; 46% contained nonspecific descriptions of interventions. We contend that hypertension management research trials (including drug studies need to elucidate the benefits and risks of drug-lifestyle interaction, to support the priority of lifestyle modification, and that lifestyle modification, rather than drugs, is seen by patients and the public as a priority for health professionals. The inclusion of lifestyle modification strategies in research designs for hypertension drug trials could enhance current research, from trial efficacy to clinical outcome effectiveness, and align hypertension best practices of a range of health professionals with evidence-based knowledge translation.

  5. Factores de riesgo cardiovascular en estudiantes de la Universidad Austral de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Adela Martínez S

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular diseases are related to particular lifestyle patterns and the presence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF. Aim: To evaluate the presence of CVRF in students from Universidad Austral de Chile (UACh. Material and Methods: CVRF were evaluated in 385 university students aged 17 to 26years (63% women. Personal background, lifestyle, anthropometry, blood pressure, serum lipids and blood glucose were evaluated. Results: Eighty eight percent of evaluated students had sedentary habits, 19% had high LDL cholesterol levels, 40% had high blood pressure, 28% smoked, 29% were overweight or obese and 20% had some stress level. Conclusions: There is a high frequency of non-healthy lifestyles and cardiovascular risk factors in this sample of university students.

  6. [Future directions of cardiovascular surgery in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S S

    2016-08-01

    The cardiovascular surgery in China has achieved great progress both on scale and technology though development over the past thirty years. However, the technical predominance of cardiovascular surgery in therapies for some diseases has been weakened, along with developments of new drugs and interventional technology. Besides, the change of doctor-patient relationship result from internet medical information service and less attraction of cardiovascular surgery discipline to talents bring certain challenge to the development of cardiovascular surgery. Currently, cardiovascular surgeons should practice the "patient first" principle, carry out individual customized treatment and precision therapy, absorb the advantages of other subjects like intervention and imaging in order to achieve technological breakthroughs, create new treatment technologies and models with smaller trauma and better outcome, establish heart team to provide patient oriented treatment. Besides, cardiovascular surgeons should improve knowledge system by learning related technology and science, become hybrid doctors of research. Cardiovascular surgeons should pay high attention to critical effect of research on the disciplinary development, carry out question and demand oriented clinical studies, change the medical practice by virtue of research achievements, direct the treatment for cardiovascular diseases, and finally provide better health service and rebuild the predominance of cardiovascular surgery. PMID:27502127

  7. Common People : Physical health, lifestyle and quality of life in persons with psychosis and their striving to be like everybody else

    OpenAIRE

    Wärdig, Rikard

    2015-01-01

    Background: As psychosis is often a lifelong disorder, improved health-related quality of life (HRQoL) can be a relevant treatment goal. Persons with psychosis have significantly reduced physical health. Research has demonstrated a great excess of mortality due to cardiovascular diseases, as psychosis may lead to an inactive lifestyle and difficulties making healthy lifestyle choices. Metabolic side effects of second-generation antipsychotics are also common. Many are therefore affected by th...

  8. 2型糖尿病心血管病变的QT离散度分析%Analysis of QT interval dispersion of non-insulin depende nt diabetes mellitus with cardiovascular pathological changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沙夕华; 许波良

    2001-01-01

    Objectives To study the meaning of the changes o f QT interval dispersion(QTd) of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus(NIDDM) wi th cardiovascular pathological changes.Methods 12-lead simult aneous body surface electrocardiogram data were taken from 40 cases of NIDDM wit h cardiovascular pathological changes,and 42cases of NIDDM without cardiovascula r pathological changes,and were compared with 42 normal subjects.Results  The QTd are corrected by Bazett's for mula as QTcd in NIDDM with cardiovascular pathological changes was significantly prolonged than that in the other two groups(P<0.01).QTd>46ms had a sensit ivity of 82.5%, a sepecificity of 85.7% and an accuracy of 84.1% in diagnosis of NID DM with cardiovascular pathlological changes.QTcd>52ms had a sensitivity of 85. 0%,a sepecificity of 83.3% and an accuracy of 84.1% in diagnosis of NIDDM with c ardiovascular pathological changes.Conclusions The prolonged Q Td and QTcd may be viewed as an index for diagnosing NIDDM with cardiovascular p athological changes.%目的 探讨2型糖尿病心血管病变的QT 离散度变化的意义。方法 分析40例2型糖尿病心血管病变者体表 12导联同步心电图,并与42例2型糖尿病无心血管病变及42例正常人作对照。结果 糖尿病心血管病变组QTd及QTcd均显著高于其余两组(P<0.01)。以Q Td >46ms为异常,则诊断糖尿病心血管病变的敏感性、特异性及准确性分别为82.5%、85.7%及 84.1%。以QTcd>52ms判为异常,则诊断敏感性、特异性及准确性分别为85.0%、83.3%、84. 1%。结论 QTd及QTcd延长可作为临床诊断2型糖尿病患者伴心血管病变的一项指标。

  9. Discussing patient's lifestyle choices in the consulting room: analysis of GP-patient consultations between 1975 and 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Dulmen Sandra

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing prevalence of chronic diseases and the growing understanding that lifestyle behaviour plays an essential role in improving overall health suggest a need for increased attention to lifestyle choices in the consulting room. This study aims to examine whether or not healthy and unhealthy lifestyle choices of patients are currently being discussed more often in primary care consultations than in former decades. Furthermore, we are interested in GPs' approach to lifestyle behaviour during consultations. Lastly, we examine whether lifestyle behaviour is discussed more with certain patients during consultations, depending on gender, age and educational background. Method We analysed video-recordings of medical consultations, collected between 1975 and 2008 in Dutch GP practices. Data were analysed using logistic regression. Results This study shows that discussion of smoking behaviour and physical activity has increased somewhat over time. A change in discussion of nutrition and alcohol is, however, less clear. Overall, alcohol use is the least discussed and physical activity the most discussed during consultations. GPs mainly refer to lifestyle when it is relevant to the patient's complaints (symptom approach. GPs' approach to lifestyle behaviour did not change over time. In general, lifestyle behaviour is discussed more with older, male patients (except for nutrition. GPs talk about lifestyle behaviour with patients from different educational backgrounds equally (except for physical activity. Conclusion In recent years there is greater awareness of a healthy lifestyle, which is reflected to a limited extent in this study. Still, lifestyle behaviour is discussed in only a minority of consultations. GPs do not refer to lifestyle behaviour as a routine procedure, i.e. do not include it in primary prevention. This highlights the importance of the introduction of prevention consultations, where GPs can discuss lifestyle

  10. Including lifestyle medicine in undergraduate medical curricula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Phillips

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Currently, there is no model to integrate the discipline of lifestyle medicine (LM into undergraduate medical education. Furthermore, there are no guidelines, validated assessment tools, or evaluation or implementation plans in place. Background: The World Health Organization predicts that by 2020, two-thirds of disease worldwide will be the result of poor lifestyle choices. Fewer than 50% of US primary care physicians routinely provide specific guidance on nutrition, physical activity, or weight control. Methods: We are establishing a plan to integrate LM into medical school education in collaboration with the investing stakeholders, including medical school deans and students, medical curriculum developers and researchers, medical societies, governing bodies, and policy institutes. Three planning and strategy meetings are being held to address key areas of focus – with a particular interest in nutrition, physical activity, student self-care, and behavior change – to develop specific implementation guidelines and landmarks. Results: After the first two meetings, the proposed areas of focus were determined to be: 1 supporting of deans and key personnel, 2 creation of federal and state policy commitments, 3 use of assessment as a driver of LM, 4 provision of high-quality evidence-based curricular material on an easily navigated site, and 5 engaging student interest. Implementation strategies for each focus area will be addressed in an upcoming planning meeting in early 2015. Conclusion: This initiative is expected to have important public health implications by efficiently promoting the prevention and treatment of non-communicable chronic disease with a scalable and sustainable model to educate physicians in training and practice.

  11. Application of trans theoretical model of behavior on lifestyle changes of rural puerperium puerperae%行为转变理论在农村产妇产褥期生活方式改变中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁晓梅; 周美珍; 丁继红

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨行为转变理论对农村产妇产褥期生活方式改变的效果.方法 选取198例住院的农村产妇,分为对照组(100例)和干预组(98例).对照组进行常规健康教育,干预组在常规健康教育基础上接受行为转变理论健康教育.结果 干预组产妇产褥期相关知识认知和生活方式的得分明显高于对照组(P<0.01).结论 应用行为转变理论可以改变农村产妇产褥期生活方式,促进产妇健康.%Objective To explore the effects of trans theoretical model of behavior (TTM) on lifestyle changes of rural puerperium puerperae.Methods A total of 198 rural puerperium puerperae were recruited and divided into the control group (n =100) and the intervention group (n =98).The control group was received the routine health education,the intervention group was received TTM based on the routine health education.Result Scores of knowledge and lifestyle changes in the intervention group were higher than those of the control group (P < 0.01).Conclusion Application of TTM can change the puerperae's lifestyle during puerperium,maintenance postpartum health and promote their health.

  12. Women's attitudes towards a pre-conception healthy lifestyle programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, K L; LeBlanc, E S; Vesco, K K; Stevens, V J

    2015-04-01

    Nearly half of US women begin pregnancy overweight or obese and more than half of overweight or obese pregnant women experience excessive gestational weight gain. Recent lifestyle intervention programmes have helped women avoid excessive weight gain during pregnancy, but helping women lose weight before pregnancy may be a more effective way to improve pregnancy outcomes. This study assessed women's attitudes towards pre-conception diet and weight management interventions. An anonymous survey was conducted in patients waiting in a health maintenance organization's obstetrics and primary care waiting rooms. It focused on attitudes towards participating in a pre-conception, lifestyle change programme. Eighty percent of the 126 women surveyed were pregnant or considering pregnancy within 5 years. Of the 126 respondents, 60 (48%) were overweight or obese. Of these, 96% rated healthy diet and healthy weight before pregnancy as very important or important and 77% favoured a healthy lifestyle programme (diet, weight management and physical activity) before becoming pregnant. Likewise, overweight or obese women reported being likely or highly likely to participate in specific intervention programme aspects such as keeping phone appointments (77%), using a programme website (70%) and keeping food and exercise records (63%). Survey results show that women in this population believe that adopting a healthy lifestyle and losing weight are important before pregnancy and that they are enthusiastic about programmes that will help them achieve those goals in preparation for pregnancy. PMID:25735259

  13. Current lifestyle of young adults treated for cancer in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, S E; Radford, M

    1995-05-01

    The aim of this study was to look at the current lifestyle of young adult survivors of childhood cancer between the ages of 16 and 30 years to document their achievements and expose any psychosocial problems. Sixty six young adult survivors were contacted and asked if they and their siblings (16-30 years) would take part in a lifestyle study; 48 patients and 38 sibling controls were interviewed. This took the form of a structured lifestyle questionnaire, a self esteem questionnaire (Oxford Psychologists Press), and an unstructured interview. Fifty five per cent of patients achieved five or more A-C grades at 'O' level/GCSE compared with 62% of siblings and a national average of 30%. Despite that these patients were significantly less likely to go on to higher education than their siblings. The two groups were equally employable and earning similar salaries. There were three cases of known employer prejudice. A slightly higher percentage of patients than siblings had their driving licence. Seventeen patients felt their appearance had changed and eight felt that they had a residual physical mobility problem. Both groups were socially active and equally likely to partake in competitive sports. There was no overall difference in the self esteem of the two groups. In general the survivors of childhood cancer were coping well in their young adult life and achieving the same lifestyle goals as their siblings. However, significant problems have been identified. PMID:7618909

  14. The western diet and lifestyle and diseases of civilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Carrera-Bastos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Pedro Carrera-Bastos1, Maelan Fontes-Villalba1, James H O’Keefe2, Staffan Lindeberg1, Loren Cordain31Center for Primary Health Care Research, Faculty of Medicine at Lund University, Malmö, Sweden; 2Mid America Heart and Vascular Institute/University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, Missouri, USA; 3Department of Health and Exercise Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USAAbstract: It is increasingly recognized that certain fundamental changes in diet and lifestyle that occurred after the Neolithic Revolution, and especially after the Industrial Revolution and the Modern Age, are too recent, on an evolutionary time scale, for the human genome to have completely adapted. This mismatch between our ancient physiology and the western diet and lifestyle underlies many so-called diseases of civilization, including coronary heart disease, obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, epithelial cell cancers, autoimmune disease, and osteoporosis, which are rare or virtually absent in hunter–gatherers and other non-westernized populations. It is therefore proposed that the adoption of diet and lifestyle that mimic the beneficial characteristics of the preagricultural environment is an effective strategy to reduce the risk of chronic degenerative diseases.Keywords: Paleolithic, hunter–gatherers, Agricultural Revolution, modern diet, western lifestyle and diseases

  15. Lifestyle Shapes the Dialogue between Environment, Microglia, and Adult Neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Jorge; Paris, Iñaki; Sierra, Amanda

    2016-04-20

    Lifestyle modulates brain function. Diet, stress levels, and physical exercise among other factors influence the "brain cognitive reserve", that is, the capacity of the brain to maintain a normal function when confronting neurodegenerative diseases, injury, and/or aging. This cognitive reserve relays on several cellular and molecular elements that contribute to brain plasticity allowing adaptive responses to cognitive demands, and one of its key components is the hippocampal neurogenic reserve. Hippocampal neural stem cells give rise to new neurons that integrate into the local circuitry and contribute to hippocampal functions such as memory and learning. Importantly, adult hippocampal neurogenesis is well-known to be modulated by the demands of the environment and lifestyle factors. Diet, stress, and physical exercise directly act on neural stem cells and/or their progeny, but, in addition, they may also indirectly affect neurogenesis by acting on microglia. Microglia, the guardians of the brain, rapidly sense changes in the brain milieu, and it has been recently shown that their function is affected by lifestyle factors. However, few studies have analyzed the modulatory effect of microglia on adult neurogenesis in these conditions. Here, we review the current knowledge about the dialogue maintained between microglia and the hippocampal neurogenic cascade. Understanding how the communication between microglia and hippocampal neurogenesis is affected by lifestyle choices is crucial to maintain the brain cognitive reserve and prevent the maladaptive responses that emerge during disease or injury through adulthood and aging. PMID:26971802

  16. Primary care nurses struggle with lifestyle counseling in diabetes care: a qualitative analysis

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    Elwyn Glyn

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient outcomes are poorly affected by lifestyle advice in general practice. Promoting lifestyle behavior change require that nurses shift from simple advice giving to a more counseling-based approach. The current study examines which barriers nurses encounter in lifestyle counseling to patients with type 2 diabetes. Based on this information we will develop an implementation strategy to improve lifestyle behavior change in general practice. Method In a qualitative semi-structured study, twelve in-depth interviews took place with nurses in Dutch general practices involved in diabetes care. Specific barriers in counseling patients with type 2 diabetes about diet, physical activity, and smoking cessation were addressed. The nurses were invited to reflect on barriers at the patient and practice levels, but mainly on their own roles as counselors. All interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. The data were analyzed with the aid of a predetermined framework. Results Nurses felt most barriers on the level of the patient; patients had limited knowledge of a healthy lifestyle and limited insight into their own behavior, and they lacked the motivation to modify their lifestyles or the discipline to maintain an improved lifestyle. Furthermore, nurses reported lack of counseling skills and insufficient time as barriers in effective lifestyle counseling. Conclusions The traditional health education approach is still predominant in primary care of patients with type 2 diabetes. An implementation strategy based on motivational interviewing can help to overcome 'jumping ahead of the patient' and promotes skills in lifestyle behavioral change. We will train our nurses in agenda setting to structure the consultation based on prioritizing the behavior change and will help them to develop social maps that contain information on local exercise programs.

  17. MACD: an imaging marker for cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganz, Melanie; de Bruijne, Marleen; Nielsen, Mads

    2010-01-01

    Despite general acceptance that a healthy lifestyle and the treatment of risk factors can prevent the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), CVD are the most common cause of death in Europe and the United States. It has been shown that abdominal aortic calcifications (AAC) correlate strongly...... with coronary artery calcifications. Hence an early detection of aortic calcified plaques helps to predict the risk of related coronary diseases. Also since two thirds of the adverse events have no prior symptoms, possibilities to screen for risk in low cost imaging are important. To this end the Morphological...... imaging markers described. Finally we present that the MACD index predicts cardiovascular death with a hazard ratio of approximately four....

  18. Overweight and obesity: a review of their relationship to metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and cancer in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aballay, Laura R; Eynard, Aldo R; Díaz, María del Pilar; Navarro, Alicia; Muñoz, Sonia E

    2013-03-01

    Socioeconomic and demographic transformations are occurring very rapidly in some areas of the world, especially in South America, and are accompanied by changes in lifestyle, dietary patterns, and the epidemiological profile of prevalent diseases. This review examines whether obesity and overweight are related to metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and cancer in South America. Research carried out in more than 6,000 cases and controls was evaluated, along with most of the available publications related to South America. In South America, obesity and risk factors for cardiovascular disease are related mainly to aging, ethnicity effects, and preventable risky lifestyle conditions. Most of the studies that found an association between cancer and obesity are from the Southern Cone, the geographic area most affected by this pathology. Overall, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was highest in Chile, followed in decreasing order by Colombia, Peru, Argentina, and Ecuador, with differences noted between urban and rural areas or between urban and periurban areas. Obesity and cancer may be preventable, at least in part, by healthy behavior; hence, exercise, weight control, and healthy dietary habits are important to reduce the risk of these major chronic diseases. PMID:23452284

  19. Preeclampsia and Future Cardiovascular Risk: Are Women and General Practitioners Aware of This Relationship? The Experience from a Portuguese Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Viana Pinto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the impact of preeclampsia in the modification of lifestyle habits and decreasing cardiovascular risk factors in a population of women at least 6 months after having the diagnosis of preeclampsia. Methods. Cross-sectional observational study. Data included 141 cases of preeclampsia and chronic hypertension with superimposed preeclampsia on singleton births diagnosed in our institution between January 2010 and December 2013. From the cases diagnosed over 6 months a standardized questionnaire evaluating lifestyle changes was applied. Results. We reviewed 141 cases, of which 120 were diagnosed for more than 6 months. An overall participation rate in the questionnaire of 65% was yielded. A slight increase from the mean BMI before pregnancy was found. No statistical significant association was established between postpregnancy mean BMI, weight variation, and the frequency of aerobic exercise with the severity of preeclampsia. Only 28% of our cases were practising aerobic exercise at least weekly. The majority of women assessed blood pressure at least monthly (45/78, but only 25 assessed glycaemia at least once/year. Conclusion. This study shows that the majority of our patients and general practitioners do not take into consideration a previous pregnancy affected by preeclampsia as a risk factor for future cardiovascular disease.

  20. [Glycotoxins and cellular dysfunction. A new mechanism for understanding the preventive effects of lifestyle modifications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalsen, A; Bierhaus, A; Nawroth, P P; Dobos, G J

    2006-08-01

    Recently the AGE-RAGE interaction was identified as a potential mechanism underlying chronic and inflammatory diseases like atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus and kidney disease. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are the derivatives of glucose-protein or glucose-lipid reactions and are mainly generated from the diet (depending on intensity of heating, cooking time and oxygenation). Binding of AGEs or other ligands to the AGE receptor (RAGE) results in cellular activation, i.e. increased expression of inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress. Diet-derived AGEs thus induce deleterious effects on tissues and the cardiovascular system. Recent research also found that other lifestyle factors are associated with pronounced inflammatory activation, e.g. psychosocial stress and smoking. In addition, each intake of meals is associated with proinflammatory cellular changes. The AGE-RAGE model and investigations of the underlying cellular mechanisms thus may lead to a better understanding of the health benefits of diets (Mediterranean diet, uncooked vegetarian diets), caloric restriction and intermittent fasting. The clinical impact of low-AGE diets and fasting and the interaction between stress and food intake should be further investigated in controlled trials. PMID:16897151