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Sample records for cardiovascular life support

  1. Health Social Networks as Online Life Support Groups for Patients With Cardiovascular Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Edhelmira Lima, E-mail: edhyly@ic.uff.br; Loques, Orlando Filho [Instituto de Computação - Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Mesquita, Cláudio Tinoco [Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro - Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-08-15

    The number of patients who use the internet in search for information that might improve their health conditions has increased. Among them, those looking for virtual environments to share experiences, doubts, opinions, and emotions, and to foster relationships aimed at giving and getting support stand out. Therefore, there is an increasing need to assess how those environments can affect the patients' health. This study was aimed at identifying scientific studies on the proliferation and impact of virtual communities, known as health social networks or online support groups, directed to cardiovascular diseases, which might be useful to patients with certain conditions, providing them with information and emotional support. A systematic review of the literature was conducted with articles published from 2007 to 2012, related to cardiovascular diseases and collected from the following databases: PubMed; Association for Computing Machinery(ACM); and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Four articles meeting the inclusion criteria were selected. The results were interesting and relevant from the health viewpoint, identifying therapeutic benefits, such as provision of emotional support, greater compliance to treatment, and information sharing on diseases and on life experiences.

  2. Improving advanced cardiovascular life support skills in medical students: simulation-based education approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Reihani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this trial, we intend to assess the effect of simulation-based education approach on advanced cardiovascular life support skills among medical students. Methods: Through convenient sampling method, 40 interns of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences in their emergency medicine rotation (from September to December 2012 participated in this study. Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support (ACLS workshops with pretest and post-test exams were performed. Workshops and checklists for pretest and post-test exams were designed according to the latest American Heart Association (AHA guidelines. Results: The total score of the students increased significantly after workshops (24.6 out of 100 to 78.6 out of 100. This demonstrates 53.9% improvement in the skills after the simulation-based education (P< 0.001. Also the mean score of each station had a significant improvement (P< 0.001. Conclusion: Pretests showed that interns had poor performance in practical clinical matters while their scientific knowledge, such as ECG interpretation was acceptable. The overall results of the study highlights that Simulation based-education approach is highly effective in Improving ACLS skills among medical students.

  3. Similar support for three different life course socioeconomic models on predicting premature cardiovascular mortality and all-cause mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynch John

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are at least three broad conceptual models for the impact of the social environment on adult disease: the critical period, social mobility, and cumulative life course models. Several studies have shown an association between each of these models and mortality. However, few studies have investigated the importance of the different models within the same setting and none has been performed in samples of the whole population. The purpose of the present study was to study the relation between socioeconomic position (SEP and mortality using different conceptual models in the whole population of Scania. Methods In the present investigation we use socioeconomic information on all men (N = 48,909 and women (N = 47,688 born between 1945 and 1950, alive on January, 1st,1990, and living in the Region of Scania, in Sweden. Focusing on three specific life periods (i.e., ages 10–15, 30–35 and 40–45, we examined the association between SEP and the 12-year risk of premature cardiovascular mortality and all-cause mortality. Results There was a strong relation between SEP and mortality among those inside the workforce, irrespective of the conceptual model used. There was a clear upward trend in the mortality hazard rate ratios (HRR with accumulated exposure to manual SEP in both men (p for trend Conclusion There was a strong relation between SEP and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality, irrespective of the conceptual model used. The critical period, social mobility, and cumulative life course models, showed the same fit to the data. That is, one model could not be pointed out as "the best" model and even in this large unselected sample it was not possible to adjudicate which theories best describe the links between life course SEP and mortality risk.

  4. Advanced cardiac life support training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despott, Edward J; Schreiber, Florian

    2010-01-01

    The OMED/ESGE consensus statements of the International Symposium on Sedation in Endoscopy, Athens, September 2009, in keeping with guidelines and position statements published by other societies, underline the need for sedation providers to be adequately trained in dealing with scenarios involving patients in respiratory and/or cardiovascular distress. This training should prepare the sedation provider with the necessary acumen to prevent, recognize and remedy sedation-related emergencies. Life support training that adheres to the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) guidelines should be a mandatory component of this instruction that should be governed by formal assessment and quality assurance reappraisal.

  5. Cardiovascular risk factors over the life course

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsegge, G.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) usually manifests itself at middle age or beyond, but it is the result of an ongoing disease process. This stresses the need for insight into changes in lifestyle and metabolic risk factors that occur throughout the life course, and their effect on CVD. We studied risk f

  6. Social support reduces resting cardiovascular function in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Brian M; Howard, Siobhan

    2009-10-01

    Social support is believed to benefit cardiovascular health in part by buffering recipients from life stress. Classically, this has been investigated by exploring the relationship between support and cardiovascular reactivity to laboratory stress. Such research customarily emphasizes stress responses and downplays the relevance of resting cardiovascular levels. However, it is now appreciated that resting cardiovascular function is associated with disease risk independently of reactivity. Moreover, such mechanisms are known to be relevant to female members of the population, despite the fact that much previous research has focused on males. Reactivity research rests on the assumption that stress promotes gradual hypertension over time. As such, it is important to establish the relationship between psychosocial factors and resting blood pressure. In a cross-sectional biopsychosocial screening study, we examined resting cardiovascular levels in 211 healthy non-smoking women, using regression to assess associations with psychometric indices of social support (namely, perceived network size and perceived satisfaction with support) while controlling for a range of potential biometric and psychometric confounds. Overall, social support was found to be associated with reduced resting cardiovascular function independently of, and to a greater extent than, biometric variables, anxiety, and depression. Benchmarking these effects against the differences in cardiovascular function between the present sample and a group of 92 similarly aged males revealed that social support accounted for as much variance as gender, which is widely assumed to be an important biomedical determinant of blood pressure. Such findings corroborate assertions that social support influences disease risk in ways that involve direct psychosomatic mechanisms.

  7. [Pediatric advanced life support].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muguruma, Takashi

    2011-04-01

    Important changes or points of emphasis in the recommendations for pediatric advanced life support are as follows. In infants and children with no signs of life, healthcare providers should begin CPR unless they can definitely palpate a pulse within 10 seconds. New evidence documents the important role of ventilations in CPR for infants and children. Rescuers should provide conventional CPR for in-hospital and out-of-hospital pediatric cardiac arrests. The initial defibrillation energy dose of 2 to 4J/kg of either monophasic or biphasic waveform. Both cuffed and uncuffed tracheal tubes are acceptable for infants and children undergoing emergency intubation. Monitoring capnography/capnometry is recommended to confirm proper endotracheal tube position.

  8. Impact of nutrition since early life on cardiovascular prevention.

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The cardiovascular disease represents the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Western countries and it is related to the atherosclerotic process. Cardiovascular disease risk factors, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, obesity, accelerate the atherosclerotic process which begins in childhood and progresses throughout the life span. The cardiovascular disease risk factor detection and management through prevention delays the atherosclerotic progression towa...

  9. Early life environment and the developing cardiovascular system

    OpenAIRE

    Idris, N.S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The dynamics of cardiovascular system development in childhood are still largely unknown. Despite its known sensitivity to small perturbations, it has not been fully elucidated how the cardiovascular system evolves and responds to different stimuli and how these impact the future cardiovascular status. This thesis is basically aimed at exploring the effects of several possible postnatal determinantson the developing cardiovascular system. These early life determinants perhaps immed...

  10. [Cardiovascular disease prevention and life style modifications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudet, M; Daugareil, C; Ferrieres, J

    2012-04-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are mainly caused by atherosclerosis, the development of which is highly dependent on our Western lifestyle. Slowing this pathology depends on the reduction of risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, high blood pressure, smoking, lack of physical activity, excess weight and diabetes. Drug treatment exists and is very effective, but too often they treat the immediate abnormality such as diabetes, high blood pressure and hypercholesterolemia and not the underlying causes: poor eating habits, lack of physical activity and excess weight. These have a negative impact on endothelial function, oxidative stress, and can trigger inflammation, arrythmias and thrombosis. Cardiovascular prevention must therefore target sedentary lifestyle, excess weight, and favor low-calorie, low-salt food and Mediterranean diet. The way this diet works begins to be understood and goes beyond simple cardiovascular prevention. Therapeutic education holds a growing and complementary role in the Public Health system which should call upon the strengths of all healthcare professionals.

  11. Modeling Advance Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Marvin; Sager, John; Loader, Coleen; Drysdale, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Activities this summer consisted of two projects that involved computer simulation of bioregenerative life support systems for space habitats. Students in the Space Life Science Training Program (SLSTP) used the simulation, space station, to learn about relationships between humans, fish, plants, and microorganisms in a closed environment. One student complete a six week project to modify the simulation by converting the microbes from anaerobic to aerobic, and then balancing the simulation's life support system. A detailed computer simulation of a closed lunar station using bioregenerative life support was attempted, but there was not enough known about system restraints and constants in plant growth, bioreactor design for space habitats and food preparation to develop an integrated model with any confidence. Instead of a completed detailed model with broad assumptions concerning the unknown system parameters, a framework for an integrated model was outlined and work begun on plant and bioreactor simulations. The NASA sponsors and the summer Fell were satisfied with the progress made during the 10 weeks, and we have planned future cooperative work.

  12. Impact of nutrition since early life on cardiovascular prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardamagna, Ornella; Abello, Francesca; Cagliero, Paola; Lughetti, Lorenzo

    2012-12-21

    The cardiovascular disease represents the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Western countries and it is related to the atherosclerotic process. Cardiovascular disease risk factors, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, obesity, accelerate the atherosclerotic process which begins in childhood and progresses throughout the life span. The cardiovascular disease risk factor detection and management through prevention delays the atherosclerotic progression towards clinical cardiovascular disease. Dietary habits, from prenatal nutrition, breastfeeding, complementary feeding to childhood and adolescence nutrition play a basic role for this topic.The metabolic and neuroendocrine environment of the fetus is fundamental in the body's "metabolic programming". Further several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of breastfeeding on cardiovascular risk factors reduction. Moreover the introduction of complementary foods represents another important step, with particular regard to protein intake. An adequate distribution between macronutrients (lipids, proteins and carbohydrates) is required for correct growth development from infancy throughout adolescence and for prevention of several cardiovascular disease risk determinants in adulthood.The purpose of this review is to examine the impact of nutrition since early life on disease.

  13. Cardiovascular Disease Prfevention: from meta-analyses to life expectancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.H. Franco (Oscar)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractCardiovascular Disease (CVD) includes dysfunctional conditions of the heart and of the blood vessel system (arteries, veins, and capillaries) that among other functions supply oxygen to all body tissues and organs, including vital life-sustaining areas like the brain and the heart its

  14. Photobioreactors in Life Support Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Ines; Braun, Markus; Slenzka, Klaus; Posten, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    Life support systems for long-term space missions or extraterrestrial installations have to fulfill major functions such as purification of water and regeneration of atmosphere as well as the generation of food and energy. For almost 60 years ideas for biological life support systems have been collected and various concepts have been developed and tested. Microalgae as photosynthetic organisms have played a major role in most of these concepts. This review deals with the potentials of using eukaryotic microalgae for life support systems and highlights special requirements and frame conditions for designing space photobioreactors especially regarding illumination and aeration. Mono- and dichromatic illumination based on LEDs is a promising alternative for conventional systems and preliminary results yielded higher photoconversion efficiencies (PCE) for dichromatic red/blue illumination than white illumination. Aeration for microgravity conditions should be realized in a bubble-free manner, for example, via membranes. Finally, a novel photobioreactor concept for space application is introduced being parameterized and tested with the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. This system has already been tested during two parabolic flight campaigns.

  15. Controlled Ecological Life Support System. Life Support Systems in Space Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macelroy, R. D. (Editor); Smernoff, D. T. (Editor); Klein, H. P. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Life support systems in space travel, in closed ecological systems were studied. Topics discussed include: (1) problems of life support and the fundamental concepts of bioregeneration; (2) technology associated with physical/chemical regenerative life support; (3) projection of the break even points for various life support techniques; (4) problems of controlling a bioregenerative life support system; (5) data on the operation of an experimental algal/mouse life support system; (6) industrial concepts of bioregenerative life support; and (7) Japanese concepts of bioregenerative life support and associated biological experiments to be conducted in the space station.

  16. Influência do subsídio financeiro e do local da realização do curso de suporte avançado de vida em cardiologia, no aprendizado da emergência cardiovascular Influence of financial subsidy and venue on advanced cardiac life support courses, in the learning of cardiovascular emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heberth C. Miotto

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O sucesso no aprendizado da emergência depende de muitos fatores que podem ser resumidos como: aluno, instrutores e curso. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência do subsídio financeiro e do local da realização do curso no aprendizado da emergência cardiovascular. MÉTODOS: Analisaram-se dados referentes aos cursos de Suporte Avançado de Vida em Cardiologia (ACLS no período de dezembro de 2005 a dezembro de 2006. De acordo com o subsídio financeiro, foram divididos em: grupo 1 - subsídio integral; grupo 2 - subsídio de 50%; e grupo 3 - sem subsídio. Quanto ao local do curso, foram divididos em: local A - curso em cidade com > 1 milhão de habitantes; e local B - curso em cidade com BACKGROUND: The success in learning of emergency depends on many factors that can be summarized as: student, instructors and course. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of financial subsidy and venue of course in learning cardiovascular emergency. METHODS: Data were analyzed regarding the courses of Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS in the period from December 2005 to December 2006. In agreement with the financial subsidy, they were divided in: group 1 - integral subsidy; group 2 - subsidy of 50%; and group 3 - without subsidy. As for the venue of the course, they were divided in: locality A - study in city with> 1 million inhabitants; and locality B - study in city with <1 million inhabitants. The practical and theoretical approval and the theoretical average were compared. RESULTS: 819 students participated in ACLS: 199 (24% in group 1, 122 (15% in 2 and 498 (61% in 3. The practical and theoretical approval and the average in the theoretical exam were greater in group 3 than in other groups (p <0.05. Four hundred and eighty two (482 took the course in venue A (59% and 337 (41% in venue B. The practical approval was similar for both groups (p = 0.33, however the theoretical approval was greater in venue A (73% vs. 65% - p = 0.021 - OR = 1.44 and IC

  17. Impact of nutrition since early life on cardiovascular prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The cardiovascular disease represents the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Western countries and it is related to the atherosclerotic process. Cardiovascular disease risk factors, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, obesity, accelerate the atherosclerotic process which begins in childhood and progresses throughout the life span. The cardiovascular disease risk factor detection and management through prevention delays the atherosclerotic progression towards clinical cardiovascular disease. Dietary habits, from prenatal nutrition, breastfeeding, complementary feeding to childhood and adolescence nutrition play a basic role for this topic. The metabolic and neuroendocrine environment of the fetus is fundamental in the body’s “metabolic programming”. Further several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of breastfeeding on cardiovascular risk factors reduction. Moreover the introduction of complementary foods represents another important step, with particular regard to protein intake. An adequate distribution between macronutrients (lipids, proteins and carbohydrates) is required for correct growth development from infancy throughout adolescence and for prevention of several cardiovascular disease risk determinants in adulthood. The purpose of this review is to examine the impact of nutrition since early life on disease. La malattia cardiovascolare rappresenta la principale causa di morbilità e mortalità dei paesi occidentali ed è correlata a degenerazione vascolare aterosclerotica. I fattori di rischio cardiovascolari quali dislipidemia, ipertensione, insulino resistenza e obesità accelerano tale processo il cui esordio è noto sin dell’età pediatrica ed evolve nel corso della vita. L’individuazione e la cura dei fattori di rischio cardiovascolari mediante la prevenzione dei fattori causali ritardano la progressione dell’aterosclerosi e l’insorgenza dei sintomi cardiovascolari. La nutrizione svolge un ruolo

  18. Impact of nutrition since early life on cardiovascular prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guardamagna Ornella

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The cardiovascular disease represents the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Western countries and it is related to the atherosclerotic process. Cardiovascular disease risk factors, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, obesity, accelerate the atherosclerotic process which begins in childhood and progresses throughout the life span. The cardiovascular disease risk factor detection and management through prevention delays the atherosclerotic progression towards clinical cardiovascular disease. Dietary habits, from prenatal nutrition, breastfeeding, complementary feeding to childhood and adolescence nutrition play a basic role for this topic. The metabolic and neuroendocrine environment of the fetus is fundamental in the body’s “metabolic programming”. Further several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of breastfeeding on cardiovascular risk factors reduction. Moreover the introduction of complementary foods represents another important step, with particular regard to protein intake. An adequate distribution between macronutrients (lipids, proteins and carbohydrates is required for correct growth development from infancy throughout adolescence and for prevention of several cardiovascular disease risk determinants in adulthood. The purpose of this review is to examine the impact of nutrition since early life on disease. La malattia cardiovascolare rappresenta la principale causa di morbilità e mortalità dei paesi occidentali ed è correlata a degenerazione vascolare aterosclerotica. I fattori di rischio cardiovascolari quali dislipidemia, ipertensione, insulino resistenza e obesità accelerano tale processo il cui esordio è noto sin dell’età pediatrica ed evolve nel corso della vita. L’individuazione e la cura dei fattori di rischio cardiovascolari mediante la prevenzione dei fattori causali ritardano la progressione dell’aterosclerosi e l’insorgenza dei sintomi cardiovascolari. La

  19. Cardiovascular risk, lipids and pregnancy: preeclampsia and the risk of later life cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Francesca; Tooher, Jane; Rye, Kerry-Anne; Hennessy, Annemarie

    2014-03-01

    It has been widely thought that the effects of hypertension in pregnancy reversed after delivery and hypertension values returned to their pre-pregnancy level as it was seen as a disease of short duration in otherwise healthy young women. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the principal underlying abnormality, endothelial dysfunction, remains in women who had preeclampsia and that it is this damage that increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in later life. The contributions of hypertension and dyslipidaemia before and during the pregnancy are also important and contribute to future risk. Serum lipids are complex and change dramatically in pregnancy. In general there is an increase in most plasma lipid components, notably triglycerides, total cholesterol and the major particles of HDL and LDL. Aberrations or exaggerations in this shift (i.e. decrease HDL and a greater increase in LDL) are associated with poor outcomes of pregnancy such as preeclampsia. Long term cardiovascular disease is influenced by preeclampsia and in part potentially by the lipid changes which escalate late in disease. Whether we can influence the risk of preeclampsia by controlling cardiovascular risk factors preceding or during preeclampsia, or cardiovascular disease after preeclampsia is yet to be determined. Ultimately, strategies to control lipid concentrations will only be viable when we understand the safety to the mother at the time of the pregnancy, and to the foetus both immediately and in the very long term. Strategies to control blood pressure are well established in the non-pregnant population, and previous preeclampsia and gestational hypertension should be considered in any cardiovascular risk profile. Whether control of blood pressure in the pregnancy per se is of any longer term benefit is also yet to be determined.

  20. Associations between life stress and subclinical cardiovascular disease are partly mediated by depressive and anxiety symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bomhof-Roordink, Hanna; Seldenrijk, Adrie; van Hout, Hein P. J.; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; Diamant, Michaela; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stress experienced during childhood or adulthood has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), but it is not clear whether associations are already prevalent on a subclinical cardiovascular level. This study investigates associations between indicators of life stress and subclin

  1. Developing Sustainable Life Support System Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evan A.

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable spacecraft life support concepts may allow the development of more reliable technologies for long duration space missions. Currently, life support technologies at different levels of development are not well evaluated against each other, and evaluation methods do not account for long term reliability and sustainability of the hardware. This paper presents point-of-departure sustainability evaluation criteria for life support systems, that may allow more robust technology development, testing and comparison. An example sustainable water recovery system concept is presented.

  2. Developmental origins of cardiovascular disease: Impact of early life stress in humans and rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M O; Cohn, D M; Loria, A S

    2017-03-01

    The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesizes that environmental insults during childhood programs the individual to develop chronic disease in adulthood. Emerging epidemiological data strongly supports that early life stress (ELS) given by the exposure to adverse childhood experiences is regarded as an independent risk factor capable of predicting future risk of cardiovascular disease. Experimental animal models utilizing chronic behavioral stress during postnatal life, specifically maternal separation (MatSep) provides a suitable tool to elucidate molecular mechanisms by which ELS increases the risk to develop cardiovascular disease, including hypertension. The purpose of this review is to highlight current epidemiological studies linking ELS to the development of cardiovascular disease and to discuss the potential molecular mechanisms identified from animal studies. Overall, this review reveals the need for future investigations to further clarify the molecular mechanisms of ELS in order to develop more personalized therapeutics to mitigate the long-term consequences of chronic behavioral stress including cardiovascular and heart disease in adulthood.

  3. Psychiatry: life events and social support in late life depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clóvis Alexandrino-Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of life events and social support in the broadly defined category of depression in late life. INTRODUCTION: Negative life events and lack of social support are associated with depression in the elderly. Currently, there are limited studies examining the association between life events, social support and late-life depression in Brazil. METHODS: We estimated the frequency of late-life depression within a household community sample of 367 subjects aged 60 years or greater with associated factors. ''Old age symptomatic depression'' was defined using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 1.1 tool. This diagnostic category included only late-life symptoms and consisted of the diagnoses of depression and dysthymia as well as a subsyndromal definition of depression, termed ''late subthreshold depression''. Social support and life events were assessed using the Comprehensive Assessment and Referral Evaluation (SHORT-CARE inventory. RESULTS: ''Old age symptomatic depression'' occurred in 18.8% of the patients in the tested sample. In univariate analyses, this condition was associated with female gender, lifetime anxiety disorder and living alone. In multivariate models, ''old age symptomatic depression'' was associated with a perceived lack of social support in men and life events in women. DISCUSSION: Social support and life events were determined to be associated with late-life depression, but it is important to keep in mind the differences between genders. Also, further exploration of the role of lifetime anxiety disorder in late-life depression may be of future importance. CONCLUSIONS: We believe that this study helps to provide insight into the role of psychosocial factors in late-life depression.

  4. Closed-Loop Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John W.

    2003-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. Advanced life support requirements document-high level: (a) high level requirements and standards, (b) advanced life support requirements documents-air, food, water. 2. Example technologies that satisfy requrements: air system-carbon dioxide removal. 3. Air-sabatter. 4. International Space Station water treatment subsystem.5. Direct osmotic concentrator. 6. Mass, volume and power estimates.

  5. Phases management for advanced life support processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eckhard, F.; Brunink, J.A.J.; Tuinstra, B.; Assink, J.W.; Ten Asbroek, N.; Backx, V.; Klaassen, A.; Waters, G.; Stasiak, M.A.; Dixon, M.; Ordoñez-Inda, L.

    2005-01-01

    For a planetary base, a reliable life support system including food and water supply, gas generation and waste management is a condition sine qua non. While for a short-term period the life support system may be an open loop, i.e. water, gases and food provided from the Earth, for long-term missions

  6. Hospital Costs Of Extracorporeal Life Support Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Lansink-Hartgring, Annemieke; van den Hengel, Berber; van der Bij, Wim; Erasmus, Michiel E.; Mariani, Massimo A.; Rienstra, Michiel; Cernak, Vladimir; Vermeulen, Karin M.; van den Bergh, Walter M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To conduct an exploration of the hospital costs of extracorporeal life support therapy. Extracorporeal life support seems an efficient therapy for acute, potentially reversible cardiac or respiratory failure, when conventional therapy has been inadequate, or as bridge to transplant, but

  7. Effect of nutritional support and nursing intervention on quality of life in patients with diabetes and cardiovascular disease%营养支持及护理干预对糖尿病合并心血管疾病患者生存质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林柳; 冯佩兰; 蔡白连

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究营养支持及护理干预对糖尿病合并心血管疾病患者生存质量的影响。方法将130例糖尿病合并心血管疾病患者纳入研究,随机分为给予营养支持、血糖、血压控制综合护理干预的观察组和仅给予常规护理干预的对照组,观察自我护理能力以及生存质量。结果观察组患者的健康知识、自我概念、自护责任感、自我护理技能、自我护理能力总评分、躯体、心理、社会、认知功能及生活总质量评分均高于对照组;FBG、PBG、HbA1c、LDL-C、TG、TC均明显低于对照组。结论营养支持及护理干预有助于提高自我护理能力、改善患者的生存质量,在糖尿病合并心血管疾病患者中具有积极的临床应用价值。%Objective To study the effect of nutritional support and nursing intervention on quality of life in patients with diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Methods 130 patients with diabetes and cardiovascular disease were enrolled and randomly divided into observation group given nutritional support combined with nursing intervention and control group only given routine nursing intervention support.Then self-care ability and life quality were observed. Results The health knowledge,self-concept,self responsibility,self nursing skills and total score of self care ability,body,psychologi-cal,social,cognitive function and life quality score in observation group were significantly higher than those of the con-trol group,the FBG,PBG,HbA1c,LDL-C,TG,TC in observation group were significantly lower than those in the control group. Conclusion Nutritional support and nursing intervention have positive clinical value in patients with diabetes and cardiovascular disease for it can improve the self nursing ability and quality of life.

  8. Lunar Outpost Life Support Trade Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Kevin E.; Anderson, Molly S.; Ewert, Michael K.; Barta, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Engineering trade-off studies of life support system architecture and technology options were conducted for potential lunar surface mission scenarios within NASA's Constellation Program. The scenarios investigated are based largely on results of the NASA Lunar Architecture Team (LAT) Phase II study. In particular, the possibility of Hosted Sortie missions, the high cost of power during eclipse periods, and the potential to reduce life support consumables through scavenging, in-situ resources, and alternative EVA technologies were all examined. These trade studies were performed within the Systems Integration, Modeling and Analysis (SIMA) element of NASA's Exploration Life Support (ELS) technology development project. The tools and methodology used in the study are described briefly, followed by a discussion of mission scenarios, life support technology options and results presented in terms of equivalent system mass for various regenerative life support technologies and architectures. Three classes of repeated or extended lunar surface missions were investigated in this study along with several life support resource scenarios for each mission class. Individual mission durations of 14 days, 90 days and 180 days were considered with 10 missions assumed for each at a rate of 2 missions per year. The 14-day missions represent a class of Hosted Sortie missions where a pre-deployed and potentially mobile habitat provides life support for multiple crews at one or more locations. The 90-day and 180-day missions represent lunar outpost expeditions with a larger fixed habitat. The 180-day missions assume continuous human presence and must provide life support through eclipse periods of up to 122 hours while the 90-day missions are planned for best-case periods of nearly continuous sunlight. This paper investigates system optimization within the assumptions of each scenario and addresses how the scenario selected drives the life support system to different designs

  9. IT for advanced Life Support in English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejerø Pedersen, Birgitte; Jeberg, Kirsten Ann; Koerner, Christian

    2009-01-01

    In this study we analyzed how IT support can be established for the treatment and documentation of advanced life support (ALS) in a hospital. In close collaboration with clinical researchers, a running prototype of an IT solution to support the clinical decisions in ALS was developed and tried out...

  10. Work stress and cardiovascular disease: a life course perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Loerbroks, Adrian; Bosma, Hans; Angerer, Peter

    2016-05-25

    Individuals in employment experience stress at work, and numerous epidemiological studies have documented its negative health effects, particularly on cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although evidence on the various interrelationships between work stress and CVD has been accumulated, those observations have not yet been conceptualized in terms of a life course perspective. Using the chain of risk model, we would like to propose a theoretical model incorporating six steps: (1) work stress increases the risk of incident CVD in healthy workers. (2) Among those whose work ability is not fully and permanently damaged, work stress acts as a determinant of the process of return to work after CVD onset. (3) CVD patients experience higher work stress after return to work. (4) Work stress increases the risk of recurrent CVD in workers with prior CVD. (5) CVD patients who fully lose their work ability transit to disability retirement. (6) Disability retirees due to CVD have an elevated risk of CVD mortality. The life course perspective might facilitate an in-depth understanding of the diverse interrelationships between work stress and CVD, thereby leading to work stress management interventions at each period of the lifespan and three-level prevention of CVD.

  11. [The basic life support guidance of American Heart Association (AHA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashioka, Hiroaki; Yonemori, Terutake; Maeda, Daigen

    2011-04-01

    The American Heart Association (AHA) and other member councils of International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) complete review of resuscitation science every 5 years. And ILCOR publishes Consensus on Science with Treatment Recommendations(CoSTR). The AHA published "American Heart Association (AHA) Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation(CPR) and Emergency Cardiovascular Care (ECC)" (G2010), that basis on CoSTR 2010 on Oct. 18th, 2010. The switchover to new curriculum based on G2010 on and after Mar. 1st, 2011 is the policy of AHA in their all training courses. The AHA maintains the quality of their training courses by some systems. AHA instructors are trained by some steps of instructor courses and monitoring systems and update their scientific knowledge on resuscitation by e-learning. The authors introduce an outline of basic life support for healthcare providers, the instructor training systems of AHA and summary of basic life support basis on G2010.

  12. Assessing quality-of-life outcomes in cardiovascular clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Daniel B

    2016-05-01

    The field of quality-of-life (QOL) measurement grew out of attempts in the 1960s and 1970s to connect the ever-increasing levels of public expenditure on technology-based health care for chronic diseases with evidence of the benefits and harms to patients. Most of the concepts, methods, and standards for measuring QOL were derived from psychometrics, but the degree to which current tools adhere to these methods varies greatly. Despite the importance of QOL, patient-reported outcomes are not measured in most cardiovascular clinical trials. Lack of familiarity with QOL measures and their interpretation, and unrealistic expectations about the information these measures can provide, are obstacles to their use. Large clinical trials of revascularization therapy for coronary artery disease and medical treatments for heart failure show small-to-moderate QOL effects, primarily detected with disease-specific instruments. Larger treatment effects, seen in trials of device therapy for heart failure and ablation therapy for atrial fibrillation, have been detected with both generic and disease-specific instruments. A large gap remains between the parameters currently being measured in clinical research and the data needed to incorporate the 'patient's voice' into therapeutic decision-making.

  13. Early life environment and the developing cardiovascular system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idris, N.S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The dynamics of cardiovascular system development in childhood are still largely unknown. Despite its known sensitivity to small perturbations, it has not been fully elucidated how the cardiovascular system evolves and responds to different stimuli and how these impact the future cardiov

  14. Life Support with Failures and Variable Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry

    2010-01-01

    The life support system for long duration missions will recycle oxygen and water to reduce the material resupply mass from Earth. The impact of life support failures was investigated by dynamic simulation of a lunar outpost habitat life support model. The model was modified to simulate resupply delays, power failures, recycling system failures, and storage failures. Many failures impact the lunar outpost water supply directly or indirectly, depending on the water balance and water storage. Failure effects on the water supply are reduced if Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) water use is low and the water supply is ample. Additional oxygen can be supplied by scavenging unused propellant or by production from regolith, but the amounts obtained can vary significantly. The requirements for oxygen and water can also vary significantly, especially for EVA. Providing storage buffers can improve efficiency and reliability, and minimize the chance of supply failing to meet demand. Life support failures and supply variations can be survivable if effective solutions are provided by the system design

  15. Perceived health, life satisfaction, and cardiovascular risk factors among elderly Korean immigrants and elderly Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Mo-Kyung; Chae, Young-Ran; Choe, Myoung-Ae; Murphy, Patrick; Kim, Jeungim; Jeon, Mi-Yang

    2011-03-01

    Acknowledging that changes in sociocultural environment influence health status, the purpose of this study was to compare perceived health, life satisfaction, and cardiovascular health in elderly Korean immigrants and elderly Koreans. In this cross-sectional study, a convenience sample of 88 elderly Korean immigrants and 295 elderly Koreans 65 and older were recruited from Korean communities in the United States and Korea. Respondents' perceived health was measured by self-assessment; life satisfaction was self-assessed using a dichotomous scale of general satisfaction with life; and cardiovascular health status was surveyed by self-report of major diagnosed cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus) and body mass index measurement for obesity. Despite having better perceived health and life satisfaction, elderly Korean immigrants also had higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. The findings provide health care providers with useful information for effective health assessment of minority immigrants.

  16. Life Support Baseline Values and Assumptions Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Molly S.; Ewert, Michael K.; Keener, John F.; Wagner, Sandra A.

    2015-01-01

    The Baseline Values and Assumptions Document (BVAD) provides analysts, modelers, and other life support researchers with a common set of values and assumptions which can be used as a baseline in their studies. This baseline, in turn, provides a common point of origin from which many studies in the community may depart, making research results easier to compare and providing researchers with reasonable values to assume for areas outside their experience. With the ability to accurately compare different technologies' performance for the same function, managers will be able to make better decisions regarding technology development.

  17. More americans living longer with cardiovascular disease will increase costs while lowering quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Ankur; Gaziano, Thomas A; Weinstein, Milton C; Cutler, David

    2013-10-01

    In the past several decades, some risk factors for cardiovascular disease have improved, while others have worsened. For example, smoking rates have dropped and treatment rates for cardiovascular disease have increased-factors that have made the disease less fatal. At the same time, Americans' average body mass index and incidence of diabetes have increased as the population continues to live longer-factors that have made cardiovascular disease more prevalent. To assess the aggregate impact of these opposing trends, we used the nine National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey waves from 1973 to 2010 to forecast total cardiovascular disease risk and prevalence from 2015 to 2030. We found that continued improvements in cardiovascular disease treatment and declining smoking rates will not outweigh the influence of increasing population age and obesity on cardiovascular disease risk. Given an aging population, an obesity epidemic, and declining mortality from the disease, the United States should expect to see a sharp rise in the health care costs, disability, and reductions in quality of life associated with increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease. Policies that target the treatment of high blood pressure and cholesterol and the reduction of obesity will be necessary to curb the imminent spike in cardiovascular disease prevalence.

  18. Environmental Control and Life Support System Mockup

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Group of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. This photograph shows the mockup of the the ECLSS to be installed in the Node 3 module of the ISS. From left to right, shower rack, waste management rack, Water Recovery System (WRS) Rack #2, WRS Rack #1, and Oxygen Generation System (OGS) rack are shown. The WRS provides clean water through the reclamation of wastewaters and is comprised of a Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) and a Water Processor Assembly (WPA). The UPA accepts and processes pretreated crewmember urine to allow it to be processed along with other wastewaters in the WPA. The WPA removes free gas, organic, and nonorganic constituents before the water goes through a series of multifiltration beds for further purification. The OGS produces oxygen for breathing air for the crew and laboratory animals, as well as for replacing oxygen loss. The OGS is comprised of a cell stack, which electrolyzes (breaks apart the hydrogen and oxygen molecules) some of the clean water provided by the WRS, and the separators that remove the gases from the water after electrolysis.

  19. The early life origin theory in the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblom, Runa; Ververis, Katherine; Tortorella, Stephanie M; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2015-04-01

    Life expectancy has been examined from a variety of perspectives in recent history. Epidemiology is one perspective which examines causes of morbidity and mortality at the population level. Over the past few 100 years there have been dramatic shifts in the major causes of death and expected life length. This change has suffered from inconsistency across time and space with vast inequalities observed between population groups. In current focus is the challenge of rising non-communicable diseases (NCD), such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the search to discover methods to combat the rising incidence of these diseases, a number of new theories on the development of morbidity have arisen. A pertinent example is the hypothesis published by David Barker in 1995 which postulates the prenatal and early developmental origin of adult onset disease, and highlights the importance of the maternal environment. This theory has been subject to criticism however it has gradually gained acceptance. In addition, the relatively new field of epigenetics is contributing evidence in support of the theory. This review aims to explore the implication and limitations of the developmental origin hypothesis, via an historical perspective, in order to enhance understanding of the increasing incidence of NCDs, and facilitate an improvement in planning public health policy.

  20. Physical/chemical closed-loop life support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, James G.

    1988-01-01

    Information on physical/chemical closed-loop life support systems are given in viewgraph form. Information is given on program objectives, the elements of a life support system, and Pathfinder program elements.

  1. Emergency Neurological Life Support: Status Epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, Jan; Riviello, James J; Silbergleit, Robert

    2015-12-01

    Patients with prolonged or rapidly recurring convulsions lasting more than 5 min are in status epilepticus (SE) and require immediate resuscitation. Although there are relatively few randomized clinical trials, available evidence and experience suggest that early and aggressive treatment of SE improves patient outcomes, for which reason this was chosen as an Emergency Neurological Life Support protocol. The current approach to the emergency treatment of SE emphasizes rapid initiation of adequate doses of first-line therapy, as well as accelerated second-line anticonvulsant drugs and induced coma when these fail, coupled with admission to a unit capable of neurological critical care and electroencephalography monitoring. This protocol will focus on the initial treatment of SE but also review subsequent steps in the protocol once the patient is hospitalized.

  2. Emergency Neurologic Life Support: Meningitis and Encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaieski, David F; Nathan, Barnett R; O'Brien, Nicole F

    2015-12-01

    Bacterial meningitis and viral encephalitis, particularly herpes simplex encephalitis, are severe neurological infections that, if not treated promptly and effectively, lead to poor neurological outcome or death. Because treatment is more effective if given early, the topic of meningitis and encephalitis was chosen as an Emergency Neurological Life Support protocol. This protocol provides a practical approach to recognition and urgent treatment of bacterial meningitis and encephalitis. Appropriate imaging, spinal fluid analysis, and early empiric treatment is discussed. Though uncommon in its full form, the typical clinical triad of headache, fever, and neck stiffness should alert the clinical practitioner to the possibility of a central nervous system infection. Early attention to the airway and maintaining normotension is crucial in treatment of these patients, as is rapid treatment with anti-infectives and, in some cases, corticosteroids.

  3. Extracorporeal life support in pediatric cardiac patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Di NARDO

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal Life Support (ECLS is a valuable tool in the management of neonates and older children with severe cardiac or respiratory failure. In this review, we focus on ECLS when used for neonatal and pediatric cardiac disease. Strict selection of patients and timely deployment are necessary to optimize outcomes. Although every attempt should be made to deploy ECLS urgently rather than emergently, extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR is being increasingly used and reasonable survival rates have been achieved after initiation of ECLS during active compressions of the chest following in-hospital cardiac arrest. Contraindications to ECLS are falling over time, although lethal chromosomal abnormalities, severe irreversible brain injury, and extremely low gestational age and weight (<32 weeks gestation or <1.5 kg remain firm contraindications.

  4. Extracorporeal life support for refractory ventricular tachycardia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Nicholas; Hofmann, James P.; Saranteas, Theodosios; Papadimos, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) is a very effective bridging therapy in patients with refractory ventricular tachycardia (VT) associated with cardiogenic shock. A moribund patient in extremis, is not amenable to optimization by standard ACC/AHA guidelines. New approaches and novel salvage techniques are necessary to improve outcomes in patients with refractory clinical settings such as malignant ventricular arrhythmias, cardiac arrest, cardiogenic shock and/or pulmonary failure until further management options are explored. Data base searches were done using key words such as ECLS, VT, cardiac arrest, VT ablation, venoarterial extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO). The use of ECLS has been described in a few case reports to facilitate VT ablation for incessant VT refractory to medical therapy. For patients with, out-of- hospital ventricular fibrillation (VF) and VT, Minnesota Resuscitation Consortium has implemented emergent advanced perfusion and reperfusion strategy, followed by coronary angiography and primary coronary intervention to improve outcome. The major indications for ECLS are cardiogenic shock related to acute myocardial infarction, myocarditis, post embolic acute cor pulmonale, drug intoxication and post cardiac arrest syndrome with the threat of multi-organ failure. ECLS permits the use of negative inotropic antiarrhythmic drug therapy, facilitates the weaning of catecholamine administration, thereby ending the vicious cycle of catecholamine driven electric storm. ECLS provides hemodynamic support during ablation procedure, while mapping and induction of VT is undertaken. ECLS provides early access to cardiac catheterization laboratory in patients with cardiac arrest due to shockable rhythm. The current evidence from literature, supports the use of ECLS to ensure adequate vital organ perfusion in patients with refractory VT. ECLS is a safe, feasible and effective therapeutic option when conventional therapies are insufficient to support

  5. Closure of regenerative life support systems: results of the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, D.; Henninger, D.; Edeen, M.; Lewis, J.; Smith, F.; Verostko, C.

    Future long duration human exploration missions away from Earth will require closed-loop regenerative life support systems to reduce launch mass reduce dependency on resupply and increase the level of mission self sufficiency Such systems may be based on the integration of biological and physiocochemical processes to produce potable water breathable atmosphere and nutritious food from metabolic and other mission wastes Over the period 1995 to 1998 a series of ground-based tests were conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Johnson Space Center to evaluate the performance of advanced closed-loop life support technologies with real human metabolic and hygiene loads Named the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project LMLSTP four integrated human tests were conducted with increasing duration complexity and closure The first test LMLSTP Phase I was designed to demonstrate the ability of higher plants to revitalize cabin atmosphere A single crew member spent 15 days within an atmospherically closed chamber containing 11 2 square meters of actively growing wheat Atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen levels were maintained by control of the rate of photosynthesis through manipulation of light intensity or the availability of carbon dioxide and included integrated physicochemical systems During the second and third tests LMLSTP Phases II IIa four crew members spent 30 days and 60 days respectively in a larger sealed chamber Advanced physicochemical life support hardware was used to regenerate the atmosphere and produce potable water

  6. Nanomaterials for Advanced Life Support in Advanced Life Support in Space systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allada, Rama Kumar; Moloney, Padraig; Yowell, Leonard

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing nanomaterial research at NASA Johnson Space Center with a focus on advanced life support in space systems is shown. The topics include: 1) Introduction; 2) Research and accomplishments in Carbon Dioxide Removal; 3) Research and Accomplishments in Water Purification; and 4) Next Steps

  7. Gender-specific changes in quality of life following cardiovascular disease : A prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Jaarsveld, C.H.; Sanderman, R.; Ranchor, A.V.; Ormel, J.; van Veldhuisen, D.J.; Kempen, G.I.

    2002-01-01

    Gender-specific changes in Quality of Life (QoL) following cardiovascular disease (CVD) were studied in 208 patients to determine whether gender-related differences in postmorbid QoL result from differences in disease severity, premorbid QoL, or different CVD-related recovery. Premorbid data were av

  8. Pulse pressure, left ventricular function and cardiovascular events during antihypertensive treatment (the LIFE study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdts, Eva; Franklin, Stanley; Rieck, Ashild;

    2009-01-01

    systolic function and cardiovascular events was assessed in 883 patients with electrocardiographic LV hypertrophy during 4.8 years of randomized losartan- or atenolol-based treatment within the echocardiographic substudy of the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension (LIFE) study...

  9. Gender-specific changes in quality of life following cardiovascular disease: A prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Jaarsveld, C.H.M.; Sanderman, R.; Ranchor, A.V; Ormel, J.; Van Veldhuisen, D.J.; Kempen, G.I J M

    2002-01-01

    Gender-specific changes in Quality of Life (QoL) following cardiovascular disease (CVD) were studied in 208 patients to determine whether gender-related differences in postmorbid QoL result from differences in disease severity, premorbid QoL, or different CVD-related recovery. Premorbid data were av

  10. The early life origins of vascular ageing and cardiovascular risk: the EVA syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Peter M; Lurbe, Empar; Laurent, Stéphane

    2008-06-01

    Early vascular ageing is common in patients with hypertension and increased burden of cardiovascular risk factors, often influenced by chronic inflammation. One aspect of this vascular ageing is arterial stiffening, as measured by increased pulse wave velocity or augmentation index and central pressure. Several studies have indicated that this process starts early in life and that arterial function and ageing properties could be programmed during foetal life or influenced by adverse growth patterns in early postnatal life. This could explain the repeated findings in observational epidemiology that an inverse association exists between birth weight, adjusted for gestational age, and systolic blood pressure elevation in childhood, adolescence and adulthood, as well as for increased cardiovascular risk. One new marker of increased pulse pressure and arterial ageing is telomere length, as regulated by telomerase enzymatic activity. Future studies will hopefully shed light on the possibilities to halt or even reverse vascular ageing, and thereby also influence telomere biology and its different expressions.

  11. ['Advanced trauma life support' in Netherlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vugt, A B

    2000-10-28

    Introduction of the principles of advanced trauma life support (ATLS) in the management of accident victims has been in progress in the Netherlands since 1995. The main ATLS principles are that the aid giver treats the most dangerous disorder first and does no further damage. After assessment and, if necessary, treatment of the airways, the respiration, the circulation and any craniocerebral injury, an exploratory examination is carried out. Physicians receive theoretical and practical instructions in this form of management during an intensive two-day course, counselled by a coordinating organization in the USA. Most of those attending are interns in general surgery, traumatology and orthopaedics, gatekeeper doctors of emergency rooms and army medical officers. The standardized way of thinking improves the communication and understanding between the various disciplines involved in trauma care, in part because there exist comparable programmes for ambulance care and emergency care. Other measures improving the quality of trauma care are regionalization of the trauma care, medical helicopter teams and evaluation of the effects of ATLS as an operating procedure.

  12. Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Chronic SCI: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Treatment Impact on Cognition, Quality of Life, and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Randomized Controlled Trial of Treatment Impact on Cognition, Quality of Life, and Cardiovascular Disease PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Shirin Shafazand...PAP) will improve cognitive impairment, sleep quality, quality of life, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) surrogate measures in persons with chronic

  13. Adaptive life simulator: A novel approach to modeling the cardiovascular system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangas, L.J.; Keller, P.E.; Hashem, S. [and others

    1995-06-01

    In this paper, an adaptive life simulator (ALS) is introduced. The ALS models a subset of the dynamics of the cardiovascular behavior of an individual by using a recurrent artificial neural network. These models are developed for use in applications that require simulations of cardiovascular systems, such as medical mannequins, and in medical diagnostic systems. This approach is unique in that each cardiovascular model is developed from physiological measurements of an individual. Any differences between the modeled variables and the actual variables of an individual can subsequently be used for diagnosis. This approach also exploits sensor fusion applied to biomedical sensors. Sensor fusion optimizes the utilization of the sensors. The advantage of sensor fusion has been demonstrated in applications including control and diagnostics of mechanical and chemical processes.

  14. Vitamin D deficiency in early life and the potential programming of cardiovascular disease in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezmish, Oksan; Black, Mary Jane

    2013-08-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is a major worldwide public health problem affecting people of all ages, from infants to the elderly. Of particular concern is the high incidence of vitamin D deficiency in women during pregnancy and lactation, leading to the exposure of the growing fetus/infant to inadequate levels of vitamin D, which is essential for normal development. Vitamin D deficiency in adulthood is linked to the etiology of hypertension and to a multitude of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. It is now well-established that the antecedents of cardiovascular disease can originate very early in life. The purpose of this review is to highlight how maternal vitamin D deficiency, and its effects in upregulating the fetal renin-angiotensin system and altering cardiomyocyte growth in the fetal heart, has the potential to program long-term vulnerability to cardiovascular disease.

  15. Neurologic and Cardiovascular Complications in Pediatric Life Threatening Imipramine Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Kam L; Fung, Ching K; Lee, Vivian W; Cheung, Kam L; Wong, William; Leung, Alexander K C

    2015-01-01

    We present an 18-month boy with imipramine poisoning to illustrate the neuro-cardiac toxic effects of this potentially deadly poison in children. The toddler ingested an unknown amount of imipramine from a non-childproof bottle which clearly labelled that the drug must be kept out of reach from children. He developed neurologic and cardiac symptoms. Electrocardiography (ECG) showed tachycardia and widened QRS. He was immediately treated with bicarbonate infusion and made an uneventful recovery. This is the youngest and only reported case of symptomatic imipramine ingestion in our locality. Imipramine has been surpassed by newer antidepressants for the treatment of depression in the past decade. Literature is searched to review the mortality rate in young children. Intensive care neuro-cardiac support contributes to the favorable outcome. Despite clear labelling of the bottle, carelessness on the part of the adult and the use of non-childproof bottle are definite preventable factor to such potentially fatal ingestion.

  16. Numerical fatigue life assessment of cardiovascular stents: A two-scale plasticity-damage model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, H. A. F. A.; Auricchio, F.; Conti, M.

    2013-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease has become a major global health care problem in the last decades. To tackle this problem, the use of cardiovascular stents has been considered a promising and effective approach. Numerical simulations to evaluate the in vivo behavior of stents are becoming more and more important to assess potential failures. As the material failure of a stent device has been often associated with fatigue issues, numerical approaches for fatigue life assessment of stents have gained special interest in the engineering community. Numerical fatigue life predictions can be used to modify the design and prevent failure without making and testing numerous physical devices, thus preventing from undesired fatigue failures. We present a numerical fatigue life model for the analysis of cardiovascular balloon-expandable stainless steel stents that can hopefully provide useful information either to be used for product improvement or for clinicians to make life-saving decisions. This model incorporates a two-scale continuum damage mechanics model and the so-called Soderberg fatigue failure criterion. We provide numerical results for both Palmaz-Schatz and Cypher stent designs and demonstrate that a good agreement is found between the numerical and the available experimental results.

  17. Independent effects of early-life experience and trait aggression on cardiovascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Samir; Pugh, Phyllis C; Katz, Erin; Stringfellow, Sara A; Lin, Chee Paul; Wyss, J Michael; Stauss, Harald M; White, C Roger; Clinton, Sarah M; Kerman, Ilan A

    2016-08-01

    Early-life experience (ELE) can significantly affect life-long health and disease, including cardiovascular function. Specific dimensions of emotionality also modify risk of disease, and aggressive traits along with social inhibition have been established as independent vulnerability factors for the progression of cardiovascular disease. Yet, the biological mechanisms mediating these associations remain poorly understood. The present study utilized the inherently stress-susceptible and socially inhibited Wistar-Kyoto rats to determine the potential influences of ELE and trait aggression (TA) on cardiovascular parameters throughout the lifespan. Pups were exposed to maternal separation (MS), consisting of daily 3-h separations of the entire litter from postnatal day (P)1 to P14. The rats were weaned at P21, and as adults were instrumented for chronic radiotelemetry recordings of blood pressure and heart rate (HR). Adult aggressive behavior was assessed using the resident-intruder test, which demonstrated that TA was independent of MS exposure. MS-exposed animals (irrespective of TA) had significantly lower resting HR accompanied by increases in HR variability. No effects of MS on resting blood pressure were detected. In contrast, TA correlated with increased resting mean, systolic, and diastolic arterial pressures but had no effect on HR. TA rats (relative to nonaggressive animals) also manifested increased wall-to-lumen ratio in the thoracic aorta, increased sensitivity to phenylephrine-induced vascular contractility, and increased norepinephrine content in the heart. Together these data suggest that ELE and TA are independent factors that impact baseline cardiovascular function.

  18. cardiovasculares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Guerrero

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los aspectos que más discusión ha suscitado en los últimos tiempos entre quienes nos dedicamos al estudio de la emoción tiene que ver con la eventual asociación entre percepción, valoración y respuesta fisiológica. Esto es, siguiendo la máxima aristotélica, cabría cuestionar si las cosas son como son o son como cada quien las percibe. El objetivo de este experimento ha sido establecer la existencia de una conexión entre percepción de control y responsividad cardiovascular. La muestra estudiada ha estado conformada por estudiantes de la Universidad de Castellón; todos ellos han participado de forma voluntaria. La prueba de estrés ha consistido en un examen real de una asignatura troncal de la titulación que cursaban los participantes. Así pues, utilizando una situación de estrés real, hipotetizamos que las respuestas cardiovasculares (medidas a través de la tasa cardiaca, la presión sanguínea sistólica y la presión sanguínea diastólica dependen de la percepción de control que el individuo tiene, o cree tener, sobre la situación.

  19. Restless Legs Syndrome/Willis-Ekbom Disease Morbidity: Burden, Quality of Life, Cardiovascular Aspects, and Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Mary Suzanne

    2015-09-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS)/Willis-Ekbom disease (WED) has a significant negative effect on quality of life. The decreased quality of life is similar to that of other chronic diseases, such as diabetes type 2, depression, and osteoarthritis. RLS/WED disrupts sleep length, sleep quality, and daytime alertness. Sleep disruption can contribute to depression. RLS/WED has been associated with cardiovascular disease and high blood pressure, possibly because of increased sympathetic tone caused by periodic limb movements of sleep. RLS/WED is underdiagnosed, leading to chronic sleep disruption and daytime consequences. Patients with RLS/WED have decreased productivity at work, which potentially has far-reaching economic consequences.

  20. Fetal development and risk of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes type 2 in adult life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak-Węgierek, Dorota; Szamotulska, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    The fetal origin hypothesis of adult cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia in persons born with low birthweight, independently of their extrauterine risk factors, has been well established in the last decade of the twentieth century. However, mechanisms responsible for this relationship are still under investigation. Insulin resistance resulting from the restriction of intrauterine development of skeletal muscles and other organs is considered as the most important cause of metabolic disturbances and their cardiovascular complications in adult subjects born with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Decline of insulin secretion, overactivation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, reduced glucose uptake in the liver and raised lipid oxidation in the muscles may also explain this association. On the other hand, abnormal vascular development , increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system, defective endothelial function and/or impaired renal function in growth restricted newborns may contribute to hypertension in their later life. With respect to maternal conditions and life-style factors that may increase cardiovascular risk in adult offspring born with IUGR, the most consistent results concern pregnancy induced hypertension, preeclampsia, undernutrition, smoking during pregnancy, hypercholesterolemia, inflammation and/or enhanced glucocorticoid secretion. Macrosomia of the newborn, a frequent sequel to maternal diabetes and/or obesity, also increases the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. Maternal overnutrition, and particularly high fat and sugar intake, seem to play a key role in fetal programming of cardiovascular risk in subjects born with macrosomia. Epigenetic imprinting underlies the described pathomechanisms. The presented associations are illustrated, among others, with the results of studies performed by the authors of this review.

  1. Predictors of health-related quality of life in patients at risk for cardiovascular disease in European primary care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludt, S.; Wensing, M.J.P.; Szecsenyi, J.; Lieshout, J. van; Rochon, J.; Freund, T.; Campbell, S.M.; Ose, D.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular risk management plays an important role in primary care. In patients at high risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) lifestyle and, where appropriate, medical interventions are recommended in guidelines. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important outcome in clin

  2. Employment Status, Social Support, and Life Satisfaction among the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Juan A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined the role of stressful life experiences and social support in the health of 292 community-living elderly. Findings suggest that the number of hours worked at a paying job, lower levels of depression, and greater perceived social support were directly related to higher levels of life satisfaction. (RJM)

  3. SLurtles: Supporting Constructionist Learning in "Second Life"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girvan, Carina; Tangney, Brendan; Savage, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Constructionism places an emphasis on the process of constructing shareable artefacts. Many virtual worlds, such as "Second Life", provide learners with tools for the construction of objects and hence may facilitate in-world constructionist learning experiences. However, the construction tools available present learners with a significant barrier…

  4. Worksite Characteristics and Environmental and Policy Supports for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in New York State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Brissette, PhD

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionWorksite policy and environmental supports that promote physical activity, healthy eating, stress management, and preventive health screenings can contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease and lower employer costs. This study examines the availability of these four categories of supports in a statewide survey of New York State worksites.MethodsIn 2002, we recruited a statewide sample of worksites in New York State with 75 or more employees to participate in a mailed survey assessing worksite policy and environmental supports for wellness and health promotion. The overall response rate was 34.8%. The analysis included data from 832 worksites.ResultsWorksite size was an independent predictor of health promotion supports with small (75–99 employees and medium-small (100–199 employees worksites reporting significantly fewer policy and environmental supports in all four categories than worksites with 300 or more employees. Worksites in which most employees were nonwhite reported fewer supports for physical activity, healthy eating, and stress management than worksites in which most employees were white. A wellness committee or wellness coordinator was associated with more health promotion supports, regardless of the size of the worksite or composition of its workforce.ConclusionWorksites with fewer than 200 employees have an increased need for assistance in establishing environmental and policy supports promoting cardiovascular health. Worksites that have a wellness committee or coordinator are better able to establish and sustain supports with the potential to improve the health of their workers.

  5. A review on the genetic, environmental, and lifestyle aspects of the early-life origins of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelishadi, Roya; Poursafa, Parinaz

    2014-03-01

    This article is a comprehensive review on developmental origins of health and disease regarding various factors related to the origins of cardiovascular diseases from early life. It presents a summary of the impacts of various factors such as epigenetics; gene-environment interaction; ethnic predisposition to cardiovascular diseases and their underlying risk factors; prenatal factors; fetal programming; maternal weight status and weight gain during pregnancy; type of feeding during infancy; growth pattern during childhood; obesity; stunting; socioeconomic status; dietary and physical activity habits; active, secondhand, and thirdhand smoking, as well as environmental factors including air pollution and global climate change on the development and progress of cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors. The importance of early identification of predisposing factors for cardiovascular diseases for primordial and primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases from early life is highlighted.

  6. Closure of Regenerative Life Support Systems: Results of the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel; Henninger, D.; Edeen, M.; Lewis, J.; Smth, F.; Verostko, C.

    2006-01-01

    Future long duration human exploration missions away from Earth will require closed-loop regenerative life support systems to reduce launch mass, reduce dependency on resupply and increase the level of mission self sufficiency. Such systems may be based on the integration of biological and physiocochemical processes to produce potable water, breathable atmosphere and nutritious food from metabolic and other mission wastes. Over the period 1995 to 1998 a series of ground-based tests were conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Johnson Space Center, to evaluate the performance of advanced closed-loop life support technologies with real human metabolic and hygiene loads. Named the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project (LMLSTP), four integrated human tests were conducted with increasing duration, complexity and closure. The first test, LMLSTP Phase I, was designed to demonstrate the ability of higher plants to revitalize cabin atmosphere. A single crew member spent 15 days within an atmospherically closed chamber containing 11.2 square meters of actively growing wheat. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen levels were maintained by control of the rate of photosynthesis through manipulation of light intensity or the availability of carbon dioxide and included integrated physicochemical systems. During the second and third tests, LMLSTP Phases II & IIa, four crew members spent 30 days and 60 days, respectively, in a larger sealed chamber. Advanced physicochemical life support hardware was used to regenerate the atmosphere and produce potable water from wastewater. Air revitalization was accomplished by using a molecular sieve and a Sabatier processor for carbon dioxide absorption and reduction, respectively, with oxygen generation performed by water hydrolysis. Production of potable water from wastewater included urine treatment (vapor compression distillation), primary treatment (ultrafiltration/reverse osmosis and multi-filtration) and post

  7. Maternal Obesity During Pregnancy Associates With Premature Mortality and Major Cardiovascular Events in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kuan Ken; Raja, Edwin A; Lee, Amanda J; Bhattacharya, Sohinee; Bhattacharya, Siladitya; Norman, Jane E; Reynolds, Rebecca M

    2015-11-01

    One in 5 pregnant women is obese but the impact on later health is unknown. We aimed to determine whether maternal obesity during pregnancy associates with increased premature mortality and later life major cardiovascular events. Maternity records of women who gave birth to their first child between 1950 and 1976 (n=18 873) from the Aberdeen Maternity and Neonatal databank were linked to the National Register of Deaths, Scotland and Scottish Morbidity Record. The effect of maternal obesity at first antenatal visit on death and hospital admissions for cardiovascular events was tested using time-to-event analysis with Cox proportional hazard regression to compare outcomes of mothers in underweight, overweight, or obese body mass index (BMI) categories compared with normal BMI. Median follow-up was at 73 years. All-cause mortality was increased in women who were obese during pregnancy (BMI>30 kg/m(2)) versus normal BMI after adjustment for socioeconomic status, smoking, gestation at BMI measurement, preeclampsia, and low birth weight (hazard ratio, 1.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.77). In adjusted models, overweight and obese mothers had increased risk of hospital admission for a cardiovascular event (1.16; 1.06-1.27 and 1.26; 1.01-1.57) compared with normal BMI mothers. Adjustment for parity largely unchanged the hazard ratios (mortality: 1.43, 1.09-1.88; cardiovascular events overweight: 1.17, 1.07-1.29; and obese: 1.30, 1.04-1.62). In conclusion, maternal obesity is associated with increased risk of premature death and cardiovascular disease. Pregnancy and early postpartum could represent an opportunity for interventions to identify obesity and reduce its adverse consequences.

  8. The Virtual Habitat - a tool for Life Support Systems optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czupalla, Markus; Dirlich, Thomas; Harder, Jan; Pfeiffer, Matthias

    Virtual Habitat consists of four main modules each of which is subdivided into further, more detailed sub-modules. The four main modules of the simulation are the following: · Closed Environment Module (CEM)- monitoring of compounds in a closed environment · Crew Module (CM) - dynamic human simulation · Plant Module (PM) - dynamic plant simulation · P/C systems module (PCSM) - library of dynamic P/C subsystems The paper describes the character of each of the modules introducing the first results, which will be the first version of the metabolism, muscle and cardiovascular sub-modules of the crew module. In addition a dynamic closed environment module and the first dynamic plant model are presented and discussed. Further the modularity strategy and interfaceability of the submodels of the Virtual Habitat are discussed highlighting the resulting model limitations. Finally in the paper an outlook is given on the tasks remaining before the virtual habitat can be used to optimize life support systems on a system level. Among others the question of model correlation with existing simulations and data will be addressed.

  9. EXPLOITATION OF LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS IN POPULATED PLACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudchenko I. I.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes aspects of control, regulation, functioning and degree of influence on the condition of life-support systems, on the safety of life support, on the safety vital functions of society. The impact of life-support systems on the ecological status of builtup areas. The article refers to an increase in emissions and the dangers of СО2 и SО2, about methods to reduce them. It presents the dangers of hydrogen compounds, nitrogen, chlorine, freon. We have also presented measures to protect the environment in urban areas

  10. Reliability Growth in Space Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2014-01-01

    A hardware system's failure rate often increases over time due to wear and aging, but not always. Some systems instead show reliability growth, a decreasing failure rate with time, due to effective failure analysis and remedial hardware upgrades. Reliability grows when failure causes are removed by improved design. A mathematical reliability growth model allows the reliability growth rate to be computed from the failure data. The space shuttle was extensively maintained, refurbished, and upgraded after each flight and it experienced significant reliability growth during its operational life. In contrast, the International Space Station (ISS) is much more difficult to maintain and upgrade and its failure rate has been constant over time. The ISS Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) reliability has slightly decreased. Failures on ISS and with the ISS CDRA continue to be a challenge.

  11. Application of case-simulated teaching combining problem-based learning in teaching of advanced cardiovascular life support%模拟案例结合PBL教学在高级心血管生命支持教学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方珊娟; 聂绍平; 王春梅

    2016-01-01

    Objective To discuss the result of case-simulated teaching combining problem-based learning (PBL) in teaching of advanced cardiovascular life support (ACLS) for medical students. Methods The medical students of grade 2010 (n=60, male 36 and female 24) were chosen from Sept. 2014 to Jun. 2015. All students were divided into control group and test group (each n=30) and given ACLS training. The traditional teaching method was used in control group and case-simulated teaching combining PBL was used in test group. After the training, the reviews on theory assessment, field simulation assessment and team performance were conducted. Results The theoretical achievements were significantly increased [(87.1±6.3) vs. (78.1±9.9)] and achievements of field simulation assessment were also significantly increased [(84.1±9.5) vs. (73.4±9.1)] in test group compared with control group after the training (all P<0.01). Compared with control group, the performance of leadership and team coordination, verbal information communication and interactive performance monitoring were significantly improved in test group after the training (all P<0.01). Conclusion The method of case-simulated teaching combining PBL can significantly improve the teaching results in ACLS training for medical students.%目的:探讨模拟案例结合以问题为中心的教学法(PBL)在医学生高级心血管生命支持(ACLS)教学中的效果。方法选择2014年9月~2015年6月在北京安贞医院实习的2010级临床医学专业学生60例作为研究对象,男性36例,女性24例。随机分为对照组(30例)和实验组(30例)进行ACLS培训,对照组采用传统的教学法,实验组采用模拟案例结合PBL教学法,培训结束后,进行理论考核、现场模拟考核、团队表现的评估。结果模拟案例结合PBL教学的实验组医学生培训后理论成绩较对照组显著升高[(87.1±6.3)分 vs.(78.1±9.9)分],现场模拟考核

  12. Novel Composite Membrane for Space Life Supporting System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space life-supporting systems require effective removal of metabolic CO2 from the cabin atmosphere with minimal loss of O2. Conventional techniques, using either...

  13. Composting in advanced life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, C. F.; Sager, J. C.; Alazraki, M.; Loader, C.

    1998-01-01

    Space missions of extended duration are currently hampered by the prohibitive costs of external resupply. To reduce the need for resupply, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently testing methods to recycle solid wastes, water, and air. Composting can be an integral part of a biologically based waste treatment/recycling system. Results indicate that leachate from composted plant wastes is not inhibitory to seed germination and contains sufficient inorganic minerals to support plant growth. Other solid wastes, for example kitchen (food) wastes and human solid wastes, can be composted with inedible plant residues to safely reduce the volume of the wastes and levels of microorganisms potentially pathogenic to humans. Finished compost could serve as a medium for plant growth or mushroom production.

  14. Effective work-life balance support for various household structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummelhuis, L.L. ten; Lippe, T. van der

    2010-01-01

    Today’s workforce encompasses a wide variety of employees with specifi c needs and resources when it comes to balancing work and life roles. Our study explores whether various types of work-life balance support measures improve employee helping behavior and performance among single employees, employ

  15. Overview of NASA's Environmental Control and Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Monserrate

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) on the International Space Station. A look inside of the International Space Station detailing ECLSS processes of controlling atmospheric pressure, conditioning the atmosphere, responding to emergency conditions, controlling internal carbon dioxide and contaminants and providing water are described. A detailed description of ISS Regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support System is also presented.

  16. Quality of life and its association with cardiovascular risk factors in a community health care program population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Mário Baptista Martinelli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate quality of life in a population that attended a specific community event on health care education, and to investigate the association of their quality of life with the presence of cardiovascular risk factors INTRODUCTION: Interest in health-related quality of life is growing worldwide as a consequence of increasing rates of chronic disease. However, little is known about the association between quality of life and cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: This study included 332 individuals. Demographics, blood pressure, body mass index, and casual glycemia were evaluated. The brief version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire on quality of life was given to them. The medians of the scores obtained for the physical, psychological, emotional, and environmental domains were used as cutoffs to define "higher" and "lower" scores. A multinomial logistic regression model was used to define the parameters associated with lower scores. RESULTS: Diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and obesity were associated with lower scores in the physical domain. Dyslipidemia was also associeted with lower scores in the psychological domain. Male gender and regular physical activity had protective effects on quality of life. Aging was inversely associated with decreased quality of life in the environmental domain. CONCLUSION: The presence of cardiovascular risk factors is related to a decreased quality of life. Conversely, male gender and regular physical activity had protective effects on quality of life. These findings suggest that exercising should be further promoted by health-related public programs, with a special focus on women.

  17. Confronting Uncertainty in Life Cycle Assessment Used for Decision Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Sohn, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to help confront uncertainty in life cycle assessments (LCAs) used for decision support. LCAs offer a quantitative approach to assess environmental effects of products, technologies, and services and are conducted by an LCA practitioner or analyst (AN) to support...

  18. Research on Life Science and Life Support Engineering Problems of Manned Deep Space Exploration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Bin; Guo, Linli; Zhang, Zhixian

    2016-07-01

    Space life science and life support engineering are prominent problems in manned deep space exploration mission. Some typical problems are discussed in this paper, including long-term life support problem, physiological effect and defense of varying extraterrestrial environment. The causes of these problems are developed for these problems. To solve these problems, research on space life science and space medical-engineering should be conducted. In the aspect of space life science, the study of space gravity biology should focus on character of physiological effect in long term zero gravity, co-regulation of physiological systems, impact on stem cells in space, etc. The study of space radiation biology should focus on target effect and non-target effect of radiation, carcinogenicity of radiation, spread of radiation damage in life system, etc. The study of basic biology of space life support system should focus on theoretical basis and simulating mode of constructing the life support system, filtration and combination of species, regulation and optimization method of life support system, etc. In the aspect of space medical-engineering, the study of bio-regenerative life support technology should focus on plants cultivation technology, animal-protein production technology, waste treatment technology, etc. The study of varying gravity defense technology should focus on biological and medical measures to defend varying gravity effect, generation and evaluation of artificial gravity, etc. The study of extraterrestrial environment defense technology should focus on risk evaluation of radiation, monitoring and defending of radiation, compound prevention and removal technology of dust, etc. At last, a case of manned lunar base is analyzed, in which the effective schemes of life support system, defense of varying gravity, defense of extraterrestrial environment are advanced respectively. The points in this paper can be used as references for intensive study on key

  19. Potential of derived lunar volatiles for life support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bula, R. J.; Wittenberg, L. J.; Tibbitts, T. W.; Kulcinski, G. L.

    1992-01-01

    The lunar regolith contains small quantities of solar wind implanted volatile compounds that have vital, basic uses for maintaining life support systems of lunar or space settlements. Recent proposals to utilize the helium-3 isotope (He-3) derived from the lunar regolith as a fuel for fusion reactors would result in the availability of large quantities of other lunar volatile compounds. The quantities obtained would provide the annual life support replacement requirements of 1150 to 23,000 inhabitants per ton of He-3 recovered, depending on the volatile compound. Utilization of the lunar volatile compounds for life support depends on the costs, in terms of materials and energy, associated with their extraction from the lunar regolith as compared to the delivery costs of these compounds from Earth resources. Considering today's conservative estimated transportation costs ($10,000 dollars per kilogram) and regolith mining costs ($5 dollars per ton), the life support replacement requirements could be more economically supplied by recovering the lunar volatile compounds than transporting these materials from Earth resources, even before He-3 will be utilized as a fusion fuel. In addition, availability of lunar volatile compounds could have a significant cost impact on maintaining the life support systems of the space station and a Mars base.

  20. Estimating years of life lost from cardiovascular mortality related to air pollution in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Ou, Chun-Quan; Song, Yu-Feng; Li, Li; Chen, Ping-Yan; Liu, Qi-Yong

    2016-12-15

    Previous studies have mainly used mortality or morbidity as the health outcome to examine the air pollution-health association. Little evidence is available on relationships between air pollutants and years of life lost (YLL). We aimed to estimate the YLL from cardiovascular mortality due to air pollution. Daily data on weather and air pollutants and individual data of all registered deaths for years 2004-2007 were obtained in Guangzhou, China. The generalized additive model was used to assess the YLL associated with 10μg/m(3) increases in NO2, SO2 and PM10. We found that the mean daily YLL was 248, 87.5 and 73.7 for deaths from cardiovascular disease (CVD), stroke and ischemic heart disease (IHD), respectively. A significant linear correlation was observed between air pollution and YLL due to cardiovascular disease. The effects of air pollutants on YLL were immediate and lasted for two days. A 10μg/m(3) increase above the corresponding threshold of 55.6μg/m(3), 40.4μg/m(3) and 0μg/m(3) in NO2, PM10 and SO2 was related to YLL increase of 1.8 (95% CI: 0.8-2.9), 2.8 (1.7-3.8) and 2.6 (1.2-4.0) years at lag 0-1days for CVD, respectively. The estimates of YLL associated with NO2 and PM10 were higher in men than women. The air pollutants-related YLL was higher among young people and those with low education level, compared to the elderly and those with high education level, respectively. These findings confirmed YLL provides a complementary strategy for assessing the health effect of air pollution. This study underscores the necessity of the reduction of air pollution benefiting public health.

  1. Reliability Impacts in Life Support Architecture and Technology Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange Kevin E.; Anderson, Molly S.

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative assessments of system reliability and equivalent system mass (ESM) were made for different life support architectures based primarily on International Space Station technologies. The analysis was applied to a one-year deep-space mission. System reliability was increased by adding redundancy and spares, which added to the ESM. Results were thus obtained allowing a comparison of the ESM for each architecture at equivalent levels of reliability. Although the analysis contains numerous simplifications and uncertainties, the results suggest that achieving necessary reliabilities for deep-space missions will add substantially to the life support ESM and could influence the optimal degree of life support closure. Approaches for reducing reliability impacts were investigated and are discussed.

  2. Advanced physical-chemical life support systems research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evanich, Peggy L.

    1988-01-01

    A proposed NASA space research and technology development program will provide adequate data for designing closed loop life support systems for long-duration manned space missions. This program, referred to as the Pathfinder Physical-Chemical Closed Loop Life Support Program, is to identify and develop critical chemical engineering technologies for the closure of air and water loops within the spacecraft, surface habitats or mobility devices. Computerized simulation can be used both as a research and management tool. Validated models will guide the selection of the best known applicable processes and in the development of new processes. For the integration of the habitat system, a biological subsystem would be introduced to provide food production and to enhance the physical-chemical life support functions on an ever-increasing basis.

  3. Canadian advanced life support capacities and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamsey, M.; Graham, T.; Stasiak, M.; Berinstain, A.; Scott, A.; Vuk, T. Rondeau; Dixon, M.

    2009-07-01

    Canada began research on space-relevant biological life support systems in the early 1990s. Since that time Canadian capabilities have grown tremendously, placing Canada among the emerging leaders in biological life support systems. The rapid growth of Canadian expertise has been the result of several factors including a large and technically sophisticated greenhouse sector which successfully operates under challenging climatic conditions, well planned technology transfer strategies between the academic and industrial sectors, and a strong emphasis on international research collaborations. Recent activities such as Canada's contribution of the Higher Plant Compartment of the European Space Agency's MELiSSA Pilot Plant and the remote operation of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse in the Canadian High Arctic continue to demonstrate Canadian capabilities with direct applicability to advanced life support systems. There is also a significant latent potential within Canadian institutions and organizations with respect to directly applicable advanced life support technologies. These directly applicable research interests include such areas as horticultural management strategies (for candidate crops), growth media, food processing, water management, atmosphere management, energy management, waste management, imaging, environment sensors, thermal control, lighting systems, robotics, command and data handling, communications systems, structures, in-situ resource utilization, space analogues and mission operations. With this background and in collaboration with the Canadian aerospace industry sector, a roadmap for future life support contributions is presented here. This roadmap targets an objective of at least 50% food closure by 2050 (providing greater closure in oxygen, water recycling and carbon dioxide uptake). The Canadian advanced life support community has chosen to focus on lunar surface infrastructure and not low Earth orbit or transit systems (i.e. microgravity

  4. 21 CFR 860.93 - Classification of implants, life-supporting or life-sustaining devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classification of implants, life-supporting or life-sustaining devices. 860.93 Section 860.93 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE CLASSIFICATION...

  5. Johnson Space Center's Regenerative Life Support Systems Test Bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, D J; Henninger, D L

    1996-01-01

    The Regenerative Life Support Systems (RLSS) Test Bed at NASA's Johnson Space Center is an atmospherically closed, controlled environment facility for human testing of regenerative life support systems using higher plants in conjunction with physicochemical life support systems. The facility supports NASA's Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. The facility is comprised of two large scale plant growth chambers, each with approximately 11 m2 growing area. The root zone in each chamber is configurable for hydroponic or solid media plant culture systems. One of the two chambers, the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber (VPGC), is capable of operating at lower atmospheric pressures to evaluate a range of environments that may be used in a planetary surface habitat; the other chamber, the Ambient Pressure Growth Chamber (APGC) operates at ambient atmospheric pressure. The air lock of the VPGC is currently being outfitted for short duration (1 to 15 day) human habitation at ambient pressures. Testing with and without human subjects will focus on 1) integration of biological and physicochemical air and water revitalization systems; 2) effect of atmospheric pressure on system performance; 3) planetary resource utilization for ALS systems, in which solid substrates (simulated planetary soils or manufactured soils) are used in selected crop growth studies; 4) environmental microbiology and toxicology; 5) monitoring and control strategies; and 6) plant growth systems design. Included are descriptions of the overall design of the test facility, including discussions of the atmospheric conditioning, thermal control, lighting, and nutrient delivery systems.

  6. Phase Change Permeation Technology For Environmental Control Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    Use of a phase change permeation membrane (Dutyion [Trademark]) to passively and selectively mobilize water in microgravity to enable improved water recovery from urine/brine for Environment Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) and water delivery to plans for potential use in microgravity.

  7. Religiosity, Social Support, and Life Satisfaction among Elderly Korean Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jisung; Roh, Soonhee; Yeo, Younsook

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The present study tested Smith's (2003. Theorizing religious effects among American adolescents. "Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 42", 17-30. doi:10.1111/1468-5906.t01-1-00158) theory of religious effects to explore the relationship of religiosity, social support, and life satisfaction among elderly Korean immigrants. The…

  8. Life Events, Social Support, and Immune Response in Elderly Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, William Alex; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Investigated effects of recent life events, psychological adjustment, and social support on lymphocyte count among 192 older adults. For males, recent sexual dysfunction lowered lymphocyte count, whereas psychological adjustment and percentage kin in intimate network elevated it. For females, family or legal problems elevated count as did frequent…

  9. Crop candidates for the bioregenerative life support systems in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunxiao, Xu; Hong, Liu

    The use of plants for life support applications in space is appealing because of the multiple life support functions by the plants. Research on crops that were grown in the life support system to provide food and oxygen, remove carbon dioxide was begun from 1960. To select possible crops for research on the bioregenerative life support systems in China, criteria for the selection of potential crops were made, and selection of crops was carried out based on these criteria. The results showed that 14 crops including 4 food crops (wheat, rice, soybean and peanut) and 7 vegetables (Chinese cabbage, lettuce, radish, carrot, tomato, squash and pepper) won higher scores. Wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.), rice ( Oryza sativa L.), soybean ( Glycine max L.) and peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) are main food crops in China. Chinese cabbage ( Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. communis), lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia Lam.), radish ( Raphanus sativus L.), carrot ( Daucus carota L. var. sativa DC.), tomato ( Lycopersicon escalentum L.), squash ( Cucurbita moschata Duch.) and pepper ( Capsicum frutescens L. var. longum Bailey) are 7 vegetables preferred by Chinese. Furthermore, coriander ( Coriandum sativum L.), welsh onion ( Allium fistulosum L. var. giganteum Makino) and garlic ( Allium sativum L.) were selected as condiments to improve the taste of space crew. To each crop species, several cultivars were selected for further research according to their agronomic characteristics.

  10. Religiosity, Social Support, and Life Satisfaction among Elderly Korean Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jisung; Roh, Soonhee; Yeo, Younsook

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The present study tested Smith's (2003. Theorizing religious effects among American adolescents. "Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 42", 17-30. doi:10.1111/1468-5906.t01-1-00158) theory of religious effects to explore the relationship of religiosity, social support, and life satisfaction among elderly Korean…

  11. Impact of Cardiovascular Events on Change in Quality of Life and Utilities in Patients After Myocardial Infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Eldrin F; Li, Yanhong; Pfeffer, Marc A;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine the impact of nonfatal cardiovascular (CV) events on changes in health-related quality of life (HRQL). BACKGROUND: There is limited understanding of the impact of nonfatal CV events on long-term changes in HRQL in survivors of myocardial in...

  12. Assessing Cardiovascular Health Using Life's Simple 7 in a Chinese Population Undergoing Stroke Prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiong Yang; Bin Zhang; Pan Deng; Lu Chen; Jing-Ran Wang; Dong-Sheng Fan

    2015-01-01

    Background:The American Heart Association/American Stroke Association proposed a metric called Life's Simple 7 (LS7) to define cardiovascular health (CVH).The presence of a large number of ideal components of CVH is associated with lower cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality.We aimed to assess CVH using LS7 in a Chinese population undergoing primary and secondary stroke prevention.Methods:Patients with either ischemic stroke or cardiovascular risk factors were enrolled in the study from October 2010 to July 2013.LS7 components were scored as poor (0 points),intermediate (1 point),or ideal (2 points).The overall LS7 score was categorized as inadequate (0-4),average (5-9),or optimal (10-14) CVH.The Chi-square test,Mann-Whitney U-test,and Kruskal-Wallis test were used.Results:In total,706 patients were enrolled.(1) The distribution of the overall LS7 score (n =255) indicated that 9.4%,82.4%,and 8.2% of the patients had inadequate,average,and optimal CVH,respectively.The proportion of patients with optimal CVH undergoing secondary stroke prevention was lower than that for patients undergoing primary stroke prevention (3.8% vs.12.8%,P =0.005).The vast majority of participants (76.1%) presented with ≤2 ideal health components.(2) The proportions of patients with poor,intermediate,and ideal status,respectively,for the following LS7 components were assessed:Total cholesterol (n =275; 5.1%,73.8%,and 21.1%),blood pressure (n =351 ;32.5%,59.0%,and 8.5%),blood glucose (n =280; 9.3%,39.6%,and 51.1%),physical activity (n =540; 90.7%,8.7%,and 0.6%),diet (n =524;0.2%,92.4%,and 7.4%),smoking (n =619; 20.7%,2.9%,and 76.4%),and body mass index (n =259; 6.6%,35.5%,and 57.9%).Conclusions:Few Chinese patients undergoing stroke prevention had optimal CVH (determined using LS7).Additionally,fewer patients undergoing secondary prevention had optimal CVH than those undergoing primary prevention.In particular,physical activity

  13. Withdrawal of nonfutile life support after attempted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Samuel M; Elliott, C Gregory; Paine, Robert

    2013-01-01

    End-of-life decision making is fraught with ethical challenges. Withholding or withdrawing life support therapy is widely considered ethical in patients with high treatment burden, poor premorbid status, or significant projected disability even when such treatment is not "futile." Whether such withdrawal of therapy in the aftermath of attempted suicide is ethical is not well established in the literature. We provide a clinical vignette and propose criteria under which such withdrawal would be ethical. We suggest that it is appropriate to withdraw life support, regardless of the cause of the critical illness or disability, when the following criteria are met: (1) Surrogates request withdrawal of care and the adequacy of surrogates is confirmed, (2) an external reasonability standard is met, (3) passage of time, perhaps 72 hours, to allow certainty regarding the patient's wishes, and (4) psychiatric morbidity should be considered as grounds for withdrawal only in truly treatment-refractory cases. Fundamentally, we believe the question to ask is, "If this were not an attempted suicide, would a request to withdraw care be reasonable?" We believe that under these circumstances, such withdrawal of life support, even in an individual who has attempted suicide, does not constitute physician assistance with suicide and is distinct from physician aid-in-dying in several important respects.

  14. Cardiovascular disease risk factors for women. A life course-events perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Chander P.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD in women is the most common cause of death and in 2009 accounted for one third of all deaths. The purpose of this paper is to present what conditions during pregnancy and during the pre-menopause period lead to a greater risk of CVD. The early recognition and the application of interventions may decrease this risk. To emphasize this point we have taken a «Life course-events perspective». Current data suggests that genetic predisposition to disease in conjunction with behavior and environmental factors during fetal life is related to permanent changes in fetalplacental-maternal physiology and function, resulting in fetal programming characterizing the phenotype of the child which may persist into adulthood. Longitudinal studies have identified biological, behavioral and environmental factors related to childhood diseases such as hypertension, insulin resistance and mental health disorders. Gender differences have been identified and animal studies have suggested that estrogens in women are protective and when the risk of CVD in men is considered, the risk in women is delayed by 10 years. Thus, a normal pregnancy may be protective and reduce the risk of CVD in women. However, hypertension developing in women before or during pregnancy is a significant risk factor for women and diabetes further increases this risk of CVD, as does smoking. It is very clear that an «intervention action plan» must be developed. It is the current opinion of the authors that this action plan must be implemented early in life to decrease the risk for the development of CVS in women.

  15. Impact of Cardiovascular Disease Deaths on Life Expectancy in Chinese Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Jie; LI Yan; ZHAO Dong; LI Guo Qi; LIU Jing; WANG Wei; WANG Miao; QI Yue; XIE Wu Xiang; LIU Jun; ZHAO Fan

    2014-01-01

    Objective We aimed to analyze the impact of cardiovascular disease (CVD) deaths on life expectancy (LE) in Chinese population and estimate the percentage reduction in CVD mortality needed to increase LE by 1 year from the current level, a national target of health improvement. Methods We used life tables, cause-elimination life tables, and age decomposition of LE with corrected mortality data from the National Disease Surveillance System in 2010. Results LE at birth of Chinese people was 73.24 years in 2010. Women had a longer LE than men, and urban population had a longer LE than rural population. CVD deaths resulted in a 4.79-year LE loss and premature deaths in people aged 25 to 64 years were responsible for a substantial part of LE loss from CVD. Death from ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular diseases accounted for 69.2%of LE loss from CVD deaths and death from cerebrovascular diseases was the largest contributor. In rural men, 51.1% LE loss from CVD deaths was caused by cerebrovascular diseases. If there were no changes in mortality rates for all other diseases, a 27.4%reduction in CVD mortality would increase LE by 1 year in Chinese population. Conclusion There is a considerable impact of CVD deaths on LE. A 1-year LE increase in the future requires at least a 27.4% reduction in CVD mortality from the current level. Targeting the rural population and tackling cerebrovascular diseases are important for reaching the national goal of health improvement.

  16. Emergency Neurological Life Support: Approach to the Patient with Coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Robert D; Cadena, Rhonda S; Pineda, Jose

    2015-12-01

    Coma is an acute failure of neuronal systems governing arousal and awareness and represents a medical emergency. When encountering a comatose patient, the clinician must have an organized approach to detect easily remediable causes, prevent ongoing neurologic injury, and determine a hierarchical plan for diagnostic tests, treatments, and neuromonitoring. Coma was chosen as an Emergency Neurological Life Support protocol because timely medical and surgical interventions can be life-saving, and the initial work-up of such patients is critical to establishing a correct diagnosis.

  17. Left Ventricular Wall Stress-Mass-Heart Rate Product and Cardiovascular Events in Treated Hypertensive Patients: LIFE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devereux, Richard B; Bang, Casper N; Roman, Mary J; Palmieri, Vittorio; Boman, Kurt; Gerdts, Eva; Nieminen, Markku S; Papademetriou, Vasilios; Wachtell, Kristian; Hille, Darcy A; Dahlöf, Björn

    2015-11-01

    In the Losartan Intervention for End Point Reduction in Hypertension (LIFE) study, 4.8 years' losartan- versus atenolol-based antihypertensive treatment reduced left ventricular hypertrophy and cardiovascular end points, including cardiovascular death and stroke. However, there was no difference in myocardial infarction (MI), possibly related to greater reduction in myocardial oxygen demand by atenolol-based treatment. Myocardial oxygen demand was assessed indirectly by the left ventricular mass×wall stress×heart rate (triple product) in 905 LIFE participants. The triple product was included as time-varying covariate in Cox models assessing predictors of the LIFE primary composite end point (cardiovascular death, MI, or stroke), its individual components, and all-cause mortality. At baseline, the triple product in both treatment groups was, compared with normal adults, elevated in 70% of patients. During randomized treatment, the triple product was reduced more by atenolol, with prevalences of elevated triple product of 39% versus 51% on losartan (both P≤0.001). In Cox regression analyses adjusting for age, smoking, diabetes mellitus, and prior stroke, MI, and heart failure, 1 SD lower triple product was associated with 23% (95% confidence interval 13%-32%) fewer composite end points, 31% (18%-41%) less cardiovascular mortality, 30% (15%-41%) lower MI, and 22% (11%-33%) lower all-cause mortality (all P≤0.001), without association with stroke (P=0.34). Although losartan-based therapy reduced ventricular mass more, greater heart rate reduction with atenolol resulted in larger reduction of the triple product. Lower triple product during antihypertensive treatment was strongly, independently associated with lower rates of the LIFE primary composite end point, cardiovascular death, and MI, but not stroke.

  18. Effect of ionizing radiation on advanced life support medications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, D.J.; Hubbard, L.B.; Broadbent, M.V.; Stewart, P.; Jaeger, M.

    1987-06-01

    Advanced life support medications stored in emergency department stretcher areas, diagnostic radiology rooms, and radiotherapy suites are exposed to ionizing radiation. We hypothesized that radiation may decrease the potency and thus the shelf life of medications stored in these areas. Atropine, dopamine, epinephrine, and isoproterenol were exposed to a wide range of ionizing radiation. The potency of the four drugs was unaffected by levels of radiation found in ED stretcher areas and high-volume diagnostic radiograph rooms (eg, chest radiograph, computed tomography, fluoroscopy). The potency of atropine may be reduced by gamma radiation in high-use radiotherapy suites. However, dopamine, epinephrine, and isoproterenol were unaffected by high doses of gamma radiation. Atropine, dopamine, epinephrine, and isoproterenol may be safely kept in ED stretcher areas and diagnostic radiology rooms without loss of potency over the shelf life of the drugs.

  19. Constitutional and legal protection for life support limitation in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R K Mani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate treatment limitations towards the end of life to reduce unwanted burdens require ethical clarity that is supported by appropriate legislation. The lack of knowledge of enabling legal provisions, physicians feel vulnerable to legal misinterpretation of treatment limiting decisions. In India the lack of societal awareness, inadequate exploration of the gray areas of bio-ethics and unambiguous legal position relating to terminal illness have resulted in poor quality end of life care. Much of the perceived vulnerability by the physician is attributable to insufficient knowledge and understanding of existing constitutional and legal position in India. While we await informed legal and legislative opinion, this paper highlights possible legal liabilities arising from treatment limitation decisions with available defense. It is hoped that such clarity would lead to more confident ethical decisions and improved end of life care for patients.

  20. Plants for space plantations. [crops for closed life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikishanova, T. I.

    1978-01-01

    Criteria for selection of candidate crops for closed life support systems are presented and discussed, and desired characteristics of candidate higher plant crops are given. Carbohydrate crops, which are most suitable, grown worldwide are listed and discussed. The sweet potato, ipomoea batatas Poir., is shown to meet the criteria to the greatest degree, and the criteria are recommended as suitable for initial evaluation of candidate higher plant crops for such systems.

  1. Adsorption processes in spacecraft environmental control and life support systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DallBauman, L A; Finn, J E

    1999-01-01

    The environmental control and life support system on a spacecraft maintains a safe and comfortable environment in which the crew can live and work by supplying oxygen and water and by removing carbon dioxide, water vapor, and trace contaminants from cabin air. Although open-loop systems have been used successfully in the past for short-duration missions, the economics of current and future long-duration missions in space will make nearly complete recycling of air and water imperative. A variety of operations will be necessary to achieve the goal of nearly complete recycling. These include separation and reduction of carbon dioxide, removal of trace gas-phase contaminants, recovery and purification of humidity condensate, purification and polishing of wastewater streams, and others. Several of these can be performed totally or in part by adsorption processes. These processes are good candidates to perform separations and purifications in space due to their gravity independence, high reliability, relative high energy efficiency, design flexibility, technological maturity, and regenerative nature. For these reasons, adsorption has historically played a key role in life support on U.S. and Russian piloted spacecraft. Among the life support applications that can be achieved through use of adsorption technology are removal of trace contaminants and carbon dioxide from cabin air and recovery of potable water from waste streams. In each of these cases adsorption technology has been selected for use onboard the International Space Station. The requirements, science, and hardware for these applications are discussed. Human space exploration may eventually lead to construction of planetary habitats. These habitats may provide additional opportunities for use of adsorption processes, such as control of greenhouse gas composition, and may have different resources available to them, such as gases present in the planetary atmosphere. Separation and purification processes based on

  2. Emergency Neurological Life Support: Intracranial Hypertension and Herniation

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Robert D.; Shoykhet, Michael; Cadena, Rhonda

    2015-01-01

    Sustained intracranial hypertension and acute brain herniation are “brain codes,” signifying catastrophic neurological events that require immediate recognition and treatment to prevent irreversible injury and death. As in cardiac arrest, a brain code mandates the organized implementation of a stepwise management algorithm. The goal of this emergency neurological life support protocol is to implement an evidence-based, standardized approach to the evaluation and management of patients with in...

  3. Emergency Neurological Life Support: Intracranial Hypertension and Herniation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Robert D; Shoykhet, Michael; Cadena, Rhonda

    2015-12-01

    Sustained intracranial hypertension and acute brain herniation are "brain codes," signifying catastrophic neurological events that require immediate recognition and treatment to prevent irreversible injury and death. As in cardiac arrest, a brain code mandates the organized implementation of a stepwise management algorithm. The goal of this emergency neurological life support protocol is to implement an evidence-based, standardized approach to the evaluation and management of patients with intracranial hypertension and/or herniation.

  4. Scaling Impacts in Life Support Architecture and Technology Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    For long-duration space missions outside of Earth orbit, reliability considerations will drive higher levels of redundancy and/or on-board spares for life support equipment. Component scaling will be a critical element in minimizing overall launch mass while maintaining an acceptable level of system reliability. Building on an earlier reliability study (AIAA 2012-3491), this paper considers the impact of alternative scaling approaches, including the design of technology assemblies and their individual components to maximum, nominal, survival, or other fractional requirements. The optimal level of life support system closure is evaluated for deep-space missions of varying duration using equivalent system mass (ESM) as the comparative basis. Reliability impacts are included in ESM by estimating the number of component spares required to meet a target system reliability. Common cause failures are included in the analysis. ISS and ISS-derived life support technologies are considered along with selected alternatives. This study focusses on minimizing launch mass, which may be enabling for deep-space missions.

  5. Melissa: The European project of closed life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasseur, Ch.; Paillé, C.; Lamaze, B.; Rebeyre, P.; Rodriguez, A.; Ordonez, L.; Marty, F.

    The MELISSA Micro-Ecological Life Support Alternative project was initiated in 1989 It is intended as a tool to gain understanding of closed life support as well as the development of the technology for a future life support system for long term manned space missions e g a lunar base or a mission to Mars The collaboration was established through a Memorandum of Understanding and is managed by ESA It involves several independent organisations University of Ghent EPAS SCK VITO B University of Clermont Ferrand SHERPA F University Autonoma of Barcelona E University of Guelph CND It is co-funded by ESA the MELISSA partners the Belgian DWTC the Spanish CIRIT and CICYT and the Canadian CRESTech CSA authorities The driving element of MELISSA is the production of food water and oxygen from organic waste inedible biomass CO 2 faeces urea Based on the principle of an aquatic ecosystem MELISSA process comprises 5 compartments from the anoxygenic fermenter up to the photosynthetic one algae and higher plants The choice of this compartmentalised structure is required by the very high level of safety requirements and justified by the need of an engineering approach and to build deterministic control strategy During the past 15 years of research and development a very progressive approach has been developed to understand and control the MELISSA loop This approach starts from the selection of processes their characterisation and mathematical modelling the validation of the control strategy up to the

  6. Tool for Sizing Analysis of the Advanced Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hue-Hsie Jannivine; Brown, Cheryl B.; Jeng, Frank J.

    2005-01-01

    Advanced Life Support Sizing Analysis Tool (ALSSAT) is a computer model for sizing and analyzing designs of environmental-control and life support systems (ECLSS) for spacecraft and surface habitats involved in the exploration of Mars and Moon. It performs conceptual designs of advanced life support (ALS) subsystems that utilize physicochemical and biological processes to recycle air and water, and process wastes in order to reduce the need of resource resupply. By assuming steady-state operations, ALSSAT is a means of investigating combinations of such subsystems technologies and thereby assisting in determining the most cost-effective technology combination available. In fact, ALSSAT can perform sizing analysis of the ALS subsystems that are operated dynamically or steady in nature. Using the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet software with Visual Basic programming language, ALSSAT has been developed to perform multiple-case trade studies based on the calculated ECLSS mass, volume, power, and Equivalent System Mass, as well as parametric studies by varying the input parameters. ALSSAT s modular format is specifically designed for the ease of future maintenance and upgrades.

  7. Closed ecological life-support systems and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitelson, Josef I.

    The advent of man-made closed ecosystems (CES) is a solution of the fundamental problem-egress of humans beyond the Earth's biosphere, providing biological basis for exploitation of Space and celestial bodies. Yet, before proceeding to these ambitious project elements of closed life-support biotechnologies, there can be found diverse applications on Earth in human settlements providing for high quality of life under extreme environment conditions: high latitudes, deserts, mountains and industrially polluted areas. This presentation considers these variations of terrestrial applications of CELSS technologies. The version of CES under development is based on making direct use of the light energy in plant photosynthesis. In this case life support of one man on the Earth orbit requires solar light collected from 5-10m2. Among terrestrial applications of prime importance is the development of an ecohome designed to provide people with a high quality of life in Arctic and Antarctic territories. The developed technology of cascade employment of energy makes possible (expending 10-15 kw of installed power per a house-3-5 member family) to provide for: permanent supply of fresh vitamin-full vegetables, absorption and processing oaf excreta, purification of water and air in the living quarters, habitual colour and light conditions in the premises in winter making up to sensorial deprivation and, finally, psychological comfort of close contact with the plants during the long polar night. Ecohabitat based on the technology described in realistic today and depends only on the energy available and the resolution and readiness (sagacity) of the decision-makers to be committed with ecohome assigning. The ecological and economical significance of construction of ecohabitats for the northern territories of Canada, Alaska and Russia is apparent. This principle can be used (with considerable economy of energy and construction costs) to maintain normal partial pressure of oxygen inside

  8. Lack of Emotional Support from Parents Early in Life and Alcohol Abuse Later in Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Benjamin A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the association between lacking emotional support from parents early in life and adult alcohol abuse. A series of logistic regression models were run with data collected from a nationally representative sample of over 2,500 adults ages 25-74. The findings reveal a linear relationship between level of…

  9. Cost-Effectiveness of the Diabetes Care Protocol, a Multifaceted Computerized Decision Support Diabetes Management Intervention That Reduces Cardiovascular Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleveringa, Frits G. W.; Welsing, Paco M. J.; van den Donk, Maureen; Gorter, Kees J.; Niessen, Louis W.; Rutten, Guy E. H. M.; Redekop, William K.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - The Diabetes Care Protocol (DCP), a multifaceted Computerized decision support diabetes management intervention, reduces cardiovascular risk Of type 2 diabetic patients. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis of DCP from a Dutch health care perspective. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS -

  10. Cost-effectiveness of the diabetes care protocol, a multifaceted computerized decision support diabetes management intervention that reduces cardiovascular risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.G.W. Cleveringa (Frits G.); P.M.J. Welsing (Paco); M. van den Donk (Maureen); K.J. Gorter; L.W. Niessen (Louis Wilhelmus); G.E.H.M. Rutten (Guy); W.K. Redekop (Ken)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE- The Diabetes Care Protocol (DCP), a multifaceted computerized decision support diabetes management intervention, reduces cardiovascular risk of type 2 diabetic patients. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis of DCP from a Dutch health care perspective. RESEARCH DESIGN AND

  11. NASA space life sciences research and education support program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Terri K.

    1995-01-01

    USRA's Division of Space Life Sciences (DSLS) was established in 1983 as the Division of Space Biomedicine to facilitate participation of the university community in biomedical research programs at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The DSLS is currently housed in the Center for Advanced Space Studies (CASS), sharing quarters with the Division of Educational Programs and the Lunar and Planetary Institute. The DSLS provides visiting scientists for the Johnson Space Center; organizes conferences, workshops, meetings, and seminars; and, through subcontracts with outside institutions, supports NASA-related research at more than 25 such entities. The DSLS has considerable experience providing visiting scientists, experts, and consultants to work in concert with NASA Life Sciences researchers to define research missions and goals and to perform a wide variety of research administration and program management tasks. The basic objectives of this contract have been to stimulate, encourage, and assist research and education in the NASA life sciences. Scientists and experts from a number of academic and research institutions in this country and abroad have been recruited to support NASA's need to find a solution to human physiological problems associated with living and working in space and on extraterrestrial bodies in the solar system.

  12. NASA Advanced Explorations Systems: Advancements in Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, Sarah A.; Schneider, Walter F.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems (LSS) project strives to develop reliable, energy-efficient, and low-mass spacecraft systems to provide environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) critical to enabling long duration human missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Highly reliable, closed-loop life support systems are among the capabilities required for the longer duration human space exploration missions assessed by NASA's Habitability Architecture Team (HAT). The LSS project is focused on four areas: architecture and systems engineering for life support systems, environmental monitoring, air revitalization, and wastewater processing and water management. Starting with the international space station (ISS) LSS systems as a point of departure (where applicable), the mission of the LSS project is three-fold: 1. Address discrete LSS technology gaps 2. Improve the reliability of LSS systems 3. Advance LSS systems towards integrated testing on the ISS. This paper summarized the work being done in the four areas listed above to meet these objectives. Details will be given on the following focus areas: Systems Engineering and Architecture- With so many complex systems comprising life support in space, it is important to understand the overall system requirements to define life support system architectures for different space mission classes, ensure that all the components integrate well together and verify that testing is as representative of destination environments as possible. Environmental Monitoring- In an enclosed spacecraft that is constantly operating complex machinery for its own basic functionality as well as science experiments and technology demonstrations, it's possible for the environment to become compromised. While current environmental monitors aboard the ISS will alert crew members and mission control if there is an emergency, long-duration environmental monitoring cannot be done in-orbit as current methodologies

  13. Development of Life Support System Technologies for Human Lunar Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Ewert, Michael K.

    2009-01-01

    With the Preliminary Design Review (PDR) for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle planned to be completed in 2009, Exploration Life Support (ELS), a technology development project under the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Exploration Technology Development Program, is focusing its efforts on needs for human lunar missions. The ELS Project s goal is to develop and mature a suite of Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) technologies for potential use on human spacecraft under development in support of U.S. Space Exploration Policy. ELS technology development is directed at three major vehicle projects within NASA s Constellation Program (CxP): the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), the Altair Lunar Lander and Lunar Surface Systems, including habitats and pressurized rovers. The ELS Project includes four technical elements: Atmosphere Revitalization Systems, Water Recovery Systems, Waste Management Systems and Habitation Engineering, and two cross cutting elements, Systems Integration, Modeling and Analysis, and Validation and Testing. This paper will provide an overview of the ELS Project, connectivity with its customers and an update to content within its technology development portfolio with focus on human lunar missions.

  14. Crop growth and associated life support for a lunar farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Tyler; Cullingford, Hatice

    1992-01-01

    Supporting human life on a lunar base will require growing many different food crops. This paper investigates the growth dynamics of four crops (wheat, soybeans, potatoes, and lettuce) for general similarities and differences, along with associated material flows of the gases, liquids, and solids in a lunar farm. The human dietary requirements are compared with the protein, carbohydrate, and lipid contents of these hydroponically grown, high-productivity crops to derive a lunar farm diet. A simple and general analytical model is used to calculate the mass fluxes of CO2, H2O, HNO3, and O2 during the life cycle of each of the four crops. The resulting farm crop areas and corresponding biomass production rates are given. One significant conclusion of this study is that there is a 'lipid problem' associated with the incorporation of these four crops into a viable diet.

  15. Depression as a Clinical Determinant of Dependence and Low Quality of Life in Elderly Patients with Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Helena de Paula Rodrigues

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aging process promotes a progressive increase in chronic-degenerative diseases. The effect of these diseases on the functional capacity has been well recognized. Another health parameter concerns “quality of life related to health”. Among the elderly population, cardiovascular diseases stand out due to the epidemiological and clinical impact. Usually, these diseases have been associated with others. This set of problems may compromise both independence and quality of life in elderly patients who seek cardiologic treatment. These health parameters have not been well contemplated by cardiologists. Objective: Evaluating, among the elderly population with cardiovascular disease, which are the most relevant clinical determinants regarding dependence and quality of life. Methods: This group was randomly and consecutively selected and four questionnaires were applied: HAQ, SF-36, PRIME-MD e Mini Mental State. Results: The study included 1,020 elderly patients, 63.3% women. The group had been between 60 and 97 years-old (mean: 75.56 ± 6.62 years-old. 61.4% were independent or mild dependence. The quality of life total score was high (HAQ: 88.66 ± 2.68. 87.8% of patients had a SF-36 total score > 66. In the multivariate analysis, the association between diagnoses and high degrees of dependence was significant only for previous stroke (p = 0.014, obesity (p < 0.001, lack of physical activity (p = 0.016, osteoarthritis (p < 0.001, cognitive impairment (p < 0.001, and major depression (p < 0.001. Analyzing the quality of life, major depression and physical illness for depression was significantly associated with all domains of the SF-36. Conclusion: Among an elderly outpatient cardiology population, dependence and quality of life clinical determinants are not cardiovascular comorbidities, especially the depression.

  16. Melissa: The European project of a closed life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasseur, Christophe

    The MELISSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support Alternative) project was initiated in 1989. It is intended as a tool to gain understanding of closed life support, as well as the development of the technology for a future life support system for long term manned space missions, e.g. a lunar base or a mission to Mars. The collaboration was established through a Memorandum of Understanding and is managed by ESA. It involves several independent organisations: Ghent University, EPAS, SCK, VITO (B), University of Clermont-Ferrand, SHERPA (F), University Autonoma of Barcelona (E), University of Guelph (CND). It is co-funded by ESA, the MELISSA partners, the Belgian, the Spanish and the Canadian authorities. The driving element of MELISSA is the production of food, water and oxygen from organic waste (inedible biomass, CO2, faeces, urea). Inspired by the principle of an "aquatic" ecosystem, MELISSA process comprises several sub-processes, called compartments, from the anoxygenic fermentor up to the photosynthetic units (i.e. algae and higher plants). The choice of this compartmentalised structure is required by the very high level of safety requirements and justified by the need of an engineering approach and to build deterministic control strategy. During the past 19 years of research and development, a very progressive approach has been developed to understand and control the MELISSA loop. This approach starts from the selection of processes, their characterisation and mathematical modelling, the validation of the control strategy, up to the demonstration on Earth, at pilot scale. The project is organised in 5 phases: Basic Research and Development, Preliminary flight experiment, Ground and space demonstration, Terrestrial transfer, Education and communication.

  17. Aquaculture in bio-regenerative life support systems (BLSS): Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, John M.

    2009-04-01

    A significant amount of research has been invested into understanding the effects of including fish culture in bio-regenerative life support systems (BLSS) for long duration space habitation. While the benefits of fish culture as a sub-process for waste treatment and food production continue to be identified, other pressing issues arise that affect the overall equivalent system mass associated with fish culture in a BLSS. This paper is meant to provide insight into several issues affecting fish culture in a BLSS that will require attention in the future if fish meant for consumption are to be cultured in a BLSS.

  18. Bioregenerative life support system for a lunar base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.; Wang, J.; Manukovsky, N. S.; Kovalev, V. S.; Gurevich, Yu. L.

    We have studied a modular approach to construction of bioregenerative life support system BLSS for a lunar base using soil-like substrate SLS for plant cultivation Calculations of massflow rates in BLSS were based mostly on a vegetarian diet and biological conversion of plant residues in SLS Plant candidate list for lunar BLSS includes the following basic species rice Oryza sativa soy Glycine max sweet potato Ipomoea batatas and wheat Triticum aestivum To reduce the time necessary for transition of the system to steady state we suggest that the first seeding and sprouting could be made on Earth

  19. Functional Interface Considerations within an Exploration Life Support System Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jay L.; Sargusingh, Miriam J.; Toomarian, Nikzad

    2016-01-01

    As notional life support system (LSS) architectures are developed and evaluated, myriad options must be considered pertaining to process technologies, components, and equipment assemblies. Each option must be evaluated relative to its impact on key functional interfaces within the LSS architecture. A leading notional architecture has been developed to guide the path toward realizing future crewed space exploration goals. This architecture includes atmosphere revitalization, water recovery and management, and environmental monitoring subsystems. Guiding requirements for developing this architecture are summarized and important interfaces within the architecture are discussed. The role of environmental monitoring within the architecture is described.

  20. Effect of goal attainment theory based education program on cardiovascular risks, behavioral modification, and quality of life among patients with first episode of acute myocardial infarction: Randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Moonkyoung; Song, Rhayun; Jeong, Jin-Ok

    2017-02-24

    Effect of goal-attainment-theory-based education program on cardiovascular risks, behavioral modification, and quality of life among patients with first episode of acute myocardial infarction: randomized study BACKGROUND: The behavioral modification strategies should be explored at the time of admission to lead the maximum effect of cardiovascular risk management.

  1. Architecture and life support systems for a rotating space habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Gaurav

    Life Support Systems are critical to sustain human habitation of space over long time periods. As orbiting space habitats become operational in the future, support systems such as atmo-sphere, food, water etc. will play a very pivotal role in sustaining life. To design a long-duration space habitat, it's important to consider the full gamut of human experience of the environment. Long-term viability depends on much more than just the structural or life support efficiency. A space habitat isn't just a machine; it's a life experience. To be viable, it needs to keep the inhabitants satisfied with their condition. This paper provides conceptual research on several key factors that influence the growth and sustainability of humans in a space habitat. Apart from the main life support system parameters, the architecture (both interior and exterior) of the habitat will play a crucial role in influencing the liveability in the space habitat. In order to ensure the best possible liveability for the inhabitants, a truncated (half cut) torus is proposed as the shape of the habitat. This structure rotating at an optimum rpm will en-sure 1g pseudo gravity to the inhabitants. The truncated torus design has several advantages over other proposed shapes such as a cylinder or a sphere. The design provides minimal grav-ity variation (delta g) in the living area, since its flat outer pole ensures a constant gravity. The design is superior in economy of structural and atmospheric mass. Interior architecture of the habitat addresses the total built environment, drawing from diverse disciplines includ-ing physiology, psychology, and sociology. Furthermore, factors such as line of sight, natural sunlight and overhead clearance have been discussed in the interior architecture. Substantial radiation shielding is also required in order to prevent harmful cosmic radiations and solar flares from causing damage to inhabitants. Regolith shielding of 10 tons per meter square is proposed for the

  2. Monitoring Grinding Wheel Redress-life Using Support Vector Machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xun Chen; Thitikorn Limchimchol

    2006-01-01

    Condition monitoring is a very important aspect in automated manufacturing processes. Any malfunction of a machining process will deteriorate production quality and efficiency. This paper presents an application of support vector machines in grinding process monitoring. The paper starts with an overview of grinding behaviour. Grinding force is analysed through a Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT) to identify features for condition monitoring. The Support Vector Machine (SVM) methodology is introduced as a powerful tool for the classification of different wheel wear situations.After training with available signal data, the SVM is able to identify the state of a grinding process. The requirement and strategy for using SVM for grinding process monitoring is discussed, while the result of the example illustrates how effective SVMs can be in determining wheel redress-life.

  3. Temperature Management After Cardiac Arrest: An Advisory Statement by the Advanced Life Support Task Force of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation and the American Heart Association Emergency Cardiovascular Care Committee and the Council on Cardiopulmonary, Critical Care, Perioperative and Resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnino, Michael W; Andersen, Lars W; Berg, Katherine M; Reynolds, Joshua C; Nolan, Jerry P; Morley, Peter T; Lang, Eddy; Cocchi, Michael N; Xanthos, Theodoros; Callaway, Clifton W; Soar, Jasmeet

    2016-01-01

    For more than a decade, mild induced hypothermia (32 °C-34 °C) has been standard of care for patients remaining comatose after resuscitation from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with an initial shockable rhythm, and this has been extrapolated to survivors of cardiac arrest with initially nonshockable rhythms and to patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest. Two randomized trials published in 2002 reported a survival and neurological benefit with mild induced hypothermia. One recent randomized trial reported similar outcomes in patients treated with targeted temperature management at either 33 °C or 36 °C. In response to these new data, the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation Advanced Life Support Task Force performed a systematic review to evaluate 3 key questions: (1) Should mild induced hypothermia (or some form of targeted temperature management) be used in comatose post-cardiac arrest patients? (2) If used, what is the ideal timing of the intervention? (3) If used, what is the ideal duration of the intervention? The task force used Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology to assess and summarize the evidence and to provide a consensus on science statement and treatment recommendations. The task force recommends targeted temperature management for adults with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with an initial shockable rhythm at a constant temperature between 32 °C and 36 °C for at least 24 hours. Similar suggestions are made for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with a nonshockable rhythm and in-hospital cardiac arrest. The task force recommends against prehospital cooling with rapid infusion of large volumes of cold intravenous fluid. Additional and specific recommendations are provided in the document.

  4. Fish consumption measured during pregnancy and risk of cardiovascular diseases later in life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Marin; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Henriksen, Tine B;

    2011-01-01

    was to explore the association between fish intake and cardiovascular disease among 7429 women from a prospective pregnancy cohort in Aarhus, Denmark, who were followed for 12-17 years. Exposure information derived from a questionnaire sent to the women in gestation week 16, and daily fish consumption...... was quantified based on assumptions of standard portion sizes and food tables. Information on admissions to hospital was obtained from the Danish National Patient Registry and diagnoses of hypertensive, cerebrovascular and ischaemic heart disease were used to define the outcome: cardiovascular disease. During......Previous studies have indicated a protective effect of long chain n-3 PUFAs against cardiovascular disease; however, the overall evidence remains uncertain, and there is a general lack of knowledge in the field of cardiovascular epidemiology in women. Therefore, the objective of this study...

  5. Environmental Control and Life Support System, Oxygen Generation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Group of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. This is a close-up view of ECLSS Oxygen Generation System (OGS) rack. The ECLSS Group at the MSFC oversees the development of the OGS, which produces oxygen for breathing air for the crew and laboratory animals, as well as for replacing oxygen lost due to experiment use, airlock depressurization, module leakage, and carbon dioxide venting. The OGS consists primarily of the Oxygen Generator Assembly (OGA), provided by the prime contractor, the Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems, International (HSSSI) in Windsor Locks, Cornecticut and a Power Supply Module (PSM), supplied by the MSFC. The OGA is comprised of a cell stack that electrolyzes (breaks apart the hydrogen and oxygen molecules) some of the clean water provided by the Water Recovery System and the separators that remove the gases from water after electrolysis. The PSM provides the high power to the OGA needed to electrolyze the water.

  6. Optimization of life support systems and their systems reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, L. T.; Hwang, C. L.; Erickson, L. E.

    1971-01-01

    The identification, analysis, and optimization of life support systems and subsystems have been investigated. For each system or subsystem that has been considered, the procedure involves the establishment of a set of system equations (or mathematical model) based on theory and experimental evidences; the analysis and simulation of the model; the optimization of the operation, control, and reliability; analysis of sensitivity of the system based on the model; and, if possible, experimental verification of the theoretical and computational results. Research activities include: (1) modeling of air flow in a confined space; (2) review of several different gas-liquid contactors utilizing centrifugal force: (3) review of carbon dioxide reduction contactors in space vehicles and other enclosed structures: (4) application of modern optimal control theory to environmental control of confined spaces; (5) optimal control of class of nonlinear diffusional distributed parameter systems: (6) optimization of system reliability of life support systems and sub-systems: (7) modeling, simulation and optimal control of the human thermal system: and (8) analysis and optimization of the water-vapor eletrolysis cell.

  7. Advanced Technologies to Improve Closure of Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    As NASA looks beyond the International Space Station toward long-duration, deep space missions away from Earth, the current practice of supplying consumables and spares will not be practical nor affordable. New approaches are sought for life support and habitation systems that will reduce dependency on Earth and increase mission sustainability. To reduce launch mass, further closure of Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) beyond the current capability of the ISS will be required. Areas of particular interest include achieving higher degrees of recycling within Atmosphere Revitalization, Water Recovery and Waste Management Systems. NASA is currently investigating advanced carbon dioxide reduction processes that surpass the level of oxygen recovery available from the Sabatier Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the ISS. Candidate technologies will potentially improve the recovery of oxygen from about 50% (for the CRA) to as much as 100% for technologies who's end product is solid carbon. Improving the efficiency of water recycling and recovery can be achieved by the addition of advanced technologies to recover water from brines and solid wastes. Bioregenerative technologies may be utilized for water reclaimation and also for the production of food. Use of higher plants will simultaneously benefit atmosphere revitalization and water recovery through photosynthesis and transpiration. The level at which bioregenerative technologies are utilized will depend on their comparative requirements for spacecraft resources including mass, power, volume, heat rejection, crew time and reliability. Planetary protection requirements will need to be considered for missions to other solar system bodies.

  8. Spacelab Life Sciences flight experiments: an integrated approach to the study of cardiovascular deconditioning and orthostatic hypotension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, F. A.

    1987-01-01

    The microgravity environment of spaceflight produces rapid cardiovascular changes which are adaptive and appropriate in that setting, but are associated with significant deconditioning and orthostatic hypotension on return to Earth's gravity. The rapidity with which these space flight induced changes appear and disappear provides an ideal model for studying the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of deconditioning and orthostatic hypotension, regardless of etiology. Since significant deconditioning is seen after flights of very short duration, muscle atrophy due to inactivity plays, at most, a small role. These changes in circulatory control associated with cephalad fluid shifts, rather than inactivity per se, are probably more important factors. In order to test this hypothesis in a systematic way, a multidisciplinary approach which defines and integrates inputs and responses from a wide variety of circulatory sub-systems is required. The cardiovascular experiments selected for Spacelab Life Sciences flights 1 and 2 provide such an approach. Both human and animal models will be utilized. Pre- and post-flight characterization of the payload crew includes determination of maximal exercise capacity (bicycle ergometry), orthostatic tolerance (lower body negative pressure), alpha and beta adrenergic sensitivity (isoproterenol and phenylephrine infusions), baroreflex sensitivity (ECG-gated, stepwise changes in carotid artery transmural pressure with a pneumatic neck collar), and responses to a 24 h period of 5 deg head-down tilt. Measurements of cardiac output (CO2 and C2H2 rebreathing), cardiac chamber dimensions (phased-array 2-dimensional echocardiography), direct central venous pressure, leg volume (Thornton sock), limb blood flow and venous compliance (occlusion plethysmography), blood and plasma volumes, renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rates, and various hormonal levels including catecholamines and atrial natriuretic factor will also be obtained

  9. Spacelab life sciences flight experiments. An integrated approach to the study of cardiovascular deconditioning and orthostatic hypotension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, F. Andrew

    The microgravity environment of spaceflight produces rapid cardiovascular changes which are adaptive and appropriate in that setting, but are associated with significant deconditioning and orthostatic hypotension on return to Earth's gravity. The rapidity with which these space flight induced changes appear and disappear provides an ideal model for studying the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of deconditioning and orthostatic hypotension, regardless of etiology. Since significant deconditioning is seen after flights of very short duration, muscle atrophy due to inactivity plays, at most, a small role. These changes in circulatory control associated with cephalad fluid shifts, rather than inactivity per se, are probably more important factors. In order to test this hypothesis in a systematic way, a multidisciplinary approach which defines and integrates inputs and responses from a wide variety of circulatory sub-systems is required. The cardiovascular experiments selected for Spacelab Life Sciences flights 1 and 2 provide such an approach. Both human and animal models will be utilized. Pre- and post-flight characterization of the payload crew includes determination of maximal exercise capacity (bicycle ergometry), orthostatic tolerance (lower body negative pressure), alpha and beta adrenergic sensitivity (isoproterenol and phenylephrine infusions), baroreflex sensitivity (ECG-gated, stepwise changes in carotid artery transmural pressure with a pneumatic neck collar), and responses to a 24 h period of 5 deg head-down tilt. Measurements of cardiac output (CO 2 and C 2H 2 rebreathing), cardiac chamber dimensions (phased-array 2-dimensional echocardiography), direct central venous pressure, leg volume (Thornton sock), limb blood flow and venous compliance (occlusion plethysmography), blood and plasma volumes, renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rates, and various hormonal levels including catecholamines and atrial natriuretic factor will also be

  10. Fatigue life assessment of cardiovascular balloon-expandable stents: a two-scale plasticity-damage model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argente dos Santos, H A F; Auricchio, F; Conti, M

    2012-11-01

    Cardiovascular disease has become a major global health care problem in the present decade. To tackle this problem, the use of cardiovascular stents has been considered a promising and effective approach. Numerical simulations to evaluate the in vivo behavior of stents are becoming more and more important to assess potential failures. As the material failure of a stent device has been often associated with fatigue issues, as a result of the high number of cyclic loads these devices are subjected to in vivo, numerical approaches for fatigue life assessment of stents has gained special interest in the engineering community. Numerical fatigue predictions can be used to modify the design and prevent failure, without making and testing numerous physical devices, thus preventing from undesired fatigue failures. This work presents a fatigue life numerical method for the analysis of cardiovascular balloon-expandable stainless steel stents. The method is based on a two-scale continuum damage mechanics model in which both plasticity and damage mechanisms are assumed to take place at a scale smaller than the scale of the representative volume element. The fatigue failure criterion is based on the Soderberg relation. The method is applied to the fatigue life assessment of both PalmazShatz and Cypher stent designs. Validation of the method is performed through comparison of the obtained numerical results with some experimental results available for the PalmazShatz stent design. The present study gives also possible directions for future research developments in the framework of the numerical fatigue life assessment of real balloon-expandable stents.

  11. Sustainable life support on Mars - the potential roles of cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verseux, Cyprien; Baqué, Mickael; Lehto, Kirsi; de Vera, Jean-Pierre P.; Rothschild, Lynn J.; Billi, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Even though technological advances could allow humans to reach Mars in the coming decades, launch costs prohibit the establishment of permanent manned outposts for which most consumables would be sent from Earth. This issue can be addressed by in situ resource utilization: producing part or all of these consumables on Mars, from local resources. Biological components are needed, among other reasons because various resources could be efficiently produced only by the use of biological systems. But most plants and microorganisms are unable to exploit Martian resources, and sending substrates from Earth to support their metabolism would strongly limit the cost-effectiveness and sustainability of their cultivation. However, resources needed to grow specific cyanobacteria are available on Mars due to their photosynthetic abilities, nitrogen-fixing activities and lithotrophic lifestyles. They could be used directly for various applications, including the production of food, fuel and oxygen, but also indirectly: products from their culture could support the growth of other organisms, opening the way to a wide range of life-support biological processes based on Martian resources. Here we give insights into how and why cyanobacteria could play a role in the development of self-sustainable manned outposts on Mars.

  12. The real-life experience with cardiovascular complications in the first dose of fingolimod for multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Dadalti Fragoso

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fingolimod is a new and efficient treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS. The drug administration requires special attention to the first dose, since cardiovascular adverse events can be observed during the initial six hours of fingolimod ingestion. The present study consisted of a review of cardiovascular data on 180 patients with MS receiving the first dose of fingolimod. The rate of bradycardia in these patients was higher than that observed in clinical trials with very strict inclusion criteria for patients. There were less than 10% of cases requiring special attention, but no fatal cases. All but one patient continued the treatment after this initial dose. This is the first report on real-life administration of fingolimod to Brazilian patients with MS, and one of the few studies with these characteristics in the world.

  13. Students′ satisfaction to hybrid problem-based learning format for basic life support/advanced cardiac life support teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetanjali Chilkoti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Students are exposed to basic life support (BLS and advanced cardiac life support (ACLS training in the first semester in some medical colleges. The aim of this study was to compare students′ satisfaction between lecture-based traditional method and hybrid problem-based learning (PBL in BLS/ACLS teaching to undergraduate medical students. Methods: We conducted a questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey among 118 1 st -year medical students from a university medical college in the city of New Delhi, India. We aimed to assess the students′ satisfaction between lecture-based and hybrid-PBL method in BLS/ACLS teaching. Likert 5-point scale was used to assess students′ satisfaction levels between the two teaching methods. Data were collected and scores regarding the students′ satisfaction levels between these two teaching methods were analysed using a two-sided paired t-test. Results: Most students preferred hybrid-PBL format over traditional lecture-based method in the following four aspects; learning and understanding, interest and motivation, training of personal abilities and being confident and satisfied with the teaching method (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Implementation of hybrid-PBL format along with the lecture-based method in BLS/ACLS teaching provided high satisfaction among undergraduate medical students.

  14. Staff attitudes towards continuation of life-support in newborns with major congenital anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazebroek, FWJ; Bos, AP; Ouwens, C; Tibboel, D; Molenaar, JC

    1996-01-01

    This study was conducted to gain insight into the attitudes of medical staff towards life-support of newborns with life-threatening problems, seen against the background of these children's expected morbidity and quality of life. The opinions about the mode of life-support were determined by questio

  15. Research in cardiovascular care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaarsma, Tiny; Deaton, Christi; Fitzsimmons, Donna

    2014-01-01

    To deliver optimal patient care, evidence-based care is advocated and research is needed to support health care staff of all disciplines in deciding which options to use in their daily practice. Due to the increasing complexity of cardiac care across the life span of patients combined...... of the body of knowledge that is needed to further improve cardiovascular care. In this paper, knowledge gaps in current research related to cardiovascular patient care are identified, upcoming challenges are explored and recommendations for future research are given....

  16. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Basic Life Support Training on the Knowledge and Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afzalimoghaddam M

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Basic Life Support (BLS as the first level of medical care in sudden cardiac arrest and life-threatening illnesses can improve survival outcomes. The aim of this study was to compare the knowledge and skills of BLS among medical students at the beginning and the end of the training course in the emergency department. Materials and Methods:This study was a descriptive analytic cross- sectional study among 90 medical students in their sixth academic year during emergency medicine training course. At first, a standard Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE was performed to obtain their basic knowledge and skills of BLS. Then a training course was provided in two theoretical and practical parts using the 2006 American Heart Association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care. At the end of the study, the same standard OSCE was performed. Results: The mean score of the primary OSCE was 4.9 with 55 students (61.11% having a score between zero to five and 35 (35.89% between five to ten.  The mean scores increased significantly after training regarding checking the patient's response, head tilt and chin lift maneuvers, number of massages and correct breathing (p

  17. The use of extracorporeal life support in adolescent amlodipine overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persad, Elizabeth A.; Raman, Lakshmi; Thompson, Marita T.; Sheeran, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    Calcium channel blocker (CCB) toxicity is associated with refractory hypotension and can be fatal. A 13 year old young woman presented to the emergency department(ED) six hours after an intentional overdose of amlodipine, barbiturates, and alcohol. She remained extremely hypotensive despite the administration of normal saline and calcium chloride and despite infusions of norepinephrine, epinephrine, insulin, and dextrose. Due to increasing evidence of end organ dysfunction, Extracorporeal Life Support (ECLS) was initiated 9 hours after presentation to the ED. The patient's blood pressure and end organ function immediately improved after cannulation. She was successfully decannulated after 57 hours of ECLS and was neurologically intact. Patients with calcium channel blocker overdose who are resistant to medical interventions may respond favorably to early ECLS. PMID:23559727

  18. Portable Life Support Subsystem Thermal Hydraulic Performance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Bruce; Pinckney, John; Conger, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the current state of the thermal hydraulic modeling efforts being conducted for the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS). The goal of these efforts is to provide realistic simulations of the PLSS under various modes of operation. The PLSS thermal hydraulic model simulates the thermal, pressure, flow characteristics, and human thermal comfort related to the PLSS performance. This paper presents modeling approaches and assumptions as well as component model descriptions. Results from the models are presented that show PLSS operations at steady-state and transient conditions. Finally, conclusions and recommendations are offered that summarize results, identify PLSS design weaknesses uncovered during review of the analysis results, and propose areas for improvement to increase model fidelity and accuracy.

  19. The use of extracorporeal life support in adolescent amlodipine overdose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Persad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium channel blocker (CCB toxicity is associated with refractory hypotension and can be fatal. A 13 year old young woman presented to the emergency department(ED six hours after an intentional overdose of amlodipine, barbiturates, and alcohol. She remained extremely hypotensive despite the administration of normal saline and calcium chloride and despite infusions of norepinephrine, epinephrine, insulin, and dextrose. Due to increasing evidence of end organ dysfunction, Extracorporeal Life Support (ECLS was initiated 9 hours after presentation to the ED. The patient′s blood pressure and end organ function immediately improved after cannulation. She was successfully decannulated after 57 hours of ECLS and was neurologically intact. Patients with calcium channel blocker overdose who are resistant to medical interventions may respond favorably to early ECLS.

  20. Shuttle Orbiter Environmental Control and Life Support System - Flight experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, H. E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the overall design of the Shuttle Orbiter Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). The Orbiter ECLSS consists of six major subsystems which accomplish the functions of providing a habitable pressurized cabin atmosphere and removing gaseous contaminants, controlling the temperature of the cabin and vehicle components within acceptable ranges, providing fire detection and suppression capability, maintaining a supply of potable water, collecting and removing metabolic waste materials, and providing utilities and access for extravehicular activity. The operational experience is summarized for the 45 space flights accomplished to date during which the Orbiter ECLSS has been demonstrated to perform reliably, and has proved to have the flexibility to meet a variety of mission needs. Significant flight problems are described, along with the design or procedure changes which were implemented to resolve the problems.

  1. Animal life support transporters for Shuttle/Spacelab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, W. E.; Hunt, S. R.

    1978-01-01

    Two transporter devices have been developed by the NASA Ames Research Center, primarily for the purpose of stowing small vertebrates and primates in the mid-deck avionics bay of the Shuttle during launch and re-entry. These animals will be used in Life Science Spacelab experiments. Stowage in the mid-deck area will reduce animal exposure to the high noise levels existing in Spacelab during launch; further, the possible exposure of the animals to high temperatures in Spacelab during re-entry and post-landing will be eliminated. The transporters will provide experimenters more timely access to their animals during experiment-critical, pre-launch, and post-landing periods. Rechargeable batteries in the transporters will provide life support system functions for the animals during periods of transfer and during mission phases in which power is temporarily unavailable. The transporters have been successfully designed, fabricated, and tested. Integrated testing of the transporters was performed in the Space Mission Development III (SMD III) Simulation at the NASA Johnson Space Center.

  2. Economics and ethics of paediatric respiratory extra corporeal life support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, M; Doyle, Y; O'Hare, B; Healy, M; Nölke, L

    2013-09-01

    Extra corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a form of life support, which facilitates gas exchange outside the body via an oxygenator and a centrifugal pumping system. A paediatric cardiac ECMO programme was established in 2005 at Our Lady's Children's Hospital, Crumlin (OLCHC) and to date 75 patients have received ECMO, the majority being post operative cardiac patients. The outcome data compares favourably with international figures. ECMO has been most successful in the treatment of newborn infants with life threatening respiratory failure from conditions such as meconium aspiration, respiratory distress syndrome and respiratory infections. There is no formal paediatric respiratory ECMO programme at OLCHC, or anywhere else in Ireland. Currently, neonates requiring respiratory ECMO are transferred to centres in Sweden or the UK at an average cost of 133,000 Euros/infant, funded by the Health Service Executive E112 treatment abroad scheme. There is considerable morbidity associated with the transfer of critically ill infants, as well as significant psycho-social impact on families. OLCHC is not funded to provide respiratory ECMO, although the equipment and expertise required are similar to cardiac ECMO and are currently in place. The average cost of an ECMO run at OLCHC is 65,000 Euros. There is now a strong argument for a fully funded single national cardiac and respiratory paediatric ECMO centre, similar to that for adult patients.

  3. Support Policies in Clusters: Prioritization of Support Needs by Cluster Members According to Cluster Life Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulcin Salıngan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic development has always been a moving target. Both the national and local governments have been facing the challenge of implementing the effective and efficient economic policy and program in order to best utilize their limited resources. One of the recent approaches in this area is called cluster-based economic analysis and strategy development. This study reviews key literature and some of the cluster based economic policies adopted by different governments. Based on this review, it proposes “the cluster life cycle” as a determining factor to identify the support requirements of clusters. A survey, designed based on literature review of International Cluster support programs, was conducted with 30 participants from 3 clusters with different maturity stage. This paper discusses the results of this study conducted among the cluster members in Eskişehir- Bilecik-Kütahya Region in Turkey on the requirement of the support to foster the development of related clusters.

  4. Postnatal Cardiovascular Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferda Ozlu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fetus depends on placental circulation in utero. A successful transition from intrauterin to extrauterine life depends on succesful physiological changes during labor. During delivery, fetus transfers from a liquid environment where oxygen comes via umbilical vein to air environement where oxygenation is supported via air breathing. Endocrinological changes are important for fetus to adapt to extrauterine life. In addition to these, cord clemping plays a crucial role in postnatal adaptation. Establishment of neonatal postnatal life and succesful overcome, the fetal cardiovascular transition period are important to stay on. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(2.000: 181-190

  5. Evidence supporting primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases with statins: Gaps between updated clinical results and actual practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckert, Eric; Ferrières, Jean

    2014-03-01

    The use of pharmacological lipid-lowering intervention in individuals with hypercholesterolaemia and known cardiovascular disease or diabetes/chronic kidney disease is well established. Current European Society of Cardiology guidelines recommend immediate initiation of drugs in adjunct to lifestyle intervention in these patients at high or very high cardiovascular risk. In these clinical settings, statins are generally chosen as the first-choice drug intervention, in consideration of the robust evidence showing a reduction in all-cause mortality and major adverse cardiac events (MACE). In contrast, primary prevention with statins, even in the subset of patients at high-risk of cardiovascular events, is not well implemented. This might be related to a lack of public awareness regarding the actual risk associated with prolonged exposure to high concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and uncertainties in the clinical evidence coming from the earliest trials in this patient subset. However, recent observational studies suggest that lowering LDL-C earlier in life and for a longer duration can substantially decrease the burden of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Moreover, results from recent well-conducted large meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials showed that primary prevention with statins reduced all-cause mortality by 14% and MACE by > 20% - findings similar to those observed for the use of statins in secondary prevention. Recently published American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology guidelines on the treatment of blood cholesterol emphasize that primary prevention using high-dose statins in individuals with LDL-C ≥ 190 mg/dL induces a benefit in atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk reduction that clearly exceeds the potential for adverse effects. We aim in this review to discuss the new data that advocate the use of statins in primary prevention earlier and more frequently, putting the efficacy evidence into

  6. Associations of Social Support and Self-Efficacy with Quality of Life in a Sample of Older Adults with Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Pamela G.; Clay, Olivio J.; Lee, Loretta T.; Vice, Jason; Ovalle, Fernando; Crowe, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Older adults are disproportionately affected by diabetes, which is associated with increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease, decreased quality of life (QOL), and increased healthcare costs. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationships between social support, self-efficacy, and QOL in a sample of 187 older African Americans (AA) and Caucasians with diabetes. Greater satisfaction with social support related to diabetes, but not the amount of support received, was significantly correlated with QOL. In addition, persons with higher self-efficacy in managing diabetes had better QOL. In a covariate-adjusted regression model, self-efficacy remained a significant predictor of QOL. Findings suggest the potential importance of incorporating the self-efficacy concept within diabetes management and treatment in order to empower older adults living with diabetes to adhere to care. Further research is needed to determine whether improving self-efficacy among vulnerable older adult populations may positively influence QOL. PMID:26468654

  7. Associations of Social Support and Self-Efficacy With Quality of Life in Older Adults With Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Pamela G; Clay, Olivio J; Lee, Loretta T; Vice, Jason; Ovalle, Fernando; Crowe, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Older adults are disproportionately affected by diabetes, which is associated with increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease, decreased quality of life (QOL), and increased health care costs. The purpose of the current study was to assess the relationships between social support, self-efficacy, and QOL in a sample of 187 older African American and Caucasian individuals with diabetes. Greater satisfaction with social support related to diabetes (but not the amount of support received) was significantly correlated with QOL. In addition, individuals with higher self-efficacy in managing diabetes had better QOL. In a covariate-adjusted regression model, self-efficacy remained a significant predictor of QOL. Findings suggest the potential importance of incorporating the self-efficacy concept within diabetes management and treatment to empower older adults living with diabetes to adhere to care. Further research is needed to determine whether improving self-efficacy among vulnerable older adult populations may positively influence QOL.

  8. The relative impact of vision impairment and cardiovascular disease on quality of life: the example of pseudoxanthoma elasticum

    OpenAIRE

    Finger Robert P; Fenwick Eva; Marella Manjula; Charbel Issa Peter; Scholl Hendrik PN; Holz Frank G; Lamoureux Ecosse L

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate the impact of pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), a rare hereditary disease of concurrent vision impairment (VI) and cardiovascular complications (CVCs), on vision-related (VRQoL) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Methods VRQoL and HRQoL were assessed using the Impact of Vision Impairment (IVI) questionnaire and the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) in 107 PXE patients. Patients were stratified into four groups: A = no VI or CVC; B = CVCs only; C = VI on...

  9. Environmental control and life support systems analysis for a Space Station life sciences animal experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Kenneth T.; Hall, John B., Jr.; Thompson, Clifford D.

    1987-01-01

    NASA's Langley and Goddard facilities have evaluated the effects of animal science experiments on the Space Station's Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) by means of computer-aided analysis, assuming an animal colony consisting of 96 rodents and eight squirrel monkeys. Thirteen ECLSS options were established for the reclamation of metabolic oxygen and waste water. Minimum cost and weight impacts on the ECLSS are found to accrue to the system's operation in off-nominal mode, using electrochemical CO2 removal and a static feed electrolyzer for O2 generation.

  10. Health-related quality of life of children with a positive carrier status for inherited cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smets, Ellen M A; Stam, Marinka M H; Meulenkamp, Tineke M; van Langen, Irene M; Wilde, Arthur A M; Wiegman, Albert; de Wert, Guido M; Tibben, Aad

    2008-03-15

    Familial hypercholesterolemia, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and long QT Syndrome are genetic cardiovascular conditions which may lead to sudden cardiac death at a young age. Preventive measures include lifestyle modifications, medications, and/or cardiac devices. Hence, identification of carrier children can protect them for the potentially life threatening consequences at a young age. Yet, informing children about their genetic risk status and subjecting them to treatment may have negative consequences. This preliminary study aimed to explore (1) how the health-related quality of life of carrier children compares to the quality of life of Dutch children in general; and (2) to what extent the carrier children's quality of life and their parents' perception thereof concur. Our method involved carrier children (n = 35), aged between 8 and 18 years, and their parents (n = 37) who completed a self-report questionnaire. Children's health-related quality of life was assessed with a children and parent version of the KIDSCREEN. Dutch reference data were available from a representative national sample. Our results show no statistically significant differences in scores between carrier children and the reference group. Also, no differences were found between carrier children and their parents' ratings, with the exception of the scale "psychological well being". Parents rated their child's psychological well being significantly lower. We identified no problems with the well-being of carrier children as compared to a representative sample of peers. This may offer some initial reassurance to those who have concerns about the implications of genetically testing children for one of these cardiovascular conditions. Yet, attention to possible problems in these children remains warranted.

  11. Don't Trust a Management Metric, Especially in Life Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2014-01-01

    Goodhart's law states that metrics do not work. Metrics become distorted when used and they deflect effort away from more important goals. These well-known and unavoidable problems occurred when the closure and system mass metrics were used to manage life support research. The intent of life support research should be to develop flyable, operable, reliable systems, not merely to increase life support system closure or to reduce its total mass. It would be better to design life support systems to meet the anticipated mission requirements and user needs. Substituting the metrics of closure and total mass for these goals seems to have led life support research to solve the wrong problems.

  12. Microbial astronauts: assembling microbial communities for advanced life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, M. S.; Garland, J. L.; Mills, A. L.

    2004-01-01

    Extension of human habitation into space requires that humans carry with them many of the microorganisms with which they coexist on Earth. The ubiquity of microorganisms in close association with all living things and biogeochemical processes on Earth predicates that they must also play a critical role in maintaining the viability of human life in space. Even though bacterial populations exist as locally adapted ecotypes, the abundance of individuals in microbial species is so large that dispersal is unlikely to be limited by geographical barriers on Earth (i.e., for most environments "everything is everywhere" given enough time). This will not be true for microbial communities in space where local species richness will be relatively low because of sterilization protocols prior to launch and physical barriers between Earth and spacecraft after launch. Although community diversity will be sufficient to sustain ecosystem function at the onset, richness and evenness may decline over time such that biological systems either lose functional potential (e.g., bioreactors may fail to reduce BOD or nitrogen load) or become susceptible to invasion by human-associated microorganisms (pathogens) over time. Research at the John F. Kennedy Space Center has evaluated fundamental properties of microbial diversity and community assembly in prototype bioregenerative systems for NASA Advanced Life Support. Successional trends related to increased niche specialization, including an apparent increase in the proportion of nonculturable types of organisms, have been consistently observed. In addition, the stability of the microbial communities, as defined by their resistance to invasion by human-associated microorganisms, has been correlated to their diversity. Overall, these results reflect the significant challenges ahead for the assembly of stable, functional communities using gnotobiotic approaches, and the need to better define the basic biological principles that define ecosystem

  13. Microbial astronauts: assembling microbial communities for advanced life support systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, M S; Garland, J L; Mills, A L

    2004-02-01

    Extension of human habitation into space requires that humans carry with them many of the microorganisms with which they coexist on Earth. The ubiquity of microorganisms in close association with all living things and biogeochemical processes on Earth predicates that they must also play a critical role in maintaining the viability of human life in space. Even though bacterial populations exist as locally adapted ecotypes, the abundance of individuals in microbial species is so large that dispersal is unlikely to be limited by geographical barriers on Earth (i.e., for most environments "everything is everywhere" given enough time). This will not be true for microbial communities in space where local species richness will be relatively low because of sterilization protocols prior to launch and physical barriers between Earth and spacecraft after launch. Although community diversity will be sufficient to sustain ecosystem function at the onset, richness and evenness may decline over time such that biological systems either lose functional potential (e.g., bioreactors may fail to reduce BOD or nitrogen load) or become susceptible to invasion by human-associated microorganisms (pathogens) over time. Research at the John F. Kennedy Space Center has evaluated fundamental properties of microbial diversity and community assembly in prototype bioregenerative systems for NASA Advanced Life Support. Successional trends related to increased niche specialization, including an apparent increase in the proportion of nonculturable types of organisms, have been consistently observed. In addition, the stability of the microbial communities, as defined by their resistance to invasion by human-associated microorganisms, has been correlated to their diversity. Overall, these results reflect the significant challenges ahead for the assembly of stable, functional communities using gnotobiotic approaches, and the need to better define the basic biological principles that define ecosystem

  14. Closed bioregenerative life support systems: Applicability to hot deserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, Yuriy S.; Musaev, Ibrahim; Polyakov, Sergey V.

    2010-09-01

    Water scarcity in hot deserts, which cover about one-fifth of the Earth's land area, along with rapid expansion of hot deserts into arable lands is one of the key global environmental problems. As hot deserts are extreme habitats characterized by the availability of solar energy with a nearly complete absence of organic life and water, space technology achievements in designing closed ecological systems may be applicable to the design of sustainable settlements in the deserts. This review discusses the key space technology findings for closed biogenerative life support systems (CBLSS), which can simultaneously produce food, water, nutrients, fertilizers, process wastes, and revitalize air, that can be applied to hot deserts. Among them are the closed cycle of water and the acceleration of the cycling times of carbon, biogenic compounds, and nutrients by adjusting the levels of light intensity, temperature, carbon dioxide, and air velocity over plant canopies. Enhanced growth of algae and duckweed at higher levels of carbon dioxide and light intensity can be important to provide complete water recycling and augment biomass production. The production of fertilizers and nutrients can be enhanced by applying the subsurface flow wetland technology and hyper-thermophilic aerobic bacteria for treating liquid and solid wastes. The mathematical models, optimization techniques, and non-invasive measuring techniques developed for CBLSS make it possible to monitor and optimize the performance of such closed ecological systems. The results of long-duration experiments performed in BIOS-3, Biosphere 2, Laboratory Biosphere, and other ground-based closed test facilities suggest that closed water cycle can be achieved in hot-desert bioregenerative systems using the pathways of evapotranspiration, condensation, and biological wastewater treatment technologies. We suggest that the state of the art in the CBLSS design along with the possibility of using direct sunlight for

  15. Early life stress and later health : Cardiovascular disease and general health among former war evacuees

    OpenAIRE

    Alastalo, Hanna

    2013-01-01

    Experienced stress in childhood might have been so severe that it has effects throughout the life course. It has been suggested that early life stress may extend consequences on psychological and physical well-being. Previous findings focusing upon consequences of early life stress are however limited and mostly based upon retrospective studies. Still little is known about the consequences of early life stress, such as war separation on physical health from a longitudinal aspect. This th...

  16. The Life Cycle Cost (LCC) of Life Support Recycling and Resupply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2015-01-01

    Brief human space missions supply all the crew's water and oxygen from Earth. The multiyear International Space Station (ISS) program instead uses physicochemical life support systems to recycle water and oxygen. This paper compares the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) of recycling to the LCC of resupply for potential future long duration human space missions. Recycling systems have high initial development costs but relatively low durationdependent support costs. This means that recycling is more cost effective for longer missions. Resupplying all the water and oxygen requires little initial development cost but has a much higher launch mass and launch cost. The cost of resupply increases as the mission duration increases. Resupply is therefore more cost effective than recycling for shorter missions. A recycling system pays for itself when the resupply LCC grows greater over time than the recycling LCC. The time when this occurs is called the recycling breakeven date. Recycling will cost very much less than resupply for long duration missions within the Earth-Moon system, such as a future space station or Moon base. But recycling would cost about the same as resupply for long duration deep space missions, such as a Mars trip. Because it is not possible to provide emergency supplies or quick return options on the way to Mars, more expensive redundant recycling systems will be needed.

  17. Audit of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Supported Adults with Intellectual Disability Attending an Ageing Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Robyn A.; Schluter, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor profile for older adults with intellectual disability (ID). As many CVD risk factors are treatable by lifestyle changes, confirmation of the risk factor profile for older adults with ID could substantially impact upon preventive health practices for this group. Method:…

  18. Effects of early-life environment and epigenetics on cardiovascular disease risk in children: highlighting the role of twin studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Cong; Burgner, David P; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Saffery, Richard; Huang, Rae-Chi; Vuillermin, Peter J; Cheung, Michael; Craig, Jeffrey M

    2013-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide and originates in early life. The exact mechanisms of this early-life origin are unclear, but a likely mediator at the molecular level is epigenetic dysregulation of gene expression. Epigenetic factors have thus been posited as the likely drivers of early-life programming of adult-onset diseases. This review summarizes recent advances in epidemiology and epigenetic research of CVD risk in children, with a particular focus on twin studies. Classic twin studies enable partitioning of phenotypic variance within a population into additive genetic, shared, and nonshared environmental variances, and are invaluable in research in this area. Longitudinal cohort twin studies, in particular, may provide important insights into the role of epigenetics in the pathogenesis of CVD. We describe candidate gene and epigenome-wide association studies (EWASs) and transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of CVD, and discuss the potential for evidence-based interventions. Identifying epigenetic changes associated with CVD-risk biomarkers in children will provide new opportunities to unravel the underlying biological mechanism of the origins of CVD and enable identification of those at risk for early-life interventions to alter the risk trajectory and potentially reduce CVD incidence later in life.

  19. Extracorporeal life support systems: alternative vs. conventional circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sameer; Vasavada, Rahul; Qiu, Feng; Kunselman, Allan; Undar, Akif

    2011-05-01

    Emerging technologies and practices for pediatric and neonatal extracorporeal life support (ECLS) are promising. This experiment sought to compare the Medtronic 0800 silicon rubber membrane oxygenator to the Quadrox-iD Pediatric oxygenator in the conventional roller pump circuit, as well as comparing the conventional circuit to an alternative circuit. Three circuits were set up in the experiment. Two conventional roller pump circuits were used to compare the two oxygenators and an alternative circuit consisting of the Quadrox-iD Pediatric oxygenator and Maquet Rotaflow centrifugal pump system was used to identify differences between circuits. All three circuits were primed with Lactated Ringers' solution and human blood, with an hematocrit of 40%. Testing occurred at flow rates of 250, 500, and 750 ml/ min at 37°C for mean arterial line pressures of 60, 80, and 100 mmHg. The results of the experiment showed lower pressure drops and greater retention of total hemodynamic energy (THE) across the Quadrox-iD Pediatric oxygenator compared to the Medtronic 0800 oxygenator. Furthermore, the centrifugal pump used in the alternative circuit showed no back flow at flow rates as low as 250 ml/min while, on the other hand, rpm levels were kept below 2200 for flow rates as high as 750 ml/min. Findings support the usage of the Quadrox-iD Pediatric oxygenator in a circuit utilizing the Maquet Rotaflow centrifugal pump system due to lower pressure drops and greater percentage of THE retained across the circuit. Additional advantages of the alternative circuit include rapid set-up time, easy transport, lower priming volumes, and no gravity-dependent venous drainage system so that it can be situated in close proximity to and at the level of the patient.

  20. Intrauterine growth retardation and consequences for endocrine and cardiovascular diseases in adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke Bodin Beck; Chellakooty, Marla; Vielwerth, Signe;

    2003-01-01

    Low birth weight has been associated with an increased incidence of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and type 2 diabetes. Endocrine regulation of fetal growth by growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I is complex. Placental GH is detectable in maternal serum from the 8th to the 12th...... postnatal growth, insulin resistance and consequently the risk of cardiovascular disease. Thus IGF-I may serve as a link between fetal growth and adult-onset disease....

  1. Lunar Portable Life Support System Heat Rejection Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Bruce; Sompayrac,Robert G.; Trevino, Luis A.; Bue, Grant C.

    2009-01-01

    Performing extravehicular activity (EVA) at various locations of the lunar surface presents thermal challenges that exceed those experienced in space flight to date. The lunar Portable Life Support System (PLSS) cooling unit must maintain thermal conditions within the space suit and reject heat loads generated by the crewmember and the PLSS equipment. The amount of cooling required varies based on the lunar location and terrain due to the heat transferred between the suit and its surroundings. A study has been completed which investigated the resources required to provide cooling under various lunar conditions, assuming three different thermal technology categories: 1. Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) 2. Subcooled Phase Change Material (SPCM) 3. Radiators with and without heat pumps Results from the study are presented that show mass and power impacts on the cooling system as a function of the location and terrain on the lunar surface. Resources (cooling equipment mass and consumables) are greater at the equator and inside sunlit craters due to the additional heat loads on the cooling system. While radiator and SPCM technologies require minimal consumables, they come with carry-weight penalties and have limitations. A wider investigation is recommended to determine if these penalties and limitations are offset by the savings in consumables.

  2. On the assessment of biological life support system operation range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsev, Sergey

    Biological life support systems (BLSS) can be used in long-term space missions only if well-thought-out assessment of the allowable operating range is obtained. The range has to account both permissible working parameters of BLSS and the critical level of perturbations of BLSS stationary state. Direct approach to outlining the range by statistical treatment of experimental data on BLSS destruction seems to be not applicable due to ethical, economical, and saving time reasons. Mathematical model is the unique tool for the generalization of experimental data and the extrapolation of the revealed regularities beyond empirical experience. The problem is that the quality of extrapolation depends on the adequacy of corresponding model verification, but good verification requires wide range of experimental data for fitting, which is not achievable for manned experimental BLSS. Possible way to improve the extrapolation quality of inevitably poorly verified models of manned BLSS is to extrapolate general tendency obtained from unmanned LSS theoretical-experiment investigations. Possibilities and limitations of such approach are discussed.

  3. Supporting Students' Pedagogical Working Life Horizon in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penttinen, Leena; Skaniakos, Terhi; Lairio, Marjatta

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we introduce a model of a pedagogical working life horizon. It encompasses questions posed by individual students concerning their future and incorporates the idea of a working life orientation to the pedagogical possibilities within education. Working life orientation consists of three elements: individual relationship, knowledge…

  4. Life cycle assessment in support of sustainable transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckelman, Matthew J.

    2013-06-01

    In our rapidly urbanizing world, sustainable transportation presents a major challenge. Transportation decisions have considerable direct impacts on urban society, both positive and negative, for example through changes in transit times and economic productivity, urban connectivity, tailpipe emissions and attendant air quality concerns, traffic accidents, and noise pollution. Much research has been dedicated to quantifying these direct impacts for various transportation modes. Transportation planning decisions also result in a variety of indirect environmental and human health impacts, a portion of which can accrue outside of the transit service area and so outside of the local decision-making process. Integrated modeling of direct and indirect impacts over the life cycle of different transportation modes provides decision support that is more comprehensive and less prone to triggering unintended consequences than a sole focus on direct tailpipe emissions. The recent work of Chester et al (2013) in this journal makes important contributions to this research by examining the environmental implications of introducing bus rapid transit and light rail in Los Angeles using life cycle assessment (LCA). Transport in the LA region is dominated by automobile trips, and the authors show that potential shifts to either bus or train modes would reduce energy use and emissions of criteria air pollutants, on an average passenger mile travelled basis. This work compares not just the use of each vehicle, but also upstream impacts from its manufacturing and maintenance, as well as the construction and maintenance of the entire infrastructure required for each mode. Previous work by the lead author (Chester and Horvath 2009), has shown that these non-operational sources and largely non-local can dominate life cycle impacts from transportation, again on an average (or attributional) basis, for example increasing rail-related GHG emissions by >150% over just operational emissions

  5. Methodology and Assumptions of Contingency Shuttle Crew Support (CSCS) Calculations Using ISS Environmental Control and Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokhorov, Kimberlee; Shkedi, Brienne

    2006-01-01

    The current International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system is designed to support an ISS crew size of three people. The capability to expand that system to support nine crew members during a Contingency Shuttle Crew Support (CSCS) scenario has been evaluated. This paper describes how the ISS ECLS systems may be operated for supporting CSCS, and the durations expected for the oxygen supply and carbon dioxide control subsystems.

  6. Metabolic Syndrome, Chronic Kidney Disease, and Cardiovascular Disease: A Dynamic and Life-Threatening Triad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Raimundo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome (MS and chronic kidney disease (CKD have both become global public health problems, with increasing social and economic impact due to their high prevalence and remarkable impact on morbidity and mortality. The causality between MS and CKD, and its clinical implications, still does remain not completely understood. Moreover, prophylactic and therapeutic interventions do need to be properly investigated in this field. Herein, we critically review the existing clinical evidence that associates MS with renal disease and cardiovascular disease, as well as the associated pathophysiologic mechanisms and actual treatment options.

  7. Precursor life science experiments and closed life support systems on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, A.; Paille, C.; Rebeyre, P.; Lamaze, B.; Lobo, M.; Lasseur, C.

    Nowadays the Moon is not only a scientific exploration target but also potentially also a launch pad for deeper space exploration. Establishing an extended human presence on the Moon could reduce the cost of further space exploration, and gather the technical and scientific experience that would make possible the next steps of space exploration, namely manned-missions to Mars. To enable the establishment of such a Moon base, a reliable and regenerative life support system (LSS) is required: without any recycling of metabolic consumables (oxygen, water and food), a 6-person crew during the course of one year would require a supply of 12t from Earth (not including water for hygiene purposes), with a prohibitive associated cost! The recycling of consumables is therefore mandatory for a combination of economic, logistical and also safety reasons. Currently the main regenerative technologies used, namely water recycling in the ISS, are physical-chemical but they do not solve the issue of food production. In the European Space Agency, for the last 15 years, studies are being performed on several life support topics, namely in air revitalisation, food, water and waste management, contaminants, monitoring and control. Ground demonstration, namely the MELiSSA Pilot Plant and Concordia Station, and simulation studies demonstrated the studies feasibility and the recycling levels are promising. To be able to build LSS in a Moon base, the temperature amplitude, the dust and its 14-day night, which limits solar power supply, should be regarded. To reduce these technical difficulties, a landing site should be carefully chosen. Considering the requirements of a mission to the Moon and within the Aurora programme phase I, a preliminary configuration for a regenerative LSS can be proposed as an experiment for a precursor mission to the Moon. An overview of the necessary LSS to a Moon base will be presented, identifying Moon?s specific requirements and showing preliminary

  8. Grandmothers Raising Grandchildren with Disabilities: Sources of Support and Family Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresak, Karen E.; Gallagher, Peggy A.; Kelley, Susan J.

    2014-01-01

    Sources of support and quality of life of 50 grandmother-headed families raising grandchildren with and without disabilities were examined. Comparative analyses revealed significant differences between grandmothers raising grandchildren with and without disabilities in regard to sources of support and family quality of life. Informal support was…

  9. Influences on Employee Perceptions of Organizational Work-Life Support: Signals and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcour, Monique; Ollier-Malaterre, Ariane; Matz-Costa, Christina; Pitt-Catsouphes, Marcie; Brown, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    This study examined predictors of employee perceptions of organizational work-life support. Using organizational support theory and conservation of resources theory, we reasoned that workplace demands and resources shape employees' perceptions of work-life support through two mechanisms: signaling that the organization cares about their work-life…

  10. Compact Water Vapor Exchanger for Regenerative Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Anderson, Molly; Hodgson, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Thermal and environmental control systems for future exploration spacecraft must meet challenging requirements for efficient operation and conservation of resources. Regenerative CO2 removal systems are attractive for these missions because they do not use consumable CO2 absorbers. However, these systems also absorb and vent water to space along with carbon dioxide. This paper describes an innovative device designed to minimize water lost from regenerative CO2 control systems. Design studies and proof-of-concept testing have shown the feasibility of a compact, efficient membrane water vapor exchanger (WVX) that will conserve water while meeting challenging requirements for operation on future spacecraft. Compared to conventional WVX designs, the innovative membrane WVX described here has the potential for high water recovery efficiency, compact size, and very low pressure losses. The key innovation is a method for maintaining highly uniform flow channels in a WVX core built from water-permeable membranes. The proof-of-concept WVX incorporates all the key design features of a prototypical unit, except that it is relatively small scale (1/23 relative to a unit sized for a crew of six) and some components were fabricated using non-prototypical methods. The proof-of-concept WVX achieved over 90% water recovery efficiency in a compact core in good agreement with analysis models. Furthermore the overall pressure drop is very small (less than 0.5 in. H2O, total for both flow streams) and meets requirements for service in environmental control and life support systems on future spacecraft. These results show that the WVX provides very uniform flow through flow channels for both the humid and dry streams. Measurements also show that CO2 diffusion through the water-permeable membranes will have negligible effect on the CO2 partial pressure in the spacecraft atmosphere.

  11. Cardiovascular manifestations of phaeochromocytoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prejbisz, A.; Lenders, J.W.M.; Eisenhofer, G.; Januszewicz, A.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical expression of phaeochromocytoma may involve numerous cardiovascular manifestations, but usually presents as sustained or paroxysmal hypertension associated with other signs and symptoms of catecholamine excess. Most of the life-threatening cardiovascular manifestations of phaeochromocytoma,

  12. Evaluation of a newly developed media-supported 4-step approach for basic life support training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopka Saša

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The quality of external chest compressions (ECC is of primary importance within basic life support (BLS. Recent guidelines delineate the so-called 4“-step approach” for teaching practical skills within resuscitation training guided by a certified instructor. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a “media-supported 4-step approach” for BLS training leads to equal practical performance compared to the standard 4-step approach. Materials and methods After baseline testing, 220 laypersons were either trained using the widely accepted method for resuscitation training (4-step approach or using a newly created “media-supported 4-step approach”, both of equal duration. In this approach, steps 1 and 2 were ensured via a standardised self-produced podcast, which included all of the information regarding the BLS algorithm and resuscitation skills. Participants were tested on manikins in the same mock cardiac arrest single-rescuer scenario prior to intervention, after one week and after six months with respect to ECC-performance, and participants were surveyed about the approach. Results Participants (age 23 ± 11, 69% female reached comparable practical ECC performances in both groups, with no statistical difference. Even after six months, there was no difference detected in the quality of the initial assessment algorithm or delay concerning initiation of CPR. Overall, at least 99% of the intervention group (n = 99; mean 1.5 ± 0.8; 6-point Likert scale: 1 = completely agree, 6 = completely disagree agreed that the video provided an adequate introduction to BLS skills. Conclusions The “media-supported 4-step approach” leads to comparable practical ECC-performance compared to standard teaching, even with respect to retention of skills. Therefore, this approach could be useful in special educational settings where, for example, instructors’ resources are sparse or large-group sessions

  13. [Effect of gastric bypass on the cardiovascular risk and quality of life in morbid obese patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo Gavira, I; Vílchez López, F J; Cayón Blanco, M; García Valero, A; Escobar Jiménez, L; Mayo Ossorio, M A; Pacheco García, J M; Vázquez Gallego, J M; Aguilar Diosdado, M

    2014-03-01

    Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia de las principales comorbilidades asociadas a la obesidad mórbida y evaluar el efecto del bypass gástrico sobre el estado ponderal, riesgo cardiovascular y calidad de vida en estos pacientes. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo con medidas del cambio intrasujeto (antes-después) en una muestra de 162 pacientes de los resultados del bypass gástrico sobre la evolución ponderal, comorbilidades asociadas, riesgo cardiovascular a 10 años (estimado mediante las tablas de Framingham) y calidad de vida mediante el test BAROS (Bariatric Analysis and Reporting Outcome System). Resultados: El índice de masa corporal (IMC) se reduce de 51,12 ± 7,22 kg/m2 a 29,94 ± 4,86 kg/m2 (72,85% de sobrepeso perdido) y se resuelven la hipertensión arterial (HTA), la dislipemia y la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DMT2) en el 71,93%, 91,38% y 82,93% respectivamente (p calidad de vida.

  14. Current Evidence Supporting the Link Between Dietary Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, Shatha; Pu, Shuaihua; Jones, Peter J

    2016-05-01

    Lack of consensus exists pertaining to the scientific evidence regarding effects of various dietary fatty acids on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The objective of this article is to review current evidence concerning cardiovascular health effects of the main dietary fatty acid types; namely, trans (TFA), saturated (SFA), polyunsaturated (PUFA; n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA), and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). Accumulating evidence shows negative health impacts of TFA and SFA; both may increase CVD risk. Policies have been proposed to reduce TFA and SFA consumption to less than 1 and 7 % of energy intake, respectively. Cardiovascular health might be promoted by replacing SFA and TFA with n-6 PUFA, n-3 PUFA, or MUFA; however, the optimal amount of PUFA or MUFA that can be used to replace SFA and TFA has not been defined yet. Evidence suggests of the potential importance of restricting n-6 PUFA up to 10 % of energy and obtaining an n-6/n-3 ratio as close as possible to unity, along with a particular emphasis on consuming adequate amounts of essential fatty acids. The latest evidence shows cardioprotective effects of MUFA-rich diets, especially when MUFA are supplemented with essential fatty acids; namely, docosahexaenoic acid. MUFA has been newly suggested to be involved in regulating fat oxidation, energy metabolism, appetite sensations, weight maintenance, and cholesterol metabolism. These favorable effects might implicate MUFA as the preferable choice to substitute for other fatty acids, especially given the declaration of its safety for up to 20 % of total energy.

  15. Plants survive rapid decompression: Implications for bioregenerative life support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Wehkamp, C. A.; Stasiak, M. A.; Dixon, M. A.; Rygalov, V. Y.

    2011-05-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus), lettuce (Latuca sativa), and wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants were grown at either 98 kPa (ambient) or 33 kPa atmospheric pressure with constant 21 kPa oxygen and 0.12 kPa carbon dioxide in atmospherically closed pressure chambers. All plants were grown rockwool using recirculating hydroponics with a complete nutrient solution. At 20 days after planting, chamber pressures were pumped down as rapidly as possible, reaching 5 kPa after about 5 min and ˜1.5 kPa after about 10 min. The plants were held at 1.5 kPa for 30 min and then pressures were restored to their original settings. Temperature (22 °C) and humidity (65% RH) controls were engaged throughout the depressurization, although temperatures dropped to near 16 °C for a brief period. CO2 and O2 were not detectable at the low pressure, suggesting that most of the 1.5 kPa atmosphere consisted of water vapor. Following re-pressurization, plants were grown for another 7 days at the original pressures and then harvested. The lettuce, radish, and wheat plants showed no visible effects from the rapid decompression, and there were no differences in fresh or dry mass when compared to control plants maintained continuously at 33 or 98 kPa. But radish storage root fresh mass and lettuce head fresh and dry masses were less at 33 kPa compared to 98 kPa for both the controls and decompression treatment. The results suggest that plants are extremely resilient to rapid decompression, provided they do not freeze (from evaporative cooling) or desiccate. The water of the hydroponic system was below the boiling pressure during these tests and this may have protected the plants by preventing pressures from dropping below 1.5 kPa and maintaining humidity near 1.5 kPa. Further testing is needed to determine how long plants can withstand such low pressure, but the results suggest there are at least 30 min to respond to catastrophic pressure losses in a plant production chamber that might be used for life

  16. Life Support and Environmental Monitoring International System Maturation Team Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Molly; Gatens, Robyn; Ikeda, Toshitami; Ito, Tsuyoshi; Hovland, Scott; Witt, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Human exploration of the solar system is an ambitious goal. Future human missions to Mars or other planets will require the cooperation of many nations to be feasible. Exploration goals and concepts have been gathered by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) at a very high level, representing the overall goals and strategies of each participating space agency. The Global Exploration Roadmap published by ISECG states that international partnerships are part of what drives the mission scenarios. It states "Collaborations will be established at all levels (missions, capabilities, technologies), with various levels of interdependency among the partners." To make missions with interdependency successful, technologists and system experts need to share information early, before agencies have made concrete plans and binding agreements. This paper provides an overview of possible ways of integrating NASA, ESA, and JAXA work into a conceptual roadmap of life support and environmental monitoring capabilities for future exploration missions. Agencies may have immediate plans as well as long term goals or new ideas that are not part of official policy. But relationships between plans and capabilities may influence the strategies for the best ways to achieve partner goals. Without commitments and an organized program like the International Space Station, requirements for future missions are unclear. Experience from ISS has shown that standards and an early understanding of requirements are an important part of international partnerships. Attempting to integrate systems that were not designed together can create many problems. Several areas have been identified that could be important to discuss and understand early: units of measure, cabin CO2 levels, and the definition and description of fluids like high purity oxygen, potable water and residual biocide, and crew urine and urine pretreat. Each of the partners is exploring different kinds of technologies

  17. The perspective crops for the bioregenerative human life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonskiy, Vadim; Polonskaya, Janna

    The perspective crops for the bioregenerative human life support systems V.I. Polonskiy, J.E. Polonskaya aKrasnoyarsk State Agrarian University, 660049, Krasnoyarsk, Russia In the nearest future the space missions will be too long. In this case it is necessary to provide the crew by vitamins, antioxidants, and water-soluble dietary fibers. These compounds will be produced by higher plants. There was not enough attention at present to increasing content of micronutrients in edible parts of crops candidates for CELSS. We suggested to add the new crops to this list. 1. Barley -is the best crop for including to food crops (wheat, rice, soybean). Many of the health effects of barley are connected to dietary fibers beta-glucan of barley grains. Bar-ley is the only seed from cereals including wheat with content of all eight tocopherols (vitamin E, important antioxidant). Barley grains contain much greater amounts of phenolic compounds (potential antioxidant activities) than other cereal grains. Considerable focus is on supplement-ing wheat-based breads with barley to introduce the inherent nutritional advantages of barley flour, currently only 20We have selected and tested during 5 generations two high productive barley lines -1-K-O and 25-K-O. Our investigations (special breeding program for improving grain quality of barley) are in progress. 2. Volatile crops. Young leaves and shoots of these crops are edible and have a piquant taste. A lot of organic volatile compounds, oils, vitamins, antioxidants are in their biomass. These micronutrients are useful for good appetite and health of the crew. We have investigated 11 species: basil (Ocimum basilicum), hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis), marjoram (Origanum majorana), sweet-Mary (Melissa officinalis), common thyme (Thymus vulgaris), creeping thyme (Thymus serpyllum), summer savory (Satureja hortensis), catnip (Nepeta cataria), rue (Ruta graveolens), coriander (Coriandrum Ativum), sulfurwort (Levisticum officinale). These

  18. Effect of major lifestyle risk factors, independent and jointly, on life expectancy with and without cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Doherty, Mark G; Cairns, Karen; O'Neill, Vikki

    2016-01-01

    -free” years, though a healthy lifestyle was also associated with extra years lived after a CVD event. There are sizeable benefits to LE without CVD and also for survival after CVD onset when people favour a lifestyle characterized by salutary behaviours. Remaining a non-smoker yielded the greatest extra years......Seldom have studies taken account of changes in lifestyle habits in the elderly, or investigated their impact on disease-free life expectancy (LE) and LE with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Using data on subjects aged 50+ years from three European cohorts (RCPH, ESTHER and Tromsø), we used multi......-state Markov models to calculate the independent and joint effects of smoking, physical activity, obesity and alcohol consumption on LE with and without CVD. Men and women aged 50 years who have a favourable lifestyle (overweight but not obese, light/moderate drinker, non-smoker and participates in vigorous...

  19. Modulation of enzymatic activities by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids to support cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Rafat A; Harvey, Kevin A; Zaloga, Gary P

    2008-07-01

    Epidemiological evidence from Greenland Eskimos and Japanese fishing villages suggests that eating fish oil and marine animals can prevent coronary heart disease. Dietary studies from various laboratories have similarly indicated that regular fish oil intake affects several humoral and cellular factors involved in atherogenesis and may prevent atherosclerosis, arrhythmia, thrombosis, cardiac hypertrophy and sudden cardiac death. The beneficial effects of fish oil are attributed to their n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA; also known as omega-3 fatty acids) content, particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5, n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6, n-3). Dietary supplementation of DHA and EPA influences the fatty acid composition of plasma phospholipids that, in turn, may affect cardiac cell functions in vivo. Recent studies have demonstrated that long-chain omega-3 fatty acids may exert beneficial effects by affecting a wide variety of cellular signaling mechanisms. Pathways involved in calcium homeostasis in the heart may be of particular importance. L-type calcium channels, the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger and mobilization of calcium from intracellular stores are the most obvious key signaling pathways affecting the cardiovascular system; however, recent studies now suggest that other signaling pathways involving activation of phospholipases, synthesis of eicosanoids, regulation of receptor-associated enzymes and protein kinases also play very important roles in mediating n-3 PUFA effects on cardiovascular health. This review is therefore focused on the molecular targets and signaling pathways that are regulated by n-3 PUFAs in relation to their cardioprotective effects.

  20. Nanostructured Humidity Sensor for Spacecraft Life Support Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Humidity is a critical variable for monitoring and control on extended duration missions because it can affect the operation and efficiency of closed loop life...

  1. The role of interpersonal sensitivity, social support, and quality of life in rural older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedgeworth, Monika; LaRocca, Michael A; Chaplin, William F; Scogin, Forrest

    The mental health of elderly individuals in rural areas is increasingly relevant as populations age and social structures change. While social support satisfaction is a well-established predictor of quality of life, interpersonal sensitivity symptoms may diminish this relation. The current study extends the findings of Scogin et al by investigating the relationship among interpersonal sensitivity, social support satisfaction, and quality of life among rural older adults and exploring the mediating role of social support in the relation between interpersonal sensitivity and quality of life (N = 128). Hierarchical regression revealed that interpersonal sensitivity and social support satisfaction predicted quality of life. In addition, bootstrapping resampling supported the role of social support satisfaction as a mediator between interpersonal sensitivity symptoms and quality of life. These results underscore the importance of nurses and allied health providers in assessing and attending to negative self-perceptions of clients, as well as the perceived quality of their social networks.

  2. Hydroponic cultivation of soybean for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSSs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascale, Stefania; De Micco, Veronica; Aronne, Giovanna; Paradiso, Roberta

    For long time our research group has been involved in experiments aiming to evaluate the possibility to cultivate plants in Space to regenerate resources and produce food. Apart from investigating the response of specific growth processes (at morpho-functional levels) to space factors (namely microgravity and ionising radiation), wide attention has been dedicated to agro-technologies applied to ecologically closed systems. Based on technical and human dietary requirements, soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is studied as one of the candidate species for hydroponic (soilless) cultivation in the research program MELiSSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative) of the European Space Agency (ESA). Soybean seeds show high nutritional value, due to the relevant content of protein, lipids, dietary fiber and biologically active substances such as isoflavones. They can produce fresh sprouts or be transformed in several edible products (soymilk and okara or soy pulp). Soybean is traditionally grown in open field where specific interactions with soil microrganisms occur. Most available information on plant growth, seed productivity and nutrient composition relate to cultivated varieties (cultivars) selected for soil cultivation. However, in a space outpost, plant cultivation would rely on soilless systems. Given that plant growth, seed yield and quality strictly depend on the environmental conditions, to make successful the cultivation of soybean in space, it was necessary to screen all agronomic information according to space constraints. Indeed, selected cultivars have to comply with the space growth environment while providing a suitable nutritional quality to fulfill the astronauts needs. We proposed an objective criterion for the preliminary theoretical selection of the most suitable cultivars for seed production, which were subsequently evaluated in bench tests in hydroponics. Several Space-oriented experiments were carried out in a closed growth chamber to

  3. Developing Anticipatory Life Cycle Assessment Tools to Support Responsible Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wender, Benjamin

    Several prominent research strategy organizations recommend applying life cycle assessment (LCA) early in the development of emerging technologies. For example, the US Environmental Protection Agency, the National Research Council, the Department of Energy, and the National Nanotechnology Initiative identify the potential for LCA to inform research and development (R&D) of photovoltaics and products containing engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). In this capacity, application of LCA to emerging technologies may contribute to the growing movement for responsible research and innovation (RRI). However, existing LCA practices are largely retrospective and ill-suited to support the objectives of RRI. For example, barriers related to data availability, rapid technology change, and isolation of environmental from technical research inhibit application of LCA to developing technologies. This dissertation focuses on development of anticipatory LCA tools that incorporate elements of technology forecasting, provide robust explorations of uncertainty, and engage diverse innovation actors in overcoming retrospective approaches to environmental assessment and improvement of emerging technologies. Chapter one contextualizes current LCA practices within the growing literature articulating RRI and identifies the optimal place in the stage gate innovation model to apply LCA. Chapter one concludes with a call to develop anticipatory LCA---building on the theory of anticipatory governance---as a series of methodological improvements that seek to align LCA practices with the objectives of RRI. Chapter two provides a framework for anticipatory LCA, identifies where research from multiple disciplines informs LCA practice, and builds off the recommendations presented in the preceding chapter. Chapter two focuses on crystalline and thin film photovoltaics (PV) to illustrate the novel framework, in part because PV is an environmentally motivated technology undergoing extensive R&D efforts and

  4. Modeling snail breeding in Bioregenerative Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, Vladimir; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Nickolay Manukovsky, D..

    It is known that snail meat is a high quality food that is rich in protein. Hence, heliciculture or land snail farming spreads worldwide because it is a profitable business. The possibility to use the snails of Helix pomatia in Biological Life Support System (BLSS) was studied by Japanese Researches. In that study land snails were considered to be producers of animal protein. Also, snail breeding was an important part of waste processing, because snails were capable to eat the inedible plant biomass. As opposed to the agricultural snail farming, heliciculture in BLSS should be more carefully planned. The purpose of our work was to develop a model for snail breeding in BLSS that can predict mass flow rates in and out of snail facility. There are three linked parts in the model called “Stoichiometry”, “Population” and “Mass balance”, which are used in turn. Snail population is divided into 12 age groups from oviposition to one year. In the submodel “Stoichiometry” the individual snail growth and metabolism in each of 12 age groups are described with stoichiometry equations. Reactants are written on the left side of the equations, while products are written on the right side. Stoichiometry formulas of reactants and products consist of four chemical elements: C, H, O, N. The reactants are feed and oxygen, products are carbon dioxide, metabolic water, snail meat, shell, feces, slime and eggs. If formulas of substances in the stoichiometry equations are substituted with their molar masses, then stoichiometry equations are transformed to the equations of molar mass balance. To get the real mass balance of individual snail growth and metabolism one should multiply the value of each molar mass in the equations on the scale parameter, which is the ratio between mass of monthly consumed feed and molar mass of feed. Mass of monthly consumed feed and stoichiometry coefficients of formulas of meat, shell, feces, slime and eggs should be determined experimentally

  5. Time, Interaction, and Design in Support of a Good Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froes, Isabel Cristina G.; Laaksolahti, Jarmo Matti; Witzner Hansen, Dan

    This position paper outlines a research program for the IxD Research Group at the IT University of Copenhagen. As such, it presents a range of questions addressing different corners of the question of time in IxD from the point of view of HCI, social interaction, material expressions, and software...... development. Our ongoing investigation of Interaction Design for a Good Life (http://itu.dk/IxDLab/) has uncovered a broad diversity of perspectives on how to unpack ‘a good life’ through research and design, and indeed what constitutes a good life to begin with. Through our investigations, time has surfaced...... as pivotal to our budding understanding of elements of a good life and a useful framing for future investigations. Time is also an important topic for interaction design, because it is at the core of interaction, the practice of design, and, in many ways, our use and relationships with technological...

  6. An Exploratory Study of Life-Change Events, Social Support and Pregnancy Decisions in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Mary L.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examined influences on decisions regarding pregnancy outcome in 43 adolescents who completed the Adolescent Life Change Event Questionnaire and the Social Support Questionnaire. Those continuing the pregnancy (N=30) had higher life event change scores, lower social support scores, and more personal and family problems. (JAC)

  7. First-Generation Undergraduate Students' Social Support, Depression, and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Sharon Rae; Belanger, Aimee; Connally, Melissa Londono; Boals, Adriel; Duron, Kelly M.

    2013-01-01

    First-generation undergraduate students face challenging cross-socioeconomic cultural transitions into college life. The authors compared first- and non-first-generation undergraduate students' social support, posttraumatic stress, depression symptoms, and life satisfaction. First-generation participants reported less social support from family…

  8. First-Generation Undergraduate Students' Social Support, Depression, and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Sharon Rae; Belanger, Aimee; Connally, Melissa Londono; Boals, Adriel; Duron, Kelly M.

    2013-01-01

    First-generation undergraduate students face challenging cross-socioeconomic cultural transitions into college life. The authors compared first- and non-first-generation undergraduate students' social support, posttraumatic stress, depression symptoms, and life satisfaction. First-generation participants reported less social support from…

  9. Social Support and Optimism as Predictors of Life Satisfaction of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Ilhan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the predictive value of optimism, perceived support from family and perceived support from faculty in determining life satisfaction of college students in Turkey. One hundred and thirty three students completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener et al., Journal of Personality Assessment…

  10. Arab Youth in Canada: Acculturation, Enculturation, Social Support, and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Ashley D.; Hakim-Larson, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Results from 98 Arab youth in Canada showed that having a positive Arab culture orientation was related to greater family life satisfaction with family social support as a mediator. A positive European Canadian orientation was related to greater school life satisfaction, but this relation was not mediated by friend social support. Implications for…

  11. Successful outsourcing: improving quality of life through integrated support services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Jason; Sharratt, Martin; King, John

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the way that non-clinical support services are provided in healthcare settings through outsourcing partnerships. The integrated support services model and benefits to patient experience and safety as well as organizational efficiency and effectiveness are explored through an examination of services at a busy urban community hospital.

  12. Low health-related quality of life is a predictor of major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with chronic nonischemic heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakliczyński, Michał; Owczarek, Aleksander; Partyka, Robert; Mościński, Mateusz; Pudlo, Robert; Kaczmarczyk, Marcin; Zembala, Marian; Poloński, Lech

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The need to indentify patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) at a higher risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) has become increasingly important; therefore, new parameters, such as health-related quality of life (HRQoL), are gaining ground. The aim of this study The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors for MACEs, with a special emphasis on HRQoL in chronic non-ischemic heart failure (NIHF) patients. Material and methods This prospective study enrolled 271 hospitalized patients with heart failure symptoms (NYHA II and III), without neoplastic disease, diabetes, hepatic cirrhosis or chronic kidney disease, who had been receiving optimal medical treatment. In all the patients, laboratory examinations, electrocardiography, echocardiography, a 6-minute walking test, invasive right heart pressure measurements and coronary angiography were performed. HRQoL assessment was conducted with the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Clinical observation commenced on admission to the hospital and lasted 3 years. Data concerning MACE incidence (death, transplantation, circulatory support, hospitalization) were obtained during outpatient visits. Results The final analysis enrolled 202 patients, while 17 patients were lost to follow up. The MACE incidence was 42.1%. Major adverse cardiovascular events risk factors in multiple factor analysis were: alkaline phosphatase (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.01; p < 0.05); right ventricular end-diastolic diameter (HR = 1.08; p < 0.001); hsCRP (HR = 1.04; p < 0.05); and the following HRQoL indices: Bodily Pain (HR = 0.98; p < 0.05) and Mental Health (HR = 0.97; p < 0.01). Conclusions Low values for HRQoL parameters (Bodily Pain and Mental Health), right ventricular end-diastolic diameter, serum concentration of hsCRP and alkaline phosphatase are prognostic factors in NIHF patients. PMID:26336436

  13. Long-term wine consumption is related to cardiovascular mortality and life expectancy independently of moderate alcohol intake: the Zutphen Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streppel, M.T.; Ocke, M.C.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Kok, F.J.; Kromhout, D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Light to moderate alcohol intake lowers the risk of cardiovascular mortality, but whether this protective effect can be attributed to a specific type of beverage remains unclear. Moreover, little is known about the effects of long-term alcohol intake on life expectancy. Methods: The impa

  14. European top managers' support for work-life arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Been, W.M.

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, work-life arrangements increasingly became an integral part of the organization of work. Arrangements such as telecommuting, flextime, part-time hours, and various types of leave arrangements are available to employees in many organizations. Top managers, such as CEOs, CFOs and me

  15. Relationships among the perceived health status, family support and life satisfaction of older Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sook-Young; Sok, Sohyune R

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the perceived health status, family support and life satisfaction of older Korean adults and the relationships among them. This study was designed to be a descriptive correlation study using questionnaire. Subjects were 246 older people who were over 65 years of age in Seoul and Daegu metropolitan city, Korea. Measures were the Cornell Medical Index-Simple Korean Form to measure the perceived health status, the Family Support Instrument to measure the family support and the Standard Life Satisfaction Instrument for Korean people to measure the life satisfaction. Perceived health state was worse as average 3.3, family support was good as average 3.4 and life satisfaction was low as average 3.1. There were statistically significant positive correlations among perceived health state, family support and life satisfaction and between family support and life satisfaction. The predictors of life satisfaction in elderly were family support, age, monthly allowance and perceived health state. These factors explained 37.5% of the total variance. The major influencing factor was family support. This cross-sectional study provides preliminary evidence that to develop nursing strategy to increase family support of older Korean adults is needed.

  16. Social support in later life: family, friends and community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Josefina Arias

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to carry out an analysis of the importance of social support and participation in old age. Contributions are presented first that various international agencies concerned with old age and aging have been made to strengthen this support and increased participation of older people. Different sources of social support are described: formal and informal interventions that can be made with varied promotion and preventive-wellness-care objectives and action at various levels-individual, group, family, organizational and community-and is made an analysis of the impact on the well-being have the resources of social support available to older people. Finally we reflect on Certain negative assumptions about the availability of support and social participation of older people in relation to recent research findings on the subject. Problematize the importance of these negative stereotypes about aging in general and on the participation and the availability of social support in particular in order to achieve more supportive environments that promote the development of the potential of older persons is concluded.

  17. Parent decision making for life support for extremely premature infants: from the prenatal through end-of-life period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Teresa T; Kavanaugh, Karen; Savage, Teresa A; Reyes, Maria R; Kimura, Robert E; Bhat, Rama

    2011-01-01

    Most deaths of extremely premature infants occur in the perinatal period. Yet, little is known about how parents make life support decisions in such a short period of time. In the paper, how parents make life support decisions for extremely premature infants from the prenatal period through death from the perspectives of parents, nurses, and physicians is described. Five cases, comprised of five mothers, four neonatologists, three nurses, and one neonatal nurse practitioner, are drawn from a larger collective case study. Prenatal, postnatal and end-of-life interviews were conducted, and medical record data were obtained. In an analysis by two research team members, mothers were found to exhibit these characteristics: desire for and actual involvement in life support decisions, weighing pain, suffering and hope in decision making, and wanting everything done for their infants. All mothers received decision making help and support from partners and family, but relationships with providers were also important. Finally, external resources impacted parental decision making in several of the cases. By understanding what factors contribute to parents' decision making, providers may be better equipped to prepare and assist parents when making life support decisions for their extremely premature infants.

  18. The Feasibility of Advanced Concepts in Submarine Life Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    nitrogen, found to be directly related to depth, and subject to a wide variation in individual susceptibility. Subsequent work quantified the effect...support pump. The ventilation support. b 0’ DIVER S RESPRIPATORY SYSTEM FLOWP REMOVAL V ENT I LAR ICON ES I STANCE HXYOENATL I. HEATER OXIGENATiON THE:RMOR...such an interface will experience variations in solubility due pressure variation associated with changing depth. similarly, removal of absorbed carbon

  19. Self-management support program for patients with cardiovascular diseases: user-centered development of the tailored, web-based program vascular view.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puijk-Hekman, S.; Gaal, B.G.I. van; Bredie, S.J.; Nijhuis-van der Sanden M.W.G.; Dulmen, S. van

    2017-01-01

    Background: In addition to medical intervention and counseling, patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) need to manage their disease and its consequences by themselves in daily life. Objective: The aim of this paper is to describe the development of “Vascular View,” a comprehensive, multi-compone

  20. Can course format influence the performance of students in an advanced cardiac life support (ACLS program?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.D. Garrido

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced cardiac life support (ACLS is a problem-based course that employs simulation techniques to teach the standard management techniques of cardiovascular emergencies. Its structure is periodically revised according to new versions of the American Heart Association guidelines. Since it was introduced in Brazil in 1996, the ACLS has been through two conceptual and structural changes. Detailed documented reports on the effect of these changes on student performance are limited. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of conceptual and structural changes of the course on student ACLS performance at a Brazilian training center. This was a retrospective study of 3266 students divided into two groups according to the teaching model: Model 1 (N = 1181; 1999-2003 and Model 2 (N = 2085; 2003-2007. Model 2 increased practical skill activities to 75% of the total versus 60% in Model 1. Furthermore, the teaching material provided to the students before the course was more objective than that used for Model 1. Scores greater than 85% in the theoretical evaluation and approval in the evaluation of practice by the instructor were considered to be a positive outcome. Multiple logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounders (specialty, residency, study time, opportunity to enhance practical skills during the course and location where the course was given. Compared to Model 1, Model 2 presented odds ratios (OR indicating better performance in the theoretical (OR = 1.34; 95%CI = 1.10-1.64, practical (OR = 1.19; 95%CI = 0.90-1.57, and combined (OR = 1.38; 95%CI = 1.13-1.68 outcomes. Increasing the time devoted to practical skills did not improve the performance of ACLS students.

  1. Can course format influence the performance of students in an advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, F D; Romano, M M D; Schmidt, A; Pazin-Filho, A

    2011-01-01

    Advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) is a problem-based course that employs simulation techniques to teach the standard management techniques of cardiovascular emergencies. Its structure is periodically revised according to new versions of the American Heart Association guidelines. Since it was introduced in Brazil in 1996, the ACLS has been through two conceptual and structural changes. Detailed documented reports on the effect of these changes on student performance are limited. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of conceptual and structural changes of the course on student ACLS performance at a Brazilian training center. This was a retrospective study of 3266 students divided into two groups according to the teaching model: Model 1 (N = 1181; 1999-2003) and Model 2 (N = 2085; 2003-2007). Model 2 increased practical skill activities to 75% of the total versus 60% in Model 1. Furthermore, the teaching material provided to the students before the course was more objective than that used for Model 1. Scores greater than 85% in the theoretical evaluation and approval in the evaluation of practice by the instructor were considered to be a positive outcome. Multiple logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounders (specialty, residency, study time, opportunity to enhance practical skills during the course and location where the course was given). Compared to Model 1, Model 2 presented odds ratios (OR) indicating better performance in the theoretical (OR = 1.34; 95%CI = 1.10-1.64), practical (OR = 1.19; 95%CI = 0.90-1.57), and combined (OR = 1.38; 95%CI = 1.13-1.68) outcomes. Increasing the time devoted to practical skills did not improve the performance of ACLS students.

  2. Endothelin-1 supports clonal derivation and expansion of cardiovascular progenitors derived from human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Boon-Seng; Ng, Shi-Yan; Wu, Hao; Buac, Kristina; Park, Joo-Hye C; Lian, Xiaojun; Xu, Jiejia; Foo, Kylie S; Felldin, Ulrika; He, Xiaobing; Nichane, Massimo; Yang, Henry; Bu, Lei; Li, Ronald A; Lim, Bing; Chien, Kenneth R

    2016-03-08

    Coronary arteriogenesis is a central step in cardiogenesis, requiring coordinated generation and integration of endothelial cell and vascular smooth muscle cells. At present, it is unclear whether the cell fate programme of cardiac progenitors to generate complex muscular or vascular structures is entirely cell autonomous. Here we demonstrate the intrinsic ability of vascular progenitors to develop and self-organize into cardiac tissues by clonally isolating and expanding second heart field cardiovascular progenitors using WNT3A and endothelin-1 (EDN1) human recombinant proteins. Progenitor clones undergo long-term expansion and differentiate primarily into endothelial and smooth muscle cell lineages in vitro, and contribute extensively to coronary-like vessels in vivo, forming a functional human-mouse chimeric circulatory system. Our study identifies EDN1 as a key factor towards the generation and clonal derivation of ISL1(+) vascular intermediates, and demonstrates the intrinsic cell-autonomous nature of these progenitors to differentiate and self-organize into functional vasculatures in vivo.

  3. CardioVINEdb: a data warehouse approach for integration of life science data in cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormeier, Benjamin; Hippe, Klaus; Töpel, Thoralf; Hofestädt, Ralf

    2010-06-28

    One of the major challenges in bioinfomatics is to integrate and manage data from different sources as well as experimental microarray data and present them in a user-friendly format. Therefore, we present CardioVINEdb, a data warehouse approach developed to interact with and explore life science data. The data warehouse architecture provides a platform independent web interface that can be used with any common web browser. A monitor component controls and updates the data from the different sources to guarantee up-todateness. In addition, the system provides a "static" and "dynamic" visualization component for interactive graphical exploration of the data.

  4. Quality of Life Is Related to Social Support in Elderly Osteoporosis Patients in a Chinese Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Ma

    Full Text Available To explore the association between quality of life and social support in elderly osteoporosis patients in a Chinese population.A total of 214 elderly patients who underwent bone mineral density screening were divided into two groups: elderly patients with primary osteoporosis (case group, n = 112 and normal elderly patients (control group, n = 102. Quality of life and social support were compared between the two groups.Quality of life and social support were significantly different between the case and control groups. The physical function, role-physical, bodily pain, general health, vitality, social-functioning, role-emotional and mental health scores in case group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P < 0.01. The objective support, subjective support, utilization of support, and total scores in case group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P < 0.01. Quality of life and social support were positively correlated in the case group (r = 0.672, P < 0.01.Quality of life and social support in elderly patients with osteoporosis in China were poorer than in elderly patients without osteoporosis and were positively correlated. Our findings indicate that increased efforts to improve the social support and quality of life in elderly osteoporosis patients are urgently needed in China. Further longitudinal studies should be conducted to provide more clinical evidence to determine causative factors for the observed association between risk factors and outcomes.

  5. [Life-support training to improve the clinical competence of pharmacy students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamura, Norito; Tokunaga, Jin; Ogata, Kenji; Yoshida, Hiroki; Setoguchi, Nao

    2010-04-01

    Life-support (particularly, advanced life-support) training is not included in pharmacist education; however, the life-support should be mastered since a pharmacist is a medical professional. We consider it to be important to master other skills before the life-support practicing, because a pharmacist does not check a patient to assess their clinical condition and administer drugs (suppository, intravenous injection etc.) The pharmacist prepares medicines, but does not administer medicines to treat the patient. Furthermore, the pharmacist is not interested in the vital signs of the patient receiving the medicines (the pharmacist has not identified the patient has complaint from changes in vital signs), which is why pharmacists can not develop themselves as medical professionals. Based on this observation, life-support training should be considered. In other words, to foster pharmacists with high clinical competence, pharmacy students should receive life-support training after training in drug administration and vital sign checks in a bedside training room. Drug administration using a pharmacy system versatile-type training model and pharmacy training model, vital signs check and auscultation using a physical assessment model and a cardiac disease disorder simulator in our bedside practice are useful for advanced life-support using a high-performance care simulator (monitoring vital signs, adrenalin administration and oxygen inhalation for ventricular fibrillation (VF). These training skills can improve the clinical competence of pharmacy students.

  6. [Redesign of the Spacesuit Long Life Battery and the Personal Life Support System Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    This fall I was working on two different projects that culminated into a redesign of the spacesuit LLB (long life battery). I also did some work on the PLSS (personal life support system) battery with EC. My first project was redlining the work instruction for completing DPAs (destructive physical analysis) on battery cells in the department. The purpose of this document is to create a standard process and ensure that the data in the same way no matter who carries out the analysis. I observed three DPAs, conducted one with help, and conducted two on my own all while taking notes on the procedure. These notes were used to write the final work instruction that will become is the department standard. My second project continued the work of the summer co-op before me. I was testing aluminum heat sinks for their ability to provide good thermal conduction and structural support during a thermal runaway event. The heat sinks were designed by the summer intern but there was not much time for testing before he left. We ran tests with a heater on the bottom of a trigger cell to try to drive thermal runaway and ensure that it will not propagate to adjacent cells. We also ran heat-to-vent tests in an oven to see if the assembly provided structural support and prevented sidewall rupture during thermal runaway. These tests were carried out at ESTA (energy systems test area) and are providing very promising results that safe, high performing (greater than 180 Wh/kg) designs are possible. My main project was a redesign of the LLB battery. Another summer intern did some testing and concluded that there was no simple fix to mitigate thermal runaway propagation hazards in the current design. The only option was a clean sheet redesign of the battery. I was given a volume and ideal energy density and the rest of the design was up to me. First, I created new heat sink banks in Creo using the information gathered in the metal heat sink tests from the summer intern. After this, I made

  7. DAWN (Design Assistant Workstation) for advanced physical-chemical life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudokas, Mary R.; Cantwell, Elizabeth R.; Robinson, Peter I.; Shenk, Timothy W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a project supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (NASA-OAST) under the Advanced Life Support Development Program. It is an initial attempt to integrate artificial intelligence techniques (via expert systems) with conventional quantitative modeling tools for advanced physical-chemical life support systems. The addition of artificial intelligence techniques will assist the designer in the definition and simulation of loosely/well-defined life support processes/problems as well as assist in the capture of design knowledge, both quantitative and qualitative. Expert system and conventional modeling tools are integrated to provide a design workstation that assists the engineer/scientist in creating, evaluating, documenting and optimizing physical-chemical life support systems for short-term and extended duration missions.

  8. A Preliminary Validation on Strategies that Support the Transition from School to Adult Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Carolyn; Hwang, Bogseon; Kim, Jim-Ho; Killian, Daniel J.; Harmer, Melinda L.; Alcantara, Paulo R.

    1997-01-01

    A study that reviewed 113 transition articles, developed a candidate list of all support strategies, conducted a survey of 54 transition researchers, and corroborated multiple strategies that support students with disabilities in transition to adult life, including family and peer support, student choice and preference, and student…

  9. Supporting requirements model evolution throughout the system life-cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Ernst, Neil; Mylopoulos, John; Yu, Yijun; Ngyuen, Tien T.

    2008-01-01

    Requirements models are essential not just during system implementation, but also to manage system changes post-implementation. Such models should be supported by a requirements model management framework that allows users to create, manage and evolve models of domains, requirements, code and other design-time artifacts along with traceability links between their elements. We propose a comprehensive framework which delineates the operations and elements necessary, and then describe a tool imp...

  10. Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering Research Support at the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Martha Shauck

    2013-01-01

    Tissue engineering aims at building three-dimensional living substitutes that are equal to or better than the damaged tissue to be replaced. The development of such a tissue replacement requires a multidisciplinary approach and careful attention to the optimal cell source, the interactions of growth factors and extracellular milieu, and the scaffolding design. This article is a review of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's (NHLBI) tissue engineering programs, which support researc...

  11. Antibody production in early life supported by maternal lymphocyte factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamura, Michio; Huang, Yi-Ying; Goji, Hiroshi

    2003-01-20

    To examine the influence of maternal lymphocyte factors on the immune responses in offspring in early life, antibody production in neonates born to either normal or lymphocyte-deficient mothers was analyzed. Recombination activating gene (Rag)-2(+/-) mouse neonates born to Rag-2(+/+), Rag-2(+/-)or Rag-2(-/-)mothers were injected with goat anti-mouse IgD antiserum, and IgE and IgG(1) production was evaluated. The levels of IgE and IgG(1) were higher in the pups born to Rag-2(+/+)and Rag-2(+/-) dams than to lymphocyte-deficient Rag-2(-/-) dams. The enhanced antibody production in the former compared with the latter neonates was also found following immunization with ovalbumin or TNP-Ficoll. Thus, the presence of maternal lymphocyte factors was suggested in neonates that augmented antigen-specific antibody production in both T cell-dependent and -independent pathways. A reduction in antibody production was observed in normal neonates when they were foster-nursed by Rag-2(-/-) mothers. Thus, the maternal lymphocyte factors enhancing the immune responses in newborns were shown to be present in breast-milk.

  12. Water Walls: Highly Reliable and Massively Redundant Life Support Architecture Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — WATER WALLS (WW) takes an approach to providing a life support system that is biologically and chemically passive, using mechanical systems only for plumbing to...

  13. Next Generation Life Support (NGLS): Continuous Electrochemical Gas Separator (CEGS) Element

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Life support systems on human spacecraft are designed to provide a safe, habitable environment for the astronauts, and one of the most significant challenges is...

  14. Bio-Electrochemical Carbon Dioxide Removal for Air Revitalization in Exploration Life Support Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An important aspect of the ISS air revitalization system for life support is the removal of carbon dioxide from cabin air and retrieves oxygen from CO2. The current...

  15. Regenerable Trace-Contaminant Sorbent for the Primary Life Support System (PLSS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA objective of expanding the human experience into the far reaches of space requires the development of regenerable life support systems. This proposal...

  16. Space Evaporator Absorber Radiator for Life Support and Thermal Control Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future human space exploration missions will require advanced life support technology that can operate across a wide range of applications and environments. Thermal...

  17. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Partnered Development of Cryogenic Life Support Technologies Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Partnering with National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to develop several cryogenically based life support technologies to be used in mine...

  18. From the deep sea to the stars: human life support through minimal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickx, Larissa; Mergeay, Max

    2007-06-01

    Support of human life during long-distance exploratory space travel or in the creation of human habitats in extreme environments can be accomplished using the action of microbial consortia inhabiting interconnected bioreactors, designed for the purpose of reconversion of solid, liquid and gaseous wastes produced by the human crew or by one of the compartments of the bioregenerative loop, into nutritional biomass, oxygen and potable water. The microorganisms responsible for bioregenerative life support are part of Earth's own geomicrobial reconversion cycle. Depending on the resources and conditions available, minimal life support systems can be assembled using appropriately selected microorganisms that possess metabolic routes for each specific purpose in the transformation cycle. Under control of an engineered system, a reliable life-support system can hence be provided for.

  19. Gaps in Social Support Resources in Later Life: An Adaptational Challenge in Need of Further Research

    OpenAIRE

    Rook, Karen S.

    2009-01-01

    Gaps in social support resources in later life may arise when older adults lose social network members due to illness, death, or residential relocation. Gaps also may arise when social networks remain intact but are not well suited to meet older adults’ intensifying support needs, such as needs for extended or highly personal instrumental support. Significant gaps in support resources are likely to require adaptive responses by older adults. This discussion highlights theoretical perspectives...

  20. Predictors of health-related quality of life in patients at risk for cardiovascular disease in European primary care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Ludt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular risk management plays an important role in primary care. In patients at high risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD lifestyle and, where appropriate, medical interventions are recommended in guidelines. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL is an important outcome in clinical practice. This study aimed to assess the HRQoL of this patient group and to investigate the impact of both patients' characteristics and practice quality scores on their assessments of HRQoL. METHODS AND FINDINGS: An observational study in 218 general practices from 8 European countries was conducted. 2142 patients at risk for CVD (33.5% female with a mean age of 66.3 (SD 9.1 years completed a questionnaire including the EQ-5D instrument and provided data from medical record. Validated quality indicators of general practices were assessed using practice questionnaires and face-to-face interviews. A hierarchical multilevel analysis was performed to identify predictors of EQ-5D scores at patient and practice level. The mean EQ-5D score was 0.78 (SD 0.19. Female gender (r=-0.03, p<0.0016, age (r=-0.01, p=0.0387 and lower educational level (r=-0.03, p<0.0001 were correlated negatively with EQ-5D scores. Clinically more important was the correlation of HRQoL with the frequency of practice contacts (r=-0.12, p<0.0001 and the number of uncontrolled risk factors (r= -0.01, p<0.0039. Medication adherence (r=0.032, p<0.0001, and physical activity (r=0.02, p<0.0001 were identified as positive predictors of HRQoL. The EUPROPEP-score category 'organization' (r=0.02, p<0.0001 was positively related to EQ-5D scores, whereas other practice scores were not correlated to EQ-5D-scores. CONCLUSIONS: In patients at risk for CVD, good medication adherence, regular physical activity, controlling of biomedical risk factor levels and patient-centered practice organization have been shown to be positively correlated to HRQoL and should therefore be targeted in

  1. FACTORES DE RIESGO CARDIOVASCULAR Y CALIDAD DE VIDA EN MUJERES REVASCULARIZADAS CON STENT CORONARIOS / Cardiovascular risk factors and quality of life in women who under-went revascularization with coronary stenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C. Castillo Núñez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Introducción: Los factores de riesgo cardiovascular son responsables directos de la elevada mortalidad por enfermedad coronaria aterosclerótica en la mujer. Objetivo: Describir dichos factores, la evolución clínica y la calidad de vida en las féminas tras realizarle angioplastia coronaria. Método: Estudio descriptivo, longitudinal y prospectivo en 62 mujeres revascularizadas con angioplastia e implante de stent en el período de enero a junio de 2011. Se realizó seguimiento clínico durante 180 días a través de las consultas médicas. Resultados: La edad media fue de 52,8 años y el factor de riesgo cardiovascular más frecuente, la hipertensión arterial (66,1 %, y la diabetes (24,2 %, el menos prevalente. La enfermedad coronaria aterosclerótica de un vaso fue la de mayor frecuencia (87,1 % y la de tres vasos (1,6 %, la menos representada. En 75,8 % de los pacientes se utilizó un stent, solo uno requirió de tres. El 83,9 % de ellos valoraron su calidad de vida como buena, 14,5 % la consideraron aceptable y uno la estimó como pobre. En 93,5 % de los pacientes no se evidenciaron acontecimientos cardiovasculares durante el seguimiento clínico. La diabetes y la categoría calidad de vida pobre, mostraron una asociación estadísticamente significativa con la extensión de la enfermedad coronaria aterosclerótica, el número de stents utilizados y los acontecimientos cardiovasculares. Conclusiones: Las mujeres con enfermedad coronaria aterosclerótica, revascularizadas con stents coronarios, tienen una elevada frecuencia de factores de riesgo, una evolución clínica favorable y un predominio de las percepciones positivas sobre su calidad de vida. / Abstract Introduction: Cardiovascular risk factors are directly responsible for the high mortality from atherosclerotic coronary artery disease in women. Objective: To describe these risk factors, the clinical course and quality of life in women after coronary angioplasty. Method: A

  2. Support as a promoting factor of quality of life of the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermelinda Maria Bernardo Gonçalves Marques

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid increase in the aging population poses real challenges to society, making it necessary to get a better understanding of this reality, namely the study of the quality of life and the support given to the elderly. The main objective of this study was to assess the quality of life of the elderly and to determine whether it depends on the support received or not. This is an exploratory, descriptive, analytical, cross-sectional and quantitative study. Methods. For data collection, a questionnaire of characterization sociodemographic was used, the Health StatusQuestionnaire (SF-36 to assess the perception of quality of life, the Smilkstein Family Apgar and the Duke Functional Social SupportQuestionaire.All instrumentswere applied by interview,workingwith a sample btained at a random and probabilistic way, from lists of seniors enrolled in a Health Center in the district of the Guarda, consisting of 247 elderly people, of whom 101 men and 146 women. Results and Discussion. As main results, we point out that the elderly studied reveal a reasonable quality of life and that this depends on the support given. For most of them, the support is received from the formal support network. The elderly who said they did not need support, those who perceive greater social and functional support and greater family apgar tend to perceive better quality of life and reduced degradation of their health status during the last year. Conclusion. This study allowed us to recognize the important role that support (formal and informal has on the quality of life of the elderly, thereby concluding that it is assumed as a promoting factor of the quality of life of this age group.

  3. Developing Biological ISRU: Implications for Life Support and Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I. I.; Allen, C. C.; Garrison, D. H.; Sarkisova, S. A.; Galindo, C.; Mckay, David S.

    2010-01-01

    Main findings: 1) supplementing very dilute media for cultivation of CB with analogs of lunar or Martian regolith effectively supported the proliferation of CB; 2) O2 evolution by siderophilic cyanobacteria cultivated in diluted media but supplemented with iron-rich rocks was higher than O2 evolution by same strain in undiluted medium; 3) preliminary data suggest that organic acids produced by CB are involved in iron-rich mineral dissolution; 4) the CB studied can accumulate iron on and in their cells; 4) sequencing of the cyanobacterium JSC-1 genome revealed that this strain possesses molecular features which make it applicable for the cultivation in special photoreactors on Moon and Mars. Conclusion: As a result of pilot studies, we propose, to develop a concept for semi-closed integrated system that uses CB to extract useful elements to revitalize air and produce valuable biomolecules. Such a system could be the foundation of a self-sustaining extraterrestrial outpost (Hendrickx, De Wever et al., 2005; Handford, 2006). A potential advantage of a cyanobacterial photoreactor placed between LSS and ISRU loops is the possibility of supplying these systems with extracted elements and compounds from the regolith. In addition, waste regolith may be transformed into additional products such as methane, biomass, and organic and inorganic soil enrichment for the cultivation of higher plants.

  4. Concerns about end-of-life care and support for euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, Jane L; Mitchell, Susan L

    2009-08-01

    Popular support for euthanasia is known to vary according to sociodemographic characteristics. However, little is known about whether support is associated with concerns regarding the emotional, physical, and economic burdens of end-of-life care. This study used data from the 1998 General Social Survey, a national survey of community-dwelling adults. The outcome variable assessed the respondents' support for a doctor's right to end life in the setting of terminal illness. Independent variables assessed the following concerns: 1) concern about the emotional burden of end-of-life decision making for family members; 2) worry about the economic burden of terminal illness; 3) concern about pain at the end of life; 4) worry that lack of money or insurance will result in second-class end-of-life care; and 5) belief that their religious community will be helpful at the end of life. Multivariable logistic regression estimated the independent effect of these concerns on support for euthanasia, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Of 786 respondents, 70.6% approved of euthanasia in the setting of terminal illness. In adjusted analyses, respondents with concerns about the emotional toll of decision making on family members, economic burden, and poor health care because of lack of insurance were significantly more likely to support euthanasia. Respondents with faith in the helpfulness of their religious community were less likely to support euthanasia. In conclusion, emotional and economic concerns about end-of-life care were associated with support for the right to euthanasia. Future work can evaluate whether alleviating these concerns may reduce the perceived desire for euthanasia by patients near the end of life.

  5. Status of Perceived Social Support and Quality of Life among Hearing-Impaired Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayebeh Reyhani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Annual four to five thousand babies are born with hearing loss in the Iran. Hearing impairment is a disability that affects the quality of life of people with this problem. These individuals need to support from family and friends because of their specific conditions that this received support has impact on their quality of life. This study was conducted to assess the status of perceived social support and quality of life of hearing-impaired adolescent. Material and Methods A cross-correlation study was performed with cluster and multi stage random sampling method on 83 students with hearing impairment who met the inclusion criteria of the study in Mashhad. The data collection tools included Pediatric quality of life inventory (adolescent form and perceived social support inventory (from family and friends.The data obtained from the questionnaires were analyzed through SPSS software version 16. Results The results showed that the majority of the most of adolescents with hearing impairment were reported moderate total quality of life (%51.8. But the majority of them reported perceived social support from family was moderate (%61.5 and from friends was week (%45.8. Also there was a significant relationship between category of total quality of life of adolescent viewpoint with perceived social support from family (P=0.056. Conclusion Based on the obtained results, the majority of the most of adolescents with hearing impairment were reported moderate total quality of life. Disability and condition of these persons affects quality of life of them, so need for adequate support from family, friends and society. Nurses play an important role in identifying and introduce these needs and condition and how to deal with them.

  6. Cardiovascular comorbiditiy in psoriasis

    OpenAIRE

    Gurcharan Singh; Simran Pal Singh Aneja

    2011-01-01

    The chronic inflammatory nature of psoriasis is also thought to predispose patients to other diseases with an inflammatory component, the most notable being cardiovascular and metabolic (cardiometabolite) disorders. This concept is supported by studies showing that psoriasis is associated with cardiovascular risk factors like diabetes, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking and diseases including MI. Given the increased prevalence of cardiovascular co morbidities in patients, dermatolog...

  7. Protocol for an experimental investigation of the roles of oxytocin and social support in neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and subjective responses to stress across age and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Block Jason

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substantial empirical evidence has demonstrated that individuals who are socially isolated or have few positive social connections seem to age at a faster rate and have more chronic diseases. Oxytocin is a neurohypophyseal hormone hypothesized to coordinate both the causes and effects of positive social interactions, and may be involved in positive physiological adaptations such as buffering the deleterious effects of stress and promoting resilience. The proposed research will examine whether and how oxytocin influences responses to stress in humans and will consider effects in relation to those of social support. Methods/Design Experimental research will be used to determine whether exogenously administered oxytocin (intranasal influences psychological and physiological outcomes under conditions of stress across gender and age in adulthood. Hypotheses to be tested are: 1 Oxytocin ameliorates the deleterious neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and subjective effects of stress; 2 Oxytocin and social support have similar and additive stress-buffering effects; 3 Oxytocin effects are stronger in women versus men; and 4 Oxytocin effects are similar across a range of adult ages. Hypotheses will be tested with a placebo-controlled, double-blind study using a sample of healthy men and women recruited from the community. Participants are randomly assigned to receive either oxytocin or placebo. They undergo a social stress manipulation with and without social support (randomly assigned, and outcome measures are obtained at multiple times during the procedure. Discussion Understanding the determinants of healthy aging is a major public health priority and identifying effective measures to prevent or delay the onset of chronic diseases is an important goal. Experimental research on oxytocin, social relationships, and health in adulthood will contribute to the scientific knowledge base for maximizing active life and health expectancy. At

  8. Relationship among social support, quality of life and loneliness of the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Niknam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Old age is a sensitive period of human life. Attention to the needs and issues is of utmost importance.The present study was performed to investigate the relationship among social support, quality of life and loneliness of the elderly. The research is descriptive-analytical based on correlation.105 of the elderly lived at nursing home of Ramsar and they were selected in sampling method. Research data were collected through a questionnaire of multidimensional perceived social support, the world health organization quality of life scale and the social and emotional loneliness scale for adults. Analysis of data using Pearson correlation statistical and multivariate regression methods and using the software SPSS16 was performed. The results showed that there was a significant and negative relationship between emotional support and loneliness of the elderly. There is a significant and negative relationship between quality of life and loneliness of the elderly and they are good predictor emotional support and quality of life for loneliness of the elderly. Therefore, the attention to social factors of health in the elderly, such as social support and quality of life is of paramount importance.

  9. Process and Tool Support for Ontology-Aware Life Support System Development and Integration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recent advances in ontology development support a rich description of entities that are modeled within a domain and how these entities relate to each other. However,...

  10. Suicidal Ideation and Distress among Immigrant Adolescents: The Role of Acculturation, Life Stress, and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong-Beom; Haslam, Nick

    2010-01-01

    Acculturative stress and social support play important roles in suicide-related phenomena among adolescent immigrants. To examine their contributions, measures of acculturative and general life stress and a measure of multiple sources of social support were used to predict psychological distress and suicidal ideation among Korean-born high school…

  11. A one year study of coping, social support and quality of life in Parkinson's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, K.M.G.; Ridder, D.T.D. de; Bensing, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The role of coping and social support in the quality of life for Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients is not well understood. Most studies are cross-sectional and concentrate on depression as an outcome measure. The aim of the present study was to explore the role of coping and social support in qualit

  12. Life Course Status and Exchanges of Support between Young Adults and Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucx, Freek; van Wel, Frits; Knijn, Trudie

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated intergenerational support exchanges in relation to young adults' life course status. In a sample of 2,022 young adults (ages 18-34 years) in The Netherlands, single young adults reported receiving more advice from parents than married young adults, and those with children of their own received more practical support.…

  13. Peers' Perceived Support, Student Engagement in Academic Activities and Life Satisfaction: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimzadeh, Rezvan; Besharat, Mohammad-Ali; Khaleghinezhad, Seyed Ali; Ghorban Jahromi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships among peers' perceived support, life satisfaction, and student engagement in academic activities. Three hundred and fifteen Iranian students (172 boys and 143 girls) who were studying in one suburb of Tehran participated in this study. All participants were asked to complete Peers' Perceived Support scale…

  14. Teacher Support and Life Satisfaction: An Investigation with Urban, Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guess, Pamela E.; McCane-Bowling, Sara J.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between perceived teacher support and overall life satisfaction (LS) in a sample of urban middle school students. Based on correlations between measures of student perceptions related to these constructs, results indicated that student perceptions of teacher support correlated significantly with LS, with the…

  15. Fish consumption measured during pregnancy and risk of cardiovascular diseases later in life: an observational prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strøm, Marin; Mortensen, Erik L; Henriksen, Tine B; Olsen, Sjurdur F

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated a protective effect of long chain n-3 PUFAs against cardiovascular disease; however, the overall evidence remains uncertain, and there is a general lack of knowledge in the field of cardiovascular epidemiology in women. Therefore, the objective of this study was to explore the association between fish intake and cardiovascular disease among 7429 women from a prospective pregnancy cohort in Aarhus, Denmark, who were followed for 12-17 years. Exposure information derived from a questionnaire sent to the women in gestation week 16, and daily fish consumption was quantified based on assumptions of standard portion sizes and food tables. Information on admissions to hospital was obtained from the Danish National Patient Registry and diagnoses of hypertensive, cerebrovascular and ischaemic heart disease were used to define the outcome: cardiovascular disease. During the follow-up period 263 events of cardiovascular disease were identified. Overall, there was no association between cardiovascular disease and fish intake, confidence intervals for effect estimates in the different fish intake groups were wide, overlapped and for all but one they encompassed unity. Restricting the analysis to women who had reported the same fish intake in a questionnaire in gestation week 30 did not alter these findings. In conclusion, our data from a prospective cohort of relatively young and initially healthy women from Aarhus linked with information from registries could not substantiate a protective effect of fish intake against cardiovascular disease.

  16. Human life support during interplanetary travel and domicile. VI - Generic modular flow schematic for hybrid physical/chemical-biological life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathi, Gani B.; Seshan, P. K.; Ferrall, Joseph; Rohatgi, Naresh

    1992-01-01

    An extension is proposed for the NASA Space Exploration Initiative's Generic Modular Flow Schematics for physical/chemical life support systems which involves the addition of biological processes. The new system architecture includes plant, microbial, and animal habitat, as well as the human habitat subsystem. Major Feedstock Production and Food Preparation and Packaging components have also been incorporated. Inedible plant, aquaculture, microbial, and animal solids are processed for recycling.

  17. Being born under adverse economic conditions leads to a higher cardiovascular mortality rate later in life: evidence based on individuals born at different stages of the business cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, Gerard J; Doblhammer-Reiter, Gabriele; Christensen, Kaare

    2011-01-01

    since the 1870s and including the cause of death. To capture exogenous variation of conditions early in life, we use the state of the business cycle around birth. We find significant negative effects of economic conditions around birth on the individual CV mortality rate at higher ages......We connect the recent medical and economic literatures on the long-run effects of early-life conditions by analyzing the effects of economic conditions on the individual cardiovascular (CV) mortality rate later in life, using individual data records from the Danish Twin Registry covering births....... There is no effect on the cancer-specific mortality rate. From variation within and between monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs born under different conditions, we conclude that the fate of an individual is more strongly determined by genetic and household-environmental factors if early-life conditions are poor...

  18. Pathology supported genetic testing and treatment of cardiovascular disease in middle age for prevention of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotze, Maritha J; van Rensburg, Susan J

    2012-09-01

    Chronic, multi-factorial conditions caused by a complex interaction between genetic and environmental risk factors frequently share common disease mechanisms, as evidenced by an overlap between genetic risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in several genes including ApoE, MTHFR, HFE and FTO are known to increase the risk of both conditions. The E4 allele of the ApoE polymorphism is the most extensively studied risk factor for AD and increases the risk of coronary heart disease by approximately 40%. It furthermore displays differential therapeutic responses with use of cholesterol-lowering statins and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, which may also be due to variation in the CYP2D6 gene in some patients. Disease expression may be triggered by gene-environment interaction causing conversion of minor metabolic abnormalities into major brain disease due to cumulative risk. A growing body of evidence supports the assessment and treatment of CVD risk factors in midlife as a preventable cause of cognitive decline, morbidity and mortality in old age. In this review, the concept of pathology supported genetic testing (PSGT) for CVD is described in this context. PSGT combines DNA testing with biochemical measurements to determine gene expression and to monitor response to treatment. The aim is to diagnose treatable disease subtypes of complex disorders, facilitate prevention of cumulative risk and formulate intervention strategies guided from the genetic background. CVD provides a model to address the lifestyle link in most chronic diseases with a genetic component. Similar preventative measures would apply for optimisation of heart and brain health.

  19. A Mobile Clinical Decision Support Tool for Pediatric Cardiovascular Risk-Reduction Clinical Practice Guidelines: Development and Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background Widespread application of research findings to improve patient outcomes remains inadequate, and failure to routinely translate research findings into daily clinical practice is a major barrier for the implementation of any evidence-based guideline. Strategies to increase guideline uptake in primary care pediatric practices and to facilitate adherence to recommendations are required. Objective Our objective was to operationalize the US National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute’s Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents into a mobile clinical decision support (CDS) system for healthcare providers, and to describe the process development and outcomes. Methods To overcome the difficulty of translating clinical practice guidelines into a computable form that can be used by a CDS system, we used a multilayer framework to convert the evidence synthesis into executable knowledge. We used an iterative process of design, testing, and revision through each step in the translation of the guidelines for use in a CDS tool to support the development of 4 validated modules: an integrated risk assessment; a blood pressure calculator; a body mass index calculator; and a lipid management instrument. Results The iterative revision process identified several opportunities to improve the CDS tool. Operationalizing the integrated guideline identified numerous areas in which the guideline was vague or incorrect and required more explicit operationalization. Iterative revisions led to workable solutions to problems and understanding of the limitations of the tool. Conclusions The process and experiences described provide a model for other mobile CDS systems that translate written clinical practice guidelines into actionable, real-time clinical recommendations. PMID:28270384

  20. Antenatal depressive symptoms associated with specific life events and sources of social support among Italian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Francesca; Neri, Erica; Salvatori, Paola; Dellabartola, Sara; Bozicevic, Laura; Monti, Fiorella

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to identify different kinds of stressful life events and social support associated with antenatal depressive symptoms in a sample of pregnant Italian women. We conducted the study at a primary health-care centre in an urban area (northeast Italy). Mainly recruited at antenatal classes, 404 eligible pregnant women completed a socio-demographic questionnaire that included questions about the present pregnancy, the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS) to estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and List of Threatening Experiences Questionnaire to investigate the quality and nature of social support and recent negative life events. Of the 404 women, 60 (14.9 %) scored 13 or higher on the EDS. This group reported significantly lower social support from various sources-family, friends, and significant others; only in primiparous women were depressive symptoms significantly related to lower support from friends. Women with EDS scores equal or higher than 13 also reported a higher occurrence of recent stressful life events-specifically, death or a serious problem with a close friend or relative, unemployment, financial problems, and moving or housing difficulties. Regression analyses showed that women with high levels of social support or with a positive experience of pregnancy were less likely to experience antenatal depressive symptoms. Our results underscore the associations among antenatal depression, specific life stressors, and low social support from various sources. Clinical attention to these psychosocial correlates is recommended toward detecting vulnerability to antenatal depressive symptoms.

  1. Decision Support Systems for Research and Management in Advanced Life Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, Luis F.

    2004-01-01

    Decision support systems have been implemented in many applications including strategic planning for battlefield scenarios, corporate decision making for business planning, production planning and control systems, and recommendation generators like those on Amazon.com(Registered TradeMark). Such tools are reviewed for developing a similar tool for NASA's ALS Program. DSS are considered concurrently with the development of the OPIS system, a database designed for chronicling of research and development in ALS. By utilizing the OPIS database, it is anticipated that decision support can be provided to increase the quality of decisions by ALS managers and researchers.

  2. A woman's journey through the reproductive, transitional and postmenopausal periods of life: impact on cardiovascular and musculo-skeletal risk and the role of estrogen replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, John C

    2011-10-01

    Sex hormones are fundamental for female development and they are important physiologically to maintain the health and normal functioning of several organs such as the brain, heart and bone. It is now clear that the hormonal changes that occur during a woman's life, particularly her estrogen status, can modulate disease activity. This is especially true for cardiovascular and musculo-skeletal diseases, which are two leading causes of morbidity and mortality in women. With the general aging of the population they represent a serious and growing public health concern. Estrogen synthesis and blood levels fluctuate during a woman's life and in this review three broad periods will be considered: reproductive phase, transition and postmenopausal phase. Generally speaking, women in the reproductive phase of their life are at low risk of cardiovascular and musculo-skeletal disorders. However, the onset of menopause and the loss of ovarian function is associated with a significant increase in the prevalence of diseases such as coronary heart disease, osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. The prevalence of these debilitating diseases continues to increase through the postmenopausal period. Estrogen replacement is an obvious treatment approach to counter the problems associated with the loss of ovarian function and subsequent estrogen deficiency. Overall, oral and transdermal estrogen replacement are similarly effective in relieving menopausal symptoms and disorders that manifest during this period of a woman's life. Transdermal estrogen may be preferable in older women because of its lower thrombogenic potential. In this journey through a woman's life current best evidence relating to cardiovascular and musculo-skeletal risk will be reviewed in line with well documented management strategies.

  3. Gender differences in developmental programming of cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasinger, John Henry; Alexander, Barbara T

    2016-03-01

    Hypertension is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death worldwide. Although multiple factors contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension, studies by Dr David Barker reporting an inverse relationship between birth weight and blood pressure led to the hypothesis that slow growth during fetal life increased blood pressure and the risk for cardiovascular disease in later life. It is now recognized that growth during infancy and childhood, in addition to exposure to adverse influences during fetal life, contributes to the developmental programming of increased cardiovascular risk. Numerous epidemiological studies support the link between influences during early life and later cardiovascular health; experimental models provide proof of principle and indicate that numerous mechanisms contribute to the developmental origins of chronic disease. Sex has an impact on the severity of cardiovascular risk in experimental models of developmental insult. Yet, few studies examine the influence of sex on blood pressure and cardiovascular health in low-birth weight men and women. Fewer still assess the impact of ageing on sex differences in programmed cardiovascular risk. Thus, the aim of the present review is to highlight current data about sex differences in the developmental programming of blood pressure and cardiovascular disease.

  4. Spousal recovery support, recovery experiences, and life satisfaction crossover among dual-earner couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, YoungAh; Fritz, Charlotte

    2015-03-01

    Research has indicated the importance of recovery from work stress for employee well-being and work engagement. However, very little is known about the specific factors that may support or hinder recovery in the context of dual-earner couples. This study proposes spousal recovery support as a potential resource that dual-earner couples can draw on to enhance their recovery experiences and well-being. It was hypothesized that spousal recovery support would be related to the recipient spouse's life satisfaction via his or her own recovery experiences (i.e., psychological detachment, relaxation, and mastery experiences). The study further investigated the crossover of life satisfaction between working spouses as a potential outcome of recovery processes. Data from 318 full-time employed married couples in South Korea were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results showed that spousal recovery support was positively related to all 3 recovery experiences of the recipient spouse. Moreover, this recovery support was related to the recipient spouse's life satisfaction via relaxation and mastery experiences. Unexpectedly, psychological detachment was negatively related to life satisfaction, possibly indicating a suppression effect. Life satisfaction crossed over between working spouses. No gender differences were found in the hypothesized paths. Based on these findings, theoretical and practical implications are discussed, and future research directions are presented.

  5. Results of the Particulate Contamination Control Trade Study for Space Suit Life Support Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cognata, Thomas J.; Conger, Bruce; Paul, Heather L.

    2009-01-01

    As the United States plans to return astronauts to the moon and eventually to Mars, designing the most effective, efficient, and robust space suit life support system that will operate successfully in these dusty environments is vital. There is some knowledge of the contaminants and level of infiltration expected from the Lunar and Mars dust, however risk mitigation strategies and filtration designs to prevent contamination within the space suit life support system are still undefined. A trade study was initiated to identify and address these concerns, and to develop new requirements for the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE) Portable Life Support System (PLSS). This trade study investigates historical methods of particulate contamination control in space suits and vehicles, and evaluated the possibility of using commercial technologies for this application. In addition, the trade study examined potential filtration designs. This paper summarizes the results of this trade study.

  6. [Development and Hosting of a Perioperative Advanced Life Support Training Course for Anesthesiologists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Fujiwara, Shunsuke; Haba, Masanori; Ueshima, Hironobu; Okada, Daisuke; Minami, Toshiaki

    2015-05-01

    Participation in the American Heart Association advanced cardiac life support provider course is a prerequisite for taking the anesthesiology specialist examination in Japan. The course teaches fundamental resuscitation methods for different types of cardiac arrest. However, crisis in the perioperative period can result from airway trouble, central venous catheter displacement, or massive hemorrhage. We report our experience of holding a problem- and learning-based perioperative advanced life support training course, Advanced Life Support for Operation (ALS-OP). Main contents of the course included circulation management, airway management central venous catheters, and pain clinic-related complications. ALS-OP simulation training may be beneficial for educating anesthesiologist and promoting perioperative patient safety.

  7. Limitation to Advanced Life Support in patients admitted to intensive care unit with integrated palliative care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazutti, Sandra Regina Gonzaga; Nascimento, Andréia de Fátima; Fumis, Renata Rego Lins

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the incidence of limitations to Advanced Life Support in critically ill patients admitted to an intensive care unit with integrated palliative care. Methods This retrospective cohort study included patients in the palliative care program of the intensive care unit of Hospital Paulistano over 18 years of age from May 1, 2011, to January 31, 2014. The limitations to Advanced Life Support that were analyzed included do-not-resuscitate orders, mechanical ventilation, dialysis and vasoactive drugs. Central tendency measures were calculated for quantitative variables. The chi-squared test was used to compare the characteristics of patients with or without limits to Advanced Life Support, and the Wilcoxon test was used to compare length of stay after Advanced Life Support. Confidence intervals reflecting p ≤ 0.05 were considered for statistical significance. Results A total of 3,487 patients were admitted to the intensive care unit, of whom 342 were included in the palliative care program. It was observed that after entering the palliative care program, it took a median of 2 (1 - 4) days for death to occur in the intensive care unit and 4 (2 - 11) days for hospital death to occur. Many of the limitations to Advanced Life Support (42.7%) took place on the first day of hospitalization. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (96.8%) and ventilatory support (73.6%) were the most adopted limitations. Conclusion The contribution of palliative care integrated into the intensive care unit was important for the practice of orthothanasia, i.e., the non-extension of the life of a critically ill patient by artificial means. PMID:27626949

  8. Screw Remaining Life Prediction Based on Quantum Genetic Algorithm and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochen Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To predict the remaining life of ball screw, a screw remaining life prediction method based on quantum genetic algorithm (QGA and support vector machine (SVM is proposed. A screw accelerated test bench is introduced. Accelerometers are installed to monitor the performance degradation of ball screw. Combined with wavelet packet decomposition and isometric mapping (Isomap, the sensitive feature vectors are obtained and stored in database. Meanwhile, the sensitive feature vectors are randomly chosen from the database and constitute training samples and testing samples. Then the optimal kernel function parameter and penalty factor of SVM are searched with the method of QGA. Finally, the training samples are used to train optimized SVM while testing samples are adopted to test the prediction accuracy of the trained SVM so the screw remaining life prediction model can be got. The experiment results show that the screw remaining life prediction model could effectively predict screw remaining life.

  9. [Physiological and ecological characteristics of Azolla pinnata and its possible use in biological life support systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepelev, E Ia; Tkhyok, N; Meleshko, G I; Antonian, A A; Galkina, T B

    1983-01-01

    The principal physiological and ecological characteristics of Azolla pinnata were investigated in order to determine its potential use in biological life support systems. Plant requirements for biogenic elements were specified in order to develop balanced nutrient mixtures for continuous cultivation. Data on the growth and development, photosynthetic and nitrogen fixation rate, and biochemical composition of the plant were obtained for optimal cultivation conditions. The plant biomass contains large quantities of carotenoids and sulfur-containing amino acids, which are deficient in unicellular algae. This makes Azolla an attractive source of the above compounds for biological life support systems and other applications.

  10. Implementing supercritical water oxidation technology in a lunar base environmental control/life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer Sedej, M.

    1985-01-01

    A supercritical water oxidation system (SCWOS) offers several advantages for a lunar base environmental control/life support system (ECLSS) compared to an ECLSS based on Space Station technology. In supercritically heated water (630 K, 250 atm) organic materials mix freely with oxygen and undergo complete combustion. Inorganic salts lose solubility and precipitate out. Implementation of SCWOS can make an ECLSS more efficient and reliable by elimination of several subsystems and by reduction in potential losses of life support consumables. More complete closure of the total system reduces resupply requirements from the earth, a crucial cost item in maintaining a lunar base.

  11. Trends in biomedical engineering: focus on Patient Specific Modeling and Life Support Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubini, Gabriele; Ambrosi, Davide; Bagnoli, Paola; Boschetti, Federica; Caiani, Enrico G; Chiastra, Claudio; Conti, Carlo A; Corsini, Chiara; Costantino, Maria Laura; D'Angelo, Carlo; Formaggia, Luca; Fumero, Roberto; Gastaldi, Dario; Migliavacca, Francesco; Morlacchi, Stefano; Nobile, Fabio; Pennati, Giancarlo; Petrini, Lorenza; Quarteroni, Alfio; Redaelli, Alberto; Stevanella, Marco; Veneziani, Alessandro; Vergara, Christian; Votta, Emiliano; Wu, Wei; Zunino, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Over the last twenty years major advancements have taken place in the design of medical devices and personalized therapies. They have paralleled the impressive evolution of three-dimensional, non invasive, medical imaging techniques and have been continuously fuelled by increasing computing power and the emergence of novel and sophisticated software tools. This paper aims to showcase a number of major contributions to the advancements of modeling of surgical and interventional procedures and to the design of life support systems. The selected examples will span from pediatric cardiac surgery procedures to valve and ventricle repair techniques, from stent design and endovascular procedures to life support systems and innovative ventilation techniques.

  12. Adherence with statins in a real-life setting is better when associated cardiovascular risk factors increase: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedieu Bernard

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the factors for poor adherence for treatment with statins have been highlighted, the impact of their combination on adherence is not clear. Aims To estimate adherence for statins and whether it differs according to the number of cardiovascular risk factors. Methods A cohort study was conducted using data from the main French national health insurance system reimbursement database. Newly treated patients with statins between September 1 and December 31, 2004 were included. Patients were followed up 15 months. The cohort was split into three groups according to their number of additional cardiovascular risk factors that included age and gender, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease (using co-medications as a proxy. Adherence was assessed for each group by using four parameters: (i proportion of days covered by statins, (ii regularity of the treatment over time, (iii persistence, and (iv the refill delay. Results 16,397 newly treated patients were identified. Of these statin users, 21.7% did not have additional cardiovascular risk factors. Thirty-one percent had two cardiovascular risk factors and 47% had at least three risk factors. All the parameters showed a sub-optimal adherence whatever the group: days covered ranged from 56% to 72%, regularity ranged from 23% to 33% and persistence ranged from 44% to 59%, but adherence was better for those with a higher number of cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions The results confirm that long-term drug treatments are a difficult challenge, particularly in patients at lower risk and invite to the development of therapeutic education.

  13. Quality of life in cancer patients: The role of optimism, hopelessness, and partner support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson-Lilius, Mila; Julkunen, Juhani; Hietanen, Päivi

    2007-02-01

    The interaction of optimism, hopelessness and social support as predictors of Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQL) among seriously ill people is not well understood. Also, the impact of partner characteristics on patient quality of life has often been overlooked. In this study the relationships between optimism, hopelessness, partner support and HRQL were investigated in 155 cancer patients and their partners. Special attention was given to the effects of optimism and hopelessness as mediators and moderators in the partner support-HRQL relationship. The impact of partner optimism and hopelessness on perceived partner support and patient HRQL was also studied. The results indicated substantial gender differences in the relationships between the study variables. High levels of partner support were associated with female patients' optimistic appraisals, and together they predicted better HRQL at 8 months follow-up. Partial support was found for the effect of optimism as a mediator. For male patients, low hopelessness was the key variable predicting good HRQL. Clear evidence for the moderator effects of optimism/hopelessness was not found, and the expected impact of partner's characteristics on partner support or patient HRQL could not be confirmed. Although partner support, patient optimism and hopelessness all appeared to be important determinants of HRQL in cancer patients, the relationships between these variables differed by gender. The proposed mediation and moderation models needs to be confirmed in future studies.

  14. Quality of Life, Family Support, and Comorbidities in Institutionalized Elders With and Without Symptoms of Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Aurigena Antunes; Rebouças Barbosa, Rosa Angélica Silveira; de Menezes, Marília Stefani Souza; de Medeiros, Ingrid Iana Fernandes; de Araújo, Raimundo Fernandes; de Medeiros, Caroline Addison Carvalho Xavier

    2016-06-01

    The institutionalization of elders can decrease the health status and quality of life in this population. The aim of this study was to analyze the socio-demographic, quality of life, family support, and comorbidities variables in institutionalized elders with and without symptoms of depression. This was a cross-sectional study in institutions for long permanence for the elderly in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Two institutionalized elderly groups were compared (138 elders: 69 with and 69 without depressive symptoms). The instruments used were: mini-mental state examination, geriatric depression scale in the reduced version, socio-demographic questionnaire, quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life abbreviated-WHOQOL-bref), and inventory of perception of family support. Elders with depressive symptoms had inferior quality of life than those without depressive symptoms. Other factors that negatively influenced the quality of life in this population include: low economic conditions, occurrence of comorbidities, and deficient family assistance. These results have important implications in the decision making process with regard to strategies for improving the health status of institutionalized elders.

  15. Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training versus Continuous Training on Physical Fitness, Cardiovascular Function and Quality of Life in Heart Failure Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie M M Benda

    Full Text Available Physical fitness is an important prognostic factor in heart failure (HF. To improve fitness, different types of exercise have been explored, with recent focus on high-intensity interval training (HIT. We comprehensively compared effects of HIT versus continuous training (CT in HF patients NYHA II-III on physical fitness, cardiovascular function and structure, and quality of life, and hypothesize that HIT leads to superior improvements compared to CT.Twenty HF patients (male:female 19:1, 64±8 yrs, ejection fraction 38±6% were allocated to 12-weeks of HIT (10*1-minute at 90% maximal workload-alternated by 2.5 minutes at 30% maximal workload or CT (30 minutes at 60-75% of maximal workload. Before and after intervention, we examined physical fitness (incremental cycling test, cardiac function and structure (echocardiography, vascular function and structure (ultrasound and quality of life (SF-36, Minnesota living with HF questionnaire (MLHFQ.Training improved maximal workload, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak related to the predicted VO2peak, oxygen uptake at the anaerobic threshold, and maximal oxygen pulse (all P<0.05, whilst no differences were present between HIT and CT (N.S.. We found no major changes in resting cardiovascular function and structure. SF-36 physical function score improved after training (P<0.05, whilst SF-36 total score and MLHFQ did not change after training (N.S..Training induced significant improvements in parameters of physical fitness, although no evidence for superiority of HIT over CT was demonstrated. No major effect of training was found on cardiovascular structure and function or quality of life in HF patients NYHA II-III.Nederlands Trial Register NTR3671.

  16. In Situ Resource Utilization Technology Research and Facilities Supporting the NASA's Human Systems Research and Technology Life Support Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagheck, Ronald A.; Sibille, Laurent; Sacksteder, Kurt; Owens, Chuck

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Microgravity Science program has transitioned research required in support of NASA s Vision for Space Exploration. Research disciplines including the Materials Science, Fluid Physics and Combustion Science are now being applied toward projects with application in the planetary utilization and transformation of space resources. The scientific and engineering competencies and infrastructure in these traditional fields developed at multiple NASA Centers and by external research partners provide essential capabilities to support the agency s new exploration thrusts including In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). Among the technologies essential to human space exploration, the production of life support consumables, especially oxygen and; radiation shielding; and the harvesting of potentially available water are realistically achieved for long-duration crewed missions only through the use of ISRU. Ongoing research in the physical sciences have produced a body of knowledge relevant to the extraction of oxygen from lunar and planetary regolith and associated reduction of metals and silicon for use meeting manufacturing and repair requirements. Activities being conducted and facilities used in support of various ISRU projects at the Glenn Research Center and Marshall Space Flight Center will be described. The presentation will inform the community of these new research capabilities, opportunities, and challenges to utilize their materials, fluids and combustion science expertise and capabilities to support the vision for space exploration.

  17. Optimization of controlled environments for hydroponic production of leaf lettuce for human life support in CELSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C. A.; Knight, S. L.; Ford, T. L.

    1986-01-01

    A research project in the food production group of the Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) program sought to define optimum conditions for photosynthetic productivity of a higher plant food crop. The effects of radiation and various atmospheric compositions were studied.

  18. Effects of Game Design Patterns on Basic Life Support Training Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelle, Sebastian; Klemke, Roland; Specht, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Based on a previous analysis of game design patterns and related effects in an educational scenario, the following paper presents an experimental study. In the study a course for Basic Life Support training has been evaluated and two game design patterns have been applied to the course. The hypotheses evaluated in this paper relate to game design…

  19. Loneliness and Self-Esteem as Mediators between Social Support and Life Satisfaction in Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Feng; You, Xuqun

    2013-01-01

    This study examined both the mediation effects of loneliness and self-esteem for the relationship between social support and life satisfaction. Three hundred and eighty nine Chinese college students, ranging in age from 17 to 25 (M = 20.39), completed the emotional and social loneliness scale, the self-esteem scale, the satisfaction with life…

  20. Evaluation of the effects of the Advanced Paediatric Life-Support course

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turner, N.M.

    2008-01-01

    Doctors are generally unacceptably poor at resuscitation and this has been shown to lead to unnecessary mortality. This problem has led to the development of structured resuscitation training in the form of life-support courses, which have become very popular and are widely advocated, but which are

  1. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Partnered Development of Cryogenic Life Support Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Partnering with National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to develop several cyrogenically based life support technologies to be used in mine escape and rescue scenarios. Technologies developed for mine rescue directly benefit future NASA rescue and ground operation missions.

  2. Advanced medical life support procedures in vitally compromised children by a helicopter emergency medical service.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritse, B.M.; Schalkwijk, A.; Pelzer, B.J.; Scheffer, G.J.; Draaisma, J.M.T.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To determine the advanced life support procedures provided by an Emergency Medical Service (EMS) and a Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) for vitally compromised children. Incidence and success rate of several procedures were studied, with a distinction made between procedures r

  3. Advanced Trauma Life Support. ABCDE from a radiological point of view.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, D.R.; Blickman, J.G.

    2007-01-01

    Accidents are the primary cause of death in patients aged 45 years or younger. In many countries, Advanced Trauma Life Support(R) (ATLS) is the foundation on which trauma care is based. We will summarize the principles and the radiological aspects of the ATLS, and we will discuss discrepancies with

  4. Religion, Purpose in Life, Social Support, and Psychological Distress in Chinese University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhizhong; Koenig, Harold G; Ma, Hui; Al Shohaib, Saad

    2016-06-01

    We examined the relationship between religious involvement and psychological distress and explored the mediating effects of social support and purpose in life in university students in western, mid-western, and eastern China. Cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of 1812 university students was conducted. The Purpose in Life scale, Duke Social Support Index, and Religious Commitment Inventory-10 were administered, along with Kessler's Psychological Distress Scale. Structural equation modeling was used to test two models of the mediation hypothesis, examining direct, indirect, and total effects. Model 1 (with direction of effect hypothesized from religiosity to psychological distress) indicated that religious involvement had a direct effect on increasing psychological distress (β = 0.23, p psychological distress to religiosity) indicated strong indirect protective effects of religiosity on psychological distress through purpose in life and social support (β = -.40, p psychological distress increases religious involvement, which then increases purpose in life and social support that then lead to lower psychological distress.

  5. A Living Laboratory Exploring Mobile Support for Everyday Life with Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Bjerge, Kim; Kristensen, Jens E.

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents the set up of a Living Laboratory in a city of North Denmark exploring mobile support for everyday life with diabetes. Background and definitions of the living lab method is presented together with descriptions of the technical setup, applications and explorations. The living l...

  6. Social support, hopelessness and life satisfaction among Roma and non-Roma adolescents in Slovakia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolarcik, P.; Geckova, A. Madarasova; Reijneveld, S. A.; van Dijk, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence on the psychosocial determinants of health among Roma adolescents is completely lacking. Our aim was to compare social support, life satisfaction and hopelessness of Slovak Roma and non-Roma adolescents and to assess the impact of parental education and social desirability on these differen

  7. Psychological support and quality of life in patients with gynecological cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Karabinis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The gynecological cancer is the fourth in rate of occurrence in women and its treatment has a significant impact on their quality of life. The aim of the present study was to review the literature related to the impact of cancer on the quality of women' life, the psychosocial adjustment of women and the possible ways of psychological support. A search was conducted using the CINAHL, Medline, Google, and PubMed. The quality of life of women facing gynecological cancer is significantly affected. Various changes in the everyday life of the patients are observed as well as psychological exhaustion, which often occurs with depressive symptoms including fear and strong anxiety leading sometimes to panic. Sexual disorders also occur, and support should be immediately provided, prior to the announcement of the bad news from a health care professional. The supportive psychotherapy group contributes to the full understanding of the different aspects of the problem. It is also important for the patient to realize that she is not alone in coping with this difficult problem. The use of specific cognitive and behavioural methods can change her way of thinking and coping with her problem by using the most efficient ways. The diagnosis of gynecological cancer can, in many cases, cause severe anxiety and depression. The role of the nurse is important in psychological support and generally in dealing with problems arising from its treatment. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(11.000: 2992-2997

  8. Development of fiber optic sensor for fluid flow of astronauts’ life-support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shachneva, E. A.; Murashkina, T. I.

    2016-08-01

    This paper proposes a fiber optic sensor consumption (volume, speed) of liquids in life-support systems of astronauts, as well as offers a simple method and apparatus for reproducing the parameters of fluid flow needed in research, yustiovke and adjusting the optical sensor system.

  9. Standardization of Experimental Design for Crop Cultivation in Life Support Systems for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Silje Aase; Coelho, Liz Helena; Karoliussen, Irene; Kittang Jost, Ann-Iren

    Due to logistical challenges, long-term human space exploration missions require a life support system capable of regenerating all the essentials for survival. Higher plants can be utilized to provide a continuous supply of fresh food, fresh air, and clean water for humans. The extensive work performed have shown that higher plants are able to adapt to space conditions in low Earth orbit, at least from one generation from seed to seed. Since the hardware has turned out to be of great importance for the results in microgravity research, full environmental monitoring and control must be the standard for future experiments. Selecting a few model plants, including crop plants for life support, would further increase the comparability between studies. The European Space Agency (ESA) has developed the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) program to develop a closed regenerative life support system, based on micro-organisms and higher plants, with continuous recycling of resources. In the present study, recommended standardization of the experimental design for future scientific work assessing the effects of graded gravity on plant metabolism will be presented. This includes the environmental conditions required for cultivation of the selected MEliSSA species (wheat, bread wheat, soybean and potato), as well as guidelines for sowing, plant handling and analysis. Keywords: microgravity; magnetic field; radiation; MELiSSA; Moon; Mars.

  10. Life Satisfaction of Older Adults in Hong Kong: The Role of Social Support from Grandchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Vivian W. Q.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between the life satisfaction of older adults and the social support from grandchildren in Hong Kong. Two hundred and fifteen older people (from the ages of 64 to 101, mean age 79.3), whose youngest grandchild was aged 12 or older, were recruited from elderly service agencies to participate in the study.…

  11. Design and Analysis of a Flexible, Reliable Deep Space Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a flexible, reliable, deep space life support system design approach that uses either storage or recycling or both together. The design goal is to provide the needed life support performance with the required ultra reliability for the minimum Equivalent System Mass (ESM). Recycling life support systems used with multiple redundancy can have sufficient reliability for deep space missions but they usually do not save mass compared to mixed storage and recycling systems. The best deep space life support system design uses water recycling with sufficient water storage to prevent loss of crew if recycling fails. Since the amount of water needed for crew survival is a small part of the total water requirement, the required amount of stored water is significantly less than the total to be consumed. Water recycling with water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide removal material storage can achieve the high reliability of full storage systems with only half the mass of full storage and with less mass than the highly redundant recycling systems needed to achieve acceptable reliability. Improved recycling systems with lower mass and higher reliability could perform better than systems using storage.

  12. Needs for everyday life support for brain tumour patients' relatives: systematic literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Karina; Poulsen, H S

    2011-01-01

    . The relatives lacked information about how to provide day-to-day care and how to manage psychoses and neuropsychiatric problems at home. Likewise, they needed help from the professionals to talk with each other about potentially reduced life expectancy. Most relatives appeared to value specialist nurse support...

  13. Microbial detection and monitoring in advanced life support systems like the international space station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tongeren, Sandra P.; Krooneman, Janneke; Raangs, Gerwin C.; Welling, Gjalt W.; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.

    2007-01-01

    Potentially pathogenic microbes and so-called technophiles may form a serious threat in advanced life support systems, such as the International Space Station (ISS). They not only pose a threat to the health of the crew, but also to the technical equipment and materials of the space station. The dev

  14. Microbial detection and monitoring in advanced life support systems like the International Space Station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tongeren, Sandra P.; Krooneman, Janneke; Raangs, Gerwin C.; Welling, Gjalt W.; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.

    2006-01-01

    Potentially pathogenic microbes and so-called technophiles may form a serious threat in advanced life support systems, such as the International Space Station (ISS). They not only pose a threat to the health of the crew, but also to the technical equipment and materials of the space station. The dev

  15. Exploring Life Support Architectures for Evolution of Deep Space Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Molly S.; Stambaugh, Imelda C.

    2015-01-01

    Life support system architectures for long duration space missions are often explored analytically in the human spaceflight community to find optimum solutions for mass, performance, and reliability. But in reality, many other constraints can guide the design when the life support system is examined within the context of an overall vehicle, as well as specific programmatic goals and needs. Between the end of the Constellation program and the development of the "Evolvable Mars Campaign", NASA explored a broad range of mission possibilities. Most of these missions will never be implemented but the lessons learned during these concept development phases may color and guide future analytical studies and eventual life support system architectures. This paper discusses several iterations of design studies from the life support system perspective to examine which requirements and assumptions, programmatic needs, or interfaces drive design. When doing early concept studies, many assumptions have to be made about technology and operations. Data can be pulled from a variety of sources depending on the study needs, including parametric models, historical data, new technologies, and even predictive analysis. In the end, assumptions must be made in the face of uncertainty. Some of these may introduce more risk as to whether the solution for the conceptual design study will still work when designs mature and data becomes available.

  16. The Role of Musical Possible Selves in Supporting Subjective Well-Being in Later Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Andrea; Hallam, Susan; Varvarigou, Maria; Gaunt, Helena; McQueen, Hilary; Pincas, Anita

    2014-01-01

    There is now an accepted need for initiatives that support older people's well-being. There is increasing evidence that active engagement with music has the potential to contribute to this. This paper explores the relationship between musical possible selves and subjective well-being in later life. The research reported here formed part of a…

  17. MAXILLOFACIAL TRAUMA MANAGEMENT IN POLYTRAUMATIZED PATIENTS – THE USE OF ADVANCED TRAUMA LIFE SUPPORT (ATLS PRINCIPLES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elitsa G. Deliverska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Management of the multiply injured patient requires a co-ordinated multi-disciplinary approach in order to optimise patients’ outcome. A working knowledge of the sort of problems these patients encounter is therefore vital to ensure that life-threatening injuries are recognised and treated in a timely pattern and that more minor associated injuries are not omitted. This article outlines the management of polytraumatized patients using the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS principles and highlights the areas of specific involvement of the engaged medical team. Advanced Trauma Life Support is generally regarded as the gold standard and is founded on a number of well known principles, but strict adherence to protocols may have its drawbacks when facial trauma co-exists. These can arise in the presence of either major or minor facial injuries, and oral and maxillofacial surgeons need to be aware of the potential problems.

  18. [Quality of life and supportive care in head and neck cancers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babin, Emmanuel; Heutte, Natacha; Grandazzi, Guillaume; Prévost, Virginie; Robard, Laetitia

    2014-05-01

    The quality of life of patients treated for head and neck cancers and their carers is part of the current concerns of health care teams. Assessment tools were created and helped to highlight the severe physical effects (pain, mucositis…) and chronic (mutilation, post-radiation complications…) related to the disease or to different treatments but also to consider the psychosocial impact of this disease. Improving the quality of life through a thoughtful and comprehensive support that must be associated with somatic care, mental health care, rehabilitation and inclusion of social difficulties and suffering relatives. Supportive care shall ensure a good quality of life for patients treated and their families but also reduce the physical effects associated with the disease and treatment. They rely on coordination of care including the cancer networks established in the cancer plan to ensure comprehensive and continuous care for these patients.

  19. Community gardens as sites of solace and end-of-life support: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Pauline; Spinaze, Anna

    2016-05-01

    In a pilot project, members of a community garden explored how they might provide better end-of-life support for their regional community. As part of the project, a literature review was undertaken to investigate the nexus between community gardens and end-of-life experiences (including grief and bereavement) in academic research. This article documents the findings of that review. The authors discovered there is little academic material that focuses specifically on community gardens and end-of-life experiences, but nonetheless the two subjects were seen to intersect. The authors found three points of commonality: both share a need and capacity for a) social/informal support, b) therapeutic space, and c) opportunities for solace.

  20. Conversion from cyclosporine to tacrolimus improves quality-of-life indices, renal graft function and cardiovascular risk profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artz, MA; Boots, JMM; Ligtenberg, G; Roodnat, JI; Christiaans, MHL; Vos, PF; Moons, P; Borm, G; Hilbrands, LB

    2004-01-01

    Long-term use of cyclosporine after renal transplantation results in nephrotoxicity and an increased cardiovascular risk profile. Tacrolimus may be more favorable in this respect. In this randomized controlled study in 124 renal transplant patients, the effects of conversion from cyclosporine to tac

  1. Conducting Closed Habitation Experiments: Experience from the Lunar Mars Life Support Test Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Edeen, Marybeth A.; Henninger, Donald L.

    2006-01-01

    The Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project (LMLSTP) was conducted from 1995 through 1997 at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) to demonstrate increasingly longer duration operation of integrated, closed-loop life support systems that employed biological and physicochemical techniques for water recycling, waste processing, air revitalization, thermal control, and food production. An analog environment for long-duration human space travel, the conditions of isolation and confinement also enabled studies of human factors, medical sciences (both physiology and psychology) and crew training. Four tests were conducted, Phases I, II, IIa and III, with durations of 15, 30, 60 and 91 days, respectively. The first phase focused on biological air regeneration, using wheat to generate enough oxygen for one experimental subject. The systems demonstrated in the later phases were increasingly complex and interdependent, and provided life support for four crew members. The tests were conducted using two human-rated, atmospherically-closed test chambers, the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber (VPGC) and the Integrated Life Support Systems Test Facility (ILSSTF). Systems included test articles (the life support hardware under evaluation), human accommodations (living quarters, kitchen, exercise equipment, etc.) and facility systems (emergency matrix system, power, cooling, etc.). The test team was managed by a lead engineer and a test director, and included test article engineers responsible for specific systems, subsystems or test articles, test conductors, facility engineers, chamber operators and engineering technicians, medical and safety officers, and science experimenters. A crew selection committee, comprised of psychologists, engineers and managers involved in the test, evaluated male and female volunteers who applied to be test subjects. Selection was based on the skills mix anticipated for each particular test, and utilized

  2. Doctors’ Support – An important part of medical therapy and quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Jaworski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The correct patient – doctor relationship is important in shaping the whole process of treatment. The scientific studies highlight the various irregularities in this relationship and its negative impact on the effectiveness of medical treatment. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between levels of doctors’ support and attitude to certain aspects of the treatment process and quality of life among patients with psoriasis. Material and Methods: The study was conducted on 50 patients with psoriasis aged from 21 to 78 who are treated in dermatological clinics. The Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI was used to assess the severity of psoriatic skin changes. The patients completed a questionnaire for the assessment of receive doctors’ support, and its relationship with the attitude towards the disease. The research tool was developed based on literature review. Results: The level of doctors’ support had a direct impact on the patients’ attitude the disease, including attitudes towards the treatment and medical personnel, as well as adherence to medical recommendations; and indirectly on satisfaction with the treatment and the quality of life. Conclusions: Results of this study have shown clear evidence the importance of the level of doctors’ support in psoriasis which could help to improve the overall functioning of these patients. The level of doctors’ support indirectly affects the quality of life in patients with psoriasis.

  3. History, progress and prospect for controlled ecological life support technique in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuangsheng

    2016-07-01

    Constructing controlled ecological life support system is an important supporting condition for carrying out manned deep-space exploration and extraterrestrial inhabitation and development in the future. In China, the controlled ecological life support technique has gone through a developmental process of more than twenty years, undergoing the course of from conceptual research, to key unit-level technique and key system-level integrated technique, and from ground-based simulated tests to spaceflight demonstrating test, and gained many important stagy harvests. In this paper, the present status, subsistent problems and next plans in the domain of CELSS techniques in China are introduced briefly, so as to play a referential role for promoting development of the techniques internationally.

  4. Cardiovascular implanted electronic devices in people towards the end of life, during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and after death: guidance from the Resuscitation Council (UK), British Cardiovascular Society and National Council for Palliative Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, David; Soar, Jasmeet; Hogg, Karen; Linker, Nicholas; Chapman, Simon; Beattie, James M; Jones, Sue; George, Robert; McComb, Janet; Glancy, James; Patterson, Gordon; Turner, Sheila; Hampshire, Susan; Lockey, Andrew; Baker, Tracey; Mitchell, Sarah

    2016-06-01

    The Resuscitation Council (UK), the British Cardiovascular Society (including the British Heart Rhythm Society and the British Society for Heart Failure) and the National Council for Palliative Care recognise the importance of providing clear and consistent guidance on management of cardiovascular implanted electronic devices (CIEDs) towards the end of life, during cardiorespiratory arrest and after death. This document has been developed to provide guidance for the full range of healthcare professionals who may encounter people with CIEDs in the situations described and for healthcare managers and commissioners. The authors recognise that some patients and people close to patients may also wish to refer to this document. It is intended as an initial step to help to ensure that people who have CIEDs, or are considering implantation of one, receive explanation of and understand the practical implications and decisions that this entails; to promote a good standard of care and service provision for people in the UK with CIEDs in the circumstances described; to offer relevant ethical and legal guidance on this topic; to offer guidance on the delivery of services in relation to deactivation of CIEDs where appropriate; to offer guidance on whether any special measures are needed when a person with a CIED receives cardiopulmonary resuscitation; and to offer guidance on the actions needed when a person with a CIED dies.

  5. Randomized controlled trial on cardiovascular risk management by practice nurses supported by self-monitoring in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiessen, Ans H.; Smit, Andries J.; Broer, Jan; Groenier, Klaas H.; van der Meer, Klaas

    2012-01-01

    Background: Treatment goals for cardiovascular risk management are generally not achieved. Specialized practice nurses are increasingly facilitating the work of general practitioners and self-monitoring devices have been developed as counseling aid. The aim of this study was to compare standard trea

  6. Adolescent adjustment in the context of life change: the supportive role of parental structure provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamm, Elizabeth S; Grolnick, Wendy S

    2013-10-01

    This study examined the associations among disruptive life events, supportive parenting practices, adolescent self-perceptions, and emotional outcomes. One-hundred and three 7th graders (68% minority, 32% European American) and their parents completed recent negative life events checklists. Parents also reported the total number of major transitions (changes in residences, schools, parent's romantic partners) that adolescents experienced since birth. Life events were related to lower adolescent-reported perceptions of competence and control, higher adolescent-reported depression and behavior problems, and higher parent-reported conduct problems. Regression analyses supported a mediational model in which competence and control perceptions explained relations between adolescent life events and symptomatology. Parental structure-the provision of clear, consistent and predictable rules and expectations-was associated with more adaptive adolescent functioning, especially among girls. Regressions indicated that structure related to higher perceptions of competence and control and fewer behavioral problems, even after accounting for the risk associated with negative life events and transitions.

  7. Testing and Oxygen Assessment Results for a Next Generation Extravehicular Activity Portable Life Support System Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Heather L.; Jennings, Mallory A.; Rivera, Fatonia L.; Martin, Devin

    2011-01-01

    NASA is designing a next generation Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for use in future surface exploration endeavors. To meet the new requirements for ventilation flow at nominal and buddy modes, a fan has been developed and tested. This paper summarizes the results of the performance and life cycle testing efforts conducted at the NASA Johnson Space Center. Additionally, oxygen compatibility assessment results from an evaluation conducted at White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) are provided, and lessons learned and future recommendations are outlined.

  8. Solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis preprototype subsystem. [oxygen production for life support systems on space stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Hardware and controls developed for an electrolysis demonstration unit for use with the life sciences payload program and in NASA's regenerative life support evaluation program are described. Components discussed include: the electrolysis module; power conditioner; phase separator-pump and hydrogen differential regulator; pressure regulation of O2, He, and N2; air-cooled heat exchanger; water accumulator; fluid flow sight gage assembly; catalytic O2/H2 sensor; gas flow sensors; low voltage power supply; 100 Amp DC contactor assembly; and the water purifier design.

  9. Next Generation Life Support Project: Development of Advanced Technologies for Human Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Next Generation Life Support (NGLS) is one of several technology development projects sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Game Changing Development Program. NGLS is developing life support technologies (including water recovery, and space suit life support technologies) needed for humans to live and work productively in space. NGLS has three project tasks: Variable Oxygen Regulator (VOR), Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swing bed, and Alternative Water Processing. The selected technologies within each of these areas are focused on increasing affordability, reliability, and vehicle self sufficiency while decreasing mass and enabling long duration exploration. The RCA and VOR tasks are directed at key technology needs for the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for an Exploration Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), with focus on prototyping and integrated testing. The focus of the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swing-bed ventilation task is to provide integrated carbon dioxide removal and humidity control that can be regenerated in real time during an EVA. The Variable Oxygen Regulator technology will significantly increase the number of pressure settings available to the space suit. Current spacesuit pressure regulators are limited to only two settings while the adjustability of the advanced regulator will be nearly continuous. The Alternative Water Processor efforts will result in the development of a system capable of recycling wastewater from sources expected in future exploration missions, including hygiene and laundry water, based on natural biological processes and membrane-based post treatment. The technologies will support a capability-driven architecture for extending human presence beyond low Earth orbit to potential destinations such as the Moon, near Earth asteroids and Mars.

  10. Withdrawal and withholding of life-supporting food and fluids. One state's struggle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caralis, P V

    1990-09-01

    In the last two decades medical and social changes have occurred to shift the focus from the dying patient to the chronically impaired, from voluntary to involuntary and from euthanasia to withholding/withdrawal of life-prolonging treatments. Acceptance by the courts of various theories and devices, such as "surrogate" decision-makers, medical/judicial review and living wills, has extended the patient's constitutional right of privacy to justify termination of life supports to allow a natural death. The AMA's Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs in 1986 included artificially supplied nutrition and hydration in its definition of life-prolonging medical treatment. Currently, state legislatures and the courts are struggling with the task of balancing the extent of patient autonomy and the state interest in preservation of life. In the rush to acknowledge the quality of life, the sanctity of life must not be discarded. Comprehensive legal reform in this area must strengthen the legal rights and obligations of both patients, their families and physicians.

  11. Impella 5.0 as a Second-Line Mechanical Circulatory Support Strategy After Extracorporeal Life Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schibilsky, David; Kruger, Tobias; Lausberg, Henning F; Eisenlohr, Christoph; Haller, Christoph; Nemeth, Attila; Schibilsky, Barbara; Haeberle, Helene; Rosenberger, Peter; Walker, Tobias; Schlensak, Christian

    2016-09-01

    The catheter-based Impella 5.0 left ventricular assist device is a powerful and less invasive alternative for patients in cardiogenic shock. The use as second-line therapy in patients with precedent extracorporeal life support (ECLS) has not been described before now. We analyzed our experience of consecutive patients treated with this alternative strategy. From April 2014 to December 2014, eight patients had been implanted as a second-line option after ECLS support. The reason for the change from ECLS to Impella 5.0 was absence of cardiac recovery for primary weaning and complications of ECLS therapy. The mean time of ECLS support prior to Impella implantation was 12 ± 7 days. The implantation of the Impella 5.0/CP was technically successful in all patients, and the ECLS could be explanted in all eight patients who received Impella implantation as a second-line treatment. The second-line Impella 5.0 therapy resulted in two patients who turned into left ventricular assist device (LVAD) candidates, two primary weaning candidates, and four patients who died in the setting of sepsis or absent cardiac recovery and contraindications for durable LVAD therapy. Thereby, the overall hospital discharge survival as well as the 180-day survival was 50% for Impella 5.0 implantations as second-line procedure after ECLS. The latest follow-up survival of this second-line strategy after ECLS was three out of eight, as one patient died after 299 days of LVAD support due to sepsis. The use of Impella 5.0 constitutes a possible second-line therapeutic option for those patients who do not show cardiac recovery during prolonged ECLS support or suffer from complications of ECLS therapy. This treatment allows additional time for decisions regarding cardiac recovery or indication for durable LVAD therapy.

  12. Lithium-ion battery remaining useful life prediction based on grey support vector machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, an improved grey prediction model is proposed to address low-accuracy prediction issue of grey forecasting model. The first step is using a trigonometric function to transform the original data sequence to smooth the data, which is called smoothness of grey prediction model, and then a grey support vector machine model by integrating the improved grey model with support vector machine is introduced. At the initial stage of the model, trigonometric functions and accumulation generation operation can be used to preprocess the data, which enhances the smoothness of the data and reduces the associated randomness. In addition, support vector machine is implemented to establish a prediction model for the pre-processed data and select the optimal model parameters via genetic algorithms. Finally, the data are restored through the ‘regressive generate’ operation to obtain the forecasting data. To prove that the grey support vector machine model is superior to the other models, the battery life data from the Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering are selected, and the presented model is used to predict the remaining useful life of the battery. The predicted result is compared to that of grey model and support vector machines. For a more intuitive comparison of the three models, this article quantifies the root mean square errors for these three different models in the case of different ratio of training samples and prediction samples. The results show that the effect of grey support vector machine model is optimal, and the corresponding root mean square error is only 3.18%.

  13. Laypersons may learn basic life support in 24min using a personal resuscitation manikin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isbye, Dan Lou; Rasmussen, Lars Simon; Lippert, Freddy Knudsen;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bystander basic life support (BLS) is an important part of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and improves outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. However, the general population has poor BLS skills. Several training initiatives could be used to improve this situation and the c......BACKGROUND: Bystander basic life support (BLS) is an important part of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and improves outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. However, the general population has poor BLS skills. Several training initiatives could be used to improve this situation...... assessed after 3 months, a 24 min DVD-based instruction plus subsequent self-training in BLS appears equally effective compared to a 6h BLS course and hence is more efficient. Udgivelsesdato: 2006-Jun...

  14. The Physical/Chemical Closed-Loop Life Support Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilardo, Vincent J., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The various elements of the Physical/Chemical Closed-Loop Life Support Research Project (P/C CLLS) are described including both those currently funded and those planned for implementation at ARC and other participating NASA field centers. The plan addresses the entire range of regenerative life support for Space Exploration Initiative mission needs, and focuses initially on achieving technology readiness for the Initial Lunar Outpost by 1995-97. Project elements include water reclamation, air revitalization, solid waste management, thermal and systems control, and systems integration. Current analysis estimates that each occupant of a space habitat will require a total of 32 kg/day of supplies to live and operate comfortably, while an ideal P/C CLLS system capable of 100 percent reclamation of air and water, but excluding recycling of solid wastes or foods, will reduce this requirement to 3.4 kg/day.

  15. Considerations in miniaturizing simplified agro-ecosystems for advanced life support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, T.

    1996-01-01

    Miniaturizing the Earth's biogeochemical cycles to support human life during future space missions is the goal of the NASA research and engineering program in advanced life support. Mission requirements to reduce mass, volume, and power have focused efforts on (1) a maximally simplified agro-ecosystem of humans, food crops, and microbes; and, (2) a design for optimized productivity of food crops with high light levels over long days, with hydroponics, with elevated carbon dioxide and other controlled environmental factors, as well as with genetic selection for desirable crop properties. Mathematical modeling contributes to the goals by establishing trade-offs, by analyzing the growth and development of experimental crops, and by pointing to the possibilities of directed phasic control using modified field crop models to increase the harvest index.

  16. Inheritance Law between Common and Civil Law - As exemplified by life-long support contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadranka Đorđević-Crnobrnja

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The dualism between common law and civil law in Serbia has been examined in theoretical and factographical ethnological and legal literature, yet this problem in the sphere of inheritance law has been considered mostly within the context of inequality between the sexes in matters of inheritance. As a result, the question of the connection between life-long support contracts and inheritance remains unexplored, despite the fact that through the analysis of inheritance practices based on this kind of contract the influence of socio-cultural mechanisms on the institution of inheritance can be clearly observed. These insights, together with the fact that a dualism and parallelism of civil and common have existed in Serbia for more than a century, have inspired an analysis of life-long support contracts in order to problematize the relation between common law and civil law in practice.

  17. Is the association between high strain work and depressive symptoms modified by private life social support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida E H; Jorgensen, Anette F B; Borritz, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that psychosocial working conditions characterized by high psychological demands and low decision latitude (i.e., high strain work) are associated with increased risk of depressive symptoms. Little is known, however, concerning how this association may...... be modified by factors outside the working environment. This article examines the modifying role of private life social support in the relation between high strain work and the development of severe depressive symptoms. METHODS: Data were questionnaire-based, collected from a cross-occupational sample of 1......,074 Danish employees. At baseline, all participants were free of severe depressive symptoms, measured by the Mental Health Inventory. High strain work was defined by the combination of high psychological demands at work and low control, measured with multi-dimensional scales. Private life social support...

  18. The Utilization of Urine Processing for the Advancement of Life Support Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi-Soyster, Elysse; Hogan, John; Flynn, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The success of long-duration missions will depend on resource recovery and the self-sustainability of life support technologies. Current technologies used on the International Space Station (ISS) utilize chemical and mechanical processes, such as filtration, to recover potable water from urine produced by crewmembers. Such technologies have significantly reduced the need for water resupply through closed-loop resource recovery and recycling. Harvesting the important components of urine requires selectivity, whether through the use of membranes or other physical barriers, or by chemical or biological processes. Given the chemical composition of urine, the downstream benefits of urine processing for resource recovery will be critical for many aspects of life support, such as food production and the synthesis of biofuels. This paper discusses the beneficial components of urine and their potential applications, and the challenges associated with using urine for nutrient recycling for space application.

  19. A prototype computer-aided modelling tool for life-support system models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preisig, H. A.; Lee, Tae-Yeong; Little, Frank

    1990-01-01

    Based on the canonical decomposition of physical-chemical-biological systems, a prototype kernel has been developed to efficiently model alternative life-support systems. It supports (1) the work in an interdisciplinary group through an easy-to-use mostly graphical interface, (2) modularized object-oriented model representation, (3) reuse of models, (4) inheritance of structures from model object to model object, and (5) model data base. The kernel is implemented in Modula-II and presently operates on an IBM PC.

  20. Setting goals, solving problems, and seeking social support: developing adolescents' abilities through a life skills program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forneris, Tanya; Danish, Steven J; Scott, David L

    2007-01-01

    The Going for the Goal (GOAL) program is designed to teach adolescents life skills. There have been few efforts to assess whether the skills that GOAL is designed to teach are being learned by adolescents involved in the program. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of GOAL on the acquisition of skills in the areas of setting goals, solving problems, and seeking social support. Interviews were conducted with twenty adolescents. Those who participated in GOAL reported that they had learned how to set goals, to solve problems effectively, and to seek the appropriate type of social support.

  1. The potential of planets orbiting red dwarf stars to support oxygenic photosynthesis and complex life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Joseph; Wandel, Amri

    2017-01-01

    We review the latest findings on extra-solar planets and their potential of having environmental conditions that could support Earth-like life. Focusing on planets orbiting red dwarf (RD) stars, the most abundant stellar type in the Milky Way, we show that including RDs as potential life supporting host stars could increase the probability of finding biotic planets by a factor of up to a thousand, and reduce the estimate of the distance to our nearest biotic neighbour by up to 10. We argue that binary and multiple star systems need to be taken into account when discussing habitability and the abundance of biotic exoplanets, in particular RDs in such systems. Early considerations indicated that conditions on RD planets would be inimical to life, as their habitable zones would be so close to the host star as to make planets tidally locked. This was thought to cause an erratic climate and expose life forms to flares of ionizing radiation. Recent calculations show that these negative factors are less severe than originally thought. It has also been argued that the lesser photon energy of the radiation of the relatively cool RDs would not suffice for oxygenic photosynthesis (OP) and other related energy expending reactions. Numerous authors suggest that OP on RD planets may evolve to utilize photons in the infrared. We however argue, by analogy to the evolution of OP and the environmental physiology and distribution of land-based vegetation on Earth, that the evolutionary pressure to utilize infrared radiation would be small. This is because vegetation on RD planets could enjoy continuous illumination of moderate intensity, containing a significant component of photosynthetic 400-700 nm radiation. We conclude that conditions for OP could exist on RD planets and consequently the evolution of complex life might be possible. Furthermore, the huge number and the long lifetime of RDs make it more likely to find planets with photosynthesis and life around RDs than around

  2. Life support and internal thermal control system design for the Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, R.; Mitchell, K.; Reuter, J.; Carrasquillo, R.; Beverly, B.

    1991-01-01

    A Review of the Space Station Freedom Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) as well as the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) design, including recent changes resulting from an activity to restructure the program, is provided. The development state of the original Space Station Freedom ECLSS through the restructured configuration is considered and the selection of regenerative subsystems for oxygen and water reclamation is addressed. A survey of the present ground development and verification program is given.

  3. Algal culture studies related to a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radmer, R.; Behrens, P.; Fernandez, E.; Ollinger, O.; Howell, C.; Venables, A.; Huggins, D.; Gladue, R.

    1984-01-01

    In many respects, algae would be the ideal plant component for a biologically based controlled life support system, since they are eminently suited to the closely coupled functions of atmosphere regeneration and food production. Scenedesmus obliquus and Spirulina platensis were grown in three continuous culture apparatuses. Culture vessels their operation and relative merits are described. Both light and nitrogen utilization efficiency are examined. Long term culture issues are detailed and a discussion of a plasmid search in Spirulina is included.

  4. Aircrew/Groundcrew Life Support Systems Research. Volume 1: CLIN 0001 Research Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    Barbara J. Stegmann, Dr. James T. Webb, and Ms. Janet F. Wiegman . The author cross-reference in Part D allows the reader to find the task report...following Technical Report. Krutz RW Jr, Nesthus TE, Scott WR, Webb JT, Noles CJ, Wiegman JF, Chavez RA, Eshaghian B. Aircrew life support systems...Beoch EL, Wiegman JF. Metabolic bases of +Gz-duration tolerance. 13th Annual Meeting of the IUPS Commission on Gravitational Physiology, Sept 1991, San

  5. Evaluation of engineering foods for closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karel, M.

    1982-01-01

    A nutritionally adequate and acceptable diet was evaluated and developed. A design for a multipurpose food plant is discussed. The types and amounts of foods needed to be regenerated in a partially closed ecological life support system (PCELSS) were proposed. All steps of food processes to be utilized in the multipurpose food plant of PCELSS were also considered. Equipment specifications, simplification of the proposed processes, and food waste treatment were analyzed.

  6. Particulate Matter Filtration Design Considerations for Crewed Spacecraft Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.; Vijayakumar, R.; Perry, Jay L.

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter filtration is a key component of crewed spacecraft cabin ventilation and life support system (LSS) architectures. The basic particulate matter filtration functional requirements as they relate to an exploration vehicle LSS architecture are presented. Particulate matter filtration concepts are reviewed and design considerations are discussed. A concept for a particulate matter filtration architecture suitable for exploration missions is presented. The conceptual architecture considers the results from developmental work and incorporates best practice design considerations.

  7. Nutritional and cultural aspects of plant species selection for a controlled ecological life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, J. E.; Howe, J. M.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of using higher plants in a controlled ecological life support system is discussed. Aspects of this system considered important in the use of higher plants include: limited energy, space, and mass, and problems relating to cultivation and management of plants, food processing, the psychological impact of vegetarian diets, and plant propagation. A total of 115 higher plant species are compared based on 21 selection criteria.

  8. Hidden Voices: Disabled Women's Experiences of Violence and Support Over the Life Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sonali; Tsitsou, Lito; Woodin, Sarah

    2016-09-01

    Violence against women is a worldwide social and human rights problem that cuts across cultural, geographic, religious, social, and economic boundaries. It affects women in countries around the world, regardless of class, religion, disability, age, or sexual identity. International evidence shows that approximately three in five women experienced physical and/or sexual violence by an intimate partner. However, across the globe, women and girls with impairments or life-limiting illnesses are more susceptible to different forms of violence across a range of environments and by different perpetrators including professionals and family members as well as partners. However, they are likely to be seriously disadvantaged in gaining information and support to escape the abusive relationships. This article stems from the United Kingdom part of a comparative study with three other countries (Austria, Germany, and Iceland) funded by the European Commission (EC; 2013-2015). It presents preliminary findings, generated from life history interviews, about disabled women's experiences of violence and access to support (both formal and informal) over their life course and their aspirations for the prevention of violence in the future. The article includes examples of impairment-specific violence that non-disabled women do not experience. By bringing the voices of disabled women into the public domain, the article will facilitate a historically marginalized group to contribute to the debate about disability, violence, and support.

  9. Pythium invasion of plant-based life support systems: biological control and sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, D. G.; Cook, K. L.; Garland, J. L.; Board, K. F.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Invasion of plant-based life support systems by plant pathogens could cause plant disease and disruption of life support capability. Root rot caused by the fungus, Pythium, was observed during tests of prototype plant growth systems containing wheat at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). We conducted experiments to determine if the presence of complex microbial communities in the plant root zone (rhizosphere) resisted invasion by the Pythium species isolated from the wheat root. Rhizosphere inocula of different complexity (as assayed by community-level physiological profile: CLPP) were developed using a dilution/extinction approach, followed by growth in hydroponic rhizosphere. Pythium growth on wheat roots and concomitant decreases in plant growth were inversely related to the complexity of the inocula during 20-day experiments in static hydroponic systems. Pythium was found on the seeds of several different wheat cultivars used in controlled environmental studies, but it is unclear if the seed-borne fungal strain(s) were identical to the pathogenic strain recovered from the KSC studies. Attempts to control pathogens and their effects in hydroponic life support systems should include early inoculation with complex microbial communities, which is consistent with ecological theory.

  10. Requirements for Designing Life Support System Architectures for Crewed Exploration Missions Beyond Low-Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David; Perry,Jay; Sargusingh, Miriam; Toomarian, Nikzad

    2016-01-01

    NASA's technology development roadmaps provide guidance to focus technological development on areas that enable crewed exploration missions beyond low-Earth orbit. Specifically, the technology area roadmap on human health, life support and habitation systems describes the need for life support system (LSS) technologies that can improve reliability and in-situ maintainability within a minimally-sized package while enabling a high degree of mission autonomy. To address the needs outlined by the guiding technology area roadmap, NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program has commissioned the Life Support Systems (LSS) Project to lead technology development in the areas of water recovery and management, atmosphere revitalization, and environmental monitoring. A notional exploration LSS architecture derived from the International Space has been developed and serves as the developmental basis for these efforts. Functional requirements and key performance parameters that guide the exploration LSS technology development efforts are presented and discussed. Areas where LSS flight operations aboard the ISS afford lessons learned that are relevant to exploration missions are highlighted.

  11. Enacted Support during Stressful Life Events in Middle and Older Adulthood: An Examination of the Interpersonal Context

    OpenAIRE

    Birditt, Kira S.; Antonucci, Toni C.; Tighe, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Individuals often turn to their close social ties for support during stressful life events. Although a great deal of work examines perceived support (i.e., support believed to be available should an event occur), less is known about enacted support (i.e., support actually provided during stressful events), especially among middle aged and older people. The present study investigated whether enacted support (emotional or instrumental) varies by relationship quality and stress appraisals. Parti...

  12. 41 CFR 102-80.120 - What analytical and empirical tools should be used to support the life safety equivalency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Safety, NEPA 101A) should be used to support the life safety equivalency evaluation. If fire modeling is... empirical tools should be used to support the life safety equivalency evaluation? 102-80.120 Section 102-80...) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and...

  13. Structuring a life support program using evidence-based practice and the Magnet model for successful patient outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugman, Mary; Paston, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    Integrating life support activities into an acute care academic hospital structure using evidence-based practice and the Magnet Model framework provides program operations and outcomes that are cost effective, link quality to life support professional development, and demonstrate excellence patient safety outcomes.

  14. Integration of Social Aspects in Decision Support, Based on Life Cycle Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere Fullana-i-Palmer

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently increasing attention has been paid to complementing environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA with social aspects. The paper discusses the selection of social impacts and indicators from existing frameworks like Social Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA and Social Impact Assessment (SIA. Two ongoing case studies, addressing sustainability assessment within decision support, were considered: (1 Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM in Indonesia; and (2 Integrated Packaging Waste Management in Spain and Portugal (FENIX. The focus was put on social impacts occurring due to decisions within these systems, such as choice of technologies, practices or suppliers. Thus, decision makers—here understood as intended users of the studies’ results—are not consumers that buy (or do not buy a product, such as in recent SLCA case-studies, but mainly institutions that decide about the design of the water or packaging waste management system. Therefore, in the FENIX project, a list of social impacts identified from literature was sent to the intended users to be ranked according to their priorities. Finally, the paper discusses to what extent the entire life cycle is reflected in SLCA impact categories and indicators, and explains how both life-cycle and on-site-related social impacts were chosen to be assessed. However, not all indicators in the two projects will assess all stages of the life cycle, because of their varying relevance in the different stages, data availability and practical interest of decision makers.

  15. Psychosocial support and parents' social life determine the self-esteem of orphan children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erango, Markos Abiso; Ayka, Zikie Ataro

    2015-01-01

    Parental death affects the life of children in many ways, one of which is self-esteem problems. Providing psychosocial support and equipping orphans play a vital role in their lifes. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 7-18-year-old orphans at 17 local districts of Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Regional State of Ethiopia. From a total of 48,270 orphans in these areas, 4,368 were selected using stratified simple random sampling technique. Data were collected with a designed questionnaire based on the Rosenberg's rating scale to measure their self-esteem levels. Self-esteem with a score less than or equal to an average score was considered to be low self-esteem in the analysis. Binary logistic regression model was used to analyze the data using the SPSS software. The results of the study revealed that the probability of orphans suffering from low self-esteem was 0.59. Several risk factors were found to be significant at the level of 5%. Psychosocial support (good guidance, counseling and treatment, physical protection and amount of love shared, financial and material support, and fellowship with other children), parents living together before death, strong relationship between parents before death, high average monthly income, voluntary support, and consideration from the society are some of the factors that decrease the risk of being low in self-esteem. There are many orphans with low self-esteem in the study areas. The factors negatively affecting the self-esteem of orphans include the lack of psychosocial support, poor social life of parents, and death of parents due to AIDS. Society and parents should be aware of the consequences of these factors which can influence their children's future self-esteem.

  16. Perceived instrumental support and children's health across the early life course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin

    2013-10-01

    A large, venerable literature demonstrates the importance of social relationships and social support for health, though much less research examines whether the benefits of social support to mothers extend to children. This paper examines the relationship between mothers' perceptions of instrumental support and children's health using longitudinal data from the U.S. Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4342), a cohort of American children born in urban areas to mostly unmarried parents. Results suggest mothers' perceptions of instrumental support is positively associated with children's overall health, and this finding persists despite controlling for a host of individual-level characteristics of mothers and children (including a lagged indicator of children's health) and in fixed-effect models. Mothers' economic security and mothers' wellbeing attenuate some, but not all, of the association between perceived instrumental support and children's overall health. In addition, the link between perceived instrumental support and three specific indicators of health - asthma, overweight/obese, and number of emergency room visits - falls to statistical insignificance after accounting for individual-level characteristics, suggesting these associations result from social selection processes. Taken together, these findings suggest the beneficial health consequences of social support may extend to children across the early life course and demonstrate the need to better understand mothers' reports of children's overall health.

  17. Emprego do suporte cardiopulmonar com bomba centrífuga e oxigenador de membrana em cirurgia cardiovascular pediátrica Use of centrifugal pump and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as cardiopulmonary support in pediatric cardiovascular surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando A. Atik

    2008-04-01

    several aspects related to the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in a pediatric heart center and determine its immediate and late outcomes. METHODS: Between October 2005 and January 2007, 10 patients who were submitted to pediatric cardiac surgery underwent extracorporeal membrane oxygenation implant. Median age was 58.5 days (40% neonates and median body weight was 3.9 kg. Circulatory assistance was initiated aiming at the recovery and the weaning protocols followed daily clinical and echocardiographic criteria. Support was discontinued when transplant was contraindicated, when the patient was unable to recover or when survival was considered to be limited by a multidisciplinary team. RESULTS: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was employed after corrective or palliative heart surgery in 80% and preoperatively in the remaining ones. It was most often indicated for irresponsive hemodynamic instability (40%, post-cardiotomy shock (20% and post-cardiac arrest (20%. The mean duration on support was 58 ± 37 hours. Weaning was successfully in 50% of the cases and 30% were discharged home. Actuarial survival was 40%, 30% and 20% at 30 days, 3 months and 24 months, respectively. CONCLUSION: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is an effective and useful tool for the resuscitation of patients presenting severe hemodynamic and/or respiratory failure in the perioperative period of pediatric cardiovascular surgery.

  18. Quality of working life and social support with the mediating role of resiliency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Amini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the current world, all human beings are forced to work for the living to provide their living requirements. Meeting these needs faced human with numerous psychological problems. One of the psychological problems of humanity in the current world is associated with stress caused by working conditions that human are daily forced to face with them. Finding the right solution for management of unconventional stress requires understanding the capabilities of individuals and strategies to face with them in stressful situations. This paper presents a survey to study the quality of working life and social support by considering the mediating role of resiliency. The study has accomplished among all 215 environmental guards of Mazandaran province, Iran. The results of this survey indicate that enhancing the social support of environmental guards by the relevant institutions especially communication and supporting them by friends played an important role for increasing their resilience.

  19. Multi-Agent Diagnosis and Control of an Air Revitalization System for Life Support in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.; Kowing, Jeffrey; Nieten, Joseph; Graham, Jeffrey s.; Schreckenghost, Debra; Bonasso, Pete; Fleming, Land D.; MacMahon, Matt; Thronesbery, Carroll

    2000-01-01

    An architecture of interoperating agents has been developed to provide control and fault management for advanced life support systems in space. In this adjustable autonomy architecture, software agents coordinate with human agents and provide support in novel fault management situations. This architecture combines the Livingstone model-based mode identification and reconfiguration (MIR) system with the 3T architecture for autonomous flexible command and control. The MIR software agent performs model-based state identification and diagnosis. MIR identifies novel recovery configurations and the set of commands required for the recovery. The AZT procedural executive and the human operator use the diagnoses and recovery recommendations, and provide command sequencing. User interface extensions have been developed to support human monitoring of both AZT and MIR data and activities. This architecture has been demonstrated performing control and fault management for an oxygen production system for air revitalization in space. The software operates in a dynamic simulation testbed.

  20. Biospheric Life Support - integrating biological regeneration into protection of humans in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Mauricio; Iha, Koshun

    2016-07-01

    A biosphere stands for a set of biomes (regional biological communities) interacting in a materially closed (though energetically open) ecological system (CES). Earth's biosphere, the thin layer of life on the planet's surface, can be seen as a natural CES- where life "consumables" are regenerated/restored via biological, geological and chemical processes. In Life Sciences, artificial CESs- local ecosystems extracts with varying scales and degrees of closure, are considered convenient/representatives objects of study. For outer space, these concepts have been applied to the issue of life support- a significant consideration as long as distance from Earth increases. In the nineties, growing on the Russian expertise on biological life support, backed by a multidisciplinary science team, the famous Biosphere 2 appeared. That private project innovated, by assembling a set of Earth biomes samples- plus an organic ag one, inside a closed Mars base-like structure, next to 1.5 ha under glass, in Arizona, US. The crew of 8 inside completed their two years contract, though facing setbacks- the system failed, e.g., to produce enough food/air supplies. But their "failures"- if this word can be fairly applied to science endeavors, were as meaningful as their achievements for the future of life support systems (LSS) research. By this period, the Russians had accumulated experience in extended orbital stays, achieving biological outcomes inside their stations- e.g. complete wheat cycles. After reaching the Moon, the US administration decided to change national priorities, putting the space program as part of a "détente" policy, to relieve international tensions. Alongside the US space shuttle program, the Russians were invited to join the new International Space Station (ISS), bringing to that pragmatic project, also their physical/chemical LSS- top air/water regenerative technology at the time. Present US policy keeps the ISS operational, extending its service past its planned

  1. Challenges for Life Support Systems in Space Environments, Including Food Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) refer to the technologies needed to sustain human life in space environments. Histor ically these technologies have focused on providing a breathable atmo sphere, clean water, food, managing wastes, and the associated monitoring capabilities. Depending on the space agency or program, ELCSS has sometimes expanded to include other aspects of managing space enviro nments, such as thermal control, radiation protection, fire detection I suppression, and habitat design. Other times, testing and providing these latter technologies have been associated with the vehicle engi neering. The choice of ECLSS technologies is typically driven by the mission profile and their associated costs and reliabilities. These co sts are largely defined by the mass, volume, power, and crew time req uirements. For missions close to Earth, e.g., low-Earth orbit flights, stowage and resupply of food, some 0 2, and some water are often the most cost effective option. But as missions venture further into spa ce, e.g., transit missions to Mars or asteroids, or surface missions to Moon or Mars, the supply line economics change and the need to clos e the loop on life support consumables increases. These are often ref erred to as closed loop or regenerative life support systems. Regardless of the technologies, the systems must be capable of operating in a space environment, which could include micro to fractional g setting s, high radiation levels, and tightly closed atmospheres, including perhaps reduced cabin pressures. Food production using photosynthetic o rganisms such as plants by nature also provides atmospheric regenerat ion (e.g., CO2 removal and reduction, and 0 2 production), yet to date such "bioregenerative" technologies have not been used due largely t o the high power requirements for lighting. A likely first step in te sting bioregenerative capabilities will involve production of small a mounts of fresh foods to supplement to crew

  2. Continued Development of Compact Multi-gas Monitor for Life Support Systems Control in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Alonso, Jesús; Phillips, Straun; Chullen, Cinda; Quinn, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Miniature optic gas sensors (MOGS) based on luminescent materials have shown great potential as alternatives to Near-Infrared-based gas sensor systems for the advanced space suit portable life support system (PLSS). The unique capability of MOGS for carbon dioxide and oxygen monitoring under wet conditions has been reported, as has the fast recovery of MOGS humidity sensors after long periods of being wet. Lower volume and power requirements are also potential advantages of MOGS over both traditional and advanced Non-Dispersive Infrared (NDIR) gas sensors, which have shown so far longer life than luminescent sensors. This paper presents the most recent results in the development and analytical validation of a compact multi-gas sensor unit based on luminescent sensors for the PLSS. Results of extensive testing are presented, including studies conducted at Intelligent Optical Systems laboratories, a United Technology Corporation Aerospace Systems (UTAS) laboratory, and a Johnson Space Center laboratory. The potential of this sensor technology for gas monitoring in PLSSs and other life support systems and the advantages and limitations found through detailed sensor validation are discussed.

  3. Design of a Regenerative Life Support System for a Moon Base. Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duatis Juarez, Jordi; Guirado, Víctor; Lasseur, Christophe

    NTE-SENER has finalised a study under an ESA contract, to define a preliminary system design of an European Module to provide Environmental Control and Life Support to a potential Moon base. The design is based on current Life Support System technologies under development in Europe (MELiSSA, GWRU, Sabatier Reactor and UTU) along with contamination and microbial detection technologies (ANITA, MIDASS). The ECLSS is sized to provide water, air and up to the 40 As a support to the study a simulator has been developed to analyse the energy, volume and mass and the flow rates and efficiencies of the different components. The study applied the basics of the ALISSE criteria to evaluate the technologies taking as a source the results of the simulations. Detailed models of the different technologies have been developed including feedback from the pilot designs. The results of the study have showed up opportunities of improvement and many points that need to be further investigated. The technologies used in the study are based on the MELiSSA Pilot Plant reactors implementation and the results could affect their design in the near fu-ture in aspects such as carbon recycling, irrigation methods, energy consumption, technologies involved, etc.

  4. Screening and genetic manipulation of green organisms for establishment of biological life support systems in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saei, Amir Ata; Omidi, Amir Ali; Barzegari, Abolfazl

    2013-01-01

    Curiosity has driven humankind to explore and conquer space. However, today, space research is not a means to relieve this curiosity anymore, but instead has turned into a need. To support the crew in distant expeditions, supplies should either be delivered from the Earth, or prepared for short durations through physiochemical methods aboard the space station. Thus, research continues to devise reliable regenerative systems. Biological life support systems may be the only answer to human autonomy in outposts beyond Earth. For construction of an artificial extraterrestrial ecosystem, it is necessary to search for highly adaptable super-organisms capable of growth in harsh space environments. Indeed, a number of organisms have been proposed for cultivation in space. Meanwhile, some manipulations can be done to increase their photosynthetic potential and stress tolerance. Genetic manipulation and screening of plants, microalgae and cyanobacteria is currently a fascinating topic in space bioengineering. In this commentary, we will provide a viewpoint on the realities, limitations and promises in designing biological life support system based on engineered and/or selected green organism. Special focus will be devoted to the engineering of key photosynthetic enzymes in pioneer green organisms and their potential use in establishment of transgenic photobioreactors in space.

  5. Development of Mass-casualty Life Support-CBRNE (MCLS-CBRNE) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anan, Hideaki; Otomo, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Homma, Masato; Koido, Yuichi; Morino, Kazuma; Oshiro, Kenichi; Harikae, Kiyokazu; Akasaka, Osamu

    2016-10-01

    This report outlines the need for the development of an advanced course in mass-casualty life support (MCLS) and introduces the course content. The current problems with education on disasters involving chemical agents, biological agents, radiation/nuclear attacks, or explosives (CBRNE) in Japan are presented. This newly developed "MCLS-CBRNE" program was created by a Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare (Tokyo, Japan) research group based on these circumstances. Modifications were then made after a trial course. Training opportunities for relevant organizations to learn how to act at a CBRNE disaster site currently are lacking. The developed course covers initial responses at a disaster site. This one-day training course comprises lectures, three tabletop simulations, and practical exercises in pre-decontamination triage and post-decontamination triage. With regard to field exercises conducted to date, related organizations have experienced difficulties in understanding each other and adapting their approaches. Tabletop simulations provide an opportunity for participants to learn how organizations working on-site, including fire, police, and medical personnel, act with differing goals and guiding principles. This course appears useful as a means for relevant organizations to understand the importance of developing common guidelines. The MCLS-CBRNE training is proposed to support CBRNE disaster control measures during future events. Anan H , Otomo Y , Kondo H , Homma M , Koido Y , Morino K , Oshiro K , Harikae K , Akasaka O . Development of mass-casualty life support-CBRNE (MCLS-CBRNE) in Japan. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(5):547-550.

  6. Development of a Compact, Efficient Cooling Pump for Space Suit Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boeyen, Roger; Reeh, Jonathan; Trevino, Luis

    2009-01-01

    A compact, low-power electrochemically-driven fluid cooling pump is currently being developed by Lynntech, Inc. With no electric motor and minimal lightweight components, the pump is significantly lighter than conventional rotodynamic and displacement pumps. Reliability and robustness is achieved with the absence of rotating or moving components (apart from the bellows). By employing sulfonated polystyrene-based proton exchange membranes, rather than conventional Nafion membranes, a significant reduction in the actuator power consumption was demonstrated. Lynntech also demonstrated that these membranes possess the necessary mechanical strength, durability, and temperature range for long life space operation. The preliminary design for a Phase II prototype pump compares very favorably to the fluid cooling pumps currently used in space suit primary life support systems (PLSSs). Characteristics of the electrochemically-driven pump are described and the benefits of the technology as a replacement for electric motor pumps in mechanically pumped single-phase fluid loops is discussed.

  7. Psychosocial support and parents' social life determine the self-esteem of orphan children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erango MA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Markos Abiso Erango,1 Zikie Ataro Ayka2 1School of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences, Department of Applied Statistics, Hawassa University, Hawassa, 2Department of Biology, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia Abstract: Parental death affects the life of children in many ways, one of which is self-esteem problems. Providing psychosocial support and equipping orphans play a vital role in their lifes. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 7–18-year-old orphans at 17 local districts of Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Regional State of Ethiopia. From a total of 48,270 orphans in these areas, 4,368 were selected using stratified simple random sampling technique. Data were collected with a designed questionnaire based on the Rosenberg's rating scale to measure their self-esteem levels. Self-esteem with a score less than or equal to an average score was considered to be low self-esteem in the analysis. Binary logistic regression model was used to analyze the data using the SPSS software. The results of the study revealed that the probability of orphans suffering from low self-esteem was 0.59. Several risk factors were found to be significant at the level of 5%. Psychosocial support (good guidance, counseling and treatment, physical protection and amount of love shared, financial and material support, and fellowship with other children, parents living together before death, strong relationship between parents before death, high average monthly income, voluntary support, and consideration from the society are some of the factors that decrease the risk of being low in self-esteem. There are many orphans with low self-esteem in the study areas. The factors negatively affecting the self-esteem of orphans include the lack of psychosocial support, poor social life of parents, and death of parents due to AIDS. Society and parents should be aware of the consequences of these factors which can influence their children's future self

  8. Loneliness, depression, social support, and quality of life in older chronically ill Appalachians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theeke, Laurie A; Goins, R Turner; Moore, Julia; Campbell, Heather

    2012-01-01

    This study's purpose was to describe loneliness and to examine the relationships between loneliness, depression, social support, and QOL in chronically ill, older Appalachians. In-person interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 60 older, chronically ill, community-dwelling, and rural adults. Those with dementia or active grief were excluded. The UCLA Loneliness Scale (Russell, Peplau, & Cutrona, 1985), Geriatric Depression Scale (Shiekh & Yesavage, 1986), Katz ADL scale (Katz, Down, & Cash, 1970), MOS Social Support Scale (Sherbourne & Stewart, 1991), and a visual analog scale for Quality of Life (Spitzer et al., 1981) scale were used. Diagnoses were obtained through chart reviews. SPSS was used for data analyses. The majority of the 65% female sample (M age = 75 years) were married and impoverished. Participants' number of chronic illnesses averaged more than 3. Over 88% of participants reported at least 1 area of functional impairment. Loneliness was prevalent with UCLA loneliness scores indicating moderate to high loneliness, ranging from 39 to 62 (possible scores were 20-80). Higher loneliness scores correlated with depression, lower Qol, and lower social support, particularly lower emotional support. This study provides evidence that loneliness is a significant problem for older chronically ill Appalachian adults and that it may be related to low emotional support. Further, it provides evidence that this population may be significantly lonely and may not self-identify as lonely. Screening for loneliness and designing interventions that target the emotional aspects of loneliness could be important in this population.

  9. Extracorporeal Life Support Bridge to Ventricular Assist Device: The Double Bridge Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasco, Silvana F; Lo, Casey; Murphy, Deirdre; Summerhayes, Robyn; Quayle, Margaret; Zimmet, Adam; Bailey, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In patients requiring left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support, it can be difficult to ascertain suitability for long-term mechanical support with LVAD and eventual transplantation. LVAD implantation in a shocked patient is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Interest is growing in the utilization of extracorporeal life support (ECLS) as a bridge-to-bridge support for these critically unwell patients. Here, we reviewed our experience with ECLS double bridging. We hypothesized that ECLS double bridging would stabilize end-organ dysfunction and reduce ventricular assist device (VAD) implant perioperative mortality. We conducted a retrospective review of prospectively collected data for 58 consecutive patients implanted with a continuous-flow LVAD between January 2010 and December 2013 at The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Twenty-three patients required ECLS support pre-LVAD while 35 patients underwent LVAD implantation without an ECLS bridge. Preoperative morbidity in the ECLS bridge group was reflected by increased postoperative intensive care duration, blood loss, blood product use, and postoperative renal failure, but without negative impact upon survival when compared with the no ECLS group. ECLS stabilization improved end-organ function pre-VAD implant with significant improvements in hepatic and renal dysfunction. This series demonstrates that the use of ECLS bridge to VAD stabilizes end-organ dysfunction and reduces VAD implant perioperative mortality from that traditionally reported in these "crash and burn" patients.

  10. Achieving Closure for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems: Engineering and Ecological Challenges, Research Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, William; Allen, John P.

    Closed systems are desirable for a number of purposes: space life support systems where precious life-supporting resources need to be kept inside; biospheric systems; where global ecological pro-cesses can be studied in great detail and testbeds where research topics requiring isolation from the outside (e.g. genetically modified organisms; radioisotopes) can be studied in isolation from the outside environment and where their ecological interactions and fluxes can be studied. But to achieve and maintain closure raises both engineering and ecological challenges. Engineering challenges include methods of achieving closure for structures of different materials, and devel-oping methods of allowing energy (for heating and cooling) and information transfer through the materially closed structure. Methods of calculating degree of closure include measuring degradation rates of inert trace gases introduced into the system. An allied problem is devel-oping means of locating where leaks are located so that they may be repaired and degree of closure maintained. Once closure is achieved, methods of dealing with the pressure differen-tials between inside and outside are needed: from inflatable structures which might adjust to the pressure difference to variable volume chambers attached to the life systems component. These issues are illustrated through the engineering employed at Biosphere 2, the Biosphere 2 Test Module and the Laboratory Biosphere and a discussion of methods used by other closed ecological system facility engineers. Ecological challenges include being able to handle faster cycling rates and accentuated daily and seasonal fluxes of critical life elements such as carbon dioxide, oxygen, water, macro-and mico-nutrients. The problems of achieving sustainability in closed systems for life support include how to handle atmospheric dynamics including trace gases, producing a complete human diet and recycling nutrients and maintaining soil fertility, healthy air and

  11. Conceptual design of a bioregenerative life support system containing crops and silkworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Enzhu; Bartsev, Sergey I.; Liu, Hong

    2010-04-01

    This article summarizes a conceptual design of a bioregenerative life support system for permanent lunar base or planetary exploration. The system consists of seven compartments - higher plants cultivation, animal rearing, human habitation, water recovery, waste treatment, atmosphere management, and storages. Fifteen kinds of crops, such as wheat, rice, soybean, lettuce, and mulberry, were selected as main life support contributors to provide the crew with air, water, and vegetable food. Silkworms fed by crop leaves were designated to produce partial animal nutrition for the crew. Various physical-chemical and biological methods were combined to reclaim wastewater and solid waste. Condensate collected from atmosphere was recycled into potable water through granular activated carbon adsorption, iodine sterilization, and trace element supplementation. All grey water was also purified though multifiltration and ultraviolet sterilization. Plant residue, human excrement, silkworm feces, etc. were decomposed into inorganic substances which were finally absorbed by higher plants. Some meat, ingredients, as well as nitrogen fertilizer were prestored and resupplied periodically. Meanwhile, the same amount and chemical composition of organic waste was dumped to maintain the steady state of the system. A nutritional balanced diet was developed by means of the linear programming method. It could provide 2721 kcal of energy, 375.5 g of carbohydrate, 99.47 g of protein, and 91.19 g of fat per capita per day. Silkworm powder covered 12.54% of total animal protein intakes. The balance of material flows between compartments was described by the system of stoichiometric equations. Basic life support requirements for crews including oxygen, food, potable and hygiene water summed up to 29.68 kg per capita per day. The coefficient of system material closure reached 99.40%.

  12. Bioregenerative Life Support System Research as part of the DLR EDEN Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamsey, Matthew; Schubert, Daniel; Zabel, Paul; Poulet, Lucie; Zeidler, Conrad

    In 2011, the DLR Institute of Space Systems launched a research initiative called EDEN - Evolution and Design of Environmentally-closed Nutrition-Sources. The research initiative focuses on bioregenerative life support systems, especially greenhouse modules, and technologies for future crewed vehicles. The EDEN initiative comprises several projects with respect to space research, ground testing and spin-offs. In 2014, EDEN’s new laboratory officially opened. This new biological cleanroom laboratory comprises several plant growth chambers incorporating a number of novel controlled environment agriculture technologies. This laboratory will be the nucleus for a variety of plant cultivation experiments within closed environments. The utilized technologies are being advanced using the pull of space technology and include such items as stacked growth systems, PAR-specific LEDs, intracanopy lighting, aeroponic nutrient delivery systems and ion-selective nutrient sensors. The driver of maximizing biomass output per unit volume and energy has much application in future bioregenerative life support systems but can also provide benefit terrestrially. The EDEN laboratory also includes several specially constructed chambers for advancing models addressing the interaction between bioregenerative and physical-chemical life support systems. The EDEN team is presently developing designs for containerized greenhouse modules. One module is planned for deployment to the German Antarctic Station, Neumayer III. The shipping container based system will provide supplementation to the overwintering crew’s diet, provide psychological benefit while at the same time advancing the technology and operational readiness of harsh environment plant production systems. In addition to hardware development, the EDEN team has participated in several early phase designs such as for the ESA Greenhouse Module for Space System and for large-scale vertical farming. These studies often utilize the

  13. Methods Used to Support a Life Cycle of Complex Engineering Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, Alexandra A.; Kolegova, Olga A.; Nekrasova, Maria E.; Eremenko, Andrey O.

    2016-08-01

    Management of companies involved in the design, development and operation of complex engineering products recognize the relevance of creating systems for product lifecycle management. A system of methods is proposed to support life cycles of complex engineering products, based on fuzzy set theory and hierarchical analysis. The system of methods serves to demonstrate the grounds for making strategic decisions in an environment of uncertainty, allows the use of expert knowledge, and provides interconnection of decisions at all phases of strategic management and all stages of a complex engineering product lifecycle.

  14. Advanced Trauma Life Support. ABCDE from a radiological point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kool, Digna R; Blickman, Johan G

    2007-07-01

    Accidents are the primary cause of death in patients aged 45 years or younger. In many countries, Advanced Trauma Life Support(R) (ATLS) is the foundation on which trauma care is based. We will summarize the principles and the radiological aspects of the ATLS, and we will discuss discrepancies with day to day practice and the radiological literature. Because the ATLS is neither thorough nor up-to-date concerning several parts of radiology in trauma, it should not be adopted without serious attention to defining the indications and limitations pertaining to diagnostic imaging.

  15. Advanced Trauma Life Support®. ABCDE from a radiological point of view

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Accidents are the primary cause of death in patients aged 45 years or younger. In many countries, Advanced Trauma Life Support® (ATLS®) is the foundation on which trauma care is based. We will summarize the principles and the radiological aspects of the ATLS®, and we will discuss discrepancies with day to day practice and the radiological literature. Because the ATLS® is neither thorough nor up-to-date concerning several parts of radiology in trauma, it should not be adopted without serious a...

  16. Preliminary design study of a regenerative life support system information management and display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, C. D.; Tommerdahl, J. B.

    1972-01-01

    The instrumentation requirements for a regenerative life support systems were studied to provide the earliest possible indication of a malfunction that will permit degradation of the environment. Four categories of parameters were investigated: environmental parameters that directly and immediately influence the health and safety of the cabin crew; subsystems' inputs to the cabin that directly maintain the cabin environmental parameters; indications for maintenance or repair; and parameters useful as diagnostic indicators. A data averager concept is introduced which provides a moving average of parameter values that is not influenced by spurious changes, and is convenient for detecting parameter rates of change. A system is included to provide alarms at preselected parameter levels.

  17. IMPACT OF RESILIENCE, ICT SUPPORT AND QUALITY OF STUDENT'S LIFE ON QUALITY OF HIGH EDUCATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Lazic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Answers to the questions of how and in what way the quality of life of students, resilience and ICT support affects the quality of high education we will get through this work where main objective is to define a network of processes and process management ensuring more quality and more innovative managing and service provision, therefore satisfying the needs of service users - in this case the students of the university. To collect the relevant data in the thematic analysis of this paper, the method of interviewing by questionnaires was applied. The sample survey was conducted among undergraduate students, teachers and staff of the Teacher Training Faculty in Uzice.

  18. Human life support during interplanetary travel and domicile. IV - Mars expedition technology trade study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ferrall, Joseph F.; Seshan, P. K.

    1991-01-01

    Results of trading processing technologies in a closed-loop configuration, in terms of power and weight for the Mars Expedition Mission, are presented. The technologies were traded and compared to a baseline set for functional elements that include CO2 removal, H2O electrolysis, potable H2O cleanup, and hygiene H2O cleanup. These technologies were selected from those being considered for Space Station Freedom and represent only chemical/physical technologies. Attention is given to the technology trade calculation scheme, technology data and selection, the generic modular flow schematic, and life support system specifications.

  19. Distributing personal resuscitation manikins in an untrained population: how well are basic life support skills acquired?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Møller; Isbye, Dan Lou; Rasmussen, Lars Simon;

    2012-01-01

    Background Self-instruction with a DVD and a simple personal manikin is an effective alternative to traditional basic life support (BLS) courses. Objective To evaluate the effect of distributing DVD training kits to untrained laypersons. BLS skills were compared according to 2005 guidelines...... There was no statistically significant difference in the total score after 3.5 months. The 'DVD-self-instructor' group obtained 33 (29-37) points and the 'DVD-with instructor' group obtained 34 (32-37) points, p=0.16. The 'DVD-with instructor' group performed significantly better in checking responsiveness and had...

  20. Growth hormone treatment during hemodialysis in a randomized trial improves nutrition, quality of life, and cardiovascular risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo; Lange, Martin; Sulowicz, Wladyslaw

    2007-01-01

    health of these patients and consequently reduce morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to establish clinical proof of concept of hGH treatment for the improvement of the nutritional status in adult patients who are on maintenance hemodialysis. A total of 139 adult patients who were...... on maintenance hemodialysis and had serum albumin levels quality of life, and secondary efficacy and safety parameters were monitored.......001) and serum HDL (P quality-of-life subscale was observed (P = 0.042). There were no differences in clinically relevant adverse events...

  1. Young Adult Exposure to Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Risk of Events Later in Life: The Framingham Offspring Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Pletcher

    Full Text Available It is unclear whether coronary heart disease (CHD risk factor exposure during early adulthood contributes to CHD risk later in life. Our objective was to analyze whether extent of early adult exposures to systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP and low-and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL, HDL are independent predictors of CHD events later in life.We used all available measurements of SBP, DBP, LDL, and HDL collected over 40 years in the Framingham Offspring Study to estimate risk factor trajectories, starting at age 20 years, for all participants. Average early adult (age 20-39 exposure to each risk factor was then estimated, and used to predict CHD events (myocardial infarction or CHD death after age 40, with adjustment for risk factor exposures later in life (age 40+. 4860 participants contributed an average of 6.3 risk factor measurements from in-person examinations and 24.5 years of follow-up after age 40, and 510 had a first CHD event. Early adult exposures to high SBP, DBP, LDL or low HDL were associated with 8- to 30-fold increases in later life CHD event rates, but were also strongly correlated with risk factor levels later in life. After adjustment for later life levels and other risk factors, early adult DBP and LDL remained strongly associated with later life risk. Compared with DBP≤70 mmHg, adjusted hazard ratios (HRs were 2.1 (95% confidence interval: 0.8-5.7 for DBP = 71-80, 2.6 (0.9-7.2 for DBP = 81-90, and 3.6 (1.2-11 for DBP>90 (p-trend = 0.019. Compared with LDL≤100 mg/dl, adjusted HRs were 1.5 (0.9-2.6 for LDL = 101-130, 2.2 (1.2-4.0 for LDL = 131-160, and 2.4 (1.2-4.7 for LDL>160 (p-trend = 0.009. While current levels of SBP and HDL were also associated with CHD events, we did not detect an independent association with early adult exposure to either of these risk factors.Using a mixed modeling approach to estimation of young adult exposures with trajectory analysis, we detected independent associations

  2. Development of Bioregenerative Life Support for Longer Missions: When Can Plants Begin to Contribute to Atmospheric Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2015-01-01

    Through photosynthesis, plants can be used to generate oxygen and food for life support in human exploration of space. Initial contributions of plants to life support would likely occur through the production of supplemental, fresh foods. For plants to provide significant contributions to oxygen production, larger areas and significant lighting would be needed. An area of 10 m2 of plants with moderate lighting could provide about 13 of a human's oxygen needs. As mission distances and durations increase, plant growing areas could be expanded to assume more of the human life support needs.

  3. Algae for controlled ecological life support system diet characterization of cyanobacteria 'spirulina' in batch cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadros, M. G.

    1990-01-01

    Spirulina sp. is a bioregenerative photosynthetic and edible alga for space craft crews in a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CLESS). It was characterized for growth rate and biomass yield in batch cultures, under various environmental conditions. The cell characteristics were identified for one strain of Spirulina: S. maxima. Fast growth rate and high yield were obtained. The partitioning of the assimulatory products (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids) were manipulated by varying the environmental conditions. Experiments with Spirulina demonstrated that under stress conditions carbohydrate increased at the expense of protein. In other experiments, where the growth media were sufficient in nutrients and incubated under optimum growth conditions, the total proteins were increased up to almost 70 percent of the organic weight. In other words, the nutritional quality of the alga could be manipulated by growth conditions. These results support the feasibility of considering Spirulina as a subsystem in CELSS because of the ease with which its nutrient content can be manipulated.

  4. Extracorporeal Life Support for Patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülin Akarsu Ayazoğlu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is an acute diffuse, inflammatory lung injury, leading to increased pulmonary vascular permeability with hypoxemia and bilateral radiographic opacities, associated with decreased lung compliance. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO has been used to support primary or secondary diseases causing respiratory or cardiac failures in newborns, children and adults. Patients with severe ARDS are candidates for ECMO therapy. ECMO is a support modality, not a treatment; it is only beneficial in patients whose primary disease is reversible. ECMO complications-which can lead to mortality, morbidity, long-term disability and reduced quality of life-include surgical and organ bleeding, renal and multi-organ failure and central nervous system problems. The aim of this article was to provide a general overview of ECMO use and outcomes patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrom.

  5. NASA Environmental Control and Life Support Technology Development and Maturation for Exploration: 2015 to 2016 Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Walter F.; Gatens, Robyn L.; Anderson, Molly S.; Broyan, James L.; MaCatangay, Ariel V.; Shull, Sarah A.; Perry, Jay L.; Toomarian, Nikzad

    2016-01-01

    Over the last year, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has continued to refine the understanding and prioritization of technology gaps that must be closed in order to achieve Evolvable Mars Campaign objectives and near term objectives in the cislunar proving ground. These efforts are reflected in updates to the technical area roadmaps released by NASA in 2015 and have guided technology development and maturation tasks that have been sponsored by various programs. This paper provides an overview of the refined Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) strategic planning, as well as a synopsis of key technology and maturation project tasks that occurred in 2014 and early 2015 to support the strategic needs. Plans for the remainder of 2015 and subsequent years are also described.

  6. Needs for everyday life support for brain tumour patients' relatives: systematic literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Karina; Poulsen, H S

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to undertake a review of the everyday lives and the need for support felt by relatives of adults with malignant cerebral glioma. Through electronic literature searches we identified studies with qualitative, quantitative or mixed method designs. Fourteen studies were...... identified. They indicated that a relative often assumes the caregiver's role, taking over responsibility for the patient's illness and survival, and that the relative is often overwhelmingly exhausted by this task. The ever-changing circumstances left the relatives fearful, anxious and apprehensive....... The relatives lacked information about how to provide day-to-day care and how to manage psychoses and neuropsychiatric problems at home. Likewise, they needed help from the professionals to talk with each other about potentially reduced life expectancy. Most relatives appeared to value specialist nurse support...

  7. Sweetpotato vine management for confined food production in a space life-support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Mitchell, Cary A.

    2012-01-01

    Sweetpotato (Ipomea batatas L.) 'Whatley-Loretan' was developed for space life support by researchers at Tuskegee University for its highly productive, nutritious storage roots. This promising candidate space life-support crop has a sprawling habit and aggressive growth rate in favorable environments that demands substantial growing area. Shoot pruning is not a viable option for vine control because removal of the main shoot apex drastically inhibits storage-root initiation and development, and chemical growth retardants typically are not cleared for use with food crops. As part of a large effort by the NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training in Advanced Life Support to reduce equivalent system mass (ESM) for food production in space, the dilemma of vine management for sweetpotato was addressed in effort to conserve growth area without compromising root yield. Root yields from unbranched vines trained spirally around wire frames configured either in the shapes of cones or cylinders were similar to those from vines trained horizontally along the bench, but occupying only a small fraction of the bench area. This finding indicates that sweetpotato is highly adaptable to a variety of vine-training architectures. Planting a second plant in the growth container and training the two vines in opposite directions around frames enhanced root yield and number, but had little effect on average length of each vine or bench area occupied. Once again, root yields were similar for both configurations of wire support frames. The 3-4-month crop-production cycles for sweetpotato in the greenhouse spanned all seasons of multiple years during the course of the study, and although electric lighting was used for photoperiod control and to supplement photosynthetic light during low-light seasons, there still were differences in total light available across seasons. Light variations and other environmental differences among experiments in the greenhouse had more effects on vine

  8. [Social network, social support and feeding habits of infants in their fourth month of life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, Caroline Maria da Costa; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Hasselmann, Maria Helena

    2013-02-01

    The scope of this study was to investigate the association between the social network, social support and the feeding habits of infants in their fourth month of life. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 294 children selected at 4 Primary Health Care Units in Rio de Janeiro/ Brazil. A 24-hour dietary recall was applied to the mothers to evaluate the feeding habits. Questions related to the number of people upon whom the woman can rely were asked as well as their participation in social activities to measure the social network. The scale in the Medical Outcomes Study was used to measure social support. The analysis was based on multinomial logistic regression models. Most of the infants (84%) received breast milk, but only 16% were exclusively breastfed. Children whose mothers had a small number of relatives to rely on and with low social support were more likely to be bottle-fed rather than exclusively breastfed. The need to integrate members of the social network of the woman during pre-natal care, birth and the after birth period should be encouraged, in such a way that social support can serve the mother's requirements, contributing to exclusive breastfeeding.

  9. Dental Implant Supported Restorations Improve Quality of Life in Osteoporotic Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine DeBaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this study is to compare the quality of life (QoL in partially edentulous osteoporotic women who have missing teeth restored with dental implant retained restorations with those who do not and, secondarily, to report the rate of osteonecrosis in this sample. Methods. 237 participants completed the Utian QoL survey, a 23-question document measuring across psychosocial domains of well-being including occupational, health, emotional, and sexual domains which together contribute to an overall score. The subset of participants having dental implant supported prosthesis (64 was compared to the subset having nonimplant supported fixed restorations (47, the subset having nonimplant supported removable restorations (60, and the subset having no restoration of missing teeth (66. Results. ANOVA showed significant difference in all QoL domains between the four subsets (p<0.05. Although 134 reported oral bisphosphonate and 51 reported IV bisphosphonate use, no signs of ONJ were identified in any participants. Conclusion. These findings show implant retained oral rehabilitation has a statistically significant impact over nonimplant and traditional fixed restorations, removable restorations, and no restoration of missing teeth in far reaching areas including occupational, health, emotional, sexual, and overall QoL. These findings also support future examination of psychosocial outcomes associated with oral rehabilitation and the incorporation of oral health into women’s health promotion.

  10. Annual program analysis of the NASA Space Life Sciences Research and Education Support Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The basic objectives of this contract are to stimulate, encourage, and assist research and education in NASA life sciences. Scientists and experts from a number of academic and research institutions in this country and abroad are recruited to support NASA's need to find a solution to human physiological problems associated with living and working in space and on extraterrestrial bodies in the solar system. To fulfill the contract objectives, a cadre of staff and visiting scientists, consultants, experts, and subcontractors has been assembled into a unique organization dedicated to the space life sciences. This organization, USRA's Division of Space Life Sciences, provides an academic atmosphere, provides an organizational focal point for science and educational activities, and serves as a forum for the participation of eminent scientists in the biomedical programs of NASA. The purpose of this report is to demonstrate adherence to the requirement of Contract NAS9-18440 for a written review and analysis of the productivity and success of the program. In addition, this report makes recommendations for future activities and conditions to further enhance the objectives of the program and provides a self-assessment of the cost performance of the contract.

  11. The Potential of Planets Orbiting Red Dwarf Stars to Support Oxygenic Photosynthesis and Complex Life

    CERN Document Server

    Gale, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    We review the latest findings on extra-solar planets and their potential to support Earth-like life. Focusing on planets orbiting Red Dwarf (RD) stars, the most abundant stellar type, we show that including RDs as potential host stars could increase the probability of finding biotic planets by a factor of up to a thousand, and reduce the estimate of the distance to our nearest biotic neighbor by up to 10. We argue that binary and multiple star systems need to be taken into account when discussing exoplanet habitability. Early considerations indicated that conditions on RD planets would be inimical to life, as their Habitable Zones (where liquid water could exist) would be so close as to make planets tidally locked to their star. This was thought to cause an erratic climate and expose life forms to flares of ionizing radiation. Recent calculations show that these negative factors are less severe than originally thought. It has been argued that the lesser photon energy of the radiation of the relatively cool RD...

  12. Effective stellar flux calculations for limits of life-supporting zones of exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, W.; Eggl, S.; Neubauer, D.; Leitner, J.; Firneis, M. G.; Hitzenberger, R.

    2016-06-01

    Habitable zones (HZ) are key concepts in the quest for finding extrasolar planets that may host life as we know it. HZs encompass regions around a star that would allow for liquid water to be present on the surface of a rocky planet. However, water may not be the only solvent capable of producing and sustaining biospheres, so the concept of life-supporting zones (LSZs) was introduced as a generalization of the classical HZ for a broader range of solvents. The aim of this work is to offer a straightforward means of calculating LSZs similar to those presented by Kopparapu et al. for the HZ. We used a 1D radiative convective model to determine LSZ limits for water/ammonia mixtures and sulphuric acid. A simplified cloud model was used for offline sulphuric acid cloud simulation. Water clouds were accounted for by variations of surface albedo values. Compared to recently updated results by Kopparapu et al., our results lie well within the uncertainty range of the Toon algorithm for flux calculations. We found an inner limit of the LSZ closer and an outer limit further away from the star than the limits for the HZ would be. Recently discovered exoplanets (like Kepler 452-b) are shown to be positioned very well in the LSZ. The concept of LSZs adds additional perspectives to an exoplanet's ability to maintain life on its surface.

  13. Hydroponics Database and Handbook for the Advanced Life Support Test Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Allen J.

    1999-01-01

    During the summer 1998, I did student assistance to Dr. Daniel J. Barta, chief plant growth expert at Johnson Space Center - NASA. We established the preliminary stages of a hydroponic crop growth database for the Advanced Life Support Systems Integration Test Bed, otherwise referred to as BIO-Plex (Biological Planetary Life Support Systems Test Complex). The database summarizes information from published technical papers by plant growth experts, and it includes bibliographical, environmental and harvest information based on plant growth under varying environmental conditions. I collected 84 lettuce entries, 14 soybean, 49 sweet potato, 16 wheat, 237 white potato, and 26 mix crop entries. The list will grow with the publication of new research. This database will be integrated with a search and systems analysis computer program that will cross-reference multiple parameters to determine optimum edible yield under varying parameters. Also, we have made preliminary effort to put together a crop handbook for BIO-Plex plant growth management. It will be a collection of information obtained from experts who provided recommendations on a particular crop's growing conditions. It includes bibliographic, environmental, nutrient solution, potential yield, harvest nutritional, and propagation procedure information. This handbook will stand as the baseline growth conditions for the first set of experiments in the BIO-Plex facility.

  14. Modeling the growth dynamics of four candidate crops for Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Tyler

    1987-01-01

    The production of food for human life support for advanced space missions will require the management of many different crops. The research to design these food production capabilities along with the waste management to recycle human metabolic wastes and inedible plant components are parts of Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS). Since complete operating CELSS were not yet built, a useful adjunct to the research developing the various pieces of a CELSS are system simulation models that can examine what is currently known about the possible assembly of subsystems into a full CELSS. The growth dynamics of four crops (wheat, soybeans, potatoes, and lettuce) are examined for their general similarities and differences within the context of their important effects upon the dynamics of the gases, liquids, and solids in the CELSS. Data for the four crops currently under active research in the CELSS program using high-production hydroponics are presented. Two differential equations are developed and applied to the general characteristics of each crop growth pattern. Model parameters are determined by closely approximating each crop's data.

  15. Environmental Control and Life Support System Reliability for Long-Duration Missions Beyond Lower Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargusingh, Miriam J.; Nelson, Jason R.

    2014-01-01

    NASA has highlighted reliability as critical to future human space exploration, particularly in the area of environmental controls and life support systems. The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) projects have been encouraged to pursue higher reliability components and systems as part of technology development plans. However, no consensus has been reached on what is meant by improving on reliability, or on how to assess reliability within the AES projects. This became apparent when trying to assess reliability as one of several figures of merit for a regenerable water architecture trade study. In the spring of 2013, the AES Water Recovery Project hosted a series of events at Johnson Space Center with the intended goal of establishing a common language and understanding of NASA's reliability goals, and equipping the projects with acceptable means of assessing the respective systems. This campaign included an educational series in which experts from across the agency and academia provided information on terminology, tools, and techniques associated with evaluating and designing for system reliability. The campaign culminated in a workshop that included members of the Environmental Control and Life Support System and AES communities. The goal of this workshop was to develop a consensus on what reliability means to AES and identify methods for assessing low- to mid-technology readiness level technologies for reliability. This paper details the results of that workshop.

  16. Knowledge of the Portuguese population on Basic Life Support and availability to attend training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria dos Anjos Coelho Rodrigues Dixe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVETo evaluate the level of knowledge and the availability of the Portuguese population to attend training in Basic Life Support (BLS and identify factors related to their level of knowledge about BLS.METHODObservational study including 1,700 people who responded to a questionnaire containing data on demography, profession, training, interest in training and knowledge about BLS.RESULTSAmong 754 men and 943 women, only 17.8% (303 attended a course on BLS, but 95.6% expressed willingness to carry out the training. On average, they did not show good levels of knowledge on basic life support (correct answers in 25.9 ± 11.5 of the 64 indicators. Male, older respondents who had the training and those who performed BLS gave more correct answers, on average (p<0.01.CONCLUSIONThe skill levels of the Portuguese population are low, but people are available for training, hence it is important to develop training courses and practice to improve their knowledge.

  17. Work–Life Integration and Workplace Rights for Domestic Workers in Support to Elderly Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane-Gabrielle Tremblay

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Our article shows that there is a real challenge in balancing work and family for employees working in support services in domestic work for elderly persons; their workplace rights on this issue are quite limited, and they depend largely on managers’ understanding and support. Given their difficult working conditions, these workers actually find quite a challenge in trying to reconcile work and family. Our article is based on a qualitative research mobilizing 33 semi-structured interviews with employees of the home care sector in the field of the social economy mainly but also in the private sector. We first present the concept of work–family and personal life, then the area of home care and domestic work for the elderly. Then, we present the particular challenges observed in reconciling work and family life, where possible by comparing men and women. The results highlight two major sources of differentiation: age and single parenthood. Those who are older highlight the fact that children have grown up, and they have (finally some time for themselves, even if their working conditions are difficult (broken schedules, etc.. In contrast, single women live a much more difficult situation concerning work–family, partly because of the lack of workplace rights on this issue and because of the poor working conditions for many (broken hours of work, low wages, difficult working conditions. We conclude with some recommendations, including the Right to request, which appears to be the best option, although it would need some further analysis.

  18. Architectures and Evaluation for Adjustable Control Autonomy for Space-Based Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schreckenghost, Debra K.

    2001-01-01

    In the past five years, a number of automation applications for control of crew life support systems have been developed and evaluated in the Adjustable Autonomy Testbed at NASA's Johnson Space Center. This paper surveys progress on an adjustable autonomous control architecture for situations where software and human operators work together to manage anomalies and other system problems. When problems occur, the level of control autonomy can be adjusted, so that operators and software agents can work together on diagnosis and recovery. In 1997 adjustable autonomy software was developed to manage gas transfer and storage in a closed life support test. Four crewmembers lived and worked in a chamber for 91 days, with both air and water recycling. CO2 was converted to O2 by gas processing systems and wheat crops. With the automation software, significantly fewer hours were spent monitoring operations. System-level validation testing of the software by interactive hybrid simulation revealed problems both in software requirements and implementation. Since that time, we have been developing multi-agent approaches for automation software and human operators, to cooperatively control systems and manage problems. Each new capability has been tested and demonstrated in realistic dynamic anomaly scenarios, using the hybrid simulation tool.

  19. Leveraging Available Data to Support Extension of Transportation Packages Service Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, K.; Abramczyk, G.; Bellamy, S.; Daugherty, W.; Hackney, B.; Hoffman, E.; Skidmore, E.; Stefek, T.

    2012-06-12

    Data obtained from testing shipping package materials have been leveraged to support extending the service life of select shipping packages while in nuclear materials transportation. Increasingly, nuclear material inventories are being transferred to an interim storage location where they will reside for extended periods of time. Use of a shipping package to store nuclear materials in an interim storage location has become more attractive for a variety of reasons. Shipping packages are robust and have a qualified pedigree for their performance in normal operation and accident conditions within the approved shipment period and storing nuclear material within a shipping package results in reduced operations for the storage facility. However, the shipping package materials of construction must maintain a level of integrity as specified by the safety basis of the storage facility through the duration of the storage period, which is typically well beyond the one year transportation window. Test programs have been established to obtain aging data on materials of construction that are the most sensitive/susceptible to aging in certain shipping package designs. The collective data are being used to support extending the service life of shipping packages in both transportation and storage.

  20. Effect of Advanced Trauma Life Support program on medical interns' performance in simulated trauma patient management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadi Koorosh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: Since appropriate and time-table methods in trauma care have an important impact on patients’ outcome, we evaluated the effect of Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS program on medical interns' performance in simulated trauma patient management. Methods: A descriptive and analytical study before and after the training was conducted on 24 randomly se-lected undergraduate medical interns from Imam Reza Hos-pital in Mashhad, Iran. On the first day, we assessed in-terns' clinical knowledge and their practical skill performance in confronting simulated trauma patients. After 2 days of ATLS training, we performed the same study and evaluated their score again on the fourth day. The two findings, pre-and post- ATLS periods, were compared through SPSS ver-sion 15.0 software. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Our findings showed that interns’ ability in all the three tasks improved after the training course. On the fourth day after training, there was a statistically significant increase in interns' clinical knowledge of ATLS procedures, the sequence of procedures and skill performance in trauma situations (P<0.001, P=0.016 and P=0.01 respectively. Conclusion: ATLS course has an important role in increasing clinical knowledge and practical skill performance of trauma care in medical interns. Key words: Advanced Trauma Life Support Care; Knowledge; Inservice training; Wounds and injuries

  1. Awareness of basic life support among medical, dental, nursing students and doctors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanta Chandrasekaran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the awareness of Basic Life Support (BLS among students, doctors and nurses of medical, dental, homeopathy and nursing colleges. A cross-sectional study was conducted by assessing responses to 20 selected basic questions regarding BLS among students, doctors and nurses of medical, dental, homeopathy and nursing colleges. After excluding the incomplete response forms the data was analysed on 1,054 responders. The results were analysed using an answer key prepared with the use of the Advanced Cardiac Life Support manual. Out of 1,054 responders 345 were medical students, 75 were medical interns, 19 were dental students, 59 were dental interns, 105 were homeopathy interns, 319 were nursing students, 72 were doctors, 29 were dentists, 25 were nursing faculty and six were homeopathy doctors. No one among them had complete knowledge of BLS. Only two out of 1054 (0.19% had secured 80 - 89% marks, 10 out of 1054 (0.95% had secured 70 - 79% marks, 40 of 1054 (4.08% had secured 60 - 69% marks and 105 of 1054 (9.96% had secured 50 - 59% marks. A majority of them, that is, 894 (84.82% had secured less than 50% marks. Awareness of BLS among students, doctors and nurses of medical, dental, homeopathy and nursing colleges is very poor.

  2. Requirements Development Issues for Advanced Life Support Systems: Solid Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levri, Julie A.; Fisher, John W.; Alazraki, Michael P.; Hogan, John A.

    2002-01-01

    Long duration missions pose substantial new challenges for solid waste management in Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems. These possibly include storing large volumes of waste material in a safe manner, rendering wastes stable or sterilized for extended periods of time, and/or processing wastes for recovery of vital resources. This is further complicated because future missions remain ill-defined with respect to waste stream quantity, composition and generation schedule. Without definitive knowledge of this information, development of requirements is hampered. Additionally, even if waste streams were well characterized, other operational and processing needs require clarification (e.g. resource recovery requirements, planetary protection constraints). Therefore, the development of solid waste management (SWM) subsystem requirements for long duration space missions is an inherently uncertain, complex and iterative process. The intent of this paper is to address some of the difficulties in writing requirements for missions that are not completely defined. This paper discusses an approach and motivation for ALS SWM requirements development, the characteristics of effective requirements, and the presence of those characteristics in requirements that are developed for uncertain missions. Associated drivers for life support system technological capability are also presented. A general means of requirements forecasting is discussed, including successive modification of requirements and the need to consider requirements integration among subsystems.

  3. Integrating mental health into cardiovascular disease research in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Gitanjali; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2012-01-01

    Mental health refers to a diverse field where individuals can cope with daily stress, realize their potential and maintain a state of well-being. In recent years, there has been increasing recognition of the influence of mental health on general health, and in particular on cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors. Epidemiological research has focused on several psychosocial components including social determinants, comorbid psychiatric disorders, psychological stress, coping styles, social support, burden on the family, well-being, life satisfaction, personality and cognitive factors in connection with cardiovascular diseases. There is epidemiological research in India that integrates mental health with common cardiovascular diseases such as coronary health disease and stroke. Data from mental health research is sufficiently compelling to highlight the role of chronic stress, socioeconomic status and psychiatric disorders such as depression, substance use, social networks and support in relation to vulnerability to cardiovascular diseases. There are psychosocial consequences of cardiovascular diseases including deficits in the domains of life skills, coping skills and neurocognition, in addition to caregiver burden. The implications of bio-psychosocial models of assessments and interventions that target complex individual and contextual variables simultaneously on cardiovascular treatment outcomes have highlighted the importance of studying mental health in Indian settings. Integration of mental health into mainstream research is the need of the hour. A multidimensional approach to accomplish this is required including at the level of research conceptualization, discussions with key stakeholders, at the policy level, at the institutional level, and at the clinical and community level.

  4. Regenerable Sorbent for Combined CO2, Water, and Trace-Contaminant Capture in the Primary Life Support System (PLSS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA objective of expanding the human experience into the far reaches of space requires the development of regenerable life support systems. This proposal...

  5. Prediction of Quality of Life of Non–Insulin-Dependent Diabetic Patients Based on Perceived Social Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Shareh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to predic quality of life based on perceived social support components in non–insulin-dependent diabetic patients.Materials and Method: Fifty patients with non–insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus from Al-Zahra diabetic center in Shiraz participated in a cross-sectional study via survey instrument. All subjects completed multidimensional scale of perceived social support (MSPSS and world health organization quality of life- brief (WHOQOL-BREF questionnaires. Results: On the basis of stepwise multiple regression analysis friends and family dimensions of perceived social support were the best predictors of the quality of life and its dimensions (p<0.01.Conclusion: Friends and family dimensions of perceived social support have significant contributions in predicting quality of life of patients with non–insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

  6. The CELSS Antarctic Analog Project: An Advanced Life Support Testbed at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straight, Christian L.; Bubenheim, David L.; Bates, Maynard E.; Flynn, Michael T.

    1994-01-01

    CELSS Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP) represents a logical solution to the multiple objectives of both the NASA and the National Science Foundation (NSF). CAAP will result in direct transfer of proven technologies and systems, proven under the most rigorous of conditions, to the NSF and to society at large. This project goes beyond, as it must, the generally accepted scope of CELSS and life support systems including the issues of power generation, human dynamics, community systems, and training. CAAP provides a vivid and starkly realistic testbed of Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) and life support systems and methods. CAAP will also be critical in the development and validation of performance parameters for future advanced life support systems.

  7. Quality of life in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder: The predictive value of disability and support characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renty, J O; Roeyers, Herbert

    2006-09-01

    Although the concept of quality of life has increasingly been used in the field of intellectual disabilities over the past three decades, the factors contributing to quality of life of persons with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have received relatively little attention. In this study, disability and support characteristics associated with variations in the level of quality of life among adults with ASD are identified, using self-report measures. Fifty-eight high-functioning adults with ASD participated in the study. The results of a multiple linear regression analysis reveal that support characteristics are related to quality of life in adults with ASD, whereas disability characteristics are not. The R2 effect size (0.620) is large and significant. The results reinforce the significance of an available supportive social network, the importance of a substantial needs assessment and effective professional support.

  8. Triglycerides and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Varbo, Anette

    2014-01-01

    cholesterol might not cause cardiovascular disease as originally thought has now generated renewed interest in raised concentrations of triglycerides. This renewed interest has also been driven by epidemiological and genetic evidence supporting raised triglycerides, remnant cholesterol, or triglyceride......-rich lipoproteins as an additional cause of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Triglycerides can be measured in the non-fasting or fasting states, with concentrations of 2-10 mmol/L conferring increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and concentrations greater than 10 mmol/L conferring increased risk...... of acute pancreatitis and possibly cardiovascular disease. Although randomised trials showing cardiovascular benefit of triglyceride reduction are scarce, new triglyceride-lowering drugs are being developed, and large-scale trials have been initiated that will hopefully provide conclusive evidence...

  9. Soybean cultivar selection for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSS) - Theoretical selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Micco, Veronica; Buonomo, Roberta; Paradiso, Roberta; De Pascale, Stefania; Aronne, Giovanna

    2012-05-01

    The development of plant-based Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSS) is a requirement for the realization of long-duration exploratory-class manned missions in so far as they help fulfilling astronauts' needs including nutritional demands, air regeneration and psychological support. The program ESA - MELiSSA (European Space Agency - Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative) aims to conceive an artificial bioregenerative ecosystem based on both microorganisms and higher plants. Soybean is one of the four crops studied within this program as a candidate for cultivation in forthcoming BLSS. Within this project, the aim of this study was to develop a methodology for the selection of soybean candidate cultivars for BLSS. Our scope was to identify an objective and repeatable procedure to choose the best cultivar at each time, overcoming the variability of the market supply. This purpose was pursued with an approach based on a two-steps procedure: (a) the development of an objective criterion for the selection of the most suitable soybean cultivars (cultivated varieties) based on theoretical considerations and (b) the behaviour evaluation of the 4 best cultivars with a cultivation trial in a controlled environment. In this paper, we report the first phase of the selection procedure. We started with a literature survey to look for data about environmental needs, potential yields and nutritional traits of soybean cultivars already tested in cultivation trials (disregarding Gene Modified Organisms). Afterwards, a preliminary screening based on information about the main European companies and the most commercialized cultivars, as well as on the criteria suggested by ESA, allowed to select 93 cultivars among the 297 admitted in EU. Finally, an algorithm, based on the relevance of each considered characteristic, was created to attribute a score to each cultivar and to rank it for the identification of the best cultivars for subsequent cultivation trials.

  10. Wnt/β-Catenin Stimulation and Laminins Support Cardiovascular Cell Progenitor Expansion from Human Fetal Cardiac Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Månsson-Broberg, Agneta; Rodin, Sergey; Bulatovic, Ivana; Ibarra, Cristián; Löfling, Marie; Genead, Rami; Wärdell, Eva; Felldin, Ulrika; Granath, Carl; Alici, Evren; Le Blanc, Katarina; Smith, C I Edvard; Salašová, Alena; Westgren, Magnus; Sundström, Erik; Uhlén, Per; Arenas, Ernest; Sylvén, Christer; Tryggvason, Karl; Corbascio, Matthias; Simonson, Oscar E; Österholm, Cecilia; Grinnemo, Karl-Henrik

    2016-04-12

    The intrinsic regenerative capacity of human fetal cardiac mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) has not been fully characterized. Here we demonstrate that we can expand cells with characteristics of cardiovascular progenitor cells from the MSC population of human fetal hearts. Cells cultured on cardiac muscle laminin (LN)-based substrata in combination with stimulation of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway showed increased gene expression of ISL1, OCT4, KDR, and NKX2.5. The majority of cells stained positive for PDGFR-α, ISL1, and NKX2.5, and subpopulations also expressed the progenitor markers TBX18, KDR, c-KIT, and SSEA-1. Upon culture of the cardiac MSCs in differentiation media and on relevant LNs, portions of the cells differentiated into spontaneously beating cardiomyocytes, and endothelial and smooth muscle-like cells. Our protocol for large-scale culture of human fetal cardiac MSCs enables future exploration of the regenerative functions of these cells in the context of myocardial injury in vitro and in vivo.

  11. Wnt/β-Catenin Stimulation and Laminins Support Cardiovascular Cell Progenitor Expansion from Human Fetal Cardiac Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agneta Månsson-Broberg

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The intrinsic regenerative capacity of human fetal cardiac mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs has not been fully characterized. Here we demonstrate that we can expand cells with characteristics of cardiovascular progenitor cells from the MSC population of human fetal hearts. Cells cultured on cardiac muscle laminin (LN-based substrata in combination with stimulation of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway showed increased gene expression of ISL1, OCT4, KDR, and NKX2.5. The majority of cells stained positive for PDGFR-α, ISL1, and NKX2.5, and subpopulations also expressed the progenitor markers TBX18, KDR, c-KIT, and SSEA-1. Upon culture of the cardiac MSCs in differentiation media and on relevant LNs, portions of the cells differentiated into spontaneously beating cardiomyocytes, and endothelial and smooth muscle-like cells. Our protocol for large-scale culture of human fetal cardiac MSCs enables future exploration of the regenerative functions of these cells in the context of myocardial injury in vitro and in vivo.

  12. Direct and Indirect Effects of Young Adults’ Relationship Status on Life Satisfaction through Loneliness and Perceived Social Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Adamczyk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the indirect effects of relationship status (single vs. in a relationship on life satisfaction through social and emotional (romantic and family loneliness and perceived social support from significant others, family, and friends. Five hundred and fifty three Polish young adults (335 females and 218 males, ranging in age from 20–30 years ('M' = 23.42, completed the Polish versions of the Satisfaction With Life Scale, the Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale for Adults, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. The results indicated that single individuals reported significantly lower satisfaction with life and social support from a significant other, but higher romantic and social loneliness, and higher family support compared to participants in a relationship. A path analysis revealed no direct effect of relationship status on satisfaction with life. However, there were significant indirect effects from relationship status to life satisfaction though romantic, family, and social loneliness, and through perceived social support from significant others and from family. Therefore, singlehood may be deleterious to life satisfaction because of the higher loneliness and lower social support from a significant other.

  13. Supporting Data Stewardship Throughout the Data Life Cycle in the Solid Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrini, V.; Lehnert, K. A.; Carbotte, S. M.; Hsu, L.

    2013-12-01

    Stewardship of scientific data is fundamental to enabling new data-driven research, and ensures preservation, accessibility, and quality of the data, yet researchers, especially in disciplines that typically generate and use small, but complex, heterogeneous, and unstructured datasets are challenged to fulfill increasing demands of properly managing their data. The IEDA Data Facility (www.iedadata.org) provides tools and services that support data stewardship throughout the full life cycle of observational data in the solid earth sciences, with a focus on the data management needs of individual researchers. IEDA builds upon and brings together over a decade of development and experiences of its component data systems, the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS, www.marine-geo.org) and EarthChem (www.earthchem.org). IEDA services include domain-focused data curation and synthesis, tools for data discovery, access, visualization and analysis, as well as investigator support services that include tools for data contribution, data publication services, and data compliance support. IEDA data synthesis efforts (e.g. PetDB and Global Multi-Resolution Topography (GMRT) Synthesis) focus on data integration and analysis while emphasizing provenance and attribution. IEDA's domain-focused data catalogs (e.g. MGDS and EarthChem Library) provide access to metadata-rich long-tail data complemented by extensive metadata including attribution information and links to related publications. IEDA's visualization and analysis tools (e.g. GeoMapApp) broaden access to earth science data for domain specialist and non-specialists alike, facilitating both interdisciplinary research and education and outreach efforts. As a disciplinary data repository, a key role IEDA plays is to coordinate with its user community and to bridge the requirements and standards for data curation with both the evolving needs of its science community and emerging technologies. Development of IEDA tools and services

  14. Salud de Corazon: Cultural Resources for Cardiovascular Health among Older Hispanic Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Adriana; Fleury, Julie; Shearer, Nelma

    2012-06-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in Hispanic women has been substantiated across studies. While many studies have focused on the impact of these risk factors, few qualitative studies have addressed cultural and contextual meanings of cardiovascular health promotion in this population. This research explored cultural resources for cardiovascular health promotion among older Hispanic women. A qualitative descriptive methodological design using focus groups with 7 Hispanic women was used. Culture provided an overarching perspective, guiding identification and choice of resources and supports in order to promote cardiovascular health. Themes included Living Tradition, Caring for Family, Connecting with Friends, Having Faith, and Moving as Life. Data provide an initial step toward generating a more complete understanding of perceived cultural resources for cardiovascular health in older Hispanic women. Researchers and clinicians are increasingly recognizing that individuals, families and communities uniquely define cultural and contextual meaning of cardiovascular health promotion.

  15. Social support during childhood cancer treatment enhances quality of life at survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmina Castellano-Tejedor

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL in cancer has been related to several protective and risk factors such as perceived social support (PSS and coping. However, their effects on HRQoL once patients are in survivorship have not been fully described in pediatric samples. Objective: To describe and explore the relationship between HRQoL in survivorship and some factors (PSS, coping present while active treatment. Methods: Cross-sectional study. Forty-one pediatric cancer survivors answered HRQoL measures referred to survivorship, as well as PSS and coping measures referred to treatment period. Results: The discriminant function obtained succeeds to correctly classify 78% of the sample. Survivors who showed high HRQoL were those who, in the hardest moment while hospitalization, perceived satisfactory emotional support (from nurses and did not deploy a wide range of active coping resources to cope with stressful events (only social action coping strategy showed a significant relationship with HRQoL. Conclusions and implications: Considering these outcomes, educational and counseling interventions to strengthen patients' social networks and supportive relationships are recommended, specially, among health providers (nurses. These results highlight the importance of not overlooking opportunities to address the emotional needs of patients while hospitalization, since a positive and endurable effect has been observed at survivorship.

  16. Effects of professional support on nausea, vomiting, and quality of life during early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei-Chun; Kuo, Shih-Hsien; Lin, Chao-Po; Yang, Yung-Mei; Chou, Fan-Hao; Yang, Yi-Hsin

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a professional support (PS) intervention (including individualized health education and supportive phone calls) in reducing the severity of nausea and vomiting (NV) and improving the quality of life (QOL) of women in early pregnancy. An experimental pretest/posttest design with a control group was used. Participants were recruited from a regional teaching hospital in southern Taiwan. The women in the experimental group (n = 40) received the PS intervention, while those in the control group (n = 39) only received routine nursing care. Analysis of covariance and mixed models were used to compare the experimental and control groups while adjusting for covariates. The severity of NV and the perceived level of symptom distress were significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group during weeks 2 and 4, and the women in the experimental group showed a significant improvement in their QOL in week 4 (p < .05). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups in body weight at week 4 (p = .501). These findings provide empirical evidence in support of the effectiveness of PS in reducing the severity of NV and improving QOL for women during early pregnancy. This intervention could be routinely applied in prenatal nursing health education. Future studies could apply the concept of PS to different populations and health issues.

  17. Space Suit Portable Life Support System Test Bed (PLSS 1.0) Development and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Carly; Campbell, Colin; Vogel, Matthew; Conger, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    A multi-year effort has been carried out at NASA-JSC to develop an advanced extra-vehicular activity Portable Life Support System (PLSS) design intended to further the current state of the art by increasing operational flexibility, reducing consumables, and increasing robustness. Previous efforts have focused on modeling and analyzing the advanced PLSS architecture, as well as developing key enabling technologies. Like the current International Space Station Extra-vehicular Mobility Unit PLSS, the advanced PLSS comprises three subsystems required to sustain the crew during extra-vehicular activity including the Thermal, Ventilation, and Oxygen Subsystems. This multi-year effort has culminated in the construction and operation of PLSS 1.0, a test bed that simulates full functionality of the advanced PLSS design. PLSS 1.0 integrates commercial off the shelf hardware with prototype technology development components, including the primary and secondary oxygen regulators, Ventilation Subsystem fan, Rapid Cycle Amine swingbed carbon dioxide and water vapor removal device, and Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator heat rejection device. The overall PLSS 1.0 test objective was to demonstrate the capability of the Advanced PLSS to provide key life support functions including suit pressure regulation, carbon dioxide and water vapor removal, thermal control and contingency purge operations. Supplying oxygen was not one of the specific life support functions because the PLSS 1.0 test was not oxygen rated. Nitrogen was used for the working gas. Additional test objectives were to confirm PLSS technology development components performance within an integrated test bed, identify unexpected system level interactions, and map the PLSS 1.0 performance with respect to key variables such as crewmember metabolic rate and suit pressure. Successful PLSS 1.0 testing completed 168 test points over 44 days of testing and produced a large database of test results that characterize system level

  18. Preliminary results of Physiological plant growth modelling for human life support in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidharan L, Swathy; Dussap, Claude-Gilles; Hezard, Pauline

    2012-07-01

    Human life support is fundamental and crucial in any kind of space explorations. MELiSSA project of European Space Agency aims at developing a closed, artificial ecological life support system involving human, plants and micro organisms. Consuming carbon dioxide and water from the life support system, plants grow in one of the chambers and convert it into food and oxygen along with potable water. The environmental conditions, nutrient availability and its consumption of plants should be studied and necessarily modeled to predict the amount of food, oxygen and water with respect to the environmental changes and limitations. The reliability of a completely closed system mainly depends on the control laws and strategies used. An efficient control can occur, only if the system to control is itself well known, described and ideally if the responses of the system to environmental changes are predictable. In this aspect, the general structure of plant growth model has been designed together with physiological modelling.The physiological model consists of metabolic models of leaves, stem and roots, of which concern specific metabolisms of the associated plant parts. On the basis of the carbon source transport (eg. sucrose) through stem, the metabolic models (leaf and root) can be interconnected to each other and finally coupled to obtain the entire plant model. For the first step, leaf metabolic model network was built using stoichiometric, mass and energy balanced metabolic equations under steady state approach considering all necessary plant pathways for growth and maintenance of leaves. As the experimental data for lettuce plants grown in closed and controlled environmental chambers were available, the leaf metabolic model has been established for lettuce leaves. The constructed metabolic network is analyzed using known stoichiometric metabolic technique called metabolic flux analysis (MFA). Though, the leaf metabolic model alone is not sufficient to achieve the

  19. Exercise hemodynamics during extended continuous flow left ventricular assist device support: the response of systemic cardiovascular parameters and pump performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martina, Jerson; de Jonge, Nicolaas; Rutten, Marcel; Kirkels, J Hans; Klöpping, Corinne; Rodermans, Ben; Sukkel, Eveline; Hulstein, Nelienke; Mol, Bas; Lahpor, Jaap

    2013-09-01

    Patients on continuous flow left ventricular assist devices (cf-LVADs) are able to return to an active lifestyle and perform all sorts of physical activities. This study aims to evaluate exercise hemodynamics in patients with a HeartMate II cf-LVAD (HM II). Thirty (30) patients underwent a bicycle exercise test. Along with exercise capacity, systemic cardiovascular responses and pump performance were evaluated at 6 and 12 months after HM II implantation. From rest to maximum exercise, heart rate increased from 87 ± 14 to 140 ± 32 beats/minute (bpm) (P<0.01), while systolic arterial blood pressure increased from 93 ± 12 to 116 ± 21 mm Hg (P<0.01). Total cardiac output (TCO) increased from 4.1 ± 1.1 to 8.5 ± 2.8 L/min (P<0.01) while pump flow increased less, from 5.1 ± 0.7 to 6.4 ± 0.6 L/min (P<0.01). Systemic vascular resistance (SVR) decreased from 1776 ± 750 to 1013 ± 83 dynes.s/cm(5) (P<0.001) and showed the strongest correlation with TCO (r= -0.72; P<0.01). Exercise capacity was affected by older age, while blood pressure increased significantly in men compared with women. Exercise capacity remained consistent at 6 and 12 months after HM II implantation, 51% ± 13% and 52% ± 13% of predicted VO2 max for normal subjects corrected for age and gender. In conclusion, pump flow of the HM II may contribute partially to TCO during exercise, while SVR was the strongest determinant of TCO.

  20. CARDIOVASCULAR RISK ASSESSMENT AND SUPPORT TECHNIQUES Whole blood viscosity assessment issues I: Extrapolation chart and reference values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezekiel Uba Nwose

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are many different methods for the assessment of whole blood viscosity, but not every pathology unit has equipment for any of the methods. However, a validated arithmetic method exists whereby whole blood viscosity can be extrapolated from haematocrit and total serum proteins. Aims: The objective of this work is to develop an algorithm in the form of a chart by which clinicians can easily extrapolate whole blood viscosity values in their consulting rooms or on the ward. Another objective is to suggest normal, subnormal and critical reference ranges applicable to this method. Materials and Methods: Whole blood viscosity at high shear stress was determined, from various possible pairs of haematocrit and total proteins. A chart was formulated so that whole blood viscosity can be extrapolated. After determination of two standard deviations from the mean and ascertainment of symmetric distribution, normal and abnormal reference ranges were defined. Results: The clinicians’ user-friendly chart is presented. Considering presumptive lower and upper limits, the continuum of ≤14.28, 14.29 – 15.00, 15.01 – 19.01, 19.02 – 19.39 and ≥19.40 (208 Sec-1 is obtained as reference ranges for critically low, subnormal low, normal, subnormal high and critically high whole blood viscosity levels respectively. Conclusion: This article advances a validated method to provide a user-friendly chart that would enable clinicians to assess whole blood viscosity for any patients who has results for full blood count and total proteins. It would make the assessment of whole blood viscosity costless and the neglect of a known cardiovascular risk factor less excusable.

  1. Cardiovascular comorbiditiy in psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurcharan Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The chronic inflammatory nature of psoriasis is also thought to predispose patients to other diseases with an inflammatory component, the most notable being cardiovascular and metabolic (cardiometabolite disorders. This concept is supported by studies showing that psoriasis is associated with cardiovascular risk factors like diabetes, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking and diseases including MI. Given the increased prevalence of cardiovascular co morbidities in patients, dermatologists treating psoriasis need to approach the disease as a potentially multisystem disorder and must alert these patients to the potentially negative effects of their disease.

  2. Space Technology Game Changing Development- Next Generation Life Support: Spacecraft Oxygen Recovery (SCOR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Morgan; Barta, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The Next Generation Life Support Spacecraft Oxygen Recovery (SCOR) project element is dedicated to developing technology that enables oxygen recovery from metabolically produced carbon dioxide in space habitats. The state-of-the-art system on the International Space Station uses Sabatier technology to recover (is) approximately 50% oxygen from carbon dioxide. The remaining oxygen required for crew respiration is supplied from Earth. For long duration manned missions beyond low-Earth orbit, resupply of oxygen becomes economically and logistically prohibitive. To mitigate these challenges, the SCOR project element is targeting development of technology to increase the recovery of oxygen to 75% or more, thereby reducing the total oxygen resupply required for future missions.

  3. Element exchange in a water-and gas-closed biological life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribovskaya, I. V.; Kudenko, Yu. A.; Gitelson, J. I.

    1997-01-01

    Liquid human wastes and household water used for nutrition of wheat made possible to realize 24% closure for the mineral exchange in an experiment with a 2-component version of ``Bios-3'' life support system (LSS) Input-output balances of revealed, that elements (primarily trace elements) within the system. The structural materials (steel, titanium), expanded clay aggregate, and catalytic furnace catalysts. By the end of experiment, the permanent nutrient solution, plants, and the human diet gradually built up Ni, Cr, Al, Fe, V, Zn, Cu, and Mo. Thorough selection and pretreatment of materials can substantially reduce this accumulation. To enhance closure of the mineral exchange involves processing of human- metabolic wastes and inedible biomes inside LSS. An efficient method to oxidize wastes by hydrogen peroxide in a quartz reactor at the temperature of 80 degC controlled electromagnetic field is proposed.

  4. Micropollutants in closed life-support systems: the case of triclosan, a biocide excreted via urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroleo, Felice; Pycke, Benny; Boon, Nico; de Wever, Heleen; Hendrickx, Larissa; Mastroleo, Felice; Wattiez, Ruddy; Mergeay, Max; Verstraete, Willy

    OBJECTIVES: The impact of triclosan on the growth and physiology of the bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum was studied in the frame of the regenerative life-support system, Micro- Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA). A wide range of compounds, such as steroid hormones, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, might enter the life support system via the excrements that are to be treated and recycled. Triclosan was chosen as the first compound to be tested because MELiSSA is a closed system, which is consequently particularly sensitive to compounds inhibiting the microbial metabolism. Because triclosan is increasingly used as an antimicrobial biocide in hygienic formulations (such as toothpaste, mouthwash, deodorants, etc.) and due to its chemical stability, it is considered an emerging pollutant in terrestrial ecosystems. METHODS: In a first phase, the triclosan concentration expected in the life-support system was estimated, the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was determined via plating, and the effect on growth kinetics was assessed by comparing growth parameters in the Gompertz model. In a second phase, the secondary effects of triclosan on cell physiology and gene expression were studied through flow-cytometry and microarray analyses, respectively. RESULTS: Based on the pharmacokinetic data from literature, the predicted concentration range is estimated to be 6-25µg/L triclosan in the Rhodospirillum rubrum compartment of the MELiSSA. The minimal inhibitory concentration of triclosan was determined to be 71 µg/L after 7 days of exposure on Sistrom medium. Upon exposure to 50-200µg/L triclosan, triclosan-resistant mutants of Rhodospirillum rubrum arose spontaneously at high frequency (3.1 ∗ 10 - 4). Analysis of the growth kinetics of the wild-type revealed that triclosan causes an important elongation of the lag-phase and a decrease in growth rate. At concentrations higher than 75mg/L(LD = 500mg/L), triclosan is bactericidal to wild

  5. Humidifier Development and Applicability to the Next Generation Portable Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Bruce C.; Barnes, Bruce G.; Sompayrac, Robert G.; Paul, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    A development effort at the NASA Johnson Space Center investigated technologies to determine whether a humidifier would be required in the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) envisioned for future exploration missions. The humidifier has been included in the baseline PLSS schematic since performance testing of the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) indicates that the RCA over-dries the ventilation gas stream. Performance tests of a developmental humidifier unit and commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) units were conducted in December 2009. Following these tests, NASA revisited the need for a humidifier via system analysis. Results of this investigation indicate that it is feasible to meet humidity requirements without the humidifier if other changes are made to the PLSS ventilation loop and the Liquid Cooling and Ventilation Garment (LCVG).

  6. Proposed Schematics for an Advanced Development Lunar Portable Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Bruce; Chullen, Cinda; Barnes, Bruce; Leavitt, Greg

    2010-01-01

    The latest development of the NASA space suit is an integrated assembly made up of primarily a Pressure Garment System (PGS) and a Portable Life Support System (PLSS). The PLSS is further composed of an oxygen (O2) subsystem, a ventilation subsystem, and a thermal subsystem. This paper baselines a detailed schematic of the PLSS to provide a basis for current and future PLSS development efforts. Both context diagrams and detailed schematics describe the hardware components and overall functions for all three of the PLSS subsystems. The various modes of operations for the PLSS are also presented. A comparison of the proposed PLSS to the Apollo and Shuttle PLSS designs is presented, highlighting several anticipated improvements over the historical PLSS architectures.

  7. Calcium bioavailability of vegetarian diets in rats: potential application in a bioregenerative life-support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, K. P.; Nielsen, S. S.; Smart, D. J.; Mitchell, C. A.; Belury, M. A.

    1997-01-01

    Calcium bioavailability of vegetarian diets containing various proportions of candidate crops for a controlled ecological life-support system (CELSS) was determined by femur 45Ca uptake. Three vegetarian diets and a control diet were labeled extrinsically with 45Ca and fed to 5-wk old male rats. A fifth group of rats fed an unlabeled control diet received an intraperitoneal (IP) injection of 45Ca. There was no significant difference in mean calcium absorption of vegetarian diets (90.80 +/- 5.23%) and control diet (87.85 +/- 5.25%) when calculated as the percent of an IP dose. The amounts of phytate, oxalate, and dietary fiber in the diets did not affect calcium absorption.

  8. Development of expanded extrusion food products for an Advanced Life Support system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasypkin, D V; Lee, T C

    1999-01-01

    Extrusion processing was proposed to provide texture and to expand the variety of cereal food products in an isolated Advanced Life Support (ALS) system. Rice, wheat, and soy are the baseline crops selected for growing during long-term manned space missions. A Brabender single-screw laboratory extruder (model 2003, L/D 20:1), equipped with round nozzles of various lengths, was used as a prototype of a small-size extruder. Several concepts were tested to extend the variety and improve the quality of the products, to decrease environmental loads, and to promote processing stability. These concepts include: the blending of wheat and soybean flour, the extrusion of a coarser rice flour, separation of wheat bran, and optimization of the extruder nozzle design. An optimal nozzle length has been established for the extrusion of rice flour. Bran separating was necessary to improve the quality of wheat extrudates.

  9. Fan Performance Testing and Oxygen Compatibility Assessment Results for Future Space Suit Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Heather L.; Jennings, Mallory A.; Vogel, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    An advanced portable life support system (PLSS) for the space suit will require a small, robust, and energyefficient system to transport the ventilation gas through the space suit for lunar Extravehicular Activity (EVA) operations. A trade study identified and compared ventilation transport technologies in commercial, military, and space applications to determine which technologies could be adapted for EVA use. Based on the trade study results, five commercially available, 24-volt fans were selected for performance testing at various pressures and flow rates. Measured fan parameters included fan delta-pressures, input voltages, input electrical currents, and in some cases motor windings electrical voltages and currents. In addition, a follow-on trade study was performed to identify oxygen compatibility issues and assess their impact on fan design. This paper outlines the results of the fan performance characterization testing, as well as the results from the oxygen compatibility assessment.

  10. Impact of an Advanced Cardiac Life Support Simulation Laboratory Experience on Pharmacy Student Confidence and Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Whitney D; Mohorn, Phillip L; Haney, Jason S; Phillips, Cynthia M; Lu, Z Kevin; Clark, Kimberly; Corboy, Alex; Ragucci, Kelly R

    2016-10-25

    Objective. To assess the impact of an advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) simulation on pharmacy student confidence and knowledge. Design. Third-year pharmacy students participated in a simulation experience that consisted of team roles training, high-fidelity ACLS simulations, and debriefing. Students completed a pre/postsimulation confidence and knowledge assessment. Assessment. Overall, student knowledge assessment scores and student confidence scores improved significantly. Student confidence and knowledge changes from baseline were not significantly correlated. Conversely, a significant, weak positive correlation between presimulation studying and both presimulation confidence and presimulation knowledge was discovered. Conclusions. Overall, student confidence and knowledge assessment scores in ACLS significantly improved from baseline; however, student confidence and knowledge were not significantly correlated.

  11. Human life support during interplanetary travel and domicile. III - Mars expedition system trade study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshan, P. K.; Ferrall, Joseph F.; Rohatgi, Naresh K.

    1991-01-01

    Several alternative configurations of life-support systems (LSSs) for a Mars missions are compared analytically on a quantitative basis in terms of weight, volume, and power. A baseline technology set is utilized for the illustrations of systems including totally open loop, carbon dioxide removal only, partially closed loop, and totally closed loop. The analytical model takes advantage of a modular, top-down hierarchical breakdown of LSS subsystems into functional elements that represent individual processing technologies. The open-loop systems are not competitive in terms of weight for both long-duration orbiters and short-duration lander vehicles, and power demands are lowest with the open loop and highest with the closed loop. The closed-loop system can reduce vehicle weight by over 70,000 lbs and thereby overcome the power penalty of 1600 W; the closed-loop variety is championed as the preferred system for a Mars expedition.

  12. The case for OBLS: a simulation-based obstetric life support program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Steven Seth; Daniels, Kay I; Arafeh, Julie; Halamek, Louis P

    2011-04-01

    Errors by health care professionals result in significant patient morbidity and mortality, and the labor and delivery ward is one of the highest risk areas in the hospital. Parturients today are of higher acuity than anytime previously, and maternal mortality is increasing. Obstetrical staff must therefore be familiar with emergency protocols geared to the maternal-fetal dyad. However, the medical literature suggests that obstetrical providers are not optimally trained to render care during maternal cardiopulmonary arrest. We describe the evolution of immersive learning and simulation in the Neonatal Resuscitation Program, and suggest the development of a multidisciplinary team, simulation-enhanced obstetric crisis training program (OBLS) may likewise benefit obstetrical health care professionals. OBLS would emphasize high quality basic life support, uterine displacement, use of an automatic external defibrillator, and delivery of the fetus within 5 minutes of maternal arrest should resuscitative efforts prove ineffective.

  13. Generic waste management requirements for a controlled ecological life support system /CELSS/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshizaki, T.; Hansen, B. D., III

    1981-01-01

    Regenerative life support systems for future space missions will require closure of the waste-food loop. Each mission application will generate specific requirements for the waste management system. However, there are generic input and output requirements that can be identified when a probable scenario is chosen. This paper discusses the generic requirements when higher plants are chosen as the primary food source. Attention is focused on the quality and quantity of nutrients necessary for culturing higher plants. The types of wastes to be processed are also discussed. In addition, requirements generated by growing plants on three different substrates are presented. This work suggests that the mineral composition of waste materials may require minimal adjustment to satisfy the plant requirements.

  14. Solid Waste Management Requirements Definition for Advanced Life Support Missions: Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazraki, Michael P.; Hogan, John; Levri, Julie; Fisher, John; Drysdale, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Prior to determining what Solid Waste Management (SWM) technologies should be researched and developed by the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Project for future missions, there is a need to define SWM requirements. Because future waste streams will be highly mission-dependent, missions need to be defined prior to developing SWM requirements. The SWM Working Group has used the mission architecture outlined in the System Integration, Modeling and Analysis (SIMA) Element Reference Missions Document (RMD) as a starting point in the requirement development process. The missions examined include the International Space Station (ISS), a Mars Dual Lander mission, and a Mars Base. The SWM Element has also identified common SWM functionalities needed for future missions. These functionalities include: acceptance, transport, processing, storage, monitoring and control, and disposal. Requirements in each of these six areas are currently being developed for the selected missions. This paper reviews the results of this ongoing effort and identifies mission-dependent resource recovery requirements.

  15. Node 3 Relocation Environmental Control and Life Support System Modification Kit Verification and Updated Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Spector Lawrence N.

    2010-01-01

    Node 1 (Unity) flew to International Space Station (ISS) on Flight 2A. Node 1 was the first module of the United States On-Orbit Segment (USOS) launched to ISS. The Node 1 ISS Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) design featured limited ECLS capability. The main purpose of Node 1 was to provide internal storage by providing four stowage rack locations within the module and to allow docking of multiple modules and a truss segment to it. The ECLS subsystems inside Node 1 were routed through the element prior to launch to allow for easy integration of the attached future elements, particularly the Habitation Module which was planned to be located at the nadir docking port of Node 1. After Node I was on-orbit, the Program decided not to launch the Habitation Module and instead, to replace it with Node 3 (Tranquility). In 2007, the Program became concerned with a potential Russian docking port approach issue for the Russian FGB nadir docking port after Node 3 is attached to Node 1. To solve this concern the Program decided to relocate Node 3 from Node I nadir to Node 1 port. To support the movement of Node 3 the Program decided to build a modification kit for Node 1, an on-orbit feedthrough leak test device, and new vestibule jumpers to support the ECLS part of the relocation. This paper provides a design overview of the modification kit for Node 1, a summary of the Node 1 ECLS re-verification to support the Node 3 relocation from Node 1 nadir to Node 1 port, and a status of the ECLS modification kit installation into Node 1.

  16. Health-Related Quality of Life Among Cancer Survivors Attending Support Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Elizabeth A; Castañeda, Sheila F; Gonzalez, Patricia; Rodríguez, Bárbara; Buelna, Christina; West, Demy; Talavera, Gregory A

    2015-09-01

    There is limited research on the relationship between Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and socioeconomic status (SES) among long-term cancer survivors. The goal of this study was to assess Global HRQoL among 102 adult cancer survivors attending support groups in San Diego County and to examine differences by SES and acculturation. Community-based participatory research methods were followed to recruit a purposive sample of English and Spanish-speaking adult cancer survivors attending cancer support groups. Self-report questionnaires assessing age, acculturation (i.e., language), SES (i.e., income and education), cancer history, and Global HRQoL measured by the FACT-G were administered. Multivariate regression examined the relationship between SES and acculturation with HRQoL, adjusting for covariates. Participants were 58.8 years on average (SD = 10.06) and varied in terms of SES. Most participants (91.5 %) were women, 51.7 % were non-Hispanic white, and 48.3 % were Hispanic/Latino. Global HRQoL scores in the study sample were lower compared to previously reported studies. After adjusting for covariates, SES and acculturation were not significantly related to HRQoL. Stage at diagnosis was significantly related to HRQoL measures in adjusted analyses. HRQoL did not vary by SES or acculturation. There is a need to increase access to linguistically and culturally appropriate cancer care and supportive care services. Future studies may find existing support group settings useful for targeting psychosocial issues for more advanced stage cancer survivors.

  17. Patients after colostomy: relationship between quality of life and acceptance of disability and social support

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Tie-ling; HU Ai-ling; XU Hong-lian; ZHENG Mei-chun; LIANG Ming-juan

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this research was to explore quality of life (QOL) and acceptance of disability and social support of colostomy patients as well as the relationship between these factors.Methods A descriptive,correlational study was conducted using four scales:the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Colorectal Cancer-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-CR38) scales,the Acceptance of Disability Scale (ADS),and the Social Relational Quality Scale (SRQS).A convenience sample of 111 colostomy patients from four hospitals in Guangzhou who underwent colostomy operation at least one month prior to the study and who visited the stoma clinic or association from August 2011 to February 2012 was evaluated for inclusion in the study.All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 17.0 software (SPSS Inc.,Chicago,IL,USA).Results The patients' general health status was better than the reference level recommended by European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer,and the overall ADS score was average.The SRQS score was similar to that found in a Hong Kong study.The general health status and dimensions of QOL were significantly correlated with ADS and all of its dimensions (P <0.05).The general health status and dimensions of QOL were also significantly correlated with SRQS and all of its dimensions (P <0.05).Conclusions QOL,acceptance of disability,and social relational quality of colostomy patients were closely related.Our results emphasize that patients should work to form rational values and close bonds with families and friends to achieve a better QOL.

  18. The Influence of Supports Strategies, Environmental Factors, and Client Characteristics on Quality of Life-Related Personal Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Claudia; Van Hove, Geert; Vandevelde, Stijn; van Loon, Jos; Schalock, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The concept of quality of life (QOL) is increasingly being used as a support provision and outcomes evaluation framework in the field of intellectual disability (ID). The present study used a hierarchical multiple regression research design to determine the role that available supports strategies, environmental factors, and client characteristics…

  19. Social support and life satisfaction in spinal cord injury during and up to one year after inpatient rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Christel M. C.; Post, Marcel W. M.; van Asbeck, Floris W. A.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; de Groot, Sonja; Lindeman, Eline

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe the course of social support in persons with recently acquired spinal cord injury, and to examine direct and indirect relationships between social support and life satisfaction over time. Design: A multi-centre prospective cohort study with measurements at the start of active

  20. Life Support Catalyst Regeneration Using Ionic Liquids and In Situ Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Morgan B.; Karr, Laurel; Paley, Mark S.; Donovan, David N.

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen recovery from metabolic carbon dioxide is an enabling capability for long-duration manned space flight. Complete recovery of oxygen (100%) involves the production of solid carbon. Catalytic approaches for this purpose, such as Bosch technology, have been limited in trade analyses due in part to the mass penalty for high catalyst resupply caused by carbon fouling of the iron or nickel catalyst. In an effort to mitigate this challenge, several technology approaches have been proposed. These approaches have included methods to prolong the life of the catalysts by increasing the total carbon mass loading per mass catalyst, methods for simplified catalyst introduction and removal to limit the resupply container mass, methods of using in situ resources, and methods to regenerate catalyst material. Research and development into these methods is ongoing, but only use of in situ resources and/or complete regeneration of catalyst material has the potential to entirely eliminate the need for resupply. The use of ionic liquids provides an opportunity to combine these methods in a technology approach designed to eliminate the need for resupply of oxygen recovery catalyst. Here we describe the results of an initial feasibility study using ionic liquids and in situ resources for life support catalyst regeneration, we discuss the key challenges with the approach, and we propose future efforts to advance the technology.

  1. Identifying changes in the support networks of end-of-life carers using social network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Rosemary; Horsfall, Debbie; Noonan, Kerrie

    2015-06-01

    End-of-life caring is often associated with reduced social networks for both the dying person and for the carer. However, those adopting a community participation and development approach, see the potential for the expansion and strengthening of networks. This paper uses Knox, Savage and Harvey's definitions of three generations social network analysis to analyse the caring networks of people with a terminal illness who are being cared for at home and identifies changes in these caring networks that occurred over the period of caring. Participatory network mapping of initial and current networks was used in nine focus groups. The analysis used key concepts from social network analysis (size, density, transitivity, betweenness and local clustering) together with qualitative analyses of the group's reflections on the maps. The results showed an increase in the size of the networks and that ties between the original members of the network strengthened. The qualitative data revealed the importance between core and peripheral network members and the diverse contributions of the network members. The research supports the value of third generation social network analysis and the potential for end-of-life caring to build social capital.

  2. Support vector machine based estimation of remaining useful life: current research status and future trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Hong Zhong; Wang, Hai Kun; Li, Yan Feng; Zhang, Longlong; Liu, Zhiliang [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu (China)

    2015-01-15

    Estimation of remaining useful life (RUL) is helpful to manage life cycles of machines and to reduce maintenance cost. Support vector machine (SVM) is a promising algorithm for estimation of RUL because it can easily process small training sets and multi-dimensional data. Many SVM based methods have been proposed to predict RUL of some key components. We did a literature review related to SVM based RUL estimation within a decade. The references reviewed are classified into two categories: improved SVM algorithms and their applications to RUL estimation. The latter category can be further divided into two types: one, to predict the condition state in the future and then build a relationship between state and RUL; two, to establish a direct relationship between current state and RUL. However, SVM is seldom used to track the degradation process and build an accurate relationship between the current health condition state and RUL. Based on the above review and summary, this paper points out that the ability to continually improve SVM, and obtain a novel idea for RUL prediction using SVM will be future works.

  3. Basic life support knowledge of first-year university students from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, S V; Margarido, M R R A; Caires, I S; Santos, R A N; Souza, S G; Souza, J M A; Martimiano, R R; Dutra, C S K; Palha, P; Zanetti, A C G; Pazin-Filho, A

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to evaluate knowledge of first aid among new undergraduates and whether it is affected by their chosen course. A questionnaire was developed to assess knowledge of how to activate the Mobile Emergency Attendance Service - MEAS (Serviço de Atendimento Móvel de Urgência; SAMU), recognize a pre-hospital emergency situation and the first aid required for cardiac arrest. The students were also asked about enrolling in a first aid course. Responses were received from 1038 of 1365 (76.04%) new undergraduates. The questionnaires were completed in a 2-week period 1 month after the beginning of classes. Of the 1038 respondents (59.5% studying biological sciences, 11.6% physical sciences, and 28.6% humanities), 58.5% knew how to activate the MEAS/SAMU (54.3% non-biological vs 61.4% biological, P=0.02), with an odds ratio (OR)=1.39 (95%CI=1.07-1.81) regardless of age, sex, origin, having a previous degree or having a relative with cardiac disease. The majority could distinguish emergency from non-emergency situations. When faced with a possible cardiac arrest, 17.7% of the students would perform chest compressions (15.5% non-biological vs 19.1% biological first-year university students, P=0.16) and 65.2% would enroll in a first aid course (51.1% non-biological vs 74.7% biological, PSAMU number and only a minority had sufficient basic life support skills to help with cardiac arrest. A significant proportion would not enroll in a first aid course. Biological first-year university students were more prone to enroll in a basic life support course.

  4. Methotrexate for immunosuppression in life-supporting pig-to-cynomolgus monkey renal xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, Emanuele; Cadrobbi, Roberto; Baldan, Nicola; Dedja, Arben; Calabrese, Fiorella; Castagnaro, Massimo; Fante, Fabio; Boldrin, Massimo; Iacopetti, Ilaria; Ravarotto, Licia; Carraro, Paolo; Bronte, Vincenzo; De Santo, Carmela; Busetto, Roberto; Plebani, Mario; Cancellotti, Francesco Maria; Rigotti, Paolo; Thiene, Gaetano; Ancona, Ermanno

    2003-11-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) has been used successfully as an immunosuppressant in rodent xenotransplantation models, but the data generated so far with MTX in pig-to-baboon cardiac transplantation studies have been disappointing. The potential of this agent was consequently explored in a life-supporting pig-to-primate renal model using the cynomolgus monkey as the recipient species. Introductory in vitro and in vivo pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies with MTX were conducted in three cynomolgus monkeys. Subsequently, 10 cynomolgus monkey recipients of a life-supporting kidney from human decay-accelerating factor transgenic pigs were administered MTX intravenously according to three different regimens. All the animals also received cyclosporine A and steroids. In addition, mycophenolate sodium (MPS) was administered post-operatively in two of the three groups of transplanted animals. At clinically relevant concentrations, MTX is able in vitro to inhibit the mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLR) in cynomolgus monkeys. After intravenous administration, moreover, exposure of cynomolgus monkeys to MTX appeared to be higher than had been previously reported in baboons. Graft function was observed in the transplanted animals, which survived from 0 to 41 days. All but two animals revealed acute humoral rejection in the explanted graft and developed diarrhea. Diarrhea was the cause of euthanasia in five cases. It was unrelated to the administration of MPS and associated with severe histopathological signs of enteritis. This study demonstrates that the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles if MTX vary substantially between non-human primate species. In vitro, MTX has immunosuppressive properties in the cynomolgus monkey at clinically relevant concentrations. In vivo, MTX has a very narrow therapeutic window in cynomolgus monkeys, however, as it does in baboons. We conclude that MTX is scarcely effective as an immunosuppressant, be it for induction or maintenance, in pig

  5. Chlorella vulgaris culture as a regulator of CO2 in a bioregenerative life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Hu, Dawei; Liu, Hong; Hu, Enzhu; Xie, Beizhen; Tong, Ling

    2013-08-01

    It is the primary task for a bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) to maintain the stable concentrations of CO2 and O2. However, these concentrations could fluctuate based on various factors, such as the imbalance between respiration/assimilation quotients of the heterotrophic and autotrophic components. They can even be out of balance through catastrophic failure of higher plants in the emergency conditions. In this study, the feasibility of using unicellular Chlorella vulgaris of typically rapid growth as both “compensatory system” and “regulator” to control the balance of CO2 and O2 was analyzed in a closed ecosystem. For this purpose, a small closed ecosystem called integrative experimental system (IES) was established in our laboratory where we have been conducting multi-biological life support system experiments (MLSSE). The IES consists of a closed integrative cultivating system (CICS) and a plate photo-bioreactor. Four volunteers participated in the study for gas exchange by periodical breathing through a tube connected with the CICS. The plate photo-bioreactor was used to cultivate C. vulgaris. Results showed that the culture of C. vulgaris could be used in a situation of catastrophic failure of higher plant under the emergencies. And the productivity could recover itself to the original state in 3 to 5 days to protect the system till the higher plant was renewed. Besides, C. vulgaris could grow well and the productivity could be affected by the light intensity which could help to keep the balance of CO2 and O2 in the IES efficiently. Thus, C. vulgaris could be included in the design of a BLSS as a “compensatory system” in the emergency contingency and a “regulator” during the normal maintenance.

  6. The culture of Chlorella vulgaris with human urine in multibiological life support system experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Liu, Hong; Tong, Ling; Fu, Yuming; He, Wenting; Hu, Enzhu; Hu, Dawei

    The Integrative Experimental System (IES) was established as a tool to evaluate the rela-tionship of the subsystems in Bioregenerative Life Support System, and Multibiological Life Support System Experiments (MLSSE) have been conducted in the IES. The IES consists of a higher plant chamber, an animal chamber and a plate photo bioreactor (PPB) which cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), silkworm (Bombyx Mori L.) and microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris), respectively. In MLSSE, four volunteers took turns breathing the system air through a tube connected with the animal chamber periodically. According to the CO2 concentration in the IES, the automotive control system of the PPB changed the light intensity regulating the photosynthesis of Chlorella vulgaris to make CO2 /O2 in the system maintain at stable levels. Chlorella vulgaris grew with human urine by carrying certain amount of alga liquid out of the bioreactor every day with synthetic urine replenished into the system, and O2 was regenerated, at the same time human urine was purified. Results showed that this IES worked stably and Chlorella vulgaris grew well; The culture of Chlorella vulgaris could be used to keep the balance of CO2 and O2 , and the change of light intensity could control the gas composition in the IES; Microalgae culture could be used in emergency in the system, the culture of Chlorella vulgaris could recover to original state in 5 days; 15.6 ml of condensation water was obtained every day by the culture of Chlorella vulgaris; The removal efficiencies of N, P in human urine could reach to 98.2% and 99.5%.

  7. Interdisciplinary psychosocial care for families with inherited cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caleshu, Colleen; Kasparian, Nadine A; Edwards, Katharine S; Yeates, Laura; Semsarian, Christopher; Perez, Marco; Ashley, Euan; Turner, Christian J; Knowles, Joshua W; Ingles, Jodie

    2016-10-01

    Inherited cardiovascular diseases pose unique and complex psychosocial challenges for families, including coming to terms with life-long cardiac disease, risk of sudden death, grief related to the sudden death of a loved one, activity restrictions, and inheritance risk to other family members. Psychosocial factors impact not only mental health but also physical health and cooperation with clinical recommendations. We describe an interdisciplinary approach to the care of families with inherited cardiovascular disease, in which psychological care provided by specialized cardiac genetic counselors, nurses, and psychologists is embedded within the cardiovascular care team. We report illustrative cases and the supporting literature to demonstrate common scenarios, as well as practical guidance for clinicians working in the inherited cardiovascular disease setting.

  8. Are Facebook "Friends" Helpful? Development of a Facebook-Based Measure of Social Support and Examination of Relationships Among Depression, Quality of Life, and Social Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Wilfred; Iwanicki, Sierra; Lauterbach, Dean; Giammittorio, David M; Maxwell, Kendal

    2015-09-01

    Greater social support is predictive of lower depression and higher quality of life (QOL). However, the way in which social support is provided has changed greatly with the expanding role of social networking sites (e.g., Facebook). While there are numerous anecdotal accounts of the benefits of Facebook-based social support, little empirical evidence exists to support these assertions, and there are no empirically validated measures designed to assess social support provided via this unique social networking medium. This study sought to develop an empirically sound measure of Facebook-based social support (Facebook Measure of Social Support [FMSS]) and to assess how this new measure relates to previously established measures of support and two outcome variables: depression and QOL. Following exploratory factor analysis, the FMSS was determined to assess four factors of social support on Facebook (Perceived, Emotional, Negative, Received/Instrumental). The Negative Support factor on the FMSS was most strongly related to both depression and QOL with magnitudes (and direction of relationships) comparable to a traditional measure of perceived social support. However, two FMSS factors (Received/Instrumental and Perceived) were unrelated to both mental health outcomes. Contrary to expectations, elevations in one FMSS factor (Emotional) was associated with worse symptoms of depression and poorer psychological QOL. When taken together, only the absence of negative social support on Facebook is significantly predictive of mental health functioning. Consequently, those hoping to use Facebook as a medium for reducing depression or improving QOL are unlikely to realize significant therapeutic benefits.

  9. Bioregenerative Life Support Systems Test Complex (Bio-Plex) Food Processing System: A Dual System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele; Vittadini, Elena; Peterson, Laurie J.; Swango, Beverly E.; Toerne, Mary E.; Russo, Dane M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A Bioregenerative Life Support Test Complex, BIO-Plex, is currently being constructed at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, TX. This facility will attempt to answer the questions involved in developing a lunar or planetary base. The Food Processing System (FPS) of the BIO-Plex is responsible for supplying food to the crew in coordination with the chosen mission scenario. Long duration space missions require development of both a Transit Food System and of a Lunar or Planetary Food System. These two systems are intrinsically different since the first one will be utilized in the transit vehicle in microgravity conditions with mostly resupplied foods, while the second will be used in conditions of partial gravity (hypogravity) to process foods from crops grown in the facility. The Transit Food System will consist of prepackaged food of extended shelf life. It will be supplemented with salad crops that will be consumed fresh. Microgravity imposes significant limitation on the ability to handle food and allows only for minimal processing. The challenge is to develop food systems similar to the International Space Station or Shuttle Food Systems but with a shelf life of 3 - 5 years. The Lunar or Planetary Food System will allow for food processing of crops due to the presence of some gravitational force (1/6 to 1/3 that of Earth). Crops such as wheat, soybean, rice, potato, peanut, and salad crops, will be processed to final products to provide a nutritious and acceptable diet for the crew. Not only are constraints imposed on the FPS from the crops (e.g., crop variation, availability, storage and shelf-life) but also significant requirements are present for the crew meals (e.g., RDA, high quality, safety, variety). The FPS becomes a fulcrum creating the right connection from crops to crew meals while dealing with issues of integration within a closed self-regenerative system (e.g., safe processing, waste production, volumes, air contaminations, water usage, etc

  10. Radiative Convective Transfer Calculations for Effective Stellar Fluxes of Habitable and Life Supporting Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Wolfgang; Eggl, Siegfried; Neubauer, David; Leitner, Johannes; Firneis, Maria; Hitzenberger, Regina

    2014-05-01

    Recent fields of interest in exoplanetary research include studies of potentially habitable planets orbiting stars outside of our Solar System. Habitable Zones (HZs) are currently defined by calculating the inner and the outer limits of the mean distance between exoplanets and their central stars based on effective solar fluxes that allow for maintaining liquid water on the planet's surface. Kasting et al. (1993), Selsis et al. (2007), and recently Kopparapu et al. (2013) provided stellar flux limits for such scenarios. We compute effective solar fluxes for Earth-like planets using Earth-like and other atmospheric scenarios including atmospheres with high level and low level clouds. Furthermore we provide habitability limits for solvents other than water, i.e. limits for the so called Life Supporting Zone, introduced by Leitner et al. (2010). The Life Supporting Zone (LSZ) encompasses many habitable zones based on a variety of liquid solvents. Solvents like ammonia and sulfuric acid have been identified for instance by Leitner et al (2012) as possibly life supporting. Assuming planets on circular orbits, the extent of the individual HZ is then calculated via the following equation, d(i,o) = [L/Lsun*1/S(i,o)]**0.5 au, where L is the star's luminosity, and d(i,o) and S(i,o) are the distances to the central star for the inner and the outer edge and effective insolation for inner and the outer edge of the HZ, respectively. After generating S(i,o) values for a selection of solvents, we provide the means to determine LSZ boundaries for main sequence stars. Effective flux calculations are done using a one dimensional radiative convective model (Neubauer et al. 2011) based on a modified version of the open source radiative transfer software Streamer (Key and Schweiger, 1998). Modifications include convective adjustments, additional gases for absorption and the use of an offline cloud model, which allow us to observe the influence of clouds on effective stellar fluxes

  11. Trends and emerging technologies in extracorporeal life support: results of the 2006 ECLS survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievert, Alicia N; Shackelford, Anthony G; McCall, Mary M

    2009-06-01

    Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) is a procedure used to support the failing heart and/or lungs via a heart lung machine. Over 145 institutions perform this practice in the United States with more than 24,000 ECLS cases recorded. While many articles are published each year on common perfusion practice, little information is shared on emerging technologies in ECLS and common practices among perfusionists and ECLS specialists. This article presents our 2006 ECLS survey results and discusses emerging technologies and management topics new to the ECLS arena. ECLS specialists were asked to participate in an online survey. Two hundred twenty-two ECLS specialists responded. This survey suggests positive displacement roller pumps are still the leading pump used for ECLS 122/188 (64.9%). Silicone membrane oxygenators are used by responders 75% of the time for long-term use, while hollow fiber membrane oxygenators are used 44%. Forty-five percent of responders are using heparin or biocoated circuits exclusively, while 14.6% restrict their use to specific subpopulations. The most common coating is heparin coating (67.9%). Activated clotting time (ACT) management is still standard of care for coagulation monitoring (98%), while partial thromboplastin time (PTT) follows at 71.7%. The interquartile range for ACTs is 160-220 seconds and 160-200 seconds with active bleeding. This article suggests ECLS specialists are beginning to incorporate different technology into their practice, such as centrifugal pumps with hollow fiber oxygenators and coated-circuits.

  12. Design and optimization of an experimental bioregenerative life support system with higher plants and silkworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Enzhu; Bartsev, Sergey I.; Zhao, Ming; Liu, Professor Hong

    The conceptual scheme of an experimental bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) for planetary exploration was designed, which consisted of four elements - human metabolism, higher plants, silkworms and waste treatment. 15 kinds of higher plants, such as wheat, rice, soybean, lettuce, mulberry, et al., were selected as regenerative component of BLSS providing the crew with air, water, and vegetable food. Silkworms, which producing animal nutrition for crews, were fed by mulberry-leaves during the first three instars, and lettuce leaves last two instars. The inedible biomass of higher plants, human wastes and silkworm feces were composted into soil like substrate, which can be reused by higher plants cultivation. Salt, sugar and some household material such as soap, shampoo would be provided from outside. To support the steady state of BLSS the same amount and elementary composition of dehydrated wastes were removed periodically. The balance of matter flows between BLSS components was described by the system of algebraic equations. The mass flows between the components were optimized by EXCEL spreadsheets and using Solver. The numerical method used in this study was Newton's method.

  13. Cascade Distillation Subsystem Development: Early Results from the Exploration Life Support Distillation Technology Comparison Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Patel, Vipul; Pickering, Karen D.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell International, Torrance, California) was assessed in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison test. The purpose of the test was to collect data to support down-selection and development of a primary distillation technology for application in a lunar outpost water recovery system. The CDS portion of the comparison test was conducted between May 6 and August 19, 2009. The system was challenged with two pretreated test solutions, each intended to represent a feasible wastewater generated in a surface habitat. The 30-day equivalent wastewater loading volume for a crew of four was intended to be processed for each wastewater solution. Test Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. Test Solution 2 contained the addition of human-generated hygiene wastewater to the solution 1 waste stream components. Approximately 1500 kg of total wastewater was processed through the CDS during testing. Respective recoveries per solution were 93.4 +/- 0.7 and 90.3 +/- 0.5 percent. The average specific energy of the system during testing was calculated to be less than 120 W-hr/kg. The following paper provides detailed information and data on the performance of the CDS as challenged per the ELS distillation comparison test.

  14. Proposal of indexes to evaluate Family Quality of Life, Partnership, and Family support needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Balcells-Balcells

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, research on the families of persons with Intellectual Disability (ID has focused on the factors that contribute to the improvement of their Family Quality of Life (FQoL, such as the support they get and their partnership with professionals. However, due to the complexity of the variables related to FQoL and support needs and adequacy, measuring these constructs is difficult and multidimensional. To do this, the aim of this study is to generate new indexes through a series of instruments and assess their feasibility to improve the evaluation process and not reduce the situation to single measurements. We applied 3 instruments adapted to the Spanish population --- Service Inventory, Beach Center Family-Professional Partnership Scale, and Beach Center FQOL --- to a sample of 202 families of children with ID and we studied the indexes. The results show that the new indexes were designed to make FQoL measurements more easily manageable and interpretable. In fact, we found a statistical significant correlation between partial indexes (p < .001 in relation to the total score and very high sensibility of the indexes in relation to the degree of disability (p < .001. They also facilitate

  15. Integrated Bio-ISRU and Life Support Systems at the Lunar Outpost: Concept and Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I. I.; Garrison, D. H.; Allen, C. C.; Pickering, K.; Sarkisova, S. A.; Galindo, C., Jr.; Pan, D.; Foraker, E.; Mckay, D. S.

    2009-01-01

    We continue the development of our concept of a biotechnological loop for in-situ resource extraction along with propellant and food production at a future lunar outpost, based on the cultivation of litholytic cyanobacteria (LCB) with lunar regolith (LR) in a geobioreactor energized by sunlight. Our preliminary studies have shown that phototropic cultivation of LCB with simulants of LR in a low-mineralized medium supplemented with CO2 leads to rock dissolution (bioweathering) with the resulting accumulation of Fe, Mg and Al in cyanobacterial cells and in the medium. LCB cultivated with LR simulants produces more O2 than the same organisms cultivated in a high-mineralized medium. The loss of rock mass after bioweathering with LCB suggests the release of O from regolith. Further studies of chemical pathways of released O are required. The bioweathering process is limited by the availability of CO2, N, and P. Since lunar regolith is mainly composed of O, Si, Ca, Al and Mg, we propose to use organic waste to supply a geobioreactor with C, N and P. The recycling of organic waste, including urine, through a geobioreactor will allow for efficient element extraction as well as oxygen and biomass production. The most critical conclusion is that a biological life support system tied to a geobioreactor might be more efficient for supporting an extraterrestrial outpost than a closed environmental system.

  16. Enacted support during stressful life events in middle and older adulthood: an examination of the interpersonal context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birditt, Kira S; Antonucci, Toni C; Tighe, Lauren

    2012-09-01

    Individuals often turn to their close social ties for support during stressful life events. Although a great deal of work examines perceived support (i.e., support believed to be available should an event occur), less is known about enacted support (i.e., support actually provided during stressful events), especially among middle-aged and older people. The present study investigated whether enacted support (emotional or instrumental) varies by relationship quality and stress appraisals. Participants included 152 adults (principal respondents; aged 50 to 69 years, 63% women) who had experienced three or more stressful life events in the last year and 180 of their identified supportive ties (core network members). Multilevel models revealed that higher quality relationships enact high levels of support irrespective of high or low stress appraisals. In contrast, lower quality relationships enact greater support under conditions of higher stress but less support under conditions of lower stress, suggesting that lower quality relationships are mobilized only under higher levels of stress. Findings are consistent with the support provision process model and highlight the importance of considering relationship context and the stress continuum in studies of enacted support among older adults.

  17. CHANGE OF CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN YOUNG HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS AS A RESULT OF PREVENTIVE CONSULTATION IN PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Shupina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate changes of quality of life (QL in young hypertensive patients having «Health School» educational course in comparison with patients having standard non-drug therapy.Material and methods. 114 young patients with arterial hypertension, stage 1, and low and moderate cardiovascular risk were involved in the study. Patients were randomized in 2 groups. Patients of the 1st group (n=59 were trained at «Health School». Patients of the 2nd group had the routine doctor consultation. Changes of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP and QL were evaluated in 6, 12 and 36 months.Results. Decrease of systolic and diastolic BP as well as improvement of QL was observed in both groups. However «Health School» demonstrated significantly higher efficacy in comparison with routine consultation.Conclusion. Non-drug correction of the risk factors is effective method of BP control in young hypertensive patients. High efficacy of «Health School» educational course allows recommending it for implementation in practical medicine. 

  18. The Wild Wild West: A Framework to Integrate mHealth Software Applications and Wearables to Support Physical Activity Assessment, Counseling and Interventions for Cardiovascular Disease Risk Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobelo, Felipe; Kelli, Heval M; Tejedor, Sheri Chernetsky; Pratt, Michael; McConnell, Michael V; Martin, Seth S; Welk, Gregory J

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) interventions constitute a critical component of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk reduction programs. Objective mobile health (mHealth) software applications (apps) and wearable activity monitors (WAMs) can advance both assessment and integration of PA counseling in clinical settings and support community-based PA interventions. The use of mHealth technology for CVD risk reduction is promising, but integration into routine clinical care and population health management has proven challenging. The increasing diversity of available technologies and the lack of a comprehensive guiding framework are key barriers for standardizing data collection and integration. This paper reviews the validity, utility and feasibility of implementing mHealth technology in clinical settings and proposes an organizational framework to support PA assessment, counseling and referrals to community resources for CVD risk reduction interventions. This integration framework can be adapted to different clinical population needs. It should also be refined as technologies and regulations advance under an evolving health care system landscape in the United States and globally.

  19. The Wild Wild West: A Framework to Integrate mHealth Software Applications and Wearables to Support Physical Activity Assessment, Counseling and Interventions for Cardiovascular Disease Risk Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobelo, Felipe; Kelli, Heval M.; Tejedor, Sheri Chernetsky; Pratt, Michael; McConnell, Michael V.; Martin, Seth S.; Welk, Gregory J.

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) interventions constitute a critical component of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk reduction programs. Objective mobile health (mHealth) software applications (apps) and wearable activity monitors (WAMs) can advance both assessment and integration of PA counseling in clinical settings and support community-based PA interventions. The use of mHealth technology for CVD risk reduction is promising, but integration into routine clinical care and population health management has proven challenging. The increasing diversity of available technologies and the lack of a comprehensive guiding framework are key barriers for standardizing data collection and integration. This paper reviews the validity, utility and feasibility of implementing mHealth technology in clinical settings and proposes an organizational framework to support PA assessment, counseling and referrals to community resources for CVD risk reduction interventions. This integration framework can be adapted to different clinical population needs. It should also be refined as technologies and regulations advance under an evolving health care system landscape in the United States and globally. PMID:26923067

  20. Cardiovascular Deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John B.; Fritsch-Yelle, Janice M.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Wood, Margie L.; Brown, Troy E.; Fortner, G. William

    1999-01-01

    Spaceflight causes adaptive changes in cardiovascular function that may deleteriously affect crew health and safety. Over the last three decades, symptoms of cardiovascular changes have ranged from postflight orthostatic tachycardia and decreased exercise capacity to serious cardiac rhythm disturbances during extravehicular activities (EVA). The most documented symptom of cardiovascular dysfunction, postflight orthostatic intolerance, has affected a significant percentage of U.S. Space Shuttle astronauts. Problems of cardiovascular dysfunction associated with spaceflight are a concern to NASA. This has been particularly true during Shuttle flights where the primary concern is the crew's physical health, including the pilot's ability to land the Orbiter, and the crew's ability to quickly egress and move to safety should a dangerous condition arise. The study of astronauts during Shuttle activities is inherently more difficult than most human research. Consequently, sample sizes have been small and results have lacked consistency. Before the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP), there was a lack of normative data on changes in cardiovascular parameters during and after spaceflight. The EDOMP for the first time allowed studies on a large enough number of subjects to overcome some of these problems. There were three primary goals of the Cardiovascular EDOMP studies. The first was to establish, through descriptive studies, a normative data base of cardiovascular changes attributable to spaceflight. The second goal was to determine mechanisms of cardiovascular changes resulting from spaceflight (particularly orthostatic hypotension and cardiac rhythm disturbances). The third was to evaluate possible countermeasures. The Cardiovascular EDOMP studies involved parallel descriptive, mechanistic, and countermeasure evaluations.

  1. LEVERAGING AGING MATERIALS DATA TO SUPPORT EXTENSION OF TRANSPORTATION SHIPPING PACKAGES SERVICE LIFE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, K. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Bellamy, S. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Daugherty, W. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Sindelar, R. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Skidmore, E. [Savannah River National Laboratory

    2013-08-18

    Nuclear material inventories are increasingly being transferred to interim storage locations where they may reside for extended periods of time. Use of a shipping package to store nuclear materials after the transfer has become more common for a variety of reasons. Shipping packages are robust and have a qualified pedigree for performance in normal operation and accident conditions but are only certified over an approved transportation window. The continued use of shipping packages to contain nuclear material during interim storage will result in reduced overall costs and reduced exposure to workers. However, the shipping package materials of construction must maintain integrity as specified by the safety basis of the storage facility throughout the storage period, which is typically well beyond the certified transportation window. In many ways, the certification processes required for interim storage of nuclear materials in shipping packages is similar to life extension programs required for dry cask storage systems for commercial nuclear fuels. The storage of spent nuclear fuel in dry cask storage systems is federally-regulated, and over 1500 individual dry casks have been in successful service up to 20 years in the US. The uncertainty in final disposition will likely require extended storage of this fuel well beyond initial license periods and perhaps multiple re-licenses may be needed. Thus, both the shipping packages and the dry cask storage systems require materials integrity assessments and assurance of continued satisfactory materials performance over times not considered in the original evaluation processes. Test programs for the shipping packages have been established to obtain aging data on materials of construction to demonstrate continued system integrity. The collective data may be coupled with similar data for the dry cask storage systems and used to support extending the service life of shipping packages in both transportation and storage.

  2. Negative life events and mental health of Chinese medical students: the effect of resilience, personality and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Li; Zhang, Jiajia; Li, Min; Li, Peipei; Zhang, Yu; Zuo, Xin; Miao, Yi; Xu, Ying

    2012-03-30

    The present study was conducted on a large sample of Chinese medical students to test the moderating effect of resilience between negative life events and mental health problems, and investigate the factors that affect the mental health problems of the students. The Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List, Eysenck Adult Personality Questionnaire-Revised, Social Support Rating Scale, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, and Symptom Check List were adopted for a survey with 1,998 Chinese medical students as respondents. Mental health problems had a positive correlation with negative life events and neuroticism. On the other hand, mental health problems had a negative correlation with social support, extraversion, and resilience. Regression analysis showed that resilience moderated negative life events and mental health problems. Promoting resilience may be helpful for the adjustment of college students.

  3. Multi-board concept - a scenario based approach for supporting product quality and life cycle oriented design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robotham, Antony John; Hertzum, Morten

    2000-01-01

    This paper will describe the multi-board concept, which is a working approach for supporting life cycle oriented design and product quality. Aspects of this concept include construction of a common working environment where multiple display boards depict scenarios of the product life cycle......, creating a shared quality mindset amongst design-ers, and developing creativity and synthesis in product design. The appropriateness of scenarios for supporting life cycle oriented design will be ar-gued and preliminary results from early experi-mentation will be presented.Initial results lead us...... to believe that the multi-board concept promises to be a useful means of communication amongst the design team. We be-lieve that it fosters a thorough understanding of life cycle events, which, in turn, inspires the design of innovative products of the highest quality....

  4. The influence of social support on risk of acute cardiovascular diseases in female population aged 25–64 in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery V. Gafarov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study the prevalence of social support (SS and its influence on the relative risk (RR of myocardial infarction (MI and stroke in the female population aged 25–64 in Russia. Materials and methods. Under the third screening of the WHO “MONICA-psychosocial” programme, a random representative sample of women aged 25–64 (n=870 were surveyed in Novosibirsk. SS was measured according to the methods of the Berkman–Sym test [indices of close contacts (ICC and index of social network (SNI]. From 1995 to 2010, women were followed for 16 years to observe the incidence of MI and stroke. Results. The prevalence of low levels of ICC and SNI in women aged 25–64 was 57.1 and 77.7%, respectively. Low levels of ICC and SNI were associated with poor self-rated health and awareness about their health, adverse behavioural habits, high job strain and family stress. Rates of MI and stroke development were higher in married women with low ICC and SNI who were being in class “hard manual work”. Over a 16-year study period, the RR of MI in women with low ICC compared to those with high ICC was 4.9 times higher, and the risk of stroke was 4.1 times higher. Low level of SNI increased MI risk in 2.9 times, risk of stroke in 2.7 times. Conclusions. Majority of women aged 25–64 years in Russia have low social support which is associated with poor self-rated health, low awareness about the health that increases the risk of MI and stroke in 2.7–4.9 times in groups of “married” and “hard physical work”.

  5. Basic life support knowledge of first-year university students from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate knowledge of first aid among new undergraduates and whether it is affected by their chosen course. A questionnaire was developed to assess knowledge of how to activate the Mobile Emergency Attendance Service - MEAS (Serviço de Atendimento Móvel de Urgência; SAMU, recognize a pre-hospital emergency situation and the first aid required for cardiac arrest. The students were also asked about enrolling in a first aid course. Responses were received from 1038 of 1365 (76.04% new undergraduates. The questionnaires were completed in a 2-week period 1 month after the beginning of classes. Of the 1038 respondents (59.5% studying biological sciences, 11.6% physical sciences, and 28.6% humanities, 58.5% knew how to activate the MEAS/SAMU (54.3% non-biological vs 61.4% biological, P=0.02, with an odds ratio (OR=1.39 (95%CI=1.07-1.81 regardless of age, sex, origin, having a previous degree or having a relative with cardiac disease. The majority could distinguish emergency from non-emergency situations. When faced with a possible cardiac arrest, 17.7% of the students would perform chest compressions (15.5% non-biological vs 19.1% biological first-year university students, P=0.16 and 65.2% would enroll in a first aid course (51.1% non-biological vs 74.7% biological, P<0.01, with an OR=2.61 (95%CI=1.98-3.44 adjusted for the same confounders. Even though a high percentage of the students recognized emergency situations, a significant proportion did not know the MEAS/SAMU number and only a minority had sufficient basic life support skills to help with cardiac arrest. A significant proportion would not enroll in a first aid course. Biological first-year university students were more prone to enroll in a basic life support course.

  6. Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Sensors for the Constellation Space Suit Life Support System for Surface Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Daniel L.; Paul, Heather L.; Conger, Bruce C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of the trade study to evaluate carbon dioxide (CO2) sensing technologies for the Constellation (Cx) space suit life support system for surface exploration. The trade study found that nondispersive infrared absorption (NDIR) is the most appropriate high Technology Readiness Level (TRL) technology for the CO2 sensor for the Cx space suit. The maturity of the technology is high, as it is the basis for the CO2 sensor in the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). The study further determined that while there is a range of commercial sensors available, the Cx CO2 sensor should be a new design. Specifically, there are light sources (e.g., infrared light emitting diodes) and detectors (e.g., cooled detectors) that are not in typical commercial sensors due to cost. These advanced technology components offer significant advantages in performance (weight, volume, power, accuracy) to be implemented in the new sensor. The exact sensor design (light source, transmitting optics, path length, receiving optics and detector) will be specific for the Cx space suit and will be determined by the performance requirements of the Cx space suit. The paper further identifies specifications for some of the critical performance parameters as well as discussing the engineering aspects of implementing the sensor into the Portable Life Support System (PLSS). The paper then presents testing results from three CO2 sensors with respect to issues important to Extravehicular Activity (EVA) applications; stability, humidity dependence and low pressure compatibility. The three sensors include two NDIR sensors, one commercial and one custom-developed by NASA (for a different purpose), and one commercial electrochemical sensor. The results show that both NDIR sensors have excellent stability, no dependence on ambient humidity (when the ambient temperature is above the dew point) and operate in low pressure conditions and after being exposed to a full vacuum. The commercial

  7. Nutrient composition and respiration characteristics of silkworms in the Bioregenerative Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Ling; Yu, Xiaohui; Liu, Hong

    As the appropriate space animal candidate, silkworm(Bombyx Mori L.) can supply animal food for taikonauts and consume inedible parts of plants in Bioregenerative Life Support Sys-tem(BLSS). Due to the features of BLSS, the silkworm breeding method in the system differ-ent from the conventional one is feeding the silkworm in the first three developing stages with mulberry leaves and with lettuce leaves in the latter two developing stages. Therefore, it is nec-essary to investigate the biochemical components and respiration characteristics of silkworms raised with this method to supply data bases for the inclusion of silkworms in the system to conduct system experiments. The nutrient compositions of silkworm powder (SP) which are the grinded and freeze-dried silkworm on the 3rd day in the fifth developing stage containing protein, fat, vitamins, minerals and fatty acids were determined with international standard analyzing methods in this study. The results showed that SP was rich in protein and amino acids. There were twelve kinds of essential vitamins, nine kinds of minerals and twelve kinds of fatty acids in SP. In contrast, SP had much better nutrient components than snail, fish, chicken, beef and pork as animal food for crew members. Moreover, 359 kCal can be generated per 100g of SP (dry weight). The respirations of silkworm during its whole growing process under two main physiological statuses which were eating and non-eating leaves were studied. According to the results measured by the animal respiration measuring system, there were much difference among the respirations of silkworms under the two main physiological statuses. The amounts of O2 inhaled and CO2 exhaled by the silkworms when they were eating leaves were more than those under the non-eating status. Even under the same status, the respiration characteristics of silkworms in five different developing stages were also different from one an-other. The respiratory quotients of silkworms under two

  8. The Model of Quality of Life Improvement for Chronic Patients in Community by Using Social Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amorn Suwannimitr

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Caring for a chronically ill-patients is a complex process which require the cooperation and social support to manage a chronic disease. It need an interaction of a large number of actors or collaborations from health care personnel of different organizations. Questions were raised to develop an appropriate intervention and the model of QOL improvement for chronic-patients in the community. Approach: To (1 develop the Quality Of Life (QOL improvement for chronic illness patients in community by using social support program (2 evaluate the effects of the program on perception of illness, severity of illness, benefits and barriers of health promotion, health behaviors, Quality Of Life (QOL and stress level. Participatory Action Research (PAR was used. It was consisted of two phrases. The participants in first phase including with nurses, nutritionist, patients, caregivers, Village Health Volunteers (VHVs and research team. The second phrase was to implement the interventions and evaluation. A total of 10 VHVs and 50 participants who met the inclusion criteria. The intervention composed of 2 main programs; (1The VHVs were trained for 1 month as a comprehensive program to be a healthcare team collaboration. (2The chronically ill-patients received main interventions including self-care education, apply Thai traditional medicine and home visits. Descriptive statistics and t-test were use to evaluate the pre-post intervention. Results: The majority of the participants were female (n = 38,76%, with the mean age of 66.68 years (SD = 17.20, 85% caring by their children and 42.5% by their relatives. Most participants came from low income family (40%. The post test score on each item showed that after intervention, changed scores on all five items (before-after, how ever the changes were statistically significantly (0.05. Conclusion: The findings suggested the set of interventions were effective to improve QOL of chronic patients and it

  9. MELiSSA Pilot Plant: A facility for ground demonstration of a closed life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godia, Francesc; Fossen, Arnaud; Peiro, Enrique; Gerbi, Olivier; Dussap, Gilles; Leys, Natalie; Arnau, Carolina; Milian, Ernest

    MELiSSA (Micro Ecological Life Support System Alternative) is an international collaborative effort focused on the development of a Life Support System for long-term Space missions. The goals of the MELiSSA loop are the recovery of food, water and oxygen from wastes, i.e. CO2 and organic wastes, using light as a source of energy. It is conceived as a series of compartments, each one performing a specific function within this cycle, inspired in the terrestrial ecological systems. Each one of the compartments is colonized with specific bacteria or higher plants depending on its dedicated function. Therefore, its design and operational conditions should guarantee that only a given specific biological activity takes place in each compartment. Moreover, this has to be done in a controlled manner, both at the subsystems level (i.e., compartments) and at the overall system level (i.e., complete loop). In order to achieve the complete operation of such a Closed Ecological System, in a first step each compartment has to be developed at individual level, and its operation demonstrated under its associated control law. In a second step, the complete loop needs to be integrated by the connection of the different compartments in the gas, loop and solid phases. An extensive demonstration of MELiSSA loop under terrestrial conditions is a mandatory step in the process of its adaptation to space. This is the main goal of the MPP. The demonstration scenario for the MPP is the respiration equivalent of a human being, and production of 20 percent of the diet of one person. To serve this goal, the different compartments of the MELiSSA loop have been designed and sized at the pilot scale level, and further characterized. Nowadays, the focus of the MELiSSA Pilot Plant is on the integration of its compartments. To this end, the integration challenge is concentrated in three compartments devoted to the following functions: nitrification (Compartment 3, an axenic co-culture of Nitrosomonas

  10. Chronic Biliary Pancreatitis Clinical Course Interrelation with Quality of Life and Patients Dependance on Supporting Therapy Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.V. Listishenkova

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of clinical course influence on life quality and patients dependance on supporting therapy of chronic biliary dependent pancreatitis is represented. It has been determined that increase of life quality is in close correlation with exacerbation frequency, dyspepsia syndrome evidence and manifestations of exocrinous insufficiency of pancreas. Patients with chronic biliary dependent pancreatitis do not carry out doctor’s recommendations in appropriate manner.

  11. How to Establish a Bioregenerative Life Support System for Long-Term Crewed Missions to the Moon or Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yuming; Li, Leyuan; Xie, Beizhen; Dong, Chen; Wang, Mingjuan; Jia, Boyang; Shao, Lingzhi; Dong, Yingying; Deng, Shengda; Liu, Hui; Liu, Guanghui; Liu, Bojie; Hu, Dawei; Liu, Hong

    2016-12-01

    To conduct crewed simulation experiments of bioregenerative life support systems on the ground is a critical step for human life support in deep-space exploration. An artificial closed ecosystem named Lunar Palace 1 was built through integrating efficient higher plant cultivation, animal protein production, urine nitrogen recycling, and bioconversion of solid waste. Subsequently, a 105-day, multicrew, closed integrative bioregenerative life support systems experiment in Lunar Palace 1 was carried out from February through May 2014. The results show that environmental conditions as well as the gas balance between O2 and CO2 in the system were well maintained during the 105-day experiment. A total of 21 plant species in this system kept a harmonious coexistent relationship, and 20.5% nitrogen recovery from urine, 41% solid waste degradation, and a small amount of insect in situ production were achieved. During the 105-day experiment, oxygen and water were recycled, and 55% of the food was regenerated.

  12. Soil-based filtration technology for air purification: potentials for environmental and space life support application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Mark; Bohn, Hinrich

    Soil biofiltration, also known as Soil bed reactor (SBR), technology was originally developed in Germany to take advantage of the diversity in microbial mechanisms to control gases producing malodor in industrial processes. The approach has since gained wider international acceptance and seen numerous improvements, for example, by the use of high-organic compost beds to maximize microbial processes. This paper reviews the basic mechanisms which underlay soil processes involved in air purification, advantages and limitations of the technology and the cur-rent research status of the approach. Soil biofiltration has lower capital and operating/energetic costs than conventional technologies and is well adapted to handle contaminants in moderate concentrations. The systems can be engineered to optimize efficiency though manipulation of temperature, pH, moisture content, soil organic matter and airflow rates. SBR technology was modified for application in the Biosphere 2 project, which demonstrated in preparatory research with a number of closed system testbeds that soil could also support crop plants while also serving as soil filters with air pumps to push air through the soil. This Biosphere 2 research demonstrated in several closed system testbeds that a number of important trace gases could be kept under control and led to the engineering of the entire agricultural soil of Biosphere 2 to serve as a soil filtration unit for the facility. Soil biofiltration, coupled with food crop produc-tion, as a component of bioregenerative space life support systems has the advantages of lower energy use and avoidance of the consumables required for other air purification approaches. Expanding use of soil biofiltration can aid a number of environmental applications, from the mitigation of indoor air pollution, improvement of industrial air emissions and prevention of accidental release of toxic gases.

  13. Changes in subclinical organ damage vs. in Framingham risk score for assessing cardiovascular risk reduction during continued antihypertensive treatment: a LIFE substudy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Michael H; Wachtell, Kristian; Ibsen, Hans;

    2011-01-01

    To investigate whether in-treatment measurements of subclinical organ damage (SOD) assessed by elevated urine albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR) or electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy improved the prediction of the composite cardiovascular endpoint of cardiovascular death, nonfatal...... myocardial infarction and stroke beyond in-treatment Framingham risk score (FRS)....

  14. Skill retention in adults and in children 3 months after basic life support training using a simple personal resuscitation manikin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isbye, Dan L; Meyhoff, Christian S; Lippert, Freddy K;

    2007-01-01

    As 70-80% of cardiac arrests occur at home, widespread training is needed to increase the likelihood of basic life support (BLS) being performed before the arrival of Emergency Medical Services personnel. Teaching BLS in public schools has been recommended to achieve this.......As 70-80% of cardiac arrests occur at home, widespread training is needed to increase the likelihood of basic life support (BLS) being performed before the arrival of Emergency Medical Services personnel. Teaching BLS in public schools has been recommended to achieve this....

  15. Prospects of using unicellular algae protein in biological life-support systems. [Chlorella, Chlamydomonas, Spirulina, Euglena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonyan, A.A.; Abakumova, I.A.; Meleshko, G.I.; Vlasova, T.F.

    The concentration, amino acid composition and biological value of proteins of unicellular algae belonging to various taxonomic groups (Chlorella, Chlamydomonas, Spirulina, Euglena) were investigated. With respect to their characteristics, these algae hold promise as components of biological life-support systems (BLSS). Indices characterizing the protein and biomass quality and biological value were calculated. Such indices as A/E (where A is an essential amino acid and E is the sum total of amino acids), anti-E/T (where anti-E is nitrogen of essential amino acids and T is its sum total), amino acid number, factor of digestibility in vitro were high enough and close to the respective parameters of the reference protein. Animal experiments showed high biological value of the algal biomass and the lack of its toxic or other adverse effects. It is suggested that the differences in the protein composition associated with various algal forms and cultivation conditions can be used to produce balanced diets by varying the portion of each form of the photoautotropic component of BLSS.

  16. Suggestions for crops grown in controlled ecological life-support systems, based on attractive vegetarian diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, F. B.; Clark, M. A. Z.

    Assuming that crops grown in controlled ecological life-support systems (CELSS) should provide a basis for meals that are both nutritious and attractive (to taste and vision), and that CELSS diets on the moon or Mars or in space-craft during long voyages will have to be mostly vegetarian, a workshop was convened at the Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, U.S.A. on 19 to 21 January, 1994. Participants consisted of trained nutritionists and others; many of the approximately 18 presenters who discussed possible diets were practicing vegetarians, some for more than two decades. Considering all the presentations, seven conclusions (or points for discussion) could be formulated: nutritious vegetarian diets are relatively easily to formulate, vegetarian diets are healthy, variety is essential in vegetarian diets, some experiences (e.g., Bios-3 and Biosphere 2) are relevant to planning of CELSS diets, physical constraints will limit the choice of crops, a preliminary list of recommended crops can be formulated, and this line of research has some potential practical spinoffs. The list of crops and the reasons for including specific crops might be of interest to professionals in the field of health and nutrition as well as to those who are designing closed ecological systems.

  17. Effect of Advanced Trauma Life Support program on medical interns' performance in simulated trauma patient management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Koorosh Ahmadi; Mohammad Sedaghat; Mahdi Safdarian; Amir Masoud Hashemian; Zahra Nezamdoust; Mohammad Vaseie; Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar

    2013-01-01

    Since appropriate and timetable methods in trauma care have an important impact on patients' outcome,we evaluated the effect of Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) program on medical interns'performance in simulated trauma patient management.Methods:A descriptive and analytical study before and after the training was conducted on 24 randomly selected undergraduate medical interns from Imam Reza Hospital in Mashhad,Iran.On the first day,we assessed interns' clinical knowledge and their practical skill performance in confronting simulated trauma patients.After 2 days of ATLS training,we performed the same study and evaluated their score again on the fourth day.The two findings,preand post-ATLS periods,were compared through SPSS version 15.0 software.P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.Results:Our findings showed that interns' ability in all the three tasks improved after the training course.On the fourth day after training,there was a statistically significant increase in interns' clinical knowledge of ATLS procedures,the sequence of procedures and skill performance in trauma situations (P<0.001,P=0.016 and P=0.01 respectively).Conclusion:ATLS course has an important role in increasing clinical knowledge and practical skill performance of trauma care in medical interns.

  18. Mathematical Analysis of a Novel Approach to Maximize Waste Recovery in a Life Support System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael G. McKellar; Rick A. Wood; Carl M. Stoots; Lila Mulloth; Bernadette Luna

    2011-02-01

    NASA has been evaluating closed-loop atmosphere revitalization architectures carbon dioxide, CO2, reduction technologies. The CO2 and steam, H2O, co-electrolysis process is another option that NASA has investigated. Utilizing recent advances in the fuel cell technology sector, the Idaho National Laboratory, INL, has developed a CO2 and H2O co-electrolysis process to produce oxygen and syngas (carbon monoxide, CO and hydrogen, H2 mixture) for terrestrial (energy production) application. The technology is a combined process that involves steam electrolysis, CO2 electrolysis, and the reverse water gas shift (RWGS) reaction. Two process models were developed to evaluate novel approaches for waster recovery in a life support system. The first is a model INL co-electrolysis process combined with a methanol production process. The second is the INL co-electrolysis process combined with a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) process. For both processes, the overall power increases as the syngas ratio, H2/CO, increases because more water is needed to produce more hydrogen at a set CO2 incoming flow rate. The power for the methanol cases is less than the PSA because heat is available from the methanol reactor to preheat the water and carbon dioxide entering the co-electrolysis process.

  19. THE MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS OF A NOVEL APPROACH TO MAXIMIZE WASTE RECOVERY IN A LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael G. McKellar; Rick A. Wood; Carl M. Stoots; Lila Mulloth; Bernadette Luna

    2011-11-01

    NASA has been evaluating closed-loop atmosphere revitalization architectures that include carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction technologies. The CO2 and steam (H2O) co-electrolysis process is one of the reduction options that NASA has investigated. Utilizing recent advances in the fuel cell technology sector, the Idaho National Laboratory, INL, has developed a CO2 and H2O co-electrolysis process to produce oxygen and syngas (carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2) mixture) for terrestrial (energy production) application. The technology is a combined process that involves steam electrolysis, CO2 electrolysis, and the reverse water gas shift (RWGS) reaction. Two process models were developed to evaluate novel approaches for energy storage and resource recovery in a life support system. In the first model, products from the INL co-electrolysis process are combined to produce methanol fuel. In the second co-electrolysis, products are separated with a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) process. In both models the fuels are burned with added oxygen to produce H2O and CO2, the original reactants. For both processes, the overall power increases as the syngas ratio, H2/CO, increases because more water is needed to produce more hydrogen at a set CO2 incoming flow rate. The power for the methanol cases is less than pressure swing adsorption, PSA, because heat is available from the methanol reactor to preheat the water and carbon dioxide entering the co-electrolysis process.

  20. Reagentless chemiluminescence-based fiber optic sensors for regenerative life support in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, James E.; Akse, James R.; DeHart, Jeffrey; Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.

    1995-04-01

    The initial feasibility demonstration of a reagentless chemiluminescence based fiber optic sensor technology for use in advanced regenerative life support applications in space and planetary outposts is described. The primary constraints for extraterrestrial deployment of any technology are compatibility with microgravity and hypogravity environments; minimal size, weight, and power consumption; and minimal use of expendables due to the great expense and difficulty inherent to resupply logistics. In the current research, we report the integration of solid state flow through modules for the production of aqueous phase reagents into an integrated system for the detection of important analytes by chemiluminescence, with fiber optic light transmission. By minimizing the need for resupply expendables, the use of solid phase modules makes complex chemical detection schemes practical. For the proof of concept, hydrogen peroxide and glucose were chosen as analytes. The reaction is catalyzed by glucose oxidase, an immobilized enzyme. The aqueous phase chemistry required for sensor operation is implemented using solid phase modules which adjust the pH of the influent stream, catalyze the oxidation of analyte, and provide the controlled addition of the luminophore to the flowing aqueous stream. Precise control of the pH has proven essential for the long-term sustained release of the luminophore. Electrocatalysis is achieved using a controlled potential across gold mesh and gold foil electrodes which undergo periodic polarity reversals. The development and initial characterization of performance of the reagentless fiber optic chemiluminescence sensors are presented in this paper.

  1. A simple, mass balance model of carbon flow in a controlled ecological life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Jay L.

    1989-01-01

    Internal cycling of chemical elements is a fundamental aspect of a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). Mathematical models are useful tools for evaluating fluxes and reservoirs of elements associated with potential CELSS configurations. A simple mass balance model of carbon flow in CELSS was developed based on data from the CELSS Breadboard project at Kennedy Space Center. All carbon reservoirs and fluxes were calculated based on steady state conditions and modelled using linear, donor-controlled transfer coefficients. The linear expression of photosynthetic flux was replaced with Michaelis-Menten kinetics based on dynamical analysis of the model which found that the latter produced more adequate model output. Sensitivity analysis of the model indicated that accurate determination of the maximum rate of gross primary production is critical to the development of an accurate model of carbon flow. Atmospheric carbon dioxide was particularly sensitive to changes in photosynthetic rate. The small reservoir of CO2 relative to large CO2 fluxes increases the potential for volatility in CO2 concentration. Feedback control mechanisms regulating CO2 concentration will probably be necessary in a CELSS to reduce this system instability.

  2. Development of a Mars Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henninger, Donald L.

    2016-01-01

    ECLS systems for very long-duration human missions to Mars will be designed to operate reliably for many years and will never be returned to Earth. The need for high reliability is driven by unsympathetic abort scenarios. Abort from a Mars mission could be as long as 450 days to return to Earth. Simply put, the goal of an ECLSS is to duplicate the functions the Earth provides in terms of human living and working on our home planet but without the benefit of the Earth's large buffers - the atmospheres, the oceans and land masses. With small buffers a space-based ECLSS must operate as a true dynamic system rather than independent processors taking things from tanks, processing them, and then returning them to product tanks. Key is a development process that allows for a logical sequence of validating successful development (maturation) in a stepwise manner with key performance parameters (KPPs) at each step; especially KPPs for technologies evaluated in a full systems context with human crews on Earth and on space platforms such as the ISS. This paper will explore the implications of such an approach to ECLSS development and the roles of ground and space-based testing necessary to develop a highly reliable life support system for long duration human exploration missions. Historical development and testing of ECLS systems from Mercury to the International Space Station (ISS) will be reviewed. Current work as well as recommendations for future work will be described.

  3. Proposed Schematics and Modeling Results for a Lunar Portable Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Bruce; Chullen, Cinda

    2009-01-01

    The Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE) is an integrated assembly made up of primarily a Pressure Garment System (PGS) and a Portable Life Support System (PLSS). The PLSS is further composed of an oxygen (O2) subsystem, a ventilation subsystem, and a thermal subsystem. This paper baselines a detailed schematic of the CSSE PLSS to provide a basis for current and future CSSE PLSS development efforts. Both context diagrams and detailed schematics describe the hardware components and overall functions for all three of the PLSS subsystems. Additionally, PLSS functions are presented for multiple operational scenarios as follows: 1) Nominal Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Mode; 2) Umbilical Modes; a) No Recharge, b) With Recharge; 3) Decompression Sickness (DCS) Treatment Mode; 4) Buddy Mode; 5) Secondary O2 Modes; a) Helmet Purge; b) Suit Purge; c) Operational; and 5) PLSS Removed Umbilical Mode. A performance modeling effort is being performed to provide a preliminary confirmation of this layout and the current state of the thermal hydraulic modeling efforts being conducted for the PLSS is presented. The goal of these efforts is to provide realistic simulations of the PLSS under various modes of operation. Modeling approaches and assumptions are discussed as well as component model descriptions. Results from the models are included that show PLSS operations at steady-state and transient conditions. Finally, conclusions and recommendations are offered that summarize results, identify PLSS design weaknesses uncovered during review of the analysis results, and propose areas for improvement to increase model fidelity and accuracy.

  4. Helmet Exhalation Capture System (HECS) Sizing Evaluation for an Advanced Space Suit Portable Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Heather L.; Waguespack, Glenn M.; Paul, Thomas H.; Conger, Bruce C.

    2008-01-01

    As part of NASA s initiative to develop an advanced portable life support system (PLSS), a baseline schematic has been chosen that includes gaseous oxygen in a closed circuit ventilation configuration. Supply oxygen enters the suit at the back of the helmet and return gases pass over the astronaut s body to be extracted at the astronaut s wrists and ankles through the liquid cooling and ventilation garment (LCVG). The extracted gases are then treated using a rapid cycling amine (RCA) system for carbon dioxide and water removal and activated carbon for trace gas removal before being mixed with makeup oxygen and reintroduced into the helmet. Thermal control is provided by a suit water membrane evaporator (SWME). As an extension of the original schematic development, NASA evaluated several Helmet Exhalation Capture System (HECS) configurations as alternatives to the baseline. The HECS configurations incorporate the use of full contact masks or non-contact masks to reduce flow requirements within the PLSS ventilation subsystem. The primary scope of this study was to compare the alternatives based on mass and volume considerations; however other design issues were also briefly investigated. This paper summarizes the results of this sizing analysis task.

  5. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis requiring "hybrid" extracorporeal life support, and complicated by acute necrotizing pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisan, M; Lafargue, M; Calderon, J; Oses, P; Ouattara, A

    2013-04-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), which was first described by Rosen in 1958, is a rare disease characterized by impaired surfactant metabolism that provokes the accumulation of proteinaceous material in the alveoli. PAP is usually an auto-immune disease though, less commonly, may be congenital or secondary to another underlying disorder, such as infection, an immunodeficiency or a haematological disease. A positive diagnosis can be made with the appearance of "crazy-paving" on a computed tomography scan, with a milky fluid bronchial aspiration. A cytological examination will also show eosinophilic material and pink stained periodic acid-Schiff-positive material. A whole lung lavage is the most widely accepted therapy for hypoxemic PAP. Herein, we report the case of a 27-year-old woman admitted into our intensive care unit for hypoxemic PAP that was complicated by a pulmonary embolism. Because the patient presented with refractory hypoxemia associated with a brief cardiac arrest, femoral veno-arterial extracorporeal life support (ECLS) was rapidly inserted. Under ECLS, the patient subsequently developed "Harlequin syndrome", which was managed using an original and minimally invasive method. A whole lung lavage as well as prone positioning was effectively performed under ECLS, and resulted in substantial improvement in oxygenation. The patient could be discharged from the hospital 40 days later.

  6. Walking in simulated Martian gravity: influence of the portable life support system's design on dynamic stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Pandorf, Melissa M; O'Connor, Daniel P; Layne, Charles S; Josić, Kresimir; Kurz, Max J

    2009-09-01

    With human exploration of the moon and Mars on the horizon, research considerations for space suit redesign have surfaced. The portable life support system (PLSS) used in conjunction with the space suit during the Apollo missions may have influenced the dynamic balance of the gait pattern. This investigation explored potential issues with the PLSS design that may arise during the Mars exploration. A better understanding of how the location of the PLSS load influences the dynamic stability of the gait pattern may provide insight, such that space missions may have more productive missions with a smaller risk of injury and damaging equipment while falling. We explored the influence the PLSS load position had on the dynamic stability of the walking pattern. While walking, participants wore a device built to simulate possible PLSS load configurations. Floquet and Lyapunov analysis techniques were used to quantify the dynamic stability of the gait pattern. The dynamic stability of the gait pattern was influenced by the position of load. PLSS loads that are placed high and forward on the torso resulted in less dynamically stable walking patterns than loads placed evenly and low on the torso. Furthermore, the kinematic results demonstrated that all joints of the lower extremity may be important for adjusting to different load placements and maintaining dynamic stability. Space scientists and engineers may want to consider PLSS designs that distribute loads evenly and low, and space suit designs that will not limit the sagittal plane range of motion at the lower extremity joints.

  7. Application of duckweed for human urine treatment in Bioregenerative Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manukovsky, Nickolay; Kovalev, Vladimir

    The object of the study was the common duckweed Lemna minor L. Thanks to the ability to assimilate mineral and organic substances, duckweed is used to purify water in sewage lagoons. In addition, duckweed biomass is known to be a potential high-protein feed resource for domestic animals and fish. The aim of the study was to estimate an application of duckweed in a two-stage treatment of human urine in Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS). At the first stage, the urine’s organic matter is oxidized by hydrogen peroxide. Diluted solution of oxidized urine is used for cultivation of duckweed. The appointment of duckweed is the assimilation of mineralized substances of urine. Part of the duckweed biomass yield directly or after composting could be embedded in the soil-like substrate as organic fertilizer to compensate the carry-over in consequence of plant growing. The rest duckweed biomass could be used as a feed for animals in BLSS. Then, the residual culture liquid is concentrated and used as a source of dietary salt. It takes 10-15 m2 of duckweed culture per crewmember to treat oxidized urine. The BLSS configuration including two-component subsystem of urine treatment is presented.

  8. Overview of ESA life support activities in preparation of future exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasseur, Christophe; Paille, Christel

    2016-07-01

    Since 1987, the European Space Agency has been active in the field of Life Support development. When compare to its international colleagues, it is clear that ESA started activities in the field with a "delay of around 25 years. Due to this situation and to avoid duplication, ESA decided to focus more on long term manned missions and to consider more intensively regenerative technologies as well as the associated risks management ( e.g. physical, chemical and contaminants). Fortunately or not, during the same period, no clear plan of exploration and consequently not specific requirements materialized. This force ESA to keep a broader and generic approach of all technologies. Today with this important catalogue of technologies and know-how, ESA is contemplating the different scenario of manned exploration beyond LEO. In this presentation we review the key scenario of future exploration, and identify the key technologies who loo the more relevant. An more detailed status is presented on the key technologies and their development plan for the future.

  9. Aquatic food production modules in bioregenerative life support systems based on higher plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluem, V.; Paris, F.

    Most bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) are based on gravitropic higher plants which exhibit growth and seed generation disturbances in microgravity. Even when used for a lunar or martian base the reduced gravity may induce a decreased productivity in comparison to Earth. Therefore, the implementation of aquatic biomass production modules in higher plant and/or hybrid BLSS may compensate for this and offer, in addition, the possibility to produce animal protein for human nutrition. It was shown on the SLS-89 and SLS-90 space shuttle missions with the C.E.B.A.S.-MINI MODULE that the edible non gravitropic rootless higher aquatic plant Ceratophyllum demeresum exhibits an undisturbed high biomass production rate in space and that the teleost fish species, Xiphophorus helleri, adapts rapidly to space conditions without loss of its normal reproductive functions. Based on these findings a series of ground-based aquatic food production systems were developed which are disposed for utilization in space. These are plant production bioreactors for the species mentioned above and another suitable candidate, the lemnacean (duckweed) species, Wolffia arrhiza. Moreover, combined intensive aquaculture systems with a closed food loop between herbivorous fishes and aquatic and land plants are being developed which may be suitable for integration into a BLSS of higher complexity.

  10. Portable Life Support System 2.5 Fan Design and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Gregory; Carra, Michael; Converse, David; Chullen, Cinda

    2016-01-01

    NASA is building a high-fidelity prototype of an advanced Portable Life Support System (PLSS) as part of the Advanced Exploration Systems Program. This new PLSS, designated as PLSS 2.5, will advance component technologies and systems knowledge to inform a future flight program. The oxygen ventilation loop of its predecessor, PLSS 2.0, was driven by a centrifugal fan developed using specifications from the Constellation Program. PLSS technology and system parameters have matured to the point where the existing fan will not perform adequately for the new prototype. In addition, areas of potential improvement were identified with the PLSS 2.0 fan that could be addressed in a new design. As a result, a new fan was designed and tested for the PLSS 2.5. The PLSS 2.5 fan is a derivative of the one used in PLSS 2.0, and it uses the same nonmetallic, canned motor, with a larger volute and impeller to meet the higher pressure drop requirements of the PLSS 2.5 ventilation loop. The larger impeller allows it to operate at rotational speeds that are matched to rolling element bearings, and which create reasonably low impeller tip speeds consistent with prior, oxygen-rated fans. Development of the fan also considered a shrouded impeller design that could allow larger clearances for greater oxygen safety, assembly tolerances and particle ingestion. This paper discusses the design, manufacturing and performance testing of the new fans.

  11. Study and development of a cryogenic heat exchanger for life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, M. M.

    1973-01-01

    A prototype cryogenic heat exchanger for removal of waste heat from a spacecraft environmental control life support system was developed. The heat exchanger uses the heat sink capabilities of the cryogenic propellants and, hence, can operate over all mission phases from prelaunch to orbit, to post landing, with quiescent periods during orbit. A survey of candidate warm fluids resulted in the selection of E-2, a fluorocarbon compound, because of its low freezing point and high boiling point. The final design and testing of the heat exchanger was carried out, however, using Freon-21, which is similar to E-2 except for its low boiling point. This change was motivated by the desire for cost effectiveness of the experimental program. The transient performance of the heat exchanger was demonstrated by an analog simulation of the heat sink system. Under the realistic transient heat load conditions (20 sec ramp from minimum to maximum Freon-21 inlet temperature), the control system was able to maintain the warm fluid outlet temperature within + or - 3 F. For a 20-sec ramp from 0 F to -400 F in the hydrogen inlet temperature, at maximum heat load, the warm fluid outlet temperature was maintained within + or - 7 F.

  12. Design and test status for life support applications of SPE oxygen generation systems. [Solid Polymer Electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titterington, W. A.; Erickson, A. C.

    1975-01-01

    An advanced six-man rated oxygen generation system has been fabricated and tested as part of a NASA/JSC technology development program for a long lived, manned spacecraft life support system. Details of the design and tests results are presented. The system is based on the Solid Polymer Electrolyte (SPE) water electrolysis technology and its nominal operating conditions are 2760 kN/sq m (400 psia) and 355 K (180 F) with an electrolysis module current density capability up to 350 mA/sq cm (326 ASF). The system is centered on a 13-cell SPE water electrolysis module having a single cell active area of 214 sq cm (33 sq in) and it incorporates instrumentation and controls for single pushbutton automatic startup/shutdown, component fault detection and isolation, and self-contained sensors and controls for automatic safe emergency shutdown. The system has been tested in both the orbital cyclic and continuous mode of operation. Various parametric tests have been completed to define the system capability for potential application in spacecraft environmental systems.

  13. Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus as a food source in advanced life support systems: Initial considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, John M.; Brown, Paul B.

    2006-01-01

    Maintenance of crew health is of paramount importance for long duration space missions. Weight loss, bone and calcium loss, increased exposure to radiation and oxidative stress are critical concerns that need to be alleviated. Tilapia are currently under evaluation as a source of food and their contribution to reducing waste in advanced life support systems (ALSS). The nutritional composition of tilapia whole bodies, fillet, and carcass residues were quantitatively determined. Carbon and nitrogen free-extract percentages were similar among whole body (53.76% and 6.96%, respectively), fillets (47.06% and 6.75%, respectively), and carcass (56.36% and 7.04%, respectively) whereas percentages of N, S, and protein were highest in fillet (13.34, 1.34, and 83.37%, respectively) than whole body (9.27, 0.62, and 57.97%, respectively) and carcass (7.70, 0.39, and 48.15%, respectively). Whole body and fillet meet and/or exceeded current nutritional recommendations for protein, vitamin D, ascorbic acid, and selenium for international space station missions. Whole body appears to be a better source of lipids and n-3 fatty acids, calcium, and phosphorous than fillet. Consuming whole fish appears to optimize equivalent system mass compared to consumption of fillets. Additional research is needed to determine nutritional composition of tilapia whole body, fillet, and carcass when fed waste residues possibly encountered in an ALSS.

  14. Modern wireless telecommunication technologies and their electromagnetic compatibility with life-supporting equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Mats K E B; Marve, Therese; Hakansson, Peter K

    2005-11-01

    Hospitals rely on pagers and ordinary telephones to reach staff members in emergency situations. New telecommunication technologies such as General Packet Radio Service (GPRS), the third generation mobile phone system Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), and Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) might be able to replace hospital pagers if they are electromagnetically compatible with medical devices. In this study, we sought to determine if GPRS, UMTS (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access-Frequency Division Duplex [WCDMA FDD]), and WLAN (IEEE 802.11b) transmitted signals interfere with life-supporting equipment in the intensive care and operating room environment. According to United States standard, ANSI C63.18-1997, laboratory tests were performed on 76 medical devices. In addition, clinical tests during 11 operations and 100 h of intensive care were performed. UMTS and WLAN signals caused little interference. Devices using these technologies can be used safely in critical care areas and during operations, but direct contact between medical devices and wireless communication devices ought to be avoided. In the case of GPRS, at a distance of 50 cm, it caused an older infusion pump to alarm and stop infusing; the pump had to be reset. Also, 10 cases of interference with device displays occurred. GPRS can be used safely at a distance of 1 m. Terminals/cellular phones using these technologies should be allowed without restriction in public areas because the risk of interference is minimal.

  15. Cargo Commercial Orbital Transportation Services Environmental Control and Life Support Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Stephanie; Thacker, Karen; Williams, Dave

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station s (ISS) largest crew and cargo resupply vehicle, the Space Shuttle, retired in 2011. To help augment ISS resupply and return capability, NASA announced a project to promote the development of Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) for the ISS in January of 2006. By December of 2008, NASA entered into space act agreements with SpaceX and Orbital Sciences Corporation for COTS development and ISS Commercial Resupply Services (CRS). The intent of CRS is to fly multiple resupply missions each year to ISS with SpaceX s Dragon vehicle providing resupply and return capabilities and Orbital Science Corporation s Cygnus vehicle providing resupply capability to ISS. The ISS program launched an integration effort to ensure that these new commercial vehicles met the requirements of the ISS vehicle and ISS program needs. The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) requirements cover basic cargo vehicle needs including maintaining atmosphere, providing atmosphere circulation, and fire detection and suppression. The ISS-COTS integration effort brought unique challenges combining NASA s established processes and design knowledge with the commercial companies new initiatives and limited experience with human space flight. This paper will discuss the ISS ECLS COTS integration effort including challenges, successes, and lessons learned.

  16. Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support Systems: An Update on Waste Water Reclamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferner, Kathleen M.

    1994-01-01

    Since the mid-1980's, work has been ongoing In the development of the various environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) for the space station. Part of this effort has been focused on the development of a new subsystem to reclaim waste water that had not been previously required for shuttle missions. Because of the extended manned missions proposed, reclamation of waste water becomes imperative to avoid the weight penalties associated with resupplying a crew's entire water needs for consumption and daily hygiene. Hamilton Standard, under contract to Boeing Aerospace and Electronics, has been designing the water reclamation system for space station use. Since June of 1991, Hamilton Standard has developed a combined water processor capable of reclaiming potable quality water from waste hygiene water, used laundry water, processed urine, Shuttle fuel cell water, humidity condensate and other minor waste water sources. The system was assembled and then tested with over 27,700 pounds of 'real' waste water. During the 1700 hours of system operation required to process this waste water, potable quality water meeting NASA and Boeing specifications was produced. This paper gives a schematic overview of the system, describes the test conditions and test results and outlines the next steps for system development.

  17. Potential applications of the white rot fungus Pleurotus in bioregenerative life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manukovsky, N. S.; Kovalev, V. S.; Yu, Ch.; Gurevich, Yu. L.; Liu, H.

    Earlier we demonstrated the possibility of using soil-like substrate SLS for plant cultivation in bioregenerative life support systems BLSS We suggest dividing the process of SLS bioregeneration at BLSS conditions into two stages At the first stage plant residues should be used for growing of white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus Pleurotus florida etc The fruit bodies could be used as food Spent mushroom compost is carried in SLS and treated by microorganisms and worms at the second stage The possibility of extension of human food ration is only one of the reasons for realization of the suggested two-stage SLS regeneration scheme people s daily consumption of mushrooms is limited to 200 -250 g of wet weight or 20 -25 g of dry weight Multiple tests showed what is more important is that inclusion of mushrooms into the system cycle scheme contributes through various mechanisms to the more stable functioning of vegetative cenosis in general Taking into account the given experimental data we determined the scheme of mushroom module material balance The technological peculiarities of mushroom cultivation at BLSS conditions are being discussed

  18. Systems Engineering and Integration for Advanced Life Support System and HST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarani, Ali K.

    2005-01-01

    Systems engineering (SE) discipline has revolutionized the way engineers and managers think about solving issues related to design of complex systems: With continued development of state-of-the-art technologies, systems are becoming more complex and therefore, a systematic approach is essential to control and manage their integrated design and development. This complexity is driven from integration issues. In this case, subsystems must interact with one another in order to achieve integration objectives, and also achieve the overall system's required performance. Systems engineering process addresses these issues at multiple levels. It is a technology and management process dedicated to controlling all aspects of system life cycle to assure integration at all levels. The Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM) project serves as the systems engineering and integration function for the Human Support Technology (HST) program. AIM provides means for integrated test facilities and personnel for performance trade studies, analyses, integrated models, test results, and validated requirements of the integration of HST. The goal of AIM is to address systems-level integration issues for exploration missions. It will use an incremental systems integration approach to yield technologies, baselines for further development, and possible breakthrough concepts in the areas of technological and organizational interfaces, total information flow, system wide controls, technical synergism, mission operations protocols and procedures, and human-machine interfaces.

  19. Self-Determination Theory and Computer-Mediated Support: Modeling Effects on Breast Cancer Patient's Quality-of-Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Shawnika J; Abril, Eulàlia P; Shah, Dhavan V; Choi, Mina; Chih, Ming-Yuan; Kim, Sojung Claire; Namkoong, Kang; McTavish, Fiona; Gustafson, David H

    2016-10-01

    A breast cancer diagnosis typically results in dramatic and negative effects on an individual's quality of life. Web-based interactive support systems such as the Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System (CHESS) offer one avenue for mitigating these negative effects. While evidence supports the efficacy of such systems, evaluations typically fail to provide a true test of the theorized model of effects, treating self-determination theory's constructs of competence, relatedness, and autonomy as outcomes rather than mediators. Using path analysis, this study tests the nature of the proposed mediated relationship between system engagement and quality-of-life indicators utilizing data collected from women (N = 90) who participated in the treatment condition of a CHESS randomized controlled trial. Findings support a latent model, indicating that system effects are mediated through an intertwined measure of autonomy, competence, and relatedness.

  20. Supporting Sustainable Markets Through Life Cycle Assessment: Evaluating emerging technologies, incorporating uncertainty and the consumer perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merugula, Laura

    As civilization's collective knowledge grows, we are met with the realization that human-induced physical and biological transformations influenced by exogenous psychosocial and economic factors affect virtually every ecosystem on the planet. Despite improvements in energy generation and efficiencies, demand of material goods and energy services increases with no sign of a slowing pace. Sustainable development requires a multi-prong approach that involves reshaping demand, consumer education, sustainability-oriented policy, and supply chain management that does not serve the expansionist mentality. Thus, decision support tools are needed that inform developers, consumers, and policy-makers for short-term and long-term planning. These tools should incorporate uncertainty through quantitative methods as well as qualitatively informing the nature of the model as imperfect but necessary and adequate. A case study is presented of the manufacture and deployment of utility-scale wind turbines evaluated for a proposed change in blade manufacturing. It provides the first life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluating impact of carbon nanofibers, an emerging material, proposed for integration to wind power generation systems as blade reinforcement. Few LCAs of nanoproducts are available in scientific literature due to research and development (R&D) for applications that continues to outpace R&D for environmental, health, and safety (EHS) and life cycle impacts. LCAs of emerging technologies are crucial for informing developers of potential impacts, especially where market growth is swift and dissipative. A second case study is presented that evaluates consumer choice between disposable and reusable beverage cups. While there are a few studies that attempt to make the comparison using LCA, none adequately address uncertainty, nor are they representative for the typical American consumer. By disaggregating U.S. power generation into 26 subregional grid production mixes and evaluating

  1. The Mediation Effect of School Satisfaction in the Relationship between Teacher Support, Positive Affect and Life Satisfaction in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telef, Bülent Baki; Arslan, Gökmen; Mert, Abdullah; Kalafat, Sezai

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationships among teacher support, positive emotions, school satisfaction and life satisfaction in adolescences. The study had the participation of 344 adolescents from different socio-economic levels studying in the sixth, seventh and eighth grades of three public middle schools in the province of…

  2. Skill retention in adults and in children 3 months after basic life support training using a simple personal resuscitation manikin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isbye, Dan L; Meyhoff, Christian S; Lippert, Freddy K;

    2007-01-01

    As 70-80% of cardiac arrests occur at home, widespread training is needed to increase the likelihood of basic life support (BLS) being performed before the arrival of Emergency Medical Services personnel. Teaching BLS in public schools has been recommended to achieve this....

  3. NASA Engineering Design Challenges: Environmental Control and Life Support Systems. Water Filtration Challenge. EG-2008-09-134-MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Twila, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This educator guide is organized into seven chapters: (1) Overview; (2) The Design Challenge; (3) Connections to National Curriculum Standards; (4) Preparing to Teach; (5) Classroom Sessions; (6) Opportunities for Extension; and (7) Teacher Resources. Chapter 1 provides information about Environmental Control and Life Support Systems used on NASA…

  4. The effect of the Advanced Paediatric Life Support course on perceived self-efficacy and use of resuscitation skills.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turner, N.M.; Dierselhuis, M.P.; Draaisma, J.M.T.; Cate, O.T. ten

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Perceived self-efficacy is a predictor of behaviour and therefore an important dimension of resuscitation training which may have consequences for patient care. The Advanced Paediatric Life Support (APLS) course makes use of techniques which would be expected to increase self-efficacy. W

  5. The Controlled Ecological Life Support System Antarctic Analog Project: Prototype Crop Production and Water Treatment System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Flynn, Michael T.; Bates, Maynard; Schlick, Greg; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP), is a joint endeavor between the National Science Foundation, Office of Polar Programs (NSF-OPP) and the NASA. The fundamental objective is to develop, deploy, and operate a testbed of advanced life support technologies at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station that enable the objectives of both the NSF and NASA. The functions of food production, water purification, and waste treatment, recycle and reduction provided by CAAP will improve the quality of life for the South Pole inhabitants, reduce logistics dependence, enhance safety and minimize environmental impacts associated with human presence on the polar plateau. Because of the analogous technical, scientific, and mission features with Planetary missions such as a mission to Mars, CAAP provides NASA with a method for validating technologies and overall approaches to supporting humans. Prototype systems for sewage treatment, water recycle and crop production are being evaluated at Ames Research Center. The product water from sewage treatment using a Wiped-Film Rotating Disk is suitable for input to the crop production system. The crop production system has provided an enhanced level of performance compared with projected performance for plant-based life support: an approximate 50% increase in productivity per unit area, more than a 65% decrease in power for plant lighting, and more than a 75% decrease in the total power requirement to produce an equivalent mass of edible biomass.

  6. Loneliness and Life Satisfaction in Turkish Early Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Self Esteem and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapikiran, Sahin

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to measure whether self-esteem and social support are mediators in the relationship between loneliness and life satisfaction. The study includes early teenagers from the 6th, 7th and 8th grades aged between 11 and 15 (M = 13.31, SD = 1.09). The study group consisted of 431 secondary school students from large and medium sized…

  7. Ageism, resilience, coping, family support, and quality of life among older people living with HIV/AIDS in Nanning, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongfang; Lin, Xinqin; Chen, Shiyi; Liu, Yanfen; Liu, Hongjie

    2016-10-19

    Although the HIV epidemic continues to spread among older adults over 50 years old in China, little empirical research has investigated the interrelationships among ageism, adaptability, family support, and quality of life among older people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). In this cross-sectional study, among 197 older PLWHAs over 50 years old, path analytic modelling was used to assess the interrelationships among ageism, resilience, coping, family support, and quality of life. Compared with female PLWHAs, male PLWHAs had a higher level of resilience and coping. There were no significant differences in the scores of quality of life, ageism, family support, HIV knowledge, and duration since HIV diagnosis between males and females. The following relationships were statistically significant in the path analysis: (1) family support → resilience [β (standardised coefficient) = 0.18], (2) resilience → ageism (β = -0.29), (3) resilience → coping (β = 0.48), and (4) coping → quality of life (β = 0.24). In addition, male PLWHAs were more resilient than female PLWHAs (β = 0.16). The findings indicate that older PLWHAs do not only negatively accept adversity, but build their adaptability to positively manage the challenges. Family-based interventions need take this adaptability to adversity into consideration.

  8. Gender in Marriage and Life Satisfaction Under Gender Imbalance in China: The Role of Intergenerational Support and SES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huijun; Li, Shuzhuo; Feldman, Marc W

    2013-12-01

    This study examined gender differences in the influence of marital status and marital quality on life satisfaction. The roles of intergenerational support and perceived socioeconomic status in the relationship between marriage and life satisfaction were also explored. The analysis was conducted with data from the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) in 2006, representing 1,317 women and 1,152 men at least 25 years old. Chi-squared tests and logistic regression models were used in this process. Marriage, including marital status and relationship quality, has a protective function for life satisfaction. Marital status is more important for males, but marital quality is more important for females. The moderating roles of intergenerational support and perceived socioeconomic status are gender specific, perhaps due to norms that ascribe different roles to men and women in marriage.

  9. Plant Growth Experiments in Zeoponic Substrates: Applications for Advanced Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Douglas W.; Gruener, J. E.; Henderson, K. E.; Steinberg, S. L.; Barta, D. J.; Galindo, C.; Henninger, D. L.

    2001-01-01

    A zeoponic plant-growth system is defined as the cultivation of plants in artificial soils, which have zeolites as a major component (Allen and Ming, 1995). Zeolites are crystalline, hydrated aluminosilicate minerals that have the ability to exchange constituent cations without major change of the mineral structure. Recently, zeoponic systems developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) slowly release some (Allen et at., 1995) or all of the essential plant-growth nutrients (Ming et at., 1995). These systems have NH4- and K-exchanged clinoptilolite (a natural zeolite) and either natural or synthetic apatite (a calcium phosphate mineral). For the natural apatite system, Ca and P were made available to the plant by the dissolution of apatite. Potassium and NH4-N were made available by ion-exchange reactions involving Ca(2+) from apatite dissolution and K(+) and NH4(+) on zeolitic exchange sites. In addition to NH4-N, K, Ca, and P, the synthetic apatite system also supplied Mg, S, and other micronutrients during dissolution (Figure 1). The overall objective of this research task is to develop zeoponic substrates wherein all plant growth nutrients are supplied by the plant growth medium for several growth seasons with only the addition of water. The substrate is being developed for plant growth in Advanced Life Support (ALS) testbeds (i.e., BioPLEX) and microgravity plant growth experiments. Zeoponic substrates have been used for plant growth experiments on two Space Shuttle flight experiments (STS-60; STS-63; Morrow et aI., 1995). These substrates may be ideally suited for plant growth experiments on the International Space Station and applications in ALS testbeds. However, there are several issues that need to be resolved before zeoponics will be the choice substrate for plant growth experiments in space. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview on recent research directed toward the refinement of zeoponic plant growth substrates.

  10. Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) utilizing Man-Tended Capability (MTC) hardware onboard Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.; Barratt, M.; Lloyd, C.

    1992-01-01

    Because of the time and distance involved in returning a patient from space to a definitive medical care facility, the capability for Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) exists onboard Space Station Freedom. Methods: In order to evaluate the effectiveness of terrestrial ACLS protocols in microgravity, a medical team conducted simulations during parabolic flights onboard the KC-135 aircraft. The hardware planned for use during the MTC phase of the space station was utilized to increase the fidelity of the scenario and to evaluate the prototype equipment. Based on initial KC-135 testing of CPR and ACLS, changes were made to the ventricular fibrillation algorithm in order to accommodate the space environment. Other constraints to delivery of ACLS onboard the space station include crew size, minimum training, crew deconditioning, and limited supplies and equipment. Results: The delivery of ACLS in microgravity is hindered by the environment, but should be adequate. Factors specific to microgravity were identified for inclusion in the protocol including immediate restraint of the patient and early intubation to insure airway. External cardiac compressions of adequate force and frequency were administered using various methods. The more significant limiting factors appear to be crew training, crew size, and limited supplies. Conclusions: Although ACLS is possible in the microgravity environment, future evaluations are necessary to further refine the protocols. Proper patient and medical officer restraint is crucial prior to advanced procedures. Also emphasis should be placed on early intubation for airway management and drug administration. Preliminary results and further testing will be utilized in the design of medical hardware, determination of crew training, and medical operations for space station and beyond.

  11. ORION Environmental Control and Life Support Systems Suit Loop and Pressure Control Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Brad; Conger, Bruce; Stambaugh, Imelda C.

    2015-01-01

    Under NASA's ORION Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Project at Johnson Space Center's (JSC), the Crew and Thermal Systems Division has developed performance models of the air system using Thermal Desktop/FloCAD. The Thermal Desktop model includes an Air Revitalization System (ARS Loop), a Suit Loop, a Cabin Loop, and Pressure Control System (PCS) for supplying make-up gas (N2 and O2) to the Cabin and Suit Loop. The ARS and PCS are designed to maintain air quality at acceptable O2, CO2 and humidity levels as well as internal pressures in the vehicle Cabin and during suited operations. This effort required development of a suite of Thermal Desktop Orion ECLSS models to address the need for various simulation capabilities regarding ECLSS performance. An initial highly detailed model of the ARS Loop was developed in order to simulate rapid pressure transients (water hammer effects) within the ARS Loop caused by events such as cycling of the Pressurized Swing Adsorption (PSA) Beds and required high temporal resolution (small time steps) in the model during simulation. A second ECLSS model was developed to simulate events which occur over longer periods of time (over 30 minutes) where O2, CO2 and humidity levels, as well as internal pressures needed to be monitored in the cabin and for suited operations. Stand-alone models of the PCS and the Negative Pressure relief Valve (NPRV) were developed to study thermal effects within the PCS during emergency scenarios (Cabin Leak) and cabin pressurization during vehicle re-entry into Earth's atmosphere. Results from the Orion ECLSS models were used during Orion Delta-PDR (July, 2014) to address Key Design Requirements (KDR's) for Suit Loop operations for multiple mission scenarios.

  12. Fire fighters as basic life support responders: A study of successful implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Erika

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background First responders are recommended as a supplement to the Emergency Medical Services (EMS in order to achieve early defibrillation. Practical and organisational aspects are essential when trying to implement new parts in the "Chain of Survival"; areas to address include minimizing dispatch time, ensuring efficient and quick communication, and choosing areas with appropriate driving distances. The aim of this study was to implement a system using Basic Life Support (BLS responders equipped with an automatic external defibrillator in an area with relatively short emergency medical services' response times. Success criteria for implementation was defined as arrival of the BLS responders before the EMS, attachment (and use of the AED, and successful defibrillation. Methods This was a prospective observational study from September 1, 2005 to December 31, 2007 (28 months in the city of Aarhus, Denmark. The BLS responder system was implemented in an area up to three kilometres (driving distance from the central fire station, encompassing approximately 81,500 inhabitants. The team trained on each shift and response times were reduced by choice of area and by sending the alarm directly to the fire brigade dispatcher. Results The BLS responders had 1076 patient contacts. The median response time was 3.5 minutes (25th percentile 2.75, 75th percentile 4.25. The BLS responders arrived before EMS in 789 of the 1076 patient contacts (73%. Cardiac arrest was diagnosed in 53 cases, the AED was attached in 29 cases, and a shockable rhythm was detected in nine cases. Eight were defibrillated using an AED. Seven of the eight obtained return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC. Six of the seven obtaining ROSC survived more than 30 days. Conclusion In this study, the implementation of BLS responders may have resulted in successful resuscitations. On basis of the close corporation between all participants in the chain of survival this project

  13. Optical Breath Gas Extravehicular Activity Sensor for the Advanced Portable Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, William R.; Casias, Miguel E.; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Chullen, Cinda; Campbell, Colin

    2016-01-01

    The function of the infrared gas transducer used during extravehicular activity (EVA) in the current space suit is to measure and report the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the ventilation loop. The next generation portable life support system (PLSS) requires highly accurate CO2 sensing technology with performance beyond that presently in use on the International Space Station extravehicular mobility unit (EMU). Further, that accuracy needs to be provided over the full operating pressure range of the suit (3 to 25 psia). Accommodation within space suits demands that optical sensors meet stringent size, weight, and power requirements. A laser diode (LD) sensor based on infrared absorption spectroscopy is being developed for this purpose by Vista Photonics, Inc. Version 1.0 prototype devices were delivered to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in September 2011. The prototypes were upgraded with more sophisticated communications and faster response times to version 2.0 and delivered to JSC in July 2012. The sensors incorporate a laser diode based CO2 channel that also includes an incidental water vapor (humidity) measurement. The prototypes are controlled digitally with an field-programmable gate array microcontroller architecture. Based on the results of the iterative instrument development, further prototype development and testing of instruments were performed leveraging the lessons learned where feasible. The present development extends and upgrades the earlier hardware for the advanced PLSS 2.5 prototypes for testing at JSC. The prototypes provide significantly enhanced accuracy for water vapor measurement and eliminate wavelength drift affecting the earlier versions. Various improvements to the electronics and gas sampling are currently being advanced including the companion development of engineering development units that will ultimately be capable of radiation tolerance. The combination of low power electronics with the performance of a long wavelength

  14. Testing soil-like substrate for growing plants in bioregenerative life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, J. B.; Lasseur, Ch.; Tikhomirov, A. A.; Manukovsky, N. S.; Kovalev, V. S.; Ushakova, S. A.; Zolotukhin, I. G.; Tirranen, L. S.; Karnachuk, R. A.; Dorofeev, V. Yu.

    We studied soil-like substrate (SLS) as a potential candidate for plant cultivation in bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS). The SLS was obtained by successive conversion of wheat straw by oyster mushrooms and worms. Mature SLS contained 9.5% humic acids and 4.9% fulvic acids. First, it was shown that wheat, bean and cucumber yields as well as radish yields when cultivated on mature SLS were comparable to yields obtained on a neutral substrate (expanded clay aggregate) under hydroponics. Second, the possibility of increasing wheat and radish yields on the SLS was assessed at three levels of light intensity: 690, 920 and 1150 μmol m -2 s -1 of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). The highest wheat yield was obtained at 920 μmol m -2 s -1, while radish yield increased steadily with increasing light intensity. Third, long-term SLS fertility was tested in a BLSS model with mineral and organic matter recycling. Eight cycles of wheat and 13 cycles of radish cultivation were carried out on the SLS in the experimental system. Correlation coefficients between SLS nitrogen content and total wheat biomass and grain yield were 0.92 and 0.97, respectively, and correlation coefficients between nitrogen content and total radish biomass and edible root yield were 0.88 and 0.87, respectively. Changes in hormone content (auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins and abscisic acid) in the SLS during matter recycling did not reduce plant productivity. Quantitative and species compositions of the SLS and irrigation water microflora were also investigated. Microbial community analysis of the SLS showed bacteria from Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Proteus, Nocardia, Mycobacterium, Arthrobacter and Enterobacter genera, and fungi from Trichoderma, Penicillium, Fusarium, Aspergillus, Mucor, Botrytis, and Cladosporium genera.

  15. Experimental microbiological issues related to biocontamination and human life support inside manned space modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canganella, Francesco; Rettberg, Petra; Bianconi, G.; di Mattia, E.; Taddei, A. R.; Iylin, V.; Novikova, N.; Fani, R.; Brigidi, P.; Vitali, B.; Candela, M.; Lobascio, C.; Saverino, A.; Simone, A.; Fossati, F.; Ferraris, M.

    The issue of biocontamination in manned space modules is very important for the International Space Station (ISS) as well as for future planetary bases. We have previously carried out re-search activities concerning biofilm metabolic activities of some reference bacteria on materials commonly used for aerospace industry and currently examined for space greenhouses. It was evaluated the effect on these materials of a mixture of emulsifiers produced by Pseudomonas strain AD1 and recently characterized by chemical methods. The following materials were in-vestigated: Kevlar, Nomex, Betacloth, aluminized Kapton, conventional Kapton, Combitherm, Mylar, copper foil, Teflon, aluminum, carbon fiber composite, aluminum thermo-dissipating tex-tile, aluminum tape, Zylon, Ergoflex, Vectran. Results showed a diverse affinity of materials for bacterial biofilm formation and occasionally sessile colonization was rejected. Pre-conditioning with the emulsifying extract led in some cases to a diminish of biofilm dehydrogenase activity and development compared to untreated materials, taking into account both concentrations and experimental conditions. This also concerned the relationship between the physical traits of materials and the level of bacterial biofilm developed under the experimental conditions. Presently we are investigating microbial biofilm development on either conventional or innova-tive space materials, experimentally treated by biological or chemo-physical coating. VIABLE ISS is a flight experiment concerning the exposure of these materials inside an ISS module for about 4 years. Another initiative (MICHA) on progress is part of the MARS500 Programme, presently going on at the IBMP facility in Moscow. Data will be useful to select appropriate material to be used for life support hardware to decrease the risk of surface biocontamination and health problems inside space modules, a great challenge for both biological and medical research.

  16. CELSS Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP): A New Paradigm for Polar Life Support and CELSS Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Straight, Christian; Flynn, Michael; Bates, Maynard; Harper, Lynn D. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The CELSS Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP) is a joint National Science Foundation (NSF) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) project for the development, deployment and operation of CELSS technologies at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. CAAP is implemented through the joint NSF/NASA Antarctic Space Analog Program (ASAP), initiated to support the pursuit of future NASA missions and to promote the transfer of space technologies to the NSF. Under a Memorandum of Agreement, the CAAP represents an example of a working dual agency cooperative project. NASA goals are operational testing of CELSS technologies and the conduct of scientific study to facilitate . technology selection, system design and methods development, including human dynamics as required for the operation of a CELSS. Although not fully closed, food production, water purification, and waste recycle and reduction provided by CAAP will improve the quality of life for the South Pole inhabitants, reduce logistics dependence, and minimize environmental impacts associated with human presence on the polar plateau. The CAAP facility will be highly integrated with the new South Pole Station infrastructure and will be composed of a deployed hardware facility and a research activity. This paper will include a description of CAAP and its functionality, conceptual designs, component selection and sizing for the crop growth chamber, crop production expectations, and a brief report on an initial on-site visit. This paper will also provide a discussion of issues associated with power and energy use and the applicability of CAAP to direct technology transfer to society in general and remote communities in particular.

  17. Practical Considerations of Waste Heat Reuse for a Mars Mission Advanced Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levri, Julie; Finn, Cory; Luna, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Energy conservation is a key issue in design optimization of Advanced Life Support Systems (ALSS) for long-term space missions. By considering designs for conservation at the system level, energy saving opportunities arise that would otherwise go unnoticed. This paper builds on a steady-state investigation of system-level waste heat reuse in an ALSS with a low degree of crop growth for a Mars mission. In past studies, such a system has been defined in terms of technology types, hot and cold stream identification and stream energy content. The maximum steady-state potential for power and cooling savings within the system was computed via the Pinch Method. In this paper, several practical issues are considered for achieving a pragmatic estimate of total system savings in terms of equivalent system mass (ESM), rather than savings solely in terms of power and cooling. In this paper, more realistic ESM savings are computed by considering heat transfer inefficiencies during material transfer. An estimate of the steady-state mass, volume and crewtime requirements associated with heat exchange equipment is made by considering heat exchange equipment material type and configuration, stream flow characteristics and associated energy losses during the heat exchange process. Also, previously estimated power and cooling savings are adjusted to reflect the impact of such energy losses. This paper goes one step further than the traditional Pinch Method of considering waste heat reuse in heat exchangers to include ESM savings that occur with direct reuse of a stream. For example, rather than exchanging heat between crop growth lamp cooling air and air going to a clothes dryer, air used to cool crop lamps might be reused directly for clothes drying purposes. When thermodynamically feasible, such an approach may increase ESM savings by minimizing the mass, volume and crewtime requirements associated with stream routing equipment.

  18. Advanced anaerobic bioconversion of lignocellulosic waste for the melissa life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissens, G.; Verstraete, W.; Albrecht, T.; Brunner, G.; Creuly, C.; Dussap, G.; Kube, J.; Maerkl, H.; Lasseur, C.

    The feasibility of nearly-complete conversion of lignocellulosic waste (70% food crops, 20% faecal matter and 10% green algae) into biogas was investigated in the context of the MELiSSA loop (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative). The treatment comprised a series of processes, i.e. a mesophilic laboratory scale CSTR (continuously stirred tank reactor), an upflow biofilm reactor, a fiber liquefaction reactor employing the rumen bacterium Fibrobacter succinogenes and a hydrothermolysis system in near-critical water. By the one-stage CSTR, a biogas yield of 75% with a specific biogas production of 0.37 l biogas g-1 VSS (volatile suspended solids) added at a RT (hydraulic retention time) of 20-25 d was obtained. Biogas yields could not be increased considerably at higher RT, indicating the depletion of readily available substrate after 25 d. The solids present in the CSTR-effluent were subsequently treated in two ways. Hydrothermal treatment (T ˜ 310-350C, p ˜ 240 bar) resulted in effective carbon liquefaction (50-60% without and 83% with carbon dioxide saturation) and complete sanitation of the residue. Application of the cellulolytic Fibrobacter succinogenes converted remaining cellulose contained in the CSTR-effluent into acetate and propionate mainly. Subsequent anaerobic digestion of the hydrothermolysis and the Fibrobacter hydrolysates allowed conversion of 48-60% and 30%, respectively. Thus, the total process yielded biogas corresponding with conversions up to 90% of the original organic matter. It appears that particularly mesophilic digestion in conjunction with hydrothermolysis offers interesting features for (nearly) the MELiSSA system. The described additional technologies show that complete and hygienic carbon and energy recovery from human waste within MELiSSA is technically feasible, provided that the extra energy needed for the thermal treatment is guaranteed.

  19. Space Suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) 2.0 Pre-Installation Acceptance (PIA) Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchondo, Ian; Cox, Marlon; Meginnis, Carly; Westheimer, David; Vogel, Matt R.

    2016-01-01

    Following successful completion of the space suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) 1.0 development and testing in 2011, the second system-level prototype, PLSS 2.0, was developed in 2012 to continue the maturation of the advanced PLSS design. This advanced PLSS is intended to reduce consumables, improve reliability and robustness, and incorporate additional sensing and functional capabilities over the current Space Shuttle/International Space Station Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) PLSS. PLSS 2.0 represents the first attempt at a packaged design comprising first generation or later component prototypes and medium fidelity interfaces within a flight-like representative volume. Pre-Installation Acceptance (PIA) is carryover terminology from the Space Shuttle Program referring to the series of test sequences used to verify functionality of the EMU PLSS prior to installation into the Space Shuttle airlock for launch. As applied to the PLSS 2.0 development and testing effort, PIA testing designated the series of 27 independent test sequences devised to verify component and subsystem functionality, perform in situ instrument calibrations, generate mapping data, define set-points, evaluate control algorithms, evaluate hardware performance against advanced PLSS design requirements, and provide quantitative and qualitative feedback on evolving design requirements and performance specifications. PLSS 2.0 PIA testing was carried out in 2013 and 2014 using a variety of test configurations to perform test sequences that ranged from stand-alone component testing to system-level testing, with evaluations becoming increasingly integrated as the test series progressed. Each of the 27 test sequences was vetted independently, with verification of basic functionality required before completion. Because PLSS 2.0 design requirements were evolving concurrently with PLSS 2.0 PIA testing, the requirements were used as guidelines to assess performance during the tests; after the

  20. Level of Knowledge of specialist cardiologists and anesthesiologists in Basic and Advanced Life Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vachla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Health professionals often witness in-hospital episodes of cardiac arrest. The quality of the Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR depends on the level of theoretical background and practical skills. Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate the level of theoretical knowledge of skilled cardiologists and anesthesiologists in the Basic and Advanced Life Support (BLS/ ALS. Material - method: In this study, sample included 240 cardiologists and anesthesiologists, chosen randomly from employers of 17 General Public Hospitals of Athens. For data collection, a questionnaire with 16 theoretical questions was designed, based on the guidelines of the European Resuscitation Council (ERC 2005. Significance level was set at p=≤0,05. The analysis was performed with the Statistical Package IBM SPSS Statistics 19. Results: No statistically significant difference was observed between specialists cardiologists and anesthesiologists in overall performance in theoretical knowledge on the BLS and ALS. Additionally, no statistical significance was observed between the two separate groups of theoretical background. Statistically significant difference was observed among those who had participated in a training seminar in BLS and ALS and those who had not participated (p<0,001. Also, there was statistical significance between the follow-up seminar in BLS/ ALS and specialty for the right answer to the question "which is the right ratio of chest compressions and ventilation", (p<0,001. Conclusions: The level of background knowledge of specialist cardiologists and anesthesiologists in the algorithms of BLS and ALS seem to correlate to the attendance of a training course.

  1. Electricity generation directly using human feces wastewater for life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fangzhou, Du; Zhenglong, Li; Shaoqiang, Yang; Beizhen, Xie; Hong, Liu

    2011-05-01

    Wastewater reuse and power regeneration are key issues in the research of bioregeneration life support system (BLSS). Microbial fuel cell (MFC) can generate electricity during the process of wastewater treatment, which might be promising to solve the two problems simultaneously. We used human feces wastewater containing abundant organic compounds as the substrate of MFC to generate electricity, and the factors concerning electricity generation capacity were investigated. The removal efficiency of total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD), Soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) and NH4+ reached 71%, 88% and 44%, respectively with two-chamber MFC when it was fed with the actual human feces wastewater and operated for 190 h. And the maximum power density reached 70.8 mW/m 2, which implicated that MFC technology was feasible and appropriate for treating human feces wastewater. In order to improve the power generation of MFC further, human feces wastewater were fermented before poured into MFC, and the result showed that fermentation pretreatment could improve the MFC output obviously. The maximum power density of MFC fed with pretreated human feces wastewater was 22 mW/m 2, which was 47% higher than that of the control without pretreatment (15 mW/m 2). Furthermore, the structure of MFC was studied and it was found that both enlarging the area of electrodes and shortening the distance between electrodes could increase the electricity generation capacity. Finally, an automatic system, controlled by time switches and electromagnetic valves, was established to process one person's feces wastewater (1 L/d) while generating electricity. The main parts of this system comprised a pretreatment device and 3 one-chamber air-cathode MFCs. The total power could reach 787.1 mW and power density could reach the maximum of about 240 mW/m 2.

  2. Impact of the prehospital trauma life support programme in Trinidad and Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, J; Adam, R U; Gana, T J; George, B; Taylor, A; Patino, T; West, U; Ali, E; Bedaysie, H

    1998-09-01

    The impact of the Prehospital Trauma Life Support (PHTLS) programme, introduced in Trinidad and Tobago in 1992, was assessed by questionnaires completed by 26 medical personnel (MP); 71 ambulance personnel (AP); and 50 non ambulance paramedical personnel (NAP). Of the 23 MP, 45 AP and 38 NAP who were aware of the programme, 19 (82.6%) MP, 40 (88.9%) AP and 25 (65.8%) NAP were able to differentiate personnel that had taken the PHTLS programme based on their performance. 32 (71.1%) of the AP were PHTLS trained. 24 (53.3%) and 4 (9%) of the AP identified poor equipment and poor supervision, respectively, as reasons for difficulty in applying PHTLS principles. Improvements observed among those completing the PHTLS programme were: improved resuscitation techniques by 20 (86.9%) MP, 38 (84.4%) AP and 27 (71.1%) NAP; better vital signs recording by 8 (34.8%) MP, 27 (60%) AP and 8 (21.1%) NAP; improved immobilization by 23 (100%) MP, 40 (88.9%) AP and 33 (86.8%) NAP; better haemorrhage control by 22 (95.6%) MP, 40 (88.9%) AP and 24 (63.2%) NAP; appropriate splinting of fractures by 23 (100%) MP, 40 (88.9%) AP and 32 (84.2%) NAP; and increased utilization of oxygen by 15 (65.2%) MP, 31 (68.9%) AP and 21 (55.3%) NAP. 32 (71.1%) AP with PHTLS training indicated improvement in their ability to resuscitate and transport trauma victims, with 42 (93.3%) reporting improvement in overall prehospital care. Medical, paramedical and ambulance personnel all perceive a significant positive impact of PHTLS training on prehospital trauma care. Although improvements in supervision, documentation and equipment are still required, improved trauma resuscitative techniques after PHTLS training should improve trauma patient outcome in Trinidad and Tobago.

  3. Comparison of severe trauma care effect before and after advanced trauma life support training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Peng; LI Neng-ping; GU Yong-feng; LU Xiao-bing; CONG Jian-nong; YANG Xin; LING Yun

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the emergency care effect of in-hospital severe trauma patients with the injury severity score (ISS)≥ 16 after medical staff received advanced trauma life support (ATLS) training.Methods: ATLS training was implemented by lectures,scenarios, field practices, and examinations. The clinical effect of in-hospital severe trauma care was compared 2 years before and after ATLS training.Results: During 2 years (from January 1, 2004, to December 31, 2005) before ATLS training, 438 cases of severe trauma were admitted and treated emergently in our department. Among them, ISS score was 28.6±7.8 on average, and 87 cases died with the mortality of 19.9%. The duration in emergency department and from admission to operation were 69.5 min±l 1.5 min and 89.6 min±9.3 min respectively. Two years (from January 1,2007, to December 31, 2008) after ATLS training, 382 cases of severe trauma were admitted and treated. The ISS was 25.3 ±6.1 on average and 62 cases died with the mortality of 15.1%. The duration in emergency department and from admission to operation were 47.8 min±10.7 min and 61.5 min±9.9 min respectively. The ISS score showed no significant difference between the two groups (P>0.05), but the mortality, the duration in emergency department and from admission to operation were markedly decreased after ATLS training and showed significant difference between the two groups (P<0.05).Conclusion: ATLS course training can improve the emergency care effect of in-hospital severe trauma patients,and should be put into practice as soon as possible in China.

  4. The Giant Snail Achatina fulica as a Candidate Species for Advanced Bioregenerative Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbitskaya, Olga; Manukovsky, Nickolay; Kovalev, Vladimir

    Maintenance of crew health is of paramount importance for long duration space missions. Weight loss, bone and calcium loss, increased exposure to radiation and oxidative stress are critical concerns that need to be alleviated. Rational nutrition is a resource for mitigating the influence of unfavorable conditions. The insufficiency of vegetarian diet has been examined by the Japanese, Chinese and U.S. developers of bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS). Hence, inclusion of animals such as silkworm in BLSS looks justified. The giant snail is currently under studying as a source of animal food and a species of reducing waste in BLSS. An experimental system to conduct cultivation of giant snail was developed. It was established that there are some reasons to use the giant snails in BLSS. It could be a source of delicious meat. A. fulica is capable of consuming a wide range of feedstuffs including plant residues. Cultivation of snail in the limited volume does not demand the big expenditures of labor. The production of crude edible biomass and protein of A. fulica was 60±15 g and 7±1.8 g respectively per 1 kg of consumed forage (fresh salad leaves, root and leafy tops of carrot). To satisfy daily animal protein needs (30-35 g) a crewman has to consume 260-300 g of snail meat. To produce such amount of snail protein it takes to use 4.3-5.0 kg of plant forage daily. The nutritional composition of A. fulica whole bodies (without shell) and a meal prepared in various ways was quantitatively determined. Protein, carbohydrate, fat acid and ash content percentages were different among samples prepared in various ways. The protein content was highest (68 %) in the dry sample washed with CH3 COOH solution. Taking into consideration the experimental results a conceptual configuration of BLSS with inclusion of giant snail was developed and mass flow rates between compartments were calculated. Keywords: animal food; protein; giant snail; BLSS; conceptual configuration.

  5. Self-Care Program With Multimedia Software Support Effect on Quality of Life in Patients With Diabetes Type II

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    Sheikh Abumasoudi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Different studies have shown that health level, performance statutes and quality of life in chronic patients are less than the expected level especially in patients with diabetes. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a self-care program with a multimedia software support on quality of life in patients with diabetes type II. Patients and Methods This study was a randomized controlled clinical trial in which 60 patients who had been referred to the diabetes clinic of Arak city were randomly divided to experimental (n = 30 and control (n = 30 groups. Diabetes Quality of Life Brief Clinical Inventory was used for determining the quality of life. Data were collected before and two months after the intervention for both groups. An educational program with equal content was conducted for both the experimental group (self-care program with multimedia software support in two sessions and control group (lecture and presentation with PowerPoint in one session. Data analysis was made by the SPSS 16 software. Results There were no significant differences between the two groups in mean scores of quality of life before the intervention (P = 0.97 while after the intervention, the difference between the two groups was significant (P = 0.029. Applying the self-care program with software support improved quality of life of the experimental group after the intervention (P < 0.0001 while there was no significant difference in mean score of quality of life in the control group after eight weeks (P = 0.051. Conclusions According to the results of this study, the examined method is a simple, cheap, effective and attractive intervention program for patients with diabetes.

  6. Socioeconomic Status and Social Support: Social Support Reduces Inflammatory Reactivity for Individuals Whose Early-Life Socioeconomic Status Was Low.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John-Henderson, Neha A; Stellar, Jennifer E; Mendoza-Denton, Rodolfo; Francis, Darlene D

    2015-10-01

    Low socioeconomic status (SES) during childhood confers risk for adverse health in adulthood. Accumulating evidence suggests that this may be due, in part, to the association between lower childhood SES and higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Drawing from literature showing that low childhood SES predicts exaggerated physiological reactivity to stressors and that lower SES is associated with a more communal, socially attuned orientation, we hypothesized that inflammatory reactivity would be more greatly affected by cues of social support among individuals whose childhood SES was low than among those whose childhood SES was high. In two studies, we found that individuals with lower subjective childhood SES exhibited greater reductions in pro-inflammatory cytokine reactivity to a stressor in the presence of a supportive figure (relative to conditions with an unsupportive or neutral figure). These effects were independent of current SES. This work helps illuminate SES-based differences in inflammatory reactivity to stressors, particularly among individuals whose childhood SES was low.

  7. Examining the relationships of depressive symptoms, stigma, social support and regimen-specific support on quality of life in adult patients with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatley, A D; DiIorio, C K; Yeager, K

    2010-08-01

    Epilepsy research efforts have primarily focused on medical treatment and physical management of epilepsy; however, to provide comprehensive care, efforts cannot focus solely on physical manifestations of epilepsy. Research findings show that people with epilepsy face many challenges that can negatively affect quality of life (QOL). In this descriptive study, we examined the individual relationships between depressive symptoms, stigma, social support and regimen-specific support and QOL in adults with epilepsy. Study data were obtained from a subset of patients (N = 147) who participated in a longitudinal study of adult patients with epilepsy. Measures of QOL, depressive symptoms, stigma, social support and regimen-specific support were analyzed to answer the research questions. The results of correlational analyses revealed statistically significant negative correlations between depressive symptoms, stigma and sometimes regimen-specific support and QOL and statistically significant positive correlations between social support and QOL. A hierarchical multiple linear regression model revealed that depressive symptoms accounted for the most variance in QOL. Psychosocial variables measured 3 months prior to QOL were entered into a hierarchical multiple linear regression model, revealing that depressive symptoms, stigma and social support can be used to predict QOL at a later time.

  8. UK University and College Technical Support for "Second Life" Developers and Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirriemuir, John

    2010-01-01

    Background: Numerous surveys, articles, ephemera and online information sources indicate that "Second Life" has been the predominant virtual world, for educational purposes, in UK universities for the latter half of the 2000s. However, the infrastructure required to operate "Second Life" presents a number of technical concerns…

  9. Relationship between Postpartum Depression, Life Events and Social Support%产后抑郁症与生活事件及社会支持的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许祖年; 卢碧运

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To examine relationship of postpartum depression with life events and social support. Methods: Thirty patients with postpartum depression and 32 normal controls were rated by a life events scale and a social support scale. Results: The number of negative life events were found to be higher in patients with postpartum depression as compared to normal controls. Social support of patients with postpartum depression was also found to be lower than their normal counterparts. Conclusion: Negative life events and deficient social support were significantly related to postpartum depression.

  10. Influence of Social Support on Health-Related Quality of Life in New-Generation Migrant Workers in Eastern China

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    Haiyan Xing

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF has generally been used for patients,few studies in migrants who move from rural to urban within one country. Many studies asserted that social isolation presents a risk to individual health. Poor social networks are associated with worse QOL. This study examined health-related quality of life (HRQOL and social support in new-generation migrant workers and compared it with urban workers.Methods: Nine hundred thirty new-generation migrant workers and 939 urban controls completed the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire and Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS by stratified sampling in 2011. Spearman’s correlation was performed to clarify the relationship between social support and HRQOL in migrants. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to identify the variables that were associated with HRQOL.Results: The general health, psychological health, and environmental scores of QOL in new-generation migrant workers were lower than in urban workers. New-generation migrants had poorer social support compared with urban controls with regard to general support, objective support, and support utilization. A positive correlation was found between social support and HRQOL. Workers with a higher level of education achieved better psychological, environmental, and general scores than workers with a primary education. Physical, social, environmental, and general health was also closely connected with the age factor. Physical health scores were higher in males than in females.Conclusion: These data suggest that new-generation migrant workers have significant impairment in HRQOL and receive less social support. HRQOL may be affected by social support, education, age, and gender.

  11. Positive childhood experiences and ideal cardiovascular health in midlife: Associations and mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slopen, Natalie; Chen, Ying; Guida, Jennifer L; Albert, Michelle A; Williams, David R

    2017-01-10

    In 2010, the American Heart Association introduced a new conceptual framework to encourage a focus on primary prevention and provided a definition for "ideal cardiovascular health". In this study we examined the relationship between positive childhood experience and ideal cardiovascular health in mid-life, and the extent to which education, depression, and social support mediate this association. Data are from participants in the Midlife and Aging in the United States study who completed a clinic-based assessment of health (N=1255, aged 34-84years, 2004-2005). We created a positive childhood experiences index based on retrospective report of eight childhood experiences, and calculated a continuous ideal cardiovascular health score for each participant following the American Heart Association's definition of ideal, intermediate and poor cardiovascular health across seven health metrics (analyses conducted in 2015-2016). Positive childhood experiences were associated with ideal cardiovascular health: compared to individuals in the lowest quartile, respondents in the second, third, and fourth quartile of positive childhood experiences scored 0.42 (standard error (SE)=0.18), 0.92 (SE=0.18) and 1.04 (SE=0.18) units higher on ideal cardiovascular health, adjusting for age, sex, and race. Respondent's education, depression status, and social support fully mediated the direct effect of positive childhood experiences on ideal cardiovascular health, with the largest indirect effect for education. These results suggest that positive childhood experiences are associated with ideal cardiovascular health in midlife. Strategies to promote cardiovascular wellbeing may benefit from a focus on social interventions early in life; educational attainment, major depression, and social support may represent key points of intervention.

  12. Electrolyser and fuel cells, key elements for energy and life support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockstahler, Klaus; Funke, Helmut; Lucas, Joachim

    Both, Electrolyser and Fuel Cells are key elements for regenerative energy and life support systems. Electrolyser technology is originally intended for oxygen production in manned space habitats and in submarines, through splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen. Fuel cells serve for energy production through the reaction, triggered in the presence of an electrolyte, between a fuel and an oxidant. Now combining both technologies i.e. electrolyser and fuel cell makes it a Regenerative Fuel Cell System (RFCS). In charge mode, i.e. with energy supplied e.g. by solar cells, the electrolyser splits water into hydrogen and oxygen being stored in tanks. In discharge mode, when power is needed but no energy is available, the stored gases are converted in the fuel cell to generate electricity under the formation of water that is stored in tanks. Rerouting the water to the electrolyser makes it a closed-loop i.e. regenerative process. Different electrolyser and fuel cell technologies are being evolved. At Astrium emphasis is put on the development of an RFCS comprised of Fixed Alkaline Electrolyser (FAE) and Fuel Cell (AFC) as such technology offers a high electrical efficiency and thus reduced system weight, which is important in space applications. With increasing power demand and increasing discharge time an RFCS proves to be superior to batteries. Since the early technology development multiple design refinements were done at Astrium, funded by the European Space Agency ESA and the German National Agency DLR as well as based on company internal R and T funding. Today a complete RFCS energy system breadboard is established and the operational behavior of the system is being tested. In parallel the electrolyser itself is subject to design refinement and testing in terms of oxygen production in manned space habitats. In addition essential features and components for process monitoring and control are being developed. The present results and achievements and the dedicated

  13. Fermentation as a first step in carbon and nutrient recovery in regenerative life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Amanda; Lasseur, Christophe; Rebeyre, Pierre; Clauwaert, Peter; Rabaey, Korneel; Ronsse, Frederik; Zhang, Dong Dong; López Barreiro, Diego; Prins, Wolter

    2016-07-01

    Long term manned space missions, such as the establishment of a base on Mars, will require a regenerative means of supplying the basic resources (i.e., food, water, oxygen) necessary to support human life. The MELiSSA-loop is a closed loop compartmentalized artificial aquatic ecosystem designed to recover water, carbon, and nutrients from solid organic wastes (e.g., inedible food waste and feces) for the regeneration of food and oxygen for humans. The first step in this loop is a strictly anaerobic fermentation unit operated as a membrane bioreactor. In this step the aim is to maximize the hydrolysis of complex organic compounds into simple molecules (CO2, ammonia, volatile fatty acids, …) which can be consumed by plants and bacteria downstream to produce food again. Optimal steady state fermentation of a standardized homogeneous mixture of beets, lettuce, wheat straw, toilet paper, feces, and water was demonstrated to recover approximately 50% of the influent carbon as soluble organics in the effluent through anaerobic fermentation. Approximately 10% of the influent COD was converted to CO2, with the remaining ~40% retained as a mixture of undigested solids and biomass. Approximately 50% of the influent nitrogen was recovered in the effluent, 97% of which was in the form of ammonia. Similar results have been obtained at both lab and pilot scale. With only 10% of the carbon driven to CO2 through this fermentation, a major challenge at this moment for the MELiSSA-loop is closing the carbon cycle, by completely oxidizing the carbon in the organic waste and non-edible parts of the plant into CO2 for higher plants and algae to fix again for food production. To further improve the overall degradation we are investigating the integration of a high temperature and pressure, sub- or near critical water conditions to improve the degradation of fibrous material with the addition of an oxidant (hydrogen peroxide, H2O2) under sub- or near critical conditions to further

  14. Selection and hydroponic growth of bread wheat cultivars for bioregenerative life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, V.; Feller, U.

    2013-08-01

    As part of the ESA-funded MELiSSA program, the suitability, the growth and the development of four bread wheat cultivars were investigated in hydroponic culture with the aim to incorporate such a cultivation system in an Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). Wheat plants can fulfill three major functions in space: (a) fixation of CO2 and production of O2, (b) production of grains for human nutrition and (c) production of cleaned water after condensation of the water vapor released from the plants by transpiration. Four spring wheat cultivars (Aletsch, Fiorina, Greina and CH Rubli) were grown hydroponically and compared with respect to growth and grain maturation properties. The height of the plants, the culture duration from germination to harvest, the quantity of water used, the number of fertile and non-fertile tillers as well as the quantity and quality of the grains harvested were considered. Mature grains could be harvested after around 160 days depending on the varieties. It became evident that the nutrient supply is crucial in this context and strongly affects leaf senescence and grain maturation. After a first experiment, the culture conditions were improved for the second experiment (stepwise decrease of EC after flowering, pH adjusted twice a week, less plants per m2) leading to a more favorable harvest (higher grain yield and harvest index). Considerably less green tillers without mature grains were present at harvest time in experiment 2 than in experiment 1. The harvest index for dry matter (including roots) ranged from 0.13 to 0.35 in experiment 1 and from 0.23 to 0.41 in experiment 2 with modified culture conditions. The thousand-grain weight for the four varieties ranged from 30.4 to 36.7 g in experiment 1 and from 33.2 to 39.1 g in experiment 2, while market samples were in the range of 39.4-46.9 g. Calcium levels in grains of the hydroponically grown wheat were similar to those from field-grown wheat, while potassium, magnesium

  15. The first 500 days of life: policies to support maternal nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John B. Mason

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: From conception to 6 months of age, an infant is entirely dependent for its nutrition on the mother: via the placenta and then ideally via exclusive breastfeeding. This period of 15 months – about 500 days – is the most important and vulnerable in a child's life: it must be protected through policies supporting maternal nutrition and health. Those addressing nutritional status are discussed here. Objective and design: This paper aims to summarize research on policies and programs to protect women's nutrition in order to improve birth outcomes in low- and middle-income countries, based on studies of efficacy from the literature, and on effectiveness, globally and in selected countries involving in-depth data collection in communities in Ethiopia, India and Northern Nigeria. Results of this research have been published in the academic literature (more than 30 papers. The conclusions now need to be advocated to policy-makers. Results: The priority problems addressed are: intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, women's anemia, thinness, and stunting. The priority interventions that need to be widely expanded for women before and during pregnancy, are: supplementation with iron–folic acid or multiple micronutrients; expanding coverage of iodine fortification of salt particularly to remote areas and the poorest populations; targeted provision of balanced protein energy supplements when significant resources are available; reducing teenage pregnancies; increasing interpregnancy intervals through family planning programs; and building on conditional cash transfer programs, both to provide resources and as a platform for public education. All these have known efficacy but are of inadequate coverage and resourcing. The next steps are to overcome barriers to wide implementation, without which targets for maternal and child health and nutrition (e.g. by WHO are unlikely to be met, especially in the poorest countries. Conclusions: This

  16. Analysis of silkworm gut microflora in the Bioregenerative Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xue; Liu, lh64. Hong

    2012-07-01

    Silkworm (Bombyx mori L) has advantages in the nutritional composition, growth characteristics and other factors, it is regarded as animal protein source for astronauts in the Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS).Due to the features of BLSS, silkworm breeding way is different from the conventional one (mulberry leaves throughout five instars): they were fed with mulberry and lettuce leaves during the 1st-3rd instars and 4th -5th instars, respectively. As the lettuce stem can be eaten by astronauts, the leaves not favored by humans can be insect's foodstuff. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the gut microbial composition, the type of dominant bacteria of silkworm raised with this way and the differences from the conventional breeding method, so as to reduce the mortality rate caused by the foodstuff change and to provide more animal protein for astronauts. In this study, 16srDNA sequencing, phylogenetic analysis and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis method were used to analyze the silkworm gut microbial flora under two breeding manners. The results show that conventional and BLSS breeding way have six dominant bacteria in common: Clostridium, Enterococcus, Bacteroides, Chryseobacterium, Parabacteroides, Paenibacillus. We also found Escherichia, Janthinobacterium, Sedimentibacter, Streptococcus, Bacillus, Arcobacter, Rothia, Polaribacter and Acinetobacter, Anaerofilum, Rummeliibacillus, Anaeroplasma, Serratia in the ground conventional and BLSS special breeding way, respectively. Changing the foodstuff of silkworm leads to the dynamic alteration of gut microbial. Dominant bacteria of the two breeding ways have diversities from each other. The ground conventional breeding way has more abundant bacteria than the BLSS one. Due to the lettuce leaves have replaced mulberry leaves at the beginning of the silkworm 4th instar, some silkworms can not survive without the bacteria that digest and absorb lettuce leaves. We suggest those dominant bacteria

  17. Space Suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) 2.0 Unmanned Vacuum Environment Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Carly; Vogel, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    For the first time in more than 30 years, an advanced space suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) design was operated inside a vacuum chamber representative of the flight operating environment. The test article, PLSS 2.0, was the second system-level integrated prototype of the advanced PLSS design, following the PLSS 1.0 Breadboard that was developed and tested throughout 2011. Whereas PLSS 1.0 included five technology development components with the balance the system simulated using commercial-off-the-shelf items, PLSS 2.0 featured first generation or later prototypes for all components less instrumentation, tubing and fittings. Developed throughout 2012, PLSS 2.0 was the first attempt to package the system into a flight-like representative volume. PLSS 2.0 testing included an extensive functional evaluation known as Pre-Installation Acceptance (PIA) testing, Human-in-the-Loop testing in which the PLSS 2.0 prototype was integrated via umbilicals to a manned prototype space suit for 19 two-hour simulated EVAs, and unmanned vacuum environment testing. Unmanned vacuum environment testing took place from 1/9/15-7/9/15 with PLSS 2.0 located inside a vacuum chamber. Test sequences included performance mapping of several components, carbon dioxide removal evaluations at simulated intravehicular activity (IVA) conditions, a regulator pressure schedule assessment, and culminated with 25 simulated extravehicular activities (EVAs). During the unmanned vacuum environment test series, PLSS 2.0 accumulated 378 hours of integrated testing including 291 hours of operation in a vacuum environment and 199 hours of simulated EVA time. The PLSS prototype performed nominally throughout the test series, with two notable exceptions including a pump failure and a Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) leak, for which post-test failure investigations were performed. In addition to generating an extensive database of PLSS 2.0 performance data, achievements included requirements and

  18. Assessing basic life support skills without an instructor: is it possible?

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    Mpotos Nicolas

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current methods to assess Basic Life Support skills (BLS; chest compressions and ventilations require the presence of an instructor. This is time-consuming and comports instructor bias. Since BLS skills testing is a routine activity, it is potentially suitable for automation. We developed a fully automated BLS testing station without instructor by using innovative software linked to a training manikin. The goal of our study was to investigate the feasibility of adequate testing (effectiveness within the shortest period of time (efficiency. Methods As part of a randomised controlled trial investigating different compression depth training strategies, 184 medicine students received an individual appointment for a retention test six months after training. An interactive FlashTM (Adobe Systems Inc., USA user interface was developed, to guide the students through the testing procedure after login, while Skills StationTM software (Laerdal Medical, Norway automatically recorded compressions and ventilations and their duration (“time on task”. In a subgroup of 29 students the room entrance and exit time was registered to assess efficiency. To obtain a qualitative insight of the effectiveness, student’s perceptions about the instructional organisation and about the usability of the fully automated testing station were surveyed. Results During testing there was incomplete data registration in two students and one student performed compressions only. The average time on task for the remaining 181 students was three minutes (SD 0.5. In the subgroup, the average overall time spent in the testing station was 7.5 minutes (SD 1.4. Mean scores were 5.3/6 (SD 0.5, range 4.0-6.0 for instructional organisation and 5.0/6 (SD 0.61, range 3.1-6.0 for usability. Students highly appreciated the automated testing procedure. Conclusions Our automated testing station was an effective and efficient method to assess BLS skills in medicine students

  19. Pharmacokinetics of continuous-infusion meropenem in a pediatric patient receiving extracorporeal life support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cies, Jeffrey J; Moore, Wayne S; Dickerman, Mindy J; Small, Christine; Carella, Dominick; Chopra, Arun; Parker, Jason

    2014-10-01

    Meropenem, a broad-spectrum carbapenem, is commonly used for empirical and definitive therapy in the pediatric intensive care unit (ICU). Pharmacokinetic data to guide dosing in children, however, are limited to healthy volunteers or patients who are not in the ICU. Adult data demonstrate that pharmacokinetic parameters such as the volume of distribution and clearance can be significantly altered in individuals receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Alterations in the volume of distribution and clearance of antimicrobials in patients with sepsis and septic shock have also been documented, and these patients have demonstrated lower than expected antimicrobial serum concentrations based on standard dosing regimens. Therefore, an understanding of the pharmacokinetic changes in critically ill children receiving ECMO is crucial to determining the most appropriate dose and dosing interval selection for any antimicrobial therapy. In this case report, we describe the pharmacokinetics of a continuous infusion of meropenem in a pediatric cardiac ICU patient who was receiving concurrent extracorporeal life support. The patient was an 8-month-old male infant who underwent a Glenn procedure and pulmonary artery reconstruction. Postoperatively, he required ECMO with a total run of 21 days. On day 11 of ECMO, a bronchoalveolar lavage was performed, and blood cultures from days 11 and 12 of ECMO grew Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with a meropenem minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.5 μg/ml. On ECMO day 13, meropenem was initiated with a loading dose of 40 mg/kg and infused over 30 minutes, followed by a continuous infusion of 200 mg/kg/day. A meropenem serum concentration measured 8 hours after the start of the infusion was 46 μg/ml. Repeat levels were measured on days 3 and 9 of meropenem therapy and were 39 and 42 μg/ml, respectively. Repeat blood and respiratory cultures remained negative. This meropenem regimen (40-mg/kg bolus followed by a

  20. Effect of basic prehospital trauma life support program on cognitive and trauma management skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, J; Adam, R; Josa, D; Pierre, I; Bedsaysie, H; West, U; Winn, J; Ali, E; Haynes, B

    1998-12-01

    We tested the effectiveness of a basic prehospital trauma life support (PHTLS) program by assessing cognitive performance and trauma management skills among prehospital trauma personnel. Fourteen subjects who completed a standard PHTLS course (group I) were compared to a matched group not completing a PHTLS program (group II). Cognitive performance was assessed on 50-item multiple choice examinations, and trauma skills management was assessed with four simulated trauma patients. Pre-PHTLS multiple choice questionnaire scores were similar (45.8 +/- 9.4% vs. 48.8 +/- 8.9% for groups I and II, respectively), but the post-PHTLS scores were higher in group I (80.4 +/- 5.9%) than in group II (52.6 +/- 4.9%). Pre-PHTLS simulated trauma patient performance scores (standardized to a maximum total of 20 for each station) were similar at all four stations for both groups, ranging from 7.9 to 10.4. The post-PHTLS scores were statistically significantly higher at all four stations for group I (range 16.0-19.0) compared to those for group II (range 8.0-11.1). The overall mean pre-PHTLS score for all four stations was 8.3 +/- 2.1 for group I and 8.8 +/- 2.0 (NS) for group II; the group I post-PHTLS mean score for the four stations was 17.1 +/- 2.7 (p PHTLS Adherence to Priority scores on a scale of 1 to 7 were similar (1.1 +/- 0.9 for group I and 1.2 +/- 1.0 for group II). Post-PHTLS group I Priority scores increased to 5.9 +/- 1.1. Group II (1.1 +/- 1.0) did not improve their post-PHTLS scores. The pre-PHTLS Organized Approach scores in the simulated trauma patients on a scale of 1 to 5 were 2.1 +/- 1.0 for group I and 1.9 +/- 1.2 for group II (NS) compared to 4.2 +/- 0.9 (p PHTLS. This study demonstrates improved cognitive and trauma management skills performance among prehospital paramedical personnel who complete the basic PHTLS program.