WorldWideScience

Sample records for cardiovascular image analysis

  1. Automated image analysis techniques for cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geest, Robertus Jacobus van der

    2011-01-01

    The introductory chapter provides an overview of various aspects related to quantitative analysis of cardiovascular MR (CMR) imaging studies. Subsequently, the thesis describes several automated methods for quantitative assessment of left ventricular function from CMR imaging studies. Several novel

  2. Cardiovascular molecular MR imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Lamb, H J; van der Meer, R. W.; Roos, A. (Anna); Bax, J J

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular molecular imaging is a rapidly evolving field of research, aiming to image and quantify molecular and cellular targets in vivo. MR imaging has some inherent properties that make it very suitable for cardiovascular molecular imaging. Until now, only a limited number of studies have been published on cardiovascular molecular imaging using MR imaging. Review In the current review, MR techniques that have already shown potential are discussed. Metabolic MR imaging can ...

  3. Design and validation of Segment - freely available software for cardiovascular image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engblom Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Commercially available software for cardiovascular image analysis often has limited functionality and frequently lacks the careful validation that is required for clinical studies. We have already implemented a cardiovascular image analysis software package and released it as freeware for the research community. However, it was distributed as a stand-alone application and other researchers could not extend it by writing their own custom image analysis algorithms. We believe that the work required to make a clinically applicable prototype can be reduced by making the software extensible, so that researchers can develop their own modules or improvements. Such an initiative might then serve as a bridge between image analysis research and cardiovascular research. The aim of this article is therefore to present the design and validation of a cardiovascular image analysis software package (Segment and to announce its release in a source code format. Results Segment can be used for image analysis in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, computed tomography (CT, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT and positron emission tomography (PET. Some of its main features include loading of DICOM images from all major scanner vendors, simultaneous display of multiple image stacks and plane intersections, automated segmentation of the left ventricle, quantification of MRI flow, tools for manual and general object segmentation, quantitative regional wall motion analysis, myocardial viability analysis and image fusion tools. Here we present an overview of the validation results and validation procedures for the functionality of the software. We describe a technique to ensure continued accuracy and validity of the software by implementing and using a test script that tests the functionality of the software and validates the output. The software has been made freely available for research purposes in a source code format on the project home

  4. Cardiovascular Molecular Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Khanicheh, Elham

    2009-01-01

    Although there have been significant improvements in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases they still remain the main cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Currently available diagnostic approaches may not be adequate to detect pathologic changes during the early disease stages, which may be valuable for risk stratification and also to assess a response to a therapy. Therefore molecular imaging techniques such as Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound (CEU) molecular imaging to noninvasively i...

  5. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelc, Norbert

    2000-03-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are a major source of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Early detection of disease can often be used to improved outcomes, either through direct interventions (e.g. surgical corrections) or by causing the patient to modify his or her behavior (e.g. smoking cessation or dietary changes). Ideally, the detection process should be noninvasive (i.e. it should not be associated with significant risk). Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) refers to the formation of images by localizing NMR signals, typically from protons in the body. As in other applications of NMR, a homogeneous static magnetic field ( ~0.5 to 4 T) is used to create ``longitudinal" magnetization. A magnetic field rotating at the Larmor frequency (proportional to the static field) excites spins, converting longitudinal magnetization to ``transverse" magnetization and generating a signal. Localization is performed using pulsed gradients in the static field. MRI can produce images of 2-D slices, 3-D volumes, time-resolved images of pseudo-periodic phenomena such as heart function, and even real-time imaging. It is also possible to acquire spatially localized NMR spectra. MRI has a number of advantages, but perhaps the most fundamental is the richness of the contrast mechanisms. Tissues can be differentiated by differences in proton density, NMR properties, and even flow or motion. We also have the ability to introduce substances that alter NMR signals. These contrast agents can be used to enhance vascular structures and measure perfusion. Cardiovascular MRI allows the reliable diagnosis of important conditions. It is possible to image the blood vessel tree, quantitate flow and perfusion, and image cardiac contraction. Fundamentally, the power of MRI as a diagnostic tool stems from the richness of the contrast mechanisms and the flexibility in control of imaging parameters.

  6. Nuclear imaging of cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear imaging methods provide noninvasive indexes of myocardial function, perfusion, and metabolism and are well accepted in clinical cardiology. Advances in prevention and treatment of cardiac disease have resulted in decreasing cardiovascular mortality in industrialized nations. The improvement in therapeutic options has increased the demand for diagnostic tests that might guide clinical decision making. Information beyond the pure anatomic characterization of coronary stenoses is required. Nuclear imaging can be used for early detection and monitoring of the severity and extent of disease. The prognostic potential of such functional testing is being increasingly appreciated and used to guide therapy, thereby resulting in improvement of the quality and cost-effectiveness of the workup of patients with cardiovascular disease. Extensive clinical validation has resulted in growing acceptance of these techniques. Furthermore, ongoing improvement of imaging techniques and development of new radiopharmaceuticals will pave the way for disease-specific, molecular-targeted cardiac imaging in the future. (orig.)

  7. Cardiovascular molecular imaging of apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolters, S.L.; Reutelingsperger, C.P.M. [Maastricht University, Department of Biochemistry, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands); Corsten, M.F.; Hofstra, L. [Maastricht University, Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, P.O. Box 616, Maastricht (Netherlands); Narula, J. [University of California Irvine, Department of Cardiology, Irvine (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Molecular imaging strives to visualise processes at the molecular and cellular level in vivo. Understanding these processes supports diagnosis and evaluation of therapeutic efficacy on an individual basis and thereby makes personalised medicine possible. Apoptosis is a well-organised mode of cell suicide that plays a role in cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Apoptosis is associated with loss of cardiomyocytes following myocardial infarction, atherosclerotic plaque instability, congestive heart failure and allograft rejection of the transplanted heart. Thus, apoptosis constitutes an attractive target for molecular imaging of CVD. Our current knowledge about the molecular players and mechanisms underlying apoptosis offers a rich palette of potential molecular targets for molecular imaging. However, only a few have been successfully developed so far. This review highlights aspects of the molecular machinery and biochemistry of apoptosis relevant to the development of molecular imaging probes. It surveys the role of apoptosis in four major areas of CVD and portrays the importance and future perspectives of apoptosis imaging. The annexin A5 imaging protocol is emphasised since it is the most advanced protocol to measure apoptosis in both preclinical and clinical studies. (orig.)

  8. Quantitative cardiovascular magnetic resonance for molecular imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Lanza Gregory M; Caruthers Shelton D; Winter Patrick M; Wickline Samuel A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) molecular imaging aims to identify and map the expression of important biomarkers on a cellular scale utilizing contrast agents that are specifically targeted to the biochemical signatures of disease and are capable of generating sufficient image contrast. In some cases, the contrast agents may be designed to carry a drug payload or to be sensitive to important physiological factors, such as pH, temperature or oxygenation. In this review, examp...

  9. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging - a pictorial review

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay Dahya; Spottiswoode, Bruce S.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) is a powerful problem-solving tool and arguably offers the most comprehensive assessment of cardiac morphology and function, as well as the opportunity of rebuilding the bridge between cardiologists and radiologists. The role of CMR-trained imaging physicists is also valuable, and many CMR centres harmoniously incorporate these three sub-specialty fields. This paper comprises an overview of several CMR techniques, outlining both the strengths...

  10. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging - a pictorial review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Dahya

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR is a powerful problem-solving tool and arguably offers the most comprehensive assessment of cardiac morphology and function, as well as the opportunity of rebuilding the bridge between cardiologists and radiologists. The role of CMR-trained imaging physicists is also valuable, and many CMR centres harmoniously incorporate these three sub-specialty fields. This paper comprises an overview of several CMR techniques, outlining both the strengths and limitations of the modality.

  11. The future of the cardiovascular image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the future of the cardiovascular image is presented, it is important to know the advantages and disadvantages of the current image methods to apply them in each case. The characteristics of the methods are presented: X R simple plate, the cardiac ultrasound, the image by magnetic resonance, the computed tomography, the helicoid tomography, the SPECT of myocardial perfusion, the PET and the PET/CT and the used radiopharmaceuticals. The SPECT of myocardial perfusion is the more used method around the world for the evacuation of the coronary illness. It has a high sensitivity (between 90 and 97%), it is a non-invasive treatment (morbidity of 0.01%), of relative low cost and it is useful in the diagnosis of ischemia in groups of high risk like diabetics, dyslipidemia, obese and hypertension. (Author)

  12. The clinical impact of late gadolinium enhancement in Takotsubo cardiomyopathy: serial analysis of cardiovascular magnetic resonance images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katoh Hideki

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our study aimed to investigate both the clinical implications of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR and the relation of LGE to clinical findings in patients with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC. Methods We evaluated 20 consecutive patients (2 men, 18 women; median age, 77 years; interquartile range [IQR] 67-82 years who were admitted to our hospital with the diagnosis of TTC. CMR was performed within 1 week after admission, and follow-up studies were conducted 1.5 and 6 months later. Results In 8 patients, CMR imaging during the sub-acute phase revealed LGE in the area matched with wall motion impairment. Cardiogenic shock was more frequently observed in patients with LGE than in those without LGE (38% vs 0%, p = 0.049. The patients with LGE needed a longer duration for ECG normalization and recovery of wall motion than did those without LGE (median 205 days, IQR [152-363] vs 68 days, [43-145], p = 0.005; 15 days, [10-185] vs 7 days, [4-13], p = 0.030, respectively. In 5 of these 8 patients, LGE disappeared within 45-180 days (170, IQR [56-180] of onset. The patients with LGE remaining in the chronic phase had higher peak creatine kinase levels than did those without LGE (median 307 IU/L, IQR [264-460] vs 202 IU/L, [120-218], p = 0.017. Conclusion LGE by CMR in the sub-acute phase may be associated with the severity and prolonged recovery to normal of clinical findings in TTC.

  13. Non-cardiovascular findings in clinical cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghadimi Mahani, Maryam [University of Michigan Health System, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Morani, Ajaykumar C. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Lu, Jimmy C.; Dorfman, Adam L. [University of Michigan Health System, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Fazeli Dehkordy, Soudabeh [University of Michigan Health System, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Providence Hospital and Medical Centers, Department of Graduate Medical Education, Southfield, MI (United States); Jeph, Sunil [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Geisinger Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Danville, PA (United States); Agarwal, Prachi P. [University of Michigan Health System, Department of Radiology, Division of Cardiothoracic Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-04-15

    With increasing use of pediatric cardiovascular MRI, it is important for all imagers to become familiar with the spectrum of non-cardiovascular imaging findings that can be encountered. This study aims to ascertain the prevalence and nature of these findings in pediatric cardiovascular MRIs performed at our institution. We retrospectively evaluated reports of all cardiovascular MRI studies performed at our institute from January 2008 to October 2012 in patients younger than18 years. Most studies (98%) were jointly interpreted by a pediatric cardiologist and a radiologist. We reviewed the electronic medical records of all cases with non-cardiovascular findings, defined as any imaging finding outside the cardiovascular system. Non-cardiovascular findings were classified into significant and non-significant, based on whether they were known at the time of imaging or they required additional workup or a change in management. In 849 consecutive studies (mean age 9.7 ± 6.3 years), 145 non-cardiovascular findings were found in 140 studies (16.5% of total studies). Overall, 51.0% (74/145) of non-cardiovascular findings were in the abdomen, 30.3% (44/145) were in the chest, and 18.6% (27/145) were in the spine. A total of 19 significant non-cardiovascular findings were observed in 19 studies in individual patients (2.2% of total studies, 47% male, mean age 5.9 ± 6.7 years). Significant non-cardiovascular findings included hepatic adenoma, arterially enhancing focal liver lesions, asplenia, solitary kidney, pelvicaliectasis, renal cystic diseases, gastric distention, adrenal hemorrhage, lung hypoplasia, air space disease, bronchial narrowing, pneumomediastinum and retained surgical sponge. Non-cardiovascular findings were seen in 16.5% of cardiovascular MRI studies in children, of which 2.2% were clinically significant findings. Prevalence and nature of these non-cardiovascular findings are different from those reported in adults. Attention to these findings is important

  14. MACD: an imaging marker for cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganz, Melanie; de Bruijne, Marleen; Nielsen, Mads

    2010-01-01

    Despite general acceptance that a healthy lifestyle and the treatment of risk factors can prevent the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), CVD are the most common cause of death in Europe and the United States. It has been shown that abdominal aortic calcifications (AAC) correlate strongly...... Atherosclerotic Calcification Distribution (MACD) index was developed. In the following several potential severity scores relating to the geometrical outline of the calcified deposits in the lumbar aortic region are introduced. Their individual as well as their combined predictive power is examined and a combined...... marker, MACD, is constructed. This is done using a Cox regression analysis, also known as survival analysis. Furthermore we show how a Cox regression yields MACD to be the most efficient marker. We also demonstrate that MACD has a larger individual predictive power than any of the other individual...

  15. Imaging of cardiovascular risk in patients with Turner's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, A; Weir-McCall, J R; Webb, D J; van Beek, E J R; Mirsadraee, S

    2015-08-01

    Turner's syndrome is a disorder defined by an absent or structurally abnormal second X chromosome and affects around 1 in 2000 newborn females. The standardised mortality ratio in Turner's syndrome is around three-times higher than in the general female population, mainly as a result of cardiovascular disorders. Most striking is the early age at which Turner's syndrome patients develop the life-threatening complications of cardiovascular disorders compared to the general population. The cardiovascular risk stratification in Turner's syndrome is challenging and imaging is not systematically used. The aim of this article is to review cardiovascular risks in this group of patients and discuss a systematic imaging approach for early identification of cardiovascular disorders in these patients. PMID:25917542

  16. Analysis of an automated background correction method for cardiovascular MR phase contrast imaging in children and young adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigsby, Cynthia K.; Hilpipre, Nicholas; Boylan, Emma E.; Popescu, Andrada R.; Deng, Jie [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, Chicago, IL (United States); McNeal, Gary R. [Siemens Medical Solutions USA Inc., Customer Solutions Group, Cardiovascular MR R and D, Chicago, IL (United States); Zhang, Gang [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago Research Center, Biostatistics Research Core, Chicago, IL (United States); Choi, Grace [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Pediatrics, Chicago, IL (United States); Greiser, Andreas [Siemens AG Healthcare Sector, Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    Phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful tool for evaluating vessel blood flow. Inherent errors in acquisition, such as phase offset, eddy currents and gradient field effects, can cause significant inaccuracies in flow parameters. These errors can be rectified with the use of background correction software. To evaluate the performance of an automated phase contrast MRI background phase correction method in children and young adults undergoing cardiac MR imaging. We conducted a retrospective review of patients undergoing routine clinical cardiac MRI including phase contrast MRI for flow quantification in the aorta (Ao) and main pulmonary artery (MPA). When phase contrast MRI of the right and left pulmonary arteries was also performed, these data were included. We excluded patients with known shunts and metallic implants causing visible MRI artifact and those with more than mild to moderate aortic or pulmonary stenosis. Phase contrast MRI of the Ao, mid MPA, proximal right pulmonary artery (RPA) and left pulmonary artery (LPA) using 2-D gradient echo Fast Low Angle SHot (FLASH) imaging was acquired during normal respiration with retrospective cardiac gating. Standard phase image reconstruction and the automatic spatially dependent background-phase-corrected reconstruction were performed on each phase contrast MRI dataset. Non-background-corrected and background-phase-corrected net flow, forward flow, regurgitant volume, regurgitant fraction, and vessel cardiac output were recorded for each vessel. We compared standard non-background-corrected and background-phase-corrected mean flow values for the Ao and MPA. The ratio of pulmonary to systemic blood flow (Qp:Qs) was calculated for the standard non-background and background-phase-corrected data and these values were compared to each other and for proximity to 1. In a subset of patients who also underwent phase contrast MRI of the MPA, RPA, and LPA a comparison was made between standard non

  17. Achieving quality in cardiovascular imaging: proceedings from the American College of Cardiology-Duke University Medical Center Think Tank on Quality in Cardiovascular Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Pamela; Iskandrian, Ami E; Krumholz, Harlan M; Gillam, Linda; Hendel, Robert; Jollis, James; Peterson, Eric; Chen, Jersey; Masoudi, Frederick; Mohler, Emile; McNamara, Robert L; Patel, Manesh R; Spertus, John

    2006-11-21

    Cardiovascular imaging has enjoyed both rapid technological advances and sustained growth, yet less attention has been focused on quality than in other areas of cardiovascular medicine. To address this deficit, representatives from cardiovascular imaging societies, private payers, government agencies, the medical imaging industry, and experts in quality measurement met, and this report provides an overview of the discussions. A consensus definition of quality in imaging and a convergence of opinion on quality measures across imaging modalities was achieved and are intended to be the start of a process culminating in the development, dissemination, and adoption of quality measures for all cardiovascular imaging modalities.

  18. Echocardiography in the Era of Multimodality Cardiovascular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoy Nalin Shah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Echocardiography remains the most frequently performed cardiac imaging investigation and is an invaluable tool for detailed and accurate evaluation of cardiac structure and function. Echocardiography, nuclear cardiology, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and cardiovascular-computed tomography comprise the subspeciality of cardiovascular imaging, and these techniques are often used together for a multimodality, comprehensive assessment of a number of cardiac diseases. This paper provides the general cardiologist and physician with an overview of state-of-the-art modern echocardiography, summarising established indications as well as highlighting advances in stress echocardiography, three-dimensional echocardiography, deformation imaging, and contrast echocardiography. Strengths and limitations of echocardiography are discussed as well as the growing role of real-time three-dimensional echocardiography in the guidance of structural heart interventions in the cardiac catheter laboratory.

  19. Image Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    . The topics of the accepted papers range from novel applications of vision systems, pattern recognition, machine learning, feature extraction, segmentation, 3D vision, to medical and biomedical image analysis. The papers originate from all the Scandinavian countries and several other European countries......The 19th Scandinavian Conference on Image Analysis was held at the IT University of Copenhagen in Denmark during June 15-17, 2015. The SCIA conference series has been an ongoing biannual event for more than 30 years and over the years it has nurtured a world-class regional research and development...

  20. Correlation of chronic kidney disease, diabetes and peripheral artery disease with cardiovascular events in patients using stress myocardial perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normal stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) studies generally suggest an excellent prognosis for cardiovascular events. Chronic kidney disease (CKD), diabetes and peripheral artery disease (PAD) have been established as the risk factors for cardiovascular events. However, whether these risk factors significantly predict cardiovascular events in patients with normal stress MPI is unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of these risk factors in patients with normal stress MPI. Patients with normal stress MPI (n=372, male=215 and female=157, age=69 years, CKD without hemodialysis=95, diabetes=99, PAD=19, previous coronary artery disease=116) were followed up for 14 months. Normal stress MPI was defined as a summed stress score of 2 and/or persistent proteinuria. Cardiovascular events included cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure requiring hospitalization. Cardiovascular events occurred in 20 of 372 patients (5.4%). In univariate Cox regression analysis, PAD, diabetes, diabetic retinopathy, insulin use, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, CKD, left ventricular ejection fraction and pharmacological stress tests were significant predictors of cardiovascular events. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, PAD, diabetes and CKD were independent and significant predictors for cardiovascular events, and their number was the strongest predictor for cardiovascular events (hazard ratio=21.7, P<0.001). PAD, diabetes and CKD are coexisting, independent and significant risk factors for cardiovascular events, CKD being the strongest predictor. The number of coexisting risk factors is important in predicting cardiovascular events in patients with normal stress MPI. (author)

  1. The future of the cardiovascular image; El futuro de la imagen cardiovascular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serna M, J.A. [Hospital Angeles del Pedregal, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    In this work the future of the cardiovascular image is presented, it is important to know the advantages and disadvantages of the current image methods to apply them in each case. The characteristics of the methods are presented: X R simple plate, the cardiac ultrasound, the image by magnetic resonance, the computed tomography, the helicoid tomography, the SPECT of myocardial perfusion, the PET and the PET/CT and the used radiopharmaceuticals. The SPECT of myocardial perfusion is the more used method around the world for the evacuation of the coronary illness. It has a high sensitivity (between 90 and 97%), it is a non-invasive treatment (morbidity of 0.01%), of relative low cost and it is useful in the diagnosis of ischemia in groups of high risk like diabetics, dyslipidemia, obese and hypertension. (Author)

  2. Cardiovascular involvement by osteosarcoma: an analysis of 20 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yedururi, Sireesha; Morani, Ajaykumar C.; Gladish, Gregory W. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Vallabhaneni, Srilakshmi [Medstar Harbor Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Anderson, Peter M. [Levine Children' s Hospital/Levine Cancer Institute, Department of Pediatrics Hematology/Oncology/BMT, Carolinas Healthcare System, Charlotte, NC (United States); Hughes, Dennis; Daw, Najat C. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Pediatrics, Houston, TX (United States); Wang, Wei-Lien [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Pathology, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Although hematogenous spread of osteosarcoma is well known, the imaging findings of cardiovascular involvement by osteosarcoma are seldom reported and can be difficult to recognize. The enhanced resolution of modern CT and MRI scanners may lead to better detection of cardiovascular involvement. To describe the key imaging findings and clinical behavior of cardiovascular involvement by osteosarcoma. We retrospectively reviewed the imaging findings and clinical characteristics of 20 patients with cardiovascular involvement by osteosarcoma identified by two pediatric radiologists from a review of imaging studies at our institution from 2007 to 2013. At initial diagnosis, the median age of the patients was 15.1 years (range 4.8-24.6 years), and 7 (35%) patients had detectable metastases. Median time to detection of cardiovascular metastases was 1.8 years (range 0-7.3 years). Sixteen patients died of disease; 4 have survived a median of 7.4 years since initial diagnosis. The sites of cardiovascular involvement were the systemic veins draining the primary and metastatic osteosarcoma, pulmonary arteries, pulmonary veins draining the pulmonary metastases, and heart. A dilated and mineralized terminal pulmonary arteriole is an early sign of metastatic osteosarcoma in the lung. Unfamiliarity with the imaging features resulted in under-recognition and misinterpretation of intravascular tumor thrombus as bland thrombus. Knowledge of imaging findings in the era of modern imaging modalities has enhanced our ability to detect cardiovascular involvement and lung metastases early and avoid misinterpreting tumor thrombus in draining systemic veins or pulmonary arteries as bland thrombus. (orig.)

  3. Cardiovascular dysfunction in obesity and new diagnostic imaging techniques: the role of noninvasive image methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbosa JA

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available José Augusto A Barbosa¹, Alexandre B Rodrigues¹, Cleonice Carvalho C Mota¹, Márcia M Barbosa², Ana C Simões e Silva¹¹Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil; ²Ecocenter, Socor Hospital, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, BrazilAbstract: Obesity is a major public health problem affecting adults and children in both developed and developing countries. This condition often leads to metabolic syndrome, which increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. A large number of studies have been carried out to understand the pathogenesis of cardiovascular dysfunction in obese patients. Endothelial dysfunction plays a key role in the progression of atherosclerosis and the development of coronary artery disease, hypertension and congestive heart failure. Noninvasive methods in the field of cardiovascular imaging, such as measuring intima-media thickness, flow-mediated dilatation, tissue Doppler, and strain, and strain rate, constitute new tools for the early detection of cardiac and vascular dysfunction. These techniques will certainly enable a better evaluation of initial cardiovascular injury and allow the correct, timely management of obese patients. The present review summarizes the main aspects of cardiovascular dysfunction in obesity and discusses the application of recent noninvasive imaging methods for the early detection of cardiovascular alterations.Keywords: cardiovascular risk, endothelium dysfunction, obesity, strain and strain rate, tissue Doppler

  4. Automatic quantitative analysis of cardiac MR perfusion images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeuwer, Marcel; Spreeuwers, Luuk; Quist, Marcel

    2001-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a powerful technique for imaging cardiovascular diseases. The introduction of cardiovascular MRI into clinical practice is however hampered by the lack of efficient and accurate image analysis methods. This paper focuses on the evaluation of blood perfusion in the

  5. Towards automatic quantitative analysis of cardiac MR perfusion images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeuwer, M.; Quist, M.; Spreeuwers, L.J.; Paetsch, I.; Al-Saadi, N.; Nagel, E.

    2001-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a powerful technique for imaging cardiovascular diseases. The introduction of cardiovascular MRI into clinical practice is however hampered by the lack of efficient and reliable automatic image analysis methods. This paper focuses on the automatic evaluation of th

  6. Statistical Analysis of Cardiovascular Data from FAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealey, Meghan

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts show signs of cardiac atrophy during spaceflight. Prolonged bed rest studies on Earth are used to further study the effects on certain cardiovascular measurements of astronauts in space. A study was performed to see if the duration of bed rest and the gender of the subject had any effect on these measurements. The data collected from the subjects of the bed rest study included various blood and cardiac outcomes, such as blood and plasma volume, hemoglobin count, hematocrit percentage, left ventricular mass, stroke volume, mitral E and A wave velocities, etc. My main responsibility for this project was to analyze the bed rest data given in order to characterize the effects of gender, weight, in-bed and post-bed days, and duration of bed rest on the multiple cardiovascular outcomes measured. I used a mixed- effects linear regression analysis on the data. From this, I was able to fit the best model for each outcome, which was then used to make predictions for future bed rest studies. Concluding the analysis, we found that gender had an effect on the left ventricular mass, left ventricular diastolic volume, and stroke volume of subjects entering bed rest. We also found that weight had an effect on the left ventricular systolic volume of subjects entering bed rest. The duration of bed rest also had an effect on recovery for most of the outcomes. The only outcome where duration was not significant at all was left ventricular mass. Overall, we can conclude that gender and duration do affect astronauts' cardiovascular measurements when in spaceflight. Astronauts also show an increased susceptibility to orthostatic intolerance during spaceflight. In order to study the effects on orthostatic intolerance of astronauts, tilt tests were performed on bed rest subjects here on Earth. As a second project, I used the method of maximum likelihood to compare different functions of a set of eight cardiovascular measurements (e.g. heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood

  7. Molecular imaging in cardiovascular diseases; Molekulare kardiovaskulaere MRT-Bildgebung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botnar, R.M. [King' s College London (United Kingdom). Imaging Sciences; St. Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Ebersberger, H. [Heart Center Munich-Bogenhausen, Munich (Germany). Dept. of Cardiology and Intensive Care Medicine; Noerenberg, D. [Charite, Berlin (Germany). Inst. for Radiology; and others

    2015-02-15

    Cardiovascular diseases remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in industrialized and developing countries. In clinical practice, the in-vivo identification of atherosclerotic lesions, which can lead to complications such as heart attack or stroke, remains difficult. Imaging techniques provide the reference standard for the detection of clinically significant atherosclerotic changes in the coronary and carotid arteries. The assessment of the luminal narrowing is feasible, while the differentiation of stable and potentially unstable or vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques is currently not possible using non-invasive imaging. With high spatial resolution and high soft tissue contrast, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a suitable method for the evaluation of the thin arterial wall. In clinical practice, native MRI of the vessel wall already allows the differentiation and characterization of components of atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid arteries and the aorta. Additional diagnostic information can be gained by the use of non-specific MRI contrast agents. With the development of targeted molecular probes, that highlight specific molecules or cells, pathological processes can be visualized at a molecular level with high spatial resolution. In this review article, the development of pathophysiological changes leading to the development of the arterial wall are introduced and discussed. Additionally, principles of contrast enhanced imaging with non-specific contrast agents and molecular probes will be discussed and latest developments in the field of molecular imaging of the vascular wall will be introduced.

  8. Analysis of Medical Tourism for Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Liliana Andrei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing costs of treatments have led to the apparition of the medical tourism. Patients in high-income countries seek to solve their health problems in developing countries where the cost of medical treatment is much lower. This cost difference has led to the medical tourism industry that is currently estimated with an annual growth rate of about 20%. Cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of death worldwide. The high cost of treating these diseases cause many patients to seek treatment options abroad. This paper presents an analysis of the medical tourism industry highlighting the factors that led to its development, barriers to medical tourism, and the economic impact of this industry. Although Romania has highly appreciated doctors it hasn’t achieved yet the high level of other developing countries where medical tourism is more intense. Spa tourism is still far from Romania’s potential in this area due to the very small investments and the lack of necessary infrastructure. Using statistical and econometric techniques we examined key health indicators in Romania showing the lack of correlation between the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, the development of the endowment of the health system in Romania, expenditures on health care and evolution of the number of foreign tourists coming to Romania to treat these diseases. We used statistical data series provided by N.S.I. that were processed using Eviews. We also tested whether there is a causal relationship in the Granger sense between the percentage of GDP allocated to the health care system and the number of nights spent by foreign tourists in resorts in Romania or the number of arrivals of foreign tourists.

  9. Cardiovascular imaging in the diagnosis and monitoring of cardiotoxicity: cardiovascular magnetic resonance and nuclear cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Alessia; Pizzino, Fausto; Gargiulo, Paola; Perrone-Filardi, Pasquale; Cadeddu, Christian; Mele, Donato; Monte, Ines; Novo, Giuseppina; Zito, Concetta; Di Bella, Gianluca

    2016-05-01

    Chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity (CTX) is a determining factor for the quality of life and mortality of patients administered potentially cardiotoxic drugs and in long-term cancer survivors. Therefore, prevention and early detection of CTX are highly desirable, as is the exploration of alternative therapeutic strategies and/or the proposal of potentially cardioprotective treatments. In recent years, cardiovascular imaging has acquired a pivotal role in this setting. Although echocardiography remains the diagnostic method most used to monitor cancer patients, the need for more reliable, reproducible and accurate detection of early chemotherapy-induced CTX has encouraged the introduction of second-line advanced imaging modalities, such as cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and nuclear techniques, into the clinical setting. This review of the Working Group on Drug Cardiotoxicity and Cardioprotection of the Italian Society of Cardiology aims to afford an overview of the most important findings from the literature about the role of CMR and nuclear techniques in the management of chemotherapy-treated patients, describe conventional and new parameters for detecting CTX from both diagnostic and prognostic perspectives and provide integrated insight into the role of CMR and nuclear techniques compared with other imaging tools and versus the positions of the most important international societies.

  10. Multi-color magnetic particle imaging for cardiovascular interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegele, Julian; Vaalma, Sarah; Panagiotopoulos, Nikolaos; Barkhausen, Jörg; Vogt, Florian M.; Borgert, Jörn; Rahmer, Jürgen

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) uses magnetic fields to visualize the spatial distribution of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs). Guidance of cardiovascular interventions is seen as one possible application of MPI. To safely guide interventions, the vessel lumen as well as all required interventional devices have to be visualized and be discernible from each other. Until now, different tracer concentrations were used for discerning devices from blood in MPI, because only one type of SPIO could be imaged at a time. Recently, it was shown for 3D MPI that it is possible to separate different signal sources in one volume of interest, i.e. to visualize and discern different SPIOs or different binding states of the same SPIO. The approach was termed multi-color MPI. In this work, the use of multi-color MPI for differentiation of a SPIO coated guide wire (Terumo Radifocus 0.035″) from the lumen of a vessel phantom filled with diluted Resovist is demonstrated. This is achieved by recording dedicated system functions of the coating material containing solid Resovist and of liquid Resovist, which allows separation of their respective signal in the image reconstruction process. Assigning a color to the different signal sources results in a differentiation of guide wire and vessel phantom lumen into colored images.

  11. Cardiovascular drugs and erectile dysfunction - a symmetry analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lotte; Hallas, Jesper; Madsen, Kenneth Grønkjaer;

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Erectile dysfunction is a common problem among patients with cardiovascular diseases and the influence of cardiovascular drugs is much debated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the short term potential for different cardiovascular drugs to affect the risk of being prescribed a drug...... against erectile dysfunction. METHODS: We employed a symmetry analysis design and included all Danish male individuals born before 1950 who filled their first ever prescription for a cardiovascular drug and a 5-phosphodiesterase inhibitor within a 6 month interval during 2002-2012. If the cardiovascular...... drug induces erectile dysfunction, this would manifest as a non-symmetrical distribution of subjects being prescribed the cardiovascular drug first vs. persons following the opposite pattern. Furthermore, we calculated the number of patients needed to treat for one additional patient to be treated...

  12. Spinal imaging and image analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    This book is instrumental to building a bridge between scientists and clinicians in the field of spine imaging by introducing state-of-the-art computational methods in the context of clinical applications.  Spine imaging via computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and other radiologic imaging modalities, is essential for noninvasively visualizing and assessing spinal pathology. Computational methods support and enhance the physician’s ability to utilize these imaging techniques for diagnosis, non-invasive treatment, and intervention in clinical practice. Chapters cover a broad range of topics encompassing radiological imaging modalities, clinical imaging applications for common spine diseases, image processing, computer-aided diagnosis, quantitative analysis, data reconstruction and visualization, statistical modeling, image-guided spine intervention, and robotic surgery. This volume serves a broad audience as  contributions were written by both clinicians and researchers, which reflects the inte...

  13. Tracers and contrast agents in cardiovascular imaging: present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This brief article addresses the current status and future potential of nuclear medicine, X-ray computed tomography (CT), ultrasound (US), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. The currently perceived advantages and disadvantages, as well as the possible future roles, of each of the modalities with regard to the evaluation of coronary artery disease are delineated. The certain advent of Mr and US myocardial contrast agents, combined with the inexorable pressures of health care reform, will alter the future usage patterns of all four modalities. Future debates about which modality should be used in which clinical situation will be based not on 'anatomy vs function', nor on the issues of cost effectiveness and patient outcomes

  14. Advanced biomedical image analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Haidekker, Mark A

    2010-01-01

    "This book covers the four major areas of image processing: Image enhancement and restoration, image segmentation, image quantification and classification, and image visualization. Image registration, storage, and compression are also covered. The text focuses on recently developed image processing and analysis operators and covers topical research"--Provided by publisher.

  15. Korean Society of Cardiovascular Imaging Guidelines for Cardiac Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Korean Society of Cardiovascular Imaging (KOCSI) has issued a guideline for the use of cardiac CT imaging in order to assist clinicians and patients in providing adequate level of medical service. In order to establish a guideline founded on evidence based medicine, it was designed based on comprehensive data such as questionnaires conducted in international and domestic hospitals, intensive journal reviews, and with experts in cardiac radiology. The recommendations of this guideline should not be used as an absolute standard and medical professionals can always refer to methods non-adherent to this guideline when it is considered more reasonable and beneficial to an individual patient's medical situation. The guideline has its limitation and should be revised appropriately with the advancement medical equipment technology and public health care system. The guideline should not be served as a measure for standard of care. KOCSI strongly disapproves the use of the guideline to be used as the standard of expected practice in medical litigation processes.

  16. A Speedy Cardiovascular Diseases Classifier Using Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wah Ching Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Each year, some 30 percent of global deaths are caused by cardiovascular diseases. This figure is worsening due to both the increasing elderly population and severe shortages of medical personnel. The development of a cardiovascular diseases classifier (CDC for auto-diagnosis will help address solve the problem. Former CDCs did not achieve quick evaluation of cardiovascular diseases. In this letter, a new CDC to achieve speedy detection is investigated. This investigation incorporates the analytic hierarchy process (AHP-based multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA to develop feature vectors using a Support Vector Machine. The MCDA facilitates the efficient assignment of appropriate weightings to potential patients, thus scaling down the number of features. Since the new CDC will only adopt the most meaningful features for discrimination between healthy persons versus cardiovascular disease patients, a speedy detection of cardiovascular diseases has been successfully implemented.

  17. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging findings in children with myocarditis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Guiying; Yang Xi; Su Ying; Xu Jimin; Wen Zhaoying

    2014-01-01

    Background Myocarditis is a common,potentially life-threatening disease that presents a wide rang of symptoms in children,as an important underlying etiology of other myocardial diseases such as dilated and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy.The incidence of nonfatal myocarditis is probably greater than that of the one actually diagnosed,which is the result of the challenges of establishing the diagnosis in standard clinical settings.Currently,no single clinical or imaging finding confirms the diagnosis of myocarditis with absolute certainty.Historically,clinical exam,electrocardiogram (ECG),serology and echocardiography had an unsatisfactory diagnostic accuracy in myocarditis.Endomyocardial biopsy remains as a widely accepted standard,but may not be suitable for every patient,especially for those with less severe disease.Our aim was to find the changes in cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging of children with myocarditis diagnosed by clinical criteria.Methods We studied 25 children (18 male,7 female; aged from 5-17 years) with diagnosed myocarditis by clinical criteria.CMR included function analyses,T2-weighted imaging,T1-weighted imaging before and after i.v.gadolinium injection (early gadolinium enhancement (EGE) and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE)).Results The T2 ratio was elevated in 21 children (84%,11 in anterolateral (44%),5 in inferolateral (20%),and 5 in septum (20%)),EGE was present in 9 children (36%,3 in anterolateral (12%),4 in inferolateral (20%),and 2 in septum (8%)),and LGE was present in 5 children (20%,2 in anterolateral (8%),1 in inferolateral (4%),1 in septum (4%),and 1 in midwall of left ventricular (LV) wall).In 9 children (36%),two (or more) out of three sequences (T2,EGE,LGE) were abnormal.Conclusions The CMR findings in children with clinically diagnosed myocarditis vary within the groups,including regional or global myocardial signal increase in T2-weighted images,EGE and LGE in T1

  18. Retinal imaging and image analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abramoff, M.D.; Garvin, Mona K.; Sonka, Milan

    2010-01-01

    Many important eye diseases as well as systemic diseases manifest themselves in the retina. While a number of other anatomical structures contribute to the process of vision, this review focuses on retinal imaging and image analysis. Following a brief overview of the most prevalent causes of blindne

  19. Alterations in vascular function in primary aldosteronism: a cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging study

    OpenAIRE

    Mark, P. B.; Boyle, S; Zimmerli, L U; McQuarrie, E.P.; Delles, C.; Freel, E. M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Excess aldosterone is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Aldosterone has a permissive effect on vascular fibrosis. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) allows study of vascular function by measuring aortic distensibility. We compared aortic distensibility in primary aldosteronism (PA), essential hypertension (EH) and normal controls and explored the relationship between aortic distensibility and pulse wave velocity (PWV). Methods: We studied PA (n=14)...

  20. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging of hypoplastic left heart syndrome in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) plays an important complementary role to echocardiography and conventional angiography in the evaluation of hypoplastic left heart syndrome. This imaging modality is particularly useful for assessing cardiovascular postsurgical changes, extracardiac vascular anatomy, ventricular and valvular function, and a variety of complications. The purpose of this article is to provide a contemporary review of the role of CMR in the management of untreated and surgically palliated hypoplastic left heart syndrome in children. (orig.)

  1. Imaging of cardiovascular risk in patients with Turner's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner's syndrome is a disorder defined by an absent or structurally abnormal second X chromosome and affects around 1 in 2000 newborn females. The standardised mortality ratio in Turner's syndrome is around three-times higher than in the general female population, mainly as a result of cardiovascular disorders. Most striking is the early age at which Turner's syndrome patients develop the life-threatening complications of cardiovascular disorders compared to the general population. The cardiovascular risk stratification in Turner's syndrome is challenging and imaging is not systematically used. The aim of this article is to review cardiovascular risks in this group of patients and discuss a systematic imaging approach for early identification of cardiovascular disorders in these patients

  2. Imaging of cardiovascular risk in patients with Turner's syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Marin, A.; Weir-McCall, J.R.; Webb, D J; van Beek, E J R; Mirsadraee, S.

    2015-01-01

    Turner's syndrome is a disorder defined by an absent or structurally abnormal second X chromosome and affects around 1 in 2000 newborn females. The standardised mortality ratio in Turner's syndrome is around three-times higher than in the general female population, mainly as a result of cardiovascular disorders. Most striking is the early age at which Turner's syndrome patients develop the life-threatening complications of cardiovascular disorders compared to the general population. The cardi...

  3. Comparative and functional analysis of cardiovascular-related genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jan-Fang; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2003-09-01

    The ability to detect putative cis-regulatory elements in cardiovascular-related genes has been accelerated by the availability of genomic sequence data from numerous vertebrate species and the recent development of comparative genomic tools. This improvement is anticipated to lead to a better understanding of the complex regulatory architecture of cardiovascular (CV) genes and how genetic variants in these non-coding regions can potentially play a role in cardiovascular disease. This manuscript reviews a recently established database dedicated to the comparative sequence analysis of 250 human CV genes of known importance, 37 of which currently contain sequence comparison data for organisms beyond those of human, mouse and rat. These data have provided a glimpse into the variety of possible insights from deep vertebrate sequence comparisons and the identification of putative gene regulatory elements.

  4. Cardiovascular CT angiography in neonates and children : Image quality and potential for radiation dose reduction with iterative image reconstruction techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tricarico, Francesco; Hlavacek, Anthony M.; Schoepf, U. Joseph; Ebersberger, Ullrich; Nance, John W.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Cho, Young Jun; Spears, J. Reid; Secchi, Francesco; Savino, Giancarlo; Marano, Riccardo; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Bonomo, Lorenzo; Apfaltrer, Paul

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate image quality (IQ) of low-radiation-dose paediatric cardiovascular CT angiography (CTA), comparing iterative reconstruction in image space (IRIS) and sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) with filtered back-projection (FBP) and estimate the potential for further dose reduct

  5. Measurement of cardiovascular state using attractor reconstruction analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Charlton, Peter Harcourt; Camporota, Luigi; Smith, John; Nandi, Manasi; Christie, Mark Ian; Aston, Philip; Beale, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Attractor reconstruction (AR) analysis has been used previously to quantify the variability in arterial blood pressure (ABP) signals. Since ABP signals are only available in a minority of clinical scenarios, we sought to determine whether AR could also be performed on more widely available photoplethysmogram (PPG) signals. AR analysis was performed on simultaneous ABP and PPG signals before, during and after a change in cardiovascular state. A novel quality metric was used to eliminate window...

  6. Rosiglitazone evaluated for cardiovascular outcomes--an interim analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Home, Philip D; Pocock, Stuart J; Beck-Nielsen, Henning;

    2007-01-01

    group). The primary end point was hospitalization or death from cardiovascular causes. RESULTS: Because the mean follow-up was only 3.75 years, our interim analysis had limited statistical power to detect treatment differences. A total of 217 patients in the rosiglitazone group and 202 patients......BACKGROUND: A recent meta-analysis raised concern regarding an increased risk of myocardial infarction and death from cardiovascular causes associated with rosiglitazone treatment of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We conducted an unplanned interim analysis of a randomized, multicenter, open...... in the control group had the adjudicated primary end point (hazard ratio, 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.89 to 1.31). After the inclusion of end points pending adjudication, the hazard ratio was 1.11 (95% CI, 0.93 to 1.32). There were no statistically significant differences between the rosiglitazone...

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Wealth of Cardiovascular Information

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Sangeeta; Chryssos, Emanuel D.; Parker, Hugh

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is a relatively new noninvasive imaging modality that provides insight into multiple facets of the human myocardium not available by other imaging modalities. This one test allows for the assessment of ventricular and valvular function, ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathies, congenital heart disease, and cardiac tumors. It has been coined by many as “one-stop shopping.” As with any imaging modality, it is important to understand not only the indications ...

  8. Highly accelerated cardiovascular MR imaging using many channel technology: concepts and clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niendorf, Thoralf [RWTH Aachen, University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Aachen (Germany); Sodickson, Daniel K. [New York University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Center for Biomedical Imaging, New York, NY (United States)

    2008-01-15

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CVMRI) is of proven clinical value in the non-invasive imaging of cardiovascular diseases. CVMRI requires rapid image acquisition, but acquisition speed is fundamentally limited in conventional MRI. Parallel imaging provides a means for increasing acquisition speed and efficiency. However, signal-to-noise (SNR) limitations and the limited number of receiver channels available on most MR systems have in the past imposed practical constraints, which dictated the use of moderate accelerations in CVMRI. High levels of acceleration, which were unattainable previously, have become possible with many-receiver MR systems and many-element, cardiac-optimized RF-coil arrays. The resulting imaging speed improvements can be exploited in a number of ways, ranging from enhancement of spatial and temporal resolution to efficient whole heart coverage to streamlining of CVMRI work flow. In this review, examples of these strategies are provided, following an outline of the fundamentals of the highly accelerated imaging approaches employed in CVMRI. Topics discussed include basic principles of parallel imaging; key requirements for MR systems and RF-coil design; practical considerations of SNR management, supported by multi-dimensional accelerations, 3D noise averaging and high field imaging; highly accelerated clinical state-of-the art cardiovascular imaging applications spanning the range from SNR-rich to SNR-limited; and current trends and future directions. (orig.)

  9. Cardiovascular MRI in congenital heart disease. An imaging atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridharan, Shankar; Price, Gemma; Tann, Oliver; Hughes, Marina; Muthurangu, Vivek; Taylor, Andrew M. [UCL Institute of Child Health and Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom). Centre for Cardiovascular MR

    2010-07-01

    This new and unique clinical resource offers rapid access to high-quality images covering a broad spectrum of paediatric and adult cardiac pathologies visualized using MRI and CT. Key images of each condition and a clear interpretation of their MR appearances allow for greater understanding of the pathology. Focus is given to the planning of imaging planes, techniques and sequences to obtain the best images and improve MR assessment. This text would benefit all health professionals involved in imaging congenital cardiac disease. (orig.)

  10. Evaluation of an improved technique for automated center lumen line definition in cardiovascular image data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to evaluate a new method for automated definition of a center lumen line in vessels in cardiovascular image data. This method, called VAMPIRE, is based on improved detection of vessel-like structures. A multiobserver evaluation study was conducted involving 40 tracings in clinical CTA data of carotid arteries to compare VAMPIRE with an established technique. This comparison showed that VAMPIRE yields considerably more successful tracings and improved handling of stenosis, calcifications, multiple vessels, and nearby bone structures. We conclude that VAMPIRE is highly suitable for automated definition of center lumen lines in vessels in cardiovascular image data. (orig.)

  11. Evaluation of an improved technique for automated center lumen line definition in cardiovascular image data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gratama van Andel, Hugo A.F. [Erasmus MC-University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Medical Informatics, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus MC-University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Academic Medical Centre-University of Amsterdam, Department of Medical Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Meijering, Erik; Vrooman, Henri A.; Stokking, Rik [Erasmus MC-University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Medical Informatics, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus MC-University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Lugt, Aad van der; Monye, Cecile de [Erasmus MC-University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate a new method for automated definition of a center lumen line in vessels in cardiovascular image data. This method, called VAMPIRE, is based on improved detection of vessel-like structures. A multiobserver evaluation study was conducted involving 40 tracings in clinical CTA data of carotid arteries to compare VAMPIRE with an established technique. This comparison showed that VAMPIRE yields considerably more successful tracings and improved handling of stenosis, calcifications, multiple vessels, and nearby bone structures. We conclude that VAMPIRE is highly suitable for automated definition of center lumen lines in vessels in cardiovascular image data. (orig.)

  12. Translational applications of molecular imaging in cardiovascular disease and stem cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Tao, Hongyan; Zhao, Shihua; He, Zuo-Xiang; Li, Zongjin

    2015-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Molecular imaging techniques provide valuable information at cellular and molecular level, as opposed to anatomical and structural layers acquired from traditional imaging modalities. More specifically, molecular imaging employs imaging probes which interact with specific molecular targets and therefore makes it possible to visualize biological processes in vivo. Molecular imaging technology is now progressing towards preclinical and clinical application that gives an integral and comprehensive guidance for the investigation of cardiovascular disease. In addition, cardiac stem cell therapy holds great promise for clinical translation. Undoubtedly, combining stem cell therapy with molecular imaging technology will bring a broad prospect for the study and treatment of cardiac disease. This review will focus on the progresses of molecular imaging strategies in cardiovascular disease and cardiac stem cell therapy. Furthermore, the perspective on the future role of molecular imaging in clinical translation and potential strategies in defining safety and efficacy of cardiac stem cell therapies will be discussed.

  13. Nuclear cardiology core syllabus of the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimelli, Alessia; Neglia, Danilo; Schindler, Thomas H; Cosyns, Bernard; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Kitsiou, Anastasia

    2015-04-01

    The European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) Core Syllabus for Nuclear Cardiology is now available online. The syllabus lists key elements of knowledge in nuclear cardiology. It represents a framework for the development of training curricula and provides expected knowledge-based learning outcomes to the nuclear cardiology trainees.

  14. Imaging of cardiovascular dynamics in early mouse embryos with swept source optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larina, Irina V.; Liebling, Michael; Dickinson, Mary E.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2009-02-01

    Congenital cardiovascular defects are very common, occurring in 1% of live births, and cardiovascular failures are the leading cause of birth defect-related deaths in infants. To improve diagnostics, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular abnormalities, we need to understand not only how cells form the heart and vessels but also how physical factors such as heart contraction and blood flow influence heart development and changes in the circulatory network. Mouse models are an excellent resource for studying cardiovascular development and disease because of the resemblance to humans, rapid generation time, and availability of mutants with cardiovascular defects linked to human diseases. In this work, we present results on development and application of Doppler Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography (DSS-OCT) for imaging of cardiovascular dynamics and blood flow in the mouse embryonic heart and vessels. Our studies demonstrated that the spatial and temporal resolution of the DSS-OCT makes it possible to perform sensitive measurements of heart and vessel wall movements and to investigate how contractile waves facilitate the movement of blood through the circulatory system.

  15. Computational chemical imaging for cardiovascular pathology: chemical microscopic imaging accurately determines cardiac transplant rejection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saumya Tiwari

    Full Text Available Rejection is a common problem after cardiac transplants leading to significant number of adverse events and deaths, particularly in the first year of transplantation. The gold standard to identify rejection is endomyocardial biopsy. This technique is complex, cumbersome and requires a lot of expertise in the correct interpretation of stained biopsy sections. Traditional histopathology cannot be used actively or quickly during cardiac interventions or surgery. Our objective was to develop a stain-less approach using an emerging technology, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopic imaging to identify different components of cardiac tissue by their chemical and molecular basis aided by computer recognition, rather than by visual examination using optical microscopy. We studied this technique in assessment of cardiac transplant rejection to evaluate efficacy in an example of complex cardiovascular pathology. We recorded data from human cardiac transplant patients' biopsies, used a Bayesian classification protocol and developed a visualization scheme to observe chemical differences without the need of stains or human supervision. Using receiver operating characteristic curves, we observed probabilities of detection greater than 95% for four out of five histological classes at 10% probability of false alarm at the cellular level while correctly identifying samples with the hallmarks of the immune response in all cases. The efficacy of manual examination can be significantly increased by observing the inherent biochemical changes in tissues, which enables us to achieve greater diagnostic confidence in an automated, label-free manner. We developed a computational pathology system that gives high contrast images and seems superior to traditional staining procedures. This study is a prelude to the development of real time in situ imaging systems, which can assist interventionists and surgeons actively during procedures.

  16. Ultrasound strain imaging for quantification of tissue function: cardiovascular applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Korte, Chris L.; Lopata, Richard G. P.; Hansen, Hendrik H. G.

    2013-03-01

    With ultrasound imaging, the motion and deformation of tissue can be measured. Tissue can be deformed by applying a force on it and the resulting deformation is a function of its mechanical properties. Quantification of this resulting tissue deformation to assess the mechanical properties of tissue is called elastography. If the tissue under interrogation is actively deforming, the deformation is directly related to its function and quantification of this deformation is normally referred as `strain imaging'. Elastography can be used for atherosclerotic plaques characterization, while the contractility of the heart or skeletal muscles can be assessed with strain imaging. We developed radio frequency (RF) based ultrasound methods to assess the deformation at higher resolution and with higher accuracy than commercial methods using conventional image data (Tissue Doppler Imaging and 2D speckle tracking methods). However, the improvement in accuracy is mainly achieved when measuring strain along the ultrasound beam direction, so 1D. We further extended this method to multiple directions and further improved precision by using compounding of data acquired at multiple beam steered angles. In arteries, the presence of vulnerable plaques may lead to acute events like stroke and myocardial infarction. Consequently, timely detection of these plaques is of great diagnostic value. Non-invasive ultrasound strain compounding is currently being evaluated as a diagnostic tool to identify the vulnerability of plaques. In the heart, we determined the strain locally and at high resolution resulting in a local assessment in contrary to conventional global functional parameters like cardiac output or shortening fraction.

  17. Brain imaging changes associated with risk factors for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease in asymptomatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Joseph I; Tang, Cheuk Y; de Haas, Hans J; Changchien, Lisa; Goliasch, Georg; Dabas, Puneet; Wang, Victoria; Fayad, Zahi A; Fuster, Valentin; Narula, Jagat

    2014-10-01

    Reviews of imaging studies assessing the brain effects of vascular risk factors typically include a substantial number of studies with subjects with a history of symptomatic cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease and/or events, limiting our ability to disentangle the primary brain effects of vascular risk factors from those of resulting brain and cardiac damage. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review of brain changes from imaging studies in patients with vascular risk factors but without clinically manifest cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease or events. The 77 studies included in this review demonstrate that in persons without symptomatic cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, or peripheral vascular disease, the vascular risk factors of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, hyperlipidemia, and smoking are all independently associated with brain imaging changes before the clinical manifestation of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease. We conclude that the identification of brain changes associated with vascular risk factors, before the manifestation of clinically significant cerebrovascular damage, presents a window of opportunity wherein adequate treatment of these modifiable vascular risk factors may prevent the development of irreversible deleterious brain changes and potentially alter patients' clinical course.

  18. [Recommendations of the ESC guidelines regarding cardiovascular imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechtem, U; Greulich, S; Ong, P

    2016-08-01

    Cardiac imaging plays a key role in the diagnosis and risk stratification in the ESC guidelines for the management of patients with stable coronary artery disease. Demonstration of myocardial ischaemia guides the decision which further diagnostic and therapeutic strategy should be followed in these patients. One should, however, not forget that there are no randomised studies supporting this type of management. In patients with a low pretest probability coronary CT angiography is the optimal tool to exclude coronary artery stenoses rapidly and effectively. In the near future, however, better data is needed showing how much cardiac imaging is really necessary and how cost-effective it is in patients with stable coronary artery disease. PMID:27388914

  19. Impact of Medical Therapy on Atheroma Volume Measured by Different Cardiovascular Imaging Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad C. N. Sinno

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a systemic disease that affects most vascular beds. The gold standard of atherosclerosis imaging has been invasive intravascular ultrasound (IVUS. Newer noninvasive imaging modalities like B-mode ultrasound, cardiac computed tomography (CT, positron emission tomography (PET, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI have been used to assess these vascular territories with high accuracy and reproducibility. These imaging modalities have lately been used for the assessment of the atherosclerotic plaque and the response of its volume to several medical therapies used in the treatment of patients with cardiovascular disease. To study the impact of these medications on atheroma volume progression or regression, imaging modalities have been used on a serial basis providing a unique opportunity to monitor the effect these antiatherosclerotic strategies exert on plaque burden. As a result, studies incorporating serial IVUS imaging, quantitative coronary angiography (QCA, B-mode ultrasound, electron beam computed tomography (EBCT, and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging have all been used to evaluate the impact of therapeutic strategies that modify cholesterol and blood pressure on the progression/regression of atherosclerotic plaque. In this review, we intend to summarize the impact of different therapies aimed at halting the progression or even result in regression of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease evaluated by different imaging modalities.

  20. Imaging of murine embryonic cardiovascular development using optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongyang; Degenhardt, Karl R.; Astrof, Sophie; Zhou, Chao

    2016-03-01

    We have demonstrated the capability of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) system to image full development of mouse embryonic cardiovascular system. Monitoring morphological changes of mouse embryonic heart occurred in different embryonic stages helps identify structural or functional cardiac anomalies and understand how these anomalies lead to congenital heart diseases (CHD) present at birth. In this study, mouse embryo hearts ranging from E9.5 to E15.5 were prepared and imaged in vitro. A customized spectral domain OCT system was used for imaging, with a central wavelength of 1310nm, spectral bandwidth of ~100nm and imaging speed of 47kHz A-scans/s. Axial resolution of this system was 8.3µm in air, and transverse resolution was 6.2 µm with 5X objective. Key features of mouse embryonic cardiovascular development such as vasculature remodeling into circulatory system, separation of atria and ventricles and emergence of valves could be clearly seen in three-dimensional OCT images. Optical clearing was applied to overcome the penetration limit of OCT system. With high resolution, fast imaging speed, 3D imaging capability, OCT proves to be a promising biomedical imaging modality for developmental biology studies, rivaling histology and micro-CT.

  1. Digital image analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber-Hansen, Rikke; Vainer, Ben; Steiniche, Torben

    2012-01-01

    Digital image analysis (DIA) is increasingly implemented in histopathological research to facilitate truly quantitative measurements, decrease inter-observer variation and reduce hands-on time. Originally, efforts were made to enable DIA to reproduce manually obtained results on histological slides...... reproducibility, application of stereology-based quantitative measurements, time consumption, optimization of histological slides, regions of interest selection and recent developments in staining and imaging techniques....

  2. Cardiovascular hybrid imaging using PET/MRI; Kardiovaskulaere Hybridbildgebung mit PET/MRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nensa, Felix; Schlosser, Thomas [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Neuroradiologie

    2014-12-15

    The following overview provides a summary of the state of the art and research as well as potential clinical applications of cardiovascular PET/MR imaging. PET/MRI systems have been clinically available for a few years, and their use in cardiac imaging has been successfully demonstrated. At this period in time, some of the technical difficulties that arose at the beginning have been solved; in particular with respect to MRI-based attenuation correction, caution should be exercised with PET quantification. In addition, many promising technical options are still in the developmental stage, such as MRI-based motion correction of PET data resulting from simultaneous MR acquisition, and are not yet available for cardiovascular imaging. On the other hand, PET/MRI has been used to demonstrate significant pathologies such as acute and chronic myocardial infarction, myocarditis or cardiac sarcoidosis; future applications in clinical routine or within studies appear to be possible. In coming years additional studies will have to be performed to prove diagnostic gain at a reasonable cost-benefit ratio before valid conclusions are possible regarding the clinical utility and future of cardiovascular PET/MR imaging.

  3. 门控心肌灌注显像相位分析在心血管疾病左室机械不同步中的应用%The application of phase analysis of gated myocardial perfusion imaging to assess left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony in cardiovascular disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建锋; 王跃涛

    2013-01-01

    Left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony is closely related to the severity of cardiovascular disease,it is essential to assess left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony accurately for early prediction of adverse cardiac events and prognosis assessment of the cardiac resynchronization therapy.As a new technology to assess left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony,the phase analysis of gated myocardial perfusion imaging(GMPI) can get both quantitative indicators of regional myocardial perfusion,evaluation of regional myocardial viability and scar tissue,as well as quantitative analysis of left ventricular function and left ventricular mechanical synchrony,it has broad application prospects in cardiovascular disease to assess left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony and prognosis assessment.This review mainly described the applications of GMPI phase analysis in the cardiovascular disease.%左室机械不同步与心功能不全的严重程度密切相关,准确评估左室机械不同步,对预测心脏不良事件、指导心脏再同步治疗及预后评估具有重要的临床意义.门控心肌灌注显像(GMPI)相位分析是一项定量评估左室机械不同步的新技术.通过一次GMPI检查既可以得到局部心肌血流灌注的定量指标,同时还能定量分析左室心功能和左室收缩协调性,在研究心血管疾病左室机械不同步及预后评估中具有广阔的应用前景.该文着重对GMPI相位分析在心血管疾病诊疗中的应用进展进行综述.

  4. Multi-target photoacoustic molecular imaging of cardiovascular inflammatory biomarkers using bioconjugated gold nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, S.; Tripathy, S.; Carson, A.; Lavery, L. L.; Zhang, H.; Agarwal, A.; Kotov, N.; Villanueva, F. S.; Kim, K.

    2011-03-01

    Multiple cardiovascular inflammatory biomarkers were simultaneously imaged in vivo using antibody conjugated gold nanorods (GNRs) injected into a mouse model of vascular injury stimulated by a photochemical reaction of Rose Bengal dye to green light. Mixed solutions of ICAM-1 antibody conjugated GNRs (715 nm) and E-selectin antibody conjugated GNRs (800 nm) were injected to bind to their respective inflammatory markers on the luminal surface of the inferior vena cava of a mouse. Photoacoustic intensity was measured by a commercial ultrasound probe synchronized to a pulsed laser (10-18 mJ/cm2) at 715 nm or 800 nm clearly identified the upregulation of targeted biomarkers. Histopathology on the harvested tissues confirmed inflammation. The feasibility of simultaneous photoacoustic molecular imaging of inflammation responses in cardiovascular system using a commercial ultrasound system has been demonstrated in vivo.

  5. Hyperspectral image analysis. A tutorial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amigo Rubio, Jose Manuel; Babamoradi, Hamid; Elcoroaristizabal Martin, Saioa

    2015-01-01

    This tutorial aims at providing guidelines and practical tools to assist with the analysis of hyperspectral images. Topics like hyperspectral image acquisition, image pre-processing, multivariate exploratory analysis, hyperspectral image resolution, classification and final digital image processi...... to differentiate between several types of plastics by using Near infrared hyperspectral imaging and Partial Least Squares - Discriminant Analysis. Thus, the reader is guided through every single step and oriented in order to adapt those strategies to the user's case....

  6. Unmasking Silent Endothelial Activation in the Cardiovascular System Using Molecular Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belliere, Julie; Martinez de Lizarrondo, Sara; Choudhury, Robin P; Quenault, Aurélien; Le Béhot, Audrey; Delage, Christine; Chauveau, Dominique; Schanstra, Joost P; Bascands, Jean-Loup; Vivien, Denis; Gauberti, Maxime

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial activation is a hallmark of cardiovascular diseases, acting either as a cause or a consequence of organ injury. To date, we lack suitable methods to measure endothelial activation in vivo. In the present study, we developed a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method allowing non-invasive endothelial activation mapping in the vasculature of the main organs affected during cardiovascular diseases. In clinically relevant contexts in mice (including systemic inflammation, acute and chronic kidney diseases, diabetes mellitus and normal aging), we provided evidence that this method allows detecting endothelial activation before any clinical manifestation of organ failure in the brain, kidney and heart with an exceptional sensitivity. In particular, we demonstrated that diabetes mellitus induces chronic endothelial cells activation in the kidney and heart. Moreover, aged mice presented activated endothelial cells in the kidneys and the cerebrovasculature. Interestingly, depending on the underlying condition, the temporospatial patterns of endothelial activation in the vascular beds of the cardiovascular system were different. These results demonstrate the feasibility of detecting silent endothelial activation occurring in conditions associated with high cardiovascular risk using molecular MRI. PMID:26379785

  7. Cardiovascular assessment of patients with Ullrich-Turner's Syndrome on Doppler echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro Ana Valéria Barros de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the cardiovascular features of Ullrich-Turner's syndrome using echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging, and to correlate them with the phenotype and karyotype of the patients. The diagnostic concordance between the 2 methods was also assessed. METHODS: Fifteen patients with the syndrome were assessed by echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging (cardiac chambers, valves, and aorta. Their ages ranged from 10 to 28 (mean of 16.7 years. The karyotype was analyzed in 11 or 25 metaphases of peripheral blood lymphocytes, or both. RESULTS: The most common phenotypic changes were short stature and spontaneous absence of puberal development (100%; 1 patient had a cardiac murmur. The karyotypes detected were as follows: 45,X (n=7, mosaics (n=5, and deletions (n=3. No echocardiographic changes were observed. In regard to magnetic resonance imaging, coarctation and dilation of the aorta were found in 1 patient, and isolated dilation of the aorta was found in 4 patients. CONCLUSION: The frequencies of coarctation and dilation of the aorta detected on magnetic resonance imaging were similar to those reported in the literature (5.5% to 20%, and 6.3% to 29%, respectively. This confirmed the adjuvant role of magnetic resonance imaging to Doppler echocardiography for diagnosing cardiovascular alterations in patients with Ullrich-Turner's syndrome.

  8. Medical Image Analysis Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    To improve the quality of photos sent to Earth by unmanned spacecraft. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) developed a computerized image enhancement process that brings out detail not visible in the basic photo. JPL is now applying this technology to biomedical research in its Medical lrnage Analysis Facility, which employs computer enhancement techniques to analyze x-ray films of internal organs, such as the heart and lung. A major objective is study of the effects of I stress on persons with heart disease. In animal tests, computerized image processing is being used to study coronary artery lesions and the degree to which they reduce arterial blood flow when stress is applied. The photos illustrate the enhancement process. The upper picture is an x-ray photo in which the artery (dotted line) is barely discernible; in the post-enhancement photo at right, the whole artery and the lesions along its wall are clearly visible. The Medical lrnage Analysis Facility offers a faster means of studying the effects of complex coronary lesions in humans, and the research now being conducted on animals is expected to have important application to diagnosis and treatment of human coronary disease. Other uses of the facility's image processing capability include analysis of muscle biopsy and pap smear specimens, and study of the microscopic structure of fibroprotein in the human lung. Working with JPL on experiments are NASA's Ames Research Center, the University of Southern California School of Medicine, and Rancho Los Amigos Hospital, Downey, California.

  9. Radar image analysis utilizing junctive image metamorphosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Peter G.; Gouge, Sally B.; Gouge, Jim O.

    1998-09-01

    A feasibility study was initiated to investigate the ability of algorithms developed for medical sonogram image analysis, to be trained for extraction of cartographic information from synthetic aperture radar imagery. BioComputer Research Inc. has applied proprietary `junctive image metamorphosis' algorithms to cancer cell recognition and identification in ultrasound prostate images. These algorithms have been shown to support automatic radar image feature detection and identification. Training set images were used to develop determinants for representative point, line and area features, which were used on test images to identify and localize the features of interest. The software is computationally conservative; operating on a PC platform in real time. The algorithms are robust; having applicability to be trained for feature recognition on any digital imagery, not just those formed from reflected energy, such as sonograms and radar images. Applications include land mass characterization, feature identification, target recognition, and change detection.

  10. Gabor Analysis for Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Feichtinger, Hans G.; Paukner, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to classical Fourier analysis, time–frequency analysis is concerned with localized Fourier transforms. Gabor analysis is an important branch of time–frequency analysis. Although significantly different, it shares with the wavelet transform methods the ability to describe the smoothness...... of a given function in a location-dependent way. The main tool is the sliding window Fourier transform or short-time Fourier transform (STFT) in the context of audio signals. It describes the correlation of a signal with the time–frequency shifted copies of a fixed function (or window or atom). Thus......, it characterizes a function by its transform over phase space, which is the time–frequency plane (TF-plane) in a musical context or the location–wave-number domain in the context of image processing. Since the transition from the signal domain to the phase space domain introduces an enormous amount of data...

  11. Image sequence analysis

    CERN Document Server

    1981-01-01

    The processing of image sequences has a broad spectrum of important applica­ tions including target tracking, robot navigation, bandwidth compression of TV conferencing video signals, studying the motion of biological cells using microcinematography, cloud tracking, and highway traffic monitoring. Image sequence processing involves a large amount of data. However, because of the progress in computer, LSI, and VLSI technologies, we have now reached a stage when many useful processing tasks can be done in a reasonable amount of time. As a result, research and development activities in image sequence analysis have recently been growing at a rapid pace. An IEEE Computer Society Workshop on Computer Analysis of Time-Varying Imagery was held in Philadelphia, April 5-6, 1979. A related special issue of the IEEE Transactions on Pattern Anal­ ysis and Machine Intelligence was published in November 1980. The IEEE Com­ puter magazine has also published a special issue on the subject in 1981. The purpose of this book ...

  12. Left ventricular thrombus formation after acute myocardial infarction as assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delewi, Ronak [Department of Cardiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands (Netherlands); Nijveldt, Robin [Department of Cardiology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hirsch, Alexander [Department of Cardiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Marcu, Constantin B.; Robbers, Lourens [Department of Cardiology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hassell, Marriela E.C.J.; Bruin, Rianne H.A. de; Vleugels, Jim; Laan, Anja M. van der; Bouma, Berto J. [Department of Cardiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tio, René A. [Thorax Center, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Tijssen, Jan G.P. [Department of Cardiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rossum, Albert C. van [Department of Cardiology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Zijlstra, Felix [Thorax Center, Department of Cardiology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Piek, Jan J., E-mail: j.j.piek@amc.uva.nl [Department of Cardiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-12-15

    Introduction: Left ventricular (LV) thrombus formation is a feared complication of myocardial infarction (MI). We assessed the prevalence of LV thrombus in ST-segment elevated MI patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and compared the diagnostic accuracy of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) to cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). Also, we evaluated the course of LV thrombi in the modern era of primary PCI. Methods: 200 patients with primary PCI underwent TTE and CMR, at baseline and at 4 months follow-up. Studies were analyzed by two blinded examiners. Patients were seen at 1, 4, 12, and 24 months for assessment of clinical status and adverse events. Results: On CMR at baseline, a thrombus was found in 17 of 194 (8.8%) patients. LV thrombus resolution occurred in 15 patients. Two patients had persistence of LV thrombus on follow-up CMR. On CMR at four months, a thrombus was found in an additional 12 patients. In multivariate analysis, thrombus formation on baseline CMR was independently associated with, baseline infarct size (g) (B = 0.02, SE = 0.02, p < 0.001). Routine TTE had a sensitivity of 21–24% and a specificity of 95–98% compared to CMR for the detection of LV thrombi. Intra- and interobserver variation for detection of LV thrombus were lower for CMR (κ = 0.91 and κ = 0.96) compared to TTE (κ = 0.74 and κ = 0.53). Conclusion: LV thrombus still occurs in a substantial amount of patients after PCI-treated MI, especially in larger infarct sizes. Routine TTE had a low sensitivity for the detection of LV thrombi and the interobserver variation of TTE was large.

  13. Strain measurement by cardiovascular magnetic resonance in pediatric cancer survivors: validation of feature tracking against harmonic phase imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jimmy C. [C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, University of Michigan Congenital Heart Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); University of Michigan, Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); University of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Connelly, James A. [University of Michigan, Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, Division of Hematology-Oncology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Zhao, Lili [University of Michigan, Department of Biostatistics, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Agarwal, Prachi P. [University of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Division of Cardiothoracic Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Dorfman, Adam L. [University of Michigan, Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); University of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Left ventricular strain may be a more sensitive marker of left ventricular dysfunction than ejection fraction in pediatric cancer survivors after anthracycline therapy, but there is limited validation of strain measurement by feature tracking on cardiovascular magnetic resonance (MR) images. To compare left ventricular circumferential and radial strain by feature tracking vs. harmonic phase imaging analysis (HARP) in pediatric cancer survivors. Twenty-six patients (20.2 ± 5.6 years old) underwent cardiovascular MR at least 5 years after completing anthracycline therapy. Circumferential and radial strain were measured at the base, midventricle and apex from short-axis myocardial tagged images by HARP, and from steady-state free precession images by feature tracking. Left ventricular ejection fraction more closely correlated with global circumferential strain by feature tracking (r = -0.63, P = 0.0005) than by HARP (r = -0.39, P = 0.05). Midventricular circumferential strain did not significantly differ by feature tracking or HARP (-20.8 ± 3.4 vs. -19.5 ± 2.5, P = 0.07), with acceptable limits of agreement. Midventricular circumferential strain by feature tracking strongly correlated with global circumferential strain by feature tracking (r = 0.87, P < 0.0001). Radial strain by feature tracking had poor agreement with HARP, particularly at higher values of radial strain. Intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility was excellent for feature tracking circumferential strain, but reproducibility was poor for feature tracking radial strain. Midventricular circumferential strain by feature tracking is a reliable and reproducible measure of myocardial deformation in patients status post anthracycline therapy, while radial strain measurements are unreliable. Further studies are necessary to evaluate potential relation to long-term outcomes. (orig.)

  14. Risk stratification in cardiovascular disease primary prevention - scoring systems, novel markers, and imaging techniques.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zannad, Faiez

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to review and discuss current methods of risk stratification for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention, emerging biomarkers, and imaging techniques, and their relative merits and limitations. This report is based on discussions that took place among experts in the area during a special CardioVascular Clinical Trialists workshop organized by the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Drug Therapy in September 2009. Classical risk factors such as blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels remain the cornerstone of risk estimation in primary prevention but their use as a guide to management is limited by several factors: (i) thresholds for drug treatment vary with the available evidence for cost-effectiveness and benefit-to-risk ratios; (ii) assessment may be imprecise; (iii) residual risk may remain, even with effective control of dyslipidemia and hypertension. Novel measures include C-reactive protein, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) , genetic markers, and markers of subclinical organ damage, for which there are varying levels of evidence. High-resolution ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging to assess carotid atherosclerotic lesions have potential but require further validation, standardization, and proof of clinical usefulness in the general population. In conclusion, classical risk scoring systems are available and inexpensive but have a number of limitations. Novel risk markers and imaging techniques may have a place in drug development and clinical trial design. However, their additional value above and beyond classical risk factors has yet to be determined for risk-guided therapy in CVD prevention.

  15. Updated standards and processes for accreditation of echocardiographic laboratories from The European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Bogdan A; Stefanidis, Alexandros; Nihoyannopoulos, Petros; Fox, Kevin F; Ray, Simon; Cardim, Nuno; Rigo, Fausto; Badano, Luigi P; Fraser, Alan G; Pinto, Fausto; Zamorano, Jose Luis; Habib, Gilbert; Maurer, Gerald; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Andrade, Maria Joao; Donal, Erwan; Edvardsen, Thor; Varga, Albert

    2014-07-01

    Standards for echocardiographic laboratories were proposed by the European Association of Echocardiography (now the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging) 7 years ago in order to raise standards of practice and improve the quality of care. Criteria and requirements were published at that time for transthoracic, transoesophageal, and stress echocardiography. This paper reassesses and updates the quality standards to take account of experience and the technical developments of modern echocardiographic practice. It also discusses quality control, the incentives for laboratories to apply for accreditation, the reaccreditation criteria, and the current status and future prospects of the laboratory accreditation process.

  16. Cardiovascular CT angiography in neonates and children: Image quality and potential for radiation dose reduction with iterative image reconstruction techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tricarico, Francesco [Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, ' ' A. Gemelli' ' Hospital, Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy); Hlavacek, Anthony M. [Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Children' s Hospital, Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Charleston, SC (United States); Schoepf, U.J. [Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Children' s Hospital, Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Charleston, SC (United States); Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States); Ebersberger, Ullrich [Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Heart Centre Munich-Bogenhausen, Department of Cardiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Munich (Germany); Nance, John W. [Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Johns Hopkins Hospital, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn [Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University Medical Centre Groningen/University of Groningen, Centre for Medical Imaging - North East Netherlands, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands); Cho, Young Jun [Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Konyang University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Spears, J.R. [Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Secchi, Francesco [Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University of Milan School of Medicine IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Radiology Unit, Milan (Italy); Savino, Giancarlo; Marano, Riccardo; Bonomo, Lorenzo [Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, ' ' A. Gemelli' ' Hospital, Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy); Schoenberg, Stefan O. [University Medical Centre Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim - Heidelberg University, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Mannheim (Germany); Apfaltrer, Paul [Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University Medical Centre Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim - Heidelberg University, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Mannheim (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    To evaluate image quality (IQ) of low-radiation-dose paediatric cardiovascular CT angiography (CTA), comparing iterative reconstruction in image space (IRIS) and sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) with filtered back-projection (FBP) and estimate the potential for further dose reductions. Forty neonates and children underwent low radiation CTA with or without ECG synchronisation. Data were reconstructed with FBP, IRIS and SAFIRE. For ECG-synchronised studies, half-dose image acquisitions were simulated. Signal noise was measured and IQ graded. Effective dose (ED) was estimated. Mean absolute and relative image noise with IRIS and full-dose SAFIRE was lower than with FBP (P < 0.001), while SNR and CNR were higher (P < 0.001). Image noise was also lower and SNR and CNR higher in half-dose SAFIRE studies compared with full-and half-dose FBP studies (P < 0.001). IQ scores were higher for IRIS, full-dose SAFIRE and half-dose SAFIRE than for full-dose FBP and higher for half-dose SAFIRE than for half-dose FBP (P < 0.05). Median weight-specific ED was 0.3 mSv without and 1.36 mSv with ECG synchronisation. The estimated ED of half-dose SAFIRE studies was 0.68 mSv. IR improves image noise, SNR, CNR and subjective IQ compared with FBP in low-radiation-dose paediatric CTA and allows further dose reductions without compromising diagnostic IQ. (orig.)

  17. Cardiovascular CT angiography in neonates and children: Image quality and potential for radiation dose reduction with iterative image reconstruction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate image quality (IQ) of low-radiation-dose paediatric cardiovascular CT angiography (CTA), comparing iterative reconstruction in image space (IRIS) and sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) with filtered back-projection (FBP) and estimate the potential for further dose reductions. Forty neonates and children underwent low radiation CTA with or without ECG synchronisation. Data were reconstructed with FBP, IRIS and SAFIRE. For ECG-synchronised studies, half-dose image acquisitions were simulated. Signal noise was measured and IQ graded. Effective dose (ED) was estimated. Mean absolute and relative image noise with IRIS and full-dose SAFIRE was lower than with FBP (P < 0.001), while SNR and CNR were higher (P < 0.001). Image noise was also lower and SNR and CNR higher in half-dose SAFIRE studies compared with full-and half-dose FBP studies (P < 0.001). IQ scores were higher for IRIS, full-dose SAFIRE and half-dose SAFIRE than for full-dose FBP and higher for half-dose SAFIRE than for half-dose FBP (P < 0.05). Median weight-specific ED was 0.3 mSv without and 1.36 mSv with ECG synchronisation. The estimated ED of half-dose SAFIRE studies was 0.68 mSv. IR improves image noise, SNR, CNR and subjective IQ compared with FBP in low-radiation-dose paediatric CTA and allows further dose reductions without compromising diagnostic IQ. (orig.)

  18. Modulation of retinal image vasculature analysis to extend utility and provide secondary value from optical coherence tomography imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, James R; Ballerini, Lucia; Langan, Clare; Warren, Claire; Denholm, Nicholas; Smart, Katie; MacGillivray, Thomas J

    2016-04-01

    Retinal image analysis is emerging as a key source of biomarkers of chronic systemic conditions affecting the cardiovascular system and brain. The rapid development and increasing diversity of commercial retinal imaging systems present a challenge to image analysis software providers. In addition, clinicians are looking to extract maximum value from the clinical imaging taking place. We describe how existing and well-established retinal vasculature segmentation and measurement software for fundus camera images has been modulated to analyze scanning laser ophthalmoscope retinal images generated by the dual-modality Heidelberg SPECTRALIS(®) instrument, which also features optical coherence tomography.

  19. Reflections on ultrasound image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alison Noble, J

    2016-10-01

    Ultrasound (US) image analysis has advanced considerably in twenty years. Progress in ultrasound image analysis has always been fundamental to the advancement of image-guided interventions research due to the real-time acquisition capability of ultrasound and this has remained true over the two decades. But in quantitative ultrasound image analysis - which takes US images and turns them into more meaningful clinical information - thinking has perhaps more fundamentally changed. From roots as a poor cousin to Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance (MR) image analysis, both of which have richer anatomical definition and thus were better suited to the earlier eras of medical image analysis which were dominated by model-based methods, ultrasound image analysis has now entered an exciting new era, assisted by advances in machine learning and the growing clinical and commercial interest in employing low-cost portable ultrasound devices outside traditional hospital-based clinical settings. This short article provides a perspective on this change, and highlights some challenges ahead and potential opportunities in ultrasound image analysis which may both have high impact on healthcare delivery worldwide in the future but may also, perhaps, take the subject further away from CT and MR image analysis research with time. PMID:27503078

  20. Reflections on ultrasound image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alison Noble, J

    2016-10-01

    Ultrasound (US) image analysis has advanced considerably in twenty years. Progress in ultrasound image analysis has always been fundamental to the advancement of image-guided interventions research due to the real-time acquisition capability of ultrasound and this has remained true over the two decades. But in quantitative ultrasound image analysis - which takes US images and turns them into more meaningful clinical information - thinking has perhaps more fundamentally changed. From roots as a poor cousin to Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance (MR) image analysis, both of which have richer anatomical definition and thus were better suited to the earlier eras of medical image analysis which were dominated by model-based methods, ultrasound image analysis has now entered an exciting new era, assisted by advances in machine learning and the growing clinical and commercial interest in employing low-cost portable ultrasound devices outside traditional hospital-based clinical settings. This short article provides a perspective on this change, and highlights some challenges ahead and potential opportunities in ultrasound image analysis which may both have high impact on healthcare delivery worldwide in the future but may also, perhaps, take the subject further away from CT and MR image analysis research with time.

  1. ANALYSIS OF FUNDUS IMAGES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    A method classifying objects man image as respective arterial or venous vessels comprising: identifying pixels of the said modified image which are located on a line object, determining which of the said image points is associated with crossing point or a bifurcation of the respective line object......; (e) vessel length. Furthermore methods for detecting size and positions of features of eye fundus images.......A method classifying objects man image as respective arterial or venous vessels comprising: identifying pixels of the said modified image which are located on a line object, determining which of the said image points is associated with crossing point or a bifurcation of the respective line object......, wherein a crossing point is represented by an image point which is the intersection of four line segments, performing a matching operation on pairs of said line segments for each said crossing point, to determine the path of blood vessels in the image, thereby classifying the line objects in the original...

  2. Diagnosis and management of ischemic cardiomyopathy: Role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christina; Doesch; Theano; Papavassiliu

    2014-01-01

    Coronary artery disease(CAD) represents an important cause of mortality. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance(CMR) imaging evolved as an imaging modality that allows the assessment of myocardial function, perfusion, contractile reserve and extent of fibrosis in a single comprehensive exam. This review highlights the role of CMR in the differential diagnosis of acute chest pain by detecting the location of obstructive CAD or necrosis and identifying other conditions like stress cardiomyopathy or myocarditis that can present with acute chest pain. Besides, it underlines the prognostic implication of perfusion abnormalities in the setting of acute chest pain. Furthermore, the review addresses the role of CMR to detect significant CAD in patients with stable CAD. It elucidates the accuracy and clinical utility of CMR with respect to other imaging modalitieslike single-photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography. Besides, the prognostic value of CMR stress testing is discussed. Additionally, it summarizes the available CMR techniques to assess myocardial viability and describes algorithm to identify those patient who might profit from revascularization those who should be treated medically. Finally, future promising imaging techniques that will provide further insights into the fundamental disease processes in ischemic cardiomyopathy are discussed.

  3. Image Analysis in CT Angiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manniesing, R.

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis we develop and validate novel image processing techniques for the analysis of vascular structures in medical images. First a new type of filter is proposed which is capable of enhancing vascular structures while suppressing noise in the remainder of the image. This filter is based on

  4. Digital Images Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Roman-Gonzalez, Avid

    2012-01-01

    International audience; A specific field of image processing focuses on the evaluation of image quality and assessment of their authenticity. A loss of image quality may be due to the various processes by which it passes. In assessing the authenticity of the image we detect forgeries, detection of hidden messages, etc. In this work, we present an overview of these areas; these areas have in common the need to develop theories and techniques to detect changes in the image that it is not detect...

  5. Alterations in vascular function in primary aldosteronism: a cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, P B; Boyle, S; Zimmerli, L U; McQuarrie, E P; Delles, C; Freel, E M

    2014-02-01

    Excess aldosterone is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Aldosterone has a permissive effect on vascular fibrosis. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) allows study of vascular function by measuring aortic distensibility. We compared aortic distensibility in primary aldosteronism (PA), essential hypertension (EH) and normal controls and explored the relationship between aortic distensibility and pulse wave velocity (PWV). We studied PA (n=14) and EH (n=33) subjects and age-matched healthy controls (n=17) with CMR, including measurement of aortic distensibility, and measured PWV using applanation tonometry. At recruitment, PA and EH patients had similar blood pressure and left ventricular mass. Subjects with PA had significantly lower aortic distensibility and higher PWV compared with EH and healthy controls. These changes were independent of other factors associated with reduced aortic distensibility, including ageing. There was a significant relationship between increasing aortic stiffness and age in keeping with physical and vascular ageing. As expected, aortic distensibility and PWV were closely correlated. These results demonstrate that PA patients display increased arterial stiffness compared with EH, independent of vascular ageing. The implication is that aldosterone invokes functional impairment of arterial function. The long-term implications of arterial stiffening in aldosterone excess require further study. PMID:23884211

  6. Assessment of radiation dose in nuclear cardiovascular imaging using realistic computational models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Nuclear cardiology plays an important role in clinical assessment and has enormous impact on the management of a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Pediatric patients at different age groups are exposed to a spectrum of radiation dose levels and associated cancer risks different from those of adults in diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures. Therefore, comprehensive radiation dosimetry evaluations for commonly used myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and viability radiotracers in target population (children and adults) at different age groups are highly desired. Methods: Using Monte Carlo calculations and biological effects of ionizing radiation VII model, we calculate the S-values for a number of radionuclides (Tl-201, Tc-99m, I-123, C-11, N-13, O-15, F-18, and Rb-82) and estimate the absorbed dose and effective dose for 12 MPI radiotracers in computational models including the newborn, 1-, 5-, 10-, 15-yr-old, and adult male and female computational phantoms. Results: For most organs, 201Tl produces the highest absorbed dose whereas 82Rb and 15O-water produce the lowest absorbed dose. For the newborn baby and adult patient, the effective dose of 82Rb is 48% and 77% lower than that of 99mTc-tetrofosmin (rest), respectively. Conclusions: 82Rb results in lower effective dose in adults compared to 99mTc-labeled tracers. However, this advantage is less apparent in children. The produced dosimetric databases for various radiotracers used in cardiovascular imaging, using new generation of computational models, can be used for risk-benefit assessment of a spectrum of patient population in clinical nuclear cardiology practice

  7. Assessment of radiation dose in nuclear cardiovascular imaging using realistic computational models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Tianwu [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva 4 CH-1211 (Switzerland); Lee, Choonsik [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20852 (United States); Bolch, Wesley E. [Departments of Nuclear and Radiological and Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Zaidi, Habib, E-mail: habib.zaidi@hcuge.ch [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva 4 CH-1211 (Switzerland); Geneva Neuroscience Center, Geneva University, Geneva CH-1205 (Switzerland); Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen 9700 RB (Netherlands)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Nuclear cardiology plays an important role in clinical assessment and has enormous impact on the management of a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Pediatric patients at different age groups are exposed to a spectrum of radiation dose levels and associated cancer risks different from those of adults in diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures. Therefore, comprehensive radiation dosimetry evaluations for commonly used myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and viability radiotracers in target population (children and adults) at different age groups are highly desired. Methods: Using Monte Carlo calculations and biological effects of ionizing radiation VII model, we calculate the S-values for a number of radionuclides (Tl-201, Tc-99m, I-123, C-11, N-13, O-15, F-18, and Rb-82) and estimate the absorbed dose and effective dose for 12 MPI radiotracers in computational models including the newborn, 1-, 5-, 10-, 15-yr-old, and adult male and female computational phantoms. Results: For most organs, {sup 201}Tl produces the highest absorbed dose whereas {sup 82}Rb and {sup 15}O-water produce the lowest absorbed dose. For the newborn baby and adult patient, the effective dose of {sup 82}Rb is 48% and 77% lower than that of {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin (rest), respectively. Conclusions: {sup 82}Rb results in lower effective dose in adults compared to {sup 99m}Tc-labeled tracers. However, this advantage is less apparent in children. The produced dosimetric databases for various radiotracers used in cardiovascular imaging, using new generation of computational models, can be used for risk-benefit assessment of a spectrum of patient population in clinical nuclear cardiology practice.

  8. Review of cardiovascular imaging in the journal of nuclear cardiology in 2015. Part 1 of 2: Plaque imaging, positron emission tomography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlJaroudi, Wael A; Hage, Fadi G

    2016-02-01

    In 2015, many original articles pertaining to cardiovascular imaging with impressive quality were published in the Journal of Nuclear Cardiology. In a set of 2 articles, we provide an overview of these contributions to facilitate for the interested reader a quick review of the advancements that occurred in the field over this year. In this first article, we focus on arterial plaque imaging, cardiac positron emission tomography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:26542991

  9. Review of cardiovascular imaging in the journal of nuclear cardiology in 2015. Part 1 of 2: Plaque imaging, positron emission tomography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlJaroudi, Wael A; Hage, Fadi G

    2016-02-01

    In 2015, many original articles pertaining to cardiovascular imaging with impressive quality were published in the Journal of Nuclear Cardiology. In a set of 2 articles, we provide an overview of these contributions to facilitate for the interested reader a quick review of the advancements that occurred in the field over this year. In this first article, we focus on arterial plaque imaging, cardiac positron emission tomography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.

  10. Bisphosphonates and risk of cardiovascular events: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Hyun Kim

    Full Text Available Some evidence suggests that bisphosphonates may reduce atherosclerosis, while concerns have been raised about atrial fibrillation. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine the effects of bisphosphonates on total adverse cardiovascular (CV events, atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction (MI, stroke, and CV death in adults with or at risk for low bone mass.A systematic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE through July 2014 identified 58 randomized controlled trials with longer than 6 months in duration that reported CV events. Absolute risks and the Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effects odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs of total CV events, atrial fibrillation, MI, stroke, and CV death were estimated. Subgroup analyses by follow-up duration, population characteristics, bisphosphonate types, and route were performed.Absolute risks over 25-36 months in bisphosphonate-treated versus control patients were 6.5% versus 6.2% for total CV events; 1.4% versus 1.5% for atrial fibrillation; 1.0% versus 1.2% for MI; 1.6% versus 1.9% for stroke; and 1.5% versus 1.4% for CV death. Bisphosphonate treatment up to 36 months did not have any significant effects on total CV events (14 trials; ORs [95% CI]: 0.98 [0.84-1.14]; I2 = 0.0%, atrial fibrillation (41 trials; 1.08 [0.92-1.25]; I2 = 0.0%, MI (10 trials; 0.96 [0.69-1.34]; I2 = 0.0%, stroke (10 trials; 0.99 [0.82-1.19]; I2 = 5.8%, and CV death (14 trials; 0.88 [0.72-1.07]; I2 = 0.0% with little between-study heterogeneity. The risk of atrial fibrillation appears to be modestly elevated for zoledronic acid (6 trials; 1.24 [0.96-1.61]; I2 = 0.0%, not for oral bisphosphonates (26 trials; 1.02 [0.83-1.24]; I2 = 0.0%. The CV effects did not vary by subgroups or study quality.Bisphosphonates do not have beneficial or harmful effects on atherosclerotic CV events, but zoledronic acid may modestly increase the risk of atrial fibrillation. Given the large reduction in fractures with bisphosphonates, changes in

  11. Cardiovascular imaging in the diagnosis and monitoring of cardiotoxicity: role of echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Concetta; Longobardo, Luca; Cadeddu, Christian; Monte, Ines; Novo, Giuseppina; Dell'Oglio, Sonia; Pepe, Alessia; Madonna, Rosalinda; Tocchetti, Carlo G; Mele, Donato

    2016-05-01

    The evaluation by cardiovascular imaging of chemotherapy patients became a central topic in the last several years. The use of drugs for the treatment of cancers increased, and new molecules and protocols were developed to improve outcomes in these patients. Although, these novel approaches also produced a progressive increase in side effects, particularly myocardial dysfunction. Imaging of the heart was highly accurate in the early diagnosis of cancer therapeutics related-cardiac dysfunction. Echocardiography is the first-line method to assess ventricular function alterations, and it is required to satisfy the need for an early, easy and accurate diagnosis to stratify the risk of heart failure and manage treatments. A careful monitoring of cardiac function during the course of therapy should prevent the onset of severe heart impairment. This review provides an overview of the most important findings of the role of echocardiography in the management of chemotherapy-treated patients to create a clear and complete description of the efficacy of conventional measurements, the importance of comprehensive heart evaluations, the additional role of new echocardiographic techniques, the utility of integrated studies using other imaging tools and the positions of the most important international societies on this topic. PMID:27183524

  12. Greater cardiovascular responses to laboratory mental stress are associated with poor subsequent cardiovascular risk status: a meta-analysis of prospective evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chida, Yoichi; Steptoe, Andrew

    2010-04-01

    An increasing number of studies has tested whether greater cardiovascular responses to acute mental stress predict future cardiovascular disease, but results have been variable. This review aimed quantitatively to evaluate the association between cardiovascular responses to laboratory mental stress and subsequent cardiovascular risk status in prospective cohort studies. We searched general bibliographic databases, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and PubMed, up to December 2009. Two reviewers independently extracted data on study characteristics, quality, and estimates of associations. There were 169 associations (36 articles) of stress reactivity and 30 associations (5 articles) of poststress recovery in relation to future cardiovascular risk status, including elevated blood pressure, hypertension, left ventricular mass, subclinical atherosclerosis, and clinical cardiac events. The overall meta-analyses showed that greater reactivity to and poor recovery from stress were associated longitudinally with poor cardiovascular status (r=0.091 [95% CI: 0.050 to 0.132], Pstress reactivity and poor stress recovery, respectively, whereas both factors were associated with higher future systolic and diastolic blood pressures. In conclusion, the current meta-analysis suggests that greater responsivity to acute mental stress has an adverse effect on future cardiovascular risk status, supporting the use of methods of managing stress responsivity in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease.

  13. A Data Mining Approach for Cardiovascular Disease Diagnosis Using Heart Rate Variability and Images of Carotid Arteries

    OpenAIRE

    Hyeongsoo Kim; Musa Ibrahim M. Ishag; Minghao Piao; Taeil Kwon; Keun Ho Ryu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we proposed not only an extraction methodology of multiple feature vectors from ultrasound images for carotid arteries (CAs) and heart rate variability (HRV) of electrocardiogram signal, but also a suitable and reliable prediction model useful in the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease (CVD). For inventing the multiple feature vectors, we extract a candidate feature vector through image processing and measurement of the thickness of carotid intima-media (IMT). As a complementar...

  14. Stochastic geometry for image analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Descombes, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    This book develops the stochastic geometry framework for image analysis purpose. Two main frameworks are  described: marked point process and random closed sets models. We derive the main issues for defining an appropriate model. The algorithms for sampling and optimizing the models as well as for estimating parameters are reviewed.  Numerous applications, covering remote sensing images, biological and medical imaging, are detailed.  This book provides all the necessary tools for developing an image analysis application based on modern stochastic modeling.

  15. A Data Mining Approach for Cardiovascular Disease Diagnosis Using Heart Rate Variability and Images of Carotid Arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeongsoo Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we proposed not only an extraction methodology of multiple feature vectors from ultrasound images for carotid arteries (CAs and heart rate variability (HRV of electrocardiogram signal, but also a suitable and reliable prediction model useful in the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease (CVD. For inventing the multiple feature vectors, we extract a candidate feature vector through image processing and measurement of the thickness of carotid intima-media (IMT. As a complementary way, the linear and/or nonlinear feature vectors are also extracted from HRV, a main index for cardiac disorder. The significance of the multiple feature vectors is tested with several machine learning methods, namely Neural Networks, Support Vector Machine (SVM, Classification based on Multiple Association Rule (CMAR, Decision tree induction and Bayesian classifier. As a result, multiple feature vectors extracted from both CAs and HRV (CA+HRV showed higher accuracy than the separative feature vectors of CAs and HRV. Furthermore, the SVM and CMAR showed about 89.51% and 89.46%, respectively, in terms of diagnosing accuracy rate after evaluating the diagnosis or prediction methods using the finally chosen multiple feature vectors. Therefore, the multiple feature vectors devised in this paper can be effective diagnostic indicators of CVD. In addition, the feature vector analysis and prediction techniques are expected to be helpful tools in the decisions of cardiologists.

  16. Cardiovascular coupling analysis with high-resolution joint symbolic dynamics in patients suffering from acute schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besides the well-known cardiac risk factors for schizophrenia, increasing concerns have been raised regarding the cardiac side-effects of antipsychotic medications. A bivariate analysis of autonomic regulation, based on cardiovascular coupling, can provide additional information about heart rate (HR) and blood pressure regulatory patterns within the complex interactions of the cardiovascular system. We introduce a new high-resolution coupling analysis method (HRJSD) based on joint symbolic dynamics (JSD), which is characterized by three symbols, a threshold (individual dynamic variability, physiological) for time series transformation and eight coupling pattern families. This is based on a redundancy reduction strategy used to quantify and characterize cardiovascular couplings. In this study, short-term (30 min) HR and systolic blood pressure (SP) time series of 42 unmedicated (UNMED) and 42 medicated patients (MED) suffering from acute schizophrenia were analysed to establish the suitability of the new method for quantifying the effects of antipsychotics on cardiovascular couplings. We were able to demonstrate that HRJSD, applying the threshold based on spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) estimation, revealed eight significant pattern families that were able to quantify the anti-cholinergic effects of antipsychotics and the related changes of cardiovascular regulation (coupling) in MED in comparison to UNMED. This was in contrast to the simple JSD, BRS (sequence method) and only partly to standard linear HR variability indices. HRJSD provides strong evidence that autonomic regulation in MED seems to be, to some extent, predominated by invariable HR responses in combination with alternating SP values in contrast to UNMED, indicating an impairment of the baroreflex control feedback loop in MED. Surrogate data analysis was applied to test for the significance and nonlinearity of cardiovascular couplings in the original data due to medical treatment with

  17. Automatic quantitative analysis of cardiac MR perfusion images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeuwer, Marcel M.; Spreeuwers, Luuk J.; Quist, Marcel J.

    2001-07-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a powerful technique for imaging cardiovascular diseases. The introduction of cardiovascular MRI into clinical practice is however hampered by the lack of efficient and accurate image analysis methods. This paper focuses on the evaluation of blood perfusion in the myocardium (the heart muscle) from MR images, using contrast-enhanced ECG-triggered MRI. We have developed an automatic quantitative analysis method, which works as follows. First, image registration is used to compensate for translation and rotation of the myocardium over time. Next, the boundaries of the myocardium are detected and for each position within the myocardium a time-intensity profile is constructed. The time interval during which the contrast agent passes for the first time through the left ventricle and the myocardium is detected and various parameters are measured from the time-intensity profiles in this interval. The measured parameters are visualized as color overlays on the original images. Analysis results are stored, so that they can later on be compared for different stress levels of the heart. The method is described in detail in this paper and preliminary validation results are presented.

  18. Advancing Cardiovascular, Neurovascular, and Renal Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Small Rodents Using Cryogenic Radiofrequency Coil Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niendorf, Thoralf; Pohlmann, Andreas; Reimann, Henning M; Waiczies, Helmar; Peper, Eva; Huelnhagen, Till; Seeliger, Erdmann; Schreiber, Adrian; Kettritz, Ralph; Strobel, Klaus; Ku, Min-Chi; Waiczies, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Research in pathologies of the brain, heart and kidney have gained immensely from the plethora of studies that have helped shape new methods in magnetic resonance (MR) for characterizing preclinical disease models. Methodical probing into preclinical animal models by MR is invaluable since it allows a careful interpretation and extrapolation of data derived from these models to human disease. In this review we will focus on the applications of cryogenic radiofrequency (RF) coils in small animal MR as a means of boosting image quality (e.g., by supporting MR microscopy) and making data acquisition more efficient (e.g., by reducing measuring time); both being important constituents for thorough investigational studies on animal models of disease. This review attempts to make the (bio)medical imaging, molecular medicine, and pharmaceutical communities aware of this productive ferment and its outstanding significance for anatomical and functional MR in small rodents. The goal is to inspire a more intense interdisciplinary collaboration across the fields to further advance and progress non-invasive MR methods that ultimately support thorough (patho)physiological characterization of animal disease models. In this review, current and potential future applications for the RF coil technology in cardiovascular, neurovascular, and renal disease will be discussed.

  19. Advancing Cardiovascular, Neurovascular and Renal Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Small Rodents Using Cryogenic Radiofrequency Coil Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thoralf eNiendorf

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Research in pathologies of the brain, heart and kidney have gained immensely from the plethora of studies that have helped shape new methods in magnetic resonance (MR for characterizing preclinical disease models. Methodical probing into preclinical animal models by MR is invaluable since it allows a careful interpretation and extrapolation of data derived from these models to human disease. In this review we will focus on the applications of cryogenic radiofrequency (RF coils in small animal MR as a means of boosting image quality (e.g. by supporting MR microscopy and making data acquisition more efficient (e.g. by reducing measuring time; both being important constituents for thorough investigational studies on animal models of disease. This review attempts to make the (biomedical imaging, molecular medicine and pharmaceutical communities aware of this productive ferment and its outstanding significance for anatomical and functional MR in small rodents. The goal is to inspire a more intense interdisciplinary collaboration across the fields to further advance and progress non-invasive MR methods that ultimately support thorough (pathophysiological characterization of animal disease models. In this review, current and potential future applications for the RF coil technology in cardiovascular, neurovascular and renal disease will be discussed.

  20. A novel high resolution, high sensitivity SPECT detector for molecular imaging of cardiovascular diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cusanno, F., E-mail: francesco.cusanno@iss.infn.i [I.N.F.N., Gruppo Collegato Sanita, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Argentieri, A. [I.N.F.N., Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Baiocchi, M.; Colilli, S.; Cisbani, E. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); De Vincentis, G. [Universita La Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Fratoni, R. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Garibaldi, F. [I.N.F.N., Gruppo Collegato Sanita, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Giuliani, F.; Gricia, M.; Lucentini, M. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Magliozzi, M.L. [I.N.F.N., Gruppo Collegato Sanita, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Majewski, S. [West Virginia University, Morgantown WV (United States); Marano, G. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Musico, P. [I.N.F.N., Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Musumeci, M.; Santavenere, F.; Torrioli, S. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Tsui, B.M.W. [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore MD (United States); Vitelli, L. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy)

    2010-05-21

    Cardiovascular diseases are the most common cause of death in western countries. Understanding the rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques and monitoring the effect of innovative therapies of heart failure is of fundamental importance. A flexible, high resolution, high sensitivity detector system for molecular imaging with radionuclides on small animal models has been designed for this aim. A prototype has been built using tungsten pinhole and LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) scintillator coupled to Hamamatsu Flat Panel PMTs. Compact individual-channel readout has been designed, built and tested. Measurements with phantoms as well as pilot studies on mice have been performed, the results show that the myocardial perfusion in mice can be determined with sufficient precision. The detector will be improved replacing the Hamamatsu Flat Panel with Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) to allow integration of the system with MRI scanners. Application of LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) scintillator coupled to photosensor with high photon detection efficiency and excellent energy resolution will allow dual-label imaging to monitor simultaneously the cardiac perfusion and the molecular targets under investigation during the heart therapy.

  1. Topological analysis of weather images

    OpenAIRE

    MUBI, GREGOR

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis computational topology is used to analyse weather data. The goal is to analyse weather images and discern, if it is possible to expose certain parameters, which could improve humid mass classification. For this reason we were observing how those masses appear and merge on sequences of images. We used topological method named persistence. For data analysis we obtained weather radar images. We also wrote around 20 scripts in computing environment MATLAB, which served for data co...

  2. Multispectral analysis of multimodal images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An increasing number of multimodal images represent a valuable increase in available image information, but at the same time it complicates the extraction of diagnostic information across the images. Multispectral analysis (MSA) has the potential to simplify this problem substantially as unlimited number of images can be combined, and tissue properties across the images can be extracted automatically. Materials and methods. We have developed a software solution for MSA containing two algorithms for unsupervised classification, an EM-algorithm finding multinormal class descriptions and the k-means clustering algorithm, and two for supervised classification, a Bayesian classifier using multinormal class descriptions and a kNN-algorithm. The software has an efficient user interface for the creation and manipulation of class descriptions, and it has proper tools for displaying the results. Results. The software has been tested on different sets of images. One application is to segment cross-sectional images of brain tissue (T1- and T2-weighted MR images) into its main normal tissues and brain tumors. Another interesting set of images are the perfusion maps and diffusion maps, derived images from raw MR images. The software returns segmentation that seem to be sensible. Discussion. The MSA software appears to be a valuable tool for image analysis with multimodal images at hand. It readily gives a segmentation of image volumes that visually seems to be sensible. However, to really learn how to use MSA, it will be necessary to gain more insight into what tissues the different segments contain, and the upcoming work will therefore be focused on examining the tissues through for example histological sections

  3. Image Analysis for Tongue Characterization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENLansun; WEIBaoguo; CAIYiheng; ZHANGXinfeng; WANGYanqing; CHENJing; KONGLingbiao

    2003-01-01

    Tongue diagnosis is one of the essential methods in traditional Chinese medical diagnosis. The ac-curacy of tongue diagnosis can be improved by tongue char-acterization. This paper investigates the use of image anal-ysis techniques for tongue characterization by evaluating visual features obtained from images. A tongue imaging and analysis instrument (TIAI) was developed to acquire digital color tongue images. Several novel approaches are presented for color calibration, tongue area segmentation,quantitative analysis and qualitative description for the colors of tongue and its coating, the thickness and moisture of coating and quantification of the cracks of the toilgue.The overall accuracy of the automatic analysis of the colors of tongue and the thickness of tongue coating exceeds 85%.This work shows the promising future of tongue character-ization.

  4. Position paper of the Cardiovascular Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) on PET imaging of atherosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death not only in Europe but also in the rest of the World. Preventive measures, however, often fail and cardiovascular disease may manifest as an acute coronary syndrome, stroke or even sudden death after years of silent progression. Thus, there is a considerable need for innovative diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to improve the quality of care and limit the burden of cardiovascular diseases. During the past 10 years, several retrospective and prospective clinical studies have been published using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to quantify inflammation in atherosclerotic plaques. However, the current variety of imaging protocols used for vascular (arterial) imaging with FDG PET considerably limits the ability to compare results between studies and to build large multicentre imaging registries. Based on the existing literature and the experience of the Members of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) Cardiovascular Committee, the objective of this position paper was to propose optimized and standardized protocols for imaging and interpretation of PET scans in atherosclerosis. These recommendations do not, however, replace the individual responsibility of healthcare professionals to make appropriate decisions in the circumstances of the individual study protocols used and the individual patient, in consultation with the patient and, where appropriate and necessary, the patient's guardian or carer. These recommendations suffer from the absence of conclusive evidence on many of the recommendations. Therefore, they are not intended and should not be used as ''strict guidelines'' but should, as already mentioned, provide a basis for standardized clinical atherosclerosis PET imaging protocols, which are subject to further and continuing evaluation and improvement. However, this EANM position paper might indeed be a first step towards &apos

  5. Position paper of the Cardiovascular Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) on PET imaging of atherosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucerius, Jan [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht (Netherlands); University Hospital RWTH Aachen, RWTH Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Maastricht University Medical Center (MUMC), Department of Nuclear Medicine and Cardiovascular Research Institute (CARIM), P. Debyelaan 25, HX, Maastricht (Netherlands); Hyafil, Fabien [Bichat University Hospital, Inserm 1148, DHU FIRE, Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Paris, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Paris (France); Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Verberne, Hein J. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Slart, Riemer H.J.A. [University of Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); University of Twente, Department of Biomedical Photonic Imaging, Faculty of Science and Technology, Enschede (Netherlands); Lindner, Oliver [Heart and Diabetes Center NRW, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Institute of Radiology, Bad Oeynhausen (Germany); Sciagra, Roberto [University of Florence, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences, Florence (Italy); Agostini, Denis [Normandie Universite, Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHU Cote de Nacre, Caen (France); Uebleis, Christopher [Ludwig-Maximilians Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Clinical Radiology, Muenchen (Germany); Gimelli, Alessia [Fondazione Toscana Gabriele Monasterio, Pisa (Italy); Hacker, Marcus [Medical University Vienna, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided therapy, Vienna (Austria); Collaboration: on behalf of the Cardiovascular Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM)

    2016-04-15

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death not only in Europe but also in the rest of the World. Preventive measures, however, often fail and cardiovascular disease may manifest as an acute coronary syndrome, stroke or even sudden death after years of silent progression. Thus, there is a considerable need for innovative diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to improve the quality of care and limit the burden of cardiovascular diseases. During the past 10 years, several retrospective and prospective clinical studies have been published using {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to quantify inflammation in atherosclerotic plaques. However, the current variety of imaging protocols used for vascular (arterial) imaging with FDG PET considerably limits the ability to compare results between studies and to build large multicentre imaging registries. Based on the existing literature and the experience of the Members of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) Cardiovascular Committee, the objective of this position paper was to propose optimized and standardized protocols for imaging and interpretation of PET scans in atherosclerosis. These recommendations do not, however, replace the individual responsibility of healthcare professionals to make appropriate decisions in the circumstances of the individual study protocols used and the individual patient, in consultation with the patient and, where appropriate and necessary, the patient's guardian or carer. These recommendations suffer from the absence of conclusive evidence on many of the recommendations. Therefore, they are not intended and should not be used as ''strict guidelines'' but should, as already mentioned, provide a basis for standardized clinical atherosclerosis PET imaging protocols, which are subject to further and continuing evaluation and improvement. However, this EANM position paper might indeed be a first step towards &apos

  6. Position paper of the Cardiovascular Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) on PET imaging of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucerius, Jan; Hyafil, Fabien; Verberne, Hein J; Slart, Riemer H J A; Lindner, Oliver; Sciagra, Roberto; Agostini, Denis; Übleis, Christopher; Gimelli, Alessia; Hacker, Marcus

    2016-04-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death not only in Europe but also in the rest of the World. Preventive measures, however, often fail and cardiovascular disease may manifest as an acute coronary syndrome, stroke or even sudden death after years of silent progression. Thus, there is a considerable need for innovative diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to improve the quality of care and limit the burden of cardiovascular diseases. During the past 10 years, several retrospective and prospective clinical studies have been published using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to quantify inflammation in atherosclerotic plaques. However, the current variety of imaging protocols used for vascular (arterial) imaging with FDG PET considerably limits the ability to compare results between studies and to build large multicentre imaging registries. Based on the existing literature and the experience of the Members of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) Cardiovascular Committee, the objective of this position paper was to propose optimized and standardized protocols for imaging and interpretation of PET scans in atherosclerosis. These recommendations do not, however, replace the individual responsibility of healthcare professionals to make appropriate decisions in the circumstances of the individual study protocols used and the individual patient, in consultation with the patient and, where appropriate and necessary, the patient's guardian or carer. These recommendations suffer from the absence of conclusive evidence on many of the recommendations. Therefore, they are not intended and should not be used as "strict guidelines" but should, as already mentioned, provide a basis for standardized clinical atherosclerosis PET imaging protocols, which are subject to further and continuing evaluation and improvement. However, this EANM position paper might indeed be a first step towards "official" guidelines on

  7. Flightspeed Integral Image Analysis Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David R.

    2009-01-01

    The Flightspeed Integral Image Analysis Toolkit (FIIAT) is a C library that provides image analysis functions in a single, portable package. It provides basic low-level filtering, texture analysis, and subwindow descriptor for applications dealing with image interpretation and object recognition. Designed with spaceflight in mind, it addresses: Ease of integration (minimal external dependencies) Fast, real-time operation using integer arithmetic where possible (useful for platforms lacking a dedicated floatingpoint processor) Written entirely in C (easily modified) Mostly static memory allocation 8-bit image data The basic goal of the FIIAT library is to compute meaningful numerical descriptors for images or rectangular image regions. These n-vectors can then be used directly for novelty detection or pattern recognition, or as a feature space for higher-level pattern recognition tasks. The library provides routines for leveraging training data to derive descriptors that are most useful for a specific data set. Its runtime algorithms exploit a structure known as the "integral image." This is a caching method that permits fast summation of values within rectangular regions of an image. This integral frame facilitates a wide range of fast image-processing functions. This toolkit has applicability to a wide range of autonomous image analysis tasks in the space-flight domain, including novelty detection, object and scene classification, target detection for autonomous instrument placement, and science analysis of geomorphology. It makes real-time texture and pattern recognition possible for platforms with severe computational restraints. The software provides an order of magnitude speed increase over alternative software libraries currently in use by the research community. FIIAT can commercially support intelligent video cameras used in intelligent surveillance. It is also useful for object recognition by robots or other autonomous vehicles

  8. Sleep apnea-hypopnea quantification by cardiovascular data analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Camargo

    Full Text Available Sleep disorders are a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Sleep apnea is the most common sleep disturbance and its detection relies on a polysomnography, i.e., a combination of several medical examinations performed during a monitored sleep night. In order to detect occurrences of sleep apnea without the need of combined recordings, we focus our efforts on extracting a quantifier related to the events of sleep apnea from a cardiovascular time series, namely systolic blood pressure (SBP. Physiologic time series are generally highly nonstationary and entrap the application of conventional tools that require a stationary condition. In our study, data nonstationarities are uncovered by a segmentation procedure which splits the signal into stationary patches, providing local quantities such as mean and variance of the SBP signal in each stationary patch, as well as its duration L. We analysed the data of 26 apneic diagnosed individuals, divided into hypertensive and normotensive groups, and compared the results with those of a control group. From the segmentation procedure, we identified that the average duration , as well as the average variance , are correlated to the apnea-hypoapnea index (AHI, previously obtained by polysomnographic exams. Moreover, our results unveil an oscillatory pattern in apneic subjects, whose amplitude S* is also correlated with AHI. All these quantities allow to separate apneic individuals, with an accuracy of at least 79%. Therefore, they provide alternative criteria to detect sleep apnea based on a single time series, the systolic blood pressure.

  9. Variation Analysis of Sphygmogram to Assess Cardiovascular System under Meditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Yi Liu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we studied how meditation affects the characteristics of the cardiovascular system, mainly based on blood pressure waveforms (BPW. Four parameters derived from BPW include the rising slope (h1/t1, normalized height of T wave (h3/h1, normalized height of V3 valley (h4/h1 and normalized height of D wave (h5/h1, where t1 and hi, i = 1, … ,5 are quantitative features of the BPW waveform pattern. A larger value of h1/t1 reflects better heart ejection ability and aorta compliance. A larger value of h3/h1 may infer an arterial system with good elasticity. The decrease (increase of h4/h1 parameter indicates the decrease (increase of peripheral resistance of vessels. A larger value of h5/h1 indicates better artery elasticity and aortic valve function. In comparison with the control group, Zen-meditation practitioners have more after-meditation h1/t1, h3/h1 and h5/h1 increase, with more h4/h1 decrease, with statistical significance (P < 0.05. The observation allows us to infer that Zen meditation may effectively improve relevant characteristics of the cardiovascular system.

  10. Cardiovascular events in Japanese asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes: a 1-year interim report of a J-ACCESS 2 investigation using myocardial perfusion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Kenichi [Kanazawa University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kanazawa (Japan); Yamasaki, Yoshimitsu [Osaka University, Center for Advanced Science and Innovation, Osaka (Japan); Kusuoka, Hideo [National Hospital Organization Osaka National Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Izumi, Tohru [Kitasato University, Department of Cardiology and Internal Medicine, Sagamihara (Japan); Kashiwagi, Atsunori [Shiga University of Medical Science, Department of Medicine, Ohtsu (Japan); Kawamori, Ryuzo [Juntendo University, Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Shimamoto, Kazuaki [Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Second Department of Internal Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Yamada, Nobuhiro [University of Tsukuba, Division of Metabolism and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Tsukuba (Japan); Nishimura, Tsunehiko [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, 465 Kajii-cho, Kawara-machi, Hirokoji, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    Diabetic patients have a high risk for cardiovascular events. The role of myocardial perfusion imaging was investigated in asymptomatic diabetic patients to evaluate short-term prognosis in a Japanese population. A total of 506 asymptomatic patients {>=}50 years of age who had carotid artery maximum intima-media thickness {>=}1.1 mm, urinary albumin excretion of {>=}30 mg/g creatinine, with additional criteria of abdominal obesity, low HDL cholesterol, high triglyceride level, and hypertension were enrolled and followed up over a 3-year period. Gated SPECT with stress-rest protocol was performed and analyzed by summed defect scores and QGS software. One-year cardiovascular events were analyzed. Myocardial ischemia was observed in 17% of patients, and abnormal perfusion findings of ischemia and/or scar were observed in 32% of patients. By the end of the 1-year follow-up, 33 (6.5%) cardiovascular events occurred including 6 all-cause deaths. Patients with summed stress score (SSS) >8 had a higher incidence of either death or cardiovascular events. Event-free survival rates for SSS 0-3, 4-8, 9-13, and {>=}14 were 0.96, 0.95, 0.82, and 0.76, respectively. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that significant variables were SSS, history of cerebrovascular accident, and electrocardiographic abnormality at rest. The 1-year interim summary showed that cardiovascular events were significantly higher in patients with SPECT abnormality, although hard cardiac event rate was relatively low. Targeted treatment strategy is required for asymptomatic but potentially high-risk diabetic patients. (orig.)

  11. Cardiovascular events in Japanese asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes: a 1-year interim report of a J-ACCESS 2 investigation using myocardial perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diabetic patients have a high risk for cardiovascular events. The role of myocardial perfusion imaging was investigated in asymptomatic diabetic patients to evaluate short-term prognosis in a Japanese population. A total of 506 asymptomatic patients ≥50 years of age who had carotid artery maximum intima-media thickness ≥1.1 mm, urinary albumin excretion of ≥30 mg/g creatinine, with additional criteria of abdominal obesity, low HDL cholesterol, high triglyceride level, and hypertension were enrolled and followed up over a 3-year period. Gated SPECT with stress-rest protocol was performed and analyzed by summed defect scores and QGS software. One-year cardiovascular events were analyzed. Myocardial ischemia was observed in 17% of patients, and abnormal perfusion findings of ischemia and/or scar were observed in 32% of patients. By the end of the 1-year follow-up, 33 (6.5%) cardiovascular events occurred including 6 all-cause deaths. Patients with summed stress score (SSS) >8 had a higher incidence of either death or cardiovascular events. Event-free survival rates for SSS 0-3, 4-8, 9-13, and ≥14 were 0.96, 0.95, 0.82, and 0.76, respectively. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that significant variables were SSS, history of cerebrovascular accident, and electrocardiographic abnormality at rest. The 1-year interim summary showed that cardiovascular events were significantly higher in patients with SPECT abnormality, although hard cardiac event rate was relatively low. Targeted treatment strategy is required for asymptomatic but potentially high-risk diabetic patients. (orig.)

  12. Introduction to Medical Image Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    This book is a result of a collaboration between DTU Informatics at the Technical University of Denmark and the Laboratory of Computer Vision and Media Technology at Aalborg University. It is partly based on the book ”Image and Video Processing”, second edition by Thomas Moeslund. The aim...... of the book is to present the fascinating world of medical image analysis in an easy and interesting way. Compared to many standard books on image analysis, the approach we have chosen is less mathematical and more casual. Some of the key algorithms are exemplified in C-code. Please note that the code...

  13. Effect of antioxidant vitamin supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yizhou Ye

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antioxidant vitamin (vitamin E, beta-carotene, and vitamin C are widely used for preventing major cardiovascular outcomes. However, the effect of antioxidant vitamin on cardiovascular events remains unclear. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We searched PubMed, EmBase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the proceedings of major conferences for relevant literature. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials that reported on the effects of antioxidant vitamin on cardiovascular outcomes as compared to placebo. Outcomes analyzed were major cardiovascular events, myocardial infarction, stroke, cardiac death, total death, and any possible adverse events. We used the I(2 statistic to measure heterogeneity between trials and calculated risk estimates for cardiovascular outcomes with random-effect meta-analysis. Independent extraction was performed by two reviewers and consensus was reached. Of 293 identified studies, we included 15 trials reporting data on 188209 participants. These studies reported 12749 major cardiovascular events, 6699 myocardial infarction, 3749 strokes, 14122 total death, and 5980 cardiac deaths. Overall, antioxidant vitamin supplementation as compared to placebo had no effect on major cardiovascular events (RR, 1.00; 95%CI, 0.96-1.03, myocardial infarction (RR, 0.98; 95%CI, 0.92-1.04, stroke (RR, 0.99; 95%CI, 0.93-1.05, total death (RR, 1.03; 95%CI, 0.98-1.07, cardiac death (RR, 1.02; 95%CI, 0.97-1.07, revascularization (RR, 1.00; 95%CI, 0.95-1.05, total CHD (RR, 0.96; 95%CI, 0.87-1.05, angina (RR, 0.98; 95%CI, 0.90-1.07, and congestive heart failure (RR, 1.07; 95%CI, 0.96 to 1.19. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Antioxidant vitamin supplementation has no effect on the incidence of major cardiovascular events, myocardial infarction, stroke, total death, and cardiac death.

  14. Shape analysis in medical image analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Tavares, João

    2014-01-01

    This book contains thirteen contributions from invited experts of international recognition addressing important issues in shape analysis in medical image analysis, including techniques for image segmentation, registration, modelling and classification, and applications in biology, as well as in cardiac, brain, spine, chest, lung and clinical practice. This volume treats topics such as, anatomic and functional shape representation and matching; shape-based medical image segmentation; shape registration; statistical shape analysis; shape deformation; shape-based abnormity detection; shape tracking and longitudinal shape analysis; machine learning for shape modeling and analysis; shape-based computer-aided-diagnosis; shape-based medical navigation; benchmark and validation of shape representation, analysis and modeling algorithms. This work will be of interest to researchers, students, and manufacturers in the fields of artificial intelligence, bioengineering, biomechanics, computational mechanics, computationa...

  15. Sleep apnea-hypopnea quantification by cardiovascular data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Camargo, Sabrina; Anteneodo, Celia; Kurths, Juergen; Penzel, Thomas; Wessel, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Sleep apnea is the most common sleep disturbance and it is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disorders. Its detection relies on a polysomnography, a combination of diverse exams. In order to detect changes due to sleep disturbances such as sleep apnea occurrences, without the need of combined recordings, we mainly analyze systolic blood pressure signals (maximal blood pressure value of each beat to beat interval). Nonstationarities in the data are uncovered by a segmentation procedure, which provides local quantities that are correlated to apnea-hypopnea events. Those quantities are the average length and average variance of stationary patches. By comparing them to an apnea score previously obtained by polysomnographic exams, we propose an apnea quantifier based on blood pressure signal. This furnishes an alternative procedure for the detection of apnea based on a single time series, with an accuracy of 82%.

  16. Document image analysis: A primer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rangachar Kasturi; Lawrence O’Gorman; Venu Govindaraju

    2002-02-01

    Document image analysis refers to algorithms and techniques that are applied to images of documents to obtain a computer-readable description from pixel data. A well-known document image analysis product is the Optical Character Recognition (OCR) software that recognizes characters in a scanned document. OCR makes it possible for the user to edit or search the document’s contents. In this paper we briefly describe various components of a document analysis system. Many of these basic building blocks are found in most document analysis systems, irrespective of the particular domain or language to which they are applied. We hope that this paper will help the reader by providing the background necessary to understand the detailed descriptions of specific techniques presented in other papers in this issue.

  17. Clinical implications of microvascular obstruction and intramyocardial haemorrhage in acute myocardial infarction using cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekkers, Sebastiaan C.A.M.; Smulders, Martijn W.; Waltenberger, Johannes; Gorgels, Anton P.M.; Schalla, Simon [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Passos, Valeria Lima [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Methodology and Statistics, Maastricht (Netherlands); Leiner, Tim [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2010-11-15

    To investigate the clinical implications of microvascular obstruction (MVO) and intramyocardial haemorrhage (IMH) in acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Ninety patients with a first AMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were studied. T2-weighted, cine and late gadolinium-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging was performed at 5 {+-} 2 and 103 {+-} 11 days. Patients were categorised into three groups based on the presence or absence of MVO and IMH. MVO was observed in 54% and IMH in 43% of patients, and correlated significantly (r = 0.8, p < 0.001). Pre-PCI thrombolysis in myocardial infarction 3 flow was only observed in MVO(-)/IMH(-) patients. Infarct size and impairment of systolic function were largest in MVO(+)/IMH(+) patients (n = 39, 23 {+-} 9% and 47 {+-} 7%), smallest in MVO(-)/IMH(-) patients (n = 41, 8 {+-} 8% and 55 {+-} 8%) and intermediate in MVO(+)/IMH(-) patients (n = 10, 16 {+-} 7% and 51 {+-} 6%, p < 0.001). LVEF increased in all three subgroups at follow-up, but remained intermediate in MVO(+)/IMH(-) and was lowest in MVO(+)/IMH(+) patients. Using random intercept model analysis, only infarct size was an independent predictor for adverse LV remodelling. Intramyocardial haemorrhage and microvascular obstruction are strongly related. Pre-PCI TIMI 3 flow is less frequently observed in patients with MVO and IMH. Only infarct size was an independent predictor of LV remodelling. (orig.)

  18. Pocket pumped image analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotov, I.V., E-mail: kotov@bnl.gov [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); O' Connor, P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Murray, N. [Centre for Electronic Imaging, Open University, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    The pocket pumping technique is used to detect small electron trap sites. These traps, if present, degrade CCD charge transfer efficiency. To reveal traps in the active area, a CCD is illuminated with a flat field and, before image is read out, accumulated charges are moved back and forth number of times in parallel direction. As charges are moved over a trap, an electron is removed from the original pocket and re-emitted in the following pocket. As process repeats one pocket gets depleted and the neighboring pocket gets excess of charges. As a result a “dipole” signal appears on the otherwise flat background level. The amplitude of the dipole signal depends on the trap pumping efficiency. This paper is focused on trap identification technique and particularly on new methods developed for this purpose. The sensor with bad segments was deliberately chosen for algorithms development and to demonstrate sensitivity and power of new methods in uncovering sensor defects.

  19. Imaging spectroscopy for scene analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Robles-Kelly, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    This book presents a detailed analysis of spectral imaging, describing how it can be used for the purposes of material identification, object recognition and scene understanding. The opportunities and challenges of combining spatial and spectral information are explored in depth, as are a wide range of applications. Features: discusses spectral image acquisition by hyperspectral cameras, and the process of spectral image formation; examines models of surface reflectance, the recovery of photometric invariants, and the estimation of the illuminant power spectrum from spectral imagery; describes

  20. Deployment of an Advanced Electrocardiographic Analysis (A-ECG) to Detect Cardiovascular Risk in Career Firefighters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezal, B. A.; Storer, T. W.; Abrazado, M.; Watne, R.; Schlegel, T. T.; Batalin, M.; Kaiser, W.; Smith, D. L.; Cooper, C. B.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Sudden cardiac death is the leading cause of line of duty death among firefighters, accounting for approximately 45% of fatalities annually. Firefighters perform strenuous muscular work while wearing heavy, encapsulating personal protective equipment in high ambient temperatures, under chaotic and emotionally stressful conditions. These factors can precipitate sudden cardiac events like myocardial infarction, serious dysrhythmias, or cerebrovascular accidents in firefighters with underlying cardiovascular disease. Screening for cardiovascular risk factors is recommended but not always followed in this population. PHASER is a project charged with identifying and prioritizing risk factors in emergency responders. We have deployed an advanced ECG (A-ECG) system developed at NASA for improved sensitivity and specificity in the detection of cardiac risk. METHODS Forty-four professional firefighters were recruited to perform comprehensive baseline assessments including tests of aerobic performance and laboratory tests for fasting lipid profiles and glucose. Heart rate and conventional 12-lead ECG were obtained at rest and during incremental treadmill exercise testing (XT). In addition, a 5-min resting 12-lead A-ECG was obtained in a subset of firefighters (n=18) and transmitted over a secure networked system to a physician collaborator at NASA for advanced-ECG analysis. This A-ECG system has been proven, using myocardial perfusion and other imaging, to accurately identify a number of cardiac pathologies including coronary artery disease (CAD), left ventricular hypertrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, and ischemic cardiomyopathy. RESULTS Subjects mean (SD) age was 43 (8) years, weight 91 (13) kg, and BMI of 28 (3) kg/square meter. Maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) was 39 (9) ml/kg/min. This compares with the 45th %ile in healthy reference values and a recommended standard of 42 ml/kg/min for firefighters. The metabolic threshold (VO

  1. Multispectral Imaging Broadens Cellular Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Amnis Corporation, a Seattle-based biotechnology company, developed ImageStream to produce sensitive fluorescence images of cells in flow. The company responded to an SBIR solicitation from Ames Research Center, and proposed to evaluate several methods of extending the depth of field for its ImageStream system and implement the best as an upgrade to its commercial products. This would allow users to view whole cells at the same time, rather than just one section of each cell. Through Phase I and II SBIR contracts, Ames provided Amnis the funding the company needed to develop this extended functionality. For NASA, the resulting high-speed image flow cytometry process made its way into Medusa, a life-detection instrument built to collect, store, and analyze sample organisms from erupting hydrothermal vents, and has the potential to benefit space flight health monitoring. On the commercial end, Amnis has implemented the process in ImageStream, combining high-resolution microscopy and flow cytometry in a single instrument, giving researchers the power to conduct quantitative analyses of individual cells and cell populations at the same time, in the same experiment. ImageStream is also built for many other applications, including cell signaling and pathway analysis; classification and characterization of peripheral blood mononuclear cell populations; quantitative morphology; apoptosis (cell death) assays; gene expression analysis; analysis of cell conjugates; molecular distribution; and receptor mapping and distribution.

  2. Effect of folic acid supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hao Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Folic acid is widely used to lower homocysteine concentrations and prevent adverse cardiovascular outcomes. However, the effect of folic acid on cardiovascular events is not clear at the present time. We carried out a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effects of folic acid supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We systematically searched Medline, EmBase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, reference lists of articles, and proceedings of major meetings for relevant literature. We included randomized placebo-controlled trials that reported on the effects of folic acid on cardiovascular events compared to placebo. Of 1594 identified studies, we included 16 trials reporting data on 44841 patients. These studies reported 8238 major cardiovascular events, 2001 strokes, 2917 myocardial infarctions, and 6314 deaths. Folic acid supplementation as compared to placebo had no effect on major cardiovascular events (RR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.93-1.04, stroke (RR, 0.89; 95% CI,0.78-1.01, myocardial infarction (RR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.93-1.07, or deaths from any cause (RR, 1.00;95% CI, 0.96-1.05. Moreover, folic acid as compared to placebo also had no effect on the following secondary outcomes: risk of revascularization (RR, 1.05; 95%CI, 0.95-1.16, acute coronary syndrome (RR, 1.06; 95%CI, 0.97-1.15, cancer (RR, 1.08; 95%CI, 0.98-1.21, vascular death (RR, 0.94; 95%CI,0.88-1.02, or non-vascular death (RR, 1.06; 95%CI, 0.97-1.15. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Folic acid supplementation does not effect on the incidence of major cardiovascular events, stroke, myocardial infarction or all cause mortality.

  3. Effect of Papillary Muscles and Trabeculae on Left Ventricular Measurement Using Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patients with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Eun-Ah; Lee, Whal [Department of Radiology, Cardiovascular Division, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung-Kwan [Department of Internal Medicine, Cardiovascular Division, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin Wook [Department of Radiology, Cardiovascular Division, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the influence of papillary muscles and trabeculae on left ventricular (LV) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) analysis using three methods of cavity delineation (classic or modified inclusion methods, and the exclusion method) in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). This retrospective study included 20 consecutive HCM patients who underwent 1.5-T CMR imaging with short-axis cine stacks of the entire LV. LV measurements were performed using three different methods of manual cavity delineation of the endocardial and epicardial contours: method A, presumed endocardial boundary as seen on short-axis cine images; method B, including solely the cavity and closely adjacent trabeculae; or method C, excluding papillary muscles and trabeculae. Ascending aorta forward flow was measured as reference for LV-stroke volume (SV). Interobserver reproducibility was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients. Method A showed larger end-diastole and end-systole volumes (largest percentage differences of 25% and 68%, respectively, p < 0.05), compared with method C. The ejection fraction was 55.7 ± 6.9% for method A, 68.6 ± 8.4% for B, and 71.7 ± 7.0% for C (p < 0.001). Mean mass was also significantly different: 164.6 ± 47.4 g for A, 176.5 ± 50.5 g for B, and 199.6 ± 53.2 g for C (p < 0.001). LV-SV error was largest with method B (p < 0.001). No difference in interobserver agreement was observed (p > 0.05). In HCM patients, LV measurements are strikingly different dependent on whether papillary muscles and trabeculae are included or excluded. Therefore, a consistent method of LV cavity delineation may be crucial during longitudinal follow-up to avoid misinterpretation and erroneous clinical decision-making.

  4. Cardiac remodeling following percutaneous mitral valve repair. Initial results assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radunski, U.K [University Heart Center, Hamburg (Germany). Cardiology; Franzen, O. [Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark). Cardiology; Barmeyer, A. [Klinikum Dortmund (Germany). Kardiologie; and others

    2014-10-15

    Percutaneous mitral valve repair with the MitraClip device (Abbott Vascular, Redwood City, California, USA) is a novel therapeutic option in patients with mitral regurgitation. This study evaluated the feasibility of cardiac volume measurements by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) to assess reverse myocardial remodeling in patients after MitraClip implantation. 12 patients underwent CMR at baseline (BL) before and at 6 months follow-up (FU) after MitraClip implantation. Cine-CMR was performed in short- and long-axes for the assessment of left ventricular (LV), right ventricular (RV) and left atrial (LA) volumes. Assessment of endocardial contours was not compromised by the device-related artifact. No significant differences in observer variances were observed for LV, RV and LA volume measurements between BL and FU. LV end-diastolic (median 127 [IQR 96-150] vs. 112 [86-150] ml/m{sup 2}; p=0.03) and LV end-systolic (82 [54-91] vs. 69 [48-99] ml/m{sup 2}; p=0.03) volume indices decreased significantly from BL to FU. No significant differences were found for RV end-diastolic (94 [75-103] vs. 99 [77-123] ml/m{sup 2}; p=0.91), RV end-systolic (48 [42-80] vs. 51 [40-81] ml/m{sup 2}; p=0.48), and LA (87 [55-124] vs. 92 [48-137]R ml/m{sup 2}; p=0.20) volume indices between BL and FU. CMR enables the assessment of cardiac volumes in patients after MitraClip implantation. Our CMR findings indicate that percutaneous mitral valve repair results in reverse LV but not in RV or LA remodeling.

  5. Ultra-Wideband Sensors for Improved Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cardiovascular Monitoring and Tumour Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Seifert

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The specific advantages of ultra-wideband electromagnetic remote sensing (UWB radar make it a particularly attractive technique for biomedical applications. We partially review our activities in utilizing this novel approach for the benefit of high and ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and other applications, e.g., for intensive care medicine and biomedical research. We could show that our approach is beneficial for applications like motion tracking for high resolution brain imaging due to the non-contact acquisition of involuntary head motions with high spatial resolution, navigation for cardiac MRI due to our interpretation of the detected physiological mechanical contraction of the heart muscle and for MR safety, since we have investigated the influence of high static magnetic fields on myocardial mechanics. From our findings we could conclude, that UWB radar can serve as a navigator technique for high and ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging and can be beneficial preserving the high resolution capability of this imaging modality. Furthermore it can potentially be used to support standard ECG analysis by complementary information where sole ECG analysis fails. Further analytical investigations have proven the feasibility of this method for intracranial displacements detection and the rendition of a tumour’s contrast agent based perfusion dynamic. Beside these analytical approaches we have carried out FDTD simulations of a complex arrangement mimicking the illumination of a human torso model incorporating the geometry of the antennas applied.

  6. Signal and image multiresolution analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ouahabi, Abdelialil

    2012-01-01

    Multiresolution analysis using the wavelet transform has received considerable attention in recent years by researchers in various fields. It is a powerful tool for efficiently representing signals and images at multiple levels of detail with many inherent advantages, including compression, level-of-detail display, progressive transmission, level-of-detail editing, filtering, modeling, fractals and multifractals, etc.This book aims to provide a simple formalization and new clarity on multiresolution analysis, rendering accessible obscure techniques, and merging, unifying or completing

  7. Teaching image analysis at DIKU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The early development of computer vision at Department of Computer Science at University of Copenhagen (DIKU) is briefly described. The different disciplines in computer vision are introduced, and the principles for teaching two courses, an image analysis course, and a robot lab class are outlined....

  8. Insulin resistance and risk of incident cardiovascular events in adults without diabetes: meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin B Gast

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glucose, insulin and Homeostasis Model Assessment Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR are markers of insulin resistance. The objective of this study is to compare fasting glucose, fasting insulin concentrations and HOMA-IR in strength of association with incident cardiovascular disease. METHODS: We searched the PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, ScienceDirect and Cochrane Library databases from inception to March, 2011, and screened reference lists. Cohort studies or nested case-control studies that investigated the association between fasting glucose, fasting insulin or HOMA-IR and incident cardiovascular disease, were eligible. Two investigators independently performed the article selection, data extraction and risk of bias assessment. Cardiovascular endpoints were coronary heart disease (CHD, stroke or combined cardiovascular disease. We used fixed and random-effect meta-analyses to calculate the pooled relative risk for CHD, stroke and combined cardiovascular disease, comparing high to low concentrations of glucose, insulin or HOMA-IR. Study heterogeneity was calculated with the I(2 statistic. To enable a comparison between cardiovascular disease risks for glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR, we calculated pooled relative risks per increase of one standard deviation. RESULTS: We included 65 studies (involving 516,325 participants in this meta-analysis. In a random-effect meta-analysis the pooled relative risk of CHD (95% CI; I(2 comparing high to low concentrations was 1.52 (1.31, 1.76; 62.4% for glucose, 1.12 (0.92, 1.37; 41.0% for insulin and 1.64 (1.35, 2.00; 0% for HOMA-IR. The pooled relative risk of CHD per one standard deviation increase was 1.21 (1.13, 1.30; 64.9% for glucose, 1.04 (0.96, 1.12; 43.0% for insulin and 1.46 (1.26, 1.69; 0.0% for HOMA-IR. CONCLUSIONS: The relative risk of cardiovascular disease was higher for an increase of one standard deviation in HOMA-IR compared to an increase of one standard deviation in fasting

  9. Tracer application in cardiovascular imaging: a Triple Jump, Chapter 7 : In: Autonomic Innervation of the Heart, Edited by R.H.J.A. Slart, R.A. Tio, P.H. Elsinga and M. Schwaiger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Roo, F. Michelle; Hilgerink, Koen; Kosterink, Johannes; Luurtsema, Geert; Woerdenbag, Herman; Boersma, Hendrikus; Slart, Riemer; Tio, Rene; Elsinga, Philipus; Schwaiger, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Next to aspects related to the imaging techniques, the quality of the used cardiovascular tracer is of major importance to produce reliable images, leading to accurate diagnoses as well as outcome of research and imaging-correlated treatment. We have built up this chapter on cardiovascular imaging a

  10. Linear Feedback Analysis of Cardiovascular System using Seismocardiogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Jiřina

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with an analysis of relationship between heart rate described by a sequence of cardiac interbeat intervals and mechanical activity of heart represented by a sequence of systolic forces. Both the quantities were determined from seismocardiograms recorded from healthy subjects under two different experimental conditions. The method of the linear feedback baroreflex approach originally developed in [1], [2] and [3] was applied for the analysis. Different character of obtained results in comparison to those described in [1], [2] or [3], is explained by differences between frequency properties of the recorded sequences of the systolic forces and values of systolic blood pressure.

  11. Astronomical Image and Data Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Starck, J.-L

    2006-01-01

    With information and scale as central themes, this comprehensive survey explains how to handle real problems in astronomical data analysis using a modern arsenal of powerful techniques. It treats those innovative methods of image, signal, and data processing that are proving to be both effective and widely relevant. The authors are leaders in this rapidly developing field and draw upon decades of experience. They have been playing leading roles in international projects such as the Virtual Observatory and the Grid. The book addresses not only students and professional astronomers and astrophysicists, but also serious amateur astronomers and specialists in earth observation, medical imaging, and data mining. The coverage includes chapters or appendices on: detection and filtering; image compression; multichannel, multiscale, and catalog data analytical methods; wavelets transforms, Picard iteration, and software tools. This second edition of Starck and Murtagh's highly appreciated reference again deals with to...

  12. On the subjective acceptance during cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging at 7.0 Tesla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Klix

    Full Text Available This study examines the subjective acceptance during UHF-CMR in a cohort of healthy volunteers who underwent a cardiac MR examination at 7.0T.Within a period of two-and-a-half years (January 2012 to June 2014 a total of 165 healthy volunteers (41 female, 124 male without any known history of cardiac disease underwent UHF-CMR. For the assessment of the subjective acceptance a questionnaire was used to examine the participants experience prior, during and after the UHF-CMR examination. For this purpose, subjects were asked to respond to the questionnaire in an exit interview held immediately after the completion of the UHF-CMR examination under supervision of a study nurse to ensure accurate understanding of the questions. All questions were answered with "yes" or "no" including space for additional comments.Transient muscular contraction was documented in 12.7% of the questionnaires. Muscular contraction was reported to occur only during periods of scanning with the magnetic field gradients being rapidly switched. Dizziness during the study was reported by 12.7% of the subjects. Taste of metal was reported by 10.1% of the study population. Light flashes were reported by 3.6% of the entire cohort. 13% of the subjects reported side effects/observations which were not explicitly listed in the questionnaire but covered by the question about other side effects. No severe side effects as vomiting or syncope after scanning occurred. No increase in heart rate was observed during the UHF-CMR exam versus the baseline clinical examination.This study adds to the literature by detailing the subjective acceptance of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging examinations at a magnetic field strength of 7.0T. Cardiac MR examinations at 7.0T are well tolerated by healthy subjects. Broader observational and multi-center studies including patient cohorts with cardiac diseases are required to gain further insights into the subjective acceptance of UHF

  13. Imaging focal and interstitial fibrosis with cardiovascular magnetic resonance in athletes with left ventricular hypertrophy: implications for sporting participation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Waterhouse, Deirdre F

    2012-11-01

    Long-term high-intensity physical activity is associated with morphological changes, termed as the \\'athlete\\'s heart\\'. The differentiation of physiological cardiac adaptive changes in response to high-level exercise from pathological changes consistent with an inherited cardiomyopathy is imperative. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging allows definition of abnormal processes occurring at the tissue level, including, importantly, myocardial fibrosis. It is therefore vital in accurately making this differentiation. In this review, we will review the role of CMR imaging of fibrosis, and detail CMR characterisation of myocardial fibrosis in various cardiomyopathies, and the implications of fibrosis. Additionally, we will outline advances in imaging fibrosis, in particular T1 mapping. Finally we will address the role of CMR in pre-participation screening.

  14. Target identification by image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetz, V; Prochnow, H; Brönstrup, M; Sasse, F

    2016-05-01

    Covering: 1997 to the end of 2015Each biologically active compound induces phenotypic changes in target cells that are characteristic for its mode of action. These phenotypic alterations can be directly observed under the microscope or made visible by labelling structural elements or selected proteins of the cells with dyes. A comparison of the cellular phenotype induced by a compound of interest with the phenotypes of reference compounds with known cellular targets allows predicting its mode of action. While this approach has been successfully applied to the characterization of natural products based on a visual inspection of images, recent studies used automated microscopy and analysis software to increase speed and to reduce subjective interpretation. In this review, we give a general outline of the workflow for manual and automated image analysis, and we highlight natural products whose bacterial and eucaryotic targets could be identified through such approaches. PMID:26777141

  15. Evaluation of radiolabelled annexin A5 for scintigraphic imaging of cell processes (necrosis/apoptosis) in cardiovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annexin A5, a 35KDa protein, specifically binds with high affinity to phosphatidylserine (P.S.) which is actively redistributed to the external leaflet of plasmic membranes in apoptotic cells and activated platelets. Annexin A5 radiolabelled with 99mTc(99mTc-ANX5) was developed by Strauss (stanford, Usa) to image apoptosis in vivo: tumours cells apoptosis induced by chemo-radiotherapy, ischemia/reperfusion lesions in animals and patients, graft rejection. Additionally, many in vitro data suggest that annexin A5 also stains necrosis (membrane disruption), which occurs in all types of cell death. This preclinical work aimed to evaluate the potential interest of 99mTc-ANX5 imaging as a clinical tool in cardiovascular diseases. Four studies performed in rat models of myocardial infarction by coronary ligation and ischemia-reperfusion, and in rat models of subacute and acute (isoproterenol-induced) myocarditis show the ability of 99mTc-ANX5 to detect in vivo cardio myocytes death by apoptosis and necrosis. Another study demonstrates that 99mTc-ANX5 is highly accurate to evaluate in vivo the biological activity of parietal thrombus in a rat model of elastase-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm. These results suggest that 99mTc-ANX5 imaging could be used in patients for non invasive diagnosis, prognostic evaluation in acute myocarditis and in various thrombotic cardiovascular diseases. (author)

  16. Noninvasive Cardiovascular Risk Assessment of the Asymptomatic Diabetic Patient: The Imaging Council of the American College of Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budoff, Matthew J; Raggi, Paolo; Beller, George A; Berman, Daniel S; Druz, Regina S; Malik, Shaista; Rigolin, Vera H; Weigold, Wm Guy; Soman, Prem

    2016-02-01

    Increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes is well established; diabetes is associated with at least a 2-fold increased risk of coronary heart disease. Approximately two-thirds of deaths among persons with diabetes are related to cardiovascular disease. Previously, diabetes was regarded as a "coronary risk equivalent," implying a high 10-year cardiovascular risk for every diabetes patient. Following the original study by Haffner et al., multiple studies from different cohorts provided varying conclusions on the validity of the concept of coronary risk equivalency in patients with diabetes. New guidelines have started to acknowledge the heterogeneity in risk and include different treatment recommendations for diabetic patients without other risk factors who are considered to be at lower risk. Furthermore, guidelines have suggested that further risk stratification in patients with diabetes is warranted before universal treatment. The Imaging Council of the American College of Cardiology systematically reviewed all modalities commonly used for risk stratification in persons with diabetes mellitus and summarized the data and recommendations. This document reviews the evidence regarding the use of noninvasive testing to stratify asymptomatic patients with diabetes with regard to coronary heart disease risk and develops an algorithm for screening based on available data. PMID:26846937

  17. Garlic powder intake and cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials

    OpenAIRE

    Kwak, Jin Sook; Kim, Ji Yeon; Paek, Ju Eun; Lee, You Jin; Kim, Haeng-Ran; Park, Dong-Sik; Kwon, Oran

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Although preclinical studies suggest that garlic has potential preventive effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, clinical trials and reports from systematic reviews or meta-analyses present inconsistent results. The contradiction might be attributed to variations in the manufacturing process that can markedly influence the composition of garlic products. To investigate this issue further, we performed a meta-analysis of the effects of garlic powder on CVD ...

  18. Association between osteoarthritis and cardiovascular disease: systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Andrew J.; STUBBS, Brendon; Mamas, Mamas A.; Myint, Phyo K; Smith, Toby O.

    2016-01-01

    Background: To examine for a possible relationship between osteoarthritis and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Design: A systematic review and meta-analysis Methods: Published and unpublished literature from: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, OpenGrey and clinical trial registers. Search to 22nd November 2014. Cohort, case-control, randomised and non-randomised controlled trial papers reporting the prevalence of CVD in osteoarthritis were included. Results: Fifteen studies with 32,2...

  19. The association of hypertriglyceridemia with cardiovascular events and pancreatitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Murad M Hassan; Hazem Ahmad; Coto-Yglesias Fernando; Dzyubak Svitlana; Gupta Shabnum; Bancos Irina; Lane Melanie A; Erwin Patricia J; Berglund Lars; Elraiyah Tarig; Montori Victor M

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Hypertriglyceridemia may be associated with important complications. The aim of this study is to estimate the magnitude of association and quality of supporting evidence linking hypertriglyceridemia to cardiovascular events and pancreatitis. Methods We conducted a systematic review of multiple electronic bibliographic databases and subsequent meta-analysis using a random effects model. Studies eligible for this review followed patients longitudinally and evaluated quantita...

  20. Leucocyte telomere length and risk of cardiovascular disease: systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Haycock, Philip C; Heydon, Emma E.; Kaptoge, Stephen; Butterworth, Adam S.; Thompson, Alex; Willeit, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between leucocyte telomere length and risk of cardiovascular disease. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Studies published up to March 2014 identified through searches of Medline, Web of Science, and Embase. Eligibility criteria Prospective and retrospective studies that reported on associations between leucocyte telomere length and coronary heart disease (defined as non-fatal myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease death, or cor...

  1. Mesh Processing in Medical Image Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The following topics are dealt with: mesh processing; medical image analysis; interactive freeform modeling; statistical shape analysis; clinical CT images; statistical surface recovery; automated segmentation; cerebral aneurysms; and real-time particle-based representation....

  2. Assessment of radiation dose in nuclear cardiovascular imaging using realistic computational models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Tianwu; Lee, Choonsik; Bolch, Wesley E.; Zaidi, Habib

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Nuclear cardiology plays an important role in clinical assessment and has enormous impact on the management of a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Pediatric patients at different age groups are exposed to a spectrum of radiation dose levels and associated cancer risks different from those

  3. Mesh Processing in Medical Image Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The following topics are dealt with: mesh processing; medical image analysis; interactive freeform modeling; statistical shape analysis; clinical CT images; statistical surface recovery; automated segmentation; cerebral aneurysms; and real-time particle-based representation.......The following topics are dealt with: mesh processing; medical image analysis; interactive freeform modeling; statistical shape analysis; clinical CT images; statistical surface recovery; automated segmentation; cerebral aneurysms; and real-time particle-based representation....

  4. Use of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging for TAVR assessment in patients with bioprosthetic aortic valves: Comparison with computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quail, Michael A., E-mail: m.quail@ucl.ac.uk [Centre for Cardiovascular Imaging, UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science and Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom); Nordmeyer, Johannes [Department of Congenital Heart Disease and Paediatric Cardiology, Deutsches Herzzentrum Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Schievano, Silvia [Centre for Cardiovascular Imaging, UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science and Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom); Reinthaler, Markus; Mullen, Michael J. [The Heart Hospital, University College Hospital and Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, UCL, 16-18 Westmoreland Street, London (United Kingdom); Taylor, Andrew M. [Centre for Cardiovascular Imaging, UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science and Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has been successfully used to treat patients with failing aortic bioprostheses. Computed tomography (CT) is the usual method of pre-procedural imaging for TAVR in the native position; however, the optimal modality for valve-in-valve procedures has not been established. CT can assess intracardiac anatomy and is superior to cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in the assessment of coronary artery disease. However, CMR can provide superior haemodynamic information, does not carry the risk of ionising radiation, and may be performed without contrast in patients with renal insufficiency. In this study, we compared CT and CMR for the evaluation of TAVR in a small cohort of patients with existing aortic bioprostheses. Materials and methods: 21 patients with aortic bioprostheses were prospectively evaluated by CT and CMR, as pre-assessment for TAVR; agreement between measurements of aortic geometries was assessed. Results: 16/21 patients had aortic bioprostheses constructed with a metal ring, and 5/21 patients had a metal strut construction. Patients with metal struts had significant metal-artefact on CMR, which compromised image quality in this region. There was good agreement between CT and CMR measurements of aortic geometry. The mean difference (d) in annulus area-derived diameter was 0.5 mm (95% limits of agreement [L.A] 4.2 mm). There was good agreement between modalities for the cross-sectional area of the sinuses of valsalva (d 0.5 cm{sup 2}, L.A 1.4 cm{sup 2}), sinotubular junction (d 0.9 cm{sup 2}, L.A 1.5 cm{sup 2}), and ascending aorta (d 0.6 cm{sup 2}, L.A 1.4 cm{sup 2}). In patients without metal struts, the left coronary artery height d was 0.7 mm and L.A 2.8 mm. Conclusions: Our analysis shows that CMR and CT measurements of aortic geometry show good agreement, including measurement of annulus size and coronary artery location, and thus provide the necessary anatomical information for valve

  5. Use of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging for TAVR assessment in patients with bioprosthetic aortic valves: Comparison with computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has been successfully used to treat patients with failing aortic bioprostheses. Computed tomography (CT) is the usual method of pre-procedural imaging for TAVR in the native position; however, the optimal modality for valve-in-valve procedures has not been established. CT can assess intracardiac anatomy and is superior to cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in the assessment of coronary artery disease. However, CMR can provide superior haemodynamic information, does not carry the risk of ionising radiation, and may be performed without contrast in patients with renal insufficiency. In this study, we compared CT and CMR for the evaluation of TAVR in a small cohort of patients with existing aortic bioprostheses. Materials and methods: 21 patients with aortic bioprostheses were prospectively evaluated by CT and CMR, as pre-assessment for TAVR; agreement between measurements of aortic geometries was assessed. Results: 16/21 patients had aortic bioprostheses constructed with a metal ring, and 5/21 patients had a metal strut construction. Patients with metal struts had significant metal-artefact on CMR, which compromised image quality in this region. There was good agreement between CT and CMR measurements of aortic geometry. The mean difference (d) in annulus area-derived diameter was 0.5 mm (95% limits of agreement [L.A] 4.2 mm). There was good agreement between modalities for the cross-sectional area of the sinuses of valsalva (d 0.5 cm2, L.A 1.4 cm2), sinotubular junction (d 0.9 cm2, L.A 1.5 cm2), and ascending aorta (d 0.6 cm2, L.A 1.4 cm2). In patients without metal struts, the left coronary artery height d was 0.7 mm and L.A 2.8 mm. Conclusions: Our analysis shows that CMR and CT measurements of aortic geometry show good agreement, including measurement of annulus size and coronary artery location, and thus provide the necessary anatomical information for valve-in-valve TAVR planning. However, in patients

  6. European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging/Cardiovascular Imaging Department of the Brazilian Society of Cardiology recommendations for the use of cardiac imaging to assess and follow patients after heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badano, Luigi P; Miglioranza, Marcelo H; Edvardsen, Thor; Colafranceschi, Alexandre Siciliano; Muraru, Denisa; Bacal, Fernando; Nieman, Koen; Zoppellaro, Giacomo; Marcondes Braga, Fabiana G; Binder, Thomas; Habib, Gilbert; Lancellotti, Patrizio

    2015-09-01

    The cohort of long-term survivors of heart transplant is expanding, and the assessment of these patients requires specific knowledge of the surgical techniques employed to implant the donor heart, the physiology of the transplanted heart, complications of invasive tests routinely performed to detect graft rejection (GR), and the specific pathologies that may affect the transplanted heart. A joint EACVI/Brazilian cardiovascular imaging writing group committee has prepared these recommendations to provide a practical guide to echocardiographers involved in the follow-up of heart transplant patients and a framework for standardized and efficient use of cardiovascular imaging after heart transplant. Since the transplanted heart is smaller than the recipient's dilated heart, the former is usually located more medially in the mediastinum and tends to be rotated clockwise. Therefore, standard views with conventional two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography are often difficult to obtain generating a large variability from patient to patient. Therefore, in echocardiography laboratories equipped with three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) scanners and specific expertise with the technique, 3DE may be a suitable alternative to conventional 2D echocardiography to assess the size and the function of cardiac chambers. 3DE measurement of left (LV) and right ventricular (RV) size and function are more accurate and reproducible than conventional 2D calculations. However, clinicians should be aware that cardiac chamber volumes obtained with 3DE cannot be compared with those obtained with 2D echocardiography. To assess cardiac chamber morphology and function during follow-up studies, it is recommended to obtain a comprehensive echocardiographic study at 6 months from the cardiac transplantation as a baseline and make a careful quantitation of cardiac chamber size, RV systolic function, both systolic and diastolic parameters of LV function, and pulmonary artery pressure. Subsequent

  7. Integration Platform for Biomedical Image Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rantanen, Ville

    2015-01-01

    Images provide invaluable information to Biomedicine. Especially, microscopy as an information source has been providing knowledge for research and clinical diagnostics. We have moved away from simply looking at the images to quantifiable computerized image analysis. Over the last decades, image analysis developers have prepared algorithms and software to address various scientific enquiries using images. These software are often created for a single purpose. Naturally, not even the most gene...

  8. Space-Time Analysis to Identify Areas at Risk of Mortality from Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliany C. O. Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at identifying areas that were at risk of mortality due to cardiovascular disease in residents aged 45 years or older of the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande between 2009 and 2011. We conducted an ecological study of mortality rates related to cardiovascular disease. Mortality rates were calculated for each census tract by the Local Empirical Bayes estimator. High- and low-risk clusters were identified by retrospective space-time scans for each year using the Poisson probability model. We defined the year and month as the temporal analysis unit and the census tracts as the spatial analysis units adjusted by age and sex. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the socioeconomic and environmental variables by risk classification. High-risk clusters showed higher income ratios than low-risk clusters, as did temperature range and atmospheric particulate matter. Low-risk clusters showed higher humidity than high-risk clusters. The Eastern region of Várzea Grande and the central region of Cuiabá were identified as areas at risk of mortality due to cardiovascular disease in individuals aged 45 years or older. High mortality risk was associated with socioeconomic and environmental factors. More high-risk clusters were observed at the end of the dry season.

  9. Statistical Analysis of Risk Factors for Cardiovascular disease in Malakand Division

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salahud Din

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have been conducted to investigate the incidence of cardiovascular disease and to determine the possible risk factors for the disease. In this study, a Statistical method of odds ratio analysis was performed to look at the association of one of the type of cardiovascular disease known as myocardial infarction with various risk factors such as diabetes, cholesterol, hypertension, sex, smoking, obesity, family history and age in Malakand division. A total of 700 patients were examined and their personal and medical data were collected. For each patient, the phenomenon of myocardial infarction was studied in relation to different risk factors. The analyses suggest that hypertension, smoking, diabetes, cholesterol level and family history were important risk factors for the occurrence of myocardial infarction.

  10. Application of infrared thermal imaging in the study of preventing cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases with Chinese medicine health food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziru; Zhang, Xusheng

    2009-08-01

    To explore the assessing technique which could objectively reflect the characteristics of Chinese medicine in the prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, four balance features of infrared thermal images (ITI) corresponding to the up and down, left and right, proximal and distal balance of blood circulation of human body were studied. First, the ITI features of the middle-aged and elderly people with lipid abnormality history were compared with those of the healthy youth. It was found that the balance state of the youth was significantly better than that of the middle-aged and elderly, Ppathology basis of the influences of Shengyi on the four balance features and its relationship with the clinical outcome deserves further study. So the prospect of infrared thermal imaging is indicated as the suitable evaluation technique which could objectively reflect the whole balance regulation advantage of Chinese medicinal compounds.

  11. Doppler-Derived Trigger Signals for High-Frame-Rate Mouse Cardiovascular Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Aristizábal, Orlando; Mamou, Jonathan; Turnbull, Daniel H.; Ketterling, Jeffrey A.

    2009-01-01

    The availability of an electrocardiogram (ECG) waveform in the adult mouse has permitted the measurement of fast, dynamic cardiac events where data acquisition is synchronized to the R-wave of the ECG waveform. These methods can easily attain one thousand frames/s at ultrasound frequencies greater than 20 MHz. With the heart being the first organ to develop, normal cardiovascular function is crucial to the viability of the developing embryo. Thus, translating such methodologies to analyze emb...

  12. Approaches to enhancing radiation safety in cardiovascular imaging: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel, Reza; Gerber, Thomas C; Balter, Stephen; Brenner, David J; Carr, J Jeffrey; Cerqueira, Manuel D; Chen, Jersey; Einstein, Andrew J; Krumholz, Harlan M; Mahesh, Mahadevappa; McCollough, Cynthia H; Min, James K; Morin, Richard L; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K; Nasir, Khurram; Redberg, Rita F; Shaw, Leslee J

    2014-11-01

    Education, justification, and optimization are the cornerstones to enhancing the radiation safety of medical imaging. Education regarding the benefits and risks of imaging and the principles of radiation safety is required for all clinicians in order for them to be able to use imaging optimally. Empowering patients with knowledge of the benefits and risks of imaging will facilitate their meaningful participation in decisions related to their health care, which is necessary to achieve patient-centered care. Limiting the use of imaging to appropriate clinical indications can ensure that the benefits of imaging outweigh any potential risks. Finally, the continually expanding repertoire of techniques that allow high-quality imaging with lower radiation exposure should be used when available to achieve safer imaging. The implementation of these strategies in practice is necessary to achieve high-quality, patient-centered imaging and will require a shared effort and investment by all stakeholders, including physicians, patients, national scientific and educational organizations, politicians, and industry.

  13. Cardiovascular risk assessment in the treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: a secondary analysis of the MOZART trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Steven C.; Ang, Brandon; Hernandez, Carolyn; Bettencourt, Ricki; Jain, Rashmi; Salotti, Joanie; Richards, Lisa; Kono, Yuko; Bhatt, Archana; Aryafar, Hamed; Lin, Grace Y.; Valasek, Mark A.; Sirlin, Claude B.; Brouha, Sharon; Loomba, Rohit

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk and mortality. No US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved therapies for NASH are available; clinical trials to date have not yet systematically assessed for changes in cardiovascular risk. This study examines the prospective utility of cardiovascular risk assessments, the Framingham risk score (FRS) and coronary artery calcium (CAC) score, as endpoints in a NASH randomized clinical trial, and assesses whether histologic improvements lead to lower cardiovascular risk. Methods: Secondary analysis of a 24-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (MOZART) in which 50 biopsy-proven NASH patients received oral ezetimibe 10 mg daily (n = 25) versus placebo (n = 25). Biochemical profiling, FRS, CAC scores, liver biopsies were obtained at baseline and endpoint. Results: Ezetimibe improved FRS whereas placebo did not (4.4 ± 6.2 to 2.9 ± 4.8, p = 0.038; 3.0 ± 4.4 to 2.9 ± 4.2, p = 0.794). CAC scores did not change with ezetimibe or placebo (180.4 ± 577.2 to 194.1 ± 623.9, p = 0.293; 151.4 ± 448.9 to 183.3 ± 555.7, p = 0.256). Ezetimibe improved FRS and CAC scores in more patients than placebo (48% versus 23%, p = 0.079, and 21% versus 0%, p = 0.090, respectively), though not significantly. No differences were noted in cardiovascular risk scores among histologic responders versus nonresponders. Conclusions: Ezetimibe improved FRS whereas placebo did not. FRS and CAC scores improved in a greater proportion of patients with ezetimibe; this trend did not reach significance. These findings indicate the utility and feasibility of monitoring cardiovascular risk in a NASH trial. The utility of CAC scores may be higher in trials of longer duration (⩾52 weeks) and with older patients (age ⩾45). ClinicalTrials.gov registration: NCT01766713. PMID:26929777

  14. High-resolution image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, K

    1986-01-01

    In many departments of cytology, cytogenetics, hematology, and pathology, research projects using high-resolution computerized microscopy are now being mounted for computation of morphometric measurements on various structural components, as well as for determination of cellular DNA content. The majority of these measurements are made in a partially automated, computer-assisted mode, wherein there is strong interaction between the user and the computerized microscope. At the same time, full automation has been accomplished for both sample preparation and sample examination for clinical determination of the white blood cell differential count. At the time of writing, approximately 1,000 robot differential counting microscopes are in the field, analyzing images of human white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets at the overall rate of about 100,000 slides per day. This mammoth through-put represents a major accomplishment in the application of machine vision to automated microscopy for hematology. In other areas of automated high-resolution microscopy, such as cytology and cytogenetics, no commercial instruments are available (although a few metaphase-finding machines are available and other new machines have been announced during the past year). This is a disappointing product, considering the nearly half century of research effort in these areas. This paper provides examples of the state of the art in automation of cell analysis for blood smears, cervical smears, and chromosome preparations. Also treated are new developments in multi-resolution automated microscopy, where images are now being generated and analyzed by a single machine over a range of 64:1 magnification and from 10,000 X 20,000 to 500 X 500 in total picture elements (pixels). Examples of images of human lymph node and liver tissue are presented. Semi-automated systems are not treated, although there is mention of recent research in the automation of tissue analysis.

  15. Strengths and Limitations of Current Adult Nomograms for the Aorta Obtained by Noninvasive Cardiovascular Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantinotti, Massimiliano; Giordano, Raffaele; Clemente, Alberto; Assanta, Nadia; Murzi, Michele; Murzi, Bruno; Crocetti, Maura; Marotta, Marco; Scalese, Marco; Kutty, Shelby; Iervasi, Giorgio

    2016-07-01

    Normalized measurements for the evaluation of aortic disease severity are preferred to the adoption of generic cutoff values. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the strengths and limitations of currently available aortic nomograms by echocardiography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A literature search was conducted accessing the National Library of Medicine using the keywords normal values, aorta, echocardiography, CT, and MRI. Addition of these keywords further refined the results: reference values, nomograms, aortic arch, and adults. Thirty studies were included in the final analysis. Despite the strengths noted in the recent investigations, multiple methodological and numerical limitations emerged. The numerical limitations included sample size limitation in most of the studies (only few investigations consisted of >800 subjects and many had 70-300), lack of aortic arch measurements, and paucity of data for non-Caucasian subjects. Methodological limitations consisted of lack of standardization in measurements (systole vs. diastole, internal vs. external border, axial vs. orthogonal planes), heterogeneity and data normalization issues (various age intervals used, body size often not evaluated, data expressed as observed values rather than estimated values by z-score), and study design issues. The designs were mostly retrospective with poorly defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The nomograms presented range of normality with significant differences, but also with some reproducible pattern. Despite recent advances, multiple methodological or numerical limitations exist in adult nomograms for the aorta. Comprehensive nomograms of aortic dimensions at multiple levels including the aortic arch for different imaging techniques, involving a wide sample size, and using standardized methodology for measurements and data normalization are warranted. The availability of robust nomograms may encourage the use of personalized

  16. The deleterious effects of arteriovenous fistula-creation on the cardiovascular system: a longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dundon BK

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Benjamin K Dundon,1–3 Kim Torpey,3 Adam J Nelson,1 Dennis TL Wong,1,2 Rae F Duncan,1 Ian T Meredith,2 Randall J Faull,1,3 Stephen G Worthley,1,4 Matthew I Worthley1,4 1Cardiology Department, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Central Adelaide Local Health Network, Discipline of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 2Monash Cardiovascular Research Centre, MonashHEART, Monash Health, Melbourne, Vic, Australia; 3Central Northern Renal and Transplantation Service, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Central Adelaide Local Health Network, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 4South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, Adelaide, SA, Australia Aim: Arteriovenous fistula-formation remains critical for the provision of hemodialysis in end-stage renal failure patients. Its creation results in a significant increase in cardiac output, with resultant alterations in cardiac stroke volume, systemic blood flow, and vascular resistance. The impact of fistula-formation on cardiac and vascular structure and function has not yet been evaluated via "gold standard" imaging techniques in the modern era of end-stage renal failure care. Methods: A total of 24 patients with stage 5 chronic kidney disease undergoing fistula-creation were studied in a single-arm pilot study. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging was undertaken at baseline, and prior to and 6 months following fistula-creation. This gold standard imaging modality was used to evaluate, via standard brachial flow-mediated techniques, cardiac structure and function, aortic distensibility, and endothelial function. Results: At follow up, left ventricular ejection fraction remained unchanged, while mean cardiac output increased by 25.0% (P<0.0001. Significant increases in left and right ventricular end-systolic volumes (21% [P=0.014] and 18% [P<0.01], left and right atrial area (11% [P<0.01] and 9% [P<0.01], and left ventricular mass were observed (12.7% increase (P<0.01. Endothelial

  17. A reasoning system for image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Jin Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For image analysis in computer, the traditional approach is extracting and transcoding features after image segmentation. However, in this paper, we present a different way to analyze image. We adopt spatial logic technology to establish a reasoning system with corresponding semantic model, and prove its soundness and completeness, and then realize the image analysis in formal way. And it can be applied in artificial intelligence. This is a new attempt and also a challenging approach.

  18. Aspirin for primary prevention of cardiovascular events in people with diabetes: meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

    OpenAIRE

    De Berardis, Giorgia; Sacco, Michele; Strippoli, Giovanni F.M.; Pellegrini, Fabio; Graziano, Giusi; Tognoni, Gianni; Nicolucci, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the benefits and harms of low dose aspirin in people with diabetes and no cardiovascular disease. Design Meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Data sources Medline (1966-November 2008), the Cochrane central register of controlled trials (Cochrane Library 2008;issue 4), and reference lists of retrieved articles. Review methods Randomised trials of aspirin compared with placebo or no aspirin in people with diabetes and no pre-existing cardiovascular disease were e...

  19. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging assessment of diastolic dysfunction in a population without heart disease: a gender-based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asymptomatic left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction is increasingly recognised as an important diagnosis. Our goal was to study the prevalence and gender differences in subclinical LV diastolic dysfunction, using cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) at 3 T. We prospectively studied 48 volunteers (19 male and 29 female, mean age 49 ± 7 years) with no evidence of cardiovascular disease. We used CMR to measure left atrium (LA) and LV volumes, LV peak filling rate and transmitral flow. The overall prevalence of LV diastolic dysfunction in our cohort varied between 20 % (based on evaluation of LV filing profiles) and 24 % (based on the evaluation of the transmitral flow). The prevalence of diastolic dysfunction was higher in men than in women, independently of the criteria used (P between 0.004 and 0.022). Indexed LV end-diastolic volume, indexed LV stroke volume, indexed LV mass, indexed LA minimum volume and indexed LA maximum volume were significantly greater in men than in women (P < 0.05). All the subjects had LV ejection fractions within the normal range. It is clinically feasible to study diastolic flow and LV filling with CMR. CMR detected diastolic dysfunction in asymptomatic men and women. (orig.)

  20. Computed tomography imaging of early coronary artery lesions in stable individuals with multiple cardiovascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Yang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence, extent, severity, and features of coronary artery lesions in stable patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: Seventy-seven patients with more than 3 cardiovascular risk factors were suspected of having coronary artery disease. Patients with high-risk factors and 39 controls with no risk factors were enrolled in the study. The related risk factors included hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia, smoking history, and overweight. The characteristics of coronary lesions were identified and evaluated by 64-slice coronary computed tomography angiography. RESULTS: The incidence of coronary atherosclerosis was higher in the high-risk group than in the no-risk group. The involved branches of the coronary artery, the diffusivity of the lesion, the degree of stenosis, and the nature of the plaques were significantly more severe in the high-risk group compared with the no-risk group (all p < 0.05. CONCLUSION: Among stable individuals with high-risk factors, early coronary artery lesions are common and severe. Computed tomography has promising value for the early screening of coronary lesions.

  1. Spreadsheet-like image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Paul

    1992-08-01

    This report describes the design of a new software system being built by the Army to support and augment automated nondestructive inspection (NDI) on-line equipment implemented by the Army for detection of defective manufactured items. The new system recalls and post-processes (off-line) the NDI data sets archived by the on-line equipment for the purpose of verifying the correctness of the inspection analysis paradigms, of developing better analysis paradigms and to gather statistics on the defects of the items inspected. The design of the system is similar to that of a spreadsheet, i.e., an array of cells which may be programmed to contain functions with arguments being data from other cells and whose resultant is the output of that cell's function. Unlike a spreadsheet, the arguments and the resultants of a cell may be a matrix such as a two-dimensional matrix of picture elements (pixels). Functions include matrix mathematics, neural networks and image processing as well as those ordinarily found in spreadsheets. The system employs all of the common environmental supports of the Macintosh computer, which is the hardware platform. The system allows the resultant of a cell to be displayed in any of multiple formats such as a matrix of numbers, text, an image, or a chart. Each cell is a window onto the resultant. Like a spreadsheet if the input value of any cell is changed its effect is cascaded into the resultants of all cells whose functions use that value directly or indirectly. The system encourages the user to play what-of games, as ordinary spreadsheets do.

  2. An analysis of the effects of smoking and other cardiovascular risk factors on obliteration rates after arteriovenous malformation radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the relationships of smoking and other cardiovascular disease risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and gender) to rates of radiosurgery-induced obliteration of arteriovenous malformations (AVM). Methods and Materials: We evaluated follow-up imaging and clinical data in 329 AVM patients who received gamma knife radiosurgery at the University of Pittsburgh between 1987 and 1994. There were 113 smokers, 29 hypertensives, 5 diabetics, 4 hypercholesterolemics, 159 male patients, and 170 female patients. All patients had regular clinical or imaging follow-up for a minimum of 3 years after radiosurgery. Results: Multivariate analysis showed that smoking had no effect on AVM obliteration (p>0.43). Hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia had no discernible effect on AVM obliteration in this study (p>0.78). However, females aged 12-49 had a statistically significant lower in-field obliteration rate than males (78% vs. 89%, p=0.0102). Conclusion: Smoking has no effect on AVM obliteration. Hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia had no discernible effect in this study. Further study is needed to establish whether estrogen has a vascular protective effect that could partially limit radiosurgical AVM obliteration, as suggested by this study

  3. Analysis of Dynamic Brain Imaging Data

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, P

    1998-01-01

    Modern imaging techniques for probing brain function, including functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, intrinsic and extrinsic contrast optical imaging, and magnetoencephalography, generate large data sets with complex content. In this paper we develop appropriate techniques of analysis and visualization of such imaging data, in order to separate the signal from the noise, as well as to characterize the signal. The techniques developed fall into the general category of multivariate time series analysis, and in particular we extensively use the multitaper framework of spectral analysis. We develop specific protocols for the analysis of fMRI, optical imaging and MEG data, and illustrate the techniques by applications to real data sets generated by these imaging modalities. In general, the analysis protocols involve two distinct stages: `noise' characterization and suppression, and `signal' characterization and visualization. An important general conclusion of our study is the utility of a frequency-based repres...

  4. The spectral analysis of photoplethysmography to evaluate an independent cardiovascular risk factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandhi PG

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pratiksha G Gandhi,1 Gundu HR Rao2 1IPC Heart Care Centre, Mumbai, India; 2University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USABackground: In this study, we evaluate homeostatic markers correlated to autonomic nervous and endothelial functions in a population of coronary artery disease (CAD patients versus a control group. Since CAD is the highest risk marker for sudden cardiac death, the study objective is to determine whether an independent cardiovascular risk score based on these markers can be used alongside known conventional cardiovascular risk markers to strengthen the understanding of a patient's vascular state.Materials and methods: Sixty-five subjects (13 women with a mean age of 62.9 years (range 40–80 years who were diagnosed with CAD using coronary angiography (group 1 and seventy-two subjects (29 women with a mean age of 45.1 years (range 18–85 years who claimed they were healthy (group 2 were included in the study. These subjects underwent examination with the TM-Oxi and SudoPath systems at IPC Heart Care Centers in Mumbai, India. The TM-Oxi system takes measurements from a blood pressure device and a pulse oximeter. The SudoPath measures galvanic skin response to assess the sudomotor pathway function. Spectral analysis of the photoplethysmograph (PTG waveform and electrochemical galvanic skin response allow the TM-Oxi and SudoPath systems to calculate several homeostatic markers, such as the PTG index (PTGi, PTG very low frequency index (PTGVLFi, and PTG ratio (PTGr. The focus of this study was to evaluate these markers (PTGi, PTGVLFi, and PTGr in CAD patients against a control group, and to calculate an independent cardiovascular risk factor score: the PTG cardiovascular disease risk score (PTG CVD, calculated solely from these markers. We compared PTGi, PTGVLFi, PTGr, and PTG CVD scores between the CAD patient group and the healthy control group. Statistical analyses were performed using receiver operating characteristic curves to

  5. Quantitative proteome analysis in cardiovascular physiology and pathology. I. Data processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grussenmeyer, Thomas; Meili-Butz, Silvia; Dieterle, Thomas; Traunecker, Emmanuel; Carrel, Thierry P; Lefkovits, Ivan

    2008-12-01

    Methodological evaluation of the proteomic analysis of cardiovascular-tissue material has been performed with a special emphasis on establishing examinations that allow reliable quantitative analysis of silver-stained readouts. Reliability, reproducibility, robustness and linearity were addressed and clarified. In addition, several types of normalization procedures were evaluated and new approaches are proposed. It has been found that the silver-stained readout offers a convenient approach for quantitation if a linear range for gel loading is defined. In addition, a broad range of a 10-fold input (loading 20-200 microg per gel) fulfills the linearity criteria, although at the lowest input (20 microg) a portion of protein species will remain undetected. The method is reliable and reproducible within a range of 65-200 microg input. The normalization procedure using the sum of all spot intensities from a silver-stained 2D pattern has been shown to be less reliable than other approaches, namely, normalization through median or through involvement of interquartile range. A special refinement of the normalization through virtual segmentation of pattern, and calculation of normalization factor for each stratum provides highly satisfactory results. The presented results not only provide evidence for the usefulness of silver-stained gels for quantitative evaluation, but they are directly applicable to the research endeavor of monitoring alterations in cardiovascular pathophysiology.

  6. Principal component analysis of cardiovascular risk traits in three generations cohort among Indian Punjabi population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badaruddoza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study focused to determine significant cardiovascular risk factors through principal component factor analysis (PCFA among three generations on 1827 individuals in three generations including 911 males (378 from offspring, 439 from parental and 94 from grand-parental generations and 916 females (261 from offspring, 515 from parental and 140 from grandparental generations. The study performed PCFA with orthogonal rotation to reduce 12 inter-correlated variables into groups of independent factors. The factors have been identified as 2 for male grandparents, 3 for male offspring, female parents and female grandparents each, 4 for male parents and 5 for female offspring. This data reduction method identified these factors that explained 72%, 84%, 79%, 69%, 70% and 73% for male and female offspring, male and female parents and male and female grandparents respectively, of the variations in original quantitative traits. The factor 1 accounting for the largest portion of variations was strongly loaded with factors related to obesity (body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist to hip ratio (WHR, and thickness of skinfolds among all generations with both sexes, which has been known to be an independent predictor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The second largest components, factor 2 and factor 3 for almost all generations reflected traits of blood pressure phenotypes loaded, however, in male offspring generation it was observed that factor 2 was loaded with blood pressure phenotypes as well as obesity. This study not only confirmed but also extended prior work by developing a cumulative risk scale from factor scores. Till today, such a cumulative and extensive scale has not been used in any Indian studies with individuals of three generations. These findings and study highlight the importance of global approach for assessing the risk and need for studies that elucidate how these different cardiovascular risk factors

  7. Digital-image processing and image analysis of glacier ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Joan J.

    2013-01-01

    This document provides a methodology for extracting grain statistics from 8-bit color and grayscale images of thin sections of glacier ice—a subset of physical properties measurements typically performed on ice cores. This type of analysis is most commonly used to characterize the evolution of ice-crystal size, shape, and intercrystalline spatial relations within a large body of ice sampled by deep ice-coring projects from which paleoclimate records will be developed. However, such information is equally useful for investigating the stress state and physical responses of ice to stresses within a glacier. The methods of analysis presented here go hand-in-hand with the analysis of ice fabrics (aggregate crystal orientations) and, when combined with fabric analysis, provide a powerful method for investigating the dynamic recrystallization and deformation behaviors of bodies of ice in motion. The procedures described in this document compose a step-by-step handbook for a specific image acquisition and data reduction system built in support of U.S. Geological Survey ice analysis projects, but the general methodology can be used with any combination of image processing and analysis software. The specific approaches in this document use the FoveaPro 4 plug-in toolset to Adobe Photoshop CS5 Extended but it can be carried out equally well, though somewhat less conveniently, with software such as the image processing toolbox in MATLAB, Image-Pro Plus, or ImageJ.

  8. Integration of an optical coherence tomography (OCT) system into an examination incubator to facilitate in vivo imaging of cardiovascular development in higher vertebrate embryos under stable physiological conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Happel, Christoph M.; Thrane, Lars; Thommes, Jan;

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution in vivo imaging of higher vertebrate embryos over short or long time periods under constant physiological conditions is a technically challenging task for researchers working on cardiovascular development. In chick embryos, for example, various studies have shown that without...

  9. Myocardial infarct heterogeneity assessment by late gadolinium enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging shows predictive value for ventricular arrhythmia development after acute myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robbers, Lourens F. H. J.; Delewi, Ronak; Nijveldt, Robin; Hirsch, Alexander; Beek, Aernout M.; Kemme, Michiel J. B.; van Beurden, Yvette; van der Laan, Anja M.; van der Vleuten, Pieter A.; Tio, Rene A.; Zijlstra, Felix; Piek, Jan J.; van Rossum, Albert C.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between the proportions of penumbrauvisualized by late gadolinium enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (LGE-CMR)uafter acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and the prevalence of ventricular tachycardia (VT). One-hundred and sixty-two AMI

  10. Image registration with uncertainty analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, Katherine M.

    2011-03-22

    In an image registration method, edges are detected in a first image and a second image. A percentage of edge pixels in a subset of the second image that are also edges in the first image shifted by a translation is calculated. A best registration point is calculated based on a maximum percentage of edges matched. In a predefined search region, all registration points other than the best registration point are identified that are not significantly worse than the best registration point according to a predetermined statistical criterion.

  11. Non-invasive in-vivo imaging of stem cells after transplantation in cardiovascular tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Anders Bruun; Kastrup, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell therapy for degenerative diseases, including ischemic heart disease is now a clinical reality. In the search for the optimal cell type for each patient category, many different stem cell subpopulations have been used. In addition, different cell processing procedures and delivery methods...... no improvements. To better understand the underlying mechanisms of these results, a reverse translation from bedside to bench has been opened. Non-invasive cell tracking after implantation has a pivotal role in this translation. Imaging based methods can help elucidate important issues such as retention......, migration and efficacy of the transplanted cells. Great effort is being made in finding new and better imaging techniques for different imaging modalities, and much have already been learned. But there are still many unanswered questions. In this review, we give an overview of the imaging modalities used...

  12. Cardiovascular age of aviation personnel:based on the principal component analysis of heart rate and blood pressure variability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛有国; 王守岩; 张玉海; 王兴邦; 张立藩

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To introduce a method to calculate cardiovascular age, a new, accurate and much simpler index for assessing cardiovascular autonomic regulatory function, based on statistical analysis of heart rate and blood pressure variability (HRV and BPV) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) data. Methods: Firstly, HRV and BPV of 89 healthy aviation personnel were analyzed by the conventional autoregressive (AR) spectral analysis and their spontaneous BRS was obtained by the sequence method. Secondly, principal component analysis was conducted over original and derived indices of HRV, BPV and BRS data and the relevant principal components, Pciorig and Pcideri (I=1, 2, 3,...) were obtained. Finally, the equation for calculating cardiovascular age was obtained by multiple regression with the chronological age being assigned as the dependent variable and the principal components significantly related to age as the regressors. Results: The first four principal components of original indices accounted for over 90% of total variance of the indices, so did the first three principal components of derived indices. So, these seven principal components could reflect the information of cardiovascular autonomic regulation which was embodied in the 17 indices of HRV, BPV and BRS exactly with a minimal loss of information. Of the seven principal components, PC2orig, PC4orig and PC2deri were negatively correlated with the chronological age (P<0.05), whereas the PC3orig was positively correlated with the chronological age (P<0.01). The cardiovascular age thus calculated from the regression equation was significantly correlated with the chronological age among the 89 aviation personnel (r=0.73, P<0.01). Conclusion: The cardiovascular age calculated based on a multi-variate analysis of HRV, BPV and BRS could be regarded as a comprehensive indicator reflecting the age dependency of autonomic regulation of cardiovascular system in healthy aviation personnel.

  13. A 3D image analysis tool for SPECT imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontos, Despina; Wang, Qiang; Megalooikonomou, Vasileios; Maurer, Alan H.; Knight, Linda C.; Kantor, Steve; Fisher, Robert S.; Simonian, Hrair P.; Parkman, Henry P.

    2005-04-01

    We have developed semi-automated and fully-automated tools for the analysis of 3D single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. The focus is on the efficient boundary delineation of complex 3D structures that enables accurate measurement of their structural and physiologic properties. We employ intensity based thresholding algorithms for interactive and semi-automated analysis. We also explore fuzzy-connectedness concepts for fully automating the segmentation process. We apply the proposed tools to SPECT image data capturing variation of gastric accommodation and emptying. These image analysis tools were developed within the framework of a noninvasive scintigraphic test to measure simultaneously both gastric emptying and gastric volume after ingestion of a solid or a liquid meal. The clinical focus of the particular analysis was to probe associations between gastric accommodation/emptying and functional dyspepsia. Employing the proposed tools, we outline effectively the complex three dimensional gastric boundaries shown in the 3D SPECT images. We also perform accurate volume calculations in order to quantitatively assess the gastric mass variation. This analysis was performed both with the semi-automated and fully-automated tools. The results were validated against manual segmentation performed by a human expert. We believe that the development of an automated segmentation tool for SPECT imaging of the gastric volume variability will allow for other new applications of SPECT imaging where there is a need to evaluate complex organ function or tumor masses.

  14. Colour model analysis for microscopic image processing

    OpenAIRE

    García-Rojo Marcial; González Jesús; Déniz Oscar; González Roberto; Bueno Gloria

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This article presents a comparative study between different colour models (RGB, HSI and CIEL*a*b*) applied to a very large microscopic image analysis. Such analysis of different colour models is needed in order to carry out a successful detection and therefore a classification of different regions of interest (ROIs) within the image. This, in turn, allows both distinguishing possible ROIs and retrieving their proper colour for further ROI analysis. This analysis is not commonly done ...

  15. Discovering beautiful attributes for aesthetic image analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Marchesotti, Luca; Murray, Naila; Perronnin, Florent

    2014-01-01

    Aesthetic image analysis is the study and assessment of the aesthetic properties of images. Current computational approaches to aesthetic image analysis either provide accurate or interpretable results. To obtain both accuracy and interpretability by humans, we advocate the use of learned and nameable visual attributes as mid-level features. For this purpose, we propose to discover and learn the visual appearance of attributes automatically, using a recently introduced database, called AVA, w...

  16. Digital Image Analysis for Detechip Code Determination

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus Lyon; Wilson, Mark V.; Kerry A. Rouhier; David J. Symonsbergen; Kiran Bastola; Ishwor Thapa; Holmes, Andrea E.; Sharmin M. Sikich; Abby Jackson

    2012-01-01

    DETECHIP® is a molecular sensing array used for identification of a large variety of substances. Previous methodology for the analysis of DETECHIP® used human vision to distinguish color changes induced by the presence of the analyte of interest. This paper describes several analysis techniques using digital images of DETECHIP® . Both a digital camera and flatbed desktop photo scanner were used to obtain Jpeg images. Color information within these digital images was obt...

  17. Digital Image Analysis for Detechip Code Determination

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus Lyon; Wilson, Mark V.; Holmes, Andrea E.; Sharmin M. Sikich; Abby Jackson; Kerry A. Rouhier; David J. Symonsbergen; Kiran Bastola

    2012-01-01

    DETECHIP® is a molecular sensing array used for identification of a large variety of substances. Previous methodology for the analysis of DETECHIP® used human vision to distinguish color changes induced by the presence of the analyte of interest. This paper describes several analysis techniques using digital images of DETECHIP®. Both a digital camera and flatbed desktop photo scanner were used to obtain Jpeg images. Color information within these digital images was obtained through the me...

  18. Digital Image Analysis for DETCHIP® Code Determination

    OpenAIRE

    Lyon, Marcus; Wilson, Mark V.; Kerry A. Rouhier; David J. Symonsbergen; Bastola, Kiran; Thapa, Ishwor; Holmes, Andrea E.; Sharmin M. Sikich; Jackson, Abby

    2012-01-01

    DETECHIP® is a molecular sensing array used for identification of a large variety of substances. Previous methodology for the analysis of DETECHIP® used human vision to distinguish color changes induced by the presence of the analyte of interest. This paper describes several analysis techniques using digital images of DETECHIP®. Both a digital camera and flatbed desktop photo scanner were used to obtain Jpeg images. Color information within these digital images was obtained through the measur...

  19. Association between alcohol and cardiovascular disease: Mendelian randomisation analysis based on individual participant data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Michael V; Dale, Caroline E; Zuccolo, Luisa; Silverwood, Richard J; Guo, Yiran; Ye, Zheng; Prieto-Merino, David; Dehghan, Abbas; Trompet, Stella; Wong, Andrew; Cavadino, Alana; Drogan, Dagmar; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Yesupriya, Ajay; Leusink, Maarten; Sundstrom, Johan; Hubacek, Jaroslav A; Pikhart, Hynek; Swerdlow, Daniel I; Panayiotou, Andrie G; Borinskaya, Svetlana A; Finan, Chris; Shah, Sonia; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Shah, Tina; Engmann, Jorgen; Folkersen, Lasse; Eriksson, Per; Ricceri, Fulvio; Melander, Olle; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Gamble, Dale M; Rayaprolu, Sruti; Ross, Owen A; McLachlan, Stela; Vikhireva, Olga; Sluijs, Ivonne; Scott, Robert A; Adamkova, Vera; Flicker, Leon; van Bockxmeer, Frank M; Power, Christine; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Meade, Tom; Marmot, Michael G; Ferro, Jose M; Paulos-Pinheiro, Sofia; Humphries, Steve E; Talmud, Philippa J; Leach, Irene Mateo; Verweij, Niek; Linneberg, Allan; Skaaby, Tea; Doevendans, Pieter A; Cramer, Maarten J; van der Harst, Pim; Klungel, Olaf H; Dowling, Nicole F; Dominiczak, Anna F; Kumari, Meena; Nicolaides, Andrew N; Weikert, Cornelia; Boeing, Heiner; Ebrahim, Shah; Gaunt, Tom R; Price, Jackie F; Lannfelt, Lars; Peasey, Anne; Kubinova, Ruzena; Pajak, Andrzej; Malyutina, Sofia; Voevoda, Mikhail I; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke H; Norman, Paul E; Hankey, Graeme J; Bergmann, Manuela M; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Cooper, Jackie; Palmen, Jutta; Spiering, Wilko; de Jong, Pim A; Kuh, Diana; Hardy, Rebecca; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Ikram, M Arfan; Ford, Ian; Hyppönen, Elina; Almeida, Osvaldo P; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Hamsten, Anders; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Tjønneland, Anne; Tolstrup, Janne S; Rimm, Eric; Beulens, Joline W J; Verschuren, W M Monique; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Hofker, Marten H; Wannamethee, S Goya; Whincup, Peter H; Morris, Richard; Vicente, Astrid M; Watkins, Hugh; Farrall, Martin; Jukema, J Wouter; Meschia, James; Cupples, L Adrienne; Sharp, Stephen J; Fornage, Myriam; Kooperberg, Charles; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Dai, James Y; Lanktree, Matthew B; Siscovick, David S; Jorgenson, Eric; Spring, Bonnie; Coresh, Josef; Buxbaum, Sarah G; Schreiner, Pamela J; Ellison, R Curtis; Tsai, Michael Y; Patel, Sanjay R; Redline, Susan; Johnson, Andrew D; Hoogeveen, Ron C; Hakonarson, Hakon; Rotter, Jerome I; Boerwinkle, Eric; de Bakker, Paul I W; Kivimaki, Mika; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Sattar, Naveed; Lawlor, Debbie A; Whittaker, John; Davey Smith, George; Mukamal, Kenneth; Psaty, Bruce M; Wilson, James G; Lange, Leslie A; Hamidovic, Ajna; Hingorani, Aroon D; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Bobak, Martin; Leon, David A; Langenberg, Claudia; Palmer, Tom M; Reiner, Alex P; Keating, Brendan J; Dudbridge, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Objective To use the rs1229984 variant in the alcohol dehydrogenase 1B gene (ADH1B) as an instrument to investigate the causal role of alcohol in cardiovascular disease. Design Mendelian randomisation meta-analysis of 56 epidemiological studies. Participants 261 991 individuals of European descent, including 20 259 coronary heart disease cases and 10 164 stroke events. Data were available on ADH1B rs1229984 variant, alcohol phenotypes, and cardiovascular biomarkers. Main outcome measures Odds ratio for coronary heart disease and stroke associated with the ADH1B variant in all individuals and by categories of alcohol consumption. Results Carriers of the A-allele of ADH1B rs1229984 consumed 17.2% fewer units of alcohol per week (95% confidence interval 15.6% to 18.9%), had a lower prevalence of binge drinking (odds ratio 0.78 (95% CI 0.73 to 0.84)), and had higher abstention (odds ratio 1.27 (1.21 to 1.34)) than non-carriers. Rs1229984 A-allele carriers had lower systolic blood pressure (−0.88 (−1.19 to −0.56) mm Hg), interleukin-6 levels (−5.2% (−7.8 to −2.4%)), waist circumference (−0.3 (−0.6 to −0.1) cm), and body mass index (−0.17 (−0.24 to −0.10) kg/m2). Rs1229984 A-allele carriers had lower odds of coronary heart disease (odds ratio 0.90 (0.84 to 0.96)). The protective association of the ADH1B rs1229984 A-allele variant remained the same across all categories of alcohol consumption (P=0.83 for heterogeneity). Although no association of rs1229984 was identified with the combined subtypes of stroke, carriers of the A-allele had lower odds of ischaemic stroke (odds ratio 0.83 (0.72 to 0.95)). Conclusions Individuals with a genetic variant associated with non-drinking and lower alcohol consumption had a more favourable cardiovascular profile and a reduced risk of coronary heart disease than those without the genetic variant. This suggests that reduction of alcohol consumption, even for light to moderate drinkers, is beneficial for

  20. Physical Activity and Self-Reported Cardiovascular Comorbidities in Persons with Multiple Sclerosis: Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, Robert W.; Fernhall, Bo; McAuley, Edward; Cutter, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Background This study examined the possibility of a linear, inverse association between physical activity and the number of self-reported cardiovascular comorbidities in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods The sample included 561 persons with MS who completed demographic, cardiovascular comorbidity, disability status, and physical activity self-report assessments, and then wore an accelerometer for 7 days. The data were analyzed using bivariate correlation and multiple linear regression analyses. Results Bivariate correlation analysis indicated that there were statistically significant, inverse associations between the number of self-reported cardiovascular comorbidities and objectively measured (r = −0.192, p = 0.0001) and self-reported (r = −0.151, p = 0.0001) physical activity. The first multiple linear regression indicated that objectively measured physical activity was significantly associated with the number of self-reported cardiovascular comorbidities (B = −0.003, SE B = 0.001, β = −0.128), even after controlling for confounding variables. The second multiple linear regression indicated that self-reported physical activity, too, was significantly associated with the number of self-reported cardiovascular comorbidities (B = −0.011, SE B = 0.004, β = −0.114), even after controlling for confounding variables. Conclusion Physical activity was associated with the number of self-reported cardiovascular comorbidities, independent of disability status and other possible confounding variables, in persons with MS. PMID:21597305

  1. The Emerging Role of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Evaluation of Metabolic Cardiomyopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogeni, S; Markousis-Mavrogenis, G; Markussis, V; Kolovou, G

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this review is to discuss the role of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) in the diagnosis, risk stratification, and follow-up of metabolic cardiomyopathies. The classification of myocardial diseases, proposed by WHO/ISFC task force, distinguished specific cardiomyopathies, caused by metabolic disorders, into 4 types: 1) endocrine disorders, 2) storage or infiltration disorders (amyloidosis, hemochromatosis and familial storage disorders), 3) nutritional disorders (Kwashiorkor, beri-beri, obesity, and alcohol), and 4) diabetic heart. Thyroid disease, pheochromocytoma, and growth hormone excess or deficiency may contribute to usually reversible dilated cardiomyopathy. Glucogen storage diseases can be presented with myopathy, liver, and heart failure. Lysosomal storage diseases can provoke cardiac hypertrophy, mimicking hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and arrhythmias. Hereditary hemochromatosis, an inherited disorder of iron metabolism, leads to tissue iron overload in different organs, including the heart. Cardiac amyloidosis is the result of amyloid deposition in the heart, formed from breakdown of normal or abnormal proteins that leads to increased heart stiffness, restrictive cardiomyopathy, and heart failure. Finally, nutritional disturbances and metabolic diseases, such as Kwashiorkor, beri-beri, obesity, alcohol consumption, and diabetes mellitus may also lead to severe cardiac dysfunction. CMR, through its capability to reliably assess anatomy, function, inflammation, rest-stress myocardial perfusion, myocardial fibrosis, aortic distensibility, iron and/or fat deposition can serve as an excellent tool for early diagnosis of heart involvement, risk stratification, treatment evaluation, and long term follow-up of patients with metabolic cardiomyopathies. PMID:26197853

  2. Deployment of an Advanced Electrocardiographic Analysis (A-ECG) to Detect Cardiovascular Risk in Career Firefighters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezal, B. A.; Storer, T. W.; Abrazado, M.; Watne, R.; Schlegel, T. T.; Batalin, M.; Kaiser, W.; Smith, D. L.; Cooper, C. B.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Sudden cardiac death is the leading cause of line of duty death among firefighters, accounting for approximately 45% of fatalities annually. Firefighters perform strenuous muscular work while wearing heavy, encapsulating personal protective equipment in high ambient temperatures, under chaotic and emotionally stressful conditions. These factors can precipitate sudden cardiac events like myocardial infarction, serious dysrhythmias, or cerebrovascular accidents in firefighters with underlying cardiovascular disease. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to deploy and then evaluate the contribution of resting advanced ECG (A-ECG) in addition to other screening tools (family history, lipid profiles, and cardiopulmonary exercise tests, XT) in assessment of an individual fs cardiac risk profile. METHODS: Forty-four career firefighters were recruited to perform comprehensive baseline assessments including tests of aerobic performance, fasting lipids and glucose. Five-min resting 12-lead A-ECGs were obtained in a subset of firefighters (n=21) and transmitted over a secure networked system to a NASA physician collaborator. Using myocardial perfusion and other imaging as the gold standard, A-ECG scoring has been proven useful in accurately identifying a number of cardiac pathologies including coronary artery disease (CAD), left ventricular hypertrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and non-ischemic and ischemic cardiomyopathy. RESULTS: Subjects f mean (SD) age was 43 (8) years, weight 91 (13) kg, and BMI 28 (3) kg/m2. Fifty-one percent of subjects had .3 cardiovascular risk factors. One subject had ST depression on XT ECG, at least one positive A-ECG score for CAD, and documented CAD based on cardiology referral. While all other subjects, including those with fewer risk factors, higher aerobic fitness, and normal exercise ECGs, were classified as healthy by A-ECG, there was no trend for association between risk factors and any of 20 A-ECG parameters in the

  3. Multispectral Image Analysis for Astaxanthin Coating Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungqvist, Martin Georg; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht;

    2012-01-01

    only with fish oil. In this study, multispectral image analysis of pellets captured reflection in 20 wavelengths (385–1050 nm). Linear discriminant analysis (LDA), principal component analysis, and support vector machine were used as statistical analysis. The features extracted from the multispectral...... images were pixel spectral values as well as using summary statistics such as the mean or median value of each pellet. Classification using LDA on pellet mean or median values showed overall good results. Multispectral imaging is a promising technique for noninvasive on-line quality food and feed...

  4. Erectile dysfunction and cardiovascular events in diabetic men: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohide Yamada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that erectile dysfunction (ED influences the risk of cardiovascular events (CV events. However, a meta-analysis of the overall risk of CV events associated with ED in patients with diabetes has not been performed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We searched MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library for pertinent articles (including references published between 1951 and April 22, 2012. English language reports of original observational cohort studies and cross-sectional studies were included. Pooled effect estimates were obtained by random effects meta-analysis. A total of 3,791 CV events were reported in 3 cohort studies and 9 cross-sectional studies (covering 22,586 subjects. Across the cohort studies, the overall odds ratio (OR of diabetic men with ED versus those without ED was 1.74 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.34-2.27; P0.05. Moreover, meta-regression analysis found no relationship between the method used to assess ED (questionnaire or interview, mean age, mean hemoglobin A(1c, mean body mass index, or mean duration of diabetes and the risk of CV events or CHD. In the cross-sectional studies, the OR of diabetic men with ED versus those without ED was 3.39 (95% CI: 2.58-4.44; P<0.001 for CV events (N = 9, 3.43 (95% CI: 2.46-4.77; P<0.001 for CHD (N = 7, and 2.63 (95% CI: 1.41-4.91; P = 0.002 for peripheral vascular disease (N = 5. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: ED was associated with an increased risk of CV events in diabetic patients. Prevention and early detection of cardiovascular disease are important in the management of diabetes, especially in view of the rapid increase in its prevalence.

  5. Eponymous cardiovascular surgeries for congenital heart diseases--imaging review and historical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buethe, Ji; Ashwath, Ravi C; Rajiah, Prabhakar

    2015-01-01

    Advances in pediatric cardiology and cardiac surgical techniques over the past few decades have revolutionized the management of the patients with congenital heart disease, and many now survive into adulthood. Several eponymous surgical procedures performed for congenital heart disease have been named after eminent surgeons. In this article, we provide a short biography of the surgeons associated with these eponymous surgical procedures along with their other important scientific contributions. This is followed by a review of these surgical procedures and their most common complications. Imaging appearances of these surgical procedures along with common complications are described and illustrated, with particular emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging. The surgical procedures described in this review include Blalock-Taussig, Potts, Waterston, Glenn, Fontan, Kawashima, Norwood, Sano, Damus-Kaye-Stansel, Mustard, Senning, Jatene, LeCompte, Rastelli, Rashkind, Ross, and Waldenhausen.

  6. Solar Image Analysis and Visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Ireland, J

    2009-01-01

    This volume presents a selection of papers on the state of the art of image enhancement, automated feature detection, machine learning, and visualization tools in support of solar physics that focus on the challenges presented by new ground-based and space-based instrumentation. The articles and topics were inspired by the Third Solar Image Processing Workshop, held at Trinity College Dublin, Ireland but contributions from other experts have been included as well. This book is mainly aimed at researchers and graduate students working on image processing and compter vision in astronomy and solar physics.

  7. Where Does It Lead? Imaging Features of Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Devices on Chest Radiograph and CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanzman, Rotem S.; Blondin, Dirk; Furst, Gunter; Scherer, Axel; R Miese, Falk; Kroepil, Patric [University of Duesseldorf, Medical Faculty, 40225 Duesseldorf (Germany); Winter, Joachim [University Hospital Duesseldorf, 40225 Duesseldorf (Germany); Abbara, Suhny [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (US)

    2011-10-15

    Pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) are being increasingly employed in patients suffering from cardiac rhythm disturbances. The principal objective of this article is to familiarize radiologists with pacemakers and ICDs on chest radiographs and CT scans. Therefore, the preferred lead positions according to pacemaker types and anatomic variants are introduced in this study. Additionally, the imaging features of incorrect lead positions and defects, as well as complications subsequent to pacemaker implantation are demonstrated herein.

  8. Non-Contrast Enhanced Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Characterizing Chronic Myocardial Infarctions

    OpenAIRE

    Kali, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is the leading cause of morbidity and death globally. Non-invasive characterization of chronic MIs is of significant clinical importance due to its association with adverse cardiac outcomes such as cardiac arrhythmias, heart failure, and sudden cardiac death. Late Gadolinium Enhancement (LGE) MRI has evolved into a robust non-invasive imaging technique for characterizing chronic MIs and identifying new pathophysiological substrates of adverse cardiac outcomes within...

  9. Where Does It Lead? Imaging Features of Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Devices on Chest Radiograph and CT

    OpenAIRE

    Lanzman, Rotem S.; Winter, Joachim; Blondin, Dirk; Fürst, Günter; Scherer, Axel; Miese, Falk R; Abbara, Suhny; Kröpil, Patric

    2011-01-01

    Pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) are being increasingly employed in patients suffering from cardiac rhythm disturbances. The principal objective of this article is to familiarize radiologists with pacemakers and ICDs on chest radiographs and CT scans. Therefore, the preferred lead positions according to pacemaker types and anatomic variants are introduced in this study. Additionally, the imaging features of incorrect lead positions and defects, as well as complica...

  10. Natural user interfaces in medical image analysis cognitive analysis of brain and carotid artery images

    CERN Document Server

    Ogiela, Marek R

    2014-01-01

    This unique text/reference highlights a selection of practical applications of advanced image analysis methods for medical images. The book covers the complete methodology for processing, analysing and interpreting diagnostic results of sample CT images. The text also presents significant problems related to new approaches and paradigms in image understanding and semantic image analysis. To further engage the reader, example source code is provided for the implemented algorithms in the described solutions. Features: describes the most important methods and algorithms used for image analysis; e

  11. THE ANALYSIS OF MAJOR RISK FACTORS OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES AMONG INHABITANTS OF THE NORTH REGION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, N V; Markova, S V; Antipina, U D; Sivtseva, T P; Savvina, I L

    2015-01-01

    Last years the problem of organism's adaptation to severe climate-environmental conditions of the Far North has been intensively developed. The Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) is the most northern republic of the Russian Federation. People have created a unique way of life, language, original culture on this cold part of the earth and have carried centuries later. This unique experience has been saved up throughout many centuries and generated in natural environment of habitation and passed from generation to generation. Last years the changes of living conditions of indigenous population, urbanization and globalisation, deterioration of ecological conditions exhausted reserve possibilities of organism. Among the indigenous population health change has menacing character, especially among the children's population. The analysis of major risk factors of the development of cardiovascular diseases among the indigenous population of the north has been carried out in this research. PMID:26887120

  12. THE ANALYSIS OF MAJOR RISK FACTORS OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES AMONG INHABITANTS OF THE NORTH REGION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, N V; Markova, S V; Antipina, U D; Sivtseva, T P; Savvina, I L

    2015-01-01

    Last years the problem of organism's adaptation to severe climate-environmental conditions of the Far North has been intensively developed. The Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) is the most northern republic of the Russian Federation. People have created a unique way of life, language, original culture on this cold part of the earth and have carried centuries later. This unique experience has been saved up throughout many centuries and generated in natural environment of habitation and passed from generation to generation. Last years the changes of living conditions of indigenous population, urbanization and globalisation, deterioration of ecological conditions exhausted reserve possibilities of organism. Among the indigenous population health change has menacing character, especially among the children's population. The analysis of major risk factors of the development of cardiovascular diseases among the indigenous population of the north has been carried out in this research.

  13. Analysis of cardiovascular oscillations: A new approach to the early prediction of pre-eclampsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malberg, H.; Bauernschmitt, R.; Voss, A.; Walther, T.; Faber, R.; Stepan, H.; Wessel, N.

    2007-03-01

    Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a serious disorder with high morbidity and mortality occurring during pregnancy; 3%-5% of all pregnant women are affected. Early prediction is still insufficient in clinical practice. Although most pre-eclamptic patients show pathological uterine perfusion in the second trimester, this parameter has a positive predictive accuracy of only 30%, which makes it unsuitable for early, reliable prediction. The study is based on the hypothesis that alterations in cardiovascular regulatory behavior can be used to predict PE. Ninety-six pregnant women in whom Doppler investigation detected perfusion disorders of the uterine arteries were included in the study. Twenty-four of these pregnant women developed PE after the 30th week of gestation. During pregnancy, additional several noninvasive continuous blood pressure recordings were made over 30 min under resting conditions by means of a finger cuff. The time series extracted of systolic as well as diastolic beat-to-beat pressures and the heart rate were studied by variability and coupling analysis to find predictive factors preceding genesis of the disease. In the period between the 18th and 26th weeks of pregnancy, three special variability and baroreflex parameters were able to predict PE several weeks before clinical manifestation. Discriminant function analysis of these parameters was able to predict PE with a sensitivity and specificity of 87.5% and a positive predictive value of 70%. The combined clinical assessment of uterine perfusion and cardiovascular variability demonstrates the best current prediction several weeks before clinical manifestation of PE.

  14. ECG-based gating in ultra high field cardiovascular magnetic resonance using an independent component analysis approach

    OpenAIRE

    Krug, Johannes W; Rose, Georg; Clifford, Gari D.; Oster, Julien

    2013-01-01

    Background In Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR), the synchronization of image acquisition with heart motion is performed in clinical practice by processing the electrocardiogram (ECG). The ECG-based synchronization is well established for MR scanners with magnetic fields up to 3 T. However, this technique is prone to errors in ultra high field environments, e.g. in 7 T MR scanners as used in research applications. The high magnetic fields cause severe magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects w...

  15. Digital Image Analysis for Detechip Code Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Lyon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available DETECHIP® is a molecular sensing array used for identification of a large variety of substances. Previous methodology for the analysis of DETECHIP® used human vision to distinguish color changes induced by the presence of the analyte of interest. This paper describes several analysis techniques using digital images of DETECHIP®. Both a digital camera and flatbed desktop photo scanner were used to obtain Jpeg images. Color information within these digital images was obtained through the measurement of redgreen-blue (RGB values using software such as GIMP, Photoshop and ImageJ. Several different techniques were used to evaluate these color changes. It was determined that the flatbed scanner produced in the clearest and more reproducible images. Furthermore, codes obtained using a macro written for use within ImageJ showed improved consistency versus pervious methods.

  16. Digital Image Analysis for Detechip Code Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Lyon

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available DETECHIP® is a molecular sensing array used for identification of a large variety of substances. Previous methodology for the analysis of DETECHIP® used human vision to distinguish color changes induced by the presence of the analyte of interest. This paper describes several analysis techniques using digital images of DETECHIP® . Both a digital camera and flatbed desktop photo scanner were used to obtain Jpeg images. Color information within these digital images was obtained through the measurement of redgreen-blue (RGB values using software such as GIMP, Photoshop and ImageJ. Several different techniques were used to evaluate these color changes. It was determined that the flatbed scanner produced in the clearest and more reproducible images. Furthermore, codes obtained using a macro written for use within ImageJ showed improved consistency versus pervious methods.

  17. Segmentation of the heart and major vascular structures in cardiovascular CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, J.; Ecabert, O.; Lorenz, C.; von Berg, J.; Walker, M. J.; Ivanc, T. B.; Vembar, M.; Olszewski, M. E.; Weese, J.

    2008-03-01

    Segmentation of organs in medical images can be successfully performed with shape-constrained deformable models. A surface mesh is attracted to detected image boundaries by an external energy, while an internal energy keeps the mesh similar to expected shapes. Complex organs like the heart with its four chambers can be automatically segmented using a suitable shape variablility model based on piecewise affine degrees of freedom. In this paper, we extend the approach to also segment highly variable vascular structures. We introduce a dedicated framework to adapt an extended mesh model to freely bending vessels. This is achieved by subdividing each vessel into (short) tube-shaped segments ("tubelets"). These are assigned to individual similarity transformations for local orientation and scaling. Proper adaptation is achieved by progressively adapting distal vessel parts to the image only after proximal neighbor tubelets have already converged. In addition, each newly activated tubelet inherits the local orientation and scale of the preceeding one. To arrive at a joint segmentation of chambers and vasculature, we extended a previous model comprising endocardial surfaces of the four chambers, the left ventricular epicardium, and a pulmonary artery trunk. Newly added are the aorta (ascending and descending plus arch), superior and inferior vena cava, coronary sinus, and four pulmonary veins. These vessels are organized as stacks of triangulated rings. This mesh configuration is most suitable to define tubelet segments. On 36 CT data sets reconstructed at several cardiac phases from 17 patients, segmentation accuracies of 0.61-0.80mm are obtained for the cardiac chambers. For the visible parts of the newly added great vessels, surface accuracies of 0.47-1.17mm are obtained (larger errors are asscociated with faintly contrasted venous structures).

  18. Footprint and imprint: an ecologic time-trend analysis of cardiovascular publications in general and specialty journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldridge, Abigail S; Huffman, Mark D; Bloomfield, Gerald S; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2014-06-01

    Studies have demonstrated strong associations between publication source and citations, as well as investigatory analysis of collaboration effects, in general and medical literature, but are limited to specific journals or short duration of time. This study sought to analyze time trends in cardiovascular research publications in leading general and specialty journals and to determine the association between collaboration and citation index. Cardiovascular publications were retrieved from Web of Knowledge by a cardiovascular bibliometric filter, and annual publication volumes in 8 general and specialty journals were compared. Univariable linear regression models were used to determine global and journal-specific trends for overall publication, cardiovascular publication, proportion of cardiovascular publication, collaboration, and citations. Cardiovascular publications increased (1999 to 2008) by 36% and number of sources by 74%. Volume increased in European Heart Journal (beta: 18.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.6 to 26.3) and decreased in Circulation (beta: -42.9, 95% CI: -79.3 to -6.5), Annals of Internal Medicine (beta: -1.9, 95% CI: -3.5 to -0.3), and Lancet (beta: -11.2, 95% CI: -14.7 to -7.8). Number of contributing countries increased in 3 journals: BMJ (beta: 0.8, 95% CI: 0.2 to 1.5), European Heart Journal (beta: -1.2, 95% CI: 0.8 to 1.7), and New England Journal of Medicine (beta: 1.6, 95% CI: 0.6 to 2.7). Fraction of collaborative publications increased (beta: 1.1 to 2.9) in all but Annals of Internal Medicine. Collaboration was associated with a higher median actual citation index (p journals. Contribution by country in selected journals was disproportionate and under-represents total cardiovascular research in low- and middle-income countries.

  19. A comparative analysis of protein targets of withdrawn cardiovascular drugs in human and mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yuqi; Wang, Jingwen; Wang, Yanjie; Huang, Jingfei

    2012-01-01

    Background Mouse is widely used in animal testing of cardiovascular disease. However, a large number of cardiovascular drugs that have been experimentally proved to work well on mouse were withdrawn because they caused adverse side effects in human. Methods In this study, we investigate whether binding patterns of withdrawn cardiovascular drugs are conserved between mouse and human through computational dockings and molecular dynamic simulations. In addition, we also measured the level of con...

  20. 心血管MRI第二部分--心血管MRI的基本序列和常用技术%Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging:Part II--the basic sequences and common techniques of cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹刚; 贺光军; 赵世华

    2013-01-01

    This article is the second section. The basic contrast behaviors, sequences, and requirements of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging were described in detail. First, three basic fast sequences for CMR imaging and different contrast behaviors were summarized. Second, some common used technique strategies for solving the problems in CMR imaging were presented.%此文为第二部分,着重介绍心血管MRI(CMRI)的基本对比、序列及要求。首先,归纳CMRI的三种基本快速成像序列和图像的对比分类。然后,应对CMRI的技术挑战和难点,讲述CMRI质量控制的常用技术。

  1. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance in Marfan syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Dormand, Helen; Mohiaddin, Raad H

    2013-01-01

    This review provides an overview of Marfan syndrome with an emphasis on cardiovascular complications and cardiovascular imaging. Both pre- and post-operative imaging is addressed with an explanation of surgical management. All relevant imaging modalities are discussed with a particular focus on cardiovascular MR.

  2. Cardiovascular Risk in Psoriasis: A Population-Based Analysis with Assessment of the Framingham Risk Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Myasoedova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the utility of the Framingham risk score (FRS in estimating cardiovascular risk in psoriasis. Methods. We compared the predicted 10-year risk of cardiovascular events, namely, cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, heart failure, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, and coronary artery bypass grafting using the FRS, to the observed risk of cardiovascular events in a population-based cohort of patients with psoriasis. Patients with incident or prevalent adult-onset psoriasis aged 30–79 years without prior history of cardiovascular disease were included. Results. Among the 1197 patients with predicted risk scores, the median FRS was 6.0%, while the observed 10-year cardiovascular risk was 6.9% (standardized incidence ratio (SIR: 1.14; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.92–1.42. The SIR was not elevated for women nor for men. The differences between observed and predicted cardiovascular risks in patients <60 years (SIR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.73–1.41 or ≥60 years (SIR: 1.26; 95% CI: 0.95–1.68 were not statistically significant. Conclusion. There was no apparent difference between observed and predicted cardiovascular risks in patients with psoriasis in our study. FRS reasonably estimated cardiovascular risk in both men and women as well as in younger and older psoriasis patients, suggesting that FRS can be used in risk stratification in psoriasis without further adjustment.

  3. Depth-based selective image reconstruction using spatiotemporal image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haga, Tetsuji; Sumi, Kazuhiko; Hashimoto, Manabu; Seki, Akinobu

    1999-03-01

    In industrial plants, a remote monitoring system which removes physical tour inspection is often considered desirable. However the image sequence given from the mobile inspection robot is hard to see because interested objects are often partially occluded by obstacles such as pillars or fences. Our aim is to improve the image sequence that increases the efficiency and reliability of remote visual inspection. We propose a new depth-based image processing technique, which removes the needless objects from the foreground and recovers the occluded background electronically. Our algorithm is based on spatiotemporal analysis that enables fine and dense depth estimation, depth-based precise segmentation, and accurate interpolation. We apply this technique to a real time sequence given from the mobile inspection robot. The resulted image sequence is satisfactory in that the operator can make correct visual inspection with less fatigue.

  4. Effect of hormone replacement therapy on cardiovascular outcomes: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dicheng Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hormone replacement therapy (HRT is widely used to controlling menopausal symptoms and prevent adverse cardiovascular events. However, the benefit and risk of HRT on cardiovascular outcomes remains controversial. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We systematically searched the PubMed, EmBase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases for obtaining relevant literature. All eligible trials reported on the effects of HRT on cardiovascular outcomes. We did a random effects meta-analysis to obtain summary effect estimates for the clinical outcomes with use of relative risks calculated from the raw data of included trials. Of 1903 identified studies, we included 10 trials reporting data on 38908 postmenopausal women. Overall, we noted that estrogen combined with medroxyprogesterone acetate therapy as compared to placebo had no effect on coronary events (RR, 1.07; 95%CI: 0.91-1.26; P = 0.41, myocardial infarction (RR, 1.09; 95%CI: 0.85-1.41; P = 0.48, stroke (RR, 1.21; 95%CI: 1.00-1.46; P = 0.06, cardiac death (RR, 1.19; 95%CI: 0.91-1.56; P = 0.21, total death (RR, 1.06; 95%CI: 0.81-1.39; P = 0.66, and revascularization (RR, 0.95; 95%CI: 0.83-1.08; P = 0.43. In addition, estrogen therapy alone had no effect on coronary events (RR, 0.93; 95%CI: 0.80-1.08; P = 0.33, myocardial infarction (RR, 0.95; 95%CI: 0.78-1.15; P = 0.57, cardiac death (RR, 0.86; 95%CI: 0.65-1.13; P = 0.27, total mortality (RR, 1.02; 95%CI: 0.89-1.18; P = 0.73, and revascularization (RR, 0.77; 95%CI: 0.45-1.31; P = 0.34, but associated with a 27% increased risk for incident stroke (RR, 1.27; 95%CI: 1.06-1.53; P = 0.01. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Hormone replacement therapy does not effect on the incidence of coronary events, myocardial infarction, cardiac death, total mortality or revascularization. However, it might contributed an important role on the risk of incident stroke.

  5. [Research on distribution of patents' holders for Chinese herbal compounds in treating cardiovascular and cerebrovascular based on cluster analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    YANG, Xu-Jie; XIAO, Shi-Ying

    2015-09-01

    To discuss the distribution of patents' holders for Chinese herbal compounds in treating cardiovascular and cerebrovascular, the patents' holders for Chinese herbal compounds in treating cardiovascular and cerebrovascular were cluster analyzed by means of simple statistics and cluster analysis. Clustering variables were composed of patent applications, patent maintained number, related papers' quantity, etc. Chinese herbal compound patents' holders were divided into four categories according to their different scientific research and patent strength. It is the magic weapon for Chinese herbal compound patents' holders that have scientific research patents' transforming and make coordination of patent protection and scientific innovation.

  6. Quantum image classification using principal component analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Ostaszewski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel quantum algorithm for classification of images. The algorithm is constructed using principal component analysis and von Neuman quantum measurements. In order to apply the algorithm we present a new quantum representation of grayscale images.

  7. Arterial blood pressure measurement and pulse wave analysis--their role in enhancing cardiovascular assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avolio, Alberto P; Butlin, Mark; Walsh, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The most common method of clinical measurement of arterial blood pressure is by means of the cuff sphygmomanometer. This instrument has provided fundamental quantitative information on arterial pressure in individual subjects and in populations and facilitated estimation of cardiovascular risk related to levels of blood pressure obtained from the brachial cuff. Although the measurement is taken in a peripheral limb, the values are generally assumed to reflect the pressure throughout the arterial tree in large conduit arteries. Since the arterial pressure pulse becomes modified as it travels away from the heart towards the periphery, this is generally true for mean and diastolic pressure, but not for systolic pressure, and so pulse pressure. The relationship between central and peripheral pulse pressure depends on propagation characteristics of arteries. Hence, while the sphygmomanometer gives values of two single points on the pressure wave (systolic and diastolic pressure), there is additional information that can be obtained from the time-varying pulse waveform that enables an improved quantification of the systolic load on the heart and other central organs. This topical review will assess techniques of pressure measurement that relate to the use of the cuff sphygmomanometer and to the non-invasive registration and analysis of the peripheral and central arterial pressure waveform. Improved assessment of cardiovascular function in relation to treatment and management of high blood pressure will result from future developments in the indirect measurement of arterial blood pressure that involve the conventional cuff sphygmomanometer with the addition of information derived from the peripheral arterial pulse. PMID:19940350

  8. Cardiac pathologies in female carriers of Duchenne muscular dystrophy assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common and severe dystrophinopathy. DMD carriers rarely present with clinical symptoms, but may suffer from cardiac involvement. Because echocardiographic findings are inconsistent and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) data are limited, this study sought to investigate asymptomatic carriers for cardiac abnormalities using CMRI. Fifteen genetically confirmed DMD carriers (age, 32.3 ± 10.2 years) were prospectively examined on a 1.5T MR system. Cine, T2, and late-gadolinium-enhanced (LGE) images were acquired, and were evaluated in consensus by two experienced readers. Left ventricular (LV) parameters were analysed semiautomatically, normalized to BSA. Normalized LV end-diastolic volume was increased in 7 % (73.7 ± 16.8 ml/m2; range, 48-116 ml/m2) and normalized LV end-systolic volume in 20 % (31.5 ± 13.3 ml/m2; range, 15-74 ml/m2). EF was reduced in 33 % (58.4 ± 7.6 %; range, 37-69 %) and normalized LV myocardial mass in 80 % (40.5 ± 6.8 g/m2; range, 31-55 g/m2). In 80 %, regional myocardial thinning was detected in more than one segment. In 13 % and 40 %, apical-lateral accentuation of LV non-compaction was present. LGE was found in 60 % (midmyocardial inferolateral accentuation). Given the high frequency of cardiac pathologies detected by CMRI, regular cardiac risk assessment is advisable for DMD carriers. Besides clinical examination, CMRI is an excellent tool for this purpose. (orig.)

  9. Cardiac pathologies in female carriers of Duchenne muscular dystrophy assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schelhorn, Juliane; Schemuth, Haemi; Nensa, Felix; Nassenstein, Kai; Forsting, Michael; Schlosser, Thomas [University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Schoenecker, Anne; Neudorf, Ulrich [University Hospital Essen, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Essen (Germany); Schara, Ulrike [University Hospital Essen, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Essen (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common and severe dystrophinopathy. DMD carriers rarely present with clinical symptoms, but may suffer from cardiac involvement. Because echocardiographic findings are inconsistent and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) data are limited, this study sought to investigate asymptomatic carriers for cardiac abnormalities using CMRI. Fifteen genetically confirmed DMD carriers (age, 32.3 ± 10.2 years) were prospectively examined on a 1.5T MR system. Cine, T2, and late-gadolinium-enhanced (LGE) images were acquired, and were evaluated in consensus by two experienced readers. Left ventricular (LV) parameters were analysed semiautomatically, normalized to BSA. Normalized LV end-diastolic volume was increased in 7 % (73.7 ± 16.8 ml/m{sup 2}; range, 48-116 ml/m{sup 2}) and normalized LV end-systolic volume in 20 % (31.5 ± 13.3 ml/m{sup 2}; range, 15-74 ml/m{sup 2}). EF was reduced in 33 % (58.4 ± 7.6 %; range, 37-69 %) and normalized LV myocardial mass in 80 % (40.5 ± 6.8 g/m{sup 2}; range, 31-55 g/m{sup 2}). In 80 %, regional myocardial thinning was detected in more than one segment. In 13 % and 40 %, apical-lateral accentuation of LV non-compaction was present. LGE was found in 60 % (midmyocardial inferolateral accentuation). Given the high frequency of cardiac pathologies detected by CMRI, regular cardiac risk assessment is advisable for DMD carriers. Besides clinical examination, CMRI is an excellent tool for this purpose. (orig.)

  10. A Robust Actin Filaments Image Analysis Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alioscha-Perez, Mitchel; Benadiba, Carine; Goossens, Katty; Kasas, Sandor; Dietler, Giovanni; Willaert, Ronnie; Sahli, Hichem

    2016-08-01

    The cytoskeleton is a highly dynamical protein network that plays a central role in numerous cellular physiological processes, and is traditionally divided into three components according to its chemical composition, i.e. actin, tubulin and intermediate filament cytoskeletons. Understanding the cytoskeleton dynamics is of prime importance to unveil mechanisms involved in cell adaptation to any stress type. Fluorescence imaging of cytoskeleton structures allows analyzing the impact of mechanical stimulation in the cytoskeleton, but it also imposes additional challenges in the image processing stage, such as the presence of imaging-related artifacts and heavy blurring introduced by (high-throughput) automated scans. However, although there exists a considerable number of image-based analytical tools to address the image processing and analysis, most of them are unfit to cope with the aforementioned challenges. Filamentous structures in images can be considered as a piecewise composition of quasi-straight segments (at least in some finer or coarser scale). Based on this observation, we propose a three-steps actin filaments extraction methodology: (i) first the input image is decomposed into a 'cartoon' part corresponding to the filament structures in the image, and a noise/texture part, (ii) on the 'cartoon' image, we apply a multi-scale line detector coupled with a (iii) quasi-straight filaments merging algorithm for fiber extraction. The proposed robust actin filaments image analysis framework allows extracting individual filaments in the presence of noise, artifacts and heavy blurring. Moreover, it provides numerous parameters such as filaments orientation, position and length, useful for further analysis. Cell image decomposition is relatively under-exploited in biological images processing, and our study shows the benefits it provides when addressing such tasks. Experimental validation was conducted using publicly available datasets, and in osteoblasts grown in

  11. A Robust Actin Filaments Image Analysis Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alioscha-Perez, Mitchel; Benadiba, Carine; Goossens, Katty; Kasas, Sandor; Dietler, Giovanni; Willaert, Ronnie; Sahli, Hichem

    2016-01-01

    The cytoskeleton is a highly dynamical protein network that plays a central role in numerous cellular physiological processes, and is traditionally divided into three components according to its chemical composition, i.e. actin, tubulin and intermediate filament cytoskeletons. Understanding the cytoskeleton dynamics is of prime importance to unveil mechanisms involved in cell adaptation to any stress type. Fluorescence imaging of cytoskeleton structures allows analyzing the impact of mechanical stimulation in the cytoskeleton, but it also imposes additional challenges in the image processing stage, such as the presence of imaging-related artifacts and heavy blurring introduced by (high-throughput) automated scans. However, although there exists a considerable number of image-based analytical tools to address the image processing and analysis, most of them are unfit to cope with the aforementioned challenges. Filamentous structures in images can be considered as a piecewise composition of quasi-straight segments (at least in some finer or coarser scale). Based on this observation, we propose a three-steps actin filaments extraction methodology: (i) first the input image is decomposed into a ‘cartoon’ part corresponding to the filament structures in the image, and a noise/texture part, (ii) on the ‘cartoon’ image, we apply a multi-scale line detector coupled with a (iii) quasi-straight filaments merging algorithm for fiber extraction. The proposed robust actin filaments image analysis framework allows extracting individual filaments in the presence of noise, artifacts and heavy blurring. Moreover, it provides numerous parameters such as filaments orientation, position and length, useful for further analysis. Cell image decomposition is relatively under-exploited in biological images processing, and our study shows the benefits it provides when addressing such tasks. Experimental validation was conducted using publicly available datasets, and in osteoblasts

  12. Relationships of OPG Genetic Polymorphisms with Susceptibility to Cardiovascular Disease: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, De-Hua; Zhou, Peng-Zhen; Xiu, Xiao-Lin; Zhou, Guang-Hui; Sun, Yu-Xia; Song, Chun

    2016-04-12

    BACKGROUND The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine whether genetic polymorphisms in the osteoprotegerin (OPG) gene contribute to increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). MATERIAL AND METHODS Electronic databases were searched carefully without any language restriction. Analyses of data were conducted using STATA software. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were also calculated. RESULTS Seven clinical case-control studies that enrolled 1170 CVD patients and 1194 healthy subjects were included. The results indicated that OPG gene polymorphism might be closely associated with susceptibility to CVD, especially for rs2073617 T>C and rs2073618 G>C polymorphisms. Ethnicity-stratified analysis indicated that genetic polymorphism in the OPG were closely related with the pathogenesis of CVD among Asians (all P0.05). CONCLUSIONS Our meta-analysis provided quantitative evidence that OPG gene polymorphism may be closely related to an increased risk of CVD, especially for rs2073617 T>C and rs2073618 G>C polymorphisms.

  13. Integration of an optical coherence tomography (OCT) system into a new environmental chamber to facilitate long term in vivo imaging of cardiovascular development in higher vertebrate embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars; Happel, Christoph M.; Thommes, Jan;

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution 3-D in vivo imaging of embryonic development over long periods of time under constant physiological conditions (e.g. temperature, humidity) was a challenging task for researchers working on early cardiovascular development. Without appropriate maintenance of temperature, for example...... development. Here we demonstrate, to the best of our knowledge, the first realization of an optical coherence tomography (OCT) system integrated into a new environmental incubation chamber (EIC) to facilitate real-time in vivo imaging of cardiovascular development in chick embryos. The EIC provides stable...... conditions for embryonic development with respect to temperature, humidity, and oxygen levels. An OCT probe is integrated into the EIC and facilitates visualization of embryos at micrometer resolution, including the acquisition of M-mode, Doppler OCT, and Doppler M-mode data....

  14. Long-term Exposure to Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Mortality: An Analysis of 22 European Cohorts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beelen, Rob; Stafoggia, Massimo; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Xun, Wei W; Katsouyanni, Klea; Dimakopoulou, Konstantina; Brunekreef, Bert; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Hoffmann, Barbara; Wolf, Kathrin; Samoli, Evangelia; Houthuijs, Danny; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Oudin, Anna; Forsberg, Bertil; Olsson, David; Salomaa, Veikko; Lanki, Timo; Yli-Tuomi, Tarja; Oftedal, Bente; Aamodt, Geir; Nafstad, Per; De Faire, Ulf; Pedersen, Nancy L; Ostenson, Claes-Göran; Fratiglioni, Laura; Penell, Johanna; Korek, Michal; Pyko, Andrei; Eriksen, Kirsten Thorup; Tjønneland, Anne; Becker, Thomas; Eeftens, Marloes; Bots, Michiel; Meliefste, Kees; Wang, Meng; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Sugiri, Dorothea; Krämer, Ursula; Heinrich, Joachim; de Hoogh, Kees; Key, Timothy; Peters, Annette; Cyrys, Josef; Concin, Hans; Nagel, Gabriele; Ineichen, Alex; Schaffner, Emmanuel; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Dratva, Julia; Ducret-Stich, Regina; Vilier, Alice; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Stempfelet, Morgane; Grioni, Sara; Krogh, Vittorio; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Marcon, Alessandro; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Galassi, Claudia; Migliore, Enrica; Ranzi, Andrea; Cesaroni, Giulia; Badaloni, Chiara; Forastiere, Francesco; Tamayo, Ibon; Amiano, Pilar; Dorronsoro, Miren; Katsoulis, Michail; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Vineis, Paolo; Hoek, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: Air pollution has been associated with cardiovascular mortality, but it remains unclear as to whether specific pollutants are related to specific cardiovascular causes of death. Within the multicenter European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE), we investigated the asso

  15. Malware Analysis Using Visualized Image Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KyoungSoo Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel malware visual analysis method that contains not only a visualization method to convert binary files into images, but also a similarity calculation method between these images. The proposed method generates RGB-colored pixels on image matrices using the opcode sequences extracted from malware samples and calculates the similarities for the image matrices. Particularly, our proposed methods are available for packed malware samples by applying them to the execution traces extracted through dynamic analysis. When the images are generated, we can reduce the overheads by extracting the opcode sequences only from the blocks that include the instructions related to staple behaviors such as functions and application programming interface (API calls. In addition, we propose a technique that generates a representative image for each malware family in order to reduce the number of comparisons for the classification of unknown samples and the colored pixel information in the image matrices is used to calculate the similarities between the images. Our experimental results show that the image matrices of malware can effectively be used to classify malware families both statically and dynamically with accuracy of 0.9896 and 0.9732, respectively.

  16. Role of multimodality cardiac imaging in preoperative cardiovascular evaluation before noncardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathala Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The preoperative cardiac assessment of patients undergoing noncardiac surgery is common in the daily practice of medical consultants, anesthesiologists, and surgeons. The number of patients undergoing noncardiac surgery worldwide is increasing. Currently, there are several noninvasive diagnostic tests available for preoperative evaluation. Both nuclear cardiology with myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT and stress echocardiography are well-established techniques for preoperative cardiac evaluation. Recently, some studies demonstrated that both coronary angiography by gated multidetector computed tomography and stress cardiac magnetic resonance might potentially play a role in preoperative evaluation as well, but more studies are needed to assess the role of these new modalities in preoperative risk stratification. A common question that arises in preoperative evaluation is if further preoperative testing is needed, which preoperative test should be used. The preferred stress test is the exercise electrocardiogram (ECG. Stress imaging with exercise or pharmacologic stress agents is to be considered in patients with abnormal rest ECG or patients who are unable to exercise. After reviewing this article, the reader should develop an understanding of the following: (1 the magnitude of the cardiac preoperative morbidity and mortality, (2 how to select a patient for further preoperative testing, (3 currently available noninvasive cardiac testing for the detection of coronary artery disease and assessment of left ventricular function, and (4 an approach to select the most appropriate noninvasive cardiac test, if needed.

  17. 7 Tesla (T) human cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging using FLASH and SSFP to assess cardiac function: validation against 1.5 T and 3 T

    OpenAIRE

    Suttie, J. J.; DelaBarre, L; Pitcher, A.; van de Moortele, P. F.; Dass, S; Snyder, C. J.; Francis, J M; Metzger, G. J.; Weale, P.; Ugurbil, K; Neubauer, S.; Robson, M; Vaughan, T

    2011-01-01

    We report the first comparison of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) at 1.5 T, 3 T and 7 T field strengths using steady state free precession (SSFP) and fast low angle shot (FLASH) cine sequences. Cardiac volumes and mass measurements were assessed for feasibility, reproducibility and validity at each given field strength using FLASH and SSFP sequences. Ten healthy volunteers underwent retrospectively electrocardiogram (ECG) gated CMR at 1.5 T, 3 T and 7 T using FLASH and SSFP se...

  18. Image processing and analysis software development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work presented in this project is aimed at developing a software 'IMAGE GALLERY' to investigate various image processing and analysis techniques. The work was divided into two parts namely the image processing techniques and pattern recognition, which further comprised of character and face recognition. Various image enhancement techniques including negative imaging, contrast stretching, compression of dynamic, neon, diffuse, emboss etc. have been studied. Segmentation techniques including point detection, line detection, edge detection have been studied. Also some of the smoothing and sharpening filters have been investigated. All these imaging techniques have been implemented in a window based computer program written in Visual Basic Neural network techniques based on Perception model have been applied for face and character recognition. (author)

  19. Principal component analysis of scintimammographic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifazzi, Claudio; Cinti, Maria Nerina; Vincentis, Giuseppe De; Finos, Livio; Muzzioli, Valerio; Betti, Margherita; Nico, Lanconelli; Tartari, Agostino; Pani, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    The recent development of new gamma imagers based on scintillation array with high spatial resolution, has strongly improved the possibility of detecting sub-centimeter cancer in Scintimammography. However, Compton scattering contamination remains the main drawback since it limits the sensitivity of tumor detection. Principal component image analysis (PCA), recently introduced in scintimam nographic imaging, is a data reduction technique able to represent the radiation emitted from chest, breast healthy and damaged tissues as separated images. From these images a Scintimammography can be obtained where the Compton contamination is "removed". In the present paper we compared the PCA reconstructed images with the conventional scintimammographic images resulting from the photopeak (Ph) energy window. Data coming from a clinical trial were used. For both kinds of images the tumor presence was quantified by evaluating the t-student statistics for independent sample as a measure of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Since the absence of Compton scattering, the PCA reconstructed images shows a better noise suppression and allows a more reliable diagnostics in comparison with the images obtained by the photopeak energy window, reducing the trend in producing false positive. PMID:17646004

  20. Myocardial tagging by Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance: evolution of techniques--pulse sequences, analysis algorithms, and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim El-Sayed H

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR tagging has been established as an essential technique for measuring regional myocardial function. It allows quantification of local intramyocardial motion measures, e.g. strain and strain rate. The invention of CMR tagging came in the late eighties, where the technique allowed for the first time for visualizing transmural myocardial movement without having to implant physical markers. This new idea opened the door for a series of developments and improvements that continue up to the present time. Different tagging techniques are currently available that are more extensive, improved, and sophisticated than they were twenty years ago. Each of these techniques has different versions for improved resolution, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, scan time, anatomical coverage, three-dimensional capability, and image quality. The tagging techniques covered in this article can be broadly divided into two main categories: 1 Basic techniques, which include magnetization saturation, spatial modulation of magnetization (SPAMM, delay alternating with nutations for tailored excitation (DANTE, and complementary SPAMM (CSPAMM; and 2 Advanced techniques, which include harmonic phase (HARP, displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE, and strain encoding (SENC. Although most of these techniques were developed by separate groups and evolved from different backgrounds, they are in fact closely related to each other, and they can be interpreted from more than one perspective. Some of these techniques even followed parallel paths of developments, as illustrated in the article. As each technique has its own advantages, some efforts have been made to combine different techniques together for improved image quality or composite information acquisition. In this review, different developments in pulse sequences and related image processing techniques are described along with the necessities that led to their invention

  1. Diagnostic accuracy of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging of right ventricular morphology and function in the assessment of suspected pulmonary hypertension results from the ASPIRE registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swift Andrew J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR imaging is accurate and reproducible for the assessment of right ventricular (RV morphology and function. However, the diagnostic accuracy of CMR derived RV measurements for the detection of pulmonary hypertension (PH in the assessment of patients with suspected PH in the clinic setting is not well described. Methods We retrospectively studied 233 consecutive treatment naïve patients with suspected PH including 39 patients with no PH who underwent CMR and right heart catheterisation (RHC within 48hours. The diagnostic accuracy of multiple CMR measurements for the detection of mPAP ≥ 25 mmHg was assessed using Fisher’s exact test and receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis. Results Ventricular mass index (VMI was the CMR measurement with the strongest correlation with mPAP (r = 0.78 and the highest diagnostic accuracy for the detection of PH (area under the ROC curve of 0.91 compared to an ROC of 0.88 for echocardiography calculated mPAP. Late gadolinium enhancement, VMI ≥ 0.4, retrograde flow ≥ 0.3 L/min/m2 and PA relative area change ≤ 15% predicted the presence of PH with a high degree of diagnostic certainty with a positive predictive value of 98%, 97%, 95% and 94% respectively. No single CMR parameter could confidently exclude the presence of PH. Conclusion CMR is a useful alternative to echocardiography in the evaluation of suspected PH. This study supports a role for the routine measurement of ventricular mass index, late gadolinium enhancement and the use of phase contrast imaging in addition to right heart functional indices in patients undergoing diagnostic CMR evaluation for suspected pulmonary hypertension.

  2. Multispectral dual isotope and NMR image analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dual isotope scintigraphy and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging produce image data that is intrinsically multispectral. That is multiple images of the same anatomic region are generated with different gray scale distribution and morphologic content that is largely redundant. Image processing technology, originally developed by NASA for satellite imaging, is available for multispectral analysis. These methods have been applied to provide tissue characterization. Tissue specific information encoded in the grapy scale data from dual isotope and NMR studies may be extracted using multispectral pattern recognition methods. The authors used table lookup minimum distance, maximum likelihood and cluster analysis techniques with data sets from Ga-67 / Tc-99m, 1-131 labeled antibodies / Tc-99m, Tc-99m perfusion / Xe-133 ventilation, and NMR studies. The results show; tissue characteristic signatures exist in dual isotope and NMR imaging, and these spectral signatures are identifiable using multispectral image analysis and provide tissue classification maps with scatter diagrams that facilitate interpretation and assist in elucidating subtle changes

  3. Magnesium and the risk of cardiovascular events: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Qu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prospective studies that have examined the association between dietary magnesium intake and serum magnesium concentrations and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD events have reported conflicting findings. We undertook a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between dietary magnesium intake and serum magnesium concentrations and the risk of total CVD events. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed systematic searches on MEDLINE, EMBASE, and OVID up to February 1, 2012 without limits. Categorical, linear, and nonlinear, dose-response, heterogeneity, publication bias, subgroup, and meta-regression analysis were performed. The analysis included 532,979 participants from 19 studies (11 studies on dietary magnesium intake, 6 studies on serum magnesium concentrations, and 2 studies on both with 19,926 CVD events. The pooled relative risks of total CVD events for the highest vs. lowest category of dietary magnesium intake and serum magnesium concentrations were 0.85 (95% confidence interval 0.78 to 0.92 and 0.77 (0.66 to 0.87, respectively. In linear dose-response analysis, only serum magnesium concentrations ranging from 1.44 to 1.8 mEq/L were significantly associated with total CVD events risk (0.91, 0.85 to 0.97 per 0.1 mEq/L (P(nonlinearity= 0.465. However, significant inverse associations emerged in nonlinear models for dietary magnesium intake (P(nonlinearity= 0.024. The greatest risk reduction occurred when intake increased from 150 to 400 mg/d. There was no evidence of publication bias. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There is a statistically significant nonlinear inverse association between dietary magnesium intake and total CVD events risk. Serum magnesium concentrations are linearly and inversely associated with the risk of total CVD events.

  4. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients treated with hemodialysis: Epidemiological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Dejan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in patients treated with hemodialysis (HD. The annual cardiovascular mortality rate in these patients is 9%. Left ventricular (LV hypertrophy, ischemic heart disease and heart failure are the most prevalent cardiovascular causes of death. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of traditional and nontraditional risk factors for cardiovascular complications, to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular complications and overall and cardiovascular mortality rate in patients on HD. Methods. We investigated a total of 115 patients undergoing HD for at least 6 months. First, a cross-sectional study was performed, followed by a two-year follow-up study. Beside standard biochemical parameters, we also determined cardiac troponins and echocardiographic parameters of LV morphology and function (LV mass index, LV fractional shortening, LV ejection fraction. The results were analyzed using the Student's t test and Mann-Whitney U test. Results. The patients with adverse outcome had significantly lower serum albumin (p < 0.01 and higher serum homocystein, troponin I and T, and LV mass index (p < 0.01. Hyperhomocysteinemia, anemia, hypertriglyceridemia and uncontrolled hypertension had the highest prevalence (86.09%, 76.52%, 43.48% and 36.52%, respectively among all investigated cardiovascular risk factors. Hypertrophy of the LV was presented in 71.31% of the patients and congestive heart failure in 8.70%. Heart valve calcification was found in 48.70% of the patients, pericardial effusion in 25.22% and disrrhythmia in 20.87% of the investigated patients. The average annual overall mortality rate was 13.74%, while average cardiovascular mortality rate was 8.51%. Conclusion. Patients on HD have high risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  5. Meta-Analysis of Anxiety as a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emdin, Connor A; Odutayo, Ayodele; Wong, Christopher X; Tran, Jenny; Hsiao, Allan J; Hunn, Benjamin H M

    2016-08-15

    Whether anxiety is a risk factor for a range of cardiovascular diseases is unclear. We aimed to determine the association between anxiety and a range of cardiovascular diseases. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for cohort studies that included participants with and without anxiety, including subjects with anxiety, worry, posttraumatic stress disorder, phobic anxiety, and panic disorder. We examined the association of anxiety with cardiovascular mortality, major cardiovascular events (defined as the composite of cardiovascular death, stroke, coronary heart disease, and heart failure), stroke, coronary heart disease, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation. We identified 46 cohort studies containing 2,017,276 participants and 222,253 subjects with anxiety. Anxiety was associated with a significantly elevated risk of cardiovascular mortality (relative risk [RR] 1.41, CI 1.13 to 1.76), coronary heart disease (RR 1.41, CI 1.23 to 1.61), stroke (RR 1.71, CI 1.18 to 2.50), and heart failure (RR 1.35, CI 1.11 to 1.64). Anxiety was not significantly associated with major cardiovascular events or atrial fibrillation although CIs were wide. Phobic anxiety was associated with a higher risk of coronary heart disease than other anxiety disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder was associated with a higher risk of stroke. Results were broadly consistent in sensitivity analyses. Anxiety disorders are associated with an elevated risk of a range of different cardiovascular events, including stroke, coronary heart disease, heart failure, and cardiovascular death. Whether these associations are causal is unclear. PMID:27324160

  6. Evaluation of 2 different x-ray digital systems designed for cardiovascular angiography: patient dosimetry data and image quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Octavian Dragusin; Kristien Smans; Hilde Bosmans [Department of Radiology, Gasthuisberg Hospital, Leuven (Belgium); Walter Desmet [Department of Cardiology, Gasthuisberg Hospital, Leuven (Belgium)

    2006-07-01

    The goal of this study was the comparative assessment of dose and image quality performance of a new flat-panel detector (F.D.) and an image intensifier (II) charge coupled device (C.C.D.) installed in a Catheterization laboratory (Cathlab). Poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA) plates were used to simulate different patient size (10,15,20,25,30 cm). Entrance dose to the phantom and image quality of a test object (Leeds T.O.R. 18-F.G.) were measured. For analysis of image quality, two methods were used. Firstly, images were evaluated directly on the monitor (low contrast resolution and high spatial resolution). Secondly, a numerical method was used (noise and signal-to-noise ratio). Finally a preliminary patient dose survey for the two most common interventional cardiology procedures (coronary angiography C.A. and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty - P.T.C.A.) was performed. Dose area product (D.A.P.), fluoroscopy time (F.T.) and total number of frames (No. frames) were collected. The results showed that both systems performed within international recommendations; the F.D. system seems superior to the II system, in terms of entrance doses of the phantom and image quality. Surprisingly, however, this potential dose reduction is not reflected in the patient data; D.A.P. values of patient data were not significantly reduced with the new system. This underlines the need for a careful set-up of the system and a more detailed analysis of the procedure. (authors)

  7. Quantitative analysis of qualitative images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockney, David; Falco, Charles M.

    2005-03-01

    We show optical evidence that demonstrates artists as early as Jan van Eyck and Robert Campin (c1425) used optical projections as aids for producing their paintings. We also have found optical evidence within works by later artists, including Bermejo (c1475), Lotto (c1525), Caravaggio (c1600), de la Tour (c1650), Chardin (c1750) and Ingres (c1825), demonstrating a continuum in the use of optical projections by artists, along with an evolution in the sophistication of that use. However, even for paintings where we have been able to extract unambiguous, quantitative evidence of the direct use of optical projections for producing certain of the features, this does not mean that paintings are effectively photographs. Because the hand and mind of the artist are intimately involved in the creation process, understanding these complex images requires more than can be obtained from only applying the equations of geometrical optics.

  8. Genetic Identification and Risk Factor Analysis of Asymptomatic Bacterial Colonization on Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xian-Ming; An, Yi; Li, Xue-Bin; Guo, Ji-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Asymptomatic bacterial colonization of cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) is widespread and increases the risk of clinical CIED infection. The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence of bacterial colonization of generator pockets in patients without signs of infection and to analyze the relationship with clinical infection and risk factors. From June 2011 to December 2012, 78 patients underwent CIED replacement or upgrade. Exclusion criteria included a clinical diagnosis of CIED infection, bacteremia, or infective endocarditis. All patients were examined for evidence of bacterial 16S rDNA on the device and in the surrounding tissues. Infection cases were recorded during follow-up. The bacterial-positive rate was 38.5% (30 cases); the coagulase-negative Staphylococcus detection rate was the highest (9 cases, 11.5%). Positive bacterial DNA results were obtained from pocket tissue in 23.1% of patients (18 cases), and bacterial DNA was detected on the device in 29.5% of patients (23 cases). During follow-up (median 24.6 months), two patients (6.7%, 2/30) became symptomatic with the same species of microorganism, S. aureus and S. epidermidis. Multivariable logistic regression analysis found that the history of bacterial infection, use of antibiotics, application of antiplatelet drugs, replacement frequency, and renal insufficiency were independent risk factors for asymptomatic bacterial colonization. PMID:25530969

  9. Genetic Identification and Risk Factor Analysis of Asymptomatic Bacterial Colonization on Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Ming Chu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Asymptomatic bacterial colonization of cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs is widespread and increases the risk of clinical CIED infection. The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence of bacterial colonization of generator pockets in patients without signs of infection and to analyze the relationship with clinical infection and risk factors. From June 2011 to December 2012, 78 patients underwent CIED replacement or upgrade. Exclusion criteria included a clinical diagnosis of CIED infection, bacteremia, or infective endocarditis. All patients were examined for evidence of bacterial 16S rDNA on the device and in the surrounding tissues. Infection cases were recorded during follow-up. The bacterial-positive rate was 38.5% (30 cases; the coagulase-negative Staphylococcus detection rate was the highest (9 cases, 11.5%. Positive bacterial DNA results were obtained from pocket tissue in 23.1% of patients (18 cases, and bacterial DNA was detected on the device in 29.5% of patients (23 cases. During follow-up (median 24.6 months, two patients (6.7%, 2/30 became symptomatic with the same species of microorganism, S. aureus and S. epidermidis. Multivariable logistic regression analysis found that the history of bacterial infection, use of antibiotics, application of antiplatelet drugs, replacement frequency, and renal insufficiency were independent risk factors for asymptomatic bacterial colonization.

  10. Multidirectional flow analysis by cardiovascular magnetic resonance in aneurysm development following repair of aortic coarctation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stalder Aurelien F

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aneurysm formation is a life-threatening complication after operative therapy in coarctation. The identification of patients at risk for the development of such secondary pathologies is of high interest and requires a detailed understanding of the link between vascular malformation and altered hemodynamics. The routine morphometric follow-up by magnetic resonance angiography is a well-established technique. However, the intrinsic sensitivity of magnetic resonance (MR towards motion offers the possibility to additionally investigate hemodynamic consequences of morphological changes of the aorta. We demonstrate two cases of aneurysm formation 13 and 35 years after coarctation surgery based on a Waldhausen repair with a subclavian patch and a Vosschulte repair with a Dacron patch, respectively. Comprehensive flow visualization by cardiovascular MR (CMR was performed using a flow-sensitive, 3-dimensional, and 3-directional time-resolved gradient echo sequence at 3T. Subsequent analysis included the calculation of a phase contrast MR angiography and color-coded streamline and particle trace 3D visualization. Additional quantitative evaluation provided regional physiological information on blood flow and derived vessel wall parameters such as wall shear stress and oscillatory shear index. The results highlight the individual 3D blood-flow patterns associated with the different vascular pathologies following repair of aortic coarctation. In addition to known factors predisposing for aneurysm formation after surgical repair of coarctation these findings indicate the importance of flow sensitive CMR to follow up hemodynamic changes with respect to the development of vascular disease.

  11. Cardiovascular risks and brain function: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of executive function in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Chuang, Yi-Fang; Eldreth, Dana; Kirk I Erickson; Varma, Vijay; Harris, Gregory; Fried, Linda P.; Rebok, George W.; Tanner, Elizabeth K.; Carlson, Michelle C.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia are associated with cognitive impairment and risk of dementia in older adults. However, the mechanisms linking them are not clear. This study aims to investigate the association between aggregate CV risk, assessed by the Framingham general cardiovascular risk profile, and functional brain activation in a group of community-dwelling older adults. Sixty participants (mean age: 64.6 years) from the Brain Health ...

  12. Design Criteria For Networked Image Analysis System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reader, Cliff; Nitteberg, Alan

    1982-01-01

    Image systems design is currently undergoing a metamorphosis from the conventional computing systems of the past into a new generation of special purpose designs. This change is motivated by several factors, notably among which is the increased opportunity for high performance with low cost offered by advances in semiconductor technology. Another key issue is a maturing in understanding of problems and the applicability of digital processing techniques. These factors allow the design of cost-effective systems that are functionally dedicated to specific applications and used in a utilitarian fashion. Following an overview of the above stated issues, the paper presents a top-down approach to the design of networked image analysis systems. The requirements for such a system are presented, with orientation toward the hospital environment. The three main areas are image data base management, viewing of image data and image data processing. This is followed by a survey of the current state of the art, covering image display systems, data base techniques, communications networks and software systems control. The paper concludes with a description of the functional subystems and architectural framework for networked image analysis in a production environment.

  13. Mathematical foundations of image processing and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Pinoli, Jean-Charles

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical Imaging is currently a rapidly growing field in applied mathematics, with an increasing need for theoretical mathematics. This book, the second of two volumes, emphasizes the role of mathematics as a rigorous basis for imaging sciences. It provides a comprehensive and convenient overview of the key mathematical concepts, notions, tools and frameworks involved in the various fields of gray-tone and binary image processing and analysis, by proposing a large, but coherent, set of symbols and notations, a complete list of subjects and a detailed bibliography. It establishes a bridg

  14. Cancer detection by quantitative fluorescence image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, W L; Hemstreet, G P

    1988-02-01

    Quantitative fluorescence image analysis is a rapidly evolving biophysical cytochemical technology with the potential for multiple clinical and basic research applications. We report the application of this technique for bladder cancer detection and discuss its potential usefulness as an adjunct to methods used currently by urologists for the diagnosis and management of bladder cancer. Quantitative fluorescence image analysis is a cytological method that incorporates 2 diagnostic techniques, quantitation of nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid and morphometric analysis, in a single semiautomated system to facilitate the identification of rare events, that is individual cancer cells. When compared to routine cytopathology for detection of bladder cancer in symptomatic patients, quantitative fluorescence image analysis demonstrated greater sensitivity (76 versus 33 per cent) for the detection of low grade transitional cell carcinoma. The specificity of quantitative fluorescence image analysis in a small control group was 94 per cent and with the manual method for quantitation of absolute nuclear fluorescence intensity in the screening of high risk asymptomatic subjects the specificity was 96.7 per cent. The more familiar flow cytometry is another fluorescence technique for measurement of nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid. However, rather than identifying individual cancer cells, flow cytometry identifies cellular pattern distributions, that is the ratio of normal to abnormal cells. Numerous studies by others have shown that flow cytometry is a sensitive method to monitor patients with diagnosed urological disease. Based upon results in separate quantitative fluorescence image analysis and flow cytometry studies, it appears that these 2 fluorescence techniques may be complementary tools for urological screening, diagnosis and management, and that they also may be useful separately or in combination to elucidate the oncogenic process, determine the biological potential of tumors

  15. Clinical values dataset processing through cluster analysis to find cardiovascular risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, C. M.; Legnani, W. E.; Armentano, R. L.

    2016-04-01

    The scope of this work is to show another way to grouping population with clinical variables measured in health centres and to assign a cardiovascular risk indicator. To do this, two different datasets were used, one coming from France and another coming from Uruguay. The well proved Framingham index was used to validate the results. The preliminary results are very auspicious to encourage the research and get deeper knowledge of the cardiovascular risk indicators.

  16. Heart deformation analysis: measuring regional myocardial velocity with MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kai; Collins, Jeremy D; Chowdhary, Varun; Markl, Michael; Carr, James C

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that heart deformation analysis (HDA) may serve as an alternative for the quantification of regional myocardial velocity. Nineteen healthy volunteers (14 male and 5 female) without documented cardiovascular diseases were recruited following the approval of the institutional review board (IRB). For each participant, cine images (at base, mid and apex levels of the left ventricle [LV]) and tissue phase mapping (TPM, at same short-axis slices of the LV) were acquired within a single magnetic resonance (MR) scan. Regional myocardial velocities in radial and circumferential directions acquired with HDA (Vrr and Vcc) and TPM (Vr and VФ) were measured during the cardiac cycle. HDA required shorter processing time compared to TPM (2.3 ± 1.1 min/case vs. 9.5 ± 3.7 min/case, p TPM could be found on multiple myocardial segments (r = 0.460-0.774) and slices (r = 0.409-0.814) with statistical significance (p TPM were also noticed. By providing comparable velocity measures as TPM does, HDA may serve as an alternative for measuring regional myocardial velocity with a faster image processing procedure. PMID:27076222

  17. Reduced radiation dose and improved image quality at cardiovascular CT angiography by automated attenuation-based tube voltage selection: intra-individual comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krazinski, Aleksander W.; Silverman, Justin R. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Meinel, Felix G.; Geyer, Lucas L. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Schoepf, U.J. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States); Canstein, Christian [Siemens Healthcare, CT Division, Malvern, PA (United States); De Cecco, Carlo N. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University of Rome ' ' Sapienza' ' - Polo Pontino, Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology, Latina (Italy)

    2014-11-15

    To evaluate the effect of automated tube voltage selection on radiation dose and image quality at cardiovascular CT angiography (CTA). We retrospectively analysed paired studies in 72 patients (41 male, 60.5 ± 16.5 years), who had undergone CTA acquisitions of the heart or aorta both before and after the implementation of an automated x-ray tube voltage selection algorithm (ATVS). All other parameters were kept identical between the two acquisitions. Subjective image quality (IQ) was rated and objective IQ was measured by image noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and figure of merit (FOM). Image quality parameters and effective dose were compared between acquisitions. Overall subjective image quality improved with the percentage of cases scored as adequate or higher increasing from 79 % to 92 % after implementation of ATVS (P = 0.03). SNR (14.1 ± 5.9, 15.7 ± 6.1, P = 0.009), CNR (11.6 ± 5.3, 13.2 ± 5.6, P = 0.011), and FOM (19.9 ± 23.3, 43.8 ± 51.1, P < 0.001) were significantly higher after implementation of ATVS. Mean image noise (24.1 ± 8.4 HU, 22.7 ± 7.1 HU, P = 0.048) and mean effective dose (10.6 ± 5.9 mSv, 8.8 ± 5.0 mSv, P = 0.003) were significantly lower after implementation of ATVS. Automated tube voltage selection can operator-independently optimize cardiovascular CTA image acquisition parameters with improved image quality at reduced dose. (orig.)

  18. Objective facial photograph analysis using imaging software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Annette M; Tollefson, Travis T

    2010-05-01

    Facial analysis is an integral part of the surgical planning process. Clinical photography has long been an invaluable tool in the surgeon's practice not only for accurate facial analysis but also for enhancing communication between the patient and surgeon, for evaluating postoperative results, for medicolegal documentation, and for educational and teaching opportunities. From 35-mm slide film to the digital technology of today, clinical photography has benefited greatly from technological advances. With the development of computer imaging software, objective facial analysis becomes easier to perform and less time consuming. Thus, while the original purpose of facial analysis remains the same, the process becomes much more efficient and allows for some objectivity. Although clinical judgment and artistry of technique is never compromised, the ability to perform objective facial photograph analysis using imaging software may become the standard in facial plastic surgery practices in the future. PMID:20511080

  19. Applications Of Binary Image Analysis Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropf, H.; Enderle, E.; Kammerer, H. P.

    1983-10-01

    After discussing the conditions where binary image analysis techniques can be used, three new applications of the fast binary image analysis system S.A.M. (Sensorsystem for Automation and Measurement) are reported: (1) The human view direction is measured at TV frame rate while the subject's head is free movable. (2) Industrial parts hanging on a moving conveyor are classified prior to spray painting by robot. (3) In automotive wheel assembly, the eccentricity of the wheel is minimized by turning the tyre relative to the rim in order to balance the eccentricity of the components.

  20. AN OVERVIEW OF DOCUMENT IMAGE ANALYSIS SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei Tigora

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of Document Image Analysis Systems, their composing modules, the approaches these modules use, as well as uses for these applications. One of the main goals is to present some of the most important technologies and methods behind the Document Image Analysis domain in order to evaluate the best approach when dealing with real-world documents. The other main goal is to ensure a foundation for those starting to build such complex software systems and to give an el...

  1. Accelerated cardiovascular magnetic resonance of the mouse heart using self-gated parallel imaging strategies does not compromise accuracy of structural and functional measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörries Carola

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-gated dynamic cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR enables non-invasive visualization of the heart and accurate assessment of cardiac function in mouse models of human disease. However, self-gated CMR requires the acquisition of large datasets to ensure accurate and artifact-free reconstruction of cardiac cines and is therefore hampered by long acquisition times putting high demands on the physiological stability of the animal. For this reason, we evaluated the feasibility of accelerating the data collection using the parallel imaging technique SENSE with respect to both anatomical definition and cardiac function quantification. Results Findings obtained from accelerated data sets were compared to fully sampled reference data. Our results revealed only minor differences in image quality of short- and long-axis cardiac cines: small anatomical structures (papillary muscles and the aortic valve and left-ventricular (LV remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI were accurately detected even for 3-fold accelerated data acquisition using a four-element phased array coil. Quantitative analysis of LV cardiac function (end-diastolic volume (EDV, end-systolic volume (ESV, stroke volume (SV, ejection fraction (EF and LV mass in healthy and infarcted animals revealed no substantial deviations from reference (fully sampled data for all investigated acceleration factors with deviations ranging from 2% to 6% in healthy animals and from 2% to 8% in infarcted mice for the highest acceleration factor of 3.0. CNR calculations performed between LV myocardial wall and LV cavity revealed a maximum CNR decrease of 50% for the 3-fold accelerated data acquisition when compared to the fully-sampled acquisition. Conclusions We have demonstrated the feasibility of accelerated self-gated retrospective CMR in mice using the parallel imaging technique SENSE. The proposed method led to considerably reduced acquisition times, while preserving high

  2. Curvelet based offline analysis of SEM images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Hamad Shirazi

    Full Text Available Manual offline analysis, of a scanning electron microscopy (SEM image, is a time consuming process and requires continuous human intervention and efforts. This paper presents an image processing based method for automated offline analyses of SEM images. To this end, our strategy relies on a two-stage process, viz. texture analysis and quantification. The method involves a preprocessing step, aimed at the noise removal, in order to avoid false edges. For texture analysis, the proposed method employs a state of the art Curvelet transform followed by segmentation through a combination of entropy filtering, thresholding and mathematical morphology (MM. The quantification is carried out by the application of a box-counting algorithm, for fractal dimension (FD calculations, with the ultimate goal of measuring the parameters, like surface area and perimeter. The perimeter is estimated indirectly by counting the boundary boxes of the filled shapes. The proposed method, when applied to a representative set of SEM images, not only showed better results in image segmentation but also exhibited a good accuracy in the calculation of surface area and perimeter. The proposed method outperforms the well-known Watershed segmentation algorithm.

  3. Principal Components Analysis In Medical Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, J. B.; Huddleston, A. L.

    1986-06-01

    Principal components analysis, PCA, is basically a data reduction technique. PCA has been used in several problems in diagnostic radiology: processing radioisotope brain scans (Ref.1), automatic alignment of radionuclide images (Ref. 2), processing MRI images (Ref. 3,4), analyzing first-pass cardiac studies (Ref. 5) correcting for attenuation in bone mineral measurements (Ref. 6) and in dual energy x-ray imaging (Ref. 6,7). This paper will progress as follows; a brief introduction to the mathematics of PCA will be followed by two brief examples of how PCA has been used in the literature. Finally my own experience with PCA in dual-energy x-ray imaging will be given.

  4. Hyperspectral Image Analysis of Food Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngren, Morten

    extensions to the analysis offood quality. This dissertation is concerned with hyperspectral image analysisused to assess the quality of single grain kernels. The focus is to highlight thebenefits and challenges of using hyperspectral imaging for food quality presentedin two research directions. Initially......Assessing the quality of food is a vital step in any food processing line to ensurethe best food quality and maximum profit for the farmer and food manufacturer.Traditional quality evaluation methods are often destructive and labourintensive procedures relying on wet chemistry or subjective human...... inspection.Near-infrared spectroscopy can address these issues by offering a fast and objectiveanalysis of the food quality. A natural extension to these single spectrumNIR systems is to include image information such that each pixel holds a NIRspectrum. This augmented image information offers several...

  5. Dynamic Chest Image Analysis: Model-Based Perfusion Analysis in Dynamic Pulmonary Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Kiuru Aaro; Kormano Martti; Svedström Erkki; Liang Jianming; Järvi Timo

    2003-01-01

    The "Dynamic Chest Image Analysis" project aims to develop model-based computer analysis and visualization methods for showing focal and general abnormalities of lung ventilation and perfusion based on a sequence of digital chest fluoroscopy frames collected with the dynamic pulmonary imaging technique. We have proposed and evaluated a multiresolutional method with an explicit ventilation model for ventilation analysis. This paper presents a new model-based method for pulmonary perfusion ana...

  6. PIXE analysis and imaging of papyrus documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lövestam, N. E. Göran; Swietlicki, Erik

    1990-01-01

    The analysis of antique papyrus documents using an external milliprobe is described. Missing characters of text in the documents were made visible by means of PIXE analysis and X-ray imaging of the areas studied. The contrast between the papyrus and the ink was further increased when the information contained in all the elements was taken into account simultaneously using a multivariate technique (partial least-squares regression).

  7. Scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Pennycook, Stephen J

    2011-01-01

    Provides the first comprehensive treatment of the physics and applications of this mainstream technique for imaging and analysis at the atomic level Presents applications of STEM in condensed matter physics, materials science, catalysis, and nanoscience Suitable for graduate students learning microscopy, researchers wishing to utilize STEM, as well as for specialists in other areas of microscopy Edited and written by leading researchers and practitioners

  8. IMAGES AND SOCIAL REPRESENTATION: SEMIOTIC ANALYSIS CONTRIBUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Gonçalves Terra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The common sense knowledge formation is object of study of the Social Representation Theory, which highlights the role of communication in the production of comprehension by the subjects. The visual images favor the socialization of meanings and are active elements in the formation of social representations. Given the expressive role of the images in the formation of representational contents, this paper aims to present a semiotics analysis method for researches on social representations. The semiotic analysis of images was selected as a theoretical and methodological basis, for offering the means required for guidance for an effective research method to identify the social representations of socially shared iconic signs. The analysis method was explored by means of analytical procedures, employed for the apprehension of social representations of the feminine in posters for Brazilian Ministry of Health campaigns, which allowed access to the network of meanings associated with the analyzed visual image. It should be emphasized that the relevance of the use of semiotic analysis to analyze social representations, which presents itself as a fertile perspective for further studies expanding the possibilities of exploitation of visual content.

  9. Doenças periodontais causam doenças cardiovasculares? Análise das evidências epidemiológicas Does periodontal disease cause cardiovascular disease? Analysis of epidemiological evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Cunha-Cruz

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é uma análise de estudos epidemiológicos que avaliaram a doença periodontal como causa de doenças cardiovasculares. Foram identificados 35 estudos por meio de busca manual nos volumes especiais de resumos do periódico Journal of Dental Research; de busca nos bancos de dados eletrônicos MEDLINE, LILACS e ISI; e da inspeção de bibliografias dos artigos identificados. Os critérios de inclusão foram: artigos em qualquer idioma publicados entre 1989 e 2000, que relataram a ausência ou presença de associação entre doenças periodontais e doenças cardiovasculares. As evidências disponíveis ainda são esparsas e suas interpretações são limitadas por potenciais vieses e situação de confusão. Os estudos analisados, tanto separadamente quanto juntos, não fornecem evidência epidemiológica convincente para uma associação causal entre doenças periodontais e doenças cardiovasculares. Entretanto, a possibilidade das doenças bucais causarem doenças cardiovasculares ainda não pode ser descartada. Até que dados adequados estejam disponíveis, não se deve considerar as doenças periodontais ou qualquer outra infecção bucal como causa de doenças cardiovasculares.This article reports a critical analysis of epidemiologic studies that evaluated periodontal disease as a cause of cardiovascular disease. Thirty-five studies were identified through a manual search of the special abstracts volumes of the Journal of Dental Research, as well as an electronic search on MEDLINE, LILACS, and ISI and inspection of the articles' bibliographies. Inclusion criteria were: articles in any language published between 1989 and 2000 reporting the presence or absence of an association between periodontal and cardiovascular diseases. Available studies are scarce, and interpretations are limited by potential bias and confounding. The studies analyzed (whether separately or jointly fail to provide convincing epidemiologic evidence for a

  10. Gene expression analysis approach to establish possible links between Parkinson's disease, cancer and cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Sajjad; Mirza, Zeenat; Kamal, Mohammad A; Abuzenadah, Adel M; Al-Qahtani, Mohammed H

    2014-01-01

    Non-communicable chronic diseases have been apparently established as threat to human health, and are currently the world's main killer. Cardiovascular diseases (CVD), cancer, diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases are collectively amounting to more than 60% of non-communicable disease burden across world. Tremendous advancements in healthcare enabled us to fight several health problems primarily infectious diseases. However, this increased longevity where in many cases an individual suffers from several such chronic diseases simultaneously, making treatment complex. Finding whether diseases can coexist in an individual by chance or there exists a possible association between them is vital. Our goal is to establish possible existing link among CVD, cancer and Parkinson's disease (PD) for better understanding of the associated molecular network. In this study, we integrated multiple dataset retrieved from the National Centre for Biotechnology Information's Gene Expression Omnibus database, and took a systems-biology approach to compare and distinguish the molecular network associated with PD, cancer and CVD. We identified 230, 308 and 1619 differentially expressed genes for CVD, cancer and PD dataset respectively using cut off p value2. We integrated these data with known pathways using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis tool and found following common pathways associated with all three diseases to be most affected; epithelial adherens junction signaling, remodelling of epithelial adherens junctions, role of BRCA1 in DNA damage response, sphingomyelin metabolism, 3- phosphoinositide biosynthesis, acute myeloid leukemia signaling, type I diabetes mellitus signaling, agrin interactions at neuromuscular junction, role of IL-17A in arthritis, and antigen presentation pathways. In conclusion, CVD, cancer and PD appear tightly associated at molecular level.

  11. Human postmortem device retrieval and analysis--orthopaedic, cardiovascular, and dental systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemons, J; Brott, B; Eberhardt, A

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of decades of analyzing implant devices, tissues, and clinical records from revision surgical explants (called device failure), studies now include postmortem donors and in situ conditions (called success). A key issue has been information exchange from an interdisciplinary team where basic physical and biological studies complement details of the clinical conditions for each device. Overall, the summary information has shown that most revisions were based on factors associated with the patient health, disease, and compliance, with few outcomes directly correlated with technology and device-specific factors. However, because of the large numbers of devices implanted annually (millions), any sampling that reveals adverse circumstances could result in a high level of importance and the need for additional studies of this type. Experience from prior retrieval and analysis demonstrates significant value where peer reviewed results from investigations have altered the discipline and have improved the quality and longevity of health care associated with implanted devices. This report summarizes completed and ongoing studies of cardiovascular, dental, and orthopaedic systems. Endovascular stents from autopsies showed damage including fretting and corrosion from overlapping and intersecting conditions, plus some corrosion and element transfers to tissues from individual stents. Studies are proposed to increase numbers to evaluate clinical significance. Dental implants from postmortem donors that functioned more than 10 years provided evaluations of cobalt alloy devices and calcium phosphate bone graft substitutes originally investigated in the 1970s. Tissue integration and stability correlated with data from prior laboratory in vitro and in vivo investigations. Studies of articulation and fixation from orthopaedic total joint arthroplasties showed some limitations related to surface changes of YTZ zirconia, specific damage due to implantation procedures, which

  12. 2014 Korean Guidelines for Appropriate Utilization of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Joint Report of the Korean Society of Cardiology and the Korean Society of Radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Yeonyee E. [Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Yoo Jin [Department of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung-Kwan [Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Cardiovascular Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeong A [Department of Radiology, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang 411-706 (Korea, Republic of); Na, Jin Oh [Cardiovascular Center, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul 152-703 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Dong Hyun [Department of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Jin [Department of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eui-Young [Division of Cardiology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 135-720 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is now widely used in several fields of cardiovascular disease assessment due to recent technical developments. CMR can give physicians information that cannot be found with other imaging modalities. However, there is no guideline which is suitable for Korean people for the use of CMR. Therefore, we have prepared a Korean guideline for the appropriate utilization of CMR to guide Korean physicians, imaging specialists, medical associates and patients to improve the overall medical system performances. By addressing CMR usage and creating these guidelines we hope to contribute towards the promotion of public health. This guideline is a joint report of the Korean Society of Cardiology and the Korean Society of Radiology.

  13. 2014 Korean guidelines for appropriate utilization of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging: A joint report of the Korean Society of Cardiology and the Korean Society of Radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Yeon Yee E. [Dept. of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Yoo Jin; Choi, Eui Young [Dept. of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2015-04-15

    The use of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is increasing for the assessment of certain cardiovascular diseases, due to recent technical developments. CMR can give physicians information that cannot be found with other imaging modalities. However, there has been no guideline for the use of CMR in Korean people. Therefore, we have prepared a Korean guideline for the appropriate utilization of CMR to guide Korean physicians, imaging specialists, medical associates, and patients to improve the overall performances in medical system. By addressing CMR usage and creating these guidelines, we hope to contribute to the promotion of public health. This guideline is a joint report of the Korean Society of Cardiology and the Korean Society of Radiology.

  14. 2014 Korean Guidelines for Appropriate Utilization of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Joint Report of the Korean Society of Cardiology and the Korean Society of Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is now widely used in several fields of cardiovascular disease assessment due to recent technical developments. CMR can give physicians information that cannot be found with other imaging modalities. However, there is no guideline which is suitable for Korean people for the use of CMR. Therefore, we have prepared a Korean guideline for the appropriate utilization of CMR to guide Korean physicians, imaging specialists, medical associates and patients to improve the overall medical system performances. By addressing CMR usage and creating these guidelines we hope to contribute towards the promotion of public health. This guideline is a joint report of the Korean Society of Cardiology and the Korean Society of Radiology

  15. In silico analysis of Progeria: A genetic disease and natural cardiovascular disorders preventive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraddha Mulange

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Progeria (also known as "Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome"(HGPS is an extremely rare, severe, genetic condition wherein symptoms resembling aspects of aging are manifested at an early age. The basic objective of this study is how is it responsible for faster ageing than normal? The study of its bioinformatics aspect explaining where the mutation occurs in normal LMNA gene to form mutated Progerin. We explain its sequential and structural aspects in domain and motif. Structural visualization by Marker view software provides the linear structure of LMNA and mutated LMNA. We studied the properties and specificity of Lonafarnib (an edible drug available in market against Progerin with Docking. Cardiovascular disorders are the major symptoms occurred in Progerin patients. Therefore we found 32 natural compounds with their sources having anti cardiovascular disorders activity. We checked its docking properties and ADMET properties. From this we came to conclude 11 most effective, edible, naturally occurring compounds for cardiovascular disorders in Progerin patients.

  16. [Analysis of mediastinal lymphadenopathy in sarcoidosis with transesophageal ultrasonic endoscopy; influences on cardiovascular system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambara, T; Ueki, J; Aiba, M; Tamaki, S; Saito, H; Matsuda, K; Nukiwa, T; Kira, S

    1989-01-01

    We studied influences of mediastinal lymphadenopathy on cardiovascular system in nine cases of sarcoidosis with transesophageal ultrasonic endoscopy. Chest x-ray films revealed bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy in all cases, whose diagnoses were made histologically with biopsies of peripheral lung through flexible fiber optic bronchoscope and/or of lymph nodes. These findings were typical in this disease. Many compartments of cardiovascular system in mediastinal and hilar regions were visible with this technique in all subjects. And enlarged lymph nodes changed dimensions in these compartments, especially in main pulmonary arteries, left atria, pulmonary veins and aorta. Furthermore, these phenomena were seen in azygos vein and superior caval vein in some cases. It is suggested that these lymph nodes may influence hemodynamics in above-mentioned compartments of cardiovascular system, if this phenomenon deteriorates more progressively. PMID:2657139

  17. Good relationships between computational image analysis and radiological physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Good relationships between computational image analysis and radiological physics have been constructed for increasing the accuracy of medical diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy in radiological physics. Computational image analysis has been established based on applied mathematics, physics, and engineering. This review paper will introduce how computational image analysis is useful in radiation therapy with respect to radiological physics

  18. Web Based Distributed Coastal Image Analysis System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project develops Web based distributed image analysis system processing the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to provide decision...

  19. Cardiovascular group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, Gunnar

    1989-01-01

    As a starting point, the group defined a primary goal of maintaining in flight a level of systemic oxygen transport capacity comparable to each individual's preflight upright baseline. The goal of maintaining capacity at preflight levels would seem to be a reasonable objective for several different reasons, including the maintenance of good health in general and the preservation of sufficient cardiovascular reserve capacity to meet operational demands. It is also important not to introduce confounding variables in whatever other physiological studies are being performed. A change in the level of fitness is likely to be a significant confounding variable in the study of many organ systems. The principal component of the in-flight cardiovascular exercise program should be large-muscle activity such as treadmill exercise. It is desirable that at least one session per week be monitored to assure maintenance of proper functional levels and to provide guidance for any adjustments of the exercise prescription. Appropriate measurements include evaluation of the heart-rate/workload or the heart-rate/oxygen-uptake relationship. Respiratory gas analysis is helpful by providing better opportunities to document relative workload levels from analysis of the interrelationships among VO2, VCO2, and ventilation. The committee felt that there is no clear evidence that any particular in-flight exercise regimen is protective against orthostatic hypotension during the early readaptation phase. Some group members suggested that maintenance of the lower body muscle mass and muscle tone may be helpful. There is also evidence that late in-flight interventions to reexpand blood volume to preflight levels are helpful in preventing or minimizing postflight orthostatic hypotension.

  20. Cardiovascular risk profile: Cross-sectional analysis of motivational determinants, physical fitness and physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiers Henri

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular risk factors are associated with physical fitness and, to a lesser extent, physical activity. Lifestyle interventions directed at enhancing physical fitness in order to decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases should be extended. To enable the development of effective lifestyle interventions for people with cardiovascular risk factors, we investigated motivational, social-cognitive determinants derived from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB and other relevant social psychological theories, next to physical activity and physical fitness. Methods In the cross-sectional Utrecht Police Lifestyle Intervention Fitness and Training (UP-LIFT study, 1298 employees (aged 18 to 62 were asked to complete online questionnaires regarding social-cognitive variables and physical activity. Cardiovascular risk factors and physical fitness (peak VO2 were measured. Results For people with one or more cardiovascular risk factors (78.7% of the total population, social-cognitive variables accounted for 39% (p In addition to the prediction of intention to engage in physical activity and physical active behavior, we explored the impact of the intensity of physical activity. The intentsity of physical activity was only significantly related to physical active behavior (beta = .253, p 2 = .06, p 2 = .23, p For people with one or more cardiovascular risk factors, 39.9% had positive intentions to engage in physical activity and were also physically active, and 10.5% had a low intentions but were physically active. 37.7% had low intentions and were physically inactive, and about 11.9% had high intentions but were physically inactive. Conclusions This study contributes to our ability to optimize cardiovascular risk profiles by demonstrating an important association between physical fitness and social-cognitive variables. Physical fitness can be predicted by physical active behavior as well as by self-efficacy and the intensity of

  1. Ultrasonic image analysis for beef tenderness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bosoon; Thane, Brian R.; Whittaker, A. D.

    1993-05-01

    Objective measurement of meat tenderness has been a topic of concern for palatability evaluation. In this study, a real-time ultrasonic B-mode imaging method was used for measuring beef palatability attributes such as juiciness, muscle fiber tenderness, connective tissue amount, overall tenderness, flavor intensity, and percent total collagen noninvasively. A temporal averaging image enhancement method was used for image analysis. Ultrasonic image intensity, fractal dimension, attenuation, and statistical gray-tone spatial-dependence matrix image texture measurement were analyzed. The contrast of the textural feature was the most correlated parameter with palatability attributes. The longitudinal scanning method was better for juiciness, muscle fiber tenderness, flavor intensity, and percent soluble collagen, whereas, the cross-sectional method was better for connective tissue, overall tenderness. The multivariate linear regression models were developed as a function of textural features and image intensity parameters. The determinant coefficients of regression models were for juiciness (R2 equals .97), for percent total collagen (R2 equals .88), for flavor intensity (R2 equals .75), for muscle fiber tenderness (R2 equals .55), and for overall tenderness (R2 equals .49), respectively.

  2. Assessment of cardiovascular reactivity by fractal and recurrence quantification analysis of heart rate and pulse transit time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naschitz, J E; Rosner, I; Shaviv, N; Khorshidi, I; Sundick, S; Isseroff, H; Fields, M; Priselac, R M; Yeshurun, D; Sabo, E; Itzhak, R

    2003-02-01

    Methods used for the assessment of cardiovascular reactivity are flawed by nonlinear dynamics of the cardiovascular responses to stimuli. In an attempt to address this issue, we utilized a short postural challenge, recorded beat-to-beat heart rate (HR) and pulse transit time (PTT), assessed the data by fractal and recurrence quantification analysis, and processed the obtained variables by multivariate statistics. A 10-min supine phase of the head-up tilt test was followed by recording 600 cardiac cycles on tilt, that is, 5-10 min. Three groups of patients were studied, each including 20 subjects matched for age and gender--healthy subjects, patients with essential hypertension (HT), and patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). The latter group was studied on account of the well-known dysautonomia of CFS patients, which served as contrast against the cardiovascular reactivity of the healthy population. A total of 52 variables of the HR and PTT were determined in each subject. The multivariate model identified the best predictors for the assessment of reactivity of healthy subjects vs CFS. Based on these predictors, the "Fractal & Recurrence Analysis-based Score" (FRAS) was calculated: FRAS=76.2+0.04*HR-supine-DET -12.9*HR-tilt-R/L -0.31*HR-tilt-s.d. -19.27*PTT-tilt-R/L -9.42*PTT-tilt-WAVE. The median values and IQR of FRAS in the groups were: healthy=-1.85 (IQR 1.89), hypertensives=+0.52 (IQR 5.78), and CFS=-24.2 (5.34) (HT vs healthy subjects: P=0.0036; HT vs CFS: P<0.0001). Since the FRAS differed significantly between the three groups, it appears likely that the FRAS may recognize phenotypes of cardiovascular reactivity. PMID:12574789

  3. Image analysis for ophthalmological diagnosis image processing of Corvis ST images using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Koprowski, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This monograph focuses on the use of analysis and processing methods for images from the Corvis® ST tonometer. The presented analysis is associated with the quantitative, repeatable and fully automatic evaluation of the response of the eye, eyeball and cornea to an air-puff. All the described algorithms were practically implemented in MATLAB®. The monograph also describes and provides the full source code designed to perform the discussed calculations. As a result, this monograph is intended for scientists, graduate students and students of computer science and bioengineering as well as doctors wishing to expand their knowledge of modern diagnostic methods assisted by various image analysis and processing methods.

  4. Comprehensive assessment of a post-coronary bypass graft patient with cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging and multi-detector computed tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pairoj Rerkpattanapipat; Patcharee Paijitprapaporn; Suthipong Jongjirasiri; Jiraporn Laothamatas; Nithi Mahanonda

    2007-01-01

    Coronary bypass graft surgery (CABG) is a revascularization procedure which reduces myocardial ischemia and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in selected patients; however, up to 40% of saphanous vein grafts may degenerate over 10 years. Although coronary angiography is the gold standard to detect graft patency and native vessel disease, sometimes it is difficult to locate the grafts resulting in increased exposure to radiation and contrast administration. This case highlights the utility of cardiac computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to provide comprehensive noninvasive assessment in a patient post CABG.

  5. Digital image sequence processing, compression, and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Todd R

    2004-01-01

    IntroductionTodd R. ReedCONTENT-BASED IMAGE SEQUENCE REPRESENTATIONPedro M. Q. Aguiar, Radu S. Jasinschi, José M. F. Moura, andCharnchai PluempitiwiriyawejTHE COMPUTATION OF MOTIONChristoph Stiller, Sören Kammel, Jan Horn, and Thao DangMOTION ANALYSIS AND DISPLACEMENT ESTIMATION IN THE FREQUENCY DOMAINLuca Lucchese and Guido Maria CortelazzoQUALITY OF SERVICE ASSESSMENT IN NEW GENERATION WIRELESS VIDEO COMMUNICATIONSGaetano GiuntaERROR CONCEALMENT IN DIGITAL VIDEOFrancesco G.B. De NataleIMAGE SEQUENCE RESTORATION: A WIDER PERSPECTIVEAnil KokaramVIDEO SUMMARIZATIONCuneyt M. Taskiran and Edward

  6. Recent Advances in Morphological Cell Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengyong Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the recent advances in image processing methods for morphological cell analysis. The topic of morphological analysis has received much attention with the increasing demands in both bioinformatics and biomedical applications. Among many factors that affect the diagnosis of a disease, morphological cell analysis and statistics have made great contributions to results and effects for a doctor. Morphological cell analysis finds the cellar shape, cellar regularity, classification, statistics, diagnosis, and so forth. In the last 20 years, about 1000 publications have reported the use of morphological cell analysis in biomedical research. Relevant solutions encompass a rather wide application area, such as cell clumps segmentation, morphological characteristics extraction, 3D reconstruction, abnormal cells identification, and statistical analysis. These reports are summarized in this paper to enable easy referral to suitable methods for practical solutions. Representative contributions and future research trends are also addressed.

  7. Autonomous Image Analysis for Future Mars Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulick, V. C.; Morris, R. L.; Ruzon, M. A.; Bandari, E.; Roush, T. L.

    1999-01-01

    To explore high priority landing sites and to prepare for eventual human exploration, future Mars missions will involve rovers capable of traversing tens of kilometers. However, the current process by which scientists interact with a rover does not scale to such distances. Specifically, numerous command cycles are required to complete even simple tasks, such as, pointing the spectrometer at a variety of nearby rocks. In addition, the time required by scientists to interpret image data before new commands can be given and the limited amount of data that can be downlinked during a given command cycle constrain rover mobility and achievement of science goals. Experience with rover tests on Earth supports these concerns. As a result, traverses to science sites as identified in orbital images would require numerous science command cycles over a period of many weeks, months or even years, perhaps exceeding rover design life and other constraints. Autonomous onboard science analysis can address these problems in two ways. First, it will allow the rover to preferentially transmit "interesting" images, defined as those likely to have higher science content. Second, the rover will be able to anticipate future commands. For example, a rover might autonomously acquire and return spectra of "interesting" rocks along with a high-resolution image of those rocks in addition to returning the context images in which they were detected. Such approaches, coupled with appropriate navigational software, help to address both the data volume and command cycle bottlenecks that limit both rover mobility and science yield. We are developing fast, autonomous algorithms to enable such intelligent on-board decision making by spacecraft. Autonomous algorithms developed to date have the ability to identify rocks and layers in a scene, locate the horizon, and compress multi-spectral image data. We are currently investigating the possibility of reconstructing a 3D surface from a sequence of images

  8. Genomics in cardiovascular diseases: analysis of the importance of the toll-like receptor signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bustamante J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available J Bustamante,1 E Tamayo,2 J Herreros3,41Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Hospital Universitario La Princesa, Madrid, 2Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Hospital Clinico Universitario de Valladolid, Valladolid, 3Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Hospital Universitario Valdecilla, Santander, 4Biomedical Engineering Institute of Santander, Santander, SpainAbstract: The development of techniques for genomics study makes it possible for us to further our knowledge about the physiopathology of various immunological or infectious diseases. These techniques improve our understanding of the development and evolution of such diseases, including those of cardiovascular origin, whilst they help to bring about the design of new therapeutic strategies. We are reviewing the genetic alterations of immunity in said field, and focusing on the signaling pathway of toll-like receptors because not only does this play a decisive role in response to microorganisms, it is also heavily involved in modulating the inflammatory response to tissue damage, a side effect of numerous cardiovascular diseases. These alterations in tissue homeostasis are present under a wide range of circumstances, such as reperfusion ischemia (myocardial infarction phenomena, arteriosclerosis, or valvulopathy.Keywords: genome-wide association study, single-nucleotide polymorphism, innate immune system, ischemic/reperfusion, myocardial infarction

  9. Cardiovascular disease after treatment for Hodgkin's lymphoma: an analysis of nine collaborative EORTC-LYSA trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraldo, Maja V.; Giusti, Francesco; Vogelius, Ivan R.;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease after treatment is an important concern in cancer survivors. However, knowledge of cardiotoxicity is limited by the retrospective nature of data, which often does not contain details of treatment exposure. To facilitate individual risk counselling of patients, w...

  10. Cardiovascular disease after treatment for Hodgkin's lymphoma : an analysis of nine collaborative EORTC-LYSA trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maraldo, Maja V.; Giusti, Francesco; Vogelius, Ivan R.; Lundemann, Michael; van der Kaaij, Marleen A. E.; Ramadan, Safaa; Meulemans, Bart; Henry-Amar, Michel; Aleman, Berthe M. P.; Raemaekers, John; Meijnders, Paul; Moser, Elisabeth C.; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C.; Feugier, Pierre; Casasnovas, Olivier; Fortpied, Catherine; Specht, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease after treatment is an important concern in cancer survivors. However, knowledge of cardiotoxicity is limited by the retrospective nature of data, which often does not contain details of treatment exposure. To facilitate individual risk counselling of patients, we ai

  11. Cardiovascular disease risk in women with premature ovarian insufficiency : A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeters van Lennep, Jeanine E; Heida, Karst Y; Bots, Michiel L; Hoek, Annemieke

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: The purpose of this review was to assess the relationship between premature ovarian insufficiency (POI), defined as natural menopause <40 years, and risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD), stroke and overall cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a systematic search in

  12. Cardiovascular disease-risk benefits of clean fuel technology and policy: A statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Paul, E-mail: paulg@iastate.ed [Economics Department, 481 Heady Hall, Iowa State University, Ames Iowa 50011 (United States); Lazarus, William [Applied Economics Department, 253 COB, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55455 (United States); Shapouri, Hosein; Conway, Roger [Office of Energy Policy and New Uses, 400 Independence Avenue, SW (Rm.4059 So. Bldg), United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC 20250 (United States); Bachewe, Fantu [Applied Economics Department, 253 COB, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55455 (United States); Fischer, Amelia [Economics Department, 481 Heady Hall, Iowa State University, Ames Iowa 50011 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    The hypothesis of this study is that there is a statistical relationship between the cardiovascular disease mortality rate and the intensity of fuel consumption (measured in gallons/square mile) at a particular location. We estimate cross-sectional regressions of the mortality rate due to cardiovascular disease against the intensity of fuel consumption using local data for the entire US, before the US Clean Air Act (CAA) in 1974 and after the most recent policy revisions in 2004. The cardiovascular disease rate improvement estimate suggests that up to 60 cardiovascular disease deaths per 100,000 residents are avoided in the largest urban areas with highest fuel consumption per square mile. In New York City, for instance, the mortality reduction may be worth about $30.3 billion annually. Across the US, the estimated Value of Statistical Life (VSL) benefit is $202.7 billion annually. There are likely three inseparable reasons that contributed importantly to this welfare improvement. First, the CAA regulations banned leaded gasoline, and mandated reduction in specific chemicals and smog components. Second, technologies such as the Catalytic Converter (CC) for the automobile and the low particulate diesel engine were adopted. Third, biofuels have had important roles, making the adoption of clean air technology possible and substituting for high emission fuels.

  13. Cardiovascular disease - risk benefits of clean fuel technology and policy. A statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Paul; Fischer, Amelia [Economics Department, 481 Heady Hall, Iowa State University, Ames Iowa 50011 (United States); Lazarus, William; Bachewe, Fantu [Applied Economics Department, 253 COB, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55455 (United States); Shapouri, Hosein; Conway, Roger [Office of Energy Policy and New Uses, 400 Independence Avenue, SW (Rm.4059 So. Bldg), United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC 20250 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    The hypothesis of this study is that there is a statistical relationship between the cardiovascular disease mortality rate and the intensity of fuel consumption (measured in gallons/square mile) at a particular location. We estimate cross-sectional regressions of the mortality rate due to cardiovascular disease against the intensity of fuel consumption using local data for the entire US, before the US Clean Air Act (CAA) in 1974 and after the most recent policy revisions in 2004. The cardiovascular disease rate improvement estimate suggests that up to 60 cardiovascular disease deaths per 100,000 residents are avoided in the largest urban areas with highest fuel consumption per square mile. In New York City, for instance, the mortality reduction may be worth about $30.3 billion annually. Across the US, the estimated Value of Statistical Life (VSL) benefit is $202.7 billion annually. There are likely three inseparable reasons that contributed importantly to this welfare improvement. First, the CAA regulations banned leaded gasoline, and mandated reduction in specific chemicals and smog components. Second, technologies such as the Catalytic Converter (CC) for the automobile and the low particulate diesel engine were adopted. Third, biofuels have had important roles, making the adoption of clean air technology possible and substituting for high emission fuels. (author)

  14. Analysis of production of the decellularized scaffolds and their potential use in cardiovascular surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brumberg V.A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Data on application of decellularized scaffolds and tissue-engineered vascular conduits in the field of cardiovascular surgery have been analyzed, and also techniques for their procurement have been studied. For finding, selection and synthesis resources of research data from the systems Pubmed, ScienceDirect were used. The preference was given to the most informative, comprehensive and contemporary publications.

  15. Analyses of Results From Cardiovascular Safety Trials With DPP-4 Inhibitors: Cardiovascular Outcomes, Predefined Safety Outcomes, and Pooled Analysis and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannucci, Edoardo; Mosenzon, Ofri; Avogaro, Angelo

    2016-08-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration requires that the cardiovascular (CV) safety of all new drugs for diabetes be demonstrated through pooled analyses of phase III studies or specifically designed trials. This requirement prompted several placebo-controlled, noninferiority CV safety trials in high-risk patients; to date, all completed trials showed that dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors do not increase or reduce the risk of major CV events. These results apparently contrast with those of pooled analyses and meta-analyses of previous, smaller trials with metabolic end points, which had suggested a reduction of risk. However, the design of CV trials, which were required to demonstrate safety, is not adequate (for duration, management of concurrent therapies, etc.) for the assessment of potential therapeutic benefits. In addition, CV safety trials enroll patients at high risk of CV events, who are different from those included in earlier trials with metabolic end points. Differences in characteristics of patients enrolled probably account for most of the discrepancy in CV outcomes between CV safety studies and earlier trials. The availability of several large-scale trials with longer duration provides the unique opportunity for assessment of the safety of DPP-4 inhibitors not only with respect to major CV events but also with reference to other safety issues. For example, CV safety trials can be a source of information for pancreatitis, cancer, or hypoglycemia. PMID:27440833

  16. Quantitative Analysis in Nuclear Medicine Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    This book provides a review of image analysis techniques as they are applied in the field of diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine. Driven in part by the remarkable increase in computing power and its ready and inexpensive availability, this is a relatively new yet rapidly expanding field. Likewise, although the use of radionuclides for diagnosis and therapy has origins dating back almost to the discovery of natural radioactivity itself, radionuclide therapy and, in particular, targeted radionuclide therapy has only recently emerged as a promising approach for therapy of cancer and, to a lesser extent, other diseases. As effort has, therefore, been made to place the reviews provided in this book in a broader context. The effort to do this is reflected by the inclusion of introductory chapters that address basic principles of nuclear medicine imaging, followed by overview of issues that are closely related to quantitative nuclear imaging and its potential role in diagnostic and therapeutic applications. ...

  17. Analysis of Cardiovascular Diseases Costs and Their Effective Factors in Tabriz Hospitalized Patients, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Cardiovascular diseases are the most important chronic diseases with significant negative effects on the individuals’ quality of life and communities’ economic productivity. Objectives The present study aimed to analyze the costs of cardiovascular diseases and identify the related factors in hospitalized patients of Tabriz Shahid Madani hospital in 2015. Patients and Methods This paper was a cross-sectional study. Cost information was obtained by a bottom-up approach from the patients and their families’ perspective. A number of 285 patients were randomly selected to participate in the study. For data collection, the study deployed a researcher-made questionnaire whose validity and reliability were confirmed by statistical tests. First, the collected data were analyzed using descriptive methods. And then, the researchers used t-test and ANOVA to analyze the relationship between demographic variables and the different types of cost. Tukey test was used to compare differences between groups groups, the researchers used. Results The Study findings showed that the total cost of cardiovascular diseases was 13,074,700 Rials (US$462 per patient. The details of the costs of cardiovascular diseases also showed that direct medical costs, direct non-medical costs, and indirect costs were 10,909,100 Rials (US$386, 109’940 Rials (US$38.90, and 1,066,200 Rials (37.73 US$ which were 83.4%, 8.4% and 8.2% of the total costs, respectively. Statistical analyses indicated a significant relationship between gender, marital status, education, job status, location, type of disease, type of admission, and the reason for hospitalization and some types of assessed costs (P < 0.05. Conclusions The study showed that the costs associated with cardiovascular diseases were not reasonable for many of these patients and their families. This certainly requires more consideration by managers and policy makers in the health care sector and the implementation of

  18. Liver Ultrasound Image Analysis using Enhancement Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smriti Sahu, Maheedhar Dubey, Mohammad Imroze Khan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Liver cancer is the sixth most common malignanttumour and the third most common cause ofcancer-related deaths worldwide. Chronic Liverdamage affects up to 20% of our population. It hasmany causes - viral infections (Hepatitis B and C,toxins, genetic, metabolic and autoimmune diseases.The rate of liver cancer in Australia has increasedfour-fold in the past 20 years. For detection andqualitative diagnosis of liver diseases, Ultrasound(US image is an easy-to-use and minimally invasiveimaging modality. Medical images are oftendeteriorated by noise due to various sources ofinterferences and other phenomena known asSpeckle noise. Therefore it is required to apply somedigital image processing techniques for smoothingor suppression of speckle noise in ultrasoundimages. This paper attempts to undertake the studythree types of the image enhancement techniquesincluding, Shock Filter, Contrast Limited AdaptiveHistogram Equalization (CLAHE and Spatialfilter. These smoothing techniques are comparedusing performance matrices Peak Signal to NoiseRatio (PSNR and Mean Square Error (MSE. Ithas been observed that the Spatial high pass filtergives the better performance than others for liverultrasound image analysis.

  19. The synthesis and analysis of color images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandell, Brian A.

    1987-01-01

    A method is described for performing the synthesis and analysis of digital color images. The method is based on two principles. First, image data are represented with respect to the separate physical factors, surface reflectance and the spectral power distribution of the ambient light, that give rise to the perceived color of an object. Second, the encoding is made efficiently by using a basis expansion for the surface spectral reflectance and spectral power distribution of the ambient light that takes advantage of the high degree of correlation across the visible wavelengths normally found in such functions. Within this framework, the same basic methods can be used to synthesize image data for color display monitors and printed materials, and to analyze image data into estimates of the spectral power distribution and surface spectral reflectances. The method can be applied to a variety of tasks. Examples of applications include the color balancing of color images, and the identification of material surface spectral reflectance when the lighting cannot be completely controlled.

  20. Scalable histopathological image analysis via active learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yan; Zhang, Shaoting; Liu, Wei; Metaxas, Dimitris N

    2014-01-01

    Training an effective and scalable system for medical image analysis usually requires a large amount of labeled data, which incurs a tremendous annotation burden for pathologists. Recent progress in active learning can alleviate this issue, leading to a great reduction on the labeling cost without sacrificing the predicting accuracy too much. However, most existing active learning methods disregard the "structured information" that may exist in medical images (e.g., data from individual patients), and make a simplifying assumption that unlabeled data is independently and identically distributed. Both may not be suitable for real-world medical images. In this paper, we propose a novel batch-mode active learning method which explores and leverages such structured information in annotations of medical images to enforce diversity among the selected data, therefore maximizing the information gain. We formulate the active learning problem as an adaptive submodular function maximization problem subject to a partition matroid constraint, and further present an efficient greedy algorithm to achieve a good solution with a theoretically proven bound. We demonstrate the efficacy of our algorithm on thousands of histopathological images of breast microscopic tissues. PMID:25320821

  1. BioImage Suite: An integrated medical image analysis suite: An update

    OpenAIRE

    Papademetris, Xenophon; Jackowski, Marcel P; Rajeevan, Nallakkandi; DiStasio, Marcello; Okuda, Hirohito; Constable, R. Todd; Staib, Lawrence H.

    2006-01-01

    BioImage Suite is an NIH-supported medical image analysis software suite developed at Yale. It leverages both the Visualization Toolkit (VTK) and the Insight Toolkit (ITK) and it includes many additional algorithms for image analysis especially in the areas of segmentation, registration, diffusion weighted image processing and fMRI analysis. BioImage Suite has a user-friendly user interface developed in the Tcl scripting language. A final beta version is freely available for download 1

  2. Pain related inflammation analysis using infrared images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmik, Mrinal Kanti; Bardhan, Shawli; Das, Kakali; Bhattacharjee, Debotosh; Nath, Satyabrata

    2016-05-01

    Medical Infrared Thermography (MIT) offers a potential non-invasive, non-contact and radiation free imaging modality for assessment of abnormal inflammation having pain in the human body. The assessment of inflammation mainly depends on the emission of heat from the skin surface. Arthritis is a disease of joint damage that generates inflammation in one or more anatomical joints of the body. Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most frequent appearing form of arthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most threatening form of them. In this study, the inflammatory analysis has been performed on the infrared images of patients suffering from RA and OA. For the analysis, a dataset of 30 bilateral knee thermograms has been captured from the patient of RA and OA by following a thermogram acquisition standard. The thermograms are pre-processed, and areas of interest are extracted for further processing. The investigation of the spread of inflammation is performed along with the statistical analysis of the pre-processed thermograms. The objectives of the study include: i) Generation of a novel thermogram acquisition standard for inflammatory pain disease ii) Analysis of the spread of the inflammation related to RA and OA using K-means clustering. iii) First and second order statistical analysis of pre-processed thermograms. The conclusion reflects that, in most of the cases, RA oriented inflammation affects bilateral knees whereas inflammation related to OA present in the unilateral knee. Also due to the spread of inflammation in OA, contralateral asymmetries are detected through the statistical analysis.

  3. Characterisation of mycelial morphology using image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, G C; Thomas, C R

    1998-01-01

    Image analysis is now well established in quantifying and characterising microorganisms from fermentation samples. In filamentous fermentations it has become an invaluable tool for characterising complex mycelial morphologies, although it is not yet used extensively in industry. Recent method developments include characterisation of spore germination from the inoculum stage and of the subsequent dispersed and pellet forms. Further methods include characterising vacuolation and simple structural differentiation of mycelia, also from submerged cultures. Image analysis can provide better understanding of the development of mycelial morphology, of the physiological states of the microorganisms in the fermenter, and of their interactions with the fermentation conditions. This understanding should lead to improved design and operation of mycelial fermentations. PMID:9468800

  4. Morphological Analysis of Cryogenic Spray Images

    OpenAIRE

    Ganu, Hrishikesh V.; Raghunandan, B. N.

    2008-01-01

    This study gives the development of a new technique for analyzing images of Cryogenic sprays, to estimate the drop-size distribution. It has a sound mathematical basis, in the form of Mathematical Morphology, and we have tried to build up a formulation for a granulometry, starting from the elementary operations of Dilation and Erosion. An axiomatic foundation for granulometry has also been discussed. We have taken an actual LN2 spray photograph for analysis, to illustrate the use of Morpholog...

  5. Machine learning for medical images analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criminisi, A

    2016-10-01

    This article discusses the application of machine learning for the analysis of medical images. Specifically: (i) We show how a special type of learning models can be thought of as automatically optimized, hierarchically-structured, rule-based algorithms, and (ii) We discuss how the issue of collecting large labelled datasets applies to both conventional algorithms as well as machine learning techniques. The size of the training database is a function of model complexity rather than a characteristic of machine learning methods.

  6. Nuclear Image Analysis Study of Neuroendocrine Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Meeja; Baek, Taehwa; Baek, Jongho; Son, Hyunjin; Kang, Dongwook; Kim, Jooheon; Lee, Hyekyung

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a subjective disagreement about nuclear chromatin in the field of pathology. Objective values of red, green, and blue (RGB) light intensities for nuclear chromatin can be obtained through a quantitative analysis using digital images. Methods We examined 10 cases of well differentiated neuroendocrine tumors of the rectum, small cell lung carcinomas, and moderately differentiated squamous cell lung carcinomas respectively. For each case, we selected 30 representative cells a...

  7. Image analysis of blood platelets adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krízová, P; Rysavá, J; Vanícková, M; Cieslar, P; Dyr, J E

    2003-01-01

    Adhesion of blood platelets is one of the major events in haemostatic and thrombotic processes. We studied adhesion of blood platelets on fibrinogen and fibrin dimer sorbed on solid support material (glass, polystyrene). Adhesion was carried on under static and dynamic conditions and measured as percentage of the surface covered with platelets. Within a range of platelet counts in normal and in thrombocytopenic blood we observed a very significant decrease in platelet adhesion on fibrin dimer with bounded active thrombin with decreasing platelet count. Our results show the imperative use of platelet poor blood preparations as control samples in experiments with thrombocytopenic blood. Experiments carried on adhesive surfaces sorbed on polystyrene showed lower relative inaccuracy than on glass. Markedly different behaviour of platelets adhered on the same adhesive surface, which differed only in support material (glass or polystyrene) suggest that adhesion and mainly spreading of platelets depends on physical quality of the surface. While on polystyrene there were no significant differences between fibrin dimer and fibrinogen, adhesion measured on glass support material markedly differed between fibrin dimer and fibrinogen. We compared two methods of thresholding in image analysis of adhered platelets. Results obtained by image analysis of spreaded platelets showed higher relative inaccuracy than results obtained by image analysis of platelets centres and aggregates.

  8. Rosiglitazone: can meta-analysis accurately estimate excess cardiovascular risk given the available data? Re-analysis of randomized trials using various methodologic approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich Jan O

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent and provocative meta-analysis, based on few outcome events, suggested that rosiglitazone increased cardiovascular mortality and myocardial infarction. However, results of meta-analyses of trials with sparse events, often performed when examining uncommon adverse effects due to common therapies, can vary substantially depending on methodologic decisions. The objective of this study was to assess the robustness of the rosiglitazone results by using alternative reasonable methodologic approaches and by analyzing additional related outcomes. Findings In duplicate and independently, we abstracted all myocardial and cerebrovascular ischemic events from all randomized controlled trials listed on the manufacturer's web site meeting inclusion criteria of the original meta-analysis (at least 24 weeks of rosiglitazone exposure in the intervention group and any control group without rosiglitazone. We performed meta-analyses of these data under different methodologic conditions. An unconfounded comparison that includes only trials (or arms of trials in which medications apart from rosiglitazone are identical suggests higher risks than previously reported, making even the risk of cardiovascular death statistically significant. Alternatively, meta-analysis that includes all trials comparing a treatment arm receiving rosiglitazone to any control arm without rosiglitazone (as in the original meta-analysis but also including trials with no events in both the rosiglitazone and control arms (not incorporated in the original meta-analysis, shows adverse but non-statistically significant effects of rosiglitazone on myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality. Rosiglitazone appears to have inconsistent effects on a wider range of cardiovascular outcomes. It increases the risk of a broad range of myocardial ischemic events (not just myocardial infarction. However, its effect on cerebrovascular ischemic events suggests benefit

  9. Characterising haemodialysis-associated cardiomyopathy using deformation imaging by cardiovascular magnetic resonance tagging and speckle-tracking echocardiography

    OpenAIRE

    Odudu, Aghogho

    2013-01-01

    Haemodialysis patients represent an extreme phenotype of cardiovascular risk with a pattern of disease distinct from that in the general population. Non-traditional risk factors, specific to chronic kidney disease such as hypervolaemia, arterial stiffness and advanced glycation end-product deposition are increasingly recognised. A previously demonstrated non-traditional risk factor associated with worse outcomes is the presence of uraemic cardiomyopathy. This pattern of cardiac morphology and...

  10. The effectiveness and cost effectiveness of dark chocolate consumption as prevention therapy in people at high risk of cardiovascular disease: best case scenario analysis using a Markov model

    OpenAIRE

    Zomer, Ella; Owen, Alice; Magliano, Dianna J; Liew, Danny; Reid, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To model the long term effectiveness and cost effectiveness of daily dark chocolate consumption in a population with metabolic syndrome at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Design Best case scenario analysis using a Markov model. Setting Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle study. Participants 2013 people with hypertension who met the criteria for metabolic syndrome, with no history of cardiovascular disease and not receiving antihypertensive therapy. Main outcome measures ...

  11. The spectral analysis of photoplethysmography to evaluate an independent cardiovascular risk factor

    OpenAIRE

    Maarek, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Pratiksha G Gandhi,1 Gundu HR Rao2 1IPC Heart Care Centre, Mumbai, India; 2University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USABackground: In this study, we evaluate homeostatic markers correlated to autonomic nervous and endothelial functions in a population of coronary artery disease (CAD) patients versus a control group. Since CAD is the highest risk marker for sudden cardiac death, the study objective is to determine whether an independent cardiovascular risk score based on these markers can be ...

  12. Comparative study on individual aromatase inhibitors on cardiovascular safety profile: misleading analysis and doubtful methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Guo WQ; Li L

    2015-01-01

    Wenqin Guo, Lang Li Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, People’s Republic of ChinaZhao et al have presented the result of the relative cardiovascular safety profile in using anastrozole, letrozole, and exemestane to treat the postmenopausal estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, in which fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarction is the outcome measure and ten randomized controlled trials are used as the data sources.1 We cong...

  13. Comparative study on individual aromatase inhibitors on cardiovascular safety profile: misleading analysis and doubtful methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Wenqin; Li, Lang

    2015-01-01

    Wenqin Guo, Lang Li Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, People’s Republic of ChinaZhao et al have presented the result of the relative cardiovascular safety profile in using anastrozole, letrozole, and exemestane to treat the postmenopausal estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, in which fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarction is the outcome measure and ten randomized controlled trials are used as the data sources.1 We ...

  14. Analysis of Genetic Markers for Cardiovascular Disorders in a Portuguese population with Familial Hypercholesterolaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, A.; Santos, T.; M. Bourbon

    2011-01-01

    Familial Hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a genetic disorder leading to an increase in levels of total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol promoting atherosclerosis (ATH) and premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). Inflammation has been considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of CVD, namely the activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines and acute phase proteins. Genetic and oxidative stress markers may contribute to ATH and CVD outcome. We intended to investigate the role of genetic, ...

  15. Analysis of Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Patients with Psoriasis

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Gun-Wook; Park, Hyun-Je; Kim, Hoon-Soo; Kim, Su-Han; Ko, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Byung-Soo; Kim, Moon-Bum; Sim, Eun-Kyung

    2012-01-01

    Background In previous studies, psoriasis has been reported to be associated with metabolic syndrome. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate risk factors for metabolic syndrome in psoriasis patients and to compare the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in psoriasis and control groups. Methods All patients (n=490) and controls (n=682) were investigated for cardiovascular risk factors, including central obesity, hypertension, fasting plasma glucose levels, and blood levels of triglyc...

  16. Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance guidelines for reporting cardiovascular magnetic resonance examinations

    OpenAIRE

    van Rossum Albert C; Raman Subha V; McConnell Michael V; Lawson Mark A; Higgins Charles B; Friedrich Matthias G; Bogaert Jan G; Bluemke David; Hundley W Gregory; Flamm Scott; Kramer Christopher M; Nagel Eike; Neubauer Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Abstract These reporting guidelines are recommended by the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (SCMR) to provide a framework for healthcare delivery systems to disseminate cardiac and vascular imaging findings related to the performance of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) examinations.

  17. A systematic review of image segmentation methodology, used in the additive manufacture of patient-specific 3D printed models of the cardiovascular system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, N; Velasco Forte, M; Tandon, A; Valverde, I

    2016-01-01

    Background Shortcomings in existing methods of image segmentation preclude the widespread adoption of patient-specific 3D printing as a routine decision-making tool in the care of those with congenital heart disease. We sought to determine the range of cardiovascular segmentation methods and how long each of these methods takes. Methods A systematic review of literature was undertaken. Medical imaging modality, segmentation methods, segmentation time, segmentation descriptive quality (SDQ) and segmentation software were recorded. Results Totally 136 studies met the inclusion criteria (1 clinical trial; 80 journal articles; 55 conference, technical and case reports). The most frequently used image segmentation methods were brightness thresholding, region growing and manual editing, as supported by the most popular piece of proprietary software: Mimics (Materialise NV, Leuven, Belgium, 1992–2015). The use of bespoke software developed by individual authors was not uncommon. SDQ indicated that reporting of image segmentation methods was generally poor with only one in three accounts providing sufficient detail for their procedure to be reproduced. Conclusions and implication of key findings Predominantly anecdotal and case reporting precluded rigorous assessment of risk of bias and strength of evidence. This review finds a reliance on manual and semi-automated segmentation methods which demand a high level of expertise and a significant time commitment on the part of the operator. In light of the findings, we have made recommendations regarding reporting of 3D printing studies. We anticipate that these findings will encourage the development of advanced image segmentation methods. PMID:27170842

  18. A systematic review of image segmentation methodology, used in the additive manufacture of patient-specific 3D printed models of the cardiovascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Byrne

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Shortcomings in existing methods of image segmentation preclude the widespread adoption of patient-specific 3D printing as a routine decision-making tool in the care of those with congenital heart disease. We sought to determine the range of cardiovascular segmentation methods and how long each of these methods takes. Methods A systematic review of literature was undertaken. Medical imaging modality, segmentation methods, segmentation time, segmentation descriptive quality (SDQ and segmentation software were recorded. Results Totally 136 studies met the inclusion criteria (1 clinical trial; 80 journal articles; 55 conference, technical and case reports. The most frequently used image segmentation methods were brightness thresholding, region growing and manual editing, as supported by the most popular piece of proprietary software: Mimics (Materialise NV, Leuven, Belgium, 1992–2015. The use of bespoke software developed by individual authors was not uncommon. SDQ indicated that reporting of image segmentation methods was generally poor with only one in three accounts providing sufficient detail for their procedure to be reproduced. Conclusions and implication of key findings Predominantly anecdotal and case reporting precluded rigorous assessment of risk of bias and strength of evidence. This review finds a reliance on manual and semi-automated segmentation methods which demand a high level of expertise and a significant time commitment on the part of the operator. In light of the findings, we have made recommendations regarding reporting of 3D printing studies. We anticipate that these findings will encourage the development of advanced image segmentation methods.

  19. Reticle defect sizing of optical proximity correction defects using SEM imaging and image analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurbrick, Larry S.; Wang, Lantian; Konicek, Paul; Laird, Ellen R.

    2000-07-01

    Sizing of programmed defects on optical proximity correction (OPC) feature sis addressed using high resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and image analysis techniques. A comparison and analysis of different sizing methods is made. This paper addresses the issues of OPC defect definition and discusses the experimental measurement results obtained by SEM in combination with image analysis techniques.

  20. Suitability of UK Biobank Retinal Images for Automatic Analysis of Morphometric Properties of the Vasculature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J MacGillivray

    Full Text Available To assess the suitability of retinal images held in the UK Biobank--the largest retinal data repository in a prospective population-based cohort--for computer assisted vascular morphometry, generating measures that are commonly investigated as candidate biomarkers of systemic disease.Non-mydriatic fundus images from both eyes of 2,690 participants--people with a self-reported history of myocardial infarction (n=1,345 and a matched control group (n=1,345--were analysed using VAMPIRE software. These images were drawn from those of 68,554 UK Biobank participants who underwent retinal imaging at recruitment. Four operators were trained in the use of the software to measure retinal vascular tortuosity and bifurcation geometry.Total operator time was approximately 360 hours (4 minutes per image. 2,252 (84% of participants had at least one image of sufficient quality for the software to process, i.e. there was sufficient detection of retinal vessels in the image by the software to attempt the measurement of the target parameters. 1,604 (60% of participants had an image of at least one eye that was adequately analysed by the software, i.e. the measurement protocol was successfully completed. Increasing age was associated with a reduced proportion of images that could be processed (p=0.0004 and analysed (p<0.0001. Cases exhibited more acute arteriolar branching angles (p=0.02 as well as lower arteriolar and venular tortuosity (p<0.0001.A proportion of the retinal images in UK Biobank are of insufficient quality for automated analysis. However, the large size of the UK Biobank means that tens of thousands of images are available and suitable for computational analysis. Parametric information measured from the retinas of participants with suspected cardiovascular disease was significantly different to that measured from a matched control group.

  1. Multispectral laser imaging for advanced food analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senni, L.; Burrascano, P.; Ricci, M.

    2016-07-01

    A hardware-software apparatus for food inspection capable of realizing multispectral NIR laser imaging at four different wavelengths is herein discussed. The system was designed to operate in a through-transmission configuration to detect the presence of unwanted foreign bodies inside samples, whether packed or unpacked. A modified Lock-In technique was employed to counterbalance the significant signal intensity attenuation due to transmission across the sample and to extract the multispectral information more efficiently. The NIR laser wavelengths used to acquire the multispectral images can be varied to deal with different materials and to focus on specific aspects. In the present work the wavelengths were selected after a preliminary analysis to enhance the image contrast between foreign bodies and food in the sample, thus identifying the location and nature of the defects. Experimental results obtained from several specimens, with and without packaging, are presented and the multispectral image processing as well as the achievable spatial resolution of the system are discussed.

  2. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in systemic hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Maceira Alicia M; Mohiaddin Raad H

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Systemic hypertension is a highly prevalent potentially modifiable cardiovascular risk factor. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis of underlying causes for hypertension, in assessing cardiovascular complications of hypertension, and in understanding the pathophysiology of the disease process. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) provides accurate and reproducible measures of ventricular volumes, mass, function and haemodynamics as well as uniquely allowing tissue char...

  3. Analysis of the effectiveness of moderate levels of physical activity to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, A Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Martin Garcia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: a. The determination of the efficacy of physical activity in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease; b. The Analysis of the relative changes in the levels of cardiovascular disease risk according to different intensities of physical activity (low-moderate. Methodology: The search was performed for studies with PUBMED data base. Then, the mean effect size of the studies included in the meta-analysis was calculated and Egger's test was applied to rule out any possible publication bias. Upon detection of heterogeneity, we proceeded to an analysis of the moderating variables. Results: A mean effect size of 0.762 (95% confidence interval 0678-0857 was obtained. Then The Egger test was applied which yielded a p-value of 0.67 (CI 0.95, such that the absence of publication bias was confirmed. The analysis of the moderating variables determined that the ensuing years (p = 0.000, 95% CI and the countries of study (p = 0.0096; 95% CI in part explain the heterogeneity detected. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the practice of physical activity at moderate intensities provides a protective effect on the individuals who make physical activity by reducing the risk these individuals to cardiovascular diseases.

  4. Remote Sensing Digital Image Analysis An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Richards, John A

    2013-01-01

    Remote Sensing Digital Image Analysis provides the non-specialist with a treatment of the quantitative analysis of satellite and aircraft derived remotely sensed data. Since the first edition of the book there have been significant developments in the algorithms used for the processing and analysis of remote sensing imagery; nevertheless many of the fundamentals have substantially remained the same.  This new edition presents material that has retained value since those early days, along with new techniques that can be incorporated into an operational framework for the analysis of remote sensing data. The book is designed as a teaching text for the senior undergraduate and postgraduate student, and as a fundamental treatment for those engaged in research using digital image processing in remote sensing.  The presentation level is for the mathematical non-specialist.  Since the very great number of operational users of remote sensing come from the earth sciences communities, the text is pitched at a leve...

  5. Nursing image: an evolutionary concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei-Adaryani, Morteza; Salsali, Mahvash; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2012-12-01

    A long-term challenge to the nursing profession is the concept of image. In this study, we used the Rodgers' evolutionary concept analysis approach to analyze the concept of nursing image (NI). The aim of this concept analysis was to clarify the attributes, antecedents, consequences, and implications associated with the concept. We performed an integrative internet-based literature review to retrieve English literature published from 1980-2011. Findings showed that NI is a multidimensional, all-inclusive, paradoxical, dynamic, and complex concept. The media, invisibility, clothing style, nurses' behaviors, gender issues, and professional organizations are the most important antecedents of the concept. We found that NI is pivotal in staff recruitment and nursing shortage, resource allocation to nursing, nurses' job performance, workload, burnout and job dissatisfaction, violence against nurses, public trust, and salaries available to nurses. An in-depth understanding of the NI concept would assist nurses to eliminate negative stereotypes and build a more professional image for the nurse and the profession. PMID:23343236

  6. Simple Low Level Features for Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcoz, Paolo

    As human beings, we perceive the world around us mainly through our eyes, and give what we see the status of “reality”; as such we historically tried to create ways of recording this reality so we could augment or extend our memory. From early attempts in photography like the image produced in 1826 by the French inventor Nicéphore Niépce (Figure 2.1) to the latest high definition camcorders, the number of recorded pieces of reality increased exponentially, posing the problem of managing all that information. Most of the raw video material produced today has lost its memory augmentation function, as it will hardly ever be viewed by any human; pervasive CCTVs are an example. They generate an enormous amount of data each day, but there is not enough “human processing power” to view them. Therefore the need for effective automatic image analysis tools is great, and a lot effort has been put in it, both from the academia and the industry. In this chapter, a review of some of the most important image analysis tools are presented.

  7. Optimization of cardiovascular stent against restenosis: factorial design-based statistical analysis of polymer coating conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayathri Acharya

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to optimize the physicodynamic conditions of polymeric system as a coating substrate for drug eluting stents against restenosis. As Nitric Oxide (NO has multifunctional activities, such as regulating blood flow and pressure, and influencing thrombus formation, a continuous and spatiotemporal delivery of NO loaded in the polymer based nanoparticles could be a viable option to reduce and prevent restenosis. To identify the most suitable carrier for S-Nitrosoglutathione (GSNO, a NO prodrug, stents were coated with various polymers, such as poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA, polyethylene glycol (PEG and polycaprolactone (PCL, using solvent evaporation technique. Full factorial design was used to evaluate the effects of the formulation variables in polymer-based stent coatings on the GSNO release rate and weight loss rate. The least square regression model was used for data analysis in the optimization process. The polymer-coated stents were further assessed with Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis (FTIR, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM images and platelet adhesion studies. Stents coated with PCL matrix displayed more sustained and controlled drug release profiles than those coated with PLGA and PEG. Stents coated with PCL matrix showed the least platelet adhesion rate. Subsequently, stents coated with PCL matrix were subjected to the further optimization processes for improvement of surface morphology and enhancement of the drug release duration. The results of this study demonstrated that PCL matrix containing GSNO is a promising system for stent surface coating against restenosis.

  8. Impact of walking on glycemic control and other cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanhu Qiu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Walking is the most popular and most preferred exercise among type 2 diabetes patients, yet compelling evidence regarding its beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors is still lacking. The aim of this meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs was to evaluate the association between walking and glycemic control and other cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes patients. METHODS: Three databases were searched up to August 2014. English-language RCTs were eligible for inclusion if they had assessed the walking effects (duration ≥8 weeks on glycemic control or other cardiovascular risk factors among type 2 diabetes patients. Data were pooled using a random-effects model. Subgroup analyses based on supervision status and meta-regression analyses of variables regarding characteristics of participants and walking were performed to investigate their association with glycemic control. RESULTS: Eighteen studies involving 20 RCTs (866 participants were included. Walking significantly decreased glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c by 0.50% (95% confidence intervals [CI]: -0.78% to -0.21%. Supervised walking was associated with a pronounced decrease in HbA1c (WMD -0.58%, 95% CI: -0.93% to -0.23%, whereas non-supervised walking was not. Further subgroup analysis suggested non-supervised walking using motivational strategies is also effective in decreasing HbA1c (WMD -0.53%, 95% CI: -1.05% to -0.02%. Effects of covariates on HbA1c change were generally unclear. For other cardiovascular risk factors, walking significantly reduced body mass index (BMI and lowered diastolic blood pressure (DBP, but non-significantly lowered systolic blood pressure (SBP, or changed high-density or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis supports that walking decreases HbA1c among type 2 diabetes patients. Supervision or the use of motivational strategies should be suggested when prescribed walking to ensure

  9. [Imaging Mass Spectrometry in Histopathologic Analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Fumiyoshi; Seto, Mitsutoshi

    2015-04-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) enables visualization of the distribution of a range of biomolecules by integrating biochemical information from mass spectrometry with positional information from microscopy. IMS identifies a target molecule. In addition, IMS enables global analysis of biomolecules containing unknown molecules by detecting the ratio of the molecular weight to electric charge without any target, which makes it possible to identify novel molecules. IMS generates data on the distribution of lipids and small molecules in tissues, which is difficult to visualize with either conventional counter-staining or immunohistochemistry. In this review, we firstly introduce the principle of imaging mass spectrometry and recent advances in the sample preparation method. Secondly, we present findings regarding biological samples, especially pathological ones. Finally, we discuss the limitations and problems of the IMS technique and clinical application, such as in drug development. PMID:26536781

  10. PAMS photo image retrieval prototype alternatives analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, M.L.

    1996-04-30

    Photography and Audiovisual Services uses a system called the Photography and Audiovisual Management System (PAMS) to perform order entry and billing services. The PAMS system utilizes Revelation Technologies database management software, AREV. Work is currently in progress to link the PAMS AREV system to a Microsoft SQL Server database engine to provide photograph indexing and query capabilities. The link between AREV and SQLServer will use a technique called ``bonding.`` This photograph imaging subsystem will interface to the PAMS system and handle the image capture and retrieval portions of the project. The intent of this alternatives analysis is to examine the software and hardware alternatives available to meet the requirements for this project, and identify a cost-effective solution.

  11. Covariance of Lucky Images: Performance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagigal, Manuel P.; Valle, Pedro J.; Cagigas, Miguel A.; Villó-Pérez, Isidro; Colodro-Conde, Carlos; Ginski, C.; Mugrauer, M.; Seeliger, M.

    2016-09-01

    The covariance of ground-based Lucky Images (COELI) is a robust and easy-to-use algorithm that allows us to detect faint companions surrounding a host star. In this paper we analyze the relevance of the number of processed frames, the frames quality, the atmosphere conditions and the detection noise on the companion detectability. This analysis has been carried out using both experimental and computer simulated imaging data. Although the technique allows us the detection of faint companions, the camera detection noise and the use of a limited number of frames reduce the minimum detectable companion intensity to around 1000 times fainter than that of the host star when placed at an angular distance corresponding to the few first Airy rings. The reachable contrast could be even larger when detecting companions with the assistance of an adaptive optics system.

  12. Prognostic value of cardiovascular MR imaging biomarkers on outcome in peripheral arterial disease: a 6-year follow-up pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bosch, Harrie; Westenberg, Jos; Setz-Pels, Wikke; Kersten, Erik; Tielbeek, Alexander; Duijm, Lucien; Post, Johannes; Teijink, Joep; de Roos, Albert

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to explore the prognostic value of outcome of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (MR) imaging biomarkers in patients with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in comparison with traditional risk factors. Forty-two consecutive patients (mean age 64 ± 11 years, 22 men) referred for contrast-enhanced MR angiography (CE-MRA) were included. At baseline a comprehensive cardiovascular MRI examination was performed: CE-MRA of the infra-renal aorta and run-off vessels, carotid vessel wall imaging, cardiac cine imaging and aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) assessment. Patients were categorized for outcome at 72 ± 5 months follow-up. One patient was lost to follow-up. Over 6 years, six patients had died (mortality rate 14.6 %), six patients (14.6 %) had experienced a cardiac event and three patients (7.3 %) a cerebral event. The mean MRA stenosis class (i.e., average stenosis severity visually scored over 27 standardized segments) was a significant independent predictor for all-cause mortality (beta 3.0 ± standard error 1.3, p = 0.02). Descending aorta PWV, age and diabetes mellitus were interrelated with stenosis severity but none of these were significant independent predictors. For cardiac morbidity, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and mean MRA stenosis class were associated, but only LVEF was a significant independent predictor (beta -0.14 ± 0.05, p = 0.005). Diabetes mellitus was a significant independent predictor for cerebral morbidity (beta 2.8 ± 1.3, p = 0.03). Significant independent predictors for outcome in PAD are mean MRA stenosis class for all-cause mortality, LVEF for cardiac morbidity and diabetes mellitus for cerebral morbidity. PMID:27209283

  13. Image analysis software and sample preparation demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Karl n.; Wenzelides, Knut; Wolf, Guenter; Hufnagl, Peter

    1990-11-01

    Image analysis offers the opportunity to analyse many processes in medicine, biology and engeneering in a quantitative manner. Experience shows that it is only by awareness of preparation methods and attention to software design that full benefit can be reaped from a picture processing system in the fields of cytology and histology. Some examples of special stains for automated analysis are given here and the effectiveness of commercially available software packages is investigated. The application of picture processing and development of related special hardware and software has been increasing within the last years. As PC-based picture processing systems can be purchased at reasonable costs more and more users are confronted with these problems. Experience shows that the quality of commercially available software packages differ and the requirements on the sample preparation needed for successful problem solutions are often underestimated. But as always, sample preparation is still the key to success in automated image analysis for cells and tissues. Hence, a problem solution requires the permanent interaction between sample preparation methods and algorithm development.

  14. Bone feature analysis using image processing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z Q; Austin, T; Thomas, C D; Clement, J G

    1996-01-01

    In order to establish the correlation between bone structure and age, and information about age-related bone changes, it is necessary to study microstructural features of human bone. Traditionally, in bone biology and forensic science, the analysis if bone cross-sections has been carried out manually. Such a process is known to be slow, inefficient and prone to human error. Consequently, the results obtained so far have been unreliable. In this paper we present a new approach to quantitative analysis of cross-sections of human bones using digital image processing techniques. We demonstrate that such a system is able to extract various bone features consistently and is capable of providing more reliable data and statistics for bones. Consequently, we will be able to correlate features of bone microstructure with age and possibly also with age related bone diseases such as osteoporosis. The development of knowledge-based computer vision-systems for automated bone image analysis can now be considered feasible.

  15. Comparative study on individual aromatase inhibitors on cardiovascular safety profile: misleading analysis and doubtful methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo WQ

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Wenqin Guo, Lang Li Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, People’s Republic of ChinaZhao et al have presented the result of the relative cardiovascular safety profile in using anastrozole, letrozole, and exemestane to treat the postmenopausal estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, in which fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarction is the outcome measure and ten randomized controlled trials are used as the data sources.1 We congratulate and applaud their important work, but there are some issues of concern.  View original article by Zhao et al 

  16. The triple line pattern on carotid intima media thickness imaging and its relationship to cardiovascular risk factors in patients on lipid lowering therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh TA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tania A Singh,1 Todd C Villines,2 Allen J Taylor31Division of Cardiology, Medstar Georgetown University Hospital, 2Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, MD, 3Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA Background: Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT infrequently identifies a triple line pattern (TLP in the visualization of the internal elastic lamina. We examined the prevalence and predictors of the TLP among a consecutive series of subjects enrolled in a CIMT clinical trial, and also the effects of lipid lowering therapy.Methods: Baseline CIMT studies of subjects with known heart disease, or high risk for heart disease, were evaluated from a single site of the Arterial Biology for the Investigation of the Treatment Effects of Reducing Cholesterol 6-HDL and LDL Treatment Strategies in Atherosclerosis trial (N=120. One sonographer obtained four views of the right and left far wall common CIMT, using a 13 MHz ultrasound probe. Images were blindly reviewed for the presence of the TLP. The TLP was defined as absent (0, possible (1, or definite (2. A composite score from all four views was calculated. A patient was defined as having the TLP if the composite score was ≥4. Univariate predictors of the TLP were explored. Follow-up ultrasounds at 14 months were also reviewed for presence of the TLP.Results: The prevalence of the TLP at baseline was 22.5%. Among cardiovascular risk variables, systolic blood pressure was significantly higher in subjects displaying the TLP (141.3±15.6 mmHg versus 133.1±18.4 mmHg; P=0.036. There were no differences among those with, and without, the TLP, with respect to other cardiovascular risk variables (age, sex, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, glucose, weight, waist girth, tobacco use, medications, quantitative CIMT, or image quality. During ongoing lipid lowering therapy, the prevalence of the TLP increased to 54

  17. Evaluating an implementation strategy in cardiovascular prevention to improve prescribing of statins in Germany: an intention to treat analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Heidemarie; Hirsch, Oliver; Kaufmann-Kolle, Petra; Krones, Tanja; Becker, Annette; Sönnichsen, Andreas C; Baum, Erika; Donner-Banzhoff, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prescription of statins is an evidence-based treatment to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with elevated cardiovascular risk or with a cardiovascular disorder (CVD). In spite of this, many of these patients do not receive statins. METHODS: We evaluated the impact of a brief educational intervention in cardiovascular prevention in primary care physicians' prescribing behaviour regarding statins beyond their participation in a randomised controlled trial (...

  18. Analysis of image quality based on perceptual preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Liqin; Hua, Yuning; Zhao, Guangzhou; Qi, Yaping

    2007-11-01

    This paper deals with image quality analysis considering the impact of psychological factors involved in assessment. The attributes of image quality requirement were partitioned according to the visual perception characteristics and the preference of image quality were obtained by the factor analysis method. The features of image quality which support the subjective preference were identified, The adequacy of image is evidenced to be the top requirement issues to the display image quality improvement. The approach will be beneficial to the research of the image quality subjective quantitative assessment method.

  19. SimVascular 2.0: an Integrated Open Source Pipeline for Image-Based Cardiovascular Modeling and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Hongzhi; Merkow, Jameson; Updegrove, Adam; Schiavazzi, Daniele; Wilson, Nathan; Shadden, Shawn; Marsden, Alison

    2015-11-01

    SimVascular (www.simvascular.org) is currently the only fully open source software package that provides a complete pipeline from medical image based modeling to patient specific blood flow simulation and analysis. It was initially released in 2007 and has contributed to numerous advances in fundamental hemodynamics research, surgical planning, and medical device design. However, early versions had several major barriers preventing wider adoption by new users, large-scale application in clinical and research studies, and educational access. In the past years, SimVascular 2.0 has made significant progress by integrating open source alternatives for the expensive commercial libraries previously required for anatomic modeling, mesh generation and the linear solver. In addition, it simplified the across-platform compilation process, improved the graphical user interface and launched a comprehensive documentation website. Many enhancements and new features have been incorporated for the whole pipeline, such as 3-D segmentation, Boolean operation for discrete triangulated surfaces, and multi-scale coupling for closed loop boundary conditions. In this presentation we will briefly overview the modeling/simulation pipeline and advances of the new SimVascular 2.0.

  20. Omega-3 fatty acids in high-risk cardiovascular patients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bielinski Michael

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple randomized controlled trials (RCTs have examined the cardiovascular effects of omega-3 fatty acids and have provided unexplained conflicting results. A meta-analysis of these RCTs to estimate efficacy and safety and potential sources of heterogeneity may be helpful. Methods The Cochrane library, MEDLINE, and EMBASE were systematically searched to identify all interventional trials of omega-3 fatty acids compared to placebo or usual diet in high-risk cardiovascular patients. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality and secondary outcomes were coronary restenosis following percutaneous coronary intervention and safety. Meta-analyses were carried out using Bayesian random-effects models, and heterogeneity was examined using meta-regression. Results A total of 29 RCTs (n = 35,144 met our inclusion criteria, with 25 reporting mortality and 14 reporting restenosis. Omega-3 fatty acids were not associated with a statistically significant decreased mortality (relative risk [RR] = 0.88, 95% Credible Interval [CrI] = 0.64, 1.03 or with restenosis prevention (RR = 0.89, 95% CrI = 0.72, 1.06, though the probability of some benefit remains high (0.93 and 0.90, respectively. However in meta-regressions, there was a >90% probability that larger studies and those with longer follow-up were associated with smaller benefits. No serious safety issues were identified. Conclusions Although not reaching conventional statistical significance, the evidence to date suggests that omega-3 fatty acids may result in a modest reduction in mortality and restenosis. However, caution must be exercised in interpreting these benefits as results were attenuated in higher quality studies, suggesting that bias may be at least partially responsible. Additional high quality studies are required to clarify the role of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

  1. Association of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with major adverse cardiovascular events: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shunquan; Wu, Fuquan; Ding, Yingying; Hou, Jun; Bi, Jingfeng; Zhang, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence connects non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) to cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study is to assess whether and to what extent the excess risk of CVD is conferred by NAFLD in a meta-analysis. We systematically searched PubMed, EmBase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library for reports published between 1965 and July 3, 2015. Studies that reported data on association between NAFLD and adverse cardiovascular events or mortality were included. Thirty-four studies (164,494 participants, 21 cross-sectional studies, and 13 cohort studies) were included. NAFLD was not associated with overall mortality (HR = 1.14, 95% CI: 0.99–1.32) and CVD mortality (HR = 1.10, 95% CI: 0.86–1.41). However, NAFLD was associated with an increased risk of prevalent (OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.23–2.66) and incident (HR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.10–1.72) CVD. For some specific CVDs, NAFLD was associated with an increased risk of prevalent (OR = 1.87, 95% CI: 1.47–2.37) and incident (HR = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.46–3.65) coronary artery disease (CAD), prevalent (OR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.14–1.36) and incident (HR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.06–1.27) hypertension, and prevalent (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.07–1.62) atherosclerosis. In conclusion, the presence of NAFLD is associated with an increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events, although it is not related to mortality from all causes or CVD. PMID:27633274

  2. Digital image analysis of palaeoenvironmental records and applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Environmental change signals in geological or biological records are commonly reflected on their reflecting or transmitting images. These environmental signals can be extracted through digital image analysis. The analysis principle involves section line selection, color value reading and calculating environmental proxy index along the section lines, layer identification, auto-chronology and investigation of structure evolution of growth bands. On detailed illustrations of the image technique, this note provides image analyzing procedures of coral, tree-ring and stalagmite records. The environmental implications of the proxy index from image analysis are accordingly given through application demonstration of the image technique.

  3. Etching and image analysis of the microstructure in marble

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alm, Ditte; Brix, Susanne; Howe-Rasmussen, Helle;

    2005-01-01

    of grains exposed on that surface are measured on the microscope images using image analysis by the program Adobe Photoshop 7.0 with Image Processing Toolkit 4.0. The parameters measured by the program on microscope images of thin sections of two marble types are used for calculation of the coefficient...

  4. Gliptins and Cardiovascular Outcomes: A Comparative and Critical Analysis after TECOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Samit; Sinha, Binayak

    2016-01-01

    The issue related to macrovascular outcomes and intensive glycemic control was hotly debated after the publication of landmark trials like ACCORD, ADVANCE, and VADT. The only benefits seem to come from intervening early on in the disease process as indicated by the 10-year UKPDS follow-up. To complicate matters USFDA made it mandatory for modern drugs to conduct cardiovascular safety trials in high-risk populations after the 2008 rosiglitazone scare. This led to all the modern group of drugs designing cardiovascular safety trials (gliptins, GLP-1 agonists, and SGLT-2 inhibitors) to meet USFDA regulatory requirements. We saw publication of the first 2 randomized trials with gliptins published a year and a half back. On the face value SAVOR TIMI and EXAMINE satisfied the primary composite CV end-points. However, issues related to significant increase in heart failure and all-cause 7-day on-treatment mortality created a lot of confusion. FDA reanalysis of these data (especially SAVOR) raises a lot of doubts as far as CV safety of these groups of drugs was concerned. Hence, all eyes were on TECOS, which was published this year. We take a microscopic look at these trials trying to understand where we stand as from now on this issue. PMID:26649315

  5. Gliptins and Cardiovascular Outcomes: A Comparative and Critical Analysis after TECOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samit Ghosal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue related to macrovascular outcomes and intensive glycemic control was hotly debated after the publication of landmark trials like ACCORD, ADVANCE, and VADT. The only benefits seem to come from intervening early on in the disease process as indicated by the 10-year UKPDS follow-up. To complicate matters USFDA made it mandatory for modern drugs to conduct cardiovascular safety trials in high-risk populations after the 2008 rosiglitazone scare. This led to all the modern group of drugs designing cardiovascular safety trials (gliptins, GLP-1 agonists, and SGLT-2 inhibitors to meet USFDA regulatory requirements. We saw publication of the first 2 randomized trials with gliptins published a year and a half back. On the face value SAVOR TIMI and EXAMINE satisfied the primary composite CV end-points. However, issues related to significant increase in heart failure and all-cause 7-day on-treatment mortality created a lot of confusion. FDA reanalysis of these data (especially SAVOR raises a lot of doubts as far as CV safety of these groups of drugs was concerned. Hence, all eyes were on TECOS, which was published this year. We take a microscopic look at these trials trying to understand where we stand as from now on this issue.

  6. Cardiovascular Risk Factor Analysis in Patients with a Recent Clinical Fracture at the Fracture Liaison Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline E. Wyers

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with a low bone mineral density have an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD and venous thromboembolic events (VTE. The aim of our retrospective chart review was to investigate the prevalence of CVD, VTE, hypertension (HT, and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2 in patients with a recent clinical fracture visiting the Fracture Liaison Service (FLS. Out of 3057 patients aged 50–90 years, 1359 consecutive patients, who agreed and were able to visit the FLS for fracture risk evaluation, were included (71.7% women; mean age 65.2 yrs. Based on medical history, 29.9% had a history of CVD (13.7%, VTE (1.7%, HT (14.9%, and DM2 (7.1% or a combination. Their prevalence increased with age (21% in patients aged 50–59 years to 48% in patients aged >80 years and was higher in men than in women (36% versus 27%, but independent of bone mineral density and fracture type. Careful evaluation of medical history with respect to these risk factors should be performed in patients with a recent clinical fracture before starting treatment with medications that increase the risk of VTE or cardiovascular events, such as raloxifene, strontium ranelate, or NSAIDs.

  7. Comparative Analysis of Various Image Fusion Techniques For Biomedical Images: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayera Nahvi,

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Image Fusion is a process of combining the relevant information from a set of images, into a single image, wherein the resultant fused image will be more informative and complete than any of the input images. This paper discusses implementation of DWT technique on different images to make a fused image having more information content. As DWT is the latest technique for image fusion as compared to simple image fusion and pyramid based image fusion, so we are going to implement DWT as the image fusion technique in our paper. Other methods such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA based fusion, Intensity hue Saturation (IHS Transform based fusion and high pass filtering methods are also discussed. A new algorithm is proposed using Discrete Wavelet transform and different fusion techniques including pixel averaging, min-max and max-min methods for medical image fusion. KEYWORDS:

  8. The Scientific Image in Behavior Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Mickey

    2016-05-01

    Throughout the history of science, the scientific image has played a significant role in communication. With recent developments in computing technology, there has been an increase in the kinds of opportunities now available for scientists to communicate in more sophisticated ways. Within behavior analysis, though, we are only just beginning to appreciate the importance of going beyond the printing press to elucidate basic principles of behavior. The aim of this manuscript is to stimulate appreciation of both the role of the scientific image and the opportunities provided by a quick response code (QR code) for enhancing the functionality of the printed page. I discuss the limitations of imagery in behavior analysis ("Introduction"), and I show examples of what can be done with animations and multimedia for teaching philosophical issues that arise when teaching about private events ("Private Events 1 and 2"). Animations are also useful for bypassing ethical issues when showing examples of challenging behavior ("Challenging Behavior"). Each of these topics can be accessed only by scanning the QR code provided. This contingency has been arranged to help the reader embrace this new technology. In so doing, I hope to show its potential for going beyond the limitations of the printing press. PMID:27606187

  9. From Pixels to Geographic Objects in Remote Sensing Image Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Addink, E.A.; Van Coillie, Frieke M.B.; Jong, Steven M. de

    2012-01-01

    Traditional image analysis methods are mostly pixel-based and use the spectral differences of landscape elements at the Earth surface to classify these elements or to extract element properties from the Earth Observation image. Geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA) has received considerabl

  10. Image analysis and platform development for automated phenotyping in cytomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Kuan

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is dedicated to the empirical study of image analysis in HT/HC screen study. Often a HT/HC screening produces extensive amounts that cannot be manually analyzed. Thus, an automated image analysis solution is prior to an objective understanding of the raw image data. Compared to general a

  11. Neighbourhood socioeconomic status and cardiovascular risk factors: a multilevel analysis of nine cities in the Czech Republic and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erbel Raimund

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown that deprived neighbourhoods have higher cardiovascular mortality and morbidity rates. Inequalities in the distribution of behaviour related risk factors are one possible explanation for this trend. In our study, we examined the association between cardiovascular risk factors and neighbourhood characteristics. To assess the consistency of associations the design is cross-national with data from nine industrial towns from the Czech Republic and Germany. Methods We combined datasets from two population based studies, one in Germany ('Heinz Nixdorf Recall (HNR Study', and one in the Czech Republic ('Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial Factors in Eastern Europe (HAPIEE Study'. Participation rates were 56% in the HNR and 55% in the HAPIEE study. The subsample for this particular analysis consists of 11,554 men and women from nine German and Czech towns. Census based information on social characteristics of 326 neighbourhoods were collected from local administrative authorities. We used unemployment rate and overcrowding as area-level markers of socioeconomic status (SES. The cardiovascular risk factors obesity, hypertension, smoking and physical inactivity were used as response variables. Regression models were complemented by individual-level social status (education and relevant covariates. Results Smoking, obesity and low physical activity were more common in deprived neighbourhoods in Germany, even when personal characteristics including individual education were controlled for. For hypertension associations were weak. In the Czech Republic associations were observed for smoking and physical inactivity, but not for obesity and hypertension when individual-level covariates were adjusted for. The strongest association was found for smoking in both countries: in the fully adjusted model the odds ratio for 'high unemployment rate' was 1.30 [95% CI 1.02–1.66] in the Czech Republic and 1.60 [95% CI 1.29

  12. Analysis of image quality metric for ROI using image restoration techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Amma Sheik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of an image plays vital role in the image processing field, which leads to the inventions of applications in the area of telemedicine, remote sensing via satellites and other spacecrafts, radar, sonar and acoustic image processing etc. This concept is a key factor in research field. One of the common image analysis is use of Region of Interest (ROI image, which is an effortless way of analyzing images. This paper proposes a method to analyze the Image Quality Metric (IQM for a ROI based color image. IQM is accomplished by the use of the three image restoration algorithms such as Blind deconvolution algorithm, Wiener Filtering algorithm and Lucy – Richardson algorithm. Keywords: Blind Deconvolution, Lucy Richardson, Point Spread Function, Region of Interest, Image Quality Metric, Wiener Filter.

  13. Molecular Analysis of Oral Bacteria in Heart Valve of Patients With Cardiovascular Disease by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Francisco Artur Forte; Forte, Clarissa Pessoa Fernandes; Silva, Paulo Goberlânio de Barros; Lopes, Camile B; Montenegro, Raquel Carvalho; Santos, Ândrea Kely Campos Ribeiro Dos; Sobrinho, Carlos Roberto Martins Rodrigues; Mota, Mário Rogério Lima; Sousa, Fabrício Bitu; Alves, Ana Paula Negreiros Nunes

    2015-11-01

    Structural deficiencies and functional abnormalities of heart valves represent an important cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and a number of diseases, such as aortic stenosis, have been recently associated with infectious agents. This study aimed to analyze oral bacteria in dental plaque, saliva, and cardiac valves of patients with cardiovascular disease. Samples of supragingival plaque, subgingival plaque, saliva, and cardiac valve tissue were collected from 42 patients with heart valve disease. Molecular analysis of Streptococcus mutans, Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Treponema denticola was performed through real-time PCR. The micro-organism most frequently detected in heart valve samples was the S. mutans (89.3%), followed by P. intermedia (19.1%), P. gingivalis (4.2%), and T. denticola (2.1%). The mean decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) was 26.4 ± 6.9 (mean ± SD), and according to the highest score of periodontal disease observed for each patient, periodontal pockets > 4 mm and dental calculus were detected in 43.4% and 34.7% of patients, respectively. In conclusion, oral bacteria, especially S. mutans, were found in the cardiac valve samples of patients with a high rate of caries and gingivitis/periodontitis. PMID:26632711

  14. Multilevel modeling versus cross-sectional analysis for assessing the longitudinal tracking of cardiovascular risk factors over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthakis, Vanessa; Sullivan, Lisa M; Vasan, Ramachandran S

    2013-12-10

    Correlated data are obtained in longitudinal epidemiological studies, where repeated measurements are taken on individuals or groups over time. Such longitudinal data are ideally analyzed using multilevel modeling approaches, which appropriately account for the correlations in repeated responses in the same individual. Commonly used regression models are inappropriate as they assume that measurements are independent. In this tutorial, we use multilevel modeling to demonstrate its use for analysis of correlated data obtained from serial examinations on individuals. We focus on cardiovascular epidemiological research where investigators are often interested in quantifying the relations between clinical risk factors and outcome measures (X and Y, respectively), where X and Y are measured repeatedly over time, for example, using serial observations on participants attending multiple examinations in a longitudinal cohort study. For instance, it may be of interest to evaluate the relations between serial measures of left ventricular mass (outcome) and of its potential determinants (i.e., body mass index and blood pressure), both of which are measured over time. In this tutorial, we describe the application of multilevel modeling to cardiovascular risk factors and outcome data (using serial echocardiographic data as an example of an outcome). We suggest an analytical approach that can be implemented to evaluate relations between any potential outcome of interest and risk factors, including assessment of random effects and nonlinear relations. We illustrate these steps using echocardiographic data from the Framingham Heart Study with SAS PROC MIXED.

  15. [ANALYSIS OF CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN YOUNG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS ACCORDING TO THEIR NUTRITIONAL STATUS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Floody, Pedro; Alarcón Hormazábal, Manuel; Caamaño Navarrete, Felipe

    2015-10-01

    Antecedentes: la obesidad es una de las enfermedades no transmisibles más graves y prevalentes en la actualidad, y se considera un factor de riesgo importante para la enfermedad cardiovascular asociándose con la resistencia a la insulina, la intolerancia a la glucosa, la hipertensión arterial y el síndrome metabólico. Objetivo: el propósito del estudio fue analizar el estado nutricional de jóvenes universitarios y su asociación con los factores de riesgo cardiovascular. Pacientes y métodos: se evaluaron 153 estudiantes universitarios, 51 hombres y 102 mujeres, de entre 17 y 33 años de edad. Se realizaron mediciones antropométricas de IMC y contorno cintura, presión arterial sistólica y diastólica, colesterol, colesterol HDL (cHDL), colesterol LDL (cLDL), triglicéridos y glicemia. Resultados: las variables cHDL (p = 0,000) y la presión sistólica (p = 0,043) presentaron diferencias significativas en la comparación por género. El 35,29 % presentó sobrepeso u obesidad. En la comparación según estado nutricional, el contorno de cintura y la presión sistólica y diastólica presentaron diferencias significativas (p < 0,05). Al relacionar el estado nutricional con las variables plasmáticas y la presión arterial, este presentó una asociación con los niveles de colesterol, cLDL, presión sistólica y diastólica (p < 0,05). El contorno de cintura presentó una asociación con la presión sistólica y diastólica (p < 0,05). Conclusiones: existe elevada prevalencia de malnutrición por exceso en la muestra de jóvenes universitarios, que además se asocia con los factores de riesgo cardiovascular, siendo los estudiantes obesos los que presentan mayor deterioro en todas las variables evaluadas.

  16. Meta-analysis of psoriasis, cardiovascular disease, and associated risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Iben Marie; Ellervik, Christina; Yazdanyar, Shiva;

    2013-01-01

    .2-1.9), peripheral vascular disease (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.2-1.8), atherosclerosis (OR 1.1; 95% CI 1.1-1.2), diabetes (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.5-2.5), hypertension (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.6-2.0), dyslipidemia (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.4-1.7), obesity by body mass index (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.4-2.2), obesity by abdominal fat (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1...... significant associations, with the exception of dyslipidemia. LIMITATIONS: The heterogeneity of the studies makes clinical interpretation challenging. CONCLUSIONS: In aggregate, psoriasis was associated with ischemic heart disease and cardiovascular risk factors. The association was only significant...... for hospital-based studies, except for dyslipidemia, which was also significant in population-based studies....

  17. Variations in cardiovascular disease under-diagnosis in England: national cross-sectional spatial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walford Hannah

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is under-diagnosis of cardiovascular disease (CVD in the English population, despite financial incentives to encourage general practices to register new cases. We compared the modelled (expected and diagnosed (observed prevalence of three cardiovascular conditions- coronary heart disease (CHD, hypertension and stroke- at local level, their geographical variation, and population and healthcare predictors which might influence diagnosis. Methods Cross-sectional observational study in all English local authorities (351 and general practices (8,372 comparing model-based expected prevalence with diagnosed prevalence on practice disease registers. Spatial analyses were used to identify geographic clusters and variation in regression relationships. Results A total of 9,682,176 patients were on practice CHD, stroke and transient ischaemic attack, and hypertension registers. There was wide spatial variation in observed: expected prevalence ratios for all three diseases, with less than five per cent of expected cases diagnosed in some areas. London and the surrounding area showed statistically significant discrepancies in observed: expected prevalence ratios, with observed prevalence much lower than the epidemiological models predicted. The addition of general practitioner supply as a variable yielded stronger regression results for all three conditions. Conclusions Despite almost universal access to free primary healthcare, there may be significant and highly variable under-diagnosis of CVD across England, which can be partially explained by persistent inequity in GP supply. Disease management studies should consider the possible impact of under-diagnosis on population health outcomes. Compared to classical regression modelling, spatial analytic techniques can provide additional information on risk factors for under-diagnosis, and can suggest where healthcare resources may be most needed.

  18. Television viewing and incident cardiovascular disease: prospective associations and mediation analysis in the EPIC Norfolk Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrien Wijndaele

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although television viewing time is detrimentally associated with intermediate cardiovascular risk factors, the relationship with incident total (i.e. combined fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease (CVD, non-fatal CVD and coronary heart disease is largely unknown. This study examined whether television viewing time is associated with these three outcomes, independently of physical activity energy expenditure and other confounding variables. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A population-based cohort of 12,608 men and women (aged 61.4±9.0, free from stroke, myocardial infarction and cancer at baseline in 1998-2000 were followed up until 2007 (6.9±1.9 years. Participants self-reported education, smoking, alcohol use, antihypertensive, lipid lowering and antidepressant medication, disease history, total energy intake, sleep duration, physical activity and television viewing. BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol and glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c were measured by standardized procedures; a clustered metabolic risk score was constructed. Every one hour/day increase in television viewing was associated with an increased hazard for total (HR = 1.06, 95%CI = 1.03-1.08; 2,620 cases, non-fatal CVD (HR = 1.06, 95%CI = 1.03-1.09; 2,134 cases, and coronary heart disease (HR = 1.08, 95%CI = 1.03-1.13; 940 cases, independent of gender, age, education, smoking, alcohol, medication, diabetes status, CVD family history, sleep duration and physical activity energy expenditure. Energy intake, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, HbA(1c and the clustered metabolic risk score only partially mediated these associations. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that the most prevalent leisure time (sedentary behaviour, television viewing, independently contributes to increased CVD risk. Recommendations on reducing television viewing time should be considered.

  19. Image sequence analysis in nuclear medicine: (1) Parametric imaging using statistical modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a review of parametric imaging methods on Nuclear Medicine. A Parametric Image is an image in which each pixel value is a function of the value of the same pixel of an image sequence. The Local Model Method is the fitting of each pixel time activity curve by a model which parameter values form the Parametric Images. The Global Model Method is the modelling of the changes between two images. It is applied to image comparison. For both methods, the different models, the identification criterion, the optimization methods and the statistical properties of the images are discussed. The analysis of one or more Parametric Images is performed using 1D or 2D histograms. The statistically significant Parametric Images, (Images of significant Variances, Amplitudes and Differences) are also proposed

  20. Using grid technologies to face medical image analysis challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Montagnat, Johan; Breton, Vincent; Magnin, Isabelle

    2003-01-01

    International audience The availability of digital imagers inside hospitals and their ever growing inspection capabilities have established digital medical images as a key component of many pathologies diagnosis, follow-up and treatment. To face the growing image analysis requirements, automated medical image processing algorithms have been developed over the two past decades. In parallel, medical image databases have been set up in health centers. Some attempts have been made to cross dat...

  1. Blind Analysis of CT Image Noise Using Residual Denoised Images

    CERN Document Server

    Roychowdhury, Sohini; Alessio, Adam

    2016-01-01

    CT protocol design and quality control would benefit from automated tools to estimate the quality of generated CT images. These tools could be used to identify erroneous CT acquisitions or refine protocols to achieve certain signal to noise characteristics. This paper investigates blind estimation methods to determine global signal strength and noise levels in chest CT images. Methods: We propose novel performance metrics corresponding to the accuracy of noise and signal estimation. We implement and evaluate the noise estimation performance of six spatial- and frequency- based methods, derived from conventional image filtering algorithms. Algorithms were tested on patient data sets from whole-body repeat CT acquisitions performed with a higher and lower dose technique over the same scan region. Results: The proposed performance metrics can evaluate the relative tradeoff of filter parameters and noise estimation performance. The proposed automated methods tend to underestimate CT image noise at low-flux levels...

  2. Blind Analysis of CT Image Noise Using Residual Denoised Images

    OpenAIRE

    Roychowdhury, Sohini; Hollraft, Nathan; Alessio, Adam

    2016-01-01

    CT protocol design and quality control would benefit from automated tools to estimate the quality of generated CT images. These tools could be used to identify erroneous CT acquisitions or refine protocols to achieve certain signal to noise characteristics. This paper investigates blind estimation methods to determine global signal strength and noise levels in chest CT images. Methods: We propose novel performance metrics corresponding to the accuracy of noise and signal estimation. We implem...

  3. Automative Multi Classifier Framework for Medical Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Edbert Rajan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Medical image processing is the technique used to create images of the human body for medical purposes. Nowadays, medical image processing plays a major role and a challenging solution for the critical stage in the medical line. Several researches have done in this area to enhance the techniques for medical image processing. However, due to some demerits met by some advanced technologies, there are still many aspects that need further development. Existing study evaluate the efficacy of the medical image analysis with the level-set shape along with fractal texture and intensity features to discriminate PF (Posterior Fossa tumor from other tissues in the brain image. To develop the medical image analysis and disease diagnosis, to devise an automotive subjective optimality model for segmentation of images based on different sets of selected features from the unsupervised learning model of extracted features. After segmentation, classification of images is done. The classification is processed by adapting the multiple classifier frameworks in the previous work based on the mutual information coefficient of the selected features underwent for image segmentation procedures. In this study, to enhance the classification strategy, we plan to implement enhanced multi classifier framework for the analysis of medical images and disease diagnosis. The performance parameter used for the analysis of the proposed enhanced multi classifier framework for medical image analysis is Multiple Class intensity, image quality, time consumption.

  4. Effect of Diabetes on Brain Structure: The Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes MR Imaging Baseline Data

    OpenAIRE

    Bryan, R. Nick; Bilello, Michel; Davatzikos, Christos; Lazar, Ronald M.; Murray, Anne; Horowitz, Karen; Lovato, James; Miller, Michael E.; Williamson, Jeff; Launer, Lenore J

    2014-01-01

    The results of this study show that measures of longer duration of diabetes or biochemical severity correlated primarily with brain atrophy, but not with white matter lesion volume, which is the major MR imaging marker of small vessel ischemic disease.

  5. 心血管MRI第四部分--不同场强的心血管MR成像特点比较%Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging:Part IV--The comparison of imaging features of cardiovascular magnetic resonance scanners with different ifeld strength

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹刚; 贺光军; 赵世华

    2014-01-01

    该文为第四部分,承接前三部分讲述了当今心血管MR(cardiovascular MR,CMR)的两大主流机型,即1.5 T和3.0 T扫描仪的成像特点。3.0 T系统在很多单位已成为神经系统成像的标准,但对体部,特别是心脏,3.0 T系统的广泛应用则受限于诸多因素,充满着挑战。然而,在更高场强下行CMR成像又具有无可比拟的优越性并成为发展趋势。作者从物理基础开始,归纳了3.0 T对比1.5 T在CMR成像应用中的优缺点和发展前景。%This article is the fourth section. Following the three previous sections, the current major types of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) scanner, 1.5 T and 3.0 T, were presented. 3.0 T system has played a role as the standardization for nervous system imaging in most units. But for body imaging, especially for cardiac imaging, there is much more challenging to perform imaging at 3.0 T than 1.5 T. However, it is the trend of development to perform CMR imaging in higher ifeld strength due to the signiifcant advantages. From the magnetic resonance physics to clinical application of CMR, the 1.5 T and 3.0 T CMR systems were compared in this article.

  6. MORPHOLOGICAL GRANULOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF SEDIMENT IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoganand Balagurunathan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Sediments are routinely analyzed in terms of the sizing characteristics of the grains of which they are composed. Via sieving methods, the grains are separated and a weight-based size distribution constructed. Various moment parameters are computed from the size distribution and these serve as sediment characteristics. This paper examines the feasibility of a fully electronic granularity analysis using digital image processing. The study uses a random model of three-dimensional grains in conjunction with the morphological method of granulometric size distributions. The random model is constructed to simulate sand, silt, and clay particle distributions. Owing to the impossibility of perfectly sifting small grains so that they do not touch, the model is used in both disjoint and non-disjoint modes, and watershed segmentation is applied in the non-disjoint model. The image-based granulometric size distributions are transformed so that they take into account the necessity to view sediment fractions at different magnifications and in different frames. Gray-scale granulometric moments are then computed using both ordinary and reconstructive granulometries. The resulting moments are then compared to moments found from real grains in seven different sediments using standard weight-based size distributions.

  7. Image processing and analysis with graphs theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Lézoray, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Covering the theoretical aspects of image processing and analysis through the use of graphs in the representation and analysis of objects, Image Processing and Analysis with Graphs: Theory and Practice also demonstrates how these concepts are indispensible for the design of cutting-edge solutions for real-world applications. Explores new applications in computational photography, image and video processing, computer graphics, recognition, medical and biomedical imaging With the explosive growth in image production, in everything from digital photographs to medical scans, there has been a drast

  8. Some selected quantitative methods of thermal image analysis in Matlab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprowski, Robert

    2016-05-01

    The paper presents a new algorithm based on some selected automatic quantitative methods for analysing thermal images. It shows the practical implementation of these image analysis methods in Matlab. It enables to perform fully automated and reproducible measurements of selected parameters in thermal images. The paper also shows two examples of the use of the proposed image analysis methods for the area of ​​the skin of a human foot and face. The full source code of the developed application is also provided as an attachment. The main window of the program during dynamic analysis of the foot thermal image.

  9. Dynamic Chest Image Analysis: Model-Based Perfusion Analysis in Dynamic Pulmonary Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jianming; Järvi, Timo; Kiuru, Aaro; Kormano, Martti; Svedström, Erkki

    2003-12-01

    The "Dynamic Chest Image Analysis" project aims to develop model-based computer analysis and visualization methods for showing focal and general abnormalities of lung ventilation and perfusion based on a sequence of digital chest fluoroscopy frames collected with the dynamic pulmonary imaging technique. We have proposed and evaluated a multiresolutional method with an explicit ventilation model for ventilation analysis. This paper presents a new model-based method for pulmonary perfusion analysis. According to perfusion properties, we first devise a novel mathematical function to form a perfusion model. A simple yet accurate approach is further introduced to extract cardiac systolic and diastolic phases from the heart, so that this cardiac information may be utilized to accelerate the perfusion analysis and improve its sensitivity in detecting pulmonary perfusion abnormalities. This makes perfusion analysis not only fast but also robust in computation; consequently, perfusion analysis becomes computationally feasible without using contrast media. Our clinical case studies with 52 patients show that this technique is effective for pulmonary embolism even without using contrast media, demonstrating consistent correlations with computed tomography (CT) and nuclear medicine (NM) studies. This fluoroscopical examination takes only about 2 seconds for perfusion study with only low radiation dose to patient, involving no preparation, no radioactive isotopes, and no contrast media.

  10. Dynamic Chest Image Analysis: Model-Based Perfusion Analysis in Dynamic Pulmonary Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiuru Aaro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The "Dynamic Chest Image Analysis" project aims to develop model-based computer analysis and visualization methods for showing focal and general abnormalities of lung ventilation and perfusion based on a sequence of digital chest fluoroscopy frames collected with the dynamic pulmonary imaging technique. We have proposed and evaluated a multiresolutional method with an explicit ventilation model for ventilation analysis. This paper presents a new model-based method for pulmonary perfusion analysis. According to perfusion properties, we first devise a novel mathematical function to form a perfusion model. A simple yet accurate approach is further introduced to extract cardiac systolic and diastolic phases from the heart, so that this cardiac information may be utilized to accelerate the perfusion analysis and improve its sensitivity in detecting pulmonary perfusion abnormalities. This makes perfusion analysis not only fast but also robust in computation; consequently, perfusion analysis becomes computationally feasible without using contrast media. Our clinical case studies with 52 patients show that this technique is effective for pulmonary embolism even without using contrast media, demonstrating consistent correlations with computed tomography (CT and nuclear medicine (NM studies. This fluoroscopical examination takes only about 2 seconds for perfusion study with only low radiation dose to patient, involving no preparation, no radioactive isotopes, and no contrast media.

  11. Performance Analysis of Noise Reduction Technologies in Brain MRI Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheela.V.K

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Rapid advancement in icon-based analysis for the treatment of diseases which are affected on internal organs of human body drives medical imaging processing into an important technique among various methods of psychoanalysis. Among all the available imaging modalities magnetic resonance imaging techniques are extensively used for the analysis and discussion of diseases in soft tissue. MRI image provides insight into the anatomical structure within the body. Accuracy of the construction of the target within the body depends upon the overall imaging process. The quality of MRI image determines the effectiveness in feature extraction, analysis, recognition and quantitative measurements. The primary factors which decrease the visibility of the structure are blurring effect and noises. This leads to the need of removal of noise from MRI images as a function of the preprocessing technique in image processing; usually noise filters are employed for this function. In this paper analyzes the operation of different noise filters.

  12. Endothelial dysfunction and brachial intima-media thickness: long term cardiovascular risk with claudication related to peripheral arterial disease: a prospective analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Hafner

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Endothelial dysfunction plays a key role in the development, progression, and clinical manifestation of atherosclerosis, and in symptomatic peripheral arterial disease, endothelial dysfunction and enlarged intima-media thickness might be associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Flow-mediated dilatation and serologic parameters are used to evaluate individual endothelial function. Brachial intima-media thickness, a less recognized parameter of cardiovascular risk, is independently associated with coronary artery disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of ultrasound and serologic parameters of endothelial function in relation to cardiovascular mortality in peripheral arterial disease. DESIGN: monocentric, prospective cohort study. METHODS: Flow mediated dilatation and brachial intima-media thickness were assessed in 184 (124 male patients with peripheral arterial disease (Rutherford stages 2-3. Serologic parameters of endothelial function included asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA, and L-homoarginine. Cardiovascular events were recorded during a follow-up of 99.1±11.1 months. Subjects who died of noncardiovascular causes were excluded from further analysis. RESULTS: Eighty-two patients (44.6% died during follow-up after a mean duration of 49.7±28.3 months. There were 49 cardiovascular deaths (59.8% and 33 other deaths (40.2%. Flow mediated dilatation was associated with cardiovascular death [1.17% (0.0, 4.3 vs. 4.1% (1.2, 6.4, p<0.001]. Intima-media thickness was greater in patients who succumbed to cardiovascular disease [0.37 mm (0.30, 0.41] than in survivors [0.21 mm (0.15, 0.38, p<0.001]. Brachial intima-media thickness above 0.345 mm was most predictive of cardiovascular death, with sensitivity and specificity values of 0.714 and 0.657, respectively (p<0.001. Furthermore, ADMA levels above 0.745 µmol/l and SDMA levels above 0.825 µmol/l were significantly

  13. Applications of Digital Image Analysis in Experimental Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Lyngbye, J. : Ph.D.

    1992-01-01

    The present thesis "Application of Digital Image Analysis in Experimental Mechanics" has been prepared as a part of Janus Lyngbyes Ph.D. study during the period December 1988 to June 1992 at the Department of Building technology and Structural Engineering, University of Aalborg, Denmark. In this thesis attention will be focused on optimal use and analysis of the information of digital images. This is realized during investigation and application of parametric methods in digital image analysis...

  14. Imaging biomarkers in multiple Sclerosis: From image analysis to population imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillot, Christian; Edan, Gilles; Commowick, Olivier

    2016-10-01

    The production of imaging data in medicine increases more rapidly than the capacity of computing models to extract information from it. The grand challenges of better understanding the brain, offering better care for neurological disorders, and stimulating new drug design will not be achieved without significant advances in computational neuroscience. The road to success is to develop a new, generic, computational methodology and to confront and validate this methodology on relevant diseases with adapted computational infrastructures. This new concept sustains the need to build new research paradigms to better understand the natural history of the pathology at the early phase; to better aggregate data that will provide the most complete representation of the pathology in order to better correlate imaging with other relevant features such as clinical, biological or genetic data. In this context, one of the major challenges of neuroimaging in clinical neurosciences is to detect quantitative signs of pathological evolution as early as possible to prevent disease progression, evaluate therapeutic protocols or even better understand and model the natural history of a given neurological pathology. Many diseases encompass brain alterations often not visible on conventional MRI sequences, especially in normal appearing brain tissues (NABT). MRI has often a low specificity for differentiating between possible pathological changes which could help in discriminating between the different pathological stages or grades. The objective of medical image analysis procedures is to define new quantitative neuroimaging biomarkers to track the evolution of the pathology at different levels. This paper illustrates this issue in one acute neuro-inflammatory pathology: Multiple Sclerosis (MS). It exhibits the current medical image analysis approaches and explains how this field of research will evolve in the next decade to integrate larger scale of information at the temporal, cellular

  15. Dose reduction of up to 89% while maintaining image quality in cardiovascular CT achieved with prospective ECG gating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londt, John H.; Shreter, Uri; Vass, Melissa; Hsieh, Jiang; Ge, Zhanyu; Adda, Olivier; Dowe, David A.; Sabllayrolles, Jean-Louis

    2007-03-01

    We present the results of dose and image quality performance evaluation of a novel, prospective ECG-gated Coronary CT Angiography acquisition mode (SnapShot Pulse, LightSpeed VCT-XT scanner, GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI), and compare it to conventional retrospective ECG gated helical acquisition in clinical and phantom studies. Image quality phantoms were used to measure noise, slice sensitivity profile, in-plane resolution, low contrast detectability and dose, using the two acquisition modes. Clinical image quality and diagnostic confidence were evaluated in a study of 31 patients scanned with the two acquisition modes. Radiation dose reduction in clinical practice was evaluated by tracking 120 consecutive patients scanned with the prospectively gated scan mode. In the phantom measurements, the prospectively gated mode resulted in equivalent or better image quality measures at dose reductions of up to 89% compared to non-ECG modulated conventional helical scans. In the clinical study, image quality was rated excellent by expert radiologist reviewing the cases, with pathology being identical using the two acquisition modes. The average dose to patients in the clinical practice study was 5.6 mSv, representing 50% reduction compared to a similar patient population scanned with the conventional helical mode.

  16. Geometria da valva mitral derivada da ressonância magnética cardiovascular na avaliação da gravidade da regurgitação mitral Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging-derived mitral valve geometry in determining mitral regurgitation severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Mauricio Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A regurgitação mitral é a doença valvar cardíaca mais comum em todo o mundo. A ressonância magnética pode ser uma ferramenta útil para analisar os parâmetros da valva mitral. OBJETIVO: diferenciar padrões geométricos da valva mitral em pacientes com diferentes gravidades por regurgitação mitral (RM com base na ressonância magnética cardiovascular. MÉTODOS: Sessenta e três pacientes foram submetidos à ressonância magnética cardiovascular. Os parâmetros da valva mitral analisados foram: área (mm2 e ângulo (graus de tenting, altura do ventrículo (mm, altura do tenting (mm, folheto anterior, comprimento posterior do folheto (leaflet e diâmetro do anulo (mm. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos, um incluindo pacientes que necessitaram de cirurgia da valva mitral e o outro os que não. RESULTADOS: Trinta e seis pacientes apresentaram de RM discreta a leve (1-2+ e 27 RM de moderada a grave (3-4+. Dez (15,9% dos 63 pacientes foram submetidos à cirurgia. Pacientes com RM mais grave tiveram maior diâmetro sistólico final do ventrículo esquerdo (38,6 ± 10,2 vs. 45,4 ± 16,8, p BACKGROUND: Mitral regurgitation is the most common valvular heart disease worldwide. Magnetic resonance may be a useful tool to analyze mitral valve parameters. OBJECTIVE: To distinguish mitral valve geometric patterns in patients with different severities of mitral regurgitation (MR based on cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. METHODS: Sixty-three patients underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. Mitral valve parameters analyzed were: tenting area (mm2 and angle (degrees, ventricle height (mm, tenting height (mm, anterior leaflet, posterior leaflet length and annulus diameter (mm. Patients were divided into two groups, one including patients who required mitral valve surgery and another which did not. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients had trace to mild (1-2+ MR and 27 had moderate to severe MR (3-4+. Ten (15.9% out of

  17. Cardiac Sarcoidosis or Giant Cell Myocarditis? On Treatment Improvement of Fulminant Myocarditis as Demonstrated by Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogabathina, Hari; Olson, Peter; Rathi, Vikas K.; Biederman, Robert W. W.

    2012-01-01

    Giant cell myocarditis, but not cardiac sarcoidosis, is known to cause fulminant myocarditis resulting in severe heart failure. However, giant cell myocarditis and cardiac sarcoidosis are pathologically similar, and attempts at pathological differentiation between the two remain difficult. We are presenting a case of fulminant myocarditis that has pathological features suggestive of cardiac sarcoidosis, but clinically mimicking giant cell myocarditis. This patient was treated with cyclosporine and prednisone and recovered well. This case we believe challenges our current understanding of these intertwined conditions. By obtaining a sense of severity of cardiac involvement via delayed hyperenhancement of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, we were more inclined to treat this patient as giant cell myocarditis with cyclosporine. This resulted in excellent improvement of patient's cardiac function as shown by delayed hyperenhancement images, early perfusion images, and SSFP videos. PMID:24826266

  18. Cardiac Sarcoidosis or Giant Cell Myocarditis? On Treatment Improvement of Fulminant Myocarditis as Demonstrated by Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Bogabathina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant cell myocarditis, but not cardiac sarcoidosis, is known to cause fulminant myocarditis resulting in severe heart failure. However, giant cell myocarditis and cardiac sarcoidosis are pathologically similar, and attempts at pathological differentiation between the two remain difficult. We are presenting a case of fulminant myocarditis that has pathological features suggestive of cardiac sarcoidosis, but clinically mimicking giant cell myocarditis. This patient was treated with cyclosporine and prednisone and recovered well. This case we believe challenges our current understanding of these intertwined conditions. By obtaining a sense of severity of cardiac involvement via delayed hyperenhancement of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, we were more inclined to treat this patient as giant cell myocarditis with cyclosporine. This resulted in excellent improvement of patient’s cardiac function as shown by delayed hyperenhancement images, early perfusion images, and SSFP videos.

  19. Image pattern recognition supporting interactive analysis and graphical visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggins, James M.

    1992-01-01

    Image Pattern Recognition attempts to infer properties of the world from image data. Such capabilities are crucial for making measurements from satellite or telescope images related to Earth and space science problems. Such measurements can be the required product itself, or the measurements can be used as input to a computer graphics system for visualization purposes. At present, the field of image pattern recognition lacks a unified scientific structure for developing and evaluating image pattern recognition applications. The overall goal of this project is to begin developing such a structure. This report summarizes results of a 3-year research effort in image pattern recognition addressing the following three principal aims: (1) to create a software foundation for the research and identify image pattern recognition problems in Earth and space science; (2) to develop image measurement operations based on Artificial Visual Systems; and (3) to develop multiscale image descriptions for use in interactive image analysis.

  20. Automatic prediction of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events using heart rate variability analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Melillo

    Full Text Available There is consensus that Heart Rate Variability is associated with the risk of vascular events. However, Heart Rate Variability predictive value for vascular events is not completely clear. The aim of this study is to develop novel predictive models based on data-mining algorithms to provide an automatic risk stratification tool for hypertensive patients.A database of 139 Holter recordings with clinical data of hypertensive patients followed up for at least 12 months were collected ad hoc. Subjects who experienced a vascular event (i.e., myocardial infarction, stroke, syncopal event were considered as high-risk subjects. Several data-mining algorithms (such as support vector machine, tree-based classifier, artificial neural network were used to develop automatic classifiers and their accuracy was tested by assessing the receiver-operator characteristics curve. Moreover, we tested the echographic parameters, which have been showed as powerful predictors of future vascular events.The best predictive model was based on random forest and enabled to identify high-risk hypertensive patients with sensitivity and specificity rates of 71.4% and 87.8%, respectively. The Heart Rate Variability based classifier showed higher predictive values than the conventional echographic parameters, which are considered as significant cardiovascular risk factors.Combination of Heart Rate Variability measures, analyzed with data-mining algorithm, could be a reliable tool for identifying hypertensive patients at high risk to develop future vascular events.

  1. Comparative study on individual aromatase inhibitors on cardiovascular safety profile: a network meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xihe; Liu, Lei; Li, Kai; Li, Wusheng; Zhao, Li; Zou, Huawei

    2015-01-01

    The third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs: anastrozole, letrozole, and exemestane) have now become standard adjuvant endocrine treatment for postmenopausal estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer complementing chemotherapy and surgery. Because of the absence of direct head-to-head comparisons of these AIs, an indirect comparison is needed for individual treatment choice. In this network systemic assessment, the cardiovascular (CV) side effects in using anastrozole, letrozole, and exemestane based on original studies on AIs vs placebo or tamoxifen were compared. We integrated all available direct and indirect evidences. The odds ratio (OR) of severe CV events for indirect comparisons between exemestane and anastrozole was 1.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] =0.49–2.78), letrozole and anastrozole was 1.80 (95% CI =0.40–3.92), and letrozole and exemestane was 1.46 (95% CI =0.34–3.4). OR of subgroup risk for AIs and tamoxifen were all >1 except for thrombolism risk subgroup. The results showed that the total and severe CV risk ranking is letrozole, exemestane, and anastrozole in descending order. None of the AIs showed advantages in CV events than tamoxifen except for thromboembolism event incidence. PMID:26491345

  2. Contextual socioeconomic determinants of cardiovascular risk factors in rural south-west China: a multilevel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geater Alan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined independent influences of contextual variables on cardiovascular risk factors in Shilin county, Yunnan province, South-west China. Methods Three villages were selected from each of the ten townships based on probability proportional to size. In each selected village, 200 individuals aged ≥ 45 years were chosen based on simple random sampling method. From 6006 individuals, information on demographic characteristics, smoking and drinking status was obtained by interview. Blood pressure, height, weight, and waist and hip girth were measured. Fasting blood sugar was measured in a 10-percent subsample. Contextual data were from official reports. Multi-level regression modelling with adjustment for individual and contextual variables was used. Results Contextual variables associated with CVD risk factors included: remoteness of village with higher blood pressure and fasting blood sugar, high proportion of Yi minority with drinking, high literacy rate with a lower rate of smoking and a lower mean waist-hip ratio, and high average income with lower systolic blood pressure and body mass index (BMI but higher FBS. Conclusion While contextual SES is associated with a few CVD risk factors, villages with high level of income are worse off in fasting blood sugar. Strategies of economic development should be reviewed to avoid adverse effects on health.

  3. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Cardiovascular Symptoms in Four Major Racial/Ethnic Groups of Midlife Women: A Secondary Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Im, Eun-Ok; Ham, Ok Kyung; Chee, Eunice; Chee, Wonshik

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic minority midlife women frequently do not recognize cardiovascular symptoms that they experience during the menopausal transition. Racial/ethnic differences in cardiovascular symptoms are postulated as a plausible reason for their lack of knowledge and recognition of the symptoms. The purpose of this study was to explore racial/ethnic differences in midlife women’s cardiovascular symptoms and to determine the factors related to these symptoms in each racial/ethnic group. This was a seco...

  4. Three modality image registration of brain SPECT/CT and MR images for quantitative analysis of dopamine transporter imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Yuzuho; Takeda, Yuta; Hara, Takeshi; Zhou, Xiangrong; Matsusako, Masaki; Tanaka, Yuki; Hosoya, Kazuhiko; Nihei, Tsutomu; Katafuchi, Tetsuro; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    Important features in Parkinson's disease (PD) are degenerations and losses of dopamine neurons in corpus striatum. 123I-FP-CIT can visualize activities of the dopamine neurons. The activity radio of background to corpus striatum is used for diagnosis of PD and Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB). The specific activity can be observed in the corpus striatum on SPECT images, but the location and the shape of the corpus striatum on SPECT images only are often lost because of the low uptake. In contrast, MR images can visualize the locations of the corpus striatum. The purpose of this study was to realize a quantitative image analysis for the SPECT images by using image registration technique with brain MR images that can determine the region of corpus striatum. In this study, the image fusion technique was used to fuse SPECT and MR images by intervening CT image taken by SPECT/CT. The mutual information (MI) for image registration between CT and MR images was used for the registration. Six SPECT/CT and four MR scans of phantom materials are taken by changing the direction. As the results of the image registrations, 16 of 24 combinations were registered within 1.3mm. By applying the approach to 32 clinical SPECT/CT and MR cases, all of the cases were registered within 0.86mm. In conclusions, our registration method has a potential in superimposing MR images on SPECT images.

  5. Medical Image Analysis by Cognitive Information Systems - a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogiela, Lidia; Takizawa, Makoto

    2016-10-01

    This publication presents a review of medical image analysis systems. The paradigms of cognitive information systems will be presented by examples of medical image analysis systems. The semantic processes present as it is applied to different types of medical images. Cognitive information systems were defined on the basis of methods for the semantic analysis and interpretation of information - medical images - applied to cognitive meaning of medical images contained in analyzed data sets. Semantic analysis was proposed to analyzed the meaning of data. Meaning is included in information, for example in medical images. Medical image analysis will be presented and discussed as they are applied to various types of medical images, presented selected human organs, with different pathologies. Those images were analyzed using different classes of cognitive information systems. Cognitive information systems dedicated to medical image analysis was also defined for the decision supporting tasks. This process is very important for example in diagnostic and therapy processes, in the selection of semantic aspects/features, from analyzed data sets. Those features allow to create a new way of analysis.

  6. Link Graph Analysis for Adult Images Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Kharitonov, Evgeny; Muchnik, Ilya; Romanenko, Fedor; Belyaev, Dmitry; Kotlyarov, Dmitry

    2010-01-01

    In order to protect an image search engine's users from undesirable results adult images' classifier should be built. The information about links from websites to images is employed to create such a classifier. These links are represented as a bipartite website-image graph. Each vertex is equipped with scores of adultness and decentness. The scores for image vertexes are initialized with zero, those for website vertexes are initialized according to a text-based website classifier. An iterative algorithm that propagates scores within a website-image graph is described. The scores obtained are used to classify images by choosing an appropriate threshold. The experiments on Internet-scale data have shown that the algorithm under consideration increases classification recall by 17% in comparison with a simple algorithm which classifies an image as adult if it is connected with at least one adult site (at the same precision level).

  7. Dynamic chest image analysis: model-based pulmonary perfusion analysis with pyramid images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jianming; Haapanen, Arto; Jaervi, Timo; Kiuru, Aaro J.; Kormano, Martti; Svedstrom, Erkki; Virkki, Raimo

    1998-07-01

    The aim of the study 'Dynamic Chest Image Analysis' is to develop computer analysis and visualization methods for showing focal and general abnormalities of lung ventilation and perfusion based on a sequence of digital chest fluoroscopy frames collected at different phases of the respiratory/cardiac cycles in a short period of time. We have proposed a framework for ventilation study with an explicit ventilation model based on pyramid images. In this paper, we extend the framework to pulmonary perfusion study. A perfusion model and the truncated pyramid are introduced. The perfusion model aims at extracting accurate, geographic perfusion parameters, and the truncated pyramid helps in understanding perfusion at multiple resolutions and speeding up the convergence process in optimization. Three cases are included to illustrate the experimental results.

  8. Image Retrieval: Theoretical Analysis and Empirical User Studies on Accessing Information in Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornager, Susanne

    1997-01-01

    Discusses indexing and retrieval for effective searches of digitized images. Reports on an empirical study about criteria for analysis and indexing digitized images, and the different types of user queries done in newspaper image archives in Denmark. Concludes that it is necessary that the indexing represent both a factual and an expressional…

  9. Temporal Analysis of Image-Rivalry Suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Rishi Bhardwaj; Robert P. O'shea

    2012-01-01

    During binocular rivalry, perception alternates between two different images presented one to each eye. At any moment, one image is visible, dominant, while the other is invisible, suppressed. Alternations in perception during rivalry could involve competition between eyes, eye-rivalry, or between images, image-rivalry, or both. We measured response criteria, sensitivities, and thresholds to brief contrast increments to one of the rival stimuli in conventional rivalry displays and in a displa...

  10. Link Graph Analysis for Adult Images Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Kharitonov, E.; Slesarev, A.; Muchnik, I.; Romanenko, F.; Belyaev, D.; Kotlyarov, D.

    2010-01-01

    In order to protect an image search engine’s users from undesirable results adult images’ classifier should be built. The information about links from websites to images is employed to create such a classifier. These links are represented as a bipartite website-image graph. Each vertex is equipped with scores of adultness and decentness. The scores for image vertexes are initialized with zero, those for website vertexes are initialized according to a text-based website classifier. An iterativ...

  11. Cardiovascular risk factor management of myocardial infarction patients with and without diabetes in the Netherlands between 2002 and 2006: a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Giltay, E.J.; Kromhout, D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We examined levels and trends in cardiovascular risk factors and drug treatment in myocardial infarction (MI) patients with and without diabetes. Design: Cross-sectional analysis of baseline Alpha Omega Trial data, a randomised controlled trial. Setting: 32 hospitals in the Netherlands. P

  12. Machine learning approaches in medical image analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Bruijne, Marleen

    2016-01-01

    Machine learning approaches are increasingly successful in image-based diagnosis, disease prognosis, and risk assessment. This paper highlights new research directions and discusses three main challenges related to machine learning in medical imaging: coping with variation in imaging protocols......, learning from weak labels, and interpretation and evaluation of results....

  13. Principal component analysis of psoriasis lesions images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maletti, Gabriela Mariel; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2003-01-01

    A set of RGB images of psoriasis lesions is used. By visual examination of these images, there seem to be no common pattern that could be used to find and align the lesions within and between sessions. It is expected that the principal components of the original images could be useful during future...

  14. Mesh Processing in Medical-Image Analysis-a Tutorial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levine, Joshua A.; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Zhang, Yongjie

    2012-01-01

    Medical-image analysis requires an understanding of sophisticated scanning modalities, constructing geometric models, building meshes to represent domains, and downstream biological applications. These four steps form an image-to-mesh pipeline. For research in this field to progress, the imaging...

  15. Development of the Digital Astronaut Project for the analysis of the mechanisms of physiologic adaptation to microgravity: Validation of the cardiovascular system module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Richard; Coleman, Thomas; Meck, Janice

    The physiologic adaptation of humans to the microgravity environment is complex and requires an integrative perspective to fully understand the mechanisms involved. A large computer model of human systems physiology provides the framework for the development of the Digital Astronaut to be used by NASA in the analysis of adaptive mechanisms. While project expansion is ongoing to include all relevant systems, we describe the validation results of the cardiovascular phase of model development. The cardiovascular aspects of the model were validated by benchmark comparisons to published literature findings of changes in left ventricular mass, right atrial pressure and plasma volumes. Computer simulations using the model predicted microgravity induced changes in the target endpoints within statistical validity of experimental findings. Therefore, the current cardiovascular portion of the Digital Astronaut Project computer model appears to accurately predict observed microgravity induced physiologic adaptations. The ongoing process of model development to include all spaceflight relevant systems will require similar validations.

  16. Analysis of Digital Images Using Morphlogical Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresha M

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study is to transform the digital images into different forms. Image processingtechniques are used with wide varieties of applications. The requirement is different for differentapplications. This study is mainly focused on how to transform the image using mathematical morphologyso that it can be suitable for the respective applications.Mathematical morphology has been chosen to explain how images are used to illustrate mathematical settheoretic operations, suchas union, intersection by means of morphological operations like dilation anderosion.These techniques are implemented in MATLAB using image processing algorithms. MATLAB is anexcellent tool to accomplish these tasks

  17. Role of risk stratification by SPECT, PET, and hybrid imaging in guiding management of stable patients with ischaemic heart disease: expert panel of the EANM cardiovascular committee and EACVI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acampa, Wanda; Gaemperli, Oliver; Gimelli, Alessia; Knaapen, Paul; Schindler, Thomas H; Verberne, Hein J; Zellweger, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Risk stratification has become increasingly important in the management of patients with suspected or known ischaemic heart disease (IHD). Recent guidelines recommend that these patients have their care driven by risk assessment. The purpose of this position statement is to summarize current evidence on the value of cardiac single-photon emission computed tomography, positron emission tomography, and hybrid imaging in risk stratifying asymptomatic or symptomatic patients with suspected IHD, patients with stable disease, patients after coronary revascularization, heart failure patients, and specific patient population. In addition, this position statement evaluates the impact of imaging results on clinical decision-making and thereby its role in patient management. The document represents the opinion of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) Cardiovascular Committee and of the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) and intends to stimulate future research in this field. PMID:25902767

  18. Indices of cardiovascular function derived from peripheral pulse wave analysis using radial applanation tonometry: a measurement repeatability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crilly, Mike; Coch, Christoph; Bruce, Margaret; Clark, Hazel; Williams, David

    2007-08-01

    Pulse wave analysis (PWA) using applanation tonometry is a non-invasive technique for assessing cardiovascular function. It produces three important indices: ejection duration index (ED%), augmentation index adjusted for heart rate (AIX@75), and subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR%). The aim of this study was to assess within- and between-observer repeatability of these measurements. After resting supine for 15 minutes, 20 ambulant patients (16 male) in sinus rhythm underwent four PWA measurements on a single occasion. Two nurses (A & B) independently and alternately undertook PWA measurements using the same equipment (Omron HEM-757; SphygmoCor with Millar hand-held tonometer) blind to the other nurse's PWA measurements. Within- and between-observer differences were analysed using the Bland-Altman ;limits of agreement' approach (mean difference +/- 2 standard deviations, 2SD). Mean age was 56 (blood pressure, BP 136/79; pulse rate 64). BP/PWA measurements remained stable during assessment. Based on the average of two PWA measurements the mean +/- 2SD between-observer difference in ED% was 0.3 +/- 2.0; AIX@75 1.0 +/- 3.9; and SEVR% 1.7 +/- 14.2. Based on a single PWA measurement the between-observer difference was ED% 0.3 +/- 3.3; AIX@75 1.7 +/- 6.9; and SEVR% 0.6 +/- 22.6. Within-observer differences for nurse-A were ED% 0.0 +/- 5.4; AIX@75 1.5 +/- 7.0; and SEVR% 1.7 +/- 39.0 (nurse-B: 0.1 +/- 3.8; 0.1 +/- 8.0; and 0.6 +/- 23.3, respectively). PWA demonstrates high levels of repeatability even when used by relatively inexperienced staff and has the potential to be included in the routine cardiovascular assessment of ambulant patients. PMID:17848475

  19. Effects of the Mediterranean Diet on Cardiovascular Outcomes—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanage, Thaminda; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Wang, Amanda; Neal, Bruce; Jun, Min; Wong, Muh Geot; Jardine, Meg; Hillis, Graham S.; Perkovic, Vlado

    2016-01-01

    Background A Mediterranean dietary pattern is widely recommended for the prevention of chronic disease. We sought to define the most likely effects of the Mediterranean diet on vascular disease and mortality. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register without language restriction for randomized controlled trials comparing Mediterranean to control diets. Data on study design, patient characteristics, interventions, follow-up duration, outcomes and adverse events were sought. Individual study relative risks (RR) were pooled to create summary estimates. Results Six studies with a total of 10950 participants were included. Effects on major vascular events (n = 477), death (n = 693) and vascular deaths (n = 315) were reported for 3, 5 and 4 studies respectively. For one large study (n = 1000) there were serious concerns about the integrity of the data. When data for all studies were combined there was evidence of protection against major vascular events (RR 0.63, 95% confidence interval 0.53–0.75), coronary events (0.65, 0.50–0.85), stroke (0.65, 0.48–0.88) and heart failure (0.30, 0.17–0.56) but not for all-cause mortality (1.00, 0.86–1.15) or cardiovascular mortality (0.90, 0.72–1.11). After the study of concern was excluded the benefit for vascular events (0.69, 0.55–0.86) and stroke (0.66, 0.48–0.92) persisted but apparently positive findings for coronary events (0.73, 0.51–1.05) and heart failure (0.25, 0.05–1.17) disappeared. Conclusion The Mediterranean diet may protect against vascular disease. However, both the quantity and quality of the available evidence is limited and highly variable. Results must be interpreted with caution. PMID:27509006

  20. Non-destructive analysis of extracellular matrix development in cardiovascular tissue-engineered constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuemen, M; Nguyen, D V A; Raffius, J; Flanagan, T C; Dietrich, M; Frese, J; Schmitz-Rode, T; Jockenhoevel, S

    2013-05-01

    In the field of tissue engineering, there is an increasing demand for non-destructive methods to quantify the synthesis of extracellular matrix (ECM) components such as collagens, elastin or sulphated glycosaminoglycans (sGAGs) in vitro as a quality control before clinical use. In this study, procollagen I carboxyterminal peptide (PICP), procollagen III aminoterminal peptide (PIIINP), tropoelastin and sGAGs are investigated for their potential use as non-destructive markers in culture medium of statically cultivated cell-seeded fibrin gels. Measurement of PICP as marker for type I collagen synthesis, and PIIINP as marker of type III collagen turnover, correlated well with the hydroxyproline content of the fibrin gels, with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.98 and 0.97, respectively. The measurement of tropoelastin as marker of elastin synthesis correlated with the amount of elastin retained in fibrin gels with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.99. sGAGs were retained in fibrin gels, but were not detectable in culture medium at any time of measurement. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the potential of PICP and tropoelastin as non-destructive culture medium markers for collagen and elastin synthesis. To our knowledge, this is the first study in cardiovascular tissue engineering investigating the whole of here proposed biomarkers of ECM synthesis to monitor the maturation process of developing tissue non-invasively, but for comprehensive assessment of ECM development, these biomarkers need to be investigated in further studies, employing dynamic cultivation conditions and more complex tissue constructs. PMID:23307024

  1. Image analysis for dental bone quality assessment using CBCT imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suprijanto; Epsilawati, L.; Hajarini, M. S.; Juliastuti, E.; Susanti, H.

    2016-03-01

    Cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) is one of X-ray imaging modalities that are applied in dentistry. Its modality can visualize the oral region in 3D and in a high resolution. CBCT jaw image has potential information for the assessment of bone quality that often used for pre-operative implant planning. We propose comparison method based on normalized histogram (NH) on the region of inter-dental septum and premolar teeth. Furthermore, the NH characteristic from normal and abnormal bone condition are compared and analyzed. Four test parameters are proposed, i.e. the difference between teeth and bone average intensity (s), the ratio between bone and teeth average intensity (n) of NH, the difference between teeth and bone peak value (Δp) of NH, and the ratio between teeth and bone of NH range (r). The results showed that n, s, and Δp have potential to be the classification parameters of dental calcium density.

  2. Analysis of verification image using electronic portal imaging devices (EPID)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Shinichi; Matsumoto, Mitsuhiro; Hasegawa, Hironori; Satoh, Kazuhiko; Sakurai, Kuniaki; Kawagoe, Yasumitsu; Kusumi, Yoshimi [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Hospital

    1999-05-01

    We studied the evaluation of patient set-up error by verification image using electronic portal imaging devices (EPID). We analyzed which cleared 3 mm in our hospital for visual by using a distance measurement function. The body parts examined included the head and neck, thorax, pelvis and abdomen. The items that were evaluated included shell, Pb block, multi-leaf collimator and landmark. Patient set-up error was 10.4%, with that for the pelvis especially poor. The visual false rate was 17.9%. The result for the abdomen was poor because of the absence of landmark. We showed a decrease in patient set-up error by using EPID and improvement of radiotherapy. (author)

  3. CMOS Image Sensor with On-Chip Image Compression: A Review and Performance Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milin Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Demand for high-resolution, low-power sensing devices with integrated image processing capabilities, especially compression capability, is increasing. CMOS technology enables the integration of image sensing and image processing, making it possible to improve the overall system performance. This paper reviews the current state of the art in CMOS image sensors featuring on-chip image compression. Firstly, typical sensing systems consisting of separate image-capturing unit and image-compression processing unit are reviewed, followed by systems that integrate focal-plane compression. The paper also provides a thorough review of a new design paradigm, in which image compression is performed during the image-capture phase prior to storage, referred to as compressive acquisition. High-performance sensor systems reported in recent years are also introduced. Performance analysis and comparison of the reported designs using different design paradigm are presented at the end.

  4. Automated analysis of protein subcellular location in time series images

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Yanhua; Osuna-Highley, Elvira; Hua, Juchang; Nowicki, Theodore Scott; Stolz, Robert; McKayle, Camille; Murphy, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: Image analysis, machine learning and statistical modeling have become well established for the automatic recognition and comparison of the subcellular locations of proteins in microscope images. By using a comprehensive set of features describing static images, major subcellular patterns can be distinguished with near perfect accuracy. We now extend this work to time series images, which contain both spatial and temporal information. The goal is to use temporal features to improve...

  5. 心血管MRI第一部分--磁共振基本物理原理及成像策略%Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging:Part I--The basic physics and imaging strategies of magnetic resonance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏宇; 贺光军; 赵世华

    2013-01-01

      MRI以其独特的优势广泛应用于临床,特别是在心血管系统疾病中的诊断价值得到日益体现。心血管MRI(CMR)能无创地一站式评价心血管的解剖、功能、心肌灌注和病变的组织特性,并且评价的可重复性高。CMR成像技术内容丰富,尚具挑战性,需克服心脏自身和随呼吸的运动伪影。MRI的软硬件系统性能不断提高,特别是磁场强度革命性地提升,使得成像技术不断地完善和更新。作者用4个篇章分别阐明上述MRI尤其是CMR的基本成像原理及技术要点,致力于用简明易懂的语言使大多数放射科一线工作者能轻松愉悦地领悟MRI尤其是CMR的魅力。此文为第一部分,归纳MRI基本物理原理及MR图像的产生过程。%Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has been widely used in clinical routine, especially in cardiovascular disease diagnosis, due to its prominent advantage. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) can evaluate the anatomy, function, myocardial perfusion and characterization of heart non-invasively in one-stop. Cardiac and respiratory motion is major problem in CMR imaging. It makes CMR imaging be more challenging than any other imaging modality. As the performance of MR hardware and software system uptakes, especially for the substantial increasing of the strength of magnet, the imaging technique is improved persistently. The authors try their best to describe the fundamental physics and key technological points of MR, especially CMR in four successive articles. In first article, the physics of MR and progress of MR image generating were summarized.

  6. Analysis of engineering drawings and raster map images

    CERN Document Server

    Henderson, Thomas C

    2013-01-01

    Presents up-to-date methods and algorithms for the automated analysis of engineering drawings and digital cartographic maps Discusses automatic engineering drawing and map analysis techniques Covers detailed accounts of the use of unsupervised segmentation algorithms to map images

  7. Antenna trajectory error analysis in backprojection-based SAR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Yazıcı, Birsen; Yanik, H. Cagri

    2014-06-01

    We present an analysis of the positioning errors in Backprojection (BP)-based Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images due to antenna trajectory errors for a monostatic SAR traversing a straight linear trajectory. Our analysis is developed using microlocal analysis, which can provide an explicit quantitative relationship between the trajectory error and the positioning error in BP-based SAR images. The analysis is applicable to arbitrary trajectory errors in the antenna and can be extended to arbitrary imaging geometries. We present numerical simulations to demonstrate our analysis.

  8. New approaches in intelligent image analysis techniques, methodologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamatsu, Kazumi

    2016-01-01

    This book presents an Introduction and 11 independent chapters, which are devoted to various new approaches of intelligent image processing and analysis. The book also presents new methods, algorithms and applied systems for intelligent image processing, on the following basic topics: Methods for Hierarchical Image Decomposition; Intelligent Digital Signal Processing and Feature Extraction; Data Clustering and Visualization via Echo State Networks; Clustering of Natural Images in Automatic Image Annotation Systems; Control System for Remote Sensing Image Processing; Tissue Segmentation of MR Brain Images Sequence; Kidney Cysts Segmentation in CT Images; Audio Visual Attention Models in Mobile Robots Navigation; Local Adaptive Image Processing; Learning Techniques for Intelligent Access Control; Resolution Improvement in Acoustic Maps. Each chapter is self-contained with its own references. Some of the chapters are devoted to the theoretical aspects while the others are presenting the practical aspects and the...

  9. Estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria for prediction of cardiovascular outcomes: a collaborative meta-analysis of individual participant data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matsushita, K.; Coresh, J.; Sang, Y.; Chalmers, J.; Fox, C.; Guallar, E.; Jafar, T.; Jassal, S.K.; Landman, G.W.; Muntner, P.; Roderick, P.; Sairenchi, T.; Schottker, B.; Shankar, A.; Shlipak, M.; Tonelli, M.; Townend, J.; Zuilen, A. van; Yamagishi, K.; Yamashita, K.; Gansevoort, R.; Sarnak, M.; Warnock, D.G.; Woodward, M.; Arnlov, J.; Wetzels, J.F.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The usefulness of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria for prediction of cardiovascular outcomes is controversial. We aimed to assess the addition of creatinine-based eGFR and albuminuria to traditional risk factors for prediction of cardiovascular risk with a meta

  10. Estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria for prediction of cardiovascular outcomes : a collaborative meta-analysis of individual participant data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matsushita, Kunihiro; Coresh, Josef; Sang, Yingying; Chalmers, John; Fox, Caroline; Guallar, Eliseo; Jafar, Tazeen; Jassal, Simerjot K.; Landman, Gijs W. D.; Muntner, Paul; Roderick, Paul; Sairenchi, Toshimi; Schoettker, Ben; Shankar, Anoop; Shlipak, Michael; Tonelli, Marcello; Townend, Jonathan; van Zuilen, Arjan; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Yamashita, Kentaro; Gansevoort, Ron; Sarnak, Mark; Warnock, David G.; Woodward, Mark; Arnlov, Johan; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2015-01-01

    Background The usefulness of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria for prediction of cardiovascular outcomes is controversial. We aimed to assess the addition of creatinine-based eGFR and albuminuria to traditional risk factors for prediction of cardiovascular risk with a meta-

  11. IMAGE ANALYSIS FOR MODELLING SHEAR BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Lopez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Through laboratory research performed over the past ten years, many of the critical links between fracture characteristics and hydromechanical and mechanical behaviour have been made for individual fractures. One of the remaining challenges at the laboratory scale is to directly link fracture morphology of shear behaviour with changes in stress and shear direction. A series of laboratory experiments were performed on cement mortar replicas of a granite sample with a natural fracture perpendicular to the axis of the core. Results show that there is a strong relationship between the fracture's geometry and its mechanical behaviour under shear stress and the resulting damage. Image analysis, geostatistical, stereological and directional data techniques are applied in combination to experimental data. The results highlight the role of geometric characteristics of the fracture surfaces (surface roughness, size, shape, locations and orientations of asperities to be damaged in shear behaviour. A notable improvement in shear understanding is that shear behaviour is controlled by the apparent dip in the shear direction of elementary facets forming the fracture.

  12. Automatic target recognition in SAR images using multilinear analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Porgès, Tristan; Favier, Gérard

    2011-01-01

    International audience Multilinear analysis provides a powerful mathematical framework for analyzing synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images resulting from the interaction of multiple factors like sky luminosity and viewing angles, while preserving their original shape. In this paper, we propose a multilinear principal component analysis (MPCA) algorithm for target recognition in SAR images. First, we form a high order tensor with the training image set and we apply the higher-order singular...

  13. ANALYSIS OF SST IMAGES BY WEIGHTED ENSEMBLE TRANSFORM KALMAN FILTER

    OpenAIRE

    Sai, Gorthi; Beyou, Sébastien; Memin, Etienne

    2011-01-01

    International audience This paper presents a novel, efficient scheme for the analysis of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) ocean images. We consider the estimation of the velocity fields and vorticity values from a sequence of oceanic images. The contribution of this paper lies in proposing a novel, robust and simple approach based onWeighted Ensemble Transform Kalman filter (WETKF) data assimilation technique for the analysis of real SST images, that may contain coast regions or large areas o...

  14. Facial Image Analysis Based on Local Binary Patterns: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, D.; Shan, C.; Ardebilian, M.; Chen, L.

    2011-01-01

    Facial image analysis, including face detection, face recognition,facial expression analysis, facial demographic classification, and so on, is an important and interesting research topic in the computervision and image processing area, which has many important applications such as human-computer

  15. Dynamic infrared imaging in identification of breast cancer tissue with combined image processing and frequency analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joro, R; Lääperi, A-L; Soimakallio, S; Järvenpää, R; Kuukasjärvi, T; Toivonen, T; Saaristo, R; Dastidar, P

    2008-01-01

    Five combinations of image-processing algorithms were applied to dynamic infrared (IR) images of six breast cancer patients preoperatively to establish optimal enhancement of cancer tissue before frequency analysis. mid-wave photovoltaic (PV) IR cameras with 320x254 and 640x512 pixels were used. The signal-to-noise ratio and the specificity for breast cancer were evaluated with the image-processing combinations from the image series of each patient. Before image processing and frequency analysis the effect of patient movement was minimized with a stabilization program developed and tested in the study by stabilizing image slices using surface markers set as measurement points on the skin of the imaged breast. A mathematical equation for superiority value was developed for comparison of the key ratios of the image-processing combinations. The ability of each combination to locate the mammography finding of breast cancer in each patient was compared. Our results show that data collected with a 640x512-pixel mid-wave PV camera applying image-processing methods optimizing signal-to-noise ratio, morphological image processing and linear image restoration before frequency analysis possess the greatest superiority value, showing the cancer area most clearly also in the match centre of the mammography estimation. PMID:18666012

  16. Multimodal digital color imaging system for facial skin lesion analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Youngwoo; Lee, Youn-Heum; Jung, Byungjo

    2008-02-01

    In dermatology, various digital imaging modalities have been used as an important tool to quantitatively evaluate the treatment effect of skin lesions. Cross-polarization color image was used to evaluate skin chromophores (melanin and hemoglobin) information and parallel-polarization image to evaluate skin texture information. In addition, UV-A induced fluorescent image has been widely used to evaluate various skin conditions such as sebum, keratosis, sun damages, and vitiligo. In order to maximize the evaluation efficacy of various skin lesions, it is necessary to integrate various imaging modalities into an imaging system. In this study, we propose a multimodal digital color imaging system, which provides four different digital color images of standard color image, parallel and cross-polarization color image, and UV-A induced fluorescent color image. Herein, we describe the imaging system and present the examples of image analysis. By analyzing the color information and morphological features of facial skin lesions, we are able to comparably and simultaneously evaluate various skin lesions. In conclusion, we are sure that the multimodal color imaging system can be utilized as an important assistant tool in dermatology.

  17. Coffee consumption and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: a dose-response meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippa, Alessio; Discacciati, Andrea; Larsson, Susanna C; Wolk, Alicja; Orsini, Nicola

    2014-10-15

    Several studies have analyzed the relationship between coffee consumption and mortality, but the shape of the association remains unclear. We conducted a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies to examine the dose-response associations between coffee consumption and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and all cancers. Pertinent studies, published between 1966 and 2013, were identified by searching PubMed and by reviewing the reference lists of the selected articles. Prospective studies in which investigators reported relative risks of mortality from all causes, CVD, and all cancers for 3 or more categories of coffee consumption were eligible. Results from individual studies were pooled using a random-effects model. Twenty-one prospective studies, with 121,915 deaths and 997,464 participants, met the inclusion criteria. There was strong evidence of nonlinear associations between coffee consumption and mortality for all causes and CVD (P for nonlinearity Coffee consumption was not associated with cancer mortality. Findings from this meta-analysis indicate that coffee consumption is inversely associated with all-cause and CVD mortality.

  18. PIZZARO: Forensic analysis and restoration of image and video data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenicky, Jan; Bartos, Michal; Flusser, Jan; Mahdian, Babak; Kotera, Jan; Novozamsky, Adam; Saic, Stanislav; Sroubek, Filip; Sorel, Michal; Zita, Ales; Zitova, Barbara; Sima, Zdenek; Svarc, Petr; Horinek, Jan

    2016-07-01

    This paper introduces a set of methods for image and video forensic analysis. They were designed to help to assess image and video credibility and origin and to restore and increase image quality by diminishing unwanted blur, noise, and other possible artifacts. The motivation came from the best practices used in the criminal investigation utilizing images and/or videos. The determination of the image source, the verification of the image content, and image restoration were identified as the most important issues of which automation can facilitate criminalists work. Novel theoretical results complemented with existing approaches (LCD re-capture detection and denoising) were implemented in the PIZZARO software tool, which consists of the image processing functionality as well as of reporting and archiving functions to ensure the repeatability of image analysis procedures and thus fulfills formal aspects of the image/video analysis work. Comparison of new proposed methods with the state of the art approaches is shown. Real use cases are presented, which illustrate the functionality of the developed methods and demonstrate their applicability in different situations. The use cases as well as the method design were solved in tight cooperation of scientists from the Institute of Criminalistics, National Drug Headquarters of the Criminal Police and Investigation Service of the Police of the Czech Republic, and image processing experts from the Czech Academy of Sciences.

  19. PIZZARO: Forensic analysis and restoration of image and video data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenicky, Jan; Bartos, Michal; Flusser, Jan; Mahdian, Babak; Kotera, Jan; Novozamsky, Adam; Saic, Stanislav; Sroubek, Filip; Sorel, Michal; Zita, Ales; Zitova, Barbara; Sima, Zdenek; Svarc, Petr; Horinek, Jan

    2016-07-01

    This paper introduces a set of methods for image and video forensic analysis. They were designed to help to assess image and video credibility and origin and to restore and increase image quality by diminishing unwanted blur, noise, and other possible artifacts. The motivation came from the best practices used in the criminal investigation utilizing images and/or videos. The determination of the image source, the verification of the image content, and image restoration were identified as the most important issues of which automation can facilitate criminalists work. Novel theoretical results complemented with existing approaches (LCD re-capture detection and denoising) were implemented in the PIZZARO software tool, which consists of the image processing functionality as well as of reporting and archiving functions to ensure the repeatability of image analysis procedures and thus fulfills formal aspects of the image/video analysis work. Comparison of new proposed methods with the state of the art approaches is shown. Real use cases are presented, which illustrate the functionality of the developed methods and demonstrate their applicability in different situations. The use cases as well as the method design were solved in tight cooperation of scientists from the Institute of Criminalistics, National Drug Headquarters of the Criminal Police and Investigation Service of the Police of the Czech Republic, and image processing experts from the Czech Academy of Sciences. PMID:27182830

  20. An application of image processing techniques in computed tomography image analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEvoy, Fintan

    2007-01-01

    An estimate of the thickness of subcutaneous adipose tissue at differing positions around the body was required in a study examining body composition. To eliminate human error associated with the manual placement of markers for measurements and to facilitate the collection of data from a large...... number of animals and image slices, automation of the process was desirable. The open-source and free image analysis program ImageJ was used. A macro procedure was created that provided the required functionality. The macro performs a number of basic image processing procedures. These include an initial...... process designed to remove the scanning table from the image and to center the animal in the image. This is followed by placement of a vertical line segment from the mid point of the upper border of the image to the image center. Measurements are made between automatically detected outer and inner...

  1. On Texture and Geometry in Image Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, David Karl John

    2009-01-01

    -out of the captured scene will also change. At large viewing distances, the sky occupies a large region in the image and buildings, trees and lawns appear as uniformly colored regions. The following questions are addressed: How much of the visual appearance in terms of geometry and texture of an image can...

  2. Cardiovascular and interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This year's cardiovascular section demonstrates a continued growth in the number of digests on cardivascular and general interventional topics and continued progress in MRI studies. The reader will also notice fewer digests on DSA and percutaneous stone removal compared with the 1985 and 1986 Year Books. While newer technology, such as extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, has significantly reduced the number of percutaneous procedures for renal calculi, other interventional procedures, such as those involving fibrinolysis, are increasing by leaps and bounds. A number of digests on benign and malignant bile duct strictures continue to shed light on the management of these difficult cases. While abscess drainage is growing and well accepted by most surgeons, articles on esophageal dilatations seem to be declining in the radiology literature, probably on the basis of fewer operations being performed by us and more being performed by endoscopists. Digests on MRI in the cardiovascular system continue to report excellent images of the aorta and of congenital heart disease

  3. Interpretation of medical images by model guided analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress in the development of digital pictorial information systems stimulates a growing interest in the use of image analysis techniques in medicine. Especially when precise quantitative information is required the use of fast and reproducable computer analysis may be more appropriate than relying on visual judgement only. Such quantitative information can be valuable, for instance, in diagnostics or in irradiation therapy planning. As medical images are mostly recorded in a prescribed way, human anatomy guarantees a common image structure for each particular type of exam. In this thesis it is investigated how to make use of this a priori knowledge to guide image analysis. For that purpose models are developed which are suited to capture common image structure. The first part of this study is devoted to an analysis of nuclear medicine images of myocardial perfusion. In ch. 2 a model of these images is designed in order to represent characteristic image properties. It is shown that for these relatively simple images a compact symbolic description can be achieved, without significant loss of diagnostically importance of several image properties. Possibilities for automatic interpretation of more complex images is investigated in the following chapters. The central topic is segmentation of organs. Two methods are proposed and tested on a set of abdominal X-ray CT scans. Ch. 3 describes a serial approach based on a semantic network and the use of search areas. Relational constraints are used to guide the image processing and to classify detected image segments. In teh ch.'s 4 and 5 a more general parallel approach is utilized, based on a markov random field image model. A stochastic model used to represent prior knowledge about the spatial arrangement of organs is implemented as an external field. (author). 66 refs.; 27 figs.; 6 tabs

  4. Analysis of Pregerminated Barley Using Hyperspectral Image Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngren, Morten; Hansen, Per Waaben; Eriksen, Birger;

    2011-01-01

    imaging system in a mathematical modeling framework to identify pregerminated barley at an early stage of approximately 12 h of pregermination. Our model only assigns pregermination as the cause for a single kernel’s lack of germination and is unable to identify dormancy, kernel damage etc. The analysis...... is based on more than 750 Rosalina barley kernels being pregerminated at 8 different durations between 0 and 60 h based on the BRF method. Regerminating the kernels reveals a grouping of the pregerminated kernels into three categories: normal, delayed and limited germination. Our model employs a supervised...... classification framework based on a set of extracted features insensitive to the kernel orientation. An out-of-sample classification error of 32% (CI95%: 29–35%) is obtained for single kernels when grouped into the three categories, and an error of 3% (CI95%: 0–15%) is achieved on a bulk kernel level. The model...

  5. Methods for processing and analysis functional and anatomical brain images: computerized tomography, emission tomography and nuclear resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The various methods for brain image processing and analysis are presented and compared. The following topics are developed: the physical basis of brain image comparison (nature and formation of signals intrinsic performance of the methods image characteristics); mathematical methods for image processing and analysis (filtering, functional parameter extraction, morphological analysis, robotics and artificial intelligence); methods for anatomical localization (neuro-anatomy atlas, proportional stereotaxic atlas, numerized atlas); methodology of cerebral image superposition (normalization, retiming); image networks

  6. Noninvasive quantification of myocardial perfusion heterogeneity by Markovian analysis in SPECT nuclear imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality worldwide, and third of these deaths are caused by coronary artery disease and rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. The heterogeneous alteration of the coronary microcirculation is an early phenomenon associated with many cardiovascular risk factors that can strongly predict the subsequent development of coronary artery disease, and lead to the appearance of myocardial perfusion heterogeneity. Nuclear medicine allows the study of myocardial perfusion in clinical routine through scintigraphic scans performed after injection of a radioactive tracer of coronary blood flow. Analysis of scintigraphic perfusion images currently allows the detection of myocardial ischemia, but the ability of the technique to measure the perfusion heterogeneity in apparently normally perfused areas is unknown. The first part of this thesis focuses on a retrospective clinical study to determine the feasibility of myocardial perfusion heterogeneity quantification measured by Thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in diabetic patients compared with healthy subjects. The clinical study has demonstrated the ability of routine thallium-201 SPECT imaging to quantify greater myocardial perfusion heterogeneity in diabetic patients compared with normal subjects. The second part of this thesis tests the hypothesis that the myocardial perfusion heterogeneity could be quantified in small animal SPECT imaging by Thallium-201 and/or Technetium-99m-MIBI in an experimental study using two animal models of diabetes, and is correlated with histological changes. The lack of difference in myocardial perfusion heterogeneity between control and diabetic animals suggests that animal models are poorly suited, or that the technology currently available does not seem satisfactory to obtain similar results as the clinical study. (author)

  7. Analysis of adipose tissue distribution using whole-body magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Diana; Schwarz, Tobias; Dinkel, Julien; Delorme, Stefan; Teucher, Birgit; Kaaks, Rudolf; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Heimann, Tobias

    2011-03-01

    Obesity is an increasing problem in the western world and triggers diseases like cancer, type two diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. In recent years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become a clinically viable method to measure the amount and distribution of adipose tissue (AT) in the body. However, analysis of MRI images by manual segmentation is a tedious and time-consuming process. In this paper, we propose a semi-automatic method to quantify the amount of different AT types from whole-body MRI data with less user interaction. Initially, body fat is extracted by automatic thresholding. A statistical shape model of the abdomen is then used to differentiate between subcutaneous and visceral AT. Finally, fat in the bone marrow is removed using morphological operators. The proposed method was evaluated on 15 whole-body MRI images using manual segmentation as ground truth for adipose tissue. The resulting overlap for total AT was 93.7% +/- 5.5 with a volumetric difference of 7.3% +/- 6.4. Furthermore, we tested the robustness of the segmentation results with regard to the initial, interactively defined position of the shape model. In conclusion, the developed method proved suitable for the analysis of AT distribution from whole-body MRI data. For large studies, a fully automatic version of the segmentation procedure is expected in the near future.

  8. Analysis of Factors Affecting Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) Image Formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Image reconstruction for positron emission mammography (PEM) with the breast positioned between two parallel, planar detectors is usually performed by backprojection to image planes. Three important factors affecting PEM image reconstruction by backprojection are investigated: (1) image uniformity (flood) corrections, (2) image sampling (pixel size) and (3) count allocation methods. An analytic expression for uniformity correction is developed that incorporates factors for spatial-dependent detector sensitivity and geometric effects from acceptance angle limits on coincidence events. There is good agreement between experimental floods from a PEM system with a pixellated detector and numerical simulations. The analytic uniformity corrections are successfully applied to image reconstruction of compressed breast phantoms and reduce the necessity for flood scans at different image planes. Experimental and simulated compressed breast phantom studies show that lesion contrast is improved when the image pixel size is half of, rather than equal to, the detector pixel size, though this occurs at the expense of some additional image noise. In PEM reconstruction counts usually are allocated to the pixel in the image plane intersected by the line of response (LOR) between the centers of the detection pixels. An alternate count allocation method is investigated that distributes counts to image pixels in proportion to the area of the tube of response (TOR) connecting the detection pixels that they overlay in the image plane. This TOR method eliminates some image artifacts that occur with the LOR method and increases tumor signal-to-noise ratios at the expense of a slight decrease in tumor contrast. Analysis of image uniformity, image sampling and count allocation methods in PEM image reconstruction points to ways of improving image formation. Further work is required to optimize image reconstruction parameters for particular detection or quantitation tasks

  9. Multivariate image analysis for quality inspection in fish feed production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungqvist, Martin Georg

    . The colour appearance of fish products is important for customers. Salmonid fish get their red colour from a natural pigment called astaxanthin. To ensure a similar red colour of fish in aquaculture astaxanthin is used as an additive coated on the feed pellets. Astaxanthin can either be of natural origin...... are: pellet size, type and concentration level of astaxanthin in pellet coating, as well as astaxanthin type detected in salmonid fish. Methods used are three different devices for multi- and hyper-spectral imaging, together with shape analysis and multi-variate statistical analysis. The results...... of the work demonstrate a high potential of image analysis and spectral imaging for assessing the product quality of fish feed pellets, astaxanthin and fish meat. We show how image analysis can be used to inspect the pellet size, and how spectral imaging can be used to inspect the surface quality...

  10. Quantitative methods for the analysis of electron microscope images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skands, Peter Ulrik Vallø

    1996-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is an general introduction to quantitative methods for the analysis of digital microscope images. The images presented are primarily been acquired from Scanning Electron Microscopes (SEM) and interfermeter microscopes (IFM). The topic is approached though several examples...... foundation of the thesis fall in the areas of: 1) Mathematical Morphology; 2) Distance transforms and applications; and 3) Fractal geometry. Image analysis opens in general the possibility of a quantitative and statistical well founded measurement of digital microscope images. Herein lies also the conditions...

  11. Theoretical analysis of radiographic images by nonstationary Poisson processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, K.; Uchida, S. (Gifu Univ. (Japan)); Yamada, I.

    1980-12-01

    This paper deals with the noise analysis of radiographic images obtained in the usual fluorescent screen-film system. The theory of nonstationary Poisson processes is applied to the analysis of the radiographic images containing the object information. The ensemble averages, the autocorrelation functions, and the Wiener spectrum densities of the light-energy distribution at the fluorescent screen and of the film optical-density distribution are obtained. The detection characteristics of the system are evaluated theoretically. Numerical examples one-dimensional image are shown and the results are compared with those obtained under the assumption that the object image is related to the background noise by the additive process.

  12. Theoretical Analysis of Radiographic Images by Nonstationary Poisson Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kazuo; Yamada, Isao; Uchida, Suguru

    1980-12-01

    This paper deals with the noise analysis of radiographic images obtained in the usual fluorescent screen-film system. The theory of nonstationary Poisson processes is applied to the analysis of the radiographic images containing the object information. The ensemble averages, the autocorrelation functions, and the Wiener spectrum densities of the light-energy distribution at the fluorescent screen and of the film optical-density distribution are obtained. The detection characteristics of the system are evaluated theoretically. Numerical examples of the one-dimensional image are shown and the results are compared with those obtained under the assumption that the object image is related to the background noise by the additive process.

  13. IMAGE ANALYSIS BASED ON EDGE DETECTION TECHNIQUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纳瑟; 刘重庆

    2002-01-01

    A method that incorporates edge detection technique, Markov Random field (MRF), watershed segmentation and merging techniques was presented for performing image segmentation and edge detection tasks. It first applies edge detection technique to obtain a Difference In Strength (DIS) map. An initial segmented result is obtained based on K-means clustering technique and the minimum distance. Then the region process is modeled by MRF to obtain an image that contains different intensity regions. The gradient values are calculated and then the watershed technique is used. DIS calculation is used for each pixel to define all the edges (weak or strong) in the image. The DIS map is obtained. This help as priority knowledge to know the possibility of the region segmentation by the next step (MRF), which gives an image that has all the edges and regions information. In MRF model,gray level l, at pixel location i, in an image X, depends on the gray levels of neighboring pixels. The segmentation results are improved by using watershed algorithm. After all pixels of the segmented regions are processed, a map of primitive region with edges is generated. The edge map is obtained using a merge process based on averaged intensity mean values. A common edge detectors that work on (MRF) segmented image are used and the results are compared. The segmentation and edge detection result is one closed boundary per actual region in the image.

  14. Digital image processing and analysis human and computer vision applications with CVIPtools

    CERN Document Server

    Umbaugh, Scott E

    2010-01-01

    Section I Introduction to Digital Image Processing and AnalysisDigital Image Processing and AnalysisOverviewImage Analysis and Computer VisionImage Processing and Human VisionKey PointsExercisesReferencesFurther ReadingComputer Imaging SystemsImaging Systems OverviewImage Formation and SensingCVIPtools SoftwareImage RepresentationKey PointsExercisesSupplementary ExercisesReferencesFurther ReadingSection II Digital Image Analysis and Computer VisionIntroduction to Digital Image AnalysisIntroductionPreprocessingBinary Image AnalysisKey PointsExercisesSupplementary ExercisesReferencesFurther Read

  15. Image Harvest: an open-source platform for high-throughput plant image processing and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, Avi C; Campbell, Malachy T; Caprez, Adam; Swanson, David R; Walia, Harkamal

    2016-05-01

    High-throughput plant phenotyping is an effective approach to bridge the genotype-to-phenotype gap in crops. Phenomics experiments typically result in large-scale image datasets, which are not amenable for processing on desktop computers, thus creating a bottleneck in the image-analysis pipeline. Here, we present an open-source, flexible image-analysis framework, called Image Harvest (IH), for processing images originating from high-throughput plant phenotyping platforms. Image Harvest is developed to perform parallel processing on computing grids and provides an integrated feature for metadata extraction from large-scale file organization. Moreover, the integration of IH with the Open Science Grid provides academic researchers with the computational resources required for processing large image datasets at no cost. Image Harvest also offers functionalities to extract digital traits from images to interpret plant architecture-related characteristics. To demonstrate the applications of these digital traits, a rice (Oryza sativa) diversity panel was phenotyped and genome-wide association mapping was performed using digital traits that are used to describe different plant ideotypes. Three major quantitative trait loci were identified on rice chromosomes 4 and 6, which co-localize with quantitative trait loci known to regulate agronomically important traits in rice. Image Harvest is an open-source software for high-throughput image processing that requires a minimal learning curve for plant biologists to analyzephenomics datasets. PMID:27141917

  16. Exploiting multi-context analysis in semantic image classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yong-hong; HUANG Tie-jun; GAO Wen

    2005-01-01

    As the popularity of digital images is rapidly increasing on the Internet, research on technologies for semantic image classification has become an important research topic. However, the well-known content-based image classification methods do not overcome the so-called semantic gap problem in which low-level visual features cannot represent the high-level semantic content of images. Image classification using visual and textual information often performs poorly since the extracted textual features are often too limited to accurately represent the images. In this paper, we propose a semantic image classification approach using multi-context analysis. For a given image, we model the relevant textual information as its multi-modal context, and regard the related images connected by hyperlinks as its link context. Two kinds of context analysis models, i.e., cross-modal correlation analysis and link-based correlation model, are used to capture the correlation among different modals of features and the topical dependency among images induced by the link structure. We propose a new collective classification model called relational support vector classifier (RSVC) based on the well-known Support Vector Machines (SVMs) and the link-based correlation model. Experiments showed that the proposed approach significantly improved classification accuracy over that of SVM classifiers using visual and/or textual features.

  17. Pattern recognition software and techniques for biological image analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lior Shamir

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of automated image acquisition systems is enabling new types of microscopy experiments that generate large image datasets. However, there is a perceived lack of robust image analysis systems required to process these diverse datasets. Most automated image analysis systems are tailored for specific types of microscopy, contrast methods, probes, and even cell types. This imposes significant constraints on experimental design, limiting their application to the narrow set of imaging methods for which they were designed. One of the approaches to address these limitations is pattern recognition, which was originally developed for remote sensing, and is increasingly being applied to the biology domain. This approach relies on training a computer to recognize patterns in images rather than developing algorithms or tuning parameters for specific image processing tasks. The generality of this approach promises to enable data mining in extensive image repositories, and provide objective and quantitative imaging assays for routine use. Here, we provide a brief overview of the technologies behind pattern recognition and its use in computer vision for biological and biomedical imaging. We list available software tools that can be used by biologists and suggest practical experimental considerations to make the best use of pattern recognition techniques for imaging assays.

  18. Incidence and determinants of mortality and cardiovascular events in diabetes mellitus : a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanters, SDJM; Banga, JD; Stolk, RP; Algra, A

    1999-01-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus are at increased risk of developing atherosclerotic disease. The extent of this additional risk and its determinants are not well known, but this information is needed for sample-size estimations in intervention studies. Therefore, a meta-analysis of epidemiologic stu

  19. A cardiovascular life history: a life course analysis of the original Framingham Heart Objective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, A.; Mamun, A.A.; Willekens, F.J.; Bonneux, L.

    2002-01-01

    dietary behaviour and to further examine the associations of different dietary compositions with selected characteristics. Design: Latent class analysis was applied to data from the recent cross-sectional National Family Health Survey that collected information on the intake frequency of selected fo

  20. Introducing PLIA: Planetary Laboratory for Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, J.; Hueso, R.; Barrado, N.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.

    2005-08-01

    We present a graphical software tool developed under IDL software to navigate, process and analyze planetary images. The software has a complete Graphical User Interface and is cross-platform. It can also run under the IDL Virtual Machine without the need to own an IDL license. The set of tools included allow image navigation (orientation, centring and automatic limb determination), dynamical and photometric atmospheric measurements (winds and cloud albedos), cylindrical and polar projections, as well as image treatment under several procedures. Being written in IDL, it is modular and easy to modify and grow for adding new capabilities. We show several examples of the software capabilities with Galileo-Venus observations: Image navigation, photometrical corrections, wind profiles obtained by cloud tracking, cylindrical projections and cloud photometric measurements. Acknowledgements: This work has been funded by Spanish MCYT PNAYA2003-03216, fondos FEDER and Grupos UPV 15946/2004. R. Hueso acknowledges a post-doc fellowship from Gobierno Vasco.

  1. The impact of traditional cardiovascular risk factors on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena R Baghdadi

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is known to increase the risk of cardiovascular (CV disease. However, the individual impact of traditional CV risk factors in RA is unknown.To assess the strength of the association between individual CV risk factors and rate of either myocardial infarction (MI, combined CV morbidity (MI, angina pectoris, heart failure, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease (PAD or CV mortality in RA patients.RA studies reporting traditional CV risk factors [hypertension, type 2 diabetes (T2D, smoking, hypercholesterolaemia, obesity, and physical inactivity] as exposures and MI, CV morbidity (MI, angina, heart failure, stroke, and PAD combined or CV mortality alone as outcomes were searched until March 2013 using MEDLINE, Scopus and Cochrane. Meta-analyses combined relative risk (RR estimates from each study where either the RR and 95% confidence intervals or where raw counts were available.Ten studies reporting sufficient data for inclusion into meta-analyses were identified. Relevant data was available for each risk factor and MI and CV morbidity but no studies reported on CV mortality. Risk of MI increased in RA patients with hypertension (RR 1.84, 95% CI 1.38, 2.46 and T2D (RR 1.89, 95% CI 1.36, 2.63. CV morbidity increased with hypertension (RR 2.24, 95% CI 1.42, 3.06, T2D (RR 1.94, 95% CI 1.58, 2.30, smoking (RR 1.50, 95% CI 1.15, 1.84, hypercholesterolaemia (RR 1.73, 95% CI 1.03, 2.44 and obesity (RR 1.16, 95% CI 1.03, 1.29 but not with physical inactivity (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.71, 1.29.Hypertension, T2D, smoking, hypercholesterolaemia and obesity increased CV risk in patients with RA. These results highlight the importance of managing CV risk factors in RA, similarly to non-RA patients.

  2. Diagnostic imaging analysis of the impacted mesiodens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research was performed to predict the three dimensional relationship between the impacted mesiodens and the maxillary central incisors and the proximity with the anatomic structures by comparing their panoramic images with the CT images. Among the patients visiting Seoul National University Dental Hospital from April 2003 to July 2007, those with mesiodens were selected (154 mesiodens of 120 patients). The numbers, shapes, orientation and positional relationship of mesiodens with maxillary central incisors were investigated in the panoramic images. The proximity with the anatomical structures and complications were investigated in the CT images as well. The sex ratio (M : F) was 2.28 : 1 and the mean number of mesiodens per one patient was 1.28. Conical shape was 84.4% and inverted orientation was 51.9%. There were more cases of anatomical structures encroachment, especially on the nasal floor and nasopalatine duct, when the mesiodens was not superimposed with the central incisor. There were, however, many cases of the nasopalatine duct encroachment when the mesiodens was superimpoised with the apical 1/3 of central incisor (52.6%). Delayed eruption (55.6%), crown rotation (66.7%) and crown resorption (100%) were observed when the mesiodens was superimposed with the crown of the central incisor. It is possible to predict three dimensional relationship between the impacted mesiodens and the maxillary central incisors in the panoramic images, but more details should be confirmed by the CT images when necessary.

  3. Breast arterial calcifications : A systematic review and meta-analysis of their determinants and their association with cardiovascular events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Eva J E; de Jong, Pim; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Mali, Willem P Th M; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Beulens, Joline W J

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Breast arterial calcifications (BAC), regularly observed at mammography, are medial calcifications and as such an expression of arteriosclerosis. Our objective was to evaluate and summarize the available evidence on the associations of BAC with cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascul

  4. Amniotic fluid stem cells morph into a cardiovascular lineage: analysis of a chemically induced cardiac and vascular commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maioli M

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Margherita Maioli,1–3 Giovanni Contini,1 Sara Santaniello,1,2 Pasquale Bandiera,1 Gianfranco Pigliaru,1,2 Raimonda Sanna,5 Salvatore Rinaldi,3 Alessandro P Delitala,1 Andrea Montella,1,5 Luigi Bagella,1,6 Carlo Ventura2–41Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sassari, Sassari, 2Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Stem Cell Engineering, National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems, Bologna, 3Department of Regenerative Medicine, Rinaldi Fontani Institute, Florence, 4Cardiovascular Department, S Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, University of Bologna, Bologna, 5Facility of Genetic and Developmental Biology, AOU Sassari, Sassari, Italy; 6Sbarro Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Center for Biotechnology, College of Science and Technology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USAAbstract: Mouse embryonic stem cells were previously observed along with mesenchymal stem cells from different sources, after being treated with a mixed ester of hyaluronan with butyric and retinoic acids, to show a significant increase in the yield of cardiogenic and vascular differentiated elements. The aim of the present study was to determine if stem cells derived from primitive fetal cells present in human amniotic fluid (hAFSCs and cultured in the presence of a mixture of hyaluronic (HA, butyric (BU, and retinoic (RA acids show a higher yield of differentiation toward the cardiovascular phenotype as compared with untreated cells. During the differentiation process elicited by exposure to HA + BU + RA, genes controlling pluripotency and plasticity of stem cells, such as Sox2, Nanog, and Oct4, were significantly downregulated at the transcriptional level. At this point, a significant increase in expression of genes controlling the appearance of cardiogenic and vascular lineages in HA + BU + RA-treated cells was observed. The protein expression levels typical of cardiac and vascular phenotypes, evaluated by Western blotting

  5. Image Analysis of Defocused Single-molecule Images for Three-dimensional Molecule Orientation Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Patra, D; Gregor, I.; Enderlein, J.

    2004-01-01

    An efficient algorithm for pattern matching has been developed based on least-squares analysis of fitting a discrete set of master patterns against measured images. This algorithm has been applied to determine three-dimensional molecule orientations in defocused single-molecule images. The developed algorithm exploits the excellent agreement between electrodynamic calculations of single-molecule emission and experimentally measured images. The procedure is found to be reliable and simple and ...

  6. Digital Image Analysis for DETCHIP(®) Code Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Marcus; Wilson, Mark V; Rouhier, Kerry A; Symonsbergen, David J; Bastola, Kiran; Thapa, Ishwor; Holmes, Andrea E; Sikich, Sharmin M; Jackson, Abby

    2012-08-01

    DETECHIP(®) is a molecular sensing array used for identification of a large variety of substances. Previous methodology for the analysis of DETECHIP(®) used human vision to distinguish color changes induced by the presence of the analyte of interest. This paper describes several analysis techniques using digital images of DETECHIP(®). Both a digital camera and flatbed desktop photo scanner were used to obtain Jpeg images. Color information within these digital images was obtained through the measurement of red-green-blue (RGB) values using software such as GIMP, Photoshop and ImageJ. Several different techniques were used to evaluate these color changes. It was determined that the flatbed scanner produced in the clearest and more reproducible images. Furthermore, codes obtained using a macro written for use within ImageJ showed improved consistency versus pervious methods. PMID:25267940

  7. Time-variant partial directed coherence in analysis of the cardiovascular system. A methodological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Time-variant partial directed coherence (tvPDC) is used for the first time in a multivariate analysis of heart rate variability (HRV), respiratory movements (RMs) and (systolic) arterial blood pressure. It is shown that respiration-related HRV components which also occur at other frequencies besides the RM frequency (= respiratory sinus arrhythmia, RSA) can be identified. These additional components are known to be an effect of the 'half-the-mean-heart-rate-dilemma' ('cardiac aliasing' CA). These CA components may contaminate the entire frequency range of HRV and can lead to misinterpretation of the RSA analysis. TvPDC analysis of simulated and clinical data (full-term neonates and sedated patients) reveals these contamination effects and, in addition, the respiration-related CA components can be separated from the RSA component and the Traube–Hering–Mayer wave. It can be concluded that tvPDC can be beneficially applied to avoid misinterpretations in HRV analyses as well as to quantify partial correlative interaction properties between RM and RSA

  8. Anima: Modular workflow system for comprehensive image data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ville eRantanen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern microscopes produce vast amounts of image data, and computational methods are needed to analyze and interpret these data. Furthermore, a single image analysis project may require tens or hundreds of analysis steps starting from data import and preprocessing to segmentation and statistical analysis; and ending with visualization and reporting. To manage such large-scale image data analysis projects, we present here a modular workflow system called Anima. Anima is designed for comprehensive and efficient image data analysis, and it contains several features that are crucial in high-throughput image data analysis: programming language independence, batch processing, easily customized data processing, interoperability with other software via application programming interfaces, and advanced multivariate statistical analysis. The utility of Anima is shown with two case studies focusing on testing different algorithms developed in different imaging platforms and an automated prediction of alive/dead C. elegans worms by integrating several analysis environmens. Anima is fully open source and available with documentation at http://www.anduril.org/anima

  9. Geopositioning Precision Analysis of Multiple Image Triangulation Using Lro Nac Lunar Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, K.; Xu, B.; Liu, B.; Jia, M.; Liu, Z.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents an empirical analysis of the geopositioning precision of multiple image triangulation using Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) images at the Chang'e-3(CE-3) landing site. Nine LROC NAC images are selected for comparative analysis of geopositioning precision. Rigorous sensor models of the images are established based on collinearity equations with interior and exterior orientation elements retrieved from the corresponding SPICE kernels. Rational polynomial coefficients (RPCs) of each image are derived by least squares fitting using vast number of virtual control points generated according to rigorous sensor models. Experiments of different combinations of images are performed for comparisons. The results demonstrate that the plane coordinates can achieve a precision of 0.54 m to 2.54 m, with a height precision of 0.71 m to 8.16 m when only two images are used for three-dimensional triangulation. There is a general trend that the geopositioning precision, especially the height precision, is improved with the convergent angle of the two images increasing from several degrees to about 50°. However, the image matching precision should also be taken into consideration when choosing image pairs for triangulation. The precisions of using all the 9 images are 0.60 m, 0.50 m, 1.23 m in along-track, cross-track, and height directions, which are better than most combinations of two or more images. However, triangulation with selected fewer images could produce better precision than that using all the images.

  10. Texture analysis for the segmentation of sugar cane multispectral images

    OpenAIRE

    Solano, Agustin; Schneider, Gerardo; Kemerer, Alejandra; Hadad, Alejandro Javier

    2014-01-01

    In this paper is presented an analysis of the impact of texture features for segmentation of multispectral aerial images of sugar cane. Currently there are no precise techniques to estimate objectively areas of fallen cane and this causes significant losses in crop productivity and industrialization. For the real-ization of this work was made an image dataset. To build this dataset was im-plemented a software from which were obtained labeled regions in the images related to this agronomic phe...

  11. Basic research planning in mathematical pattern recognition and image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, J.; Guseman, L. F., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Fundamental problems encountered while attempting to develop automated techniques for applications of remote sensing are discussed under the following categories: (1) geometric and radiometric preprocessing; (2) spatial, spectral, temporal, syntactic, and ancillary digital image representation; (3) image partitioning, proportion estimation, and error models in object scene interference; (4) parallel processing and image data structures; and (5) continuing studies in polarization; computer architectures and parallel processing; and the applicability of "expert systems" to interactive analysis.

  12. An Ultrasound Image Despeckling Approach Based on Principle Component Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jawad F. Al-Asad; Ali M. Reza; Udomchai Techavipoo

    2014-01-01

    An approach based on principle component analysis (PCA) to filter out multiplicative noise from ultrasound images is presented in this paper. An image with speckle noise is segmented into small dyadic lengths, depending on the original size of the image, and the global covariance matrix is found. A projection matrix is then formed by selecting the maximum eigenvectors of the global covariance matrix. This projection matrix is used to filter speckle noise by projecting each segment into the si...

  13. Migraine and cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo E. Bigal

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Migraine, especially migraine with aura is an established risk factor for ischemic lesions of the brain. Recent evidence has also linked migraine with and without aura to a broader range of ischemic vascular disorders including angina, myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, claudication and cardiovascular mortality. The topic is therefore of considerable interest. Accordingly, herein we review the association between migraine and cardiovascular disease. We start by briefly presenting diagnostic criteria for migraine and revising its pathophysiology. We follow by summarizing the evidence on the topic. We then briefly present the results of a recent meta-analysis. We close by highlighting results of a large epidemiological study conducted after the publication of the meta-analysis.

  14. Uncooled LWIR imaging: applications and market analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasawa, Satomi

    2015-05-01

    The evolution of infrared (IR) imaging sensor technology for defense market has played an important role in developing commercial market, as dual use of the technology has expanded. In particular, technologies of both reduction in pixel pitch and vacuum package have drastically evolved in the area of uncooled Long-Wave IR (LWIR; 8-14 μm wavelength region) imaging sensor, increasing opportunity to create new applications. From the macroscopic point of view, the uncooled LWIR imaging market is divided into two areas. One is a high-end market where uncooled LWIR imaging sensor with sensitivity as close to that of cooled one as possible is required, while the other is a low-end market which is promoted by miniaturization and reduction in price. Especially, in the latter case, approaches towards consumer market have recently appeared, such as applications of uncooled LWIR imaging sensors to night visions for automobiles and smart phones. The appearance of such a kind of commodity surely changes existing business models. Further technological innovation is necessary for creating consumer market, and there will be a room for other companies treating components and materials such as lens materials and getter materials and so on to enter into the consumer market.

  15. Automatic analysis of a skull fracture based on image content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Hong; Zhao, Hong

    2003-09-01

    Automatic analysis based on image content is a hotspot with bright future of medical image diagnosis technology research. Analysis of the fracture of skull can help doctors diagnose. In this paper, a new approach is proposed to automatically detect the fracture of skull based on CT image content. First region growing method, whose seeds and growing rules are chosen by k-means clustering dynamically, is applied for image automatic segmentation. The segmented region boundary is found by boundary tracing. Then the shape of the boundary is analyzed, and the circularity measure is taken as description parameter. At last the rules for computer automatic diagnosis of the fracture of the skull are reasoned by entropy function. This method is used to analyze the images from the third ventricles below layer to cerebral cortex top layer. Experimental result shows that the recognition rate is 100% for the 100 images, which are chosen from medical image database randomly and are not included in the training examples. This method integrates color and shape feature, and isn't affected by image size and position. This research achieves high recognition rate and sets a basis for automatic analysis of brain image.

  16. Occupancy Analysis of Sports Arenas Using Thermal Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Rikke; Jørgensen, Anders; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a system for automatic analysis of the occupancy of sports arenas. By using a thermal camera for image capturing the number of persons and their location on the court are found without violating any privacy issues. The images are binarised with an automatic threshold method...

  17. Spinal X-ray image analysis in scoliosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sardjono, Tri Arief

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis new image analysis methods are discussed to determine the curvature of scoliotic patients characterised by the Cobb angle and to enhance the vertebral parts based on features from a frontal X-ray image. Chapter 1 provides some background information on scoliosis, how to diagnose it, t

  18. Four challenges in medical image analysis from an industrial perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weese, Jürgen; Lorenz, Cristian

    2016-10-01

    Today's medical imaging systems produce a huge amount of images containing a wealth of information. However, the information is hidden in the data and image analysis algorithms are needed to extract it, to make it readily available for medical decisions and to enable an efficient work flow. Advances in medical image analysis over the past 20 years mean there are now many algorithms and ideas available that allow to address medical image analysis tasks in commercial solutions with sufficient performance in terms of accuracy, reliability and speed. At the same time new challenges have arisen. Firstly, there is a need for more generic image analysis technologies that can be efficiently adapted for a specific clinical task. Secondly, efficient approaches for ground truth generation are needed to match the increasing demands regarding validation and machine learning. Thirdly, algorithms for analyzing heterogeneous image data are needed. Finally, anatomical and organ models play a crucial role in many applications, and algorithms to construct patient-specific models from medical images with a minimum of user interaction are needed. These challenges are complementary to the on-going need for more accurate, more reliable and faster algorithms, and dedicated algorithmic solutions for specific applications.

  19. Direct identification of pure penicillium species using image analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dørge, Thorsten Carlheim; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2000-01-01

    recording. Isolates of nine different species of the genus Penicillium have been selected for the purpose. After incubation for 7 days, the fungal colonies are digitized using a very accurate digital camera. Prior to the image analysis each image is corrected for self-illumination, thereby gaining a set...

  20. ANALYSIS OF MULAN’S IMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chongjie

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Mulan is an ancient Chinese heroine. The story shows that she is the same as other women,having personal life, but also has a heart that loves her country and her parents. She always thinksabout her family, society, dan country. This article was based on library research, using Mulan poemdan a folklore entitled Mulan Pergi Berperang as media to analyze Mulan’s image. It can be said thateventhough at that time there was no gender perspective concept, Mulan had been able to replace herfather to go to war. She gave a lot of contributions for her country, society, and family. Analysisrepresents that Mulan has three images, as a heroine, as a daughter for her family, and self-image orleader for the women. Having good character and spirit to love country, people, and family make herequal to men. And, it makes her respected by people in each generation.

  1. Optical image acquisition system for colony analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weixing; Jin, Wenbiao

    2006-02-01

    For counting of both colonies and plaques, there is a large number of applications including food, dairy, beverages, hygiene, environmental monitoring, water, toxicology, sterility testing, AMES testing, pharmaceuticals, paints, sterile fluids and fungal contamination. Recently, many researchers and developers have made efforts for this kind of systems. By investigation, some existing systems have some problems since they belong to a new technology product. One of the main problems is image acquisition. In order to acquire colony images with good quality, an illumination box was constructed as: the box includes front lightning and back lightning, which can be selected by users based on properties of colony dishes. With the illumination box, lightning can be uniform; colony dish can be put in the same place every time, which make image processing easy. A digital camera in the top of the box connected to a PC computer with a USB cable, all the camera functions are controlled by the computer.

  2. Electron Microscopy and Image Analysis for Selected Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, George

    1999-01-01

    This particular project was completed in collaboration with the metallurgical diagnostics facility. The objective of this research had four major components. First, we required training in the operation of the environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) for imaging of selected materials including biological specimens. The types of materials range from cyanobacteria and diatoms to cloth, metals, sand, composites and other materials. Second, to obtain training in surface elemental analysis technology using energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis, and in the preparation of x-ray maps of these same materials. Third, to provide training for the staff of the metallurgical diagnostics and failure analysis team in the area of image processing and image analysis technology using NIH Image software. Finally, we were to assist in the sample preparation, observing, imaging, and elemental analysis for Mr. Richard Hoover, one of NASA MSFC's solar physicists and Marshall's principal scientist for the agency-wide virtual Astrobiology Institute. These materials have been collected from various places around the world including the Fox Tunnel in Alaska, Siberia, Antarctica, ice core samples from near Lake Vostoc, thermal vents in the ocean floor, hot springs and many others. We were successful in our efforts to obtain high quality, high resolution images of various materials including selected biological ones. Surface analyses (EDX) and x-ray maps were easily prepared with this technology. We also discovered and used some applications for NIH Image software in the metallurgical diagnostics facility.

  3. Determination of fish gender using fractal analysis of ultrasound images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEvoy, Fintan J.; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Støttrup, Josianne;

    2009-01-01

    The gender of cod Gadus morhua can be determined by considering the complexity in their gonadal ultrasonographic appearance. The fractal dimension (DB) can be used to describe this feature in images. B-mode gonadal ultrasound images in 32 cod, where gender was known, were collected. Fractal...... by subjective analysis alone. The mean (and standard deviation) of the fractal dimension DB for male fish was 1.554 (0.073) while for female fish it was 1.468 (0.061); the difference was statistically significant (P=0.001). The area under the ROC curve was 0.84 indicating the value of fractal analysis in gender...... result. Fractal analysis is useful for gender determination in cod. This or a similar form of analysis may have wide application in veterinary imaging as a tool for quantification of complexity in images...

  4. Analysis Operator Learning and Its Application to Image Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Hawe, Simon; Diepold, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Exploiting a priori known structural information lies at the core of many image reconstruction methods that can be stated as inverse problems. The synthesis model, which assumes that images can be decomposed into a linear combination of very few atoms of some dictionary, is now a well established tool for the design of image reconstruction algorithms. An interesting alternative is the analysis model, where the signal is multiplied by an analysis operator and the outcome is assumed to be the sparse. This approach has only recently gained increasing interest. The quality of reconstruction methods based on an analysis model severely depends on the right choice of the suitable operator. In this work, we present an algorithm for learning an analysis operator from training images. Our method is based on an $\\ell_p$-norm minimization on the set of full rank matrices with normalized columns. We carefully introduce the employed conjugate gradient method on manifolds, and explain the underlying geometry of the constrai...

  5. Porosity determination on pyrocarbon using automatic quantitative image analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods of porosity determination are reviewed and applied to the measurement of the porosity of pyrocarbon. Specifically, the mathematical basis of stereology and the procedures involved in quantitative image analysis are detailed

  6. Segmentation and learning in the quantitative analysis of microscopy images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Christy; Ross, Amy; Porter, Reid

    2015-02-01

    In material science and bio-medical domains the quantity and quality of microscopy images is rapidly increasing and there is a great need to automatically detect, delineate and quantify particles, grains, cells, neurons and other functional "objects" within these images. These are challenging problems for image processing because of the variability in object appearance that inevitably arises in real world image acquisition and analysis. One of the most promising (and practical) ways to address these challenges is interactive image segmentation. These algorithms are designed to incorporate input from a human operator to tailor the segmentation method to the image at hand. Interactive image segmentation is now a key tool in a wide range of applications in microscopy and elsewhere. Historically, interactive image segmentation algorithms have tailored segmentation on an image-by-image basis, and information derived from operator input is not transferred between images. But recently there has been increasing interest to use machine learning in segmentation to provide interactive tools that accumulate and learn from the operator input over longer periods of time. These new learning algorithms reduce the need for operator input over time, and can potentially provide a more dynamic balance between customization and automation for different applications. This paper reviews the state of the art in this area, provides a unified view of these algorithms, and compares the segmentation performance of various design choices.

  7. Image analysis on the archimedes palimpsest

    OpenAIRE

    Tonazzini, Anna; Bedini, Luigi; Salerno, Emanuele

    2004-01-01

    Image processing procedures developed at ISTI-CNR have been applied to recover some of the hidden writing in the Archimedes palimpsest, an ancient manuscript in which faint remnants of several treatises by the great philosopher and mathematician are partially hidden under a more recent text.

  8. Wound Image Analysis Using Contour Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sundeep Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the algorithm described in this paper is to segment wound images from the normal and classify them according to the types of the wound. The segmentation of wounds extravagates color representation, which has been followed by an algorithm of grayscale segmentation based on the stack mathematical approach. Accurate classification of wounds and analyzing wound healing process is a critical task for patient care and health cost reduction at hospital. The tissue uniformity and flatness leads to a simplified approach but requires multispectral imaging for enhanced wound delineation. Contour Evolution method which uses multispectral imaging replaces more complex tools such as, SVM supervised classification, as no training step is required. In Contour Evolution, classification can be done by clustering color information, with differential quantization algorithm, the color centroids of small squares taken from segmented part of the wound image in (C1,C2 plane. Where C1, C2 are two chrominance components. Wound healing is identified by measuring the size of the wound through various means like contact and noncontact methods of wound. The wound tissues proportion is also estimated by a qualitative visual assessment based on the red-yellow-black code. Moreover, involving all the spectral response of the tissue and not only RGB components provides a higher discrimination for separating healed epithelial tissue from granulation tissue.

  9. Enhanced Image Analysis Using Cached Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabeer Mohammed

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the field of Artificial intelligence Image processing plays a vital role in Decision making .Now a day’s Mobile robots work as a Network sharing Centralized Data base.All Image inputs are compared against this database and decision is made.In some cases the Centralized database is in other side of the globe and Mobile robots compare Input image through satellite link this sometime results in delays in decision making which may result in castrophe.This Research paper is about how to make image processing in mobile robots less time consuming and fast decision making.This research paper compares search techniques employed currently and optimum search method which we are going to state.Now a days Mobile robots are extensively used in environments which are dangerous to human beings.In this dangerous situations quick Decision making makes the difference between Hit and Miss this can also results in Day to day tasks performed by Mobile robots Successful or Failure.

  10. Image Segmentation Analysis for NASA Earth Science Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilton, James C.

    2010-01-01

    NASA collects large volumes of imagery data from satellite-based Earth remote sensing sensors. Nearly all of the computerized image analysis of this data is performed pixel-by-pixel, in which an algorithm is applied directly to individual image pixels. While this analysis approach is satisfactory in many cases, it is usually not fully effective in extracting the full information content from the high spatial resolution image data that s now becoming increasingly available from these sensors. The field of object-based image analysis (OBIA) has arisen in recent years to address the need to move beyond pixel-based analysis. The Recursive Hierarchical Segmentation (RHSEG) software developed by the author is being used to facilitate moving from pixel-based image analysis to OBIA. The key unique aspect of RHSEG is that it tightly intertwines region growing segmentation, which produces spatially connected region objects, with region object classification, which groups sets of region objects together into region classes. No other practical, operational image segmentation approach has this tight integration of region growing object finding with region classification This integration is made possible by the recursive, divide-and-conquer implementation utilized by RHSEG, in which the input image data is recursively subdivided until the image data sections are small enough to successfully mitigat the combinatorial explosion caused by the need to compute the dissimilarity between each pair of image pixels. RHSEG's tight integration of region growing object finding and region classification is what enables the high spatial fidelity of the image segmentations produced by RHSEG. This presentation will provide an overview of the RHSEG algorithm and describe how it is currently being used to support OBIA or Earth Science applications such as snow/ice mapping and finding archaeological sites from remotely sensed data.

  11. Risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality among diabetic patients prescribed rosiglitazone or pioglitazone: a meta-analysis of retrospective cohort studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xin; YANG Li; ZHAI Suo-di

    2012-01-01

    Background The difference of cardiovascular effects between rosiglitazone and pioglitazone treatment for diabetic patients has not been thoroughly studied.We performed a meta-analysis to compare the risk of cardiovascular adverse effects in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with rosiglitazone compared to pioglitazone.Methods The Cochrane Library,PubMed,and Embase were searched to identify retrospective cohort studies assessing cardiovascular outcomes with rosiglitazone and pioglitazone.Meta-analysis of retrospective cohort studies was conducted using RevMan 5.0 software to calculate risk ratios.Results Of the 74 references identified,eight studies involving 945 286 patients fit the inclusion criteria for the analysis.The results of meta-analyses showed that,compared with pioglitazone,rosiglitazone therapy significantly increased the risk of myocardial infarction (risk ratios (RR) 1.17,95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.32; P=0.01),the risk of heart failure (RR 1.18,95% CI 1.02-1.36; P=0.03),and total mortality (RR 1.13,95% CI 1.08-1.20; P <0.00001).Conclusion Compared with pioglitazone,rosiglitazone was associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction,heart failure,and all-cause mortality in diabetic patients.

  12. Patients with knee osteoarthritis undergoing total knee arthroplasty have a lower risk of subsequent severe cardiovascular events: propensity score and instrumental variable analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yan Lin

    Full Text Available This population-based study investigated the subsequent cardiovascular risk of patients with knee osteoarthritis underwent total knee arthroplasty in Taiwan.This was a population-based follow-up study of 22931 patients diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis between 2008 and 2011. Each patient was followed for 3 years or until death. Treatment was dichotomized into conservative treatment and TKA. The association between TKA and cardiovascular disease (CVD events was analyzed using propensity score analysis and instrumental variable analysis and two-stage least-squares regression model.Patients with knee osteoarthritis who underwent TKA had a lower 3-year cumulative risk of stroke and acute myocardial infarction (AMI. After adjusting for measured risk and confounding factors, propensity score showed a 0.56 fold (adjusted OR = 0.56; 95% CI, 0.51-0.61; p<0.001 risk for CVD in those with TKA. Use of instrumental variable analysis for adjusting measured and unmeasured factors and two-stage least squares regression model revealed that the average treatment effect of TKA was statistically associated with a decreased 7% risk of CVD events (95% CI, 0.2%-13.6%.Our study revealed that patients with knee osteoarthritis who underwent TKA had a lower risk of suffering from a future severe cardiovascular event. This benefit may be attributed to an improvement in physical activity, reduction of psychosocial stress, and/or a decreased use of NSAIDs as a result of having undergone TKA.

  13. Development of root observation method by image analysis system

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Giyoung

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of plant roots is important for determining plant-soil relationships, managing soil effectively, studying nutrient and water extraction, and creating a soil quality index. Plant root research is limited by the large amount of time and labor required to wash the roots from the soil and measure the viable roots. A root measurement method based on image analysis was proposed to reduce the time and labor requirement. A thinning algorithm-based image analysis method was us...

  14. Multi-spectral Image Analysis for Astaxanthin Coating Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungqvist, Martin Georg; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht;

    2011-01-01

    Industrial quality inspection using image analysis on astaxanthin coating in aquaculture feed pellets is of great importance for automatic production control. In this study multi-spectral image analysis of pellets was performed using LDA, QDA, SNV and PCA on pixel level and mean value of pixels...... for each pellet. Classication using LDA or QDA on pellet mean or median values showed better results than using the pixel values or PCA....

  15. Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheung Angela

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health Issue Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death in Canadian women and men. In general, women present with a wider range of symptoms, are more likely to delay seeking medial care and are less likely to be investigated and treated with evidence-based medications, angioplasty or coronary artery bypass graft than men. Key Findings In 1998, 78,964 Canadians died from CVD, almost half (39,197 were women. Acute myocardial infarction, which increases significantly after menopause, was the leading cause of death among women. Cardiovascular disease accounted for 21% of all hospital admissions for Canadian women over age 50 in 1999. Admissions to hospital for ischemic heart disease were more frequent for men, but the mean length of hospital stay was longer for women. Mean blood pressure increases with age in both men and women. After age 65, however, high blood pressure is more common among Canadian women. More than one-third of postmenopausal Canadian women have hypertension. Diabetes increases the mortality and morbidity associated with CVD in women more than it does in men. Depression also contributes to the incidence and recovery from CVD, particularly for women who experience twice the rate of depression as men. Data Gaps and Recommendations CVD needs to be recognized as a woman's health issue given Canadian mortality projections (particularly heart failure. Health professionals should be trained to screen, track, and address CVD risk factors among women, including hypertension, elevated lipid levels, smoking, physical inactivity, depression, diabetes and low socio-economic status.

  16. Image registration based on matrix perturbation analysis using spectral graph

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengcai Leng; Zheng Tian; Jing Li; Mingtao Ding

    2009-01-01

    @@ We present a novel perspective on characterizing the spectral correspondence between nodes of the weighted graph with application to image registration.It is based on matrix perturbation analysis on the spectral graph.The contribution may be divided into three parts.Firstly, the perturbation matrix is obtained by perturbing the matrix of graph model.Secondly, an orthogonal matrix is obtained based on an optimal parameter, which can better capture correspondence features.Thirdly, the optimal matching matrix is proposed by adjusting signs of orthogonal matrix for image registration.Experiments on both synthetic images and real-world images demonstrate the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method.

  17. Analysis of Multipath Pixels in SAR Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J. W.; Wu, J. C.; Ding, X. L.; Zhang, L.; Hu, F. M.

    2016-06-01

    As the received radar signal is the sum of signal contributions overlaid in one single pixel regardless of the travel path, the multipath effect should be seriously tackled as the multiple bounce returns are added to direct scatter echoes which leads to ghost scatters. Most of the existing solution towards the multipath is to recover the signal propagation path. To facilitate the signal propagation simulation process, plenty of aspects such as sensor parameters, the geometry of the objects (shape, location, orientation, mutual position between adjacent buildings) and the physical parameters of the surface (roughness, correlation length, permittivity)which determine the strength of radar signal backscattered to the SAR sensor should be given in previous. However, it's not practical to obtain the highly detailed object model in unfamiliar area by field survey as it's a laborious work and time-consuming. In this paper, SAR imaging simulation based on RaySAR is conducted at first aiming at basic understanding of multipath effects and for further comparison. Besides of the pre-imaging simulation, the product of the after-imaging, which refers to radar images is also taken into consideration. Both Cosmo-SkyMed ascending and descending SAR images of Lupu Bridge in Shanghai are used for the experiment. As a result, the reflectivity map and signal distribution map of different bounce level are simulated and validated by 3D real model. The statistic indexes such as the phase stability, mean amplitude, amplitude dispersion, coherence and mean-sigma ratio in case of layover are analyzed with combination of the RaySAR output.

  18. Automated fine structure image analysis method for discrimination of diabetic retinopathy stage using conjunctival microvasculature images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khansari, Maziyar M; O’Neill, William; Penn, Richard; Chau, Felix; Blair, Norman P; Shahidi, Mahnaz

    2016-01-01

    The conjunctiva is a densely vascularized mucus membrane covering the sclera of the eye with a unique advantage of accessibility for direct visualization and non-invasive imaging. The purpose of this study is to apply an automated quantitative method for discrimination of different stages of diabetic retinopathy (DR) using conjunctival microvasculature images. Fine structural analysis of conjunctival microvasculature images was performed by ordinary least square regression and Fisher linear discriminant analysis. Conjunctival images between groups of non-diabetic and diabetic subjects at different stages of DR were discriminated. The automated method’s discriminate rates were higher than those determined by human observers. The method allowed sensitive and rapid discrimination by assessment of conjunctival microvasculature images and can be potentially useful for DR screening and monitoring. PMID:27446692

  19. Chemical imaging and solid state analysis at compact surfaces using UV imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jian X.; Rehder, Sönke; van den Berg, Frans;

    2014-01-01

    Fast non-destructive multi-wavelength UV imaging together with multivariate image analysis was utilized to visualize distribution of chemical components and their solid state form at compact surfaces. Amorphous and crystalline solid forms of the antidiabetic compound glibenclamide, and...... excipients in a non-invasive way, as well as mapping the glibenclamide solid state form. An exploratory data analysis supported the critical evaluation of the mapping results and the selection of model parameters for the chemical mapping. The present study demonstrated that the multi-wavelength UV imaging is...... microcrystalline cellulose together with magnesium stearate as excipients were used as model materials in the compacts. The UV imaging based drug and excipient distribution was in good agreement with hyperspectral NIR imaging. The UV wavelength region can be utilized in distinguishing between glibenclamide and...

  20. The Role of DNA Methylation in Cardiovascular Risk and Disease: Methodological Aspects, Study Design, and Data Analysis for Epidemiological Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jia; Agha, Golareh; Baccarelli, Andrea A

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that genetic, environmental, behavioral, and clinical factors contribute to cardiovascular disease development. How these risk factors interact at the cellular level to cause cardiovascular disease is not well known. Epigenetic epidemiology enables researchers to explore critical links between genomic coding, modifiable exposures, and manifestation of disease phenotype. One epigenetic link, DNA methylation, is potentially an important mechanism underlying these associations. In the past decade, there has been a significant increase in the number of epidemiological studies investigating cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes in relation to DNA methylation, but many gaps remain in our understanding of the underlying cause and biological implications. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the biology and mechanisms of DNA methylation and its role in cardiovascular disease. In addition, we summarize the current evidence base in epigenetic epidemiology studies relevant to cardiovascular health and disease and discuss the limitations, challenges, and future directions of the field. Finally, we provide guidelines for well-designed epigenetic epidemiology studies, with particular focus on methodological aspects, study design, and analytical challenges. PMID:26837743

  1. Extended -Regular Sequence for Automated Analysis of Microarray Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hee-Jeong

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Microarray study enables us to obtain hundreds of thousands of expressions of genes or genotypes at once, and it is an indispensable technology for genome research. The first step is the analysis of scanned microarray images. This is the most important procedure for obtaining biologically reliable data. Currently most microarray image processing systems require burdensome manual block/spot indexing work. Since the amount of experimental data is increasing very quickly, automated microarray image analysis software becomes important. In this paper, we propose two automated methods for analyzing microarray images. First, we propose the extended -regular sequence to index blocks and spots, which enables a novel automatic gridding procedure. Second, we provide a methodology, hierarchical metagrid alignment, to allow reliable and efficient batch processing for a set of microarray images. Experimental results show that the proposed methods are more reliable and convenient than the commercial tools.

  2. Segmented infrared image analysis for rotating machinery fault diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Lixiang; Yao, Mingchao; Wang, Jinjiang; Bai, Tangbo; Zhang, Laibin

    2016-07-01

    As a noncontact and non-intrusive technique, infrared image analysis becomes promising for machinery defect diagnosis. However, the insignificant information and strong noise in infrared image limit its performance. To address this issue, this paper presents an image segmentation approach to enhance the feature extraction in infrared image analysis. A region selection criterion named dispersion degree is also formulated to discriminate fault representative regions from unrelated background information. Feature extraction and fusion methods are then applied to obtain features from selected regions for further diagnosis. Experimental studies on a rotor fault simulator demonstrate that the presented segmented feature enhancement approach outperforms the one from the original image using both Naïve Bayes classifier and support vector machine.

  3. Textural Analysis of Fatique Crack Surfaces: Image Pre-processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lauschmann

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available For the fatique crack history reconstitution, new methods of quantitative microfractography are beeing developed based on the image processing and textural analysis. SEM magnifications between micro- and macrofractography are used. Two image pre-processing operatins were suggested and proved to prepare the crack surface images for analytical treatment: 1. Normalization is used to transform the image to a stationary form. Compared to the generally used equalization, it conserves the shape of brightness distribution and saves the character of the texture. 2. Binarization is used to transform the grayscale image to a system of thick fibres. An objective criterion for the threshold brightness value was found as that resulting into the maximum number of objects. Both methods were succesfully applied together with the following textural analysis.

  4. Analysis and Management System of Digital Ultrasonic Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Qiang; ZHANG Hai-yan; LI Xia; WANG Ke

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis and management system of digital ultrasonic image. The system can manage medical ultrasonic image by collecting, saving and transferring, and realize that section offices of ultrasonic image in hospital network manage. The system use network technology in transferring image between ultrasonic equipments to share patient data in ultrasonic equipments. And doctors can input patient diagnostic report,saved by text file and case history, digitally managed. The system can be realized by Visual C++ which make windows applied. The system can be brought forward because PACS prevail with various hospitals,but PACS is expensive. In view of this status, we put forward to the analysis and management system of digital ultrasonic image,which is similar to PACS.

  5. Computerised image analysis of biocrystallograms originating from agricultural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens-Otto; Henriksen, Christian B.; Laursen, J.;

    1999-01-01

    procedures were applied to a so-called degradation series of 33 images, including seven groups representing discrete ‘treatment levels’. The biocrystallograms were produced over seven consecutive days, on the basis of a single carrot extract degrading while stored at 6°C. This degradation is known to induce...... on up to eight parameters indicated strong relationships, with R2 up to 0.98. It is concluded that the procedures were able to discriminate the seven groups of images, and are applicable for biocrystallization investigations of agricultural products. Perspectives for the application of image analysis......Procedures are presented for computerised image analysis of iocrystallogram images, originating from biocrystallization investigations of agricultural products. The biocrystallization method is based on the crystallographic phenomenon that when adding biological substances, such as plant extracts...

  6. Texture analysis on MRI images of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, L; Dastidar, P; Eskola, H; Järvenpää, R; Pertovaara, H; Luukkaala, T; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, P-L; Soimakallio, S

    2008-04-01

    The aim here is to show that texture parameters of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data changes in lymphoma tissue during chemotherapy. Ten patients having non-Hodgkin lymphoma masses in the abdomen were imaged for chemotherapy response evaluation three consecutive times. The analysis was performed with MaZda texture analysis (TA) application. The best discrimination in lymphoma MRI texture was obtained within T2-weighted images between the pre-treatment and the second response evaluation stage. TA proved to be a promising quantitative means of representing lymphoma tissue changes during medication follow-up. PMID:18342845

  7. The Land Analysis System (LAS) for multispectral image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton, S. W.; Lu, Y. C.; Quirk, Bruce K.; Oleson, Lyndon R.; Newcomer, J. A.; Irani, Frederick M.

    1988-01-01

    The Land Analysis System (LAS) is an interactive software system available in the public domain for the analysis, display, and management of multispectral and other digital image data. LAS provides over 240 applications functions and utilities, a flexible user interface, complete online and hard-copy documentation, extensive image-data file management, reformatting, conversion utilities, and high-level device independent access to image display hardware. The authors summarize the capabilities of the current release of LAS (version 4.0) and discuss plans for future development. Particular emphasis is given to the issue of system portability and the importance of removing and/or isolating hardware and software dependencies.

  8. Computer vision approaches to medical image analysis. Revised papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post proceedings of the international workshop Computer Vision Approaches to Medical Image Analysis, CVAMIA 2006, held in Graz, Austria in May 2006 as a satellite event of the 9th European Conference on Computer Vision, EECV 2006. The 10 revised full papers and 11 revised poster papers presented together with 1 invited talk were carefully reviewed and selected from 38 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on clinical applications, image registration, image segmentation and analysis, and the poster session. (orig.)

  9. VSG image processing and analysis (VSG IPA) toolbox

    OpenAIRE

    Whelan, Paul F.

    2013-01-01

    The VSG TOOLBOX is a free MATLAB compatible image processing and analysis toolbox which provides high level access to a wide range of image processing and analysis algorithms. This toolbox requires MathWorks' MATLAB 7.1 or later BUT DOES NOT REQUIRE the MathWorks' Image Processing Toolbox. This report outlines the mechanism by which you can interface MATLAB with the VSG IPA toolbox functions. This free software can be downloaded directly from: http://www.cipa.dcu.ie/code.html

  10. Analysis of an Image Secret Sharing Scheme to Identify Cheaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-San LEe

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Secret image sharing mechanisms have been widely applied to the military, e-commerce, and communications fields. Zhao et al. introduced the concept of cheater detection into image sharing schemes recently. This functionality enables the image owner and authorized members to identify the cheater in reconstructing the secret image. Here, we provide an analysis of Zhao et al.¡¦s method: an authorized participant is able to restore the secret image by him/herself. This contradicts the requirement of secret image sharing schemes. The authorized participant utilizes an exhaustive search to achieve the attempt, though, simulation results show that it can be done within a reasonable time period.

  11. Method for measuring anterior chamber volume by image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Gaoshou; Zhang, Junhong; Wang, Ruichang; Wang, Bingsong; Wang, Ningli

    2007-12-01

    Anterior chamber volume (ACV) is very important for an oculist to make rational pathological diagnosis as to patients who have some optic diseases such as glaucoma and etc., yet it is always difficult to be measured accurately. In this paper, a method is devised to measure anterior chamber volumes based on JPEG-formatted image files that have been transformed from medical images using the anterior-chamber optical coherence tomographer (AC-OCT) and corresponding image-processing software. The corresponding algorithms for image analysis and ACV calculation are implemented in VC++ and a series of anterior chamber images of typical patients are analyzed, while anterior chamber volumes are calculated and are verified that they are in accord with clinical observation. It shows that the measurement method is effective and feasible and it has potential to improve accuracy of ACV calculation. Meanwhile, some measures should be taken to simplify the handcraft preprocess working as to images.

  12. Marathon run: cardiovascular adaptation and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predel, Hans-Georg

    2014-11-21

    The first marathon run as an athletic event took place in the context of the Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens, Greece. Today, participation in a 'marathon run' has become a global phenomenon attracting young professional athletes as well as millions of mainly middle-aged amateur athletes worldwide each year. One of the main motives for these amateur marathon runners is the expectation that endurance exercise (EE) delivers profound beneficial health effects. However, with respect to the cardiovascular system, a controversial debate has emerged whether the marathon run itself is healthy or potentially harmful to the cardiovascular system, especially in middle-aged non-elite male amateur runners. In this cohort, exercise-induced increases in cardiac biomarkers-troponin and brain natriuretic peptide-and acute functional cardiac alterations have been observed and interpreted as potential cardiac damage. Furthermore, in the cohort of 40- to 65-year-old males engaged in intensive EE, a significant risk for the development of atrial fibrillation has been identified. Fortunately, recent studies demonstrated a normalization of the cardiac biomarkers and the functional alterations within a short time frame. Therefore, these alterations may be perceived as physiological myocardial reactions to the strenuous exercise and the term 'cardiac fatigue' has been coined. This interpretation is supported by a recent analysis of 10.9 million marathon runners demonstrating that there was no significantly increased overall risk of cardiac arrest during long-distance running races. In conclusion, intensive and long-lasting EE, e.g. running a full-distance Marathon, results in high cardiovascular strain whose clinical relevance especially for middle-aged and older athletes is unclear and remains a matter of controversy. Furthermore, there is a need for evidence-based recommendations with respect to medical screening and training strategies especially in male amateur runners over the age of

  13. Usefulness of imaging techniques and novel biomarkers in the prediction of cardiovascular risk in patients with chronic kidney disease in Spain: The NEFRONA project

    OpenAIRE

    Junyent, Mireia; Martínez Alonso, Montserrat; Borràs, Mercè; Betriu i Bars, M. Àngels; Coll,Blai; Craver Hospital, Lourdes; Marco Mayayo, M. Paz; Sarró, Felipe; Valdivielso Revilla, José Manuel; Fernández i Giráldez, Elvira

    2010-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Cardiovascular risk assessment in this population is hampered by the failure of traditional risk factors to fully account for the elevated CVD risk, mainly due to the reverse epidemiology effect, and the presence of risk factors specifically related to uraemia. Hereby, we present the protocol of a prospective study aimed to assess the ...

  14. Cardiac nonrigid motion analysis from image sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Huafeng

    2006-01-01

    Noninvasive estimation of the soft tissue kinematics properties from medical image sequences has many important clinical and physiological implications, such as the diagnosis of heart diseases and the understanding of cardiac mechanics. In this paper, we present a biomechanics based strategy, framed as a priori constraints for the ill-posed motion recovery problema, to realize estimation of the cardiac motion and deformation parameters. By constructing the heart dynamics system equations from biomechanics principles, we use the finite element method to generate smooth estimates.of heart kinematics throughout the cardiac cycle. We present the application of the strategy to the estimation of displacements and strains from in vivo left ventricular magnetic resonance image sequence.

  15. Wound Image Analysis Using Contour Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    K. Sundeep Kumar; B. Eswara Reddy

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the algorithm described in this paper is to segment wound images from the normal and classify them according to the types of the wound. The segmentation of wounds extravagates color representation, which has been followed by an algorithm of grayscale segmentation based on the stack mathematical approach. Accurate classification of wounds and analyzing wound healing process is a critical task for patient care and health cost reduction at hospital. The tissue uniformity and flatness ...

  16. Grid-enabling medical image analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Germain-Renaud, Cécile; Breton, Vincent; Clarysse, Patrick; Gaudeau, Yann; Glatard, Tristan; Jeannot, Emmanuel; Legre, Yannick; Loomis, Charles; Magnin, Isabelle; Montagnat, Johan; Moureaux, Jean-Marie; Osorio, Angel; Pennec, Xavier; Texier, Romain

    2005-01-01

    International audience Grids have emerged as a promising technology to handle the data and compute intensive requirements of many application areas. Digital medical image processing is a promising application area for grids. Given the volume of data, the sensitivity of medical information, and the joint complexity of medical datasets and computations expected in clinical practice, the challenge is to fill the gap between the grid middleware and the requirements of clinical applications. Th...

  17. Measurement and analysis of image sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitek, Stanislav

    2005-06-01

    For astronomical applications is necessary to have high precision in sensing and processing the image data. In this time are used the large CCD sensors from the various reasons. For the replacement of CCD sensors with CMOS sensing devices is important to know transfer characteristics of used CCD sensors. In the special applications like the robotic telescopes (fully automatic, without human interactions) seems to be good using of specially designed smart sensors, which have integrated more functions and have more features than CCDs.

  18. Spectral analysis of systemic and cerebral cardiovascular variabilities in preterm infants: relationship with clinical risk index for babies (CRIB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frequency spectrum analysis of circulatory signals has been proposed as a potential method for clinical risk assessment of preterm infants by previous studies. In this study, we examined the relationships between various spectral measures derived from systemic and cerebral cardiovascular variabilities and the clinical risk index for babies (CRIB II). Physiological data collected from 17 early low birth weight infants within 1–3 h after birth were analysed. Spectral and cross-spectral analyses were performed on heart rate variability, blood pressure variability and cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy measures such as oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobins (HbO2 and HHb) and tissue oxygenation index (TOI). In addition, indices related to cardiac baroreflex sensitivity and cerebral autoregulation were derived from the very low, low- and mid-frequency ranges (VLF, LF and MF). Moderate correlations with CRIB II were identified from mean arterial pressure (MAP) normalized MF power (r = 0.61, P = 0.009), LF MAP–HHb coherence (r = 0.64, P = 0.006), TOI VLF percentage power (r = 0.55, P = 0.023) and LF baroreflex gain (r = −0.61, P = 0.01 after logarithmic transformation), with the latter two parameters also highly correlated with gestational age (r = −0.75, P = 0.0005 and r = 0.70, P = 0.002, respectively). The relationships between CRIB II and various spectral measures of arterial baroreflex and cerebral autoregulation functions have provided further justification for these measures as possible markers of clinical risks and predictors of adverse outcome in preterm infants

  19. Comparative study on individual aromatase inhibitors on cardiovascular safety profile: a network meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao XH

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Xihe Zhao,1 Lei Liu,2 Kai Li,1 Wusheng Li,1 Li Zhao,1 Huawei Zou1 1Department of Oncology, 2Department of General Surgery, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs: anastrozole, letrozole, and exemestane have now become standard adjuvant endocrine treatment for postmenopausal estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer complementing chemotherapy and surgery. Because of the absence of direct head-to-head comparisons of these AIs, an indirect comparison is needed for individual treatment choice. In this network systemic assessment, the cardiovascular (CV side effects in using anastrozole, letrozole, and exemestane based on original studies on AIs vs placebo or tamoxifen were compared. We integrated all available direct and indirect evidences. The odds ratio (OR of severe CV events for indirect comparisons between exemestane and anastrozole was 1.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] =0.49–2.78, letrozole and anastrozole was 1.80 (95% CI =0.40–3.92, and letrozole and exemestane was 1.46 (95% CI =0.34–3.4. OR of subgroup risk for AIs and tamoxifen were all >1 except for thrombolism risk subgroup. The results showed that the total and severe CV risk ranking is letrozole, exemestane, and anastrozole in descending order. None of the AIs showed advantages in CV events than tamoxifen except for thromboembolism event incidence. Keywords: CV risk, breast cancer, AI, network meta-analysis

  20. Seismoelectric beamforming imaging: a sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khoury, P.; Revil, A.; Sava, P.

    2015-06-01

    The electrical current density generated by the propagation of a seismic wave at the interface characterized by a drop in electrical, hydraulic or mechanical properties produces an electrical field of electrokinetic nature. This field can be measured remotely with a signal-to-noise ratio depending on the background noise and signal attenuation. The seismoelectric beamforming approach is an emerging imaging technique based on scanning a porous material using appropriately delayed seismic sources. The idea is to focus the hydromechanical energy on a regular spatial grid and measure the converted electric field remotely at each focus time. This method can be used to image heterogeneities with a high definition and to provide structural information to classical geophysical methods. A numerical experiment is performed to investigate the resolution of the seismoelectric beamforming approach with respect to the main wavelength of the seismic waves. The 2-D model consists of a fictitious water-filled bucket in which a cylindrical sandstone core sample is set up vertically. The hydrophones/seismic sources are located on a 50-cm diameter circle in the bucket and the seismic energy is focused on the grid points in order to scan the medium and determine the geometry of the porous plug using the output electric potential image. We observe that the resolution of the method is given by a density of eight scanning points per wavelength. Additional numerical tests were also performed to see the impact of a wrong velocity model upon the seismoelectric map displaying the heterogeneities of the material.

  1. Aspirin effect on the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghali William A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aspirin has been recommended for the prevention of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE, composite of non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, and cardiovascular death in diabetic patients without previous cardiovascular disease. However, recent meta-analyses have prompted re-evaluation of this practice. The study objective was to evaluate the relative and absolute benefits and harms of aspirin for the prevention of incident MACE in patients with diabetes. Methods We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis on seven studies (N = 11,618 reporting on the use of aspirin for the primary prevention of MACE in patients with diabetes. Two reviewers conducted a systematic search of electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and BIOSIS and hand searched bibliographies and clinical trial registries. Reviewers extracted data in duplicate, evaluated the quality of the trials, and calculated pooled estimates. Results A total of 11,618 participants were included in the analysis. The overall risk ratio (RR for MACE was 0.91 (95% confidence intervals, CI, 0.82-1.00 with little heterogeneity among trials (I2 0.0%. Secondary outcomes of interest included myocardial infarction (RR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.66-1.10, stroke (RR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.64-1.11, cardiovascular death (RR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.71-1.27, and all-cause mortality (RR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.85-1.06. There were higher rates of hemorrhagic and gastrointestinal events. In absolute terms, these relative risks indicate that for every 10,000 diabetic patients treated with aspirin, 109 MACE may be prevented at the expense of 19 major bleeding events (with the caveat that the relative risk for the latter is not statistically significant. Conclusions The studies reviewed suggest that aspirin reduces the risk of MACE in patients with diabetes without cardiovascular disease, while also causing a trend toward higher rates of bleeding and gastrointestinal complications

  2. An approach for quantitative image quality analysis for CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Amir; Cochran, Joe; Mooney, Doug; Regensburger, Joe

    2016-03-01

    An objective and standardized approach to assess image quality of Compute Tomography (CT) systems is required in a wide variety of imaging processes to identify CT systems appropriate for a given application. We present an overview of the framework we have developed to help standardize and to objectively assess CT image quality for different models of CT scanners used for security applications. Within this framework, we have developed methods to quantitatively measure metrics that should correlate with feature identification, detection accuracy and precision, and image registration capabilities of CT machines and to identify strengths and weaknesses in different CT imaging technologies in transportation security. To that end we have designed, developed and constructed phantoms that allow for systematic and repeatable measurements of roughly 88 image quality metrics, representing modulation transfer function, noise equivalent quanta, noise power spectra, slice sensitivity profiles, streak artifacts, CT number uniformity, CT number consistency, object length accuracy, CT number path length consistency, and object registration. Furthermore, we have developed a sophisticated MATLAB based image analysis tool kit to analyze CT generated images of phantoms and report these metrics in a format that is standardized across the considered models of CT scanners, allowing for comparative image quality analysis within a CT model or between different CT models. In addition, we have developed a modified sparse principal component analysis (SPCA) method to generate a modified set of PCA components as compared to the standard principal component analysis (PCA) with sparse loadings in conjunction with Hotelling T2 statistical analysis method to compare, qualify, and detect faults in the tested systems.

  3. Automated image analysis of atomic force microscopy images of rotavirus particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkataraman, S. [Life Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Allison, D.P. [Life Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Department of Biochemistry, Cellular, and Molecular Biology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Molecular Imaging Inc. Tempe, AZ, 85282 (United States); Qi, H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Morrell-Falvey, J.L. [Life Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Kallewaard, N.L. [Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232-2905 (United States); Crowe, J.E. [Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232-2905 (United States); Doktycz, M.J. [Life Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)]. E-mail: doktyczmj@ornl.gov

    2006-06-15

    A variety of biological samples can be imaged by the atomic force microscope (AFM) under environments that range from vacuum to ambient to liquid. Generally imaging is pursued to evaluate structural features of the sample or perhaps identify some structural changes in the sample that are induced by the investigator. In many cases, AFM images of sample features and induced structural changes are interpreted in general qualitative terms such as markedly smaller or larger, rougher, highly irregular, or smooth. Various manual tools can be used to analyze images and extract more quantitative data, but this is usually a cumbersome process. To facilitate quantitative AFM imaging, automated image analysis routines are being developed. Viral particles imaged in water were used as a test case to develop an algorithm that automatically extracts average dimensional information from a large set of individual particles. The extracted information allows statistical analyses of the dimensional characteristics of the particles and facilitates interpretation related to the binding of the particles to the surface. This algorithm is being extended for analysis of other biological samples and physical objects that are imaged by AFM.

  4. Analysis of pregerminated barley using hyperspectral image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arngren, Morten; Hansen, Per Waaben; Eriksen, Birger; Larsen, Jan; Larsen, Rasmus

    2011-11-01

    Pregermination is one of many serious degradations to barley when used for malting. A pregerminated barley kernel can under certain conditions not regerminate and is reduced to animal feed of lower quality. Identifying pregermination at an early stage is therefore essential in order to segregate the barley kernels into low or high quality. Current standard methods to quantify pregerminated barley include visual approaches, e.g. to identify the root sprout, or using an embryo staining method, which use a time-consuming procedure. We present an approach using a near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging system in a mathematical modeling framework to identify pregerminated barley at an early stage of approximately 12 h of pregermination. Our model only assigns pregermination as the cause for a single kernel's lack of germination and is unable to identify dormancy, kernel damage etc. The analysis is based on more than 750 Rosalina barley kernels being pregerminated at 8 different durations between 0 and 60 h based on the BRF method. Regerminating the kernels reveals a grouping of the pregerminated kernels into three categories: normal, delayed and limited germination. Our model employs a supervised classification framework based on a set of extracted features insensitive to the kernel orientation. An out-of-sample classification error of 32% (CI(95%): 29-35%) is obtained for single kernels when grouped into the three categories, and an error of 3% (CI(95%): 0-15%) is achieved on a bulk kernel level. The model provides class probabilities for each kernel, which can assist in achieving homogeneous germination profiles. This research can further be developed to establish an automated and faster procedure as an alternative to the standard procedures for pregerminated barley. PMID:21932866

  5. Enhanced bone structural analysis through pQCT image preprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervinka, T; Hyttinen, J; Sievanen, H

    2010-05-01

    Several factors, including preprocessing of the image, can affect the reliability of pQCT-measured bone traits, such as cortical area and trabecular density. Using repeated scans of four different liquid phantoms and repeated in vivo scans of distal tibiae from 25 subjects, the performance of two novel preprocessing methods, based on the down-sampling of grayscale intensity histogram and the statistical approximation of image data, was compared to 3 x 3 and 5 x 5 median filtering. According to phantom measurements, the signal to noise ratio in the raw pQCT images (XCT 3000) was low ( approximately 20dB) which posed a challenge for preprocessing. Concerning the cortical analysis, the reliability coefficient (R) was 67% for the raw image and increased to 94-97% after preprocessing without apparent preference for any method. Concerning the trabecular density, the R-values were already high ( approximately 99%) in the raw images leaving virtually no room for improvement. However, some coarse structural patterns could be seen in the preprocessed images in contrast to a disperse distribution of density levels in the raw image. In conclusion, preprocessing cannot suppress the high noise level to the extent that the analysis of mean trabecular density is essentially improved, whereas preprocessing can enhance cortical bone analysis and also facilitate coarse structural analyses of the trabecular region.

  6. The Spectral Image Processing System (SIPS) - Interactive visualization and analysis of imaging spectrometer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, F. A.; Lefkoff, A. B.; Boardman, J. W.; Heidebrecht, K. B.; Shapiro, A. T.; Barloon, P. J.; Goetz, A. F. H.

    1993-01-01

    The Center for the Study of Earth from Space (CSES) at the University of Colorado, Boulder, has developed a prototype interactive software system called the Spectral Image Processing System (SIPS) using IDL (the Interactive Data Language) on UNIX-based workstations. SIPS is designed to take advantage of the combination of high spectral resolution and spatial data presentation unique to imaging spectrometers. It streamlines analysis of these data by allowing scientists to rapidly interact with entire datasets. SIPS provides visualization tools for rapid exploratory analysis and numerical tools for quantitative modeling. The user interface is X-Windows-based, user friendly, and provides 'point and click' operation. SIPS is being used for multidisciplinary research concentrating on use of physically based analysis methods to enhance scientific results from imaging spectrometer data. The objective of this continuing effort is to develop operational techniques for quantitative analysis of imaging spectrometer data and to make them available to the scientific community prior to the launch of imaging spectrometer satellite systems such as the Earth Observing System (EOS) High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (HIRIS).

  7. Dark blood versus bright blood T2* acquisition in cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) for thalassaemia major (TM) patients: Evaluation of feasibility, reproducibility and image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To compare the effectiveness of dark blood (DB) versus bright blood (BB) sequences. To assess the intra and inter-observer variability and inter-study reproducibility between BB versus DB. To evaluate image quality level in the two sequences. Methods: In a setting of 138 patients we performed CMR using cardiac gated Gradient-multiecho single breath-hold BB and DB sequences in the middle ventricular septum. Each acquisition was repeated during the same exam. Truncation method was used to account for background noise. Image quality (IQ) was assessed using a 5 point grading scale and image analysis was conducted by 2 experienced observers. Results: Compared with the conventional BB acquisition, the coefficient of correlation and significance of the DB technique was superior for intra-observer reproducibility (p < 0.001), inter-observer reproducibility (p < 0.001) and inter-study reproducibility (p < 0.001). The variability is also lower for DB sequences for T2* values <14 ms. Assessment of artifacts showed a superior score for DB versus BB scans (4 versus 3, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Improvement in terms of inter observer and inter study variability using DB sequences was obtained. The greatest disparity between them was seen in inter-study reproducibility and higher IQ in DB was seen. Study demonstrates better performance of DB imaging compared to BB in presence of comparable effectiveness

  8. Dark blood versus bright blood T2* acquisition in cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) for thalassaemia major (TM) patients: Evaluation of feasibility, reproducibility and image quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liguori, Carlo, E-mail: c.liguori@unicampus.it [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Campus Bio Medico University, via Alvaro del Portillo 200, 00128 Rome (Italy); Di Giampietro, Ilenia; Pitocco, Francesca; De Vivo, Aldo Eros [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Campus Bio Medico University, via Alvaro del Portillo 200, 00128 Rome (Italy); Schena, Emiliano [Unit of Measurements and Biomedical Instrumentation, Campus Bio Medico University, via Alvaro del Portillo 200, 00128 Rome (Italy); Mortato, Luca [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Campus Bio Medico University, via Alvaro del Portillo 200, 00128 Rome (Italy); Pirro, Federica [Department of Biomaging and Radiological Sciences, Catholic University of Sacred Herart, Largo A. Gemelli 1, 00135 Rome (Italy); Cianciulli, Paolo [Thalassemia Unit, Ospedale Sant Eugenio, Piazzale dell’Umanesimo 10, 00143 Rome (Italy); Zobel, Bruno Beomonte [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Campus Bio Medico University, via Alvaro del Portillo 200, 00128 Rome (Italy)

    2014-01-15

    Objectives: To compare the effectiveness of dark blood (DB) versus bright blood (BB) sequences. To assess the intra and inter-observer variability and inter-study reproducibility between BB versus DB. To evaluate image quality level in the two sequences. Methods: In a setting of 138 patients we performed CMR using cardiac gated Gradient-multiecho single breath-hold BB and DB sequences in the middle ventricular septum. Each acquisition was repeated during the same exam. Truncation method was used to account for background noise. Image quality (IQ) was assessed using a 5 point grading scale and image analysis was conducted by 2 experienced observers. Results: Compared with the conventional BB acquisition, the coefficient of correlation and significance of the DB technique was superior for intra-observer reproducibility (p < 0.001), inter-observer reproducibility (p < 0.001) and inter-study reproducibility (p < 0.001). The variability is also lower for DB sequences for T2* values <14 ms. Assessment of artifacts showed a superior score for DB versus BB scans (4 versus 3, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Improvement in terms of inter observer and inter study variability using DB sequences was obtained. The greatest disparity between them was seen in inter-study reproducibility and higher IQ in DB was seen. Study demonstrates better performance of DB imaging compared to BB in presence of comparable effectiveness.

  9. Image analysis for remote examination of fuel pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An image analysis system operating in the Wing 9 Hot Cell Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory provides quantitative microstructural analyses of irradiated fuels and materials. With this system, fewer photomicrographs are required during postirradiation microstructural examination and data are available for analysis much faster. The system has been used successfully to examine Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division experimental fuel pins

  10. Towards large-scale histopathological image analysis: hashing-based image retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofan; Liu, Wei; Dundar, Murat; Badve, Sunil; Zhang, Shaoting

    2015-02-01

    Automatic analysis of histopathological images has been widely utilized leveraging computational image-processing methods and modern machine learning techniques. Both computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) and content-based image-retrieval (CBIR) systems have been successfully developed for diagnosis, disease detection, and decision support in this area. Recently, with the ever-increasing amount of annotated medical data, large-scale and data-driven methods have emerged to offer a promise of bridging the semantic gap between images and diagnostic information. In this paper, we focus on developing scalable image-retrieval techniques to cope intelligently with massive histopathological images. Specifically, we present a supervised kernel hashing technique which leverages a small amount of supervised information in learning to compress a 10 000-dimensional image feature vector into only tens of binary bits with the informative signatures preserved. These binary codes are then indexed into a hash table that enables real-time retrieval of images in a large database. Critically, the supervised information is employed to bridge the semantic gap between low-level image features and high-level diagnostic information. We build a scalable image-retrieval framework based on the supervised hashing technique and validate its performance on several thousand histopathological images acquired from breast microscopic tissues. Extensive evaluations are carried out in terms of image classification (i.e., benign versus actionable categorization) and retrieval tests. Our framework achieves about 88.1% classification accuracy as well as promising time efficiency. For example, the framework can execute around 800 queries in only 0.01 s, comparing favorably with other commonly used dimensionality reduction and feature selection methods. PMID:25314696

  11. Advanced Color Image Processing and Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This volume does much more than survey modern advanced color processing. Starting with a historical perspective on ways we have classified color, it sets out the latest numerical techniques for analyzing and processing colors, the leading edge in our search to accurately record and print what we see. The human eye perceives only a fraction of available light wavelengths, yet we live in a multicolor world of myriad shining hues. Colors rich in metaphorical associations make us “purple with rage” or “green with envy” and cause us to “see red.” Defining colors has been the work of centuries, culminating in today’s complex mathematical coding that nonetheless remains a work in progress: only recently have we possessed the computing capacity to process the algebraic matrices that reproduce color more accurately. With chapters on dihedral color and image spectrometers, this book provides technicians and researchers with the knowledge they need to grasp the intricacies of today’s color imaging.

  12. Quantitative analysis of in vivo confocal microscopy images: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dipika V; McGhee, Charles N

    2013-01-01

    In vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) is a non-invasive method of examining the living human cornea. The recent trend towards quantitative studies using IVCM has led to the development of a variety of methods for quantifying image parameters. When selecting IVCM images for quantitative analysis, it is important to be consistent regarding the location, depth, and quality of images. All images should be de-identified, randomized, and calibrated prior to analysis. Numerous image analysis software are available, each with their own advantages and disadvantages. Criteria for analyzing corneal epithelium, sub-basal nerves, keratocytes, endothelium, and immune/inflammatory cells have been developed, although there is inconsistency among research groups regarding parameter definition. The quantification of stromal nerve parameters, however, remains a challenge. Most studies report lower inter-observer repeatability compared with intra-observer repeatability, and observer experience is known to be an important factor. Standardization of IVCM image analysis through the use of a reading center would be crucial for any future large, multi-centre clinical trials using IVCM.

  13. Genetic analysis of the cardiac methylome at single nucleotide resolution in a model of human cardiovascular disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle D Johnson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic marks such as cytosine methylation are important determinants of cellular and whole-body phenotypes. However, the extent of, and reasons for inter-individual differences in cytosine methylation, and their association with phenotypic variation are poorly characterised. Here we present the first genome-wide study of cytosine methylation at single-nucleotide resolution in an animal model of human disease. We used whole-genome bisulfite sequencing in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR, a model of cardiovascular disease, and the Brown Norway (BN control strain, to define the genetic architecture of cytosine methylation in the mammalian heart and to test for association between methylation and pathophysiological phenotypes. Analysis of 10.6 million CpG dinucleotides identified 77,088 CpGs that were differentially methylated between the strains. In F1 hybrids we found 38,152 CpGs showing allele-specific methylation and 145 regions with parent-of-origin effects on methylation. Cis-linkage explained almost 60% of inter-strain variation in methylation at a subset of loci tested for linkage in a panel of recombinant inbred (RI strains. Methylation analysis in isolated cardiomyocytes showed that in the majority of cases methylation differences in cardiomyocytes and non-cardiomyocytes were strain-dependent, confirming a strong genetic component for cytosine methylation. We observed preferential nucleotide usage associated with increased and decreased methylation that is remarkably conserved across species, suggesting a common mechanism for germline control of inter-individual variation in CpG methylation. In the RI strain panel, we found significant correlation of CpG methylation and levels of serum chromogranin B (CgB, a proposed biomarker of heart failure, which is evidence for a link between germline DNA sequence variation, CpG methylation differences and pathophysiological phenotypes in the SHR strain. Together, these results will

  14. Analysis of Fast- ICA Algorithm for Separation of Mixed Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmay Awasthy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Independent component analysis (ICA is a newly developed method in which the aim is to find a linear representation of nongaussian statistics so that the components are statistically independent, or as independent as possible. Such techniques are actively being used in study of both statistical image processing and unsupervised neural learning application. This paper represents the Fast Independent component analysis algorithm for separation of mixed images. To solve the blind signal separation problems Independent component analysis approach used statistical independence of the source signals. This paper focuses on the theory and methods of ICA in contrast to classical transformations along with the applications of this method to blind source separation .For an illustration of the algorithm, visualized the immixing process with a set of images has been done. To express the results of our analysis simulations have been presented.

  15. NEPR Principle Component Analysis - NOAA TIFF Image

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GeoTiff is a representation of seafloor topography in Northeast Puerto Rico derived from a bathymetry model with a principle component analysis (PCA). The area...

  16. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Screening for and Managing Identified Hypertension for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Thi-Phuong-Lan; Wright, E Pamela; Nguyen, Thanh-Trung; Schuiling-Veninga, C C M; Bijlsma, M J; Nguyen, Thi-Bach-Yen; Postma, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To inform development of guidelines for hypertension management in Vietnam, we evaluated the cost-effectiveness of different strategies on screening for hypertension in preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS: A decision tree was combined with a Markov model to measure incrementa

  17. Blood pressure-lowering treatment based on cardiovascular risk : a meta-analysis of individual patient data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sundström, Johan; Arima, Hisatomi; Woodward, Mark; Jackson, Rod; Karmali, Kunal; Lloyd-Jones, Donald; Baigent, Colin; Emberson, Jonathan; Rahimi, Kazem; MacMahon, Stephen; Patel, Anushka; Perkovic, Vlado; Turnbull, Fiona; Neal, Bruce; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate whether the benefits of blood pressure-lowering drugs are proportional to baseline cardiovascular risk, to establish whether absolute risk could be used to inform treatment decisions for blood pressure-lowering therapy, as is recommended for lipid-lowering therapy

  18. Hyperuricaemia: a marker of increased cardiovascular risk in rheumatic patients: analysis of the ACT-CVD cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, I.L.; Vonkeman, H.E.; Laar, M.A. van der

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gout and hyperuricaemia may be associated with increased cardiovascular risk, but analyses in different populations show conflicting results. This study investigates the impact of serum uric acid, inflammation and traditional CV risk parameters on CV event risk in patients with gouty art

  19. A Path Analysis of a Randomized "Promotora de Salud" Cardiovascular Disease-Prevention Trial among At-Risk Hispanic Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heer, Hendrik Dirk; Balcazar, Hector G.; Castro, Felipe; Schulz, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed effectiveness of an educational community intervention taught by "promotoras de salud" in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among Hispanics using a structural equation modeling (SEM) approach. Model development was guided by a social ecological framework proposing CVD risk reduction through improvement of protective…

  20. Deep Learning for Intelligent Substation Device Infrared Fault Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Ying

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As an important kind of data for device status evaluation, the increasing infrared image data in electrical system puts forward a new challenge to traditional manually processing mode. To overcome this problem, this paper proposes a feasible way to automatically process massive infrared fault images. We take advantage of the imaging characteristics of infrared fault images and detect fault regions together with its belonging device part by our proposed algorithm, which first segment images into superpixels, and then adopt the state-of-the-art convolutional and recursive neural network for intelligent object recognition. In the experiment, we compare several unsupervised pre-training methods considering the importance of a pre-train procedure, and discuss the proper parameters for the proposed network. The experimental results show the good performance of our algorithm, and its efficiency for infrared analysis.