Sample records for cardiovascular image analysis

  1. Automated image analysis techniques for cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geest, Robertus Jacobus van der


    The introductory chapter provides an overview of various aspects related to quantitative analysis of cardiovascular MR (CMR) imaging studies. Subsequently, the thesis describes several automated methods for quantitative assessment of left ventricular function from CMR imaging studies. Several novel

  2. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging (United States)

    Pelc, Norbert


    Cardiovascular diseases are a major source of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Early detection of disease can often be used to improved outcomes, either through direct interventions (e.g. surgical corrections) or by causing the patient to modify his or her behavior (e.g. smoking cessation or dietary changes). Ideally, the detection process should be noninvasive (i.e. it should not be associated with significant risk). Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) refers to the formation of images by localizing NMR signals, typically from protons in the body. As in other applications of NMR, a homogeneous static magnetic field ( ~0.5 to 4 T) is used to create ``longitudinal" magnetization. A magnetic field rotating at the Larmor frequency (proportional to the static field) excites spins, converting longitudinal magnetization to ``transverse" magnetization and generating a signal. Localization is performed using pulsed gradients in the static field. MRI can produce images of 2-D slices, 3-D volumes, time-resolved images of pseudo-periodic phenomena such as heart function, and even real-time imaging. It is also possible to acquire spatially localized NMR spectra. MRI has a number of advantages, but perhaps the most fundamental is the richness of the contrast mechanisms. Tissues can be differentiated by differences in proton density, NMR properties, and even flow or motion. We also have the ability to introduce substances that alter NMR signals. These contrast agents can be used to enhance vascular structures and measure perfusion. Cardiovascular MRI allows the reliable diagnosis of important conditions. It is possible to image the blood vessel tree, quantitate flow and perfusion, and image cardiac contraction. Fundamentally, the power of MRI as a diagnostic tool stems from the richness of the contrast mechanisms and the flexibility in control of imaging parameters.

  3. Imaging-documented cardiovascular signal database for assessing methods for ischaemia analysis. (United States)

    Taddei, A; Emdin, M; Varanini, M; Nassi, G; Bertinelli, M; Picano, E; Marchesi, C


    A new database of cardiovascular signals has recently been developed at the CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology in a study based on patients admitted to the Coronary Care Unit for suspected ischaemic heart disease (IHD), who underwent both ECG effort stress test and echo or radionuclide diagnostic imaging procedures associated with pharmacological test of myocardial ischaemia. During stress testing, in addition to 12-lead ECG, arterial blood pressure and respiration signals are measured non-invasively and recorded. Signals and representative image frames at baseline and during ischaemia are stored in the database, which is planned to include 50 cases, annotated beat by beat and archived on CD-ROM. Each case also contains resting ECG and a comprehensive patient clinical record; if possible Holter ECG and coronary arteriography frames.

  4. Cardiovascular molecular imaging of apoptosis

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    Wolters, S.L.; Reutelingsperger, C.P.M. [Maastricht University, Department of Biochemistry, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands); Corsten, M.F.; Hofstra, L. [Maastricht University, Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, P.O. Box 616, Maastricht (Netherlands); Narula, J. [University of California Irvine, Department of Cardiology, Irvine (United States)


    Molecular imaging strives to visualise processes at the molecular and cellular level in vivo. Understanding these processes supports diagnosis and evaluation of therapeutic efficacy on an individual basis and thereby makes personalised medicine possible. Apoptosis is a well-organised mode of cell suicide that plays a role in cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Apoptosis is associated with loss of cardiomyocytes following myocardial infarction, atherosclerotic plaque instability, congestive heart failure and allograft rejection of the transplanted heart. Thus, apoptosis constitutes an attractive target for molecular imaging of CVD. Our current knowledge about the molecular players and mechanisms underlying apoptosis offers a rich palette of potential molecular targets for molecular imaging. However, only a few have been successfully developed so far. This review highlights aspects of the molecular machinery and biochemistry of apoptosis relevant to the development of molecular imaging probes. It surveys the role of apoptosis in four major areas of CVD and portrays the importance and future perspectives of apoptosis imaging. The annexin A5 imaging protocol is emphasised since it is the most advanced protocol to measure apoptosis in both preclinical and clinical studies. (orig.)

  5. MACD: an imaging marker for cardiovascular disease (United States)

    Ganz, Melanie; de Bruijne, Marleen; Nielsen, Mads


    Despite general acceptance that a healthy lifestyle and the treatment of risk factors can prevent the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), CVD are the most common cause of death in Europe and the United States. It has been shown that abdominal aortic calcifications (AAC) correlate strongly with coronary artery calcifications. Hence an early detection of aortic calcified plaques helps to predict the risk of related coronary diseases. Also since two thirds of the adverse events have no prior symptoms, possibilities to screen for risk in low cost imaging are important. To this end the Morphological Atherosclerotic Calcification Distribution (MACD) index was developed. In the following several potential severity scores relating to the geometrical outline of the calcified deposits in the lumbar aortic region are introduced. Their individual as well as their combined predictive power is examined and a combined marker, MACD, is constructed. This is done using a Cox regression analysis, also known as survival analysis. Furthermore we show how a Cox regression yields MACD to be the most efficient marker. We also demonstrate that MACD has a larger individual predictive power than any of the other individual imaging markers described. Finally we present that the MACD index predicts cardiovascular death with a hazard ratio of approximately four.

  6. Investigating Cardiac Motion Patterns Using Synthetic High-Resolution 3D Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Images and Statistical Shape Analysis (United States)

    Biffi, Benedetta; Bruse, Jan L.; Zuluaga, Maria A.; Ntsinjana, Hopewell N.; Taylor, Andrew M.; Schievano, Silvia


    Diagnosis of ventricular dysfunction in congenital heart disease is more and more based on medical imaging, which allows investigation of abnormal cardiac morphology and correlated abnormal function. Although analysis of 2D images represents the clinical standard, novel tools performing automatic processing of 3D images are becoming available, providing more detailed and comprehensive information than simple 2D morphometry. Among these, statistical shape analysis (SSA) allows a consistent and quantitative description of a population of complex shapes, as a way to detect novel biomarkers, ultimately improving diagnosis and pathology understanding. The aim of this study is to describe the implementation of a SSA method for the investigation of 3D left ventricular shape and motion patterns and to test it on a small sample of 4 congenital repaired aortic stenosis patients and 4 age-matched healthy volunteers to demonstrate its potential. The advantage of this method is the capability of analyzing subject-specific motion patterns separately from the individual morphology, visually and quantitatively, as a way to identify functional abnormalities related to both dynamics and shape. Specifically, we combined 3D, high-resolution whole heart data with 2D, temporal information provided by cine cardiovascular magnetic resonance images, and we used an SSA approach to analyze 3D motion per se. Preliminary results of this pilot study showed that using this method, some differences in end-diastolic and end-systolic ventricular shapes could be captured, but it was not possible to clearly separate the two cohorts based on shape information alone. However, further analyses on ventricular motion allowed to qualitatively identify differences between the two populations. Moreover, by describing shape and motion with a small number of principal components, this method offers a fully automated process to obtain visually intuitive and numerical information on cardiac shape and motion

  7. Clinical applications of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

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    Marcu, C.B.; Beek, A.M.; Van Rossum, A.C. [Hospital of Saint Raphael, Cardiac Diagnostic Unit, New Haven, CT (United States)], E-mail:


    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has evolved from an effective research tool into a clinically proven, safe and comprehensive imaging modality. It provides anatomic and functional information in acquired and congenital heart disease and is the most precise technique for quantification of ventricular volumes, function and mass. Owing to its excellent interstudy reproducibility, cardiovascular MRI is the optimal method for assessment of changes in ventricular parameters after therapeutic intervention. Delayed contrast enhancement is an accurate and robust method used in the diagnosis of ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathies and less common diseases, such as cardiac sarcoidosis and myocarditis. First-pass magnetic contrast myocardial perfusion is becoming an alternative to radionuclide techniques for the detection of coronary atherosclerotic disease. In this review we outline the techniques used in cardiovascular MRI and discuss the most common clinical applications. (author)

  8. The clinical impact of late gadolinium enhancement in Takotsubo cardiomyopathy: serial analysis of cardiovascular magnetic resonance images

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    Katoh Hideki


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our study aimed to investigate both the clinical implications of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR and the relation of LGE to clinical findings in patients with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC. Methods We evaluated 20 consecutive patients (2 men, 18 women; median age, 77 years; interquartile range [IQR] 67-82 years who were admitted to our hospital with the diagnosis of TTC. CMR was performed within 1 week after admission, and follow-up studies were conducted 1.5 and 6 months later. Results In 8 patients, CMR imaging during the sub-acute phase revealed LGE in the area matched with wall motion impairment. Cardiogenic shock was more frequently observed in patients with LGE than in those without LGE (38% vs 0%, p = 0.049. The patients with LGE needed a longer duration for ECG normalization and recovery of wall motion than did those without LGE (median 205 days, IQR [152-363] vs 68 days, [43-145], p = 0.005; 15 days, [10-185] vs 7 days, [4-13], p = 0.030, respectively. In 5 of these 8 patients, LGE disappeared within 45-180 days (170, IQR [56-180] of onset. The patients with LGE remaining in the chronic phase had higher peak creatine kinase levels than did those without LGE (median 307 IU/L, IQR [264-460] vs 202 IU/L, [120-218], p = 0.017. Conclusion LGE by CMR in the sub-acute phase may be associated with the severity and prolonged recovery to normal of clinical findings in TTC.

  9. SQL based cardiovascular ultrasound image classification. (United States)

    Nandagopalan, S; Suryanarayana, Adiga B; Sudarshan, T S B; Chandrashekar, Dhanalakshmi; Manjunath, C N


    This paper proposes a novel method to analyze and classify the cardiovascular ultrasound echocardiographic images using Naïve-Bayesian model via database OLAP-SQL. Efficient data mining algorithms based on tightly-coupled model is used to extract features. Three algorithms are proposed for classification namely Naïve-Bayesian Classifier for Discrete variables (NBCD) with SQL, NBCD with OLAP-SQL, and Naïve-Bayesian Classifier for Continuous variables (NBCC) using OLAP-SQL. The proposed model is trained with 207 patient images containing normal and abnormal categories. Out of the three proposed algorithms, a high classification accuracy of 96.59% was achieved from NBCC which is better than the earlier methods.

  10. Non-cardiovascular findings in clinical cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in children

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    Ghadimi Mahani, Maryam [University of Michigan Health System, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Morani, Ajaykumar C. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Lu, Jimmy C.; Dorfman, Adam L. [University of Michigan Health System, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Fazeli Dehkordy, Soudabeh [University of Michigan Health System, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Providence Hospital and Medical Centers, Department of Graduate Medical Education, Southfield, MI (United States); Jeph, Sunil [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Geisinger Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Danville, PA (United States); Agarwal, Prachi P. [University of Michigan Health System, Department of Radiology, Division of Cardiothoracic Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)


    With increasing use of pediatric cardiovascular MRI, it is important for all imagers to become familiar with the spectrum of non-cardiovascular imaging findings that can be encountered. This study aims to ascertain the prevalence and nature of these findings in pediatric cardiovascular MRIs performed at our institution. We retrospectively evaluated reports of all cardiovascular MRI studies performed at our institute from January 2008 to October 2012 in patients younger than18 years. Most studies (98%) were jointly interpreted by a pediatric cardiologist and a radiologist. We reviewed the electronic medical records of all cases with non-cardiovascular findings, defined as any imaging finding outside the cardiovascular system. Non-cardiovascular findings were classified into significant and non-significant, based on whether they were known at the time of imaging or they required additional workup or a change in management. In 849 consecutive studies (mean age 9.7 ± 6.3 years), 145 non-cardiovascular findings were found in 140 studies (16.5% of total studies). Overall, 51.0% (74/145) of non-cardiovascular findings were in the abdomen, 30.3% (44/145) were in the chest, and 18.6% (27/145) were in the spine. A total of 19 significant non-cardiovascular findings were observed in 19 studies in individual patients (2.2% of total studies, 47% male, mean age 5.9 ± 6.7 years). Significant non-cardiovascular findings included hepatic adenoma, arterially enhancing focal liver lesions, asplenia, solitary kidney, pelvicaliectasis, renal cystic diseases, gastric distention, adrenal hemorrhage, lung hypoplasia, air space disease, bronchial narrowing, pneumomediastinum and retained surgical sponge. Non-cardiovascular findings were seen in 16.5% of cardiovascular MRI studies in children, of which 2.2% were clinically significant findings. Prevalence and nature of these non-cardiovascular findings are different from those reported in adults. Attention to these findings is important

  11. Molecular imaging of in vivo calcium ion expression in area postrema of total sleep deprived rats: Implications for cardiovascular regulation by TOF-SIMS analysis (United States)

    Mai, Fu-Der; Chen, Li-You; Ling, Yong-Chien; Chen, Bo-Jung; Wu, Un-In; Chang, Hung-Ming


    Excessive calcium influx in chemosensitive neurons of area postrema (AP) is detrimental for sympathetic activation and participates in the disruption of cardiovascular activities. Since total sleep deprivation (TSD) is a stressful condition known to harm the cardiovascular function, the present study is aimed to determine whether the in vivo calcium expression in AP would significantly alter following TSD by the use of time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and calretinin (a specific calcium sensor protein in AP neurons) immunohistochemistry. The results indicated that in normal rats, the calcium intensity was estimated to be 0.5 × 10 5 at m/ z 40.08. However, following TSD, the intensity for calcium ions was greatly increased to 1.2 × 10 5. Molecular imaging revealed that after TSD, various strongly expressed calcium signals were distributed throughout AP with clear identified profiles instead of randomly scattered within this region in normal rats. Immunohistochemical staining corresponded well with ionic image in which a majority of calcium-enriched gathering co-localized with calretinin positive neurons. The functional significance of TSD-induced calcium augmentation was demonstrated by increased heart rate and mean arterial pressure, clinical markers for cardiovascular dysfunction. Considering AP-mediated sympathetic activation is important for cardiovascular regulation, exaggerated calcium influx in AP would render this neurocircuitry more vulnerable to over-excitation, which might serve as the underlying mechanism for the development of TSD-relevant cardiovascular deficiency.

  12. Translation of infrared chemical imaging for cardiovascular evaluation (United States)

    Tiwari, Saumya; Raman, Jai; Reddy, Vijaya; Dawson, Miranda; Bhargava, Rohit


    Infrared (IR) spectroscopic imaging has been applied to study histology of cardiovascular tissue, primarily using Fourier transform IR (FTIR) Imaging. Here we describe results for histologic imaging of cardiac biopsies using a fast, discrete frequency IR (DFIR) imaging system. Histologic classification of tissue is understood in terms of the constituent frequencies and speeded up by careful optimization of the data acquired. Results are compared to FTIR imaging in terms of the signal to noise ratio and information content.

  13. Analysis of an automated background correction method for cardiovascular MR phase contrast imaging in children and young adults

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    Rigsby, Cynthia K.; Hilpipre, Nicholas; Boylan, Emma E.; Popescu, Andrada R.; Deng, Jie [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, Chicago, IL (United States); McNeal, Gary R. [Siemens Medical Solutions USA Inc., Customer Solutions Group, Cardiovascular MR R and D, Chicago, IL (United States); Zhang, Gang [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago Research Center, Biostatistics Research Core, Chicago, IL (United States); Choi, Grace [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Pediatrics, Chicago, IL (United States); Greiser, Andreas [Siemens AG Healthcare Sector, Erlangen (Germany)


    Phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful tool for evaluating vessel blood flow. Inherent errors in acquisition, such as phase offset, eddy currents and gradient field effects, can cause significant inaccuracies in flow parameters. These errors can be rectified with the use of background correction software. To evaluate the performance of an automated phase contrast MRI background phase correction method in children and young adults undergoing cardiac MR imaging. We conducted a retrospective review of patients undergoing routine clinical cardiac MRI including phase contrast MRI for flow quantification in the aorta (Ao) and main pulmonary artery (MPA). When phase contrast MRI of the right and left pulmonary arteries was also performed, these data were included. We excluded patients with known shunts and metallic implants causing visible MRI artifact and those with more than mild to moderate aortic or pulmonary stenosis. Phase contrast MRI of the Ao, mid MPA, proximal right pulmonary artery (RPA) and left pulmonary artery (LPA) using 2-D gradient echo Fast Low Angle SHot (FLASH) imaging was acquired during normal respiration with retrospective cardiac gating. Standard phase image reconstruction and the automatic spatially dependent background-phase-corrected reconstruction were performed on each phase contrast MRI dataset. Non-background-corrected and background-phase-corrected net flow, forward flow, regurgitant volume, regurgitant fraction, and vessel cardiac output were recorded for each vessel. We compared standard non-background-corrected and background-phase-corrected mean flow values for the Ao and MPA. The ratio of pulmonary to systemic blood flow (Qp:Qs) was calculated for the standard non-background and background-phase-corrected data and these values were compared to each other and for proximity to 1. In a subset of patients who also underwent phase contrast MRI of the MPA, RPA, and LPA a comparison was made between standard non

  14. MACD - an imaging marker for cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganz, Melanie; de Bruijne, Marleen; Nielsen, Mads


    Despite general acceptance that a healthy lifestyle and the treatment of risk factors can prevent the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), CVD are the most common cause of death in Europe and the United States. It has been shown that abdominal aortic calcifications (AAC) correlate strongly...

  15. Imaging Assessment of Cardiovascular Disease in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

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    Sara C. Croca


    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus is a multisystem, autoimmune disease known to be one of the strongest risk factors for atherosclerosis. Patients with SLE have an excess cardiovascular risk compared with the general population, leading to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although the precise explanation for this is yet to be established, it seems to be associated with the presence of an accelerated atherosclerotic process, arising from the combination of traditional and lupus-specific risk factors. Moreover, cardiovascular-disease associated mortality in patients with SLE has not improved over time. One of the main reasons for this is the poor performance of standard risk stratification tools on assessing the cardiovascular risk of patients with SLE. Therefore, establishing alternative ways to identify patients at increased risk efficiently is essential. With recent developments in several imaging techniques, the ultimate goal of cardiovascular assessment will shift from assessing symptomatic patients to diagnosing early cardiovascular disease in asymptomatic patients which will hopefully help us to prevent its progression. This review will focus on the current status of the imaging tools available to assess cardiac and vascular function in patients with SLE.

  16. Contrast ultrasound molecular imaging of inflammation in cardiovascular disease. (United States)

    Lindner, Jonathan R


    The cellular immune response plays an important role in almost every major form of cardiovascular disease. The ability to image the key aspects of the immune response in the clinical setting could be used to improve diagnostic information, to provide important prognostic or risk information, and to customize therapy according to disease phenotype. Accordingly, targeted imaging probes for assessing inflammation have been developed for essentially all forms of medical imaging. Molecular imaging of inflammation with contrast ultrasound relies on the detection of targeted microbubble or other gas-filled particle contrast agents. These agents are confined to the vascular space and, hence, have been targeted to either activated leucocytes or endothelial cell adhesion molecules that are upregulated in inflammation and mediate leucocyte recruitment and adhesion. This review focuses on the inflammation-targeting strategies for ultrasound contrast agents and how they have been matched to cardiovascular disease states such as myocardial ischaemia, infarction, atherosclerosis, transplant rejection, and arteriogenesis.

  17. Achieving quality in cardiovascular imaging: proceedings from the American College of Cardiology-Duke University Medical Center Think Tank on Quality in Cardiovascular Imaging. (United States)

    Douglas, Pamela; Iskandrian, Ami E; Krumholz, Harlan M; Gillam, Linda; Hendel, Robert; Jollis, James; Peterson, Eric; Chen, Jersey; Masoudi, Frederick; Mohler, Emile; McNamara, Robert L; Patel, Manesh R; Spertus, John


    Cardiovascular imaging has enjoyed both rapid technological advances and sustained growth, yet less attention has been focused on quality than in other areas of cardiovascular medicine. To address this deficit, representatives from cardiovascular imaging societies, private payers, government agencies, the medical imaging industry, and experts in quality measurement met, and this report provides an overview of the discussions. A consensus definition of quality in imaging and a convergence of opinion on quality measures across imaging modalities was achieved and are intended to be the start of a process culminating in the development, dissemination, and adoption of quality measures for all cardiovascular imaging modalities.

  18. Image Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The 19th Scandinavian Conference on Image Analysis was held at the IT University of Copenhagen in Denmark during June 15-17, 2015. The SCIA conference series has been an ongoing biannual event for more than 30 years and over the years it has nurtured a world-class regional research and development....... The topics of the accepted papers range from novel applications of vision systems, pattern recognition, machine learning, feature extraction, segmentation, 3D vision, to medical and biomedical image analysis. The papers originate from all the Scandinavian countries and several other European countries...

  19. The future of the cardiovascular image; El futuro de la imagen cardiovascular

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    Serna M, J.A. [Hospital Angeles del Pedregal, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)


    In this work the future of the cardiovascular image is presented, it is important to know the advantages and disadvantages of the current image methods to apply them in each case. The characteristics of the methods are presented: X R simple plate, the cardiac ultrasound, the image by magnetic resonance, the computed tomography, the helicoid tomography, the SPECT of myocardial perfusion, the PET and the PET/CT and the used radiopharmaceuticals. The SPECT of myocardial perfusion is the more used method around the world for the evacuation of the coronary illness. It has a high sensitivity (between 90 and 97%), it is a non-invasive treatment (morbidity of 0.01%), of relative low cost and it is useful in the diagnosis of ischemia in groups of high risk like diabetics, dyslipidemia, obese and hypertension. (Author)

  20. Advanced 3-D analysis, client-server systems, and cloud computing—Integration of cardiovascular imaging data into clinical workflows of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (United States)

    Zimmermann, Mathis; Falkner, Juergen


    Degenerative aortic stenosis is highly prevalent in the aging populations of industrialized countries and is associated with poor prognosis. Surgical valve replacement has been the only established treatment with documented improvement of long-term outcome. However, many of the older patients with aortic stenosis (AS) are high-risk or ineligible for surgery. For these patients, transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has emerged as a treatment alternative. The TAVR procedure is characterized by a lack of visualization of the operative field. Therefore, pre- and intra-procedural imaging is critical for patient selection, pre-procedural planning, and intra-operative decision-making. Incremental to conventional angiography and 2-D echocardiography, multidetector computed tomography (CT) has assumed an important role before TAVR. The analysis of 3-D CT data requires extensive post-processing during direct interaction with the dataset, using advance analysis software. Organization and storage of the data according to complex clinical workflows and sharing of image information have become a critical part of these novel treatment approaches. Optimally, the data are integrated into a comprehensive image data file accessible to multiple groups of practitioners across the hospital. This creates new challenges for data management requiring a complex IT infrastructure, spanning across multiple locations, but is increasingly achieved with client-server solutions and private cloud technology. This article describes the challenges and opportunities created by the increased amount of patient-specific imaging data in the context of TAVR. PMID:24282750

  1. Advanced 3-D analysis, client-server systems, and cloud computing-Integration of cardiovascular imaging data into clinical workflows of transcatheter aortic valve replacement. (United States)

    Schoenhagen, Paul; Zimmermann, Mathis; Falkner, Juergen


    Degenerative aortic stenosis is highly prevalent in the aging populations of industrialized countries and is associated with poor prognosis. Surgical valve replacement has been the only established treatment with documented improvement of long-term outcome. However, many of the older patients with aortic stenosis (AS) are high-risk or ineligible for surgery. For these patients, transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has emerged as a treatment alternative. The TAVR procedure is characterized by a lack of visualization of the operative field. Therefore, pre- and intra-procedural imaging is critical for patient selection, pre-procedural planning, and intra-operative decision-making. Incremental to conventional angiography and 2-D echocardiography, multidetector computed tomography (CT) has assumed an important role before TAVR. The analysis of 3-D CT data requires extensive post-processing during direct interaction with the dataset, using advance analysis software. Organization and storage of the data according to complex clinical workflows and sharing of image information have become a critical part of these novel treatment approaches. Optimally, the data are integrated into a comprehensive image data file accessible to multiple groups of practitioners across the hospital. This creates new challenges for data management requiring a complex IT infrastructure, spanning across multiple locations, but is increasingly achieved with client-server solutions and private cloud technology. This article describes the challenges and opportunities created by the increased amount of patient-specific imaging data in the context of TAVR.

  2. Achieving Quality in Cardiovascular Imaging II: proceedings from the Second American College of Cardiology -- Duke University Medical Center Think Tank on Quality in Cardiovascular Imaging. (United States)

    Douglas, Pamela S; Chen, Jersey; Gillam, Linda; Hendel, Robert; Hundley, W Gregory; Masoudi, Frederick; Patel, Manesh R; Peterson, Eric


    Despite rapid technologic advances and sustained growth, less attention has been focused on quality in imaging than in other areas of cardiovascular medicine. To address this deficit, representatives from cardiovascular imaging societies, private payers, government agencies, the medical imaging industry, and experts in quality measurement met in the second Quality in Cardiovascular Imaging Think Tank. The participants endorsed the previous consensus definition of quality in imaging and proposed quality measures. Additional areas of needed effort included data standardization and structured reporting, appropriateness criteria, imaging registries, laboratory accreditation, partnership development, and imaging research. The second American College of Cardiology-Duke University Think Tank continued the process of the development, dissemination, and adoption of quality improvement initiatives for all cardiovascular imaging modalities.

  3. Cardiovascular involvement by osteosarcoma: an analysis of 20 patients

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    Yedururi, Sireesha; Morani, Ajaykumar C.; Gladish, Gregory W. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Vallabhaneni, Srilakshmi [Medstar Harbor Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Anderson, Peter M. [Levine Children' s Hospital/Levine Cancer Institute, Department of Pediatrics Hematology/Oncology/BMT, Carolinas Healthcare System, Charlotte, NC (United States); Hughes, Dennis; Daw, Najat C. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Pediatrics, Houston, TX (United States); Wang, Wei-Lien [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Pathology, Houston, TX (United States)


    Although hematogenous spread of osteosarcoma is well known, the imaging findings of cardiovascular involvement by osteosarcoma are seldom reported and can be difficult to recognize. The enhanced resolution of modern CT and MRI scanners may lead to better detection of cardiovascular involvement. To describe the key imaging findings and clinical behavior of cardiovascular involvement by osteosarcoma. We retrospectively reviewed the imaging findings and clinical characteristics of 20 patients with cardiovascular involvement by osteosarcoma identified by two pediatric radiologists from a review of imaging studies at our institution from 2007 to 2013. At initial diagnosis, the median age of the patients was 15.1 years (range 4.8-24.6 years), and 7 (35%) patients had detectable metastases. Median time to detection of cardiovascular metastases was 1.8 years (range 0-7.3 years). Sixteen patients died of disease; 4 have survived a median of 7.4 years since initial diagnosis. The sites of cardiovascular involvement were the systemic veins draining the primary and metastatic osteosarcoma, pulmonary arteries, pulmonary veins draining the pulmonary metastases, and heart. A dilated and mineralized terminal pulmonary arteriole is an early sign of metastatic osteosarcoma in the lung. Unfamiliarity with the imaging features resulted in under-recognition and misinterpretation of intravascular tumor thrombus as bland thrombus. Knowledge of imaging findings in the era of modern imaging modalities has enhanced our ability to detect cardiovascular involvement and lung metastases early and avoid misinterpreting tumor thrombus in draining systemic veins or pulmonary arteries as bland thrombus. (orig.)

  4. An overview on the advances in cardiovascular interventional MR imaging. (United States)

    Saborowski, Olaf; Saeed, Maythem


    Interventional cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (iCMR) represents a new discipline whose systematic development will foster minimally invasive interventional procedures without radiation exposure. New generations of open, wide and short bore MR scanners and real time sequences made cardiovascular intervention possible. MR compatible endovascular catheters and guide-wires are needed for delivery of devices such as stents or atrial septal defect (ASD) closures. Catheter tracking is based on active and passive approaches. Currently performed MR-guided procedures are used to monitor, navigate and track endovascular catheters and to deliver local therapeutic agents to targets, such as infarcted myocardium and vascular walls. Heating of endovascular MR catheters, guide-wires and devices during imaging still presents high safety risks. MR contrast media improve the capabilities of MR imaging by enhancing blood signal, pathologic targets (such as myocardial infarctions and atherosclerotic plaques), endovascular catheters and by tracking injected therapeutic agents. Labeling injected soluble therapeutic agents, genes or cells with MR contrast media enables interventionalists to ensure the administration of the drugs in the target and to trace their distribution in the targets. The future clinical use of this iCMR technique requires (1) high spatial and temporal resolution imaging, (2) special catheters and devices and (3) effective therapeutic agents, genes or cells. These conditions are available at a low scale at the present time and need to be developed in the near future. Such progress will lead to improved patient care and minimize invasiveness.

  5. Cardiovascular dysfunction in obesity and new diagnostic imaging techniques: the role of noninvasive image methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbosa JA


    Full Text Available José Augusto A Barbosa¹, Alexandre B Rodrigues¹, Cleonice Carvalho C Mota¹, Márcia M Barbosa², Ana C Simões e Silva¹¹Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil; ²Ecocenter, Socor Hospital, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, BrazilAbstract: Obesity is a major public health problem affecting adults and children in both developed and developing countries. This condition often leads to metabolic syndrome, which increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. A large number of studies have been carried out to understand the pathogenesis of cardiovascular dysfunction in obese patients. Endothelial dysfunction plays a key role in the progression of atherosclerosis and the development of coronary artery disease, hypertension and congestive heart failure. Noninvasive methods in the field of cardiovascular imaging, such as measuring intima-media thickness, flow-mediated dilatation, tissue Doppler, and strain, and strain rate, constitute new tools for the early detection of cardiac and vascular dysfunction. These techniques will certainly enable a better evaluation of initial cardiovascular injury and allow the correct, timely management of obese patients. The present review summarizes the main aspects of cardiovascular dysfunction in obesity and discusses the application of recent noninvasive imaging methods for the early detection of cardiovascular alterations.Keywords: cardiovascular risk, endothelium dysfunction, obesity, strain and strain rate, tissue Doppler

  6. Automatic quantitative analysis of cardiac MR perfusion images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeuwer, Marcel; Spreeuwers, Luuk; Quist, Marcel


    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a powerful technique for imaging cardiovascular diseases. The introduction of cardiovascular MRI into clinical practice is however hampered by the lack of efficient and accurate image analysis methods. This paper focuses on the evaluation of blood perfusion in the

  7. New SPECT and PET Radiopharmaceuticals for Imaging Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyebola O. Sogbein


    Full Text Available Nuclear cardiology has experienced exponential growth within the past four decades with converging capacity to diagnose and influence management of a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI with technetium-99m radiotracers or thallium-201 has dominated the field; however new hardware and software designs that optimize image quality with reduced radiation exposure are fuelling a resurgence of interest at the preclinical and clinical levels to expand beyond MPI. Other imaging modalities including positron emission tomography (PET and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI continue to emerge as powerful players with an expanded capacity to diagnose a variety of cardiac conditions. At the forefront of this resurgence is the development of novel target vectors based on an enhanced understanding of the underlying pathophysiological process in the subcellular domain. Molecular imaging with novel radiopharmaceuticals engineered to target a specific subcellular process has the capacity to improve diagnostic accuracy and deliver enhanced prognostic information to alter management. This paper, while not comprehensive, will review the recent advancements in radiotracer development for SPECT and PET MPI, autonomic dysfunction, apoptosis, atherosclerotic plaques, metabolism, and viability. The relevant radiochemistry and preclinical and clinical development in addition to molecular imaging with emerging modalities such as cardiac MRI and PET-MR will be discussed.

  8. Cardiovascular imaging in children and adults following Kawasaki disease. (United States)

    Dietz, S M; Tacke, C E; Kuipers, I M; Wiegman, A; de Winter, R J; Burns, J C; Gordon, J B; Groenink, M; Kuijpers, T W


    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a paediatric vasculitis with coronary artery aneurysms (CAA) as its main complication. Two guidelines exist regarding the follow-up of patients after KD, by the American Heart Association and the Japanese Circulation Society. After the acute phase, CAA-negative patients are checked for cardiovascular risk assessment or with ECG and echocardiography until 5 years after the disease. In CAA-positive patients, monitoring includes myocardial perfusion imaging, conventional angiography and CT-angiography. However, the invasive nature and high radiation exposure do not reflect technical advances in cardiovascular imaging. Newer techniques, such as cardiac MRI, are mentioned but not directly implemented in the follow-up. Cardiac MRI can be performed to identify CAA, but also evaluate functional abnormalities, ischemia and previous myocardial infarction including adenosine stress-testing. Low-dose CT angiography can be implemented at a young age when MRI without anaesthesia is not feasible. CT calcium scoring with a very low radiation dose can be useful in risk stratification years after the disease. By incorporating newer imaging techniques, detection of CAA will be improved while reducing radiation burden and potential complications of invasive imaging modalities. Based on the current knowledge, a possible pathway to follow-up patients after KD is introduced. Key Points • Kawasaki disease is a paediatric vasculitis with coronary aneurysms as major complication. • Current guidelines include invasive, high-radiation modalities not reflecting new technical advances. • Cardiac MRI can provide information on coronary anatomy as well as cardiac function. • (Low-dose) CT-angiography and CT calcium score can also provide important information. • Current guidelines for follow-up of patients with KD need to be revised.

  9. Molecular imaging in cardiovascular diseases; Molekulare kardiovaskulaere MRT-Bildgebung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botnar, R.M. [King' s College London (United Kingdom). Imaging Sciences; St. Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Ebersberger, H. [Heart Center Munich-Bogenhausen, Munich (Germany). Dept. of Cardiology and Intensive Care Medicine; Noerenberg, D. [Charite, Berlin (Germany). Inst. for Radiology; and others


    Cardiovascular diseases remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in industrialized and developing countries. In clinical practice, the in-vivo identification of atherosclerotic lesions, which can lead to complications such as heart attack or stroke, remains difficult. Imaging techniques provide the reference standard for the detection of clinically significant atherosclerotic changes in the coronary and carotid arteries. The assessment of the luminal narrowing is feasible, while the differentiation of stable and potentially unstable or vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques is currently not possible using non-invasive imaging. With high spatial resolution and high soft tissue contrast, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a suitable method for the evaluation of the thin arterial wall. In clinical practice, native MRI of the vessel wall already allows the differentiation and characterization of components of atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid arteries and the aorta. Additional diagnostic information can be gained by the use of non-specific MRI contrast agents. With the development of targeted molecular probes, that highlight specific molecules or cells, pathological processes can be visualized at a molecular level with high spatial resolution. In this review article, the development of pathophysiological changes leading to the development of the arterial wall are introduced and discussed. Additionally, principles of contrast enhanced imaging with non-specific contrast agents and molecular probes will be discussed and latest developments in the field of molecular imaging of the vascular wall will be introduced.

  10. Cardiovascular imaging in the diagnosis and monitoring of cardiotoxicity: cardiovascular magnetic resonance and nuclear cardiology. (United States)

    Pepe, Alessia; Pizzino, Fausto; Gargiulo, Paola; Perrone-Filardi, Pasquale; Cadeddu, Christian; Mele, Donato; Monte, Ines; Novo, Giuseppina; Zito, Concetta; Di Bella, Gianluca


    Chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity (CTX) is a determining factor for the quality of life and mortality of patients administered potentially cardiotoxic drugs and in long-term cancer survivors. Therefore, prevention and early detection of CTX are highly desirable, as is the exploration of alternative therapeutic strategies and/or the proposal of potentially cardioprotective treatments. In recent years, cardiovascular imaging has acquired a pivotal role in this setting. Although echocardiography remains the diagnostic method most used to monitor cancer patients, the need for more reliable, reproducible and accurate detection of early chemotherapy-induced CTX has encouraged the introduction of second-line advanced imaging modalities, such as cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and nuclear techniques, into the clinical setting. This review of the Working Group on Drug Cardiotoxicity and Cardioprotection of the Italian Society of Cardiology aims to afford an overview of the most important findings from the literature about the role of CMR and nuclear techniques in the management of chemotherapy-treated patients, describe conventional and new parameters for detecting CTX from both diagnostic and prognostic perspectives and provide integrated insight into the role of CMR and nuclear techniques compared with other imaging tools and versus the positions of the most important international societies.

  11. Update of the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) Core Syllabus for the European Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Certification Exam. (United States)

    Petersen, Steffen E; Almeida, Ana G; Alpendurada, Francisco; Boubertakh, Redha; Bucciarelli-Ducci, Chiara; Cosyns, Bernard; Greil, Gerald F; Karamitsos, Theodoros D; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Stefanidis, Alexandros S; Tann, Oliver; Westwood, Mark; Plein, Sven


    An updated version of the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) Core Syllabus for the European Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) Certification Exam is now available online. The syllabus lists key elements of knowledge in CMR. It represents a framework for the development of training curricula and provides expected knowledge-based learning outcomes to the CMR trainees, in particular those intending to demonstrate CMR knowledge in the European CMR exam, a core requirement in the CMR certification process.

  12. Inflammation in takotsubo cardiomyopathy: insights from cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eitel, Ingo; Sareban, Mahdi; Schuler, Gerhard; Thiele, Holger [University of Leipzig - Heart Centre, Department of Internal Medicine/Cardiology, Leipzig (Germany); Luecke, Christian; Grothoff, Matthias; Gutberlet, Matthias [University of Leipzig - Heart Centre, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Leipzig (Germany)


    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is an increasingly recognised acute cardiac syndrome, whose underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain unknown. Inflammation might play a role as this has been shown in endomyocardial biopsies. The aim of this study was to assess inflammatory parameters in patients with TTC using a comprehensive cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) approach. Thirty-seven patients with the suspected diagnosis of TTC underwent CMR. T2-weighted imaging to calculate the oedema ratio, T1-weighted imaging before and after contrast agent administration to calculate the global relative enhancement (gRE), and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging were performed. In 11 patients CMR revealed the diagnosis of myocardial infarction (n = 7; 19%) or myocarditis (n = 4; 11%) with typical patterns of LGE. In all other patients (n = 26; 70%), no LGE was detected consistent with the diagnosis of TTC. Of these, in 16 patients (62%) both inflammatory markers (oedema ratio and gRE) were elevated with concomitant pericardial effusion, indicating acute inflammation. Follow-up CMR after 3 months showed complete normalisation of left ventricular function and inflammatory parameters in the absence of LGE and pericardial effusion. This CMR study provides further insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms in TTC, supporting the contribution of an inflammatory process in the acute setting. (orig.)

  13. Spinal imaging and image analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Jianhua


    This book is instrumental to building a bridge between scientists and clinicians in the field of spine imaging by introducing state-of-the-art computational methods in the context of clinical applications.  Spine imaging via computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and other radiologic imaging modalities, is essential for noninvasively visualizing and assessing spinal pathology. Computational methods support and enhance the physician’s ability to utilize these imaging techniques for diagnosis, non-invasive treatment, and intervention in clinical practice. Chapters cover a broad range of topics encompassing radiological imaging modalities, clinical imaging applications for common spine diseases, image processing, computer-aided diagnosis, quantitative analysis, data reconstruction and visualization, statistical modeling, image-guided spine intervention, and robotic surgery. This volume serves a broad audience as  contributions were written by both clinicians and researchers, which reflects the inte...

  14. The fetal cardiovascular response to increased placental vascular impedance to flow determined with four-dimensional ultrasound using spatiotemporal image correlation and virtual organ computer-aided analysis (United States)

    Hamill, Neil; Romero, Roberto; Hassan, Sonia; Lee, Wesley; Myers, Stephen A.; Mittal, Pooja; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Balasubramaniam, Mamtha; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Vaisbuch, Edi; Espinoza, Jimmy; Gotsch, Francesca; Goncalves, Luis F.; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Erez, Offer; Hernandez-Andrade, Edgar; Yeo, Lami


    Objective To determine if increased placental vascular impedance to flow is associated with changes in fetal cardiac function using spatiotemporal image correlation (STIC) and Virtual Organ Computer-aided AnaLysis (VOCAL). Study Design A cross-sectional study was performed in fetuses with an umbilical artery pulsatility index > 95th percentile (ABN). Ventricular volume (end-systole, end-diastole), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), adjusted CO, and ejection fraction (EF) were compared to those of 184 normal fetuses (NL). Results 1) 34 fetuses were evaluated at a median gestational age of 28.3 (range 20.6 – 36.9) weeks; 2) mean ventricular volumes were lower for ABN than NL (end-systole, end-diastole) with a proportionally greater decrease for left ventricular volume (vs. right); 3) mean left and right SV, CO, and adjusted CO were lower for ABN (vs. NL); 4) right ventricular volume, SV, CO, and adjusted CO exceeded the left in ABN fetuses; 5) mean EF was greater for ABN than NL; and 6) median left EF was greater (vs. right) in ABN fetuses. Conclusion Increased placental vascular impedance to flow is associated with changes in fetal cardiac function. PMID:23220270

  15. Korean Society of Cardiovascular Imaging Guidelines for Cardiac Computed Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Jin [Korean Society of Cariovascular Imaging Guidelines Committee, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Byoung Wook; Choe, Kyu Ok [Dept. of Radiology, Yensei University Heath System, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yong, Hwan Seok [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yang Min [Dept. of Radiology, Sejong Hospital and Sejong Heart Institute, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Yeon Hyeon [Dept. of Radiology, Samsug Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Tae Hwan [Dept. of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Hyung [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The Korean Society of Cardiovascular Imaging (KOCSI) has issued a guideline for the use of cardiac CT imaging in order to assist clinicians and patients in providing adequate level of medical service. In order to establish a guideline founded on evidence based medicine, it was designed based on comprehensive data such as questionnaires conducted in international and domestic hospitals, intensive journal reviews, and with experts in cardiac radiology. The recommendations of this guideline should not be used as an absolute standard and medical professionals can always refer to methods non-adherent to this guideline when it is considered more reasonable and beneficial to an individual patient's medical situation. The guideline has its limitation and should be revised appropriately with the advancement medical equipment technology and public health care system. The guideline should not be served as a measure for standard of care. KOCSI strongly disapproves the use of the guideline to be used as the standard of expected practice in medical litigation processes.

  16. Retinal imaging and image analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abramoff, M.D.; Garvin, Mona K.; Sonka, Milan


    Many important eye diseases as well as systemic diseases manifest themselves in the retina. While a number of other anatomical structures contribute to the process of vision, this review focuses on retinal imaging and image analysis. Following a brief overview of the most prevalent causes of blindne

  17. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging findings in children with myocarditis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Guiying; Yang Xi; Su Ying; Xu Jimin; Wen Zhaoying


    Background Myocarditis is a common,potentially life-threatening disease that presents a wide rang of symptoms in children,as an important underlying etiology of other myocardial diseases such as dilated and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy.The incidence of nonfatal myocarditis is probably greater than that of the one actually diagnosed,which is the result of the challenges of establishing the diagnosis in standard clinical settings.Currently,no single clinical or imaging finding confirms the diagnosis of myocarditis with absolute certainty.Historically,clinical exam,electrocardiogram (ECG),serology and echocardiography had an unsatisfactory diagnostic accuracy in myocarditis.Endomyocardial biopsy remains as a widely accepted standard,but may not be suitable for every patient,especially for those with less severe disease.Our aim was to find the changes in cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging of children with myocarditis diagnosed by clinical criteria.Methods We studied 25 children (18 male,7 female; aged from 5-17 years) with diagnosed myocarditis by clinical criteria.CMR included function analyses,T2-weighted imaging,T1-weighted imaging before and after i.v.gadolinium injection (early gadolinium enhancement (EGE) and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE)).Results The T2 ratio was elevated in 21 children (84%,11 in anterolateral (44%),5 in inferolateral (20%),and 5 in septum (20%)),EGE was present in 9 children (36%,3 in anterolateral (12%),4 in inferolateral (20%),and 2 in septum (8%)),and LGE was present in 5 children (20%,2 in anterolateral (8%),1 in inferolateral (4%),1 in septum (4%),and 1 in midwall of left ventricular (LV) wall).In 9 children (36%),two (or more) out of three sequences (T2,EGE,LGE) were abnormal.Conclusions The CMR findings in children with clinically diagnosed myocarditis vary within the groups,including regional or global myocardial signal increase in T2-weighted images,EGE and LGE in T1

  18. Cardiovascular drugs and erectile dysfunction - a symmetry analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lotte; Hallas, Jesper; Madsen, Kenneth Grønkjaer;


    in prescribing. This asymmetry was most profound for thiazides (1.28, 95% CI 1.20, 1.38), calcium channel blockers (1.29, 95% CI 1.21, 1.38) and ACE inhibitors (1.29, 95% CI 1.21, 1.37), suggesting a small liability of these drugs to provoke erectile dysfunction. NNTH values were generally large, in the range......AIM: Erectile dysfunction is a common problem among patients with cardiovascular diseases and the influence of cardiovascular drugs is much debated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the short term potential for different cardiovascular drugs to affect the risk of being prescribed a drug...... against erectile dysfunction. METHODS: We employed a symmetry analysis design and included all Danish male individuals born before 1950 who filled their first ever prescription for a cardiovascular drug and a 5-phosphodiesterase inhibitor within a 6 month interval during 2002-2012. If the cardiovascular...

  19. A Speedy Cardiovascular Diseases Classifier Using Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wah Ching Lee


    Full Text Available Each year, some 30 percent of global deaths are caused by cardiovascular diseases. This figure is worsening due to both the increasing elderly population and severe shortages of medical personnel. The development of a cardiovascular diseases classifier (CDC for auto-diagnosis will help address solve the problem. Former CDCs did not achieve quick evaluation of cardiovascular diseases. In this letter, a new CDC to achieve speedy detection is investigated. This investigation incorporates the analytic hierarchy process (AHP-based multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA to develop feature vectors using a Support Vector Machine. The MCDA facilitates the efficient assignment of appropriate weightings to potential patients, thus scaling down the number of features. Since the new CDC will only adopt the most meaningful features for discrimination between healthy persons versus cardiovascular disease patients, a speedy detection of cardiovascular diseases has been successfully implemented.

  20. cardiovasculares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Guerrero


    Full Text Available Uno de los aspectos que más discusión ha suscitado en los últimos tiempos entre quienes nos dedicamos al estudio de la emoción tiene que ver con la eventual asociación entre percepción, valoración y respuesta fisiológica. Esto es, siguiendo la máxima aristotélica, cabría cuestionar si las cosas son como son o son como cada quien las percibe. El objetivo de este experimento ha sido establecer la existencia de una conexión entre percepción de control y responsividad cardiovascular. La muestra estudiada ha estado conformada por estudiantes de la Universidad de Castellón; todos ellos han participado de forma voluntaria. La prueba de estrés ha consistido en un examen real de una asignatura troncal de la titulación que cursaban los participantes. Así pues, utilizando una situación de estrés real, hipotetizamos que las respuestas cardiovasculares (medidas a través de la tasa cardiaca, la presión sanguínea sistólica y la presión sanguínea diastólica dependen de la percepción de control que el individuo tiene, o cree tener, sobre la situación.

  1. Color Medical Image Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Schaefer, Gerald


    Since the early 20th century, medical imaging has been dominated by monochrome imaging modalities such as x-ray, computed tomography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. As a result, color information has been overlooked in medical image analysis applications. Recently, various medical imaging modalities that involve color information have been introduced. These include cervicography, dermoscopy, fundus photography, gastrointestinal endoscopy, microscopy, and wound photography. However, in comparison to monochrome images, the analysis of color images is a relatively unexplored area. The multivariate nature of color image data presents new challenges for researchers and practitioners as the numerous methods developed for monochrome images are often not directly applicable to multichannel images. The goal of this volume is to summarize the state-of-the-art in the utilization of color information in medical image analysis.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Schanaider


    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze critically the effectiveness and value of bibliometric indicators in journals of Surgery or Cardiovacular Surgery in the context of the postgraduate programs of CAPES Medicine III. Methods: A sampling with 16 academic programs and one professional master of Medicine III, encompassing the General and Digestive System Surgery, Cardiovascular Surgery and Multidisciplinary courses with such contents, was evaluated. Thomson Reuters/ISI (JCR, Elsevier/Scopus (SJR, and also Scielo databases were used. Results: Only in seven programs, the teachers had an average of Qualis A1 articles greater than the others strata. Eleven journals in the surgical area are in stratum A1 (5% and it reaches 25% in Cardiovascular Surgery. Among the six journals with the largest number of publications Qualis A1 in area Medicine III, five are from non-specific areas. The Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira represented 58% of the publications in the stratum A2. There are some obstacles in the Qualis classification with little uniformity among the Medicine areas I, II and III. Conclusions: A permanent committee should be set to update the Qualis, composed by the three medical areas. It should be considered using other index databases and the unification of the Qualis criteria for journals in medicine. Rating criteria of multi and transdisciplinary journals need to be reviewed. It is essential an institutional financial support for national journals chosen by peers aiming to provide a full computerization process and a professional reviewer of the English language, in order to increase the impact factor.

  3. Morphological image analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, K.; Raedt, H. De; Kawakatsu, T.


    We describe a morphological image analysis method to characterize images in terms of geometry and topology. We present a method to compute the morphological properties of the objects building up the image and apply the method to triply periodic minimal surfaces and to images taken from polymer chemi

  4. Morphological image analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, K; De Raedt, H; Kawakatsu, T; Landau, DP; Lewis, SP; Schuttler, HB


    We describe a morphological image analysis method to characterize images in terms of geometry and topology. We present a method to compute the morphological properties of the objects building up the image and apply the method to triply periodic minimal surfaces and to images taken from polymer chemi

  5. Rosiglitazone evaluated for cardiovascular outcomes--an interim analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Home, Philip D; Pocock, Stuart J; Beck-Nielsen, Henning


    BACKGROUND: A recent meta-analysis raised concern regarding an increased risk of myocardial infarction and death from cardiovascular causes associated with rosiglitazone treatment of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We conducted an unplanned interim analysis of a randomized, multicenter, open-label, non......BACKGROUND: A recent meta-analysis raised concern regarding an increased risk of myocardial infarction and death from cardiovascular causes associated with rosiglitazone treatment of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We conducted an unplanned interim analysis of a randomized, multicenter, open...... group). The primary end point was hospitalization or death from cardiovascular causes. RESULTS: Because the mean follow-up was only 3.75 years, our interim analysis had limited statistical power to detect treatment differences. A total of 217 patients in the rosiglitazone group and 202 patients...... group and the control group regarding myocardial infarction and death from cardiovascular causes or any cause. There were more patients with heart failure in the rosiglitazone group than in the control group (hazard ratio, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.30 to 3.57). CONCLUSIONS: Our interim findings from this ongoing...

  6. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Structural and Valvular Heart Disease Interventions. (United States)

    Cavalcante, João L; Lalude, Omosalewa O; Schoenhagen, Paul; Lerakis, Stamatios


    The field of percutaneous interventions for the treatment of structural and valvular heart diseases has been expanding rapidly in the last 5 years. Noninvasive cardiac imaging has been a critical part of the planning, procedural guidance, and follow-up of these procedures. Although echocardiography and cardiovascular computed tomography are the most commonly used and studied imaging techniques in this field today, advances in cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging continue to provide important contributions in the comprehensive assessment and management of these patients. In this comprehensive paper, we will review and demonstrate how cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging can be used to assist in diagnosis, treatment planning, and follow-up of patients who are being considered for and/or who have undergone interventions for structural and valvular heart diseases.

  7. Comparative and functional analysis of cardiovascular-related genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jan-Fang; Pennacchio, Len A.


    The ability to detect putative cis-regulatory elements in cardiovascular-related genes has been accelerated by the availability of genomic sequence data from numerous vertebrate species and the recent development of comparative genomic tools. This improvement is anticipated to lead to a better understanding of the complex regulatory architecture of cardiovascular (CV) genes and how genetic variants in these non-coding regions can potentially play a role in cardiovascular disease. This manuscript reviews a recently established database dedicated to the comparative sequence analysis of 250 human CV genes of known importance, 37 of which currently contain sequence comparison data for organisms beyond those of human, mouse and rat. These data have provided a glimpse into the variety of possible insights from deep vertebrate sequence comparisons and the identification of putative gene regulatory elements.

  8. A systematic approach to multifactorial cardiovascular disease: causal analysis. (United States)

    Schwartz, Stephen M; Schwartz, Hillel T; Horvath, Steven; Schadt, Eric; Lee, Su-In


    The combination of systems biology and large data sets offers new approaches to the study of cardiovascular diseases. These new approaches are especially important for the common cardiovascular diseases that have long been described as multifactorial. This promise is undermined by biologists' skepticism of the spider web-like network diagrams required to analyze these large data sets. Although these spider webs resemble composites of the familiar biochemical pathway diagrams, the complexity of the webs is overwhelming. As a result, biologists collaborate with data analysts whose mathematical methods seem much like those of experts using Ouija boards. To make matters worse, it is not evident how to design experiments when the network implies that many molecules must be part of the disease process. Our goal is to remove some of this mystery and suggest a simple experimental approach to the design of experiments appropriate for such analysis. We will attempt to explain how combinations of data sets that include all possible variables, graphical diagrams, complementation of different data sets, and Bayesian analyses now make it possible to determine the causes of multifactorial cardiovascular disease. We will describe this approach using the term causal analysis. Finally, we will describe how causal analysis is already being used to decipher the interactions among cytokines as causes of cardiovascular disease.

  9. Appropriateness criteria for cardiovascular imaging use in clinical practice: a position statement of the ESC/EACVI taskforce.


    Garbi, Madalina; Habib, Gilbert; Plein, Sven; Neglia, Danilo; Kitsiou, Anastasia; Donal, Erwan; Pinto, Fausto; Bax, Jeroen; Achenbach, Stephan; Popescu, Bogdan A; Edvardsen, Thor; Badano, Luigi P.; Stefanidis, Alexandros; Bucciarelli-Ducci, Chiara; Derumeaux, Genevieve


    There is a growing interest from the scientific community in the appropriate use of cardiovascular imaging techniques for diagnosis and decision making in Europe. To develop appropriateness criteria for cardiovascular imaging use in clinical practice in Europe, a dedicated taskforce has been appointed by the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI). The present paper describes the appropriateness criteria development process. Peer ...

  10. Translational applications of molecular imaging in cardiovascular disease and stem cell therapy. (United States)

    Du, Wei; Tao, Hongyan; Zhao, Shihua; He, Zuo-Xiang; Li, Zongjin


    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Molecular imaging techniques provide valuable information at cellular and molecular level, as opposed to anatomical and structural layers acquired from traditional imaging modalities. More specifically, molecular imaging employs imaging probes which interact with specific molecular targets and therefore makes it possible to visualize biological processes in vivo. Molecular imaging technology is now progressing towards preclinical and clinical application that gives an integral and comprehensive guidance for the investigation of cardiovascular disease. In addition, cardiac stem cell therapy holds great promise for clinical translation. Undoubtedly, combining stem cell therapy with molecular imaging technology will bring a broad prospect for the study and treatment of cardiac disease. This review will focus on the progresses of molecular imaging strategies in cardiovascular disease and cardiac stem cell therapy. Furthermore, the perspective on the future role of molecular imaging in clinical translation and potential strategies in defining safety and efficacy of cardiac stem cell therapies will be discussed.

  11. Update of the echocardiography core syllabus of the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI). (United States)

    Cosyns, Bernard; Garbi, Madalina; Separovic, Jadranka; Pasquet, Agnes; Lancellotti, Patrizio


    The update of the Echocardiography Core Syllabus of European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) is now available online. The Echocardiography Core Syllabus enumerates the elements of knowledge to be taught, represents a framework for the development of local training curricula and provides expected learning outcomes to the echocardiography learner.

  12. Cardiac computed tomography core syllabus of the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI). (United States)

    Nieman, Koen; Achenbach, Stephan; Pugliese, Francesca; Cosyns, Bernard; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Kitsiou, Anastasia


    The European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) Core Syllabus for Cardiac Computed Tomography (CT) is now available online. The syllabus lists key elements of knowledge in Cardiac CT. It represents a framework for the development of training curricula and provides expected knowledge-based learning outcomes to the Cardiac CT trainees.

  13. Nuclear cardiology core syllabus of the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI). (United States)

    Gimelli, Alessia; Neglia, Danilo; Schindler, Thomas H; Cosyns, Bernard; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Kitsiou, Anastasia


    The European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) Core Syllabus for Nuclear Cardiology is now available online. The syllabus lists key elements of knowledge in nuclear cardiology. It represents a framework for the development of training curricula and provides expected knowledge-based learning outcomes to the nuclear cardiology trainees.

  14. Advances in ultrasound methods for high-resolution imaging of the cardiovascular system. (United States)

    Wickline, S A


    Acoustic microscopy entails the use of high-frequency high-resolution ultrasound methods to produce images of sound waves reflected from or propagated through some tissue of interest. The image contrast depends on microscopic differences in the intrinsic material properties of the substance imaged, such as mass density or compressibility. Pathologic changes in cardiovascular tissues at the subcellular level can be observed with high-frequency acoustic imaging techniques, based on alterations in the structure, properties, and organization of cells and their surrounding matrix. Potential applications extend from delineation of cardiovascular development in experimental animals to clinical characterization of the composition of atherosclerotic lesions with intravascular ultrasound and estimation of the potential for plaque rupture and infarction. (Trends Cardiovasc Med 1997;7:168-174). © 1997, Elsevier Science Inc.

  15. Molecular imaging of apoptosis in cardiovascular diseases; Molekulare Bildgebung der Apoptose bei kardiovaskulaeren Erkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, I.; Greschus, S.; Willinek, W.; Lohmaier, S.; Block, W.; Traeber, F.; Schild, H. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Radiologische Universitaetsklinik; Heverhagen, J.T. [Marburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlendiagnostik; Behe, M. [Marburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Wilhelm, K. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Bonn (Germany). FE Chirurgie


    Molecular imaging of functional parameters such as apoptosis (programmed cell death) in vivo opens new possibilities in clinical diagnostic and scientific research. Especially in the case of cardiovascular diseases that are mainly responsible for both morbidity and mortality in Western industrial nations, innovative non-invasive examination strategies are necessary for early diagnosis of these diseases. Since apoptosis unlike necrosis is present even after minor alterations of the microenvironment of cells and has been shown to be involved in a large number of cardiovascular diseases, there are currently several experimental studies underway with the goal of imaging apoptosis in vivo. The review discusses the basics of apoptosis in myocardial infarction, myocarditis, atherosclerosis, restenosis after angioplasty and stent implantation, currently used imaging techniques, achieved results, and future possibilities for molecular imaging of apoptosis. (orig.)

  16. Computational chemical imaging for cardiovascular pathology: chemical microscopic imaging accurately determines cardiac transplant rejection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saumya Tiwari

    Full Text Available Rejection is a common problem after cardiac transplants leading to significant number of adverse events and deaths, particularly in the first year of transplantation. The gold standard to identify rejection is endomyocardial biopsy. This technique is complex, cumbersome and requires a lot of expertise in the correct interpretation of stained biopsy sections. Traditional histopathology cannot be used actively or quickly during cardiac interventions or surgery. Our objective was to develop a stain-less approach using an emerging technology, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopic imaging to identify different components of cardiac tissue by their chemical and molecular basis aided by computer recognition, rather than by visual examination using optical microscopy. We studied this technique in assessment of cardiac transplant rejection to evaluate efficacy in an example of complex cardiovascular pathology. We recorded data from human cardiac transplant patients' biopsies, used a Bayesian classification protocol and developed a visualization scheme to observe chemical differences without the need of stains or human supervision. Using receiver operating characteristic curves, we observed probabilities of detection greater than 95% for four out of five histological classes at 10% probability of false alarm at the cellular level while correctly identifying samples with the hallmarks of the immune response in all cases. The efficacy of manual examination can be significantly increased by observing the inherent biochemical changes in tissues, which enables us to achieve greater diagnostic confidence in an automated, label-free manner. We developed a computational pathology system that gives high contrast images and seems superior to traditional staining procedures. This study is a prelude to the development of real time in situ imaging systems, which can assist interventionists and surgeons actively during procedures.

  17. Ultrasound strain imaging for quantification of tissue function: cardiovascular applications (United States)

    de Korte, Chris L.; Lopata, Richard G. P.; Hansen, Hendrik H. G.


    With ultrasound imaging, the motion and deformation of tissue can be measured. Tissue can be deformed by applying a force on it and the resulting deformation is a function of its mechanical properties. Quantification of this resulting tissue deformation to assess the mechanical properties of tissue is called elastography. If the tissue under interrogation is actively deforming, the deformation is directly related to its function and quantification of this deformation is normally referred as `strain imaging'. Elastography can be used for atherosclerotic plaques characterization, while the contractility of the heart or skeletal muscles can be assessed with strain imaging. We developed radio frequency (RF) based ultrasound methods to assess the deformation at higher resolution and with higher accuracy than commercial methods using conventional image data (Tissue Doppler Imaging and 2D speckle tracking methods). However, the improvement in accuracy is mainly achieved when measuring strain along the ultrasound beam direction, so 1D. We further extended this method to multiple directions and further improved precision by using compounding of data acquired at multiple beam steered angles. In arteries, the presence of vulnerable plaques may lead to acute events like stroke and myocardial infarction. Consequently, timely detection of these plaques is of great diagnostic value. Non-invasive ultrasound strain compounding is currently being evaluated as a diagnostic tool to identify the vulnerability of plaques. In the heart, we determined the strain locally and at high resolution resulting in a local assessment in contrary to conventional global functional parameters like cardiac output or shortening fraction.

  18. Gabor Analysis for Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Feichtinger, Hans G.; Paukner, Stephan


    , it characterizes a function by its transform over phase space, which is the time–frequency plane (TF-plane) in a musical context or the location–wave-number domain in the context of image processing. Since the transition from the signal domain to the phase space domain introduces an enormous amount of data...... of the generalities relevant for an understanding of Gabor analysis of functions on Rd. We pay special attention to the case d = 2, which is the most important case for image processing and image analysis applications. The chapter is organized as follows. Section 2 presents central tools from functional analysis......, the application of Gabor expansions to image representation is considered in Sect. 6....

  19. Brain imaging changes associated with risk factors for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease in asymptomatic patients. (United States)

    Friedman, Joseph I; Tang, Cheuk Y; de Haas, Hans J; Changchien, Lisa; Goliasch, Georg; Dabas, Puneet; Wang, Victoria; Fayad, Zahi A; Fuster, Valentin; Narula, Jagat


    Reviews of imaging studies assessing the brain effects of vascular risk factors typically include a substantial number of studies with subjects with a history of symptomatic cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease and/or events, limiting our ability to disentangle the primary brain effects of vascular risk factors from those of resulting brain and cardiac damage. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review of brain changes from imaging studies in patients with vascular risk factors but without clinically manifest cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease or events. The 77 studies included in this review demonstrate that in persons without symptomatic cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, or peripheral vascular disease, the vascular risk factors of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, hyperlipidemia, and smoking are all independently associated with brain imaging changes before the clinical manifestation of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease. We conclude that the identification of brain changes associated with vascular risk factors, before the manifestation of clinically significant cerebrovascular damage, presents a window of opportunity wherein adequate treatment of these modifiable vascular risk factors may prevent the development of irreversible deleterious brain changes and potentially alter patients' clinical course.

  20. Digital image analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber-Hansen, Rikke; Vainer, Ben; Steiniche, Torben


    Digital image analysis (DIA) is increasingly implemented in histopathological research to facilitate truly quantitative measurements, decrease inter-observer variation and reduce hands-on time. Originally, efforts were made to enable DIA to reproduce manually obtained results on histological slides...... reproducibility, application of stereology-based quantitative measurements, time consumption, optimization of histological slides, regions of interest selection and recent developments in staining and imaging techniques....

  1. Assessment of Ischemic Cardiomyopathy Using Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Pictorial Review. (United States)

    Olivas-Chacon, Cristina Ivette; Mullins, Carola; Solberg, Agnieszka; Akle, Nassim; Calleros, Jesus E; Ramos-Duran, Luis R


    Ischemic heart disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. In the last two decades, cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) has emerged as the primary imaging tool in the detection and prognostic assessment of ischemic heart disease. In a single study, CMRI allows evaluation of not only myocardial wall perfusion, but also the presence, acuity, and extent of myocardial ischemia and infarction complications. Also, rest and stress perfusion imaging can accurately depict inducible ischemia secondary to significant coronary artery stenosis. We present a pictorial review of the assessment of ischemic cardiomyopathy with an emphasis on CMRI features.

  2. Assessment of Ischemic Cardiomyopathy Using Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Pictorial Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ivette Olivas-Chacon


    Full Text Available Ischemic heart disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. In the last two decades, cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI has emerged as the primary imaging tool in the detection and prognostic assessment of ischemic heart disease. In a single study, CMRI allows evaluation of not only myocardial wall perfusion, but also the presence, acuity, and extent of myocardial ischemia and infarction complications. Also, rest and stress perfusion imaging can accurately depict inducible ischemia secondary to significant coronary artery stenosis. We present a pictorial review of the assessment of ischemic cardiomyopathy with an emphasis on CMRI features.

  3. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging assessment of outcomes in acute myocardial infarction (United States)

    Khan, Jamal N; McCann, Gerry P


    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging uniquely characterizes myocardial and microvascular injury in acute myocardial infarction (AMI), providing powerful surrogate markers of outcomes. The last 10 years have seen an exponential increase in AMI studies utilizing CMR based endpoints. This article provides a contemporary, comprehensive review of the powerful role of CMR imaging in the assessment of outcomes in AMI. The theory, assessment techniques, chronology, importance in predicting left ventricular function and remodelling, and prognostic value of each CMR surrogate marker is described in detail. Major studies illustrating the importance of the markers are summarized, providing an up to date review of the literature base in CMR imaging in AMI. PMID:28289525

  4. Complementary role of cardiovascular imaging and laboratory indices in early detection of cardiovascular disease in systemic lupus erythematosus. (United States)

    Mavrogeni, S; Koutsogeorgopoulou, L; Dimitroulas, T; Markousis-Mavrogenis, G; Kolovou, G


    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been documented in >50% of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, due to a complex interplay between traditional risk factors and SLE-related factors. Various processes, such as coronary artery disease, myocarditis, dilated cardiomyopathy, vasculitis, valvular heart disease, pulmonary hypertension and heart failure, account for CVD complications in SLE. Methods Electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiography (echo), nuclear techniques, cardiac computed tomography (CT), cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) and cardiac catheterization (CCa) can detect CVD in SLE at an early stage. ECG and echo are the cornerstones of CVD evaluation in SLE. The routine use of cardiac CT and nuclear techniques is limited by radiation exposure and use of iodinated contrast agents. Additionally, nuclear techniques are also limited by low spatial resolution that does not allow detection of sub-endocardial and sub-epicardial lesions. CCa gives definitive information about coronary artery anatomy and pulmonary artery pressure and offers the possibility of interventional therapy. However, it carries the risk of invasive instrumentation. Recently, CMR was proved of great value in the evaluation of cardiac function and the detection of myocardial inflammation, stress-rest perfusion defects and fibrosis. Results An algorithm for CVD evaluation in SLE includes clinical, laboratory, ECG and echo assessment as well as CMR evaluation in patients with inconclusive findings, persistent cardiac symptoms despite normal standard evaluation, new onset of life-threatening arrhythmia/heart failure and/or as a tool to select SLE patients for CCa. Conclusions A non-invasive approach including clinical, laboratory and imaging evaluation is key for early CVD detection in SLE.

  5. Cardiovascular hybrid imaging using PET/MRI; Kardiovaskulaere Hybridbildgebung mit PET/MRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nensa, Felix; Schlosser, Thomas [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Neuroradiologie


    The following overview provides a summary of the state of the art and research as well as potential clinical applications of cardiovascular PET/MR imaging. PET/MRI systems have been clinically available for a few years, and their use in cardiac imaging has been successfully demonstrated. At this period in time, some of the technical difficulties that arose at the beginning have been solved; in particular with respect to MRI-based attenuation correction, caution should be exercised with PET quantification. In addition, many promising technical options are still in the developmental stage, such as MRI-based motion correction of PET data resulting from simultaneous MR acquisition, and are not yet available for cardiovascular imaging. On the other hand, PET/MRI has been used to demonstrate significant pathologies such as acute and chronic myocardial infarction, myocarditis or cardiac sarcoidosis; future applications in clinical routine or within studies appear to be possible. In coming years additional studies will have to be performed to prove diagnostic gain at a reasonable cost-benefit ratio before valid conclusions are possible regarding the clinical utility and future of cardiovascular PET/MR imaging.

  6. Cardiovascular assessment of patients with Ullrich-Turner's Syndrome on Doppler echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro Ana Valéria Barros de


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the cardiovascular features of Ullrich-Turner's syndrome using echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging, and to correlate them with the phenotype and karyotype of the patients. The diagnostic concordance between the 2 methods was also assessed. METHODS: Fifteen patients with the syndrome were assessed by echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging (cardiac chambers, valves, and aorta. Their ages ranged from 10 to 28 (mean of 16.7 years. The karyotype was analyzed in 11 or 25 metaphases of peripheral blood lymphocytes, or both. RESULTS: The most common phenotypic changes were short stature and spontaneous absence of puberal development (100%; 1 patient had a cardiac murmur. The karyotypes detected were as follows: 45,X (n=7, mosaics (n=5, and deletions (n=3. No echocardiographic changes were observed. In regard to magnetic resonance imaging, coarctation and dilation of the aorta were found in 1 patient, and isolated dilation of the aorta was found in 4 patients. CONCLUSION: The frequencies of coarctation and dilation of the aorta detected on magnetic resonance imaging were similar to those reported in the literature (5.5% to 20%, and 6.3% to 29%, respectively. This confirmed the adjuvant role of magnetic resonance imaging to Doppler echocardiography for diagnosing cardiovascular alterations in patients with Ullrich-Turner's syndrome.

  7. Hyperspectral image analysis. A tutorial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amigo Rubio, Jose Manuel; Babamoradi, Hamid; Elcoroaristizabal Martin, Saioa


    This tutorial aims at providing guidelines and practical tools to assist with the analysis of hyperspectral images. Topics like hyperspectral image acquisition, image pre-processing, multivariate exploratory analysis, hyperspectral image resolution, classification and final digital image processi...... to differentiate between several types of plastics by using Near infrared hyperspectral imaging and Partial Least Squares - Discriminant Analysis. Thus, the reader is guided through every single step and oriented in order to adapt those strategies to the user's case.......This tutorial aims at providing guidelines and practical tools to assist with the analysis of hyperspectral images. Topics like hyperspectral image acquisition, image pre-processing, multivariate exploratory analysis, hyperspectral image resolution, classification and final digital image processing...

  8. The predictive value of chronic kidney disease for assessing cardiovascular events under consideration of pretest probability for coronary artery disease in patients who underwent stress myocardial perfusion imaging. (United States)

    Furuhashi, Tatsuhiko; Moroi, Masao; Joki, Nobuhiko; Hase, Hiroki; Masai, Hirofumi; Kunimasa, Taeko; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Sugi, Kaoru


    Pretest probability of coronary artery disease (CAD) facilitates diagnosis and risk stratification of CAD. Stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are established major predictors of cardiovascular events. However, the role of CKD to assess pretest probability of CAD has been unclear. This study evaluates the role of CKD to assess the predictive value of cardiovascular events under consideration of pretest probability in patients who underwent stress MPI. Patients with no history of CAD underwent stress MPI (n = 310; male = 166; age = 70; CKD = 111; low/intermediate/high pretest probability = 17/194/99) and were followed for 24 months. Cardiovascular events included cardiac death and nonfatal acute coronary syndrome. Cardiovascular events occurred in 15 of the 310 patients (4.8 %), but not in those with low pretest probability which included 2 CKD patients. In patients with intermediate to high pretest probability (n = 293), multivariate Cox regression analysis identified only CKD [hazard ratio (HR) = 4.88; P = 0.022) and summed stress score of stress MPI (HR = 1.50; P probability. In patients with intermediate to high pretest probability, CKD and stress MPI are independent predictors of cardiovascular events considering the pretest probability of CAD in patients with no history of CAD. In assessing pretest probability of CAD, CKD might be an important factor for assessing future cardiovascular prognosis.

  9. Medical Image Analysis Facility (United States)


    To improve the quality of photos sent to Earth by unmanned spacecraft. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) developed a computerized image enhancement process that brings out detail not visible in the basic photo. JPL is now applying this technology to biomedical research in its Medical lrnage Analysis Facility, which employs computer enhancement techniques to analyze x-ray films of internal organs, such as the heart and lung. A major objective is study of the effects of I stress on persons with heart disease. In animal tests, computerized image processing is being used to study coronary artery lesions and the degree to which they reduce arterial blood flow when stress is applied. The photos illustrate the enhancement process. The upper picture is an x-ray photo in which the artery (dotted line) is barely discernible; in the post-enhancement photo at right, the whole artery and the lesions along its wall are clearly visible. The Medical lrnage Analysis Facility offers a faster means of studying the effects of complex coronary lesions in humans, and the research now being conducted on animals is expected to have important application to diagnosis and treatment of human coronary disease. Other uses of the facility's image processing capability include analysis of muscle biopsy and pap smear specimens, and study of the microscopic structure of fibroprotein in the human lung. Working with JPL on experiments are NASA's Ames Research Center, the University of Southern California School of Medicine, and Rancho Los Amigos Hospital, Downey, California.

  10. Non-contact transmittance photoplethysmographic imaging (PPGI) for long-distance cardiovascular monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Amelard, Robert; Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Pfisterer, Kaylen J; Lin, Bill S; Wong, Alexander; Clausi, David A


    Photoplethysmography (PPG) devices are widely used for monitoring cardiovascular function. However, these devices require skin contact, which restrict their use to at-rest short-term monitoring using single-point measurements. Photoplethysmographic imaging (PPGI) has been recently proposed as a non-contact monitoring alternative by measuring blood pulse signals across a spatial region of interest. Existing systems operate in reflectance mode, of which many are limited to short-distance monitoring and are prone to temporal changes in ambient illumination. This paper is the first study to investigate the feasibility of long-distance non-contact cardiovascular monitoring at the supermeter level using transmittance PPGI. For this purpose, a novel PPGI system was designed at the hardware and software level using ambient correction via temporally coded illumination (TCI) and signal processing for PPGI signal extraction. Experimental results show that the processing steps yield a substantially more pulsatile PPGI si...

  11. Image sequence analysis

    CERN Document Server


    The processing of image sequences has a broad spectrum of important applica­ tions including target tracking, robot navigation, bandwidth compression of TV conferencing video signals, studying the motion of biological cells using microcinematography, cloud tracking, and highway traffic monitoring. Image sequence processing involves a large amount of data. However, because of the progress in computer, LSI, and VLSI technologies, we have now reached a stage when many useful processing tasks can be done in a reasonable amount of time. As a result, research and development activities in image sequence analysis have recently been growing at a rapid pace. An IEEE Computer Society Workshop on Computer Analysis of Time-Varying Imagery was held in Philadelphia, April 5-6, 1979. A related special issue of the IEEE Transactions on Pattern Anal­ ysis and Machine Intelligence was published in November 1980. The IEEE Com­ puter magazine has also published a special issue on the subject in 1981. The purpose of this book ...

  12. Left ventricular thrombus formation after acute myocardial infarction as assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delewi, Ronak [Department of Cardiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands (Netherlands); Nijveldt, Robin [Department of Cardiology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hirsch, Alexander [Department of Cardiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Marcu, Constantin B.; Robbers, Lourens [Department of Cardiology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hassell, Marriela E.C.J.; Bruin, Rianne H.A. de; Vleugels, Jim; Laan, Anja M. van der; Bouma, Berto J. [Department of Cardiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tio, René A. [Thorax Center, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Tijssen, Jan G.P. [Department of Cardiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rossum, Albert C. van [Department of Cardiology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Zijlstra, Felix [Thorax Center, Department of Cardiology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Piek, Jan J., E-mail: [Department of Cardiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    Introduction: Left ventricular (LV) thrombus formation is a feared complication of myocardial infarction (MI). We assessed the prevalence of LV thrombus in ST-segment elevated MI patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and compared the diagnostic accuracy of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) to cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). Also, we evaluated the course of LV thrombi in the modern era of primary PCI. Methods: 200 patients with primary PCI underwent TTE and CMR, at baseline and at 4 months follow-up. Studies were analyzed by two blinded examiners. Patients were seen at 1, 4, 12, and 24 months for assessment of clinical status and adverse events. Results: On CMR at baseline, a thrombus was found in 17 of 194 (8.8%) patients. LV thrombus resolution occurred in 15 patients. Two patients had persistence of LV thrombus on follow-up CMR. On CMR at four months, a thrombus was found in an additional 12 patients. In multivariate analysis, thrombus formation on baseline CMR was independently associated with, baseline infarct size (g) (B = 0.02, SE = 0.02, p < 0.001). Routine TTE had a sensitivity of 21–24% and a specificity of 95–98% compared to CMR for the detection of LV thrombi. Intra- and interobserver variation for detection of LV thrombus were lower for CMR (κ = 0.91 and κ = 0.96) compared to TTE (κ = 0.74 and κ = 0.53). Conclusion: LV thrombus still occurs in a substantial amount of patients after PCI-treated MI, especially in larger infarct sizes. Routine TTE had a low sensitivity for the detection of LV thrombi and the interobserver variation of TTE was large.

  13. Strain measurement by cardiovascular magnetic resonance in pediatric cancer survivors: validation of feature tracking against harmonic phase imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jimmy C. [C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, University of Michigan Congenital Heart Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); University of Michigan, Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); University of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Connelly, James A. [University of Michigan, Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, Division of Hematology-Oncology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Zhao, Lili [University of Michigan, Department of Biostatistics, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Agarwal, Prachi P. [University of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Division of Cardiothoracic Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Dorfman, Adam L. [University of Michigan, Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); University of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)


    Left ventricular strain may be a more sensitive marker of left ventricular dysfunction than ejection fraction in pediatric cancer survivors after anthracycline therapy, but there is limited validation of strain measurement by feature tracking on cardiovascular magnetic resonance (MR) images. To compare left ventricular circumferential and radial strain by feature tracking vs. harmonic phase imaging analysis (HARP) in pediatric cancer survivors. Twenty-six patients (20.2 ± 5.6 years old) underwent cardiovascular MR at least 5 years after completing anthracycline therapy. Circumferential and radial strain were measured at the base, midventricle and apex from short-axis myocardial tagged images by HARP, and from steady-state free precession images by feature tracking. Left ventricular ejection fraction more closely correlated with global circumferential strain by feature tracking (r = -0.63, P = 0.0005) than by HARP (r = -0.39, P = 0.05). Midventricular circumferential strain did not significantly differ by feature tracking or HARP (-20.8 ± 3.4 vs. -19.5 ± 2.5, P = 0.07), with acceptable limits of agreement. Midventricular circumferential strain by feature tracking strongly correlated with global circumferential strain by feature tracking (r = 0.87, P < 0.0001). Radial strain by feature tracking had poor agreement with HARP, particularly at higher values of radial strain. Intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility was excellent for feature tracking circumferential strain, but reproducibility was poor for feature tracking radial strain. Midventricular circumferential strain by feature tracking is a reliable and reproducible measure of myocardial deformation in patients status post anthracycline therapy, while radial strain measurements are unreliable. Further studies are necessary to evaluate potential relation to long-term outcomes. (orig.)

  14. Risk stratification in cardiovascular disease primary prevention - scoring systems, novel markers, and imaging techniques.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zannad, Faiez


    The aim of this paper is to review and discuss current methods of risk stratification for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention, emerging biomarkers, and imaging techniques, and their relative merits and limitations. This report is based on discussions that took place among experts in the area during a special CardioVascular Clinical Trialists workshop organized by the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Drug Therapy in September 2009. Classical risk factors such as blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels remain the cornerstone of risk estimation in primary prevention but their use as a guide to management is limited by several factors: (i) thresholds for drug treatment vary with the available evidence for cost-effectiveness and benefit-to-risk ratios; (ii) assessment may be imprecise; (iii) residual risk may remain, even with effective control of dyslipidemia and hypertension. Novel measures include C-reactive protein, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) , genetic markers, and markers of subclinical organ damage, for which there are varying levels of evidence. High-resolution ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging to assess carotid atherosclerotic lesions have potential but require further validation, standardization, and proof of clinical usefulness in the general population. In conclusion, classical risk scoring systems are available and inexpensive but have a number of limitations. Novel risk markers and imaging techniques may have a place in drug development and clinical trial design. However, their additional value above and beyond classical risk factors has yet to be determined for risk-guided therapy in CVD prevention.

  15. Updated standards and processes for accreditation of echocardiographic laboratories from The European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging. (United States)

    Popescu, Bogdan A; Stefanidis, Alexandros; Nihoyannopoulos, Petros; Fox, Kevin F; Ray, Simon; Cardim, Nuno; Rigo, Fausto; Badano, Luigi P; Fraser, Alan G; Pinto, Fausto; Zamorano, Jose Luis; Habib, Gilbert; Maurer, Gerald; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Andrade, Maria Joao; Donal, Erwan; Edvardsen, Thor; Varga, Albert


    Standards for echocardiographic laboratories were proposed by the European Association of Echocardiography (now the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging) 7 years ago in order to raise standards of practice and improve the quality of care. Criteria and requirements were published at that time for transthoracic, transoesophageal, and stress echocardiography. This paper reassesses and updates the quality standards to take account of experience and the technical developments of modern echocardiographic practice. It also discusses quality control, the incentives for laboratories to apply for accreditation, the reaccreditation criteria, and the current status and future prospects of the laboratory accreditation process.

  16. A synthetic luciferin improves in vivo bioluminescence imaging of gene expression in cardiovascular brain regions. (United States)

    Simonyan, Hayk; Hurr, Chansol; Young, Colin N


    Bioluminescence imaging is an effective tool for in vivo investigation of molecular processes. We have demonstrated the applicability of bioluminescence imaging to spatiotemporally monitor gene expression in cardioregulatory brain nuclei during the development of cardiovascular disease, via incorporation of firefly luciferase into living animals, combined with exogenous d-luciferin substrate administration. Nevertheless, d-luciferin uptake into the brain tissue is low, which decreases the sensitivity of bioluminescence detection, particularly when considering small changes in gene expression in tiny central areas. Here, we tested the hypothesis that a synthetic luciferin, cyclic alkylaminoluciferin (CycLuc1), would be superior to d-luciferin for in vivo bioluminescence imaging in cardiovascular brain regions. Male C57B1/6 mice underwent targeted delivery of an adenovirus encoding the luciferase gene downstream of the CMV promoter to the subfornical organ (SFO) or paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus (PVN), two crucial cardioregulatory neural regions. While bioluminescent signals could be obtained following d-luciferin injection (150 mg/kg), CycLuc1 administration resulted in a three- to fourfold greater bioluminescent emission from the SFO and PVN, at 10- to 20-fold lower substrate concentrations (7.5-15 mg/kg). This CycLuc1-mediated enhancement in bioluminescent emission was evident early following substrate administration (i.e., 6-10 min) and persisted for up to 1 h. When the exposure time was reduced from 60 s to 1,500 ms, minimal signal in the PVN was detectable with d-luciferin, whereas bioluminescent images could be reliably captured with CycLuc1. These findings demonstrate that bioluminescent imaging with the synthetic luciferin CycLuc1 provides an improved physiological genomics tool to investigate molecular events in discrete cardioregulatory brain nuclei.

  17. Cardiovascular CT angiography in neonates and children: Image quality and potential for radiation dose reduction with iterative image reconstruction techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tricarico, Francesco [Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, ' ' A. Gemelli' ' Hospital, Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy); Hlavacek, Anthony M. [Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Children' s Hospital, Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Charleston, SC (United States); Schoepf, U.J. [Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Children' s Hospital, Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Charleston, SC (United States); Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States); Ebersberger, Ullrich [Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Heart Centre Munich-Bogenhausen, Department of Cardiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Munich (Germany); Nance, John W. [Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Johns Hopkins Hospital, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn [Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University Medical Centre Groningen/University of Groningen, Centre for Medical Imaging - North East Netherlands, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands); Cho, Young Jun [Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Konyang University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Spears, J.R. [Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Secchi, Francesco [Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University of Milan School of Medicine IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Radiology Unit, Milan (Italy); Savino, Giancarlo; Marano, Riccardo; Bonomo, Lorenzo [Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, ' ' A. Gemelli' ' Hospital, Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy); Schoenberg, Stefan O. [University Medical Centre Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim - Heidelberg University, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Mannheim (Germany); Apfaltrer, Paul [Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University Medical Centre Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim - Heidelberg University, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Mannheim (Germany)


    To evaluate image quality (IQ) of low-radiation-dose paediatric cardiovascular CT angiography (CTA), comparing iterative reconstruction in image space (IRIS) and sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) with filtered back-projection (FBP) and estimate the potential for further dose reductions. Forty neonates and children underwent low radiation CTA with or without ECG synchronisation. Data were reconstructed with FBP, IRIS and SAFIRE. For ECG-synchronised studies, half-dose image acquisitions were simulated. Signal noise was measured and IQ graded. Effective dose (ED) was estimated. Mean absolute and relative image noise with IRIS and full-dose SAFIRE was lower than with FBP (P < 0.001), while SNR and CNR were higher (P < 0.001). Image noise was also lower and SNR and CNR higher in half-dose SAFIRE studies compared with full-and half-dose FBP studies (P < 0.001). IQ scores were higher for IRIS, full-dose SAFIRE and half-dose SAFIRE than for full-dose FBP and higher for half-dose SAFIRE than for half-dose FBP (P < 0.05). Median weight-specific ED was 0.3 mSv without and 1.36 mSv with ECG synchronisation. The estimated ED of half-dose SAFIRE studies was 0.68 mSv. IR improves image noise, SNR, CNR and subjective IQ compared with FBP in low-radiation-dose paediatric CTA and allows further dose reductions without compromising diagnostic IQ. (orig.)

  18. Image based performance analysis of thermal imagers (United States)

    Wegner, D.; Repasi, E.


    Due to advances in technology, modern thermal imagers resemble sophisticated image processing systems in functionality. Advanced signal and image processing tools enclosed into the camera body extend the basic image capturing capability of thermal cameras. This happens in order to enhance the display presentation of the captured scene or specific scene details. Usually, the implemented methods are proprietary company expertise, distributed without extensive documentation. This makes the comparison of thermal imagers especially from different companies a difficult task (or at least a very time consuming/expensive task - e.g. requiring the execution of a field trial and/or an observer trial). For example, a thermal camera equipped with turbulence mitigation capability stands for such a closed system. The Fraunhofer IOSB has started to build up a system for testing thermal imagers by image based methods in the lab environment. This will extend our capability of measuring the classical IR-system parameters (e.g. MTF, MTDP, etc.) in the lab. The system is set up around the IR- scene projector, which is necessary for the thermal display (projection) of an image sequence for the IR-camera under test. The same set of thermal test sequences might be presented to every unit under test. For turbulence mitigation tests, this could be e.g. the same turbulence sequence. During system tests, gradual variation of input parameters (e. g. thermal contrast) can be applied. First ideas of test scenes selection and how to assembly an imaging suite (a set of image sequences) for the analysis of imaging thermal systems containing such black boxes in the image forming path is discussed.

  19. Modulation of retinal image vasculature analysis to extend utility and provide secondary value from optical coherence tomography imaging. (United States)

    Cameron, James R; Ballerini, Lucia; Langan, Clare; Warren, Claire; Denholm, Nicholas; Smart, Katie; MacGillivray, Thomas J


    Retinal image analysis is emerging as a key source of biomarkers of chronic systemic conditions affecting the cardiovascular system and brain. The rapid development and increasing diversity of commercial retinal imaging systems present a challenge to image analysis software providers. In addition, clinicians are looking to extract maximum value from the clinical imaging taking place. We describe how existing and well-established retinal vasculature segmentation and measurement software for fundus camera images has been modulated to analyze scanning laser ophthalmoscope retinal images generated by the dual-modality Heidelberg SPECTRALIS(®) instrument, which also features optical coherence tomography.

  20. Reflections on ultrasound image analysis. (United States)

    Alison Noble, J


    Ultrasound (US) image analysis has advanced considerably in twenty years. Progress in ultrasound image analysis has always been fundamental to the advancement of image-guided interventions research due to the real-time acquisition capability of ultrasound and this has remained true over the two decades. But in quantitative ultrasound image analysis - which takes US images and turns them into more meaningful clinical information - thinking has perhaps more fundamentally changed. From roots as a poor cousin to Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance (MR) image analysis, both of which have richer anatomical definition and thus were better suited to the earlier eras of medical image analysis which were dominated by model-based methods, ultrasound image analysis has now entered an exciting new era, assisted by advances in machine learning and the growing clinical and commercial interest in employing low-cost portable ultrasound devices outside traditional hospital-based clinical settings. This short article provides a perspective on this change, and highlights some challenges ahead and potential opportunities in ultrasound image analysis which may both have high impact on healthcare delivery worldwide in the future but may also, perhaps, take the subject further away from CT and MR image analysis research with time.

  1. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance and computed tomography imaging for the assessment of cardiovascular complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus


    Graça, Bruno Miguel Silva Rosa da


    Tese de doutoramento em Ciências da Saúde, no ramo de Medicina, na especialidade de Medicina Interna (Radiologia e Imagiologia), apresentada à Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Coimbra Diabetes mellitus is responsible for diverse cardiovascular complications such as increased atherosclerosis in large arteries (carotids, aorta, and femoral arteries) and increased coronary atherosclerosis. A number of noninvasive tests are now available to detect coronary atherosclerotic disease, ...

  2. Diagnosis and management of ischemic cardiomyopathy: Role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christina; Doesch; Theano; Papavassiliu


    Coronary artery disease(CAD) represents an important cause of mortality. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance(CMR) imaging evolved as an imaging modality that allows the assessment of myocardial function, perfusion, contractile reserve and extent of fibrosis in a single comprehensive exam. This review highlights the role of CMR in the differential diagnosis of acute chest pain by detecting the location of obstructive CAD or necrosis and identifying other conditions like stress cardiomyopathy or myocarditis that can present with acute chest pain. Besides, it underlines the prognostic implication of perfusion abnormalities in the setting of acute chest pain. Furthermore, the review addresses the role of CMR to detect significant CAD in patients with stable CAD. It elucidates the accuracy and clinical utility of CMR with respect to other imaging modalitieslike single-photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography. Besides, the prognostic value of CMR stress testing is discussed. Additionally, it summarizes the available CMR techniques to assess myocardial viability and describes algorithm to identify those patient who might profit from revascularization those who should be treated medically. Finally, future promising imaging techniques that will provide further insights into the fundamental disease processes in ischemic cardiomyopathy are discussed.

  3. Image Analysis in CT Angiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manniesing, R.


    In this thesis we develop and validate novel image processing techniques for the analysis of vascular structures in medical images. First a new type of filter is proposed which is capable of enhancing vascular structures while suppressing noise in the remainder of the image. This filter is based on

  4. [Risk Factor Analysis of Pneumonia after Cardiovascular Surgery]. (United States)

    Maekawa, Yoshiyuki; Abe, Shuichi; Nakamura, Ken; Uchida, Tetsuro; Sadahiro, Mitsuaki; Morikane, Keita


    Pneumonia is a major and life-threatening complication after cardiovascular surgery. The objective of our study was to describe epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and risk factors of pneumonia after cardiovascular surgery. From January 2007 to December 2011, 511 consecutive patients (age 67.3±11.9;336 men, 175 women) were enrolled in this study. Pneumonia was diagnosed according to Centers of Disease Control and Prevention surveillance criteria for healthcare associated infection. Data collection included preoperative, intraoperative, and post-operative variables. The overall incidence of pneumonia was 72 cases(14.0%). The mortality in pneumonia group was significantly higher than that in non-pneumonia group (16.6% vs 4.3%, Odds ratio 4.4 ppneumonia after cardiovascular surgery.

  5. Reference image selection for difference imaging analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Huckvale, Leo; Sale, Stuart E


    Difference image analysis (DIA) is an effective technique for obtaining photometry in crowded fields, relative to a chosen reference image. As yet, however, optimal reference image selection is an unsolved problem. We examine how this selection depends on the combination of seeing, background and detector pixel size. Our tests use a combination of simulated data and quality indicators from DIA of well-sampled optical data and under-sampled near-infrared data from the OGLE and VVV surveys, respectively. We search for a figure-of-merit (FoM) which could be used to select reference images for each survey. While we do not find a universally applicable FoM, survey-specific measures indicate that the effect of spatial under-sampling may require a change in strategy from the standard DIA approach, even though seeing remains the primary criterion. We find that background is not an important criterion for reference selection, at least for the dynamic range in the images we test. For our analysis of VVV data in particu...

  6. Digital Images Analysis



    International audience; A specific field of image processing focuses on the evaluation of image quality and assessment of their authenticity. A loss of image quality may be due to the various processes by which it passes. In assessing the authenticity of the image we detect forgeries, detection of hidden messages, etc. In this work, we present an overview of these areas; these areas have in common the need to develop theories and techniques to detect changes in the image that it is not detect...

  7. Alterations in vascular function in primary aldosteronism: a cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging study. (United States)

    Mark, P B; Boyle, S; Zimmerli, L U; McQuarrie, E P; Delles, C; Freel, E M


    Excess aldosterone is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Aldosterone has a permissive effect on vascular fibrosis. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) allows study of vascular function by measuring aortic distensibility. We compared aortic distensibility in primary aldosteronism (PA), essential hypertension (EH) and normal controls and explored the relationship between aortic distensibility and pulse wave velocity (PWV). We studied PA (n=14) and EH (n=33) subjects and age-matched healthy controls (n=17) with CMR, including measurement of aortic distensibility, and measured PWV using applanation tonometry. At recruitment, PA and EH patients had similar blood pressure and left ventricular mass. Subjects with PA had significantly lower aortic distensibility and higher PWV compared with EH and healthy controls. These changes were independent of other factors associated with reduced aortic distensibility, including ageing. There was a significant relationship between increasing aortic stiffness and age in keeping with physical and vascular ageing. As expected, aortic distensibility and PWV were closely correlated. These results demonstrate that PA patients display increased arterial stiffness compared with EH, independent of vascular ageing. The implication is that aldosterone invokes functional impairment of arterial function. The long-term implications of arterial stiffening in aldosterone excess require further study.

  8. Safety of magnetic resonance imaging in patients with implanted cardiac prostheses and metallic cardiovascular electronic devices. (United States)

    Baikoussis, Nikolaos G; Apostolakis, Efstratios; Papakonstantinou, Nikolaos A; Sarantitis, Ioannis; Dougenis, Dimitrios


    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with implanted cardiac prostheses and metallic cardiovascular electronic devices is sometimes a risky procedure. Thus MRI in these patients should be performed when it is the only examination able to help with the diagnosis. Moreover the diagnostic benefit must outweigh the risks. Coronary artery stents, prosthetic cardiac valves, metal sternal sutures, mediastinal vascular clips, and epicardial pacing wires are not contraindications for MRI, in contrast to pacemakers and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators. Appropriate patient selection and precautions ensure MRI safety. However it is commonly accepted that although hundreds of patients with pacemakers or implantable cardioverter-defibrillators have undergone safe MRI scanning, it is not a safe procedure. Currently, heating of the pacemaker lead is the major problem undermining MRI safety. According to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), there are currently neither "MRI-safe" nor "MRI-compatible" pacemakers and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators. In this article we review the international literature in regard to safety during MRI of patients with implanted cardiac prostheses and metallic cardiovascular electronic devices.

  9. Introduction to Medical Image Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    of the book is to present the fascinating world of medical image analysis in an easy and interesting way. Compared to many standard books on image analysis, the approach we have chosen is less mathematical and more casual. Some of the key algorithms are exemplified in C-code. Please note that the code...

  10. Bibliometric analysis of the top 100 cited cardiovascular articles. (United States)

    Shuaib, Waqas; Khan, Muhammad S; Shahid, Hassan; Valdes, Emilio A; Alweis, Richard


    The number of citations an article receives is an important indication of its impact and contribution to the clinical world. There is a paucity of literature concerning top article citations in cardiology. The main objective of this investigation was to bridge this gap and to provide readers a practical guide in evaluating the cardiovascular literature. Scopus Library database was searched to determine the citations of all published cardiovascular articles. One hundred two journals were included in our investigation under the Institute of Science Information Web of Science subject category "cardiology, cardiovascular, and heart." We did not apply any time or study-type restriction in our search. The top 100 cited articles were selected and analyzed by 2 independent investigators. The journal with the highest number of top 100 cited articles was Circulation with 36, followed by 28 in the European Heart Journal. A statistically significant association was found between the journal impact factor and the number of top 100 cited articles (p citation frequency of top cited articles published in cardiovascular medicine to help recognize the quality of the works, discoveries, and the trends steering cardiology.

  11. Prognostic value of tissue Doppler imaging for predicting ventricular arrhythmias and cardiovascular mortality in ischaemic cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Tor; Olsen, Flemming Javier; Storm, Katrine;


    AIMS: Only 30% of patients receiving an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) for primary prevention receive appropriately therapy. We sought to investigate the value of tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) to predict ventricular tachycardia (VT), ventricular fibrillation (VF), and cardiovascular...... mortality (CVD) in patients with primary prevention ICD. METHODS AND RESULTS: In total, 151 ICD patients meeting primary prevention criteria and with no history of ventricular arrhythmias were included. All participants were examined by conventional 2D echocardiography and TDI echocardiography. Longitudinal...... systolic (s'), early diastolic (e'), and late diastolic (a') myocardial velocities were measured using TDI at six mitral annular sites and averaged to provide global estimates. Forty patients experienced the combined endpoint of VT, VF, or CVD during a median follow-up of 2.3 years. Left ventricular...

  12. Expert consensus for multi-modality imaging evaluation of cardiovascular complications of radiotherapy in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lancellotti, Patrizio; Nkomo, Vuyisile T; Badano, Luigi P;


    recognized only in the early 1970s, the heart is regarded in the current era as one of the most critical dose-limiting organs in radiotherapy. Several clinical studies have identified adverse clinical consequences of radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD) on the outcome of long-term cancer survivors......Cardiac toxicity is one of the most concerning side effects of anti-cancer therapy. The gain in life expectancy obtained with anti-cancer therapy can be compromised by increased morbidity and mortality associated with its cardiac complications. While radiosensitivity of the heart was initially....... A comprehensive review of potential cardiac complications related to radiotherapy is warranted. An evidence-based review of several imaging approaches used to detect, evaluate, and monitor RIHD is discussed. Recommendations for the early identification and monitoring of cardiovascular complications...

  13. Oncological image analysis: medical and molecular image analysis (United States)

    Brady, Michael


    This paper summarises the work we have been doing on joint projects with GE Healthcare on colorectal and liver cancer, and with Siemens Molecular Imaging on dynamic PET. First, we recall the salient facts about cancer and oncological image analysis. Then we introduce some of the work that we have done on analysing clinical MRI images of colorectal and liver cancer, specifically the detection of lymph nodes and segmentation of the circumferential resection margin. In the second part of the paper, we shift attention to the complementary aspect of molecular image analysis, illustrating our approach with some recent work on: tumour acidosis, tumour hypoxia, and multiply drug resistant tumours.

  14. Review of cardiovascular imaging in the journal of nuclear cardiology in 2015. Part 1 of 2: Plaque imaging, positron emission tomography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance. (United States)

    AlJaroudi, Wael A; Hage, Fadi G


    In 2015, many original articles pertaining to cardiovascular imaging with impressive quality were published in the Journal of Nuclear Cardiology. In a set of 2 articles, we provide an overview of these contributions to facilitate for the interested reader a quick review of the advancements that occurred in the field over this year. In this first article, we focus on arterial plaque imaging, cardiac positron emission tomography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.

  15. Assessment of radiation dose in nuclear cardiovascular imaging using realistic computational models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Tianwu [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva 4 CH-1211 (Switzerland); Lee, Choonsik [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20852 (United States); Bolch, Wesley E. [Departments of Nuclear and Radiological and Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Zaidi, Habib, E-mail: [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva 4 CH-1211 (Switzerland); Geneva Neuroscience Center, Geneva University, Geneva CH-1205 (Switzerland); Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen 9700 RB (Netherlands)


    Purpose: Nuclear cardiology plays an important role in clinical assessment and has enormous impact on the management of a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Pediatric patients at different age groups are exposed to a spectrum of radiation dose levels and associated cancer risks different from those of adults in diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures. Therefore, comprehensive radiation dosimetry evaluations for commonly used myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and viability radiotracers in target population (children and adults) at different age groups are highly desired. Methods: Using Monte Carlo calculations and biological effects of ionizing radiation VII model, we calculate the S-values for a number of radionuclides (Tl-201, Tc-99m, I-123, C-11, N-13, O-15, F-18, and Rb-82) and estimate the absorbed dose and effective dose for 12 MPI radiotracers in computational models including the newborn, 1-, 5-, 10-, 15-yr-old, and adult male and female computational phantoms. Results: For most organs, {sup 201}Tl produces the highest absorbed dose whereas {sup 82}Rb and {sup 15}O-water produce the lowest absorbed dose. For the newborn baby and adult patient, the effective dose of {sup 82}Rb is 48% and 77% lower than that of {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin (rest), respectively. Conclusions: {sup 82}Rb results in lower effective dose in adults compared to {sup 99m}Tc-labeled tracers. However, this advantage is less apparent in children. The produced dosimetric databases for various radiotracers used in cardiovascular imaging, using new generation of computational models, can be used for risk-benefit assessment of a spectrum of patient population in clinical nuclear cardiology practice.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A method classifying objects man image as respective arterial or venous vessels comprising: identifying pixels of the said modified image which are located on a line object, determining which of the said image points is associated with crossing point or a bifurcation of the respective line object...... image into two arbitrary sets, and thereafter designating one of the sets as representing venous structure, the other of the sets as representing arterial structure, depending on one or more of the following criteria: (a) complexity of structure; (b) average density; (c) average width; (d) tortuosity...

  17. Bisphosphonates and risk of cardiovascular events: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Hyun Kim

    Full Text Available Some evidence suggests that bisphosphonates may reduce atherosclerosis, while concerns have been raised about atrial fibrillation. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine the effects of bisphosphonates on total adverse cardiovascular (CV events, atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction (MI, stroke, and CV death in adults with or at risk for low bone mass.A systematic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE through July 2014 identified 58 randomized controlled trials with longer than 6 months in duration that reported CV events. Absolute risks and the Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effects odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs of total CV events, atrial fibrillation, MI, stroke, and CV death were estimated. Subgroup analyses by follow-up duration, population characteristics, bisphosphonate types, and route were performed.Absolute risks over 25-36 months in bisphosphonate-treated versus control patients were 6.5% versus 6.2% for total CV events; 1.4% versus 1.5% for atrial fibrillation; 1.0% versus 1.2% for MI; 1.6% versus 1.9% for stroke; and 1.5% versus 1.4% for CV death. Bisphosphonate treatment up to 36 months did not have any significant effects on total CV events (14 trials; ORs [95% CI]: 0.98 [0.84-1.14]; I2 = 0.0%, atrial fibrillation (41 trials; 1.08 [0.92-1.25]; I2 = 0.0%, MI (10 trials; 0.96 [0.69-1.34]; I2 = 0.0%, stroke (10 trials; 0.99 [0.82-1.19]; I2 = 5.8%, and CV death (14 trials; 0.88 [0.72-1.07]; I2 = 0.0% with little between-study heterogeneity. The risk of atrial fibrillation appears to be modestly elevated for zoledronic acid (6 trials; 1.24 [0.96-1.61]; I2 = 0.0%, not for oral bisphosphonates (26 trials; 1.02 [0.83-1.24]; I2 = 0.0%. The CV effects did not vary by subgroups or study quality.Bisphosphonates do not have beneficial or harmful effects on atherosclerotic CV events, but zoledronic acid may modestly increase the risk of atrial fibrillation. Given the large reduction in fractures with bisphosphonates, changes in

  18. Hyperspectral image analysis. A tutorial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amigo, José Manuel, E-mail: [Spectroscopy and Chemometrics Group, Department of Food Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 30, Frederiksberg C DK–1958 (Denmark); Babamoradi, Hamid [Spectroscopy and Chemometrics Group, Department of Food Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 30, Frederiksberg C DK–1958 (Denmark); Elcoroaristizabal, Saioa [Spectroscopy and Chemometrics Group, Department of Food Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 30, Frederiksberg C DK–1958 (Denmark); Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department, School of Engineering, University of the Basque Country, Alameda de Urquijo s/n, E-48013 Bilbao (Spain)


    This tutorial aims at providing guidelines and practical tools to assist with the analysis of hyperspectral images. Topics like hyperspectral image acquisition, image pre-processing, multivariate exploratory analysis, hyperspectral image resolution, classification and final digital image processing will be exposed, and some guidelines given and discussed. Due to the broad character of current applications and the vast number of multivariate methods available, this paper has focused on an industrial chemical framework to explain, in a step-wise manner, how to develop a classification methodology to differentiate between several types of plastics by using Near infrared hyperspectral imaging and Partial Least Squares – Discriminant Analysis. Thus, the reader is guided through every single step and oriented in order to adapt those strategies to the user's case. - Highlights: • Comprehensive tutorial of Hyperspectral Image analysis. • Hierarchical discrimination of six classes of plastics containing flame retardant. • Step by step guidelines to perform class-modeling on hyperspectral images. • Fusion of multivariate data analysis and digital image processing methods. • Promising methodology for real-time detection of plastics containing flame retardant.

  19. Greater cardiovascular responses to laboratory mental stress are associated with poor subsequent cardiovascular risk status: a meta-analysis of prospective evidence. (United States)

    Chida, Yoichi; Steptoe, Andrew


    An increasing number of studies has tested whether greater cardiovascular responses to acute mental stress predict future cardiovascular disease, but results have been variable. This review aimed quantitatively to evaluate the association between cardiovascular responses to laboratory mental stress and subsequent cardiovascular risk status in prospective cohort studies. We searched general bibliographic databases, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and PubMed, up to December 2009. Two reviewers independently extracted data on study characteristics, quality, and estimates of associations. There were 169 associations (36 articles) of stress reactivity and 30 associations (5 articles) of poststress recovery in relation to future cardiovascular risk status, including elevated blood pressure, hypertension, left ventricular mass, subclinical atherosclerosis, and clinical cardiac events. The overall meta-analyses showed that greater reactivity to and poor recovery from stress were associated longitudinally with poor cardiovascular status (r=0.091 [95% CI: 0.050 to 0.132], Pstress reactivity and poor stress recovery, respectively, whereas both factors were associated with higher future systolic and diastolic blood pressures. In conclusion, the current meta-analysis suggests that greater responsivity to acute mental stress has an adverse effect on future cardiovascular risk status, supporting the use of methods of managing stress responsivity in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease.

  20. Stochastic geometry for image analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Descombes, Xavier


    This book develops the stochastic geometry framework for image analysis purpose. Two main frameworks are  described: marked point process and random closed sets models. We derive the main issues for defining an appropriate model. The algorithms for sampling and optimizing the models as well as for estimating parameters are reviewed.  Numerous applications, covering remote sensing images, biological and medical imaging, are detailed.  This book provides all the necessary tools for developing an image analysis application based on modern stochastic modeling.

  1. A Data Mining Approach for Cardiovascular Disease Diagnosis Using Heart Rate Variability and Images of Carotid Arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeongsoo Kim


    Full Text Available In this paper, we proposed not only an extraction methodology of multiple feature vectors from ultrasound images for carotid arteries (CAs and heart rate variability (HRV of electrocardiogram signal, but also a suitable and reliable prediction model useful in the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease (CVD. For inventing the multiple feature vectors, we extract a candidate feature vector through image processing and measurement of the thickness of carotid intima-media (IMT. As a complementary way, the linear and/or nonlinear feature vectors are also extracted from HRV, a main index for cardiac disorder. The significance of the multiple feature vectors is tested with several machine learning methods, namely Neural Networks, Support Vector Machine (SVM, Classification based on Multiple Association Rule (CMAR, Decision tree induction and Bayesian classifier. As a result, multiple feature vectors extracted from both CAs and HRV (CA+HRV showed higher accuracy than the separative feature vectors of CAs and HRV. Furthermore, the SVM and CMAR showed about 89.51% and 89.46%, respectively, in terms of diagnosing accuracy rate after evaluating the diagnosis or prediction methods using the finally chosen multiple feature vectors. Therefore, the multiple feature vectors devised in this paper can be effective diagnostic indicators of CVD. In addition, the feature vector analysis and prediction techniques are expected to be helpful tools in the decisions of cardiologists.

  2. Automatic quantitative analysis of cardiac MR perfusion images (United States)

    Breeuwer, Marcel M.; Spreeuwers, Luuk J.; Quist, Marcel J.


    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a powerful technique for imaging cardiovascular diseases. The introduction of cardiovascular MRI into clinical practice is however hampered by the lack of efficient and accurate image analysis methods. This paper focuses on the evaluation of blood perfusion in the myocardium (the heart muscle) from MR images, using contrast-enhanced ECG-triggered MRI. We have developed an automatic quantitative analysis method, which works as follows. First, image registration is used to compensate for translation and rotation of the myocardium over time. Next, the boundaries of the myocardium are detected and for each position within the myocardium a time-intensity profile is constructed. The time interval during which the contrast agent passes for the first time through the left ventricle and the myocardium is detected and various parameters are measured from the time-intensity profiles in this interval. The measured parameters are visualized as color overlays on the original images. Analysis results are stored, so that they can later on be compared for different stress levels of the heart. The method is described in detail in this paper and preliminary validation results are presented.

  3. Advancing Cardiovascular, Neurovascular, and Renal Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Small Rodents Using Cryogenic Radiofrequency Coil Technology. (United States)

    Niendorf, Thoralf; Pohlmann, Andreas; Reimann, Henning M; Waiczies, Helmar; Peper, Eva; Huelnhagen, Till; Seeliger, Erdmann; Schreiber, Adrian; Kettritz, Ralph; Strobel, Klaus; Ku, Min-Chi; Waiczies, Sonia


    Research in pathologies of the brain, heart and kidney have gained immensely from the plethora of studies that have helped shape new methods in magnetic resonance (MR) for characterizing preclinical disease models. Methodical probing into preclinical animal models by MR is invaluable since it allows a careful interpretation and extrapolation of data derived from these models to human disease. In this review we will focus on the applications of cryogenic radiofrequency (RF) coils in small animal MR as a means of boosting image quality (e.g., by supporting MR microscopy) and making data acquisition more efficient (e.g., by reducing measuring time); both being important constituents for thorough investigational studies on animal models of disease. This review attempts to make the (bio)medical imaging, molecular medicine, and pharmaceutical communities aware of this productive ferment and its outstanding significance for anatomical and functional MR in small rodents. The goal is to inspire a more intense interdisciplinary collaboration across the fields to further advance and progress non-invasive MR methods that ultimately support thorough (patho)physiological characterization of animal disease models. In this review, current and potential future applications for the RF coil technology in cardiovascular, neurovascular, and renal disease will be discussed.

  4. Advancing Cardiovascular, Neurovascular, and Renal Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Small Rodents Using Cryogenic Radiofrequency Coil Technology (United States)

    Niendorf, Thoralf; Pohlmann, Andreas; Reimann, Henning M.; Waiczies, Helmar; Peper, Eva; Huelnhagen, Till; Seeliger, Erdmann; Schreiber, Adrian; Kettritz, Ralph; Strobel, Klaus; Ku, Min-Chi; Waiczies, Sonia


    Research in pathologies of the brain, heart and kidney have gained immensely from the plethora of studies that have helped shape new methods in magnetic resonance (MR) for characterizing preclinical disease models. Methodical probing into preclinical animal models by MR is invaluable since it allows a careful interpretation and extrapolation of data derived from these models to human disease. In this review we will focus on the applications of cryogenic radiofrequency (RF) coils in small animal MR as a means of boosting image quality (e.g., by supporting MR microscopy) and making data acquisition more efficient (e.g., by reducing measuring time); both being important constituents for thorough investigational studies on animal models of disease. This review attempts to make the (bio)medical imaging, molecular medicine, and pharmaceutical communities aware of this productive ferment and its outstanding significance for anatomical and functional MR in small rodents. The goal is to inspire a more intense interdisciplinary collaboration across the fields to further advance and progress non-invasive MR methods that ultimately support thorough (patho)physiological characterization of animal disease models. In this review, current and potential future applications for the RF coil technology in cardiovascular, neurovascular, and renal disease will be discussed. PMID:26617515

  5. A novel high resolution, high sensitivity SPECT detector for molecular imaging of cardiovascular diseases (United States)

    Cusanno, F.; Argentieri, A.; Baiocchi, M.; Colilli, S.; Cisbani, E.; De Vincentis, G.; Fratoni, R.; Garibaldi, F.; Giuliani, F.; Gricia, M.; Lucentini, M.; Magliozzi, M. L.; Majewski, S.; Marano, G.; Musico, P.; Musumeci, M.; Santavenere, F.; Torrioli, S.; Tsui, B. M. W.; Vitelli, L.; Wang, Y.


    Cardiovascular diseases are the most common cause of death in western countries. Understanding the rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques and monitoring the effect of innovative therapies of heart failure is of fundamental importance. A flexible, high resolution, high sensitivity detector system for molecular imaging with radionuclides on small animal models has been designed for this aim. A prototype has been built using tungsten pinhole and LaBr3(Ce) scintillator coupled to Hamamatsu Flat Panel PMTs. Compact individual-channel readout has been designed, built and tested. Measurements with phantoms as well as pilot studies on mice have been performed, the results show that the myocardial perfusion in mice can be determined with sufficient precision. The detector will be improved replacing the Hamamatsu Flat Panel with Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) to allow integration of the system with MRI scanners. Application of LaBr3(Ce) scintillator coupled to photosensor with high photon detection efficiency and excellent energy resolution will allow dual-label imaging to monitor simultaneously the cardiac perfusion and the molecular targets under investigation during the heart therapy.

  6. Image Analysis for Tongue Characterization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENLansun; WEIBaoguo; CAIYiheng; ZHANGXinfeng; WANGYanqing; CHENJing; KONGLingbiao


    Tongue diagnosis is one of the essential methods in traditional Chinese medical diagnosis. The ac-curacy of tongue diagnosis can be improved by tongue char-acterization. This paper investigates the use of image anal-ysis techniques for tongue characterization by evaluating visual features obtained from images. A tongue imaging and analysis instrument (TIAI) was developed to acquire digital color tongue images. Several novel approaches are presented for color calibration, tongue area segmentation,quantitative analysis and qualitative description for the colors of tongue and its coating, the thickness and moisture of coating and quantification of the cracks of the toilgue.The overall accuracy of the automatic analysis of the colors of tongue and the thickness of tongue coating exceeds 85%.This work shows the promising future of tongue character-ization.

  7. Flightspeed Integral Image Analysis Toolkit (United States)

    Thompson, David R.


    The Flightspeed Integral Image Analysis Toolkit (FIIAT) is a C library that provides image analysis functions in a single, portable package. It provides basic low-level filtering, texture analysis, and subwindow descriptor for applications dealing with image interpretation and object recognition. Designed with spaceflight in mind, it addresses: Ease of integration (minimal external dependencies) Fast, real-time operation using integer arithmetic where possible (useful for platforms lacking a dedicated floatingpoint processor) Written entirely in C (easily modified) Mostly static memory allocation 8-bit image data The basic goal of the FIIAT library is to compute meaningful numerical descriptors for images or rectangular image regions. These n-vectors can then be used directly for novelty detection or pattern recognition, or as a feature space for higher-level pattern recognition tasks. The library provides routines for leveraging training data to derive descriptors that are most useful for a specific data set. Its runtime algorithms exploit a structure known as the "integral image." This is a caching method that permits fast summation of values within rectangular regions of an image. This integral frame facilitates a wide range of fast image-processing functions. This toolkit has applicability to a wide range of autonomous image analysis tasks in the space-flight domain, including novelty detection, object and scene classification, target detection for autonomous instrument placement, and science analysis of geomorphology. It makes real-time texture and pattern recognition possible for platforms with severe computational restraints. The software provides an order of magnitude speed increase over alternative software libraries currently in use by the research community. FIIAT can commercially support intelligent video cameras used in intelligent surveillance. It is also useful for object recognition by robots or other autonomous vehicles

  8. Position paper of the Cardiovascular Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) on PET imaging of atherosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucerius, Jan [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht (Netherlands); University Hospital RWTH Aachen, RWTH Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Maastricht University Medical Center (MUMC), Department of Nuclear Medicine and Cardiovascular Research Institute (CARIM), P. Debyelaan 25, HX, Maastricht (Netherlands); Hyafil, Fabien [Bichat University Hospital, Inserm 1148, DHU FIRE, Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Paris, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Paris (France); Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Verberne, Hein J. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Slart, Riemer H.J.A. [University of Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); University of Twente, Department of Biomedical Photonic Imaging, Faculty of Science and Technology, Enschede (Netherlands); Lindner, Oliver [Heart and Diabetes Center NRW, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Institute of Radiology, Bad Oeynhausen (Germany); Sciagra, Roberto [University of Florence, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences, Florence (Italy); Agostini, Denis [Normandie Universite, Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHU Cote de Nacre, Caen (France); Uebleis, Christopher [Ludwig-Maximilians Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Clinical Radiology, Muenchen (Germany); Gimelli, Alessia [Fondazione Toscana Gabriele Monasterio, Pisa (Italy); Hacker, Marcus [Medical University Vienna, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided therapy, Vienna (Austria); Collaboration: on behalf of the Cardiovascular Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM)


    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death not only in Europe but also in the rest of the World. Preventive measures, however, often fail and cardiovascular disease may manifest as an acute coronary syndrome, stroke or even sudden death after years of silent progression. Thus, there is a considerable need for innovative diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to improve the quality of care and limit the burden of cardiovascular diseases. During the past 10 years, several retrospective and prospective clinical studies have been published using {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to quantify inflammation in atherosclerotic plaques. However, the current variety of imaging protocols used for vascular (arterial) imaging with FDG PET considerably limits the ability to compare results between studies and to build large multicentre imaging registries. Based on the existing literature and the experience of the Members of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) Cardiovascular Committee, the objective of this position paper was to propose optimized and standardized protocols for imaging and interpretation of PET scans in atherosclerosis. These recommendations do not, however, replace the individual responsibility of healthcare professionals to make appropriate decisions in the circumstances of the individual study protocols used and the individual patient, in consultation with the patient and, where appropriate and necessary, the patient's guardian or carer. These recommendations suffer from the absence of conclusive evidence on many of the recommendations. Therefore, they are not intended and should not be used as ''strict guidelines'' but should, as already mentioned, provide a basis for standardized clinical atherosclerosis PET imaging protocols, which are subject to further and continuing evaluation and improvement. However, this EANM position paper might indeed be a first step towards &apos

  9. Position paper of the Cardiovascular Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) on PET imaging of atherosclerosis. (United States)

    Bucerius, Jan; Hyafil, Fabien; Verberne, Hein J; Slart, Riemer H J A; Lindner, Oliver; Sciagra, Roberto; Agostini, Denis; Übleis, Christopher; Gimelli, Alessia; Hacker, Marcus


    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death not only in Europe but also in the rest of the World. Preventive measures, however, often fail and cardiovascular disease may manifest as an acute coronary syndrome, stroke or even sudden death after years of silent progression. Thus, there is a considerable need for innovative diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to improve the quality of care and limit the burden of cardiovascular diseases. During the past 10 years, several retrospective and prospective clinical studies have been published using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to quantify inflammation in atherosclerotic plaques. However, the current variety of imaging protocols used for vascular (arterial) imaging with FDG PET considerably limits the ability to compare results between studies and to build large multicentre imaging registries. Based on the existing literature and the experience of the Members of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) Cardiovascular Committee, the objective of this position paper was to propose optimized and standardized protocols for imaging and interpretation of PET scans in atherosclerosis. These recommendations do not, however, replace the individual responsibility of healthcare professionals to make appropriate decisions in the circumstances of the individual study protocols used and the individual patient, in consultation with the patient and, where appropriate and necessary, the patient's guardian or carer. These recommendations suffer from the absence of conclusive evidence on many of the recommendations. Therefore, they are not intended and should not be used as "strict guidelines" but should, as already mentioned, provide a basis for standardized clinical atherosclerosis PET imaging protocols, which are subject to further and continuing evaluation and improvement. However, this EANM position paper might indeed be a first step towards "official" guidelines on

  10. Sleep apnea-hypopnea quantification by cardiovascular data analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Camargo

    Full Text Available Sleep disorders are a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Sleep apnea is the most common sleep disturbance and its detection relies on a polysomnography, i.e., a combination of several medical examinations performed during a monitored sleep night. In order to detect occurrences of sleep apnea without the need of combined recordings, we focus our efforts on extracting a quantifier related to the events of sleep apnea from a cardiovascular time series, namely systolic blood pressure (SBP. Physiologic time series are generally highly nonstationary and entrap the application of conventional tools that require a stationary condition. In our study, data nonstationarities are uncovered by a segmentation procedure which splits the signal into stationary patches, providing local quantities such as mean and variance of the SBP signal in each stationary patch, as well as its duration L. We analysed the data of 26 apneic diagnosed individuals, divided into hypertensive and normotensive groups, and compared the results with those of a control group. From the segmentation procedure, we identified that the average duration , as well as the average variance , are correlated to the apnea-hypoapnea index (AHI, previously obtained by polysomnographic exams. Moreover, our results unveil an oscillatory pattern in apneic subjects, whose amplitude S* is also correlated with AHI. All these quantities allow to separate apneic individuals, with an accuracy of at least 79%. Therefore, they provide alternative criteria to detect sleep apnea based on a single time series, the systolic blood pressure.

  11. Cardiovascular events in Japanese asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes: a 1-year interim report of a J-ACCESS 2 investigation using myocardial perfusion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Kenichi [Kanazawa University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kanazawa (Japan); Yamasaki, Yoshimitsu [Osaka University, Center for Advanced Science and Innovation, Osaka (Japan); Kusuoka, Hideo [National Hospital Organization Osaka National Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Izumi, Tohru [Kitasato University, Department of Cardiology and Internal Medicine, Sagamihara (Japan); Kashiwagi, Atsunori [Shiga University of Medical Science, Department of Medicine, Ohtsu (Japan); Kawamori, Ryuzo [Juntendo University, Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Shimamoto, Kazuaki [Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Second Department of Internal Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Yamada, Nobuhiro [University of Tsukuba, Division of Metabolism and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Tsukuba (Japan); Nishimura, Tsunehiko [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, 465 Kajii-cho, Kawara-machi, Hirokoji, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto (Japan)


    Diabetic patients have a high risk for cardiovascular events. The role of myocardial perfusion imaging was investigated in asymptomatic diabetic patients to evaluate short-term prognosis in a Japanese population. A total of 506 asymptomatic patients {>=}50 years of age who had carotid artery maximum intima-media thickness {>=}1.1 mm, urinary albumin excretion of {>=}30 mg/g creatinine, with additional criteria of abdominal obesity, low HDL cholesterol, high triglyceride level, and hypertension were enrolled and followed up over a 3-year period. Gated SPECT with stress-rest protocol was performed and analyzed by summed defect scores and QGS software. One-year cardiovascular events were analyzed. Myocardial ischemia was observed in 17% of patients, and abnormal perfusion findings of ischemia and/or scar were observed in 32% of patients. By the end of the 1-year follow-up, 33 (6.5%) cardiovascular events occurred including 6 all-cause deaths. Patients with summed stress score (SSS) >8 had a higher incidence of either death or cardiovascular events. Event-free survival rates for SSS 0-3, 4-8, 9-13, and {>=}14 were 0.96, 0.95, 0.82, and 0.76, respectively. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that significant variables were SSS, history of cerebrovascular accident, and electrocardiographic abnormality at rest. The 1-year interim summary showed that cardiovascular events were significantly higher in patients with SPECT abnormality, although hard cardiac event rate was relatively low. Targeted treatment strategy is required for asymptomatic but potentially high-risk diabetic patients. (orig.)

  12. Shape analysis in medical image analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Tavares, João


    This book contains thirteen contributions from invited experts of international recognition addressing important issues in shape analysis in medical image analysis, including techniques for image segmentation, registration, modelling and classification, and applications in biology, as well as in cardiac, brain, spine, chest, lung and clinical practice. This volume treats topics such as, anatomic and functional shape representation and matching; shape-based medical image segmentation; shape registration; statistical shape analysis; shape deformation; shape-based abnormity detection; shape tracking and longitudinal shape analysis; machine learning for shape modeling and analysis; shape-based computer-aided-diagnosis; shape-based medical navigation; benchmark and validation of shape representation, analysis and modeling algorithms. This work will be of interest to researchers, students, and manufacturers in the fields of artificial intelligence, bioengineering, biomechanics, computational mechanics, computationa...

  13. Effect of antioxidant vitamin supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yizhou Ye

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antioxidant vitamin (vitamin E, beta-carotene, and vitamin C are widely used for preventing major cardiovascular outcomes. However, the effect of antioxidant vitamin on cardiovascular events remains unclear. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We searched PubMed, EmBase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the proceedings of major conferences for relevant literature. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials that reported on the effects of antioxidant vitamin on cardiovascular outcomes as compared to placebo. Outcomes analyzed were major cardiovascular events, myocardial infarction, stroke, cardiac death, total death, and any possible adverse events. We used the I(2 statistic to measure heterogeneity between trials and calculated risk estimates for cardiovascular outcomes with random-effect meta-analysis. Independent extraction was performed by two reviewers and consensus was reached. Of 293 identified studies, we included 15 trials reporting data on 188209 participants. These studies reported 12749 major cardiovascular events, 6699 myocardial infarction, 3749 strokes, 14122 total death, and 5980 cardiac deaths. Overall, antioxidant vitamin supplementation as compared to placebo had no effect on major cardiovascular events (RR, 1.00; 95%CI, 0.96-1.03, myocardial infarction (RR, 0.98; 95%CI, 0.92-1.04, stroke (RR, 0.99; 95%CI, 0.93-1.05, total death (RR, 1.03; 95%CI, 0.98-1.07, cardiac death (RR, 1.02; 95%CI, 0.97-1.07, revascularization (RR, 1.00; 95%CI, 0.95-1.05, total CHD (RR, 0.96; 95%CI, 0.87-1.05, angina (RR, 0.98; 95%CI, 0.90-1.07, and congestive heart failure (RR, 1.07; 95%CI, 0.96 to 1.19. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Antioxidant vitamin supplementation has no effect on the incidence of major cardiovascular events, myocardial infarction, stroke, total death, and cardiac death.

  14. Basic image analysis and manipulation in ImageJ. (United States)

    Hartig, Sean M


    Image analysis methods have been developed to provide quantitative assessment of microscopy data. In this unit, basic aspects of image analysis are outlined, including software installation, data import, image processing functions, and analytical tools that can be used to extract information from microscopy data using ImageJ. Step-by-step protocols for analyzing objects in a fluorescence image and extracting information from two-color tissue images collected by bright-field microscopy are included.

  15. Imaging of systemic lupus erythematosus. Part I: CNS, cardiovascular, and thoracic manifestations. (United States)

    Goh, Y P; Naidoo, P; Ngian, G S


    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, multisystem autoimmune disease that has a relapsing and remitting course. It has a wide range of non-specific symptoms with various organ manifestations. In 1982, the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) published the revised criteria for the classification of SLE. The diagnosis of SLE may be made if four or more of the 11 ACR criteria are present, either serially or simultaneously, during any interval of observation. Whilst the diagnosis of SLE is based on clinical and laboratory features, with no universally accepted radiological diagnostic criteria, imaging is nonetheless useful for diagnosing specific organ manifestations, monitoring disease progression, and identifying complications secondary to immunosuppressive therapy. In this review, we describe the spectrum of radiological findings of SLE in various organ systems and compile a list of organ manifestations including the most frequently occurring diseases as well as the rare but not-to-be-missed diseases. This review aims to serve as a concise reference tool in an endeavour to assist clinicians and radiologists in the diagnosis and monitoring of this disease. This pictorial review presents the various radiological findings of CNS, cardiovascular and thoracic manifestation of SLE. The gastrointestinal, renal and musculoskeletal systems will be covered in part II.

  16. Sleep apnea-hypopnea quantification by cardiovascular data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Camargo, Sabrina; Anteneodo, Celia; Kurths, Juergen; Penzel, Thomas; Wessel, Niels


    Sleep apnea is the most common sleep disturbance and it is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disorders. Its detection relies on a polysomnography, a combination of diverse exams. In order to detect changes due to sleep disturbances such as sleep apnea occurrences, without the need of combined recordings, we mainly analyze systolic blood pressure signals (maximal blood pressure value of each beat to beat interval). Nonstationarities in the data are uncovered by a segmentation procedure, which provides local quantities that are correlated to apnea-hypopnea events. Those quantities are the average length and average variance of stationary patches. By comparing them to an apnea score previously obtained by polysomnographic exams, we propose an apnea quantifier based on blood pressure signal. This furnishes an alternative procedure for the detection of apnea based on a single time series, with an accuracy of 82%.

  17. Inappropriateness of cardiovascular radiological imaging testing; a tertiary care referral center study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Carpeggiani

    Full Text Available AIMS: Radiological inappropriateness in medical imaging leads to loss of resources and accumulation of avoidable population cancer risk. Aim of the study was to audit the appropriateness rate of different cardiac radiological examinations. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: With a retrospective, observational study we reviewed clinical records of 818 consecutive patients (67 ± 12 years, 75% males admitted from January 1-May 31, 2010 to the National Research Council - Tuscany Region Gabriele Monasterio Foundation cardiology division. A total of 940 procedures were audited: 250 chest x-rays (CXR; 240 coronary computed tomographies (CCT; 250 coronary angiographies (CA; 200 percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI. For each test, indications were rated on the basis of guidelines class of recommendation and level of evidence: definitely appropriate (A, including class I, appropriate, and class IIa, probably appropriate, uncertain (U, class IIb, probably inappropriate, or inappropriate (I, class III, definitely inappropriate. Appropriateness was suboptimal for all tests: CXR (A = 48%, U = 10%, I = 42%; CCT (A = 58%, U = 24%, I = 18%; CA (A = 45%, U = 25%, I = 30%; PCI (A = 63%, U = 15%, I = 22%. Top reasons for inappropriateness were: routine on hospital admission (70% of inappropriate CXR; first line application in asymptomatic low-risk patients (42% of CCT or in patients with unchanged clinical status post-revascularization (20% of CA; PCI in patients either asymptomatic or with miscellaneous symptoms and without inducible ischemia on non-invasive testing (36% of inappropriate PCI. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: Public healthcare system--with universal access paid for with public money--is haemorrhaging significant resources and accumulating avoidable long-term cancer risk with inappropriate cardiovascular imaging prevention.

  18. Document image analysis: A primer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rangachar Kasturi; Lawrence O’Gorman; Venu Govindaraju


    Document image analysis refers to algorithms and techniques that are applied to images of documents to obtain a computer-readable description from pixel data. A well-known document image analysis product is the Optical Character Recognition (OCR) software that recognizes characters in a scanned document. OCR makes it possible for the user to edit or search the document’s contents. In this paper we briefly describe various components of a document analysis system. Many of these basic building blocks are found in most document analysis systems, irrespective of the particular domain or language to which they are applied. We hope that this paper will help the reader by providing the background necessary to understand the detailed descriptions of specific techniques presented in other papers in this issue.

  19. Errors from Image Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, William Monford [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Presenting a systematic study of the standard analysis of rod-pinch radiographs for obtaining quantitative measurements of areal mass densities, and making suggestions for improving the methodology of obtaining quantitative information from radiographed objects.

  20. Pocket pumped image analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotov, I.V., E-mail: [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); O' Connor, P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Murray, N. [Centre for Electronic Imaging, Open University, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)


    The pocket pumping technique is used to detect small electron trap sites. These traps, if present, degrade CCD charge transfer efficiency. To reveal traps in the active area, a CCD is illuminated with a flat field and, before image is read out, accumulated charges are moved back and forth number of times in parallel direction. As charges are moved over a trap, an electron is removed from the original pocket and re-emitted in the following pocket. As process repeats one pocket gets depleted and the neighboring pocket gets excess of charges. As a result a “dipole” signal appears on the otherwise flat background level. The amplitude of the dipole signal depends on the trap pumping efficiency. This paper is focused on trap identification technique and particularly on new methods developed for this purpose. The sensor with bad segments was deliberately chosen for algorithms development and to demonstrate sensitivity and power of new methods in uncovering sensor defects.

  1. Imaging spectroscopy for scene analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Robles-Kelly, Antonio


    This book presents a detailed analysis of spectral imaging, describing how it can be used for the purposes of material identification, object recognition and scene understanding. The opportunities and challenges of combining spatial and spectral information are explored in depth, as are a wide range of applications. Features: discusses spectral image acquisition by hyperspectral cameras, and the process of spectral image formation; examines models of surface reflectance, the recovery of photometric invariants, and the estimation of the illuminant power spectrum from spectral imagery; describes

  2. Multivariate image analysis in biomedicine. (United States)

    Nattkemper, Tim W


    In recent years, multivariate imaging techniques are developed and applied in biomedical research in an increasing degree. In research projects and in clinical studies as well m-dimensional multivariate images (MVI) are recorded and stored to databases for a subsequent analysis. The complexity of the m-dimensional data and the growing number of high throughput applications call for new strategies for the application of image processing and data mining to support the direct interactive analysis by human experts. This article provides an overview of proposed approaches for MVI analysis in biomedicine. After summarizing the biomedical MVI techniques the two level framework for MVI analysis is illustrated. Following this framework, the state-of-the-art solutions from the fields of image processing and data mining are reviewed and discussed. Motivations for MVI data mining in biology and medicine are characterized, followed by an overview of graphical and auditory approaches for interactive data exploration. The paper concludes with summarizing open problems in MVI analysis and remarks upon the future development of biomedical MVI analysis.

  3. Deployment of an Advanced Electrocardiographic Analysis (A-ECG) to Detect Cardiovascular Risk in Career Firefighters (United States)

    Dolezal, B. A.; Storer, T. W.; Abrazado, M.; Watne, R.; Schlegel, T. T.; Batalin, M.; Kaiser, W.; Smith, D. L.; Cooper, C. B.


    INTRODUCTION Sudden cardiac death is the leading cause of line of duty death among firefighters, accounting for approximately 45% of fatalities annually. Firefighters perform strenuous muscular work while wearing heavy, encapsulating personal protective equipment in high ambient temperatures, under chaotic and emotionally stressful conditions. These factors can precipitate sudden cardiac events like myocardial infarction, serious dysrhythmias, or cerebrovascular accidents in firefighters with underlying cardiovascular disease. Screening for cardiovascular risk factors is recommended but not always followed in this population. PHASER is a project charged with identifying and prioritizing risk factors in emergency responders. We have deployed an advanced ECG (A-ECG) system developed at NASA for improved sensitivity and specificity in the detection of cardiac risk. METHODS Forty-four professional firefighters were recruited to perform comprehensive baseline assessments including tests of aerobic performance and laboratory tests for fasting lipid profiles and glucose. Heart rate and conventional 12-lead ECG were obtained at rest and during incremental treadmill exercise testing (XT). In addition, a 5-min resting 12-lead A-ECG was obtained in a subset of firefighters (n=18) and transmitted over a secure networked system to a physician collaborator at NASA for advanced-ECG analysis. This A-ECG system has been proven, using myocardial perfusion and other imaging, to accurately identify a number of cardiac pathologies including coronary artery disease (CAD), left ventricular hypertrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, and ischemic cardiomyopathy. RESULTS Subjects mean (SD) age was 43 (8) years, weight 91 (13) kg, and BMI of 28 (3) kg/square meter. Maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) was 39 (9) ml/kg/min. This compares with the 45th %ile in healthy reference values and a recommended standard of 42 ml/kg/min for firefighters. The metabolic threshold (VO

  4. Effect of Papillary Muscles and Trabeculae on Left Ventricular Measurement Using Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patients with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Eun-Ah; Lee, Whal [Department of Radiology, Cardiovascular Division, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung-Kwan [Department of Internal Medicine, Cardiovascular Division, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin Wook [Department of Radiology, Cardiovascular Division, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the influence of papillary muscles and trabeculae on left ventricular (LV) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) analysis using three methods of cavity delineation (classic or modified inclusion methods, and the exclusion method) in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). This retrospective study included 20 consecutive HCM patients who underwent 1.5-T CMR imaging with short-axis cine stacks of the entire LV. LV measurements were performed using three different methods of manual cavity delineation of the endocardial and epicardial contours: method A, presumed endocardial boundary as seen on short-axis cine images; method B, including solely the cavity and closely adjacent trabeculae; or method C, excluding papillary muscles and trabeculae. Ascending aorta forward flow was measured as reference for LV-stroke volume (SV). Interobserver reproducibility was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients. Method A showed larger end-diastole and end-systole volumes (largest percentage differences of 25% and 68%, respectively, p < 0.05), compared with method C. The ejection fraction was 55.7 ± 6.9% for method A, 68.6 ± 8.4% for B, and 71.7 ± 7.0% for C (p < 0.001). Mean mass was also significantly different: 164.6 ± 47.4 g for A, 176.5 ± 50.5 g for B, and 199.6 ± 53.2 g for C (p < 0.001). LV-SV error was largest with method B (p < 0.001). No difference in interobserver agreement was observed (p > 0.05). In HCM patients, LV measurements are strikingly different dependent on whether papillary muscles and trabeculae are included or excluded. Therefore, a consistent method of LV cavity delineation may be crucial during longitudinal follow-up to avoid misinterpretation and erroneous clinical decision-making.

  5. Effect of folic acid supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hao Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Folic acid is widely used to lower homocysteine concentrations and prevent adverse cardiovascular outcomes. However, the effect of folic acid on cardiovascular events is not clear at the present time. We carried out a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effects of folic acid supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We systematically searched Medline, EmBase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, reference lists of articles, and proceedings of major meetings for relevant literature. We included randomized placebo-controlled trials that reported on the effects of folic acid on cardiovascular events compared to placebo. Of 1594 identified studies, we included 16 trials reporting data on 44841 patients. These studies reported 8238 major cardiovascular events, 2001 strokes, 2917 myocardial infarctions, and 6314 deaths. Folic acid supplementation as compared to placebo had no effect on major cardiovascular events (RR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.93-1.04, stroke (RR, 0.89; 95% CI,0.78-1.01, myocardial infarction (RR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.93-1.07, or deaths from any cause (RR, 1.00;95% CI, 0.96-1.05. Moreover, folic acid as compared to placebo also had no effect on the following secondary outcomes: risk of revascularization (RR, 1.05; 95%CI, 0.95-1.16, acute coronary syndrome (RR, 1.06; 95%CI, 0.97-1.15, cancer (RR, 1.08; 95%CI, 0.98-1.21, vascular death (RR, 0.94; 95%CI,0.88-1.02, or non-vascular death (RR, 1.06; 95%CI, 0.97-1.15. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Folic acid supplementation does not effect on the incidence of major cardiovascular events, stroke, myocardial infarction or all cause mortality.

  6. Biochemical Cardiovascular Risk Factors After Hypertensive Pregnancy Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, W.; Ket, J.C.; Pampus, M.G. van; Franx, A.; Veenendaal, M.V.; Kolster, C.; Tamsma, J.T.; Bloemenkamp, K.W.; Ponjee, G.; Hout, E. van der; Ten Horn, H.; Loix, S.; Mol, B.W.; Groot, C.J. de


    The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies assessing biochemical cardiovascular risk factors in women with previous hypertensive pregnancy disorders and women with previous normotensive pregnancies. Data were collected from PubMed and EMBASE (from inc

  7. Biochemical Cardiovascular Risk Factors After Hypertensive Pregnancy Disorders : A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, Wietske; Ket, Johannes C. F.; van Pampus, Maria G.; Franx, Arie; Veenendaal, Marjolein V. E.; Kolster, Clara; Tamsma, Jouke T.; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W. M.; Ponjee, Gabrielle; van der Hout, Evelien; ten Horn, Hilde; Loix, Stephanie; Mol, Ben Willem; de Groot, Christianne J. M.


    The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies assessing biochemical cardiovascular risk factors in women with previous hypertensive pregnancy disorders and women with previous normotensive pregnancies. Data were collected from PubMed and EMBASE (from inc

  8. Association between alcohol and cardiovascular disease : Mendelian randomisation analysis based on individual participant data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmes, Michael V.; Dale, Caroline E.; Zuccolo, Luisa; Silverwood, Richard J.; Guo, Yiran; Ye, Zheng; Prieto-Merino, David; Dehghan, Abbas; Trompet, Stella; Wong, Andrew; Cavadino, Alana; Drogan, Dagmar; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Li, Shanshan; Yesupriya, Ajay; Leusink, Maarten; Sundstrom, Johan; Hubacek, Jaroslav A.; Pikhart, Hynek; Swerdlow, Daniel I.; Panayiotou, Andrie G.; Borinskaya, Svetlana A.; Finan, Chris; Shah, Sonia; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Shah, Tina; Engmann, Jorgen; Folkersen, Lasse; Eriksson, Per; Ricceri, Fulvio; Melander, Olle; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Gamble, Dale M.; Rayaprolu, Sruti; Ross, Owen A.; McLachlan, Stela; Vikhireva, Olga; Sluijs, Ivonne; Scott, Robert A.; Adamkova, Vera; Flicker, Leon; Van Bockxmeer, Frank M.; Power, Christine; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Meade, Tom; Marmot, Michael G.; Ferro, Jose M.; Paulos-Pinheiro, Sofia; Humphries, Steve E.; Talmud, Philippa J.; Leach, Irene Mateo; Verweij, Niek; Linneberg, Allan; Skaaby, Tea; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Cramer, Maarten J.; Van Der Harst, Pim; Klungel, Olaf H.; Dowling, Nicole F.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Kumari, Meena; Nicolaides, Andrew N.; Weikert, Cornelia; Boeing, Heiner; Ebrahim, Shah; Gaunt, Tom R.; Price, Jackie F.; Lannfelt, Lars; Peasey, Anne; Kubinova, Ruzena; Pajak, Andrzej; Malyutina, Sofia; Voevoda, Mikhail I.; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Maitland-van Der Zee, Anke H.; Norman, Paul E.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H.; Cooper, Jackie; Palmen, Jutta; Spiering, Wilko; De Jong, Pim A.; Kuh, Diana; Hardy, Rebecca; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Ford, Ian; Hyppönen, Elina; Almeida, Osvaldo P.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Khaw, Kay Tee; Hamsten, Anders; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Tjønneland, Anne; Tolstrup, Janne S.; Rimm, Eric; Beulens, Joline W J; Verschuren, W. M Monique; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Hofker, Marten H.; Wannamethee, S. Goya; Whincup, Peter H.; Morris, Richard; Vicente, Astrid M.; Watkins, Hugh; Farrall, Martin; Jukema, J. Wouter; Meschia, James; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Sharp, Stephen J.; Fornage, Myriam; Kooperberg, Charles; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Dai, James Y.; Lanktree, Matthew B.; Siscovick, David S.; Jorgenson, Eric; Spring, Bonnie; Coresh, Josef; Li, Yun R.; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Ellison, R. Curtis; Tsai, Michael Y.; Patel, Sanjay R.; Redline, Susan; Johnson, Andrew D.; Hoogeveen, Ron C.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Rotter, Jerome I.; Boerwinkle, Eric; De Bakker, Paul I W; Kivimaki, Mika; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Sattar, Naveed; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Whittaker, John; Smith, George Davey; Mukamal, Kenneth; Psaty, Bruce M.; Wilson, James G.; Lange, Leslie A.; Hamidovic, Ajna; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Bobak, Martin; Leon, David A.; Langenberg, Claudia; Palmer, Tom M.; Reiner, Alex P.; Keating, Brendan J.; Dudbridge, Frank; Casas, Juan P.


    Objective: To use the rs1229984 variant in the alcohol dehydrogenase 1B gene (ADH1B) as an instrument to investigate the causal role of alcohol in cardiovascular disease. Design: Mendelian randomisation meta-analysis of 56 epidemiological studies. Participants: 261 991 individuals of European descen

  9. Association between alcohol and cardiovascular disease : Mendelian randomisation analysis based on individual participant data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmes, Michael V.; Dale, Caroline E.; Zuccolo, Luisa; Silverwood, Richard J.; Guo, Yiran; Ye, Zheng; Prieto-Merino, David; Dehghan, Abbas; Trompet, Stella; Wong, Andrew; Cavadino, Alana; Drogan, Dagmar; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Li, Shanshan; Yesupriya, Ajay; Leusink, Maarten; Sundstrom, Johan; Hubacek, Jaroslav A.; Pikhart, Hynek; Swerdlow, Daniel I.; Panayiotou, Andrie G.; Borinskaya, Svetlana A.; Finan, Chris; Shah, Sonia; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Shah, Tina; Engmann, Jorgen; Folkersen, Lasse; Eriksson, Per; Ricceri, Fulvio; Melander, Olle; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Gamble, Dale M.; Rayaprolu, Sruti; Ross, Owen A.; McLachlan, Stela; Vikhireva, Olga; Sluijs, Ivonne; Scott, Robert A.; Adamkova, Vera; Flicker, Leon; Van Bockxmeer, Frank M.; Power, Christine; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Meade, Tom; Marmot, Michael G.; Ferro, Jose M.; Paulos-Pinheiro, Sofia; Humphries, Steve E.; Talmud, Philippa J.; Mateo Leach, Irene; Verweij, Niek; Linneberg, Allan; Skaaby, Tea; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Cramer, Maarten J.; Van der Harst, Pim; Klungel, Olaf H.; Dowling, Nicole F.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Kumari, Meena; Nicolaides, Andrew N.; Weikert, Cornelia; Boeing, Heiner; Ebrahim, Shah; Gaunt, Tom R.; Price, Jackie F.; Lannfelt, Lars; Peasey, Anne; Kubinova, Ruzena; Pajak, Andrzej; Malyutina, Sofia; Voevoda, Mikhail I.; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke H.; Norman, Paul E.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H.; Cooper, Jackie; Palmen, Jutta; Spiering, Wilko; de Jong, Pim A.; Kuh, Diana; Hardy, Rebecca; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Ford, Ian; Hyppoenen, Elina; Almeida, Osvaldo P.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Hamsten, Anders; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N.; Tjonneland, Anne; Tolstrup, Janne S.; Rimm, Eric; Beulens, Joline W. J.; Verschuren, W. M. Monique; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Hofker, Marten H.; Wannamethee, S. Goya; Whincup, Peter H.; Morris, Richard; Vicente, Astrid M.; Watkins, Hugh; Farrall, Martin; Jukema, J. Wouter; Meschia, James; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Sharp, Stephen J.; Fornage, Myriam; Kooperberg, Charles; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Dai, James Y.; Lanktree, Matthew B.; Siscovick, David S.; Jorgenson, Eric; Spring, Bonnie; Coresh, Josef; Li, Yun R.; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Ellison, R. Curtis; Tsai, Michael Y.; Patel, Sanjay R.; Redline, Susan; Johnson, Andrew D.; Hoogeveen, Ron C.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Boerwinkle, Eric; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Kivimaki, Mika; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Sattar, Naveed; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Whittaker, John; Smith, George Davey; Mukamal, Kenneth; Psaty, Bruce M.; Wilson, James G.; Lange, Leslie A.; Hamidovic, Ajna; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Nordestgaard, Borge G.; Bobak, Martin; Leon, David A.; Langenberg, Claudia; Palmer, Tom M.; Reiner, Alex P.; Keating, Brendan J.; Dudbridge, Frank; Casas, Juan P.


    Objective To use the rs1229984 variant in the alcohol dehydrogenase 1B gene (ADH1B) as an instrument to investigate the causal role of alcohol in cardiovascular disease. Design Mendelian randomisation meta-analysis of 56 epidemiological studies. Participants 261 991 individuals of European descent,

  10. Ultra-Wideband Sensors for Improved Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cardiovascular Monitoring and Tumour Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Seifert


    Full Text Available The specific advantages of ultra-wideband electromagnetic remote sensing (UWB radar make it a particularly attractive technique for biomedical applications. We partially review our activities in utilizing this novel approach for the benefit of high and ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and other applications, e.g., for intensive care medicine and biomedical research. We could show that our approach is beneficial for applications like motion tracking for high resolution brain imaging due to the non-contact acquisition of involuntary head motions with high spatial resolution, navigation for cardiac MRI due to our interpretation of the detected physiological mechanical contraction of the heart muscle and for MR safety, since we have investigated the influence of high static magnetic fields on myocardial mechanics. From our findings we could conclude, that UWB radar can serve as a navigator technique for high and ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging and can be beneficial preserving the high resolution capability of this imaging modality. Furthermore it can potentially be used to support standard ECG analysis by complementary information where sole ECG analysis fails. Further analytical investigations have proven the feasibility of this method for intracranial displacements detection and the rendition of a tumour’s contrast agent based perfusion dynamic. Beside these analytical approaches we have carried out FDTD simulations of a complex arrangement mimicking the illumination of a human torso model incorporating the geometry of the antennas applied.

  11. Cardiac remodeling following percutaneous mitral valve repair. Initial results assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radunski, U.K [University Heart Center, Hamburg (Germany). Cardiology; Franzen, O. [Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark). Cardiology; Barmeyer, A. [Klinikum Dortmund (Germany). Kardiologie; and others


    Percutaneous mitral valve repair with the MitraClip device (Abbott Vascular, Redwood City, California, USA) is a novel therapeutic option in patients with mitral regurgitation. This study evaluated the feasibility of cardiac volume measurements by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) to assess reverse myocardial remodeling in patients after MitraClip implantation. 12 patients underwent CMR at baseline (BL) before and at 6 months follow-up (FU) after MitraClip implantation. Cine-CMR was performed in short- and long-axes for the assessment of left ventricular (LV), right ventricular (RV) and left atrial (LA) volumes. Assessment of endocardial contours was not compromised by the device-related artifact. No significant differences in observer variances were observed for LV, RV and LA volume measurements between BL and FU. LV end-diastolic (median 127 [IQR 96-150] vs. 112 [86-150] ml/m{sup 2}; p=0.03) and LV end-systolic (82 [54-91] vs. 69 [48-99] ml/m{sup 2}; p=0.03) volume indices decreased significantly from BL to FU. No significant differences were found for RV end-diastolic (94 [75-103] vs. 99 [77-123] ml/m{sup 2}; p=0.91), RV end-systolic (48 [42-80] vs. 51 [40-81] ml/m{sup 2}; p=0.48), and LA (87 [55-124] vs. 92 [48-137]R ml/m{sup 2}; p=0.20) volume indices between BL and FU. CMR enables the assessment of cardiac volumes in patients after MitraClip implantation. Our CMR findings indicate that percutaneous mitral valve repair results in reverse LV but not in RV or LA remodeling.

  12. Multi-Source Image Analysis. (United States)


    Laboratories, Fort Belvoir, Virginia. Estes, J. E., and L. W. Senger (eds.), 1974, Remote Sensing: Techniques for environmental analysis, Hamilton, Santa ...E. and W. Senger (eds.), Remote Sensing Techniques in Environmental Analysis, Santa Barbara, California, Hamilton Publishing Co., p. 127-165. Morain...The large body of water labeled "W" on each image represents the Agua Hedionda lagoon. East of the lagoon the area is primarily agricultural with a

  13. Signal and image multiresolution analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ouahabi, Abdelialil


    Multiresolution analysis using the wavelet transform has received considerable attention in recent years by researchers in various fields. It is a powerful tool for efficiently representing signals and images at multiple levels of detail with many inherent advantages, including compression, level-of-detail display, progressive transmission, level-of-detail editing, filtering, modeling, fractals and multifractals, etc.This book aims to provide a simple formalization and new clarity on multiresolution analysis, rendering accessible obscure techniques, and merging, unifying or completing

  14. Teaching image analysis at DIKU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Peter


    The early development of computer vision at Department of Computer Science at University of Copenhagen (DIKU) is briefly described. The different disciplines in computer vision are introduced, and the principles for teaching two courses, an image analysis course, and a robot lab class are outlined....

  15. Insulin resistance and risk of incident cardiovascular events in adults without diabetes: meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin B Gast

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glucose, insulin and Homeostasis Model Assessment Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR are markers of insulin resistance. The objective of this study is to compare fasting glucose, fasting insulin concentrations and HOMA-IR in strength of association with incident cardiovascular disease. METHODS: We searched the PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, ScienceDirect and Cochrane Library databases from inception to March, 2011, and screened reference lists. Cohort studies or nested case-control studies that investigated the association between fasting glucose, fasting insulin or HOMA-IR and incident cardiovascular disease, were eligible. Two investigators independently performed the article selection, data extraction and risk of bias assessment. Cardiovascular endpoints were coronary heart disease (CHD, stroke or combined cardiovascular disease. We used fixed and random-effect meta-analyses to calculate the pooled relative risk for CHD, stroke and combined cardiovascular disease, comparing high to low concentrations of glucose, insulin or HOMA-IR. Study heterogeneity was calculated with the I(2 statistic. To enable a comparison between cardiovascular disease risks for glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR, we calculated pooled relative risks per increase of one standard deviation. RESULTS: We included 65 studies (involving 516,325 participants in this meta-analysis. In a random-effect meta-analysis the pooled relative risk of CHD (95% CI; I(2 comparing high to low concentrations was 1.52 (1.31, 1.76; 62.4% for glucose, 1.12 (0.92, 1.37; 41.0% for insulin and 1.64 (1.35, 2.00; 0% for HOMA-IR. The pooled relative risk of CHD per one standard deviation increase was 1.21 (1.13, 1.30; 64.9% for glucose, 1.04 (0.96, 1.12; 43.0% for insulin and 1.46 (1.26, 1.69; 0.0% for HOMA-IR. CONCLUSIONS: The relative risk of cardiovascular disease was higher for an increase of one standard deviation in HOMA-IR compared to an increase of one standard deviation in fasting

  16. Tracer application in cardiovascular imaging: a Triple Jump, Chapter 7 : In: Autonomic Innervation of the Heart, Edited by R.H.J.A. Slart, R.A. Tio, P.H. Elsinga and M. Schwaiger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Roo, F. Michelle; Hilgerink, Koen; Kosterink, Johannes; Luurtsema, Geert; Woerdenbag, Herman; Boersma, Hendrikus; Slart, Riemer; Tio, Rene; Elsinga, Philipus; Schwaiger, Markus


    Next to aspects related to the imaging techniques, the quality of the used cardiovascular tracer is of major importance to produce reliable images, leading to accurate diagnoses as well as outcome of research and imaging-correlated treatment. We have built up this chapter on cardiovascular imaging a

  17. Astronomical Image and Data Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Starck, J.-L


    With information and scale as central themes, this comprehensive survey explains how to handle real problems in astronomical data analysis using a modern arsenal of powerful techniques. It treats those innovative methods of image, signal, and data processing that are proving to be both effective and widely relevant. The authors are leaders in this rapidly developing field and draw upon decades of experience. They have been playing leading roles in international projects such as the Virtual Observatory and the Grid. The book addresses not only students and professional astronomers and astrophysicists, but also serious amateur astronomers and specialists in earth observation, medical imaging, and data mining. The coverage includes chapters or appendices on: detection and filtering; image compression; multichannel, multiscale, and catalog data analytical methods; wavelets transforms, Picard iteration, and software tools. This second edition of Starck and Murtagh's highly appreciated reference again deals with to...

  18. [Web-based interventions targeting cardiovascular risk factors in older people; a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beishuizen, C.R.; Gool, W.A. van; Busschers, W.B.; Peters, R.J.; Moll- van Charante, E.; Richard, E.


    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether web-based interventions for cardiovascular risk factor management reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in older people. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHOD: Embase, Medline, Cochrane Library and CINAHL were systematically searched from January 1995

  19. Linear Feedback Analysis of Cardiovascular System using Seismocardiogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Jiřina


    Full Text Available The paper deals with an analysis of relationship between heart rate described by a sequence of cardiac interbeat intervals and mechanical activity of heart represented by a sequence of systolic forces. Both the quantities were determined from seismocardiograms recorded from healthy subjects under two different experimental conditions. The method of the linear feedback baroreflex approach originally developed in [1], [2] and [3] was applied for the analysis. Different character of obtained results in comparison to those described in [1], [2] or [3], is explained by differences between frequency properties of the recorded sequences of the systolic forces and values of systolic blood pressure.

  20. On the subjective acceptance during cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging at 7.0 Tesla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Klix

    Full Text Available This study examines the subjective acceptance during UHF-CMR in a cohort of healthy volunteers who underwent a cardiac MR examination at 7.0T.Within a period of two-and-a-half years (January 2012 to June 2014 a total of 165 healthy volunteers (41 female, 124 male without any known history of cardiac disease underwent UHF-CMR. For the assessment of the subjective acceptance a questionnaire was used to examine the participants experience prior, during and after the UHF-CMR examination. For this purpose, subjects were asked to respond to the questionnaire in an exit interview held immediately after the completion of the UHF-CMR examination under supervision of a study nurse to ensure accurate understanding of the questions. All questions were answered with "yes" or "no" including space for additional comments.Transient muscular contraction was documented in 12.7% of the questionnaires. Muscular contraction was reported to occur only during periods of scanning with the magnetic field gradients being rapidly switched. Dizziness during the study was reported by 12.7% of the subjects. Taste of metal was reported by 10.1% of the study population. Light flashes were reported by 3.6% of the entire cohort. 13% of the subjects reported side effects/observations which were not explicitly listed in the questionnaire but covered by the question about other side effects. No severe side effects as vomiting or syncope after scanning occurred. No increase in heart rate was observed during the UHF-CMR exam versus the baseline clinical examination.This study adds to the literature by detailing the subjective acceptance of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging examinations at a magnetic field strength of 7.0T. Cardiac MR examinations at 7.0T are well tolerated by healthy subjects. Broader observational and multi-center studies including patient cohorts with cardiac diseases are required to gain further insights into the subjective acceptance of UHF

  1. Imaging focal and interstitial fibrosis with cardiovascular magnetic resonance in athletes with left ventricular hypertrophy: implications for sporting participation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Waterhouse, Deirdre F


    Long-term high-intensity physical activity is associated with morphological changes, termed as the \\'athlete\\'s heart\\'. The differentiation of physiological cardiac adaptive changes in response to high-level exercise from pathological changes consistent with an inherited cardiomyopathy is imperative. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging allows definition of abnormal processes occurring at the tissue level, including, importantly, myocardial fibrosis. It is therefore vital in accurately making this differentiation. In this review, we will review the role of CMR imaging of fibrosis, and detail CMR characterisation of myocardial fibrosis in various cardiomyopathies, and the implications of fibrosis. Additionally, we will outline advances in imaging fibrosis, in particular T1 mapping. Finally we will address the role of CMR in pre-participation screening.

  2. Imaging and finite element analysis: a methodology for non-invasive characterization of aortic tissue. (United States)

    Flamini, Vittoria; Creane, Arthur P; Kerskens, Christian M; Lally, Caitríona


    Characterization of the mechanical properties of arterial tissues usually involves an invasive procedure requiring tissue removal. In this work we propose a non-invasive method to perform a biomechanical analysis of cardiovascular aortic tissue. This method is based on combining medical imaging and finite element analysis (FEA). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was chosen since it presents relatively low risks for human health. A finite element model was created from the MRI images and loaded with systolic physiological pressures. By means of an optimization routine, the structural material properties were changed until average strains matched those measured by MRI. The method outlined in this work produced an estimate of the in situ properties of cardiovascular tissue based on non-invasive image datasets and finite element analysis.

  3. Analysis on Outcome of 3537 Patients with Coronary Artery Disease: Integrative Medicine for Cardiovascular Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu-ye Gao


    Full Text Available Aims. To investigate the treatment of hospitalized patients with coronary artery disease (CAD and the prognostic factors in Beijing, China. Materials and Methods. A multicenter prospective study was conducted through an integrative platform of clinical and research at 12 hospitals in Beijing, China. The clinical information of 3537 hospitalized patients with CAD was collected from September 2009 to May 2011, and the efficacy of secondary prevention during one-year followup was evaluated. In addition, a logistic regression analysis was performed to identify some factors which will have independent impact on the prognosis. Results. The average age of all patients was 64.88 ± 11.97. Of them, 65.42% are males. The medicines for patients were as follows: antiplatelet drugs accounting for 91.97%, statins accounting for 83.66%, β-receptor blockers accounting for 72.55%, ACEI/ARB accounting for 58.92%, and revascularization (including PCI and CABG accounting for 40.29%. The overall incidence of cardiovascular events was 13.26% (469/3537. The logistic stepwise regression analysis showed that heart failure (OR, 3.707, 95% CI = 2.756–4.986, age ≥ 65 years old (OR, 2.007, 95% CI = 1.587–2.53, and myocardial infarction (OR, 1.649, 95% CI = 1.322–2.057 were the independent risk factors of others factors for cardiovascular events that occurred during followup of one-year period. Integrative medicine (IM therapy showed the beneficial tendency for decreasing incidence of cardiovascular events, although no statistical significance was found (OR, 0.797, 95% CI = 0.613~1.036. Conclusions. Heart failure, age ≥ 65 years old, and myocardial infarction were associated with an increase in incidence of cardiovascular events, and treatment with IM showed a tendency for decreasing incidence of cardiovascular events.

  4. Cardiovascular mortality: quality diagnostics analysis and causal statistics of lethal outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikulina N.N.


    Full Text Available The high cardiovascular mortality (CVM proves the necessity of verification analysis of cardiovascular death causes. The research goal is to determine the quality, facilities and peculiarities of cardiovascular diseases (CVD of postmortem diagnostics and statistical recording as a cause of death. 1972 successive cases of CVM in Voronezh, Ryazan and Khanty-Mansiysk have been analyzed. The majority of deaths caused by CVD were classified as fatalities occurring outside hospital and in the absence of medical care (88.0%. Incidence of cardiovascular deaths was confirmed by autopsy in 28.3% cases. With increasing age, the incidence of detecting CVD as a cause of death increased, while the frequency of referral to autopsy consistently decreased. Chronic Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD forms comprising 48.3% of all CVM were confirmed by autopsy results only in 29.5% of cases. Acute IHD forms (including myocardial infarction accounted for only 11.6% of CVM; however this diagnosis was based on autopsy results in 72.4% of cases. The high death rate outside hospital and in the absence of medical care with the rare referral to autopsy, especially for elderly having chronic CVD, does not provide reliable statistical information on CVM

  5. Mesh Processing in Medical Image Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The following topics are dealt with: mesh processing; medical image analysis; interactive freeform modeling; statistical shape analysis; clinical CT images; statistical surface recovery; automated segmentation; cerebral aneurysms; and real-time particle-based representation....

  6. Noninvasive Cardiovascular Risk Assessment of the Asymptomatic Diabetic Patient: The Imaging Council of the American College of Cardiology. (United States)

    Budoff, Matthew J; Raggi, Paolo; Beller, George A; Berman, Daniel S; Druz, Regina S; Malik, Shaista; Rigolin, Vera H; Weigold, Wm Guy; Soman, Prem


    Increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes is well established; diabetes is associated with at least a 2-fold increased risk of coronary heart disease. Approximately two-thirds of deaths among persons with diabetes are related to cardiovascular disease. Previously, diabetes was regarded as a "coronary risk equivalent," implying a high 10-year cardiovascular risk for every diabetes patient. Following the original study by Haffner et al., multiple studies from different cohorts provided varying conclusions on the validity of the concept of coronary risk equivalency in patients with diabetes. New guidelines have started to acknowledge the heterogeneity in risk and include different treatment recommendations for diabetic patients without other risk factors who are considered to be at lower risk. Furthermore, guidelines have suggested that further risk stratification in patients with diabetes is warranted before universal treatment. The Imaging Council of the American College of Cardiology systematically reviewed all modalities commonly used for risk stratification in persons with diabetes mellitus and summarized the data and recommendations. This document reviews the evidence regarding the use of noninvasive testing to stratify asymptomatic patients with diabetes with regard to coronary heart disease risk and develops an algorithm for screening based on available data.

  7. Use of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging for TAVR assessment in patients with bioprosthetic aortic valves: Comparison with computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quail, Michael A., E-mail: [Centre for Cardiovascular Imaging, UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science and Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom); Nordmeyer, Johannes [Department of Congenital Heart Disease and Paediatric Cardiology, Deutsches Herzzentrum Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Schievano, Silvia [Centre for Cardiovascular Imaging, UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science and Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom); Reinthaler, Markus; Mullen, Michael J. [The Heart Hospital, University College Hospital and Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, UCL, 16-18 Westmoreland Street, London (United Kingdom); Taylor, Andrew M. [Centre for Cardiovascular Imaging, UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science and Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom)


    Purpose: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has been successfully used to treat patients with failing aortic bioprostheses. Computed tomography (CT) is the usual method of pre-procedural imaging for TAVR in the native position; however, the optimal modality for valve-in-valve procedures has not been established. CT can assess intracardiac anatomy and is superior to cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in the assessment of coronary artery disease. However, CMR can provide superior haemodynamic information, does not carry the risk of ionising radiation, and may be performed without contrast in patients with renal insufficiency. In this study, we compared CT and CMR for the evaluation of TAVR in a small cohort of patients with existing aortic bioprostheses. Materials and methods: 21 patients with aortic bioprostheses were prospectively evaluated by CT and CMR, as pre-assessment for TAVR; agreement between measurements of aortic geometries was assessed. Results: 16/21 patients had aortic bioprostheses constructed with a metal ring, and 5/21 patients had a metal strut construction. Patients with metal struts had significant metal-artefact on CMR, which compromised image quality in this region. There was good agreement between CT and CMR measurements of aortic geometry. The mean difference (d) in annulus area-derived diameter was 0.5 mm (95% limits of agreement [L.A] 4.2 mm). There was good agreement between modalities for the cross-sectional area of the sinuses of valsalva (d 0.5 cm{sup 2}, L.A 1.4 cm{sup 2}), sinotubular junction (d 0.9 cm{sup 2}, L.A 1.5 cm{sup 2}), and ascending aorta (d 0.6 cm{sup 2}, L.A 1.4 cm{sup 2}). In patients without metal struts, the left coronary artery height d was 0.7 mm and L.A 2.8 mm. Conclusions: Our analysis shows that CMR and CT measurements of aortic geometry show good agreement, including measurement of annulus size and coronary artery location, and thus provide the necessary anatomical information for valve

  8. European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging/Cardiovascular Imaging Department of the Brazilian Society of Cardiology recommendations for the use of cardiac imaging to assess and follow patients after heart transplantation. (United States)

    Badano, Luigi P; Miglioranza, Marcelo H; Edvardsen, Thor; Colafranceschi, Alexandre Siciliano; Muraru, Denisa; Bacal, Fernando; Nieman, Koen; Zoppellaro, Giacomo; Marcondes Braga, Fabiana G; Binder, Thomas; Habib, Gilbert; Lancellotti, Patrizio


    The cohort of long-term survivors of heart transplant is expanding, and the assessment of these patients requires specific knowledge of the surgical techniques employed to implant the donor heart, the physiology of the transplanted heart, complications of invasive tests routinely performed to detect graft rejection (GR), and the specific pathologies that may affect the transplanted heart. A joint EACVI/Brazilian cardiovascular imaging writing group committee has prepared these recommendations to provide a practical guide to echocardiographers involved in the follow-up of heart transplant patients and a framework for standardized and efficient use of cardiovascular imaging after heart transplant. Since the transplanted heart is smaller than the recipient's dilated heart, the former is usually located more medially in the mediastinum and tends to be rotated clockwise. Therefore, standard views with conventional two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography are often difficult to obtain generating a large variability from patient to patient. Therefore, in echocardiography laboratories equipped with three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) scanners and specific expertise with the technique, 3DE may be a suitable alternative to conventional 2D echocardiography to assess the size and the function of cardiac chambers. 3DE measurement of left (LV) and right ventricular (RV) size and function are more accurate and reproducible than conventional 2D calculations. However, clinicians should be aware that cardiac chamber volumes obtained with 3DE cannot be compared with those obtained with 2D echocardiography. To assess cardiac chamber morphology and function during follow-up studies, it is recommended to obtain a comprehensive echocardiographic study at 6 months from the cardiac transplantation as a baseline and make a careful quantitation of cardiac chamber size, RV systolic function, both systolic and diastolic parameters of LV function, and pulmonary artery pressure. Subsequent

  9. Statistical Analysis of Risk Factors for Cardiovascular disease in Malakand Division

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salahud Din


    Full Text Available Several studies have been conducted to investigate the incidence of cardiovascular disease and to determine the possible risk factors for the disease. In this study, a Statistical method of odds ratio analysis was performed to look at the association of one of the type of cardiovascular disease known as myocardial infarction with various risk factors such as diabetes, cholesterol, hypertension, sex, smoking, obesity, family history and age in Malakand division. A total of 700 patients were examined and their personal and medical data were collected. For each patient, the phenomenon of myocardial infarction was studied in relation to different risk factors. The analyses suggest that hypertension, smoking, diabetes, cholesterol level and family history were important risk factors for the occurrence of myocardial infarction.

  10. Approaches to enhancing radiation safety in cardiovascular imaging: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. (United States)

    Fazel, Reza; Gerber, Thomas C; Balter, Stephen; Brenner, David J; Carr, J Jeffrey; Cerqueira, Manuel D; Chen, Jersey; Einstein, Andrew J; Krumholz, Harlan M; Mahesh, Mahadevappa; McCollough, Cynthia H; Min, James K; Morin, Richard L; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K; Nasir, Khurram; Redberg, Rita F; Shaw, Leslee J


    Education, justification, and optimization are the cornerstones to enhancing the radiation safety of medical imaging. Education regarding the benefits and risks of imaging and the principles of radiation safety is required for all clinicians in order for them to be able to use imaging optimally. Empowering patients with knowledge of the benefits and risks of imaging will facilitate their meaningful participation in decisions related to their health care, which is necessary to achieve patient-centered care. Limiting the use of imaging to appropriate clinical indications can ensure that the benefits of imaging outweigh any potential risks. Finally, the continually expanding repertoire of techniques that allow high-quality imaging with lower radiation exposure should be used when available to achieve safer imaging. The implementation of these strategies in practice is necessary to achieve high-quality, patient-centered imaging and will require a shared effort and investment by all stakeholders, including physicians, patients, national scientific and educational organizations, politicians, and industry.

  11. High-resolution image analysis. (United States)

    Preston, K


    In many departments of cytology, cytogenetics, hematology, and pathology, research projects using high-resolution computerized microscopy are now being mounted for computation of morphometric measurements on various structural components, as well as for determination of cellular DNA content. The majority of these measurements are made in a partially automated, computer-assisted mode, wherein there is strong interaction between the user and the computerized microscope. At the same time, full automation has been accomplished for both sample preparation and sample examination for clinical determination of the white blood cell differential count. At the time of writing, approximately 1,000 robot differential counting microscopes are in the field, analyzing images of human white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets at the overall rate of about 100,000 slides per day. This mammoth through-put represents a major accomplishment in the application of machine vision to automated microscopy for hematology. In other areas of automated high-resolution microscopy, such as cytology and cytogenetics, no commercial instruments are available (although a few metaphase-finding machines are available and other new machines have been announced during the past year). This is a disappointing product, considering the nearly half century of research effort in these areas. This paper provides examples of the state of the art in automation of cell analysis for blood smears, cervical smears, and chromosome preparations. Also treated are new developments in multi-resolution automated microscopy, where images are now being generated and analyzed by a single machine over a range of 64:1 magnification and from 10,000 X 20,000 to 500 X 500 in total picture elements (pixels). Examples of images of human lymph node and liver tissue are presented. Semi-automated systems are not treated, although there is mention of recent research in the automation of tissue analysis.

  12. Use of myocardial imaging in the evaluation of patients with cardiovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitt, B.; Strauss, H.W.; Trhall, J.H.


    The role of radioisotope tracer techniques in the evaluation of patients with congenital heart disease, valvular heart disease, suspected myocardial infarction, ischemia or suspected ventricular dysfunction is reviewed. Thallium-201 myocardial imaging and exercise blood pool imaging and Technetium-88m pyrophosphate imaging of myocardial infarction are most commonly used.

  13. Both cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular comorbidity are related to health status in well-controlled type 2 diabetes patients: a cross-sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wermeling Paulien R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 2 diabetes patients have a decreased health-related quality of life compared to healthy persons, especially regarding physical functioning and well-being. Health-related quality of life is even lower in type 2 diabetes patients when other diseases co-exist. In contrast to earlier studies, we assessed the associations between the number and type of comorbidities and health status in well-controlled type 2 diabetes patients, in whom treatment goals for HbA1c, blood pressure and cholesterol had been reached. Approximately one in five type 2 diabetes patients belongs to this group. Methods Cross-sectional analysis was performed in 2086 well-controlled (HbA1c ≤58 mmol/mol, systolic blood pressure ≤145 mmHg, total cholesterol ≤5.2 mmol/l and not using insulin type 2 diabetes patients in general practice. Both number and type (cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular of comorbidities were determined for each patient. Health status was assessed with the questionnaires Short Form-36 (SF-36 and EuroQol (EQ. The SF-36 generates eight dimensions of health and a Physical and Mental Component Score (PCS and MCS, scale: 0–100. The EQ consists of two parts: EQ-5D and EQ Visual Analogue Scale. Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to assess if number and type of comorbidities were associated with health status. Results Well-controlled type 2 diabetes patients with comorbidities had a much lower health status, with a decrease ranging from -1.5 for the MCS to -26.3 for role limitations due to physical problems, compared to those without. Health status decreased when the number of comorbidities increased, except for mental health, role limitations due to emotional problems, MCS and both EQ measures. In patients with both cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular comorbidity, physical functioning, role limitations due to physical problems and PCS were significantly lower than in patients with only cardiovascular comorbidity

  14. Dobutamine Stress Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patients after Invasive Coronary Revascularization with Stent Placement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heilmaier, C.; Meier, F.; Forsting, M.; Schlosser, T.W. (Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Univ. Hospital Essen, Essen (Germany)). e-mail:; Bruder, O.; Jochims, M.; Sabin, G.V. (Dept. of Cardiology and Angiology, Elisabeth Hospital, Essen (Germany)); Barkhausen, J. (Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany))


    Background: High-dose dobutamine stress magnetic resonance (DSMR) is a well-established imaging technique for the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD). Purpose: To investigate the value of DSMR for the detection of in-stent restenoses (ISR) in patients with prior coronary stenting, using invasive coronary angiography (ICA) as the standard of reference. Material and Methods: 50 patients with 74 stents and without wall motion abnormalities at rest were examined on a 1.5T MR scanner and underwent ICA for clinical reasons within 14 days after DSMR examination. A dobutamine/atropine stress protocol was employed until age-predicted heart rate was achieved, and imaging was performed in at least three long- and three short-axis views using a segmented steady-state free precession sequence (repetition/echo time [TR/TE] 3/1.5 ms, flip angle 60 deg). All examinations were read by an experienced cardiologist and radiologist in consensus, with myocardial ischemia being defined as a new stress-induced wall motion abnormality in at least one myocardial segment. Statistical analysis was performed on a per-vessel (left circumflex artery [LCX], left anterior descending artery [LAD], and right coronary artery [RCA]) basis and with regard to the number of affected vessels (one-, two- or three-vessel disease). Results: ICA yielded seven ISR, of which one was missed by DSMR (sensitivity 86%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.42-0.99). Sixty-seven coronary arteries showed no ISR in ICA; however, due to new wall motion abnormalities, seven ISR were suspected in DSMR (2xRCA, 3xLCX, and 2xLAD; sensitivity 86%, specificity 90%, positive predictive value 46%, negative predictive value 98%, and diagnostic accuracy 89%). The per-vessel analysis of the three main coronary arteries revealed highest sensitivity (100%), specificity (93%), and diagnostic accuracy (94%) for the LAD. Conclusion: High-dose DSMR is an accurate, noninvasive technique for the detection of ISR and reliably allows

  15. A reasoning system for image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Jin Sheng


    Full Text Available For image analysis in computer, the traditional approach is extracting and transcoding features after image segmentation. However, in this paper, we present a different way to analyze image. We adopt spatial logic technology to establish a reasoning system with corresponding semantic model, and prove its soundness and completeness, and then realize the image analysis in formal way. And it can be applied in artificial intelligence. This is a new attempt and also a challenging approach.

  16. The deleterious effects of arteriovenous fistula-creation on the cardiovascular system: a longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dundon BK


    Full Text Available Benjamin K Dundon,1–3 Kim Torpey,3 Adam J Nelson,1 Dennis TL Wong,1,2 Rae F Duncan,1 Ian T Meredith,2 Randall J Faull,1,3 Stephen G Worthley,1,4 Matthew I Worthley1,4 1Cardiology Department, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Central Adelaide Local Health Network, Discipline of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 2Monash Cardiovascular Research Centre, MonashHEART, Monash Health, Melbourne, Vic, Australia; 3Central Northern Renal and Transplantation Service, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Central Adelaide Local Health Network, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 4South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, Adelaide, SA, Australia Aim: Arteriovenous fistula-formation remains critical for the provision of hemodialysis in end-stage renal failure patients. Its creation results in a significant increase in cardiac output, with resultant alterations in cardiac stroke volume, systemic blood flow, and vascular resistance. The impact of fistula-formation on cardiac and vascular structure and function has not yet been evaluated via "gold standard" imaging techniques in the modern era of end-stage renal failure care. Methods: A total of 24 patients with stage 5 chronic kidney disease undergoing fistula-creation were studied in a single-arm pilot study. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging was undertaken at baseline, and prior to and 6 months following fistula-creation. This gold standard imaging modality was used to evaluate, via standard brachial flow-mediated techniques, cardiac structure and function, aortic distensibility, and endothelial function. Results: At follow up, left ventricular ejection fraction remained unchanged, while mean cardiac output increased by 25.0% (P<0.0001. Significant increases in left and right ventricular end-systolic volumes (21% [P=0.014] and 18% [P<0.01], left and right atrial area (11% [P<0.01] and 9% [P<0.01], and left ventricular mass were observed (12.7% increase (P<0.01. Endothelial

  17. Computed tomography imaging of early coronary artery lesions in stable individuals with multiple cardiovascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Yang


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence, extent, severity, and features of coronary artery lesions in stable patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: Seventy-seven patients with more than 3 cardiovascular risk factors were suspected of having coronary artery disease. Patients with high-risk factors and 39 controls with no risk factors were enrolled in the study. The related risk factors included hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia, smoking history, and overweight. The characteristics of coronary lesions were identified and evaluated by 64-slice coronary computed tomography angiography. RESULTS: The incidence of coronary atherosclerosis was higher in the high-risk group than in the no-risk group. The involved branches of the coronary artery, the diffusivity of the lesion, the degree of stenosis, and the nature of the plaques were significantly more severe in the high-risk group compared with the no-risk group (all p < 0.05. CONCLUSION: Among stable individuals with high-risk factors, early coronary artery lesions are common and severe. Computed tomography has promising value for the early screening of coronary lesions.

  18. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging assessment of diastolic dysfunction in a population without heart disease: a gender-based study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graca, Bruno; Donato, Paulo; Caseiro-Alves, Filipe [University of Coimbra, Medical Imaging Department, University Centre Hospitals of Coimbra, Faculty of Medicine, Coimbra (Portugal); Ferreira, Maria Joao [University of Coimbra, Cardiology Department, University Centre Hospitals of Coimbra, Faculty of Medicine, Coimbra (Portugal); Castelo-Branco, Miguel [University of Coimbra, Institute for Biomedical Imaging and Life Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Coimbra (Portugal)


    Asymptomatic left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction is increasingly recognised as an important diagnosis. Our goal was to study the prevalence and gender differences in subclinical LV diastolic dysfunction, using cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) at 3 T. We prospectively studied 48 volunteers (19 male and 29 female, mean age 49 ± 7 years) with no evidence of cardiovascular disease. We used CMR to measure left atrium (LA) and LV volumes, LV peak filling rate and transmitral flow. The overall prevalence of LV diastolic dysfunction in our cohort varied between 20 % (based on evaluation of LV filing profiles) and 24 % (based on the evaluation of the transmitral flow). The prevalence of diastolic dysfunction was higher in men than in women, independently of the criteria used (P between 0.004 and 0.022). Indexed LV end-diastolic volume, indexed LV stroke volume, indexed LV mass, indexed LA minimum volume and indexed LA maximum volume were significantly greater in men than in women (P < 0.05). All the subjects had LV ejection fractions within the normal range. It is clinically feasible to study diastolic flow and LV filling with CMR. CMR detected diastolic dysfunction in asymptomatic men and women. (orig.)

  19. Image analysis: a consumer's guide. (United States)

    Meyer, F


    The last years have seen an explosion of systems in image analysis. It is hard for the pathologist or the cytologist to make the right choice of equipment. All machines are stupid, and the only valuable thing is the human work put into it. So make your benefit of the work other people have done for you. Chose a method largely used on many systems and which has proved fertile in many domains and not only for your specific to day's application: Mathematical Morphology, to which are to be added the linear convolutions present on all machines is a strong candidate for becoming such a method. The paper illustrates a working day of an ideal system: research and diagnostic directed work during the working hours, automatic screening of cervical (or other) smears during night.

  20. Integration of an optical coherence tomography (OCT) system into an examination incubator to facilitate in vivo imaging of cardiovascular development in higher vertebrate embryos under stable physiological conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Happel, Christoph M.; Thrane, Lars; Thommes, Jan


    High-resolution in vivo imaging of higher vertebrate embryos over short or long time periods under constant physiological conditions is a technically challenging task for researchers working on cardiovascular development. In chick embryos, for example, various studies have shown that without...... significance, should be documented under physiological conditions. However, previous studies were mostly carried out outside of an incubator or under suboptimal environmental conditions. Here we present, to the best of our knowledge, the first detailed description of an optical coherence tomography (OCT......) system integrated into an examination incubator to facilitate real-time in vivo imaging of cardiovascular development under physiological environmental conditions. We demonstrate the suitability of this OCT examination incubator unit for use in cardiovascular development studies by examples of proof...

  1. Combined statistical analysis of vasodilation and flow curves in brachial ultrasonography: technique and its connection to cardiovascular risk factors (United States)

    Boisrobert, Loic; Laclaustra, Martin; Bossa, Matias; Frangi, Andres G.; Frangi, Alejandro F.


    Clinical studies report that impaired endothelial function is associated with Cardio-Vascular Diseases (CVD) and their risk factors. One commonly used mean for assessing endothelial function is Flow-Mediated Dilation (FMD). Classically, FMD is quantified using local indexes e.g. maximum peak dilation. Although such parameters have been successfully linked to CVD risk factors and other clinical variables, this description does not consider all the information contained in the complete vasodilation curve. Moreover, the relation between flow impulse and the vessel vasodilation response to this stimulus, although not clearly known, seems to be important and is not taken into account in the majority of studies. In this paper we propose a novel global parameterization for the vasodilation and the flow curves of a FMD test. This parameterization uses Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to describe independently and jointly the variability of flow and FMD curves. These curves are obtained using computerized techniques (based on edge detection and image registration, respectively) to analyze the ultrasound image sequences. The global description obtained through PCA yields a detailed characterization of the morphology of such curves allowing the extraction of intuitive quantitative information of the vasodilation process and its interplay with flow changes. This parameterization is consistent with traditional measurements and, in a database of 177 subjects, seems to correlate more strongly (and with more clinical parameters) than classical measures to CVD risk factors and clinical parameters such as LDL- and HDL-Cholesterol.

  2. Analysis of Dynamic Brain Imaging Data

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, P


    Modern imaging techniques for probing brain function, including functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, intrinsic and extrinsic contrast optical imaging, and magnetoencephalography, generate large data sets with complex content. In this paper we develop appropriate techniques of analysis and visualization of such imaging data, in order to separate the signal from the noise, as well as to characterize the signal. The techniques developed fall into the general category of multivariate time series analysis, and in particular we extensively use the multitaper framework of spectral analysis. We develop specific protocols for the analysis of fMRI, optical imaging and MEG data, and illustrate the techniques by applications to real data sets generated by these imaging modalities. In general, the analysis protocols involve two distinct stages: `noise' characterization and suppression, and `signal' characterization and visualization. An important general conclusion of our study is the utility of a frequency-based repres...

  3. Digital-image processing and image analysis of glacier ice (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Joan J.


    This document provides a methodology for extracting grain statistics from 8-bit color and grayscale images of thin sections of glacier ice—a subset of physical properties measurements typically performed on ice cores. This type of analysis is most commonly used to characterize the evolution of ice-crystal size, shape, and intercrystalline spatial relations within a large body of ice sampled by deep ice-coring projects from which paleoclimate records will be developed. However, such information is equally useful for investigating the stress state and physical responses of ice to stresses within a glacier. The methods of analysis presented here go hand-in-hand with the analysis of ice fabrics (aggregate crystal orientations) and, when combined with fabric analysis, provide a powerful method for investigating the dynamic recrystallization and deformation behaviors of bodies of ice in motion. The procedures described in this document compose a step-by-step handbook for a specific image acquisition and data reduction system built in support of U.S. Geological Survey ice analysis projects, but the general methodology can be used with any combination of image processing and analysis software. The specific approaches in this document use the FoveaPro 4 plug-in toolset to Adobe Photoshop CS5 Extended but it can be carried out equally well, though somewhat less conveniently, with software such as the image processing toolbox in MATLAB, Image-Pro Plus, or ImageJ.

  4. System analysis of changes in cardiovascular circulatory dynamics in experimental diphtheria in rabbit. (United States)

    Zotov, A K; Frolov, V A; Zotova, T J


    Trivariate correlation analysis of hemodynamic indices of the cardiovascular system in rabbits with diphtheria showed that adaptation of this system to direct action of diphtherin can be visualized by analysis of trivariate correlation tightness for indices of intraventricular pressure in the left and right ventricles and indices of systemic blood pressure. Using empirical production functions for systemic blood pressure indices we found that the contribution of intraventricular pressure in the left and right ventricles on blood pressure values is changed in diphtheria compared to the control. Basing on entropy analysis we established that the regimen of control over values of working intraventricular pressure in both left and right ventricles in diphtheria is changed from quasidetermined to stochastic.

  5. Myocardial infarct heterogeneity assessment by late gadolinium enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging shows predictive value for ventricular arrhythmia development after acute myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robbers, Lourens F. H. J.; Delewi, Ronak; Nijveldt, Robin; Hirsch, Alexander; Beek, Aernout M.; Kemme, Michiel J. B.; van Beurden, Yvette; van der Laan, Anja M.; van der Vleuten, Pieter A.; Tio, Rene A.; Zijlstra, Felix; Piek, Jan J.; van Rossum, Albert C.


    The aim of this study was to assess the association between the proportions of penumbrauvisualized by late gadolinium enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (LGE-CMR)uafter acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and the prevalence of ventricular tachycardia (VT). One-hundred and sixty-two AMI

  6. Image registration with uncertainty analysis (United States)

    Simonson, Katherine M.


    In an image registration method, edges are detected in a first image and a second image. A percentage of edge pixels in a subset of the second image that are also edges in the first image shifted by a translation is calculated. A best registration point is calculated based on a maximum percentage of edges matched. In a predefined search region, all registration points other than the best registration point are identified that are not significantly worse than the best registration point according to a predetermined statistical criterion.

  7. The spectral analysis of photoplethysmography to evaluate an independent cardiovascular risk factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandhi PG


    Full Text Available Pratiksha G Gandhi,1 Gundu HR Rao2 1IPC Heart Care Centre, Mumbai, India; 2University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USABackground: In this study, we evaluate homeostatic markers correlated to autonomic nervous and endothelial functions in a population of coronary artery disease (CAD patients versus a control group. Since CAD is the highest risk marker for sudden cardiac death, the study objective is to determine whether an independent cardiovascular risk score based on these markers can be used alongside known conventional cardiovascular risk markers to strengthen the understanding of a patient's vascular state.Materials and methods: Sixty-five subjects (13 women with a mean age of 62.9 years (range 40–80 years who were diagnosed with CAD using coronary angiography (group 1 and seventy-two subjects (29 women with a mean age of 45.1 years (range 18–85 years who claimed they were healthy (group 2 were included in the study. These subjects underwent examination with the TM-Oxi and SudoPath systems at IPC Heart Care Centers in Mumbai, India. The TM-Oxi system takes measurements from a blood pressure device and a pulse oximeter. The SudoPath measures galvanic skin response to assess the sudomotor pathway function. Spectral analysis of the photoplethysmograph (PTG waveform and electrochemical galvanic skin response allow the TM-Oxi and SudoPath systems to calculate several homeostatic markers, such as the PTG index (PTGi, PTG very low frequency index (PTGVLFi, and PTG ratio (PTGr. The focus of this study was to evaluate these markers (PTGi, PTGVLFi, and PTGr in CAD patients against a control group, and to calculate an independent cardiovascular risk factor score: the PTG cardiovascular disease risk score (PTG CVD, calculated solely from these markers. We compared PTGi, PTGVLFi, PTGr, and PTG CVD scores between the CAD patient group and the healthy control group. Statistical analyses were performed using receiver operating characteristic curves to

  8. Hyperspectral image classification using functional data analysis. (United States)

    Li, Hong; Xiao, Guangrun; Xia, Tian; Tang, Y Y; Li, Luoqing


    The large number of spectral bands acquired by hyperspectral imaging sensors allows us to better distinguish many subtle objects and materials. Unlike other classical hyperspectral image classification methods in the multivariate analysis framework, in this paper, a novel method using functional data analysis (FDA) for accurate classification of hyperspectral images has been proposed. The central idea of FDA is to treat multivariate data as continuous functions. From this perspective, the spectral curve of each pixel in the hyperspectral images is naturally viewed as a function. This can be beneficial for making full use of the abundant spectral information. The relevance between adjacent pixel elements in the hyperspectral images can also be utilized reasonably. Functional principal component analysis is applied to solve the classification problem of these functions. Experimental results on three hyperspectral images show that the proposed method can achieve higher classification accuracies in comparison to some state-of-the-art hyperspectral image classification methods.

  9. Quantitative proteome analysis in cardiovascular physiology and pathology. I. Data processing. (United States)

    Grussenmeyer, Thomas; Meili-Butz, Silvia; Dieterle, Thomas; Traunecker, Emmanuel; Carrel, Thierry P; Lefkovits, Ivan


    Methodological evaluation of the proteomic analysis of cardiovascular-tissue material has been performed with a special emphasis on establishing examinations that allow reliable quantitative analysis of silver-stained readouts. Reliability, reproducibility, robustness and linearity were addressed and clarified. In addition, several types of normalization procedures were evaluated and new approaches are proposed. It has been found that the silver-stained readout offers a convenient approach for quantitation if a linear range for gel loading is defined. In addition, a broad range of a 10-fold input (loading 20-200 microg per gel) fulfills the linearity criteria, although at the lowest input (20 microg) a portion of protein species will remain undetected. The method is reliable and reproducible within a range of 65-200 microg input. The normalization procedure using the sum of all spot intensities from a silver-stained 2D pattern has been shown to be less reliable than other approaches, namely, normalization through median or through involvement of interquartile range. A special refinement of the normalization through virtual segmentation of pattern, and calculation of normalization factor for each stratum provides highly satisfactory results. The presented results not only provide evidence for the usefulness of silver-stained gels for quantitative evaluation, but they are directly applicable to the research endeavor of monitoring alterations in cardiovascular pathophysiology.

  10. Fractal methods in image analysis and coding


    Neary, David


    In this thesis we present an overview of image processing techniques which use fractal methods in some way. We show how these fields relate to each other, and examine various aspects of fractal methods in each area. The three principal fields of image processing and analysis th a t we examine are texture classification, image segmentation and image coding. In the area of texture classification, we examine fractal dimension estimators, comparing these methods to other methods in use, a...

  11. Principal component analysis of cardiovascular risk traits in three generations cohort among Indian Punjabi population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The current study focused to determine significant cardiovascular risk factors through principal component factor analysis (PCFA among three generations on 1827 individuals in three generations including 911 males (378 from offspring, 439 from parental and 94 from grand-parental generations and 916 females (261 from offspring, 515 from parental and 140 from grandparental generations. The study performed PCFA with orthogonal rotation to reduce 12 inter-correlated variables into groups of independent factors. The factors have been identified as 2 for male grandparents, 3 for male offspring, female parents and female grandparents each, 4 for male parents and 5 for female offspring. This data reduction method identified these factors that explained 72%, 84%, 79%, 69%, 70% and 73% for male and female offspring, male and female parents and male and female grandparents respectively, of the variations in original quantitative traits. The factor 1 accounting for the largest portion of variations was strongly loaded with factors related to obesity (body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist to hip ratio (WHR, and thickness of skinfolds among all generations with both sexes, which has been known to be an independent predictor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The second largest components, factor 2 and factor 3 for almost all generations reflected traits of blood pressure phenotypes loaded, however, in male offspring generation it was observed that factor 2 was loaded with blood pressure phenotypes as well as obesity. This study not only confirmed but also extended prior work by developing a cumulative risk scale from factor scores. Till today, such a cumulative and extensive scale has not been used in any Indian studies with individuals of three generations. These findings and study highlight the importance of global approach for assessing the risk and need for studies that elucidate how these different cardiovascular risk factors

  12. Cardiovascular age of aviation personnel:based on the principal component analysis of heart rate and blood pressure variability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛有国; 王守岩; 张玉海; 王兴邦; 张立藩


    Objective: To introduce a method to calculate cardiovascular age, a new, accurate and much simpler index for assessing cardiovascular autonomic regulatory function, based on statistical analysis of heart rate and blood pressure variability (HRV and BPV) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) data. Methods: Firstly, HRV and BPV of 89 healthy aviation personnel were analyzed by the conventional autoregressive (AR) spectral analysis and their spontaneous BRS was obtained by the sequence method. Secondly, principal component analysis was conducted over original and derived indices of HRV, BPV and BRS data and the relevant principal components, Pciorig and Pcideri (I=1, 2, 3,...) were obtained. Finally, the equation for calculating cardiovascular age was obtained by multiple regression with the chronological age being assigned as the dependent variable and the principal components significantly related to age as the regressors. Results: The first four principal components of original indices accounted for over 90% of total variance of the indices, so did the first three principal components of derived indices. So, these seven principal components could reflect the information of cardiovascular autonomic regulation which was embodied in the 17 indices of HRV, BPV and BRS exactly with a minimal loss of information. Of the seven principal components, PC2orig, PC4orig and PC2deri were negatively correlated with the chronological age (P<0.05), whereas the PC3orig was positively correlated with the chronological age (P<0.01). The cardiovascular age thus calculated from the regression equation was significantly correlated with the chronological age among the 89 aviation personnel (r=0.73, P<0.01). Conclusion: The cardiovascular age calculated based on a multi-variate analysis of HRV, BPV and BRS could be regarded as a comprehensive indicator reflecting the age dependency of autonomic regulation of cardiovascular system in healthy aviation personnel.

  13. Investigating properties of the cardiovascular system using innovative analysis algorithms based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition. (United States)

    Yeh, Jia-Rong; Lin, Tzu-Yu; Chen, Yun; Sun, Wei-Zen; Abbod, Maysam F; Shieh, Jiann-Shing


    Cardiovascular system is known to be nonlinear and nonstationary. Traditional linear assessments algorithms of arterial stiffness and systemic resistance of cardiac system accompany the problem of nonstationary or inconvenience in practical applications. In this pilot study, two new assessment methods were developed: the first is ensemble empirical mode decomposition based reflection index (EEMD-RI) while the second is based on the phase shift between ECG and BP on cardiac oscillation. Both methods utilise the EEMD algorithm which is suitable for nonlinear and nonstationary systems. These methods were used to investigate the properties of arterial stiffness and systemic resistance for a pig's cardiovascular system via ECG and blood pressure (BP). This experiment simulated a sequence of continuous changes of blood pressure arising from steady condition to high blood pressure by clamping the artery and an inverse by relaxing the artery. As a hypothesis, the arterial stiffness and systemic resistance should vary with the blood pressure due to clamping and relaxing the artery. The results show statistically significant correlations between BP, EEMD-based RI, and the phase shift between ECG and BP on cardiac oscillation. The two assessments results demonstrate the merits of the EEMD for signal analysis.

  14. Multispectral Image Analysis for Astaxanthin Coating Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungqvist, Martin Georg; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht


    only with fish oil. In this study, multispectral image analysis of pellets captured reflection in 20 wavelengths (385–1050 nm). Linear discriminant analysis (LDA), principal component analysis, and support vector machine were used as statistical analysis. The features extracted from the multispectral...

  15. Deployment of an Advanced Electrocardiographic Analysis (A-ECG) to Detect Cardiovascular Risk in Career Firefighters (United States)

    Dolezal, B. A.; Storer, T. W.; Abrazado, M.; Watne, R.; Schlegel, T. T.; Batalin, M.; Kaiser, W.; Smith, D. L.; Cooper, C. B.


    INTRODUCTION: Sudden cardiac death is the leading cause of line of duty death among firefighters, accounting for approximately 45% of fatalities annually. Firefighters perform strenuous muscular work while wearing heavy, encapsulating personal protective equipment in high ambient temperatures, under chaotic and emotionally stressful conditions. These factors can precipitate sudden cardiac events like myocardial infarction, serious dysrhythmias, or cerebrovascular accidents in firefighters with underlying cardiovascular disease. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to deploy and then evaluate the contribution of resting advanced ECG (A-ECG) in addition to other screening tools (family history, lipid profiles, and cardiopulmonary exercise tests, XT) in assessment of an individual fs cardiac risk profile. METHODS: Forty-four career firefighters were recruited to perform comprehensive baseline assessments including tests of aerobic performance, fasting lipids and glucose. Five-min resting 12-lead A-ECGs were obtained in a subset of firefighters (n=21) and transmitted over a secure networked system to a NASA physician collaborator. Using myocardial perfusion and other imaging as the gold standard, A-ECG scoring has been proven useful in accurately identifying a number of cardiac pathologies including coronary artery disease (CAD), left ventricular hypertrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and non-ischemic and ischemic cardiomyopathy. RESULTS: Subjects f mean (SD) age was 43 (8) years, weight 91 (13) kg, and BMI 28 (3) kg/m2. Fifty-one percent of subjects had .3 cardiovascular risk factors. One subject had ST depression on XT ECG, at least one positive A-ECG score for CAD, and documented CAD based on cardiology referral. While all other subjects, including those with fewer risk factors, higher aerobic fitness, and normal exercise ECGs, were classified as healthy by A-ECG, there was no trend for association between risk factors and any of 20 A-ECG parameters in the

  16. Erectile dysfunction and cardiovascular events in diabetic men: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohide Yamada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that erectile dysfunction (ED influences the risk of cardiovascular events (CV events. However, a meta-analysis of the overall risk of CV events associated with ED in patients with diabetes has not been performed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We searched MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library for pertinent articles (including references published between 1951 and April 22, 2012. English language reports of original observational cohort studies and cross-sectional studies were included. Pooled effect estimates were obtained by random effects meta-analysis. A total of 3,791 CV events were reported in 3 cohort studies and 9 cross-sectional studies (covering 22,586 subjects. Across the cohort studies, the overall odds ratio (OR of diabetic men with ED versus those without ED was 1.74 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.34-2.27; P0.05. Moreover, meta-regression analysis found no relationship between the method used to assess ED (questionnaire or interview, mean age, mean hemoglobin A(1c, mean body mass index, or mean duration of diabetes and the risk of CV events or CHD. In the cross-sectional studies, the OR of diabetic men with ED versus those without ED was 3.39 (95% CI: 2.58-4.44; P<0.001 for CV events (N = 9, 3.43 (95% CI: 2.46-4.77; P<0.001 for CHD (N = 7, and 2.63 (95% CI: 1.41-4.91; P = 0.002 for peripheral vascular disease (N = 5. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: ED was associated with an increased risk of CV events in diabetic patients. Prevention and early detection of cardiovascular disease are important in the management of diabetes, especially in view of the rapid increase in its prevalence.

  17. Eponymous cardiovascular surgeries for congenital heart diseases--imaging review and historical perspectives. (United States)

    Buethe, Ji; Ashwath, Ravi C; Rajiah, Prabhakar


    Advances in pediatric cardiology and cardiac surgical techniques over the past few decades have revolutionized the management of the patients with congenital heart disease, and many now survive into adulthood. Several eponymous surgical procedures performed for congenital heart disease have been named after eminent surgeons. In this article, we provide a short biography of the surgeons associated with these eponymous surgical procedures along with their other important scientific contributions. This is followed by a review of these surgical procedures and their most common complications. Imaging appearances of these surgical procedures along with common complications are described and illustrated, with particular emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging. The surgical procedures described in this review include Blalock-Taussig, Potts, Waterston, Glenn, Fontan, Kawashima, Norwood, Sano, Damus-Kaye-Stansel, Mustard, Senning, Jatene, LeCompte, Rastelli, Rashkind, Ross, and Waldenhausen.

  18. Combined blood pool and extracellular contrast agents for pediatric and young adult cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Joyce T. [Ann and Robert Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, 225 E. Chicago Ave., Box 21, Chicago, IL (United States); Ann and Robert Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Pediatrics, Chicago, IL (United States); Robinson, Joshua D. [Ann and Robert Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, 225 E. Chicago Ave., Box 21, Chicago, IL (United States); Ann and Robert Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Pediatrics, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Deng, Jie [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Ann and Robert Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, Chicago, IL (United States); Rigsby, Cynthia K. [Ann and Robert Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Pediatrics, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Ann and Robert Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, Chicago, IL (United States)


    A comprehensive cardiac magnetic resonance (cardiac MR) study including both late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and MR angiography may be indicated for patients with a history of acquired or congenital heart disease. To study the novel use of an extracellular agent for assessment of LGE combined with a blood pool contrast agent for detailed MR angiography evaluation to yield a comprehensive cardiac MR study in these patients. We reviewed clinical cardiac MR studies utilizing extracellular and blood pool contrast agents and noted demographics, clinical data and adverse events. We rated LGE image quality and MR angiography image quality for each vascular segment and calculated inter-rater variability. We also quantified contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Thirty-three patients (mean age 13.9 ± 3 years) received an extracellular contrast agent (10 gadobenate dimeglumine, 23 gadopentetate dimeglumine) and blood pool contrast agent (33 gadofosveset trisodium). No adverse events were reported. MRI indications included Kawasaki disease (8), cardiomyopathy and coronary anatomy (15), repaired congenital heart disease (8), and other (2). Mean LGE quality was 2.6 ± 0.6 with 97% diagnostic imaging. LGE quality did not vary by type of contrast agent given (P = 0.07). Mean MR angiography quality score was 4.7 ± 0.6, with high inter-rater agreement (k = 0.6-0.8, P < 0.002). MR angiography quality did not vary by type of contrast agent used (P = 0.6). Cardiac MR studies utilizing both extracellular and blood pool contrast agents are feasible and safe and provide excellent-quality LGE and MR angiography images. The use of two contrast agents allows for a comprehensive assessment of both myocardial viability and vascular anatomy during the same exam. (orig.)

  19. Solar Image Analysis and Visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Ireland, J


    This volume presents a selection of papers on the state of the art of image enhancement, automated feature detection, machine learning, and visualization tools in support of solar physics that focus on the challenges presented by new ground-based and space-based instrumentation. The articles and topics were inspired by the Third Solar Image Processing Workshop, held at Trinity College Dublin, Ireland but contributions from other experts have been included as well. This book is mainly aimed at researchers and graduate students working on image processing and compter vision in astronomy and solar physics.

  20. Non-invasive cardiac imaging techniques and vascular tools for the assessment of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus. (United States)

    Djaberi, R; Beishuizen, E D; Pereira, A M; Rabelink, T J; Smit, J W; Tamsma, J T; Huisman, M V; Jukema, J W


    Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus. The criteria for the selection of those asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes who should undergo cardiac screening and the therapeutic consequences of screening remain controversial. Non-invasive techniques as markers of atherosclerosis and myocardial ischaemia may aid risk stratification and the implementation of tailored therapy for the patient with type 2 diabetes. In the present article we review the literature on the implementation of non-invasive vascular tools and cardiac imaging techniques in this patient group. The value of these techniques as endpoints in clinical trials and as risk estimators in asymptomatic diabetic patients is discussed. Carotid intima-media thickness, arterial stiffness and flow-mediated dilation are abnormal long before the onset of type 2 diabetes. These vascular tools are therefore most likely to be useful for the identification of 'at risk' patients during the early stages of atherosclerotic disease. The additional value of these tools in risk stratification and tailored therapy in type 2 diabetes remains to be proven. Cardiac imaging techniques are more justified in individuals with a strong clinical suspicion of advanced coronary heart disease (CHD). Asymptomatic myocardial ischaemia can be detected by stress echocardiography and myocardial perfusion imaging. The more recently developed non-invasive multi-slice computed tomography angiography is recommended for exclusion of CHD, and can therefore be used to screen asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes, but has the associated disadvantages of high radiation exposure and costs. Therefore, we propose an algorithm for the screening of asymptomatic diabetic patients, the first step of which consists of coronary artery calcium score assessment and exercise ECG.

  1. Natural user interfaces in medical image analysis cognitive analysis of brain and carotid artery images

    CERN Document Server

    Ogiela, Marek R


    This unique text/reference highlights a selection of practical applications of advanced image analysis methods for medical images. The book covers the complete methodology for processing, analysing and interpreting diagnostic results of sample CT images. The text also presents significant problems related to new approaches and paradigms in image understanding and semantic image analysis. To further engage the reader, example source code is provided for the implemented algorithms in the described solutions. Features: describes the most important methods and algorithms used for image analysis; e

  2. Imaging flow cytometry for phytoplankton analysis. (United States)

    Dashkova, Veronika; Malashenkov, Dmitry; Poulton, Nicole; Vorobjev, Ivan; Barteneva, Natasha S


    This review highlights the concepts and instrumentation of imaging flow cytometry technology and in particular its use for phytoplankton analysis. Imaging flow cytometry, a hybrid technology combining speed and statistical capabilities of flow cytometry with imaging features of microscopy, is rapidly advancing as a cell imaging platform that overcomes many of the limitations of current techniques and contributed significantly to the advancement of phytoplankton analysis in recent years. This review presents the various instrumentation relevant to the field and currently used for assessment of complex phytoplankton communities' composition and abundance, size structure determination, biovolume estimation, detection of harmful algal bloom species, evaluation of viability and metabolic activity and other applications. Also we present our data on viability and metabolic assessment of Aphanizomenon sp. cyanobacteria using Imagestream X Mark II imaging cytometer. Herein, we highlight the immense potential of imaging flow cytometry for microalgal research, but also discuss limitations and future developments.

  3. Digital Image Analysis for Detechip Code Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Lyon


    Full Text Available DETECHIP® is a molecular sensing array used for identification of a large variety of substances. Previous methodology for the analysis of DETECHIP® used human vision to distinguish color changes induced by the presence of the analyte of interest. This paper describes several analysis techniques using digital images of DETECHIP® . Both a digital camera and flatbed desktop photo scanner were used to obtain Jpeg images. Color information within these digital images was obtained through the measurement of redgreen-blue (RGB values using software such as GIMP, Photoshop and ImageJ. Several different techniques were used to evaluate these color changes. It was determined that the flatbed scanner produced in the clearest and more reproducible images. Furthermore, codes obtained using a macro written for use within ImageJ showed improved consistency versus pervious methods.

  4. Assessment of Cardiovascular Apoptosis in the Isolated Rat Heart by Magnetic Resonance Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl-Heinz Hiller


    Full Text Available Apoptosis, an active process of cell self-destruction, is associated with myocardial ischemia. The redistribution of phosphatidylserine (PS from the inner to the outer leaflet of the cell membrane is an early event in apoptosis. Annexin V, a protein with high specificity and tight binding to PS, was used to identify and localize apoptosis in the ischemic heart. Fluorescein-labeled annexin V has been used routinely for the assessment of apoptosis in vitro. For the detection of apoptosis in vivo, positron emission tomography and single-photon emission computed tomography have been shown to be suitable tools. In view of the relatively low spatial resolution of nuclear imaging techniques, we developed a high-resolution contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI method that allows rapid and noninvasive monitoring of apoptosis in intact organs. Instead of employing superparamagnetic iron oxide particles linked to annexin V, a new T1 contrast agent was used. To this effect, annexin V was linked to gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (Gd-DTPA-coated liposomes. The left coronary artery of perfused isolated rat hearts was ligated for 30 min followed by reperfusion. T1 and T2* images were acquired by using an 11.7-T magnet before and after intracoronary injection of Gd-DTP-labeled annexin V to visualize apoptotic cells. A significant increase in signal intensity was visible in those regions containing cardiomyocytes in the early stage of apoptosis. Because labeling of early apoptotic cell death in intact organs by histological and immunohistochemical methods remains challenging, the use of Gd-DTPA-labeled annexin V in MRI is clearly an improvement in rapid targeting of apoptotic cells in the ischemic and reperfused myocardium.

  5. Segmentation of the heart and major vascular structures in cardiovascular CT images (United States)

    Peters, J.; Ecabert, O.; Lorenz, C.; von Berg, J.; Walker, M. J.; Ivanc, T. B.; Vembar, M.; Olszewski, M. E.; Weese, J.


    Segmentation of organs in medical images can be successfully performed with shape-constrained deformable models. A surface mesh is attracted to detected image boundaries by an external energy, while an internal energy keeps the mesh similar to expected shapes. Complex organs like the heart with its four chambers can be automatically segmented using a suitable shape variablility model based on piecewise affine degrees of freedom. In this paper, we extend the approach to also segment highly variable vascular structures. We introduce a dedicated framework to adapt an extended mesh model to freely bending vessels. This is achieved by subdividing each vessel into (short) tube-shaped segments ("tubelets"). These are assigned to individual similarity transformations for local orientation and scaling. Proper adaptation is achieved by progressively adapting distal vessel parts to the image only after proximal neighbor tubelets have already converged. In addition, each newly activated tubelet inherits the local orientation and scale of the preceeding one. To arrive at a joint segmentation of chambers and vasculature, we extended a previous model comprising endocardial surfaces of the four chambers, the left ventricular epicardium, and a pulmonary artery trunk. Newly added are the aorta (ascending and descending plus arch), superior and inferior vena cava, coronary sinus, and four pulmonary veins. These vessels are organized as stacks of triangulated rings. This mesh configuration is most suitable to define tubelet segments. On 36 CT data sets reconstructed at several cardiac phases from 17 patients, segmentation accuracies of 0.61-0.80mm are obtained for the cardiac chambers. For the visible parts of the newly added great vessels, surface accuracies of 0.47-1.17mm are obtained (larger errors are asscociated with faintly contrasted venous structures).

  6. NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis. (United States)

    Schneider, Caroline A; Rasband, Wayne S; Eliceiri, Kevin W


    For the past 25 years NIH Image and ImageJ software have been pioneers as open tools for the analysis of scientific images. We discuss the origins, challenges and solutions of these two programs, and how their history can serve to advise and inform other software projects.

  7. Theory of Image Analysis and Recognition. (United States)


    Narendra Ahuja Image models Ramalingam Chellappa Image models Matti Pietikainen * Texture analysis b David G. Morgenthaler’ 3D digital geometry c Angela Y. Wu...Restoration Parameter Choice A Quantitative Guide," TR-965, October 1980. 70. Matti Pietikainen , "On the Use of Hierarchically Computed ’Mexican Hat...81. Matti Pietikainen and Azriel Rosenfeld, "Image Segmenta- tion by Texture Using Pyramid Node Linking," TR-1008, February 1981. 82. David G. 1

  8. Analysis of cardiovascular oscillations: A new approach to the early prediction of pre-eclampsia (United States)

    Malberg, H.; Bauernschmitt, R.; Voss, A.; Walther, T.; Faber, R.; Stepan, H.; Wessel, N.


    Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a serious disorder with high morbidity and mortality occurring during pregnancy; 3%-5% of all pregnant women are affected. Early prediction is still insufficient in clinical practice. Although most pre-eclamptic patients show pathological uterine perfusion in the second trimester, this parameter has a positive predictive accuracy of only 30%, which makes it unsuitable for early, reliable prediction. The study is based on the hypothesis that alterations in cardiovascular regulatory behavior can be used to predict PE. Ninety-six pregnant women in whom Doppler investigation detected perfusion disorders of the uterine arteries were included in the study. Twenty-four of these pregnant women developed PE after the 30th week of gestation. During pregnancy, additional several noninvasive continuous blood pressure recordings were made over 30 min under resting conditions by means of a finger cuff. The time series extracted of systolic as well as diastolic beat-to-beat pressures and the heart rate were studied by variability and coupling analysis to find predictive factors preceding genesis of the disease. In the period between the 18th and 26th weeks of pregnancy, three special variability and baroreflex parameters were able to predict PE several weeks before clinical manifestation. Discriminant function analysis of these parameters was able to predict PE with a sensitivity and specificity of 87.5% and a positive predictive value of 70%. The combined clinical assessment of uterine perfusion and cardiovascular variability demonstrates the best current prediction several weeks before clinical manifestation of PE.

  9. The future of cardiovascular imaging and non-invasive diagnosis. A joint statement from the European Association of Echocardiography, the Working Groups on Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, Computers in Cardiology, and Nuclear Cardiology, of the European Society of Cardiology, the European Association of Nuclear Medicine and the Association for European Paediatric Cardiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, Alan G.; Nihoyannopoulos, Petros [European Association of Echocardiography, ESC Office for Associations, The European Heart House, Sophia Antipolis (France); Buser, Peter T.; Schwitter, Juerg [Working Group on Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, European Society of Cardiology, Sophia Antipolis (France); Bax, Jeroen J.; Knuuti, Juhani M. [Working Group on Nuclear Cardiology, European Society of Cardiology, Sophia Antipolis (France); Dassen, Willem R.; Hoeher, Martin [Working Group on Computers in Cardiology, European Society of Cardiology, Sophia Antipolis (France); Bengel, Frank [European Association of Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria); Szatmari, Andras [Hungarian Center for Pediatric Cardiology, European Society for Paediatric Cardiology, Budapest (Hungary)


    Advances in medical imaging now make it possible to investigate any patient with cardiovascular disease using multiple methods which vary widely in their technical requirements, benefits, limitations and costs. The appropriate use of alternative tests requires their integration into joint clinical diagnostic services where experts in all methods collaborate. This statement summarises the principles that should guide developments in cardiovascular diagnostic services. (orig.)

  10. ECG-based gating in ultra high field cardiovascular magnetic resonance using an independent component analysis approach


    Krug, Johannes W; Rose, Georg; Clifford, Gari D.; Oster, Julien


    Background In Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR), the synchronization of image acquisition with heart motion is performed in clinical practice by processing the electrocardiogram (ECG). The ECG-based synchronization is well established for MR scanners with magnetic fields up to 3 T. However, this technique is prone to errors in ultra high field environments, e.g. in 7 T MR scanners as used in research applications. The high magnetic fields cause severe magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects w...

  11. Statistical Smoothing Methods and Image Analysis (United States)


    83 - 111. Rosenfeld, A. and Kak, A.C. (1982). Digital Picture Processing. Academic Press,Qrlando. Serra, J. (1982). Image Analysis and Mat hematical ...hypothesis testing. IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging, MI-6, 313-319. Wicksell, S.D. (1925) The corpuscle problem. A mathematical study of a biometric problem

  12. Footprint and imprint: an ecologic time-trend analysis of cardiovascular publications in general and specialty journals. (United States)

    Baldridge, Abigail S; Huffman, Mark D; Bloomfield, Gerald S; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj


    Studies have demonstrated strong associations between publication source and citations, as well as investigatory analysis of collaboration effects, in general and medical literature, but are limited to specific journals or short duration of time. This study sought to analyze time trends in cardiovascular research publications in leading general and specialty journals and to determine the association between collaboration and citation index. Cardiovascular publications were retrieved from Web of Knowledge by a cardiovascular bibliometric filter, and annual publication volumes in 8 general and specialty journals were compared. Univariable linear regression models were used to determine global and journal-specific trends for overall publication, cardiovascular publication, proportion of cardiovascular publication, collaboration, and citations. Cardiovascular publications increased (1999 to 2008) by 36% and number of sources by 74%. Volume increased in European Heart Journal (beta: 18.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.6 to 26.3) and decreased in Circulation (beta: -42.9, 95% CI: -79.3 to -6.5), Annals of Internal Medicine (beta: -1.9, 95% CI: -3.5 to -0.3), and Lancet (beta: -11.2, 95% CI: -14.7 to -7.8). Number of contributing countries increased in 3 journals: BMJ (beta: 0.8, 95% CI: 0.2 to 1.5), European Heart Journal (beta: -1.2, 95% CI: 0.8 to 1.7), and New England Journal of Medicine (beta: 1.6, 95% CI: 0.6 to 2.7). Fraction of collaborative publications increased (beta: 1.1 to 2.9) in all but Annals of Internal Medicine. Collaboration was associated with a higher median actual citation index (p journals. Contribution by country in selected journals was disproportionate and under-represents total cardiovascular research in low- and middle-income countries.

  13. Radiological informed consent in cardiovascular imaging: towards the medico-legal perfect storm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loré Cosimo


    Full Text Available Abstract Use of radiation for medical examinations and tests is the largest manmade source of radiation exposure. No one can doubt the immense clinical and scientific benefits of imaging to the modern practice of medicine. Every radiological and nuclear medicine examination confers a definite (albeit low long-term risk of cancer, but patients undergoing such examinations often receive no or inaccurate information about radiological dose exposure and corresponding risk directly related to the radiological dose received. Too detailed information on radiological dose and risk may result in undue anxiety, but information "economical with the truth" may violate basic patients' rights well embedded in ethics (Oviedo convention 1997 and law (97/43 Euratom Directive 1997. Informed consent is a procedure needed to establish a respectful and ethical relation between doctors and patients. Nevertheless, in an "ideal" consent process, the principle of patient autonomy in current radiological practice might be reinforced by making it mandatory to obtain explicit and transparent informed consent form for radiological examination with high exposure (≥ 500 chest x-rays. The form may spell-out the type of examination, the exposure in effective dose (mSv, derived from reference values in guidelines or – better – from actual values from their department. The dose equivalent might be also expressed in number of chest radiographs and the risk of cancer as number of extra cases in the exposed population, derived from most recent and authorative guidelines (e.g., BEIR VII Committee, release 2006. Common sense, deontological code, patients'rights, medical imaging guidelines, Euratom law, all coherently and concordantly encourage and recommend a justified, optimized, responsible and informed use of testing with ionizing radiation. Although the idea of informed consent for radiation dose does not seem to be on the immediate radar screen at least in the US, the

  14. Cardiac pathologies in female carriers of Duchenne muscular dystrophy assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schelhorn, Juliane; Schemuth, Haemi; Nensa, Felix; Nassenstein, Kai; Forsting, Michael; Schlosser, Thomas [University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Schoenecker, Anne; Neudorf, Ulrich [University Hospital Essen, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Essen (Germany); Schara, Ulrike [University Hospital Essen, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Essen (Germany)


    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common and severe dystrophinopathy. DMD carriers rarely present with clinical symptoms, but may suffer from cardiac involvement. Because echocardiographic findings are inconsistent and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) data are limited, this study sought to investigate asymptomatic carriers for cardiac abnormalities using CMRI. Fifteen genetically confirmed DMD carriers (age, 32.3 ± 10.2 years) were prospectively examined on a 1.5T MR system. Cine, T2, and late-gadolinium-enhanced (LGE) images were acquired, and were evaluated in consensus by two experienced readers. Left ventricular (LV) parameters were analysed semiautomatically, normalized to BSA. Normalized LV end-diastolic volume was increased in 7 % (73.7 ± 16.8 ml/m{sup 2}; range, 48-116 ml/m{sup 2}) and normalized LV end-systolic volume in 20 % (31.5 ± 13.3 ml/m{sup 2}; range, 15-74 ml/m{sup 2}). EF was reduced in 33 % (58.4 ± 7.6 %; range, 37-69 %) and normalized LV myocardial mass in 80 % (40.5 ± 6.8 g/m{sup 2}; range, 31-55 g/m{sup 2}). In 80 %, regional myocardial thinning was detected in more than one segment. In 13 % and 40 %, apical-lateral accentuation of LV non-compaction was present. LGE was found in 60 % (midmyocardial inferolateral accentuation). Given the high frequency of cardiac pathologies detected by CMRI, regular cardiac risk assessment is advisable for DMD carriers. Besides clinical examination, CMRI is an excellent tool for this purpose. (orig.)

  15. Power Spectrum Analysis of Heart Rate Fluctuation: A Quantitative Probe of Beat-To-Beat Cardiovascular Control (United States)

    Akselrod, Solange; Gordon, David; Ubel, F. Andrew; Shannon, Daniel C.; Barger, A. Clifford; Cohen, Richard J.


    Power spectrum analysis of heart rate fluctuations provides a quantitative noninvasive means of assessing the functioning of the short-term cardiovascular control systems. We show that sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous activity make frequency-specific contributions to the heart rate power spectrum, and that renin-angiotensin system activity strongly modulates the amplitude of the spectral peak located at 0.04 hertz. Our data therefore provide evidence that the reninangiotensin system plays a significant role in short-term cardiovascular control on the time scale of seconds to minutes.

  16. [Research on distribution of patents' holders for Chinese herbal compounds in treating cardiovascular and cerebrovascular based on cluster analysis]. (United States)

    YANG, Xu-Jie; XIAO, Shi-Ying


    To discuss the distribution of patents' holders for Chinese herbal compounds in treating cardiovascular and cerebrovascular, the patents' holders for Chinese herbal compounds in treating cardiovascular and cerebrovascular were cluster analyzed by means of simple statistics and cluster analysis. Clustering variables were composed of patent applications, patent maintained number, related papers' quantity, etc. Chinese herbal compound patents' holders were divided into four categories according to their different scientific research and patent strength. It is the magic weapon for Chinese herbal compound patents' holders that have scientific research patents' transforming and make coordination of patent protection and scientific innovation.

  17. Malware Analysis Using Visualized Image Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KyoungSoo Han


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel malware visual analysis method that contains not only a visualization method to convert binary files into images, but also a similarity calculation method between these images. The proposed method generates RGB-colored pixels on image matrices using the opcode sequences extracted from malware samples and calculates the similarities for the image matrices. Particularly, our proposed methods are available for packed malware samples by applying them to the execution traces extracted through dynamic analysis. When the images are generated, we can reduce the overheads by extracting the opcode sequences only from the blocks that include the instructions related to staple behaviors such as functions and application programming interface (API calls. In addition, we propose a technique that generates a representative image for each malware family in order to reduce the number of comparisons for the classification of unknown samples and the colored pixel information in the image matrices is used to calculate the similarities between the images. Our experimental results show that the image matrices of malware can effectively be used to classify malware families both statically and dynamically with accuracy of 0.9896 and 0.9732, respectively.

  18. Integration of an optical coherence tomography (OCT) system into a new environmental chamber to facilitate long term in vivo imaging of cardiovascular development in higher vertebrate embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars; Happel, Christoph M.; Thommes, Jan;


    High-resolution 3-D in vivo imaging of embryonic development over long periods of time under constant physiological conditions (e.g. temperature, humidity) was a challenging task for researchers working on early cardiovascular development. Without appropriate maintenance of temperature, for example...... development. Here we demonstrate, to the best of our knowledge, the first realization of an optical coherence tomography (OCT) system integrated into a new environmental incubation chamber (EIC) to facilitate real-time in vivo imaging of cardiovascular development in chick embryos. The EIC provides stable...... conditions for embryonic development with respect to temperature, humidity, and oxygen levels. An OCT probe is integrated into the EIC and facilitates visualization of embryos at micrometer resolution, including the acquisition of M-mode, Doppler OCT, and Doppler M-mode data....

  19. Role of multimodality cardiac imaging in preoperative cardiovascular evaluation before noncardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathala Ahmed


    Full Text Available The preoperative cardiac assessment of patients undergoing noncardiac surgery is common in the daily practice of medical consultants, anesthesiologists, and surgeons. The number of patients undergoing noncardiac surgery worldwide is increasing. Currently, there are several noninvasive diagnostic tests available for preoperative evaluation. Both nuclear cardiology with myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT and stress echocardiography are well-established techniques for preoperative cardiac evaluation. Recently, some studies demonstrated that both coronary angiography by gated multidetector computed tomography and stress cardiac magnetic resonance might potentially play a role in preoperative evaluation as well, but more studies are needed to assess the role of these new modalities in preoperative risk stratification. A common question that arises in preoperative evaluation is if further preoperative testing is needed, which preoperative test should be used. The preferred stress test is the exercise electrocardiogram (ECG. Stress imaging with exercise or pharmacologic stress agents is to be considered in patients with abnormal rest ECG or patients who are unable to exercise. After reviewing this article, the reader should develop an understanding of the following: (1 the magnitude of the cardiac preoperative morbidity and mortality, (2 how to select a patient for further preoperative testing, (3 currently available noninvasive cardiac testing for the detection of coronary artery disease and assessment of left ventricular function, and (4 an approach to select the most appropriate noninvasive cardiac test, if needed.

  20. Serum Fetuin-A Levels in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze-Lin Sun


    Full Text Available Background. Fetuin-A (FA suppresses arterial calcification, promotes insulin resistance, and appears to be elevated in patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD, but the data is still inconsistent. To clarify the correlation between serum FA levels and the presence and severity of CVDs, we performed this meta-analysis. Method. Potential relevant studies were identified covering the following databases: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, CISCOM, CINAHL, Google Scholar, China BioMedicine (CBM, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI databases. Data from eligible studies were extracted and included in the meta-analysis using a random-effects model. Results. Ten case-control studies, including 1,281 patients with CVDs and 2,663 healthy controls, were included. The results showed significant differences in serum levels of FA between the CVDs patients and the healthy controls (SMD = 1.36, 95%CI: 0.37–2.36, P=0.007. Ethnicity-subgroup analysis implied that low serum FA levels are related to CVDs in Caucasians (SMD = 1.73, 95%CI: 0.20–3.26, P=0.026, but not in Asians (SMD = 1.04, 95%CI: −0.33–2.40, P=0.138. Conclusion. The data indicated that decreased serum FA level is correlated with the development of CVDs. FA might be clinically valuable for reflecting the progression of CVDs.

  1. Relationships of OPG Genetic Polymorphisms with Susceptibility to Cardiovascular Disease: A Meta-Analysis. (United States)

    Song, De-Hua; Zhou, Peng-Zhen; Xiu, Xiao-Lin; Zhou, Guang-Hui; Sun, Yu-Xia; Song, Chun


    BACKGROUND The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine whether genetic polymorphisms in the osteoprotegerin (OPG) gene contribute to increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). MATERIAL AND METHODS Electronic databases were searched carefully without any language restriction. Analyses of data were conducted using STATA software. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were also calculated. RESULTS Seven clinical case-control studies that enrolled 1170 CVD patients and 1194 healthy subjects were included. The results indicated that OPG gene polymorphism might be closely associated with susceptibility to CVD, especially for rs2073617 T>C and rs2073618 G>C polymorphisms. Ethnicity-stratified analysis indicated that genetic polymorphism in the OPG were closely related with the pathogenesis of CVD among Asians (all P0.05). CONCLUSIONS Our meta-analysis provided quantitative evidence that OPG gene polymorphism may be closely related to an increased risk of CVD, especially for rs2073617 T>C and rs2073618 G>C polymorphisms.

  2. Scale-Specific Multifractal Medical Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Braverman


    irregular complex tissue structures that do not lend themselves to straightforward analysis with traditional Euclidean geometry. In this study, we treat the nonfractal behaviour of medical images over large-scale ranges by considering their box-counting fractal dimension as a scale-dependent parameter rather than a single number. We describe this approach in the context of the more generalized Rényi entropy, in which we can also compute the information and correlation dimensions of images. In addition, we describe and validate a computational improvement to box-counting fractal analysis. This improvement is based on integral images, which allows the speedup of any box-counting or similar fractal analysis algorithm, including estimation of scale-dependent dimensions. Finally, we applied our technique to images of invasive breast cancer tissue from 157 patients to show a relationship between the fractal analysis of these images over certain scale ranges and pathologic tumour grade (a standard prognosticator for breast cancer. Our approach is general and can be applied to any medical imaging application in which the complexity of pathological image structures may have clinical value.

  3. Cardiovascular risk profile: Cross-sectional analysis of motivational determinants, physical fitness and physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sassen, Barbara; Kok, Gerjo; Schaalma, Herman; Kiers, Henri; Vanhees, Luc


    Background: Cardiovascular risk factors are associated with physical fitness and, to a lesser extent, physical activity. Lifestyle interventions directed at enhancing physical fitness in order to decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases should be extended. To enable the development of effective

  4. Long-term Exposure to Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Mortality: An Analysis of 22 European Cohorts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beelen, Rob; Stafoggia, Massimo; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Xun, Wei W; Katsouyanni, Klea; Dimakopoulou, Konstantina; Brunekreef, Bert; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Hoffmann, Barbara; Wolf, Kathrin; Samoli, Evangelia; Houthuijs, Danny; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Oudin, Anna; Forsberg, Bertil; Olsson, David; Salomaa, Veikko; Lanki, Timo; Yli-Tuomi, Tarja; Oftedal, Bente; Aamodt, Geir; Nafstad, Per; De Faire, Ulf; Pedersen, Nancy L; Ostenson, Claes-Göran; Fratiglioni, Laura; Penell, Johanna; Korek, Michal; Pyko, Andrei; Eriksen, Kirsten Thorup; Tjønneland, Anne; Becker, Thomas; Eeftens, Marloes; Bots, Michiel; Meliefste, Kees; Wang, Meng; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Sugiri, Dorothea; Krämer, Ursula; Heinrich, Joachim; de Hoogh, Kees; Key, Timothy; Peters, Annette; Cyrys, Josef; Concin, Hans; Nagel, Gabriele; Ineichen, Alex; Schaffner, Emmanuel; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Dratva, Julia; Ducret-Stich, Regina; Vilier, Alice; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Stempfelet, Morgane; Grioni, Sara; Krogh, Vittorio; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Marcon, Alessandro; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Galassi, Claudia; Migliore, Enrica; Ranzi, Andrea; Cesaroni, Giulia; Badaloni, Chiara; Forastiere, Francesco; Tamayo, Ibon; Amiano, Pilar; Dorronsoro, Miren; Katsoulis, Michail; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Vineis, Paolo; Hoek, Gerard


    BACKGROUND:: Air pollution has been associated with cardiovascular mortality, but it remains unclear as to whether specific pollutants are related to specific cardiovascular causes of death. Within the multicenter European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE), we investigated the asso

  5. Aspirin for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer. A benefit and harm analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegeman, Inge; Bossuyt, Patrick M.; Yu, Tsung; Boyd, Cynthia; Puhan, Milo A.


    Background Aspirin is widely used for prevention of cardiovascular disease. In recent years randomized trials also suggested a preventive effect for various types of cancer. We aimed to assess, in a quantitative way, benefits and harms of aspirin for primary prevention of both cardiovascular disease

  6. The Cardiovascular Research Grid (CVRG) (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CardioVascular Research Grid (CVRG) project is creating an infrastructure for sharing cardiovascular data and data analysis tools. CVRG tools are developed using...

  7. Diagnostic accuracy of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging of right ventricular morphology and function in the assessment of suspected pulmonary hypertension results from the ASPIRE registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swift Andrew J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR imaging is accurate and reproducible for the assessment of right ventricular (RV morphology and function. However, the diagnostic accuracy of CMR derived RV measurements for the detection of pulmonary hypertension (PH in the assessment of patients with suspected PH in the clinic setting is not well described. Methods We retrospectively studied 233 consecutive treatment naïve patients with suspected PH including 39 patients with no PH who underwent CMR and right heart catheterisation (RHC within 48hours. The diagnostic accuracy of multiple CMR measurements for the detection of mPAP ≥ 25 mmHg was assessed using Fisher’s exact test and receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis. Results Ventricular mass index (VMI was the CMR measurement with the strongest correlation with mPAP (r = 0.78 and the highest diagnostic accuracy for the detection of PH (area under the ROC curve of 0.91 compared to an ROC of 0.88 for echocardiography calculated mPAP. Late gadolinium enhancement, VMI ≥ 0.4, retrograde flow ≥ 0.3 L/min/m2 and PA relative area change ≤ 15% predicted the presence of PH with a high degree of diagnostic certainty with a positive predictive value of 98%, 97%, 95% and 94% respectively. No single CMR parameter could confidently exclude the presence of PH. Conclusion CMR is a useful alternative to echocardiography in the evaluation of suspected PH. This study supports a role for the routine measurement of ventricular mass index, late gadolinium enhancement and the use of phase contrast imaging in addition to right heart functional indices in patients undergoing diagnostic CMR evaluation for suspected pulmonary hypertension.

  8. Myocardial tagging by Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance: evolution of techniques--pulse sequences, analysis algorithms, and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim El-Sayed H


    Full Text Available Abstract Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR tagging has been established as an essential technique for measuring regional myocardial function. It allows quantification of local intramyocardial motion measures, e.g. strain and strain rate. The invention of CMR tagging came in the late eighties, where the technique allowed for the first time for visualizing transmural myocardial movement without having to implant physical markers. This new idea opened the door for a series of developments and improvements that continue up to the present time. Different tagging techniques are currently available that are more extensive, improved, and sophisticated than they were twenty years ago. Each of these techniques has different versions for improved resolution, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, scan time, anatomical coverage, three-dimensional capability, and image quality. The tagging techniques covered in this article can be broadly divided into two main categories: 1 Basic techniques, which include magnetization saturation, spatial modulation of magnetization (SPAMM, delay alternating with nutations for tailored excitation (DANTE, and complementary SPAMM (CSPAMM; and 2 Advanced techniques, which include harmonic phase (HARP, displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE, and strain encoding (SENC. Although most of these techniques were developed by separate groups and evolved from different backgrounds, they are in fact closely related to each other, and they can be interpreted from more than one perspective. Some of these techniques even followed parallel paths of developments, as illustrated in the article. As each technique has its own advantages, some efforts have been made to combine different techniques together for improved image quality or composite information acquisition. In this review, different developments in pulse sequences and related image processing techniques are described along with the necessities that led to their invention

  9. Evaluation of 2 different x-ray digital systems designed for cardiovascular angiography: patient dosimetry data and image quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Octavian Dragusin; Kristien Smans; Hilde Bosmans [Department of Radiology, Gasthuisberg Hospital, Leuven (Belgium); Walter Desmet [Department of Cardiology, Gasthuisberg Hospital, Leuven (Belgium)


    The goal of this study was the comparative assessment of dose and image quality performance of a new flat-panel detector (F.D.) and an image intensifier (II) charge coupled device (C.C.D.) installed in a Catheterization laboratory (Cathlab). Poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA) plates were used to simulate different patient size (10,15,20,25,30 cm). Entrance dose to the phantom and image quality of a test object (Leeds T.O.R. 18-F.G.) were measured. For analysis of image quality, two methods were used. Firstly, images were evaluated directly on the monitor (low contrast resolution and high spatial resolution). Secondly, a numerical method was used (noise and signal-to-noise ratio). Finally a preliminary patient dose survey for the two most common interventional cardiology procedures (coronary angiography C.A. and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty - P.T.C.A.) was performed. Dose area product (D.A.P.), fluoroscopy time (F.T.) and total number of frames (No. frames) were collected. The results showed that both systems performed within international recommendations; the F.D. system seems superior to the II system, in terms of entrance doses of the phantom and image quality. Surprisingly, however, this potential dose reduction is not reflected in the patient data; D.A.P. values of patient data were not significantly reduced with the new system. This underlines the need for a careful set-up of the system and a more detailed analysis of the procedure. (authors)

  10. Magnesium and the risk of cardiovascular events: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Qu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prospective studies that have examined the association between dietary magnesium intake and serum magnesium concentrations and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD events have reported conflicting findings. We undertook a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between dietary magnesium intake and serum magnesium concentrations and the risk of total CVD events. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed systematic searches on MEDLINE, EMBASE, and OVID up to February 1, 2012 without limits. Categorical, linear, and nonlinear, dose-response, heterogeneity, publication bias, subgroup, and meta-regression analysis were performed. The analysis included 532,979 participants from 19 studies (11 studies on dietary magnesium intake, 6 studies on serum magnesium concentrations, and 2 studies on both with 19,926 CVD events. The pooled relative risks of total CVD events for the highest vs. lowest category of dietary magnesium intake and serum magnesium concentrations were 0.85 (95% confidence interval 0.78 to 0.92 and 0.77 (0.66 to 0.87, respectively. In linear dose-response analysis, only serum magnesium concentrations ranging from 1.44 to 1.8 mEq/L were significantly associated with total CVD events risk (0.91, 0.85 to 0.97 per 0.1 mEq/L (P(nonlinearity= 0.465. However, significant inverse associations emerged in nonlinear models for dietary magnesium intake (P(nonlinearity= 0.024. The greatest risk reduction occurred when intake increased from 150 to 400 mg/d. There was no evidence of publication bias. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There is a statistically significant nonlinear inverse association between dietary magnesium intake and total CVD events risk. Serum magnesium concentrations are linearly and inversely associated with the risk of total CVD events.

  11. Quantitative analysis of qualitative images (United States)

    Hockney, David; Falco, Charles M.


    We show optical evidence that demonstrates artists as early as Jan van Eyck and Robert Campin (c1425) used optical projections as aids for producing their paintings. We also have found optical evidence within works by later artists, including Bermejo (c1475), Lotto (c1525), Caravaggio (c1600), de la Tour (c1650), Chardin (c1750) and Ingres (c1825), demonstrating a continuum in the use of optical projections by artists, along with an evolution in the sophistication of that use. However, even for paintings where we have been able to extract unambiguous, quantitative evidence of the direct use of optical projections for producing certain of the features, this does not mean that paintings are effectively photographs. Because the hand and mind of the artist are intimately involved in the creation process, understanding these complex images requires more than can be obtained from only applying the equations of geometrical optics.

  12. Design Criteria For Networked Image Analysis System (United States)

    Reader, Cliff; Nitteberg, Alan


    Image systems design is currently undergoing a metamorphosis from the conventional computing systems of the past into a new generation of special purpose designs. This change is motivated by several factors, notably among which is the increased opportunity for high performance with low cost offered by advances in semiconductor technology. Another key issue is a maturing in understanding of problems and the applicability of digital processing techniques. These factors allow the design of cost-effective systems that are functionally dedicated to specific applications and used in a utilitarian fashion. Following an overview of the above stated issues, the paper presents a top-down approach to the design of networked image analysis systems. The requirements for such a system are presented, with orientation toward the hospital environment. The three main areas are image data base management, viewing of image data and image data processing. This is followed by a survey of the current state of the art, covering image display systems, data base techniques, communications networks and software systems control. The paper concludes with a description of the functional subystems and architectural framework for networked image analysis in a production environment.

  13. Cancer detection by quantitative fluorescence image analysis. (United States)

    Parry, W L; Hemstreet, G P


    Quantitative fluorescence image analysis is a rapidly evolving biophysical cytochemical technology with the potential for multiple clinical and basic research applications. We report the application of this technique for bladder cancer detection and discuss its potential usefulness as an adjunct to methods used currently by urologists for the diagnosis and management of bladder cancer. Quantitative fluorescence image analysis is a cytological method that incorporates 2 diagnostic techniques, quantitation of nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid and morphometric analysis, in a single semiautomated system to facilitate the identification of rare events, that is individual cancer cells. When compared to routine cytopathology for detection of bladder cancer in symptomatic patients, quantitative fluorescence image analysis demonstrated greater sensitivity (76 versus 33 per cent) for the detection of low grade transitional cell carcinoma. The specificity of quantitative fluorescence image analysis in a small control group was 94 per cent and with the manual method for quantitation of absolute nuclear fluorescence intensity in the screening of high risk asymptomatic subjects the specificity was 96.7 per cent. The more familiar flow cytometry is another fluorescence technique for measurement of nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid. However, rather than identifying individual cancer cells, flow cytometry identifies cellular pattern distributions, that is the ratio of normal to abnormal cells. Numerous studies by others have shown that flow cytometry is a sensitive method to monitor patients with diagnosed urological disease. Based upon results in separate quantitative fluorescence image analysis and flow cytometry studies, it appears that these 2 fluorescence techniques may be complementary tools for urological screening, diagnosis and management, and that they also may be useful separately or in combination to elucidate the oncogenic process, determine the biological potential of tumors

  14. Application of infrared thermal imaging in the study of preventing cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases with Chinese medicine health food (United States)

    Li, Ziru; Zhang, Xusheng


    To explore the assessing technique which could objectively reflect the characteristics of Chinese medicine in the prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, four balance features of infrared thermal images (ITI) corresponding to the up and down, left and right, proximal and distal balance of blood circulation of human body were studied. First, the ITI features of the middle-aged and elderly people with lipid abnormality history were compared with those of the healthy youth. It was found that the balance state of the youth was significantly better than that of the middle-aged and elderly, P<=0.01 for all the balance features. For the youth, the balance state of females was better than that of the males. But this sexual difference disappeared for the middle-aged and elderly group. Second, a double-blind randomized trial was carried out to study the influences of Shengyi capsule, a Chinese medicine health food with the function of helping to decrease serum lipid, on the balance features. The subjects were middle-aged and elderly people with lipid abnormality history. Shengyi capsule was taken by the trial group while Xuezhikang capsule (with lovastatin as the main effective component) by the control group for 108 days. The balance features of ITI showed that Shengyi was significantly better than Xuezhikang in improving the whole body balance of blood circulation (including the up and down, left and right, proximal and distal balance). The relative efficacy rate was 81.0% for the trial group and 33.3% for the control group, there was significant difference between the two groups (P=0.002). Shengyi could effectively decrease the low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) but the effect of Xuezhikang in decreasing total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C was better than Shengyi. Though the lipid-lowering effect of Shengyi was not as good as Xuezhikang, ITI reflected the obvious advantage of Shengyi in improving the whole body balance of blood circulation which

  15. Multidirectional flow analysis by cardiovascular magnetic resonance in aneurysm development following repair of aortic coarctation

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    Stalder Aurelien F


    Full Text Available Abstract Aneurysm formation is a life-threatening complication after operative therapy in coarctation. The identification of patients at risk for the development of such secondary pathologies is of high interest and requires a detailed understanding of the link between vascular malformation and altered hemodynamics. The routine morphometric follow-up by magnetic resonance angiography is a well-established technique. However, the intrinsic sensitivity of magnetic resonance (MR towards motion offers the possibility to additionally investigate hemodynamic consequences of morphological changes of the aorta. We demonstrate two cases of aneurysm formation 13 and 35 years after coarctation surgery based on a Waldhausen repair with a subclavian patch and a Vosschulte repair with a Dacron patch, respectively. Comprehensive flow visualization by cardiovascular MR (CMR was performed using a flow-sensitive, 3-dimensional, and 3-directional time-resolved gradient echo sequence at 3T. Subsequent analysis included the calculation of a phase contrast MR angiography and color-coded streamline and particle trace 3D visualization. Additional quantitative evaluation provided regional physiological information on blood flow and derived vessel wall parameters such as wall shear stress and oscillatory shear index. The results highlight the individual 3D blood-flow patterns associated with the different vascular pathologies following repair of aortic coarctation. In addition to known factors predisposing for aneurysm formation after surgical repair of coarctation these findings indicate the importance of flow sensitive CMR to follow up hemodynamic changes with respect to the development of vascular disease.

  16. Gap analysis of pediatric reference intervals for risk biomarkers of cardiovascular disease and the metabolic syndrome. (United States)

    Mansoub, Sepideh; Chan, Man Khun; Adeli, Khosrow


    The childhood obesity epidemic has begun to compromise the health of the pediatric population by promoting premature development of atherosclerosis and the metabolic syndrome (MS), both of which significantly increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) early in life. As a result, recently, there has been increased recognition of the need to assess and closely monitor children and adolescents for risk factors of CVD and components of the MS. Serum/Plasma biomarkers including total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-C, LDL-C, insulin and C-peptide have been used for this purpose for many years. Recently, emerging biomarkers such as apolipoprotein AI, apolipoprotein B, leptin, adiponectin, free fatty acids, and ghrelin have been proposed as tools that provide valuable complementary information to that obtained from traditional biomarkers, if not more powerful predictions of risk. In order for biomarkers to be clinically useful in accurately diagnosing and treating disorders, age-specific reference intervals that account for differences in gender, pubertal stage, and ethnic origin are a necessity. Unfortunately, to date, many critical gaps exist in the reference interval database of most of the biomarkers that have been identified. This review contains a comprehensive gap analysis of the reference intervals for emerging and traditional risk biomarkers of CVD and the MS and discusses the clinical significance and analytical considerations of each biomarker.

  17. Treatment efficacy for non-cardiovascular chest pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob M Burgstaller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-cardiovascular chest pain (NCCP leads to impaired quality of life and is associated with a high disease burden. Upon ruling out cardiovascular disease, only vague recommendations exist for further treatment. OBJECTIVES: To summarize treatment efficacy for patients presenting with NCCP. METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis. In July 2013, Medline, Web of Knowledge, Embase, EBSCOhost, Cochrane Reviews and Trials, and Scopus were searched. Hand and bibliography searches were also conducted. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs evaluating non-surgical treatments in patients with NCCP were included. Exclusion criteria were poor study quality and small sample size (<10 patients per group. RESULTS: Thirty eligible RCT's were included. Most studies assessed PPI efficacy for gastroesophageal reflux disorders (GERD, n = 10. Two RCTs included musculoskeletal chest pain, seven psychotropic drugs, and eleven various psychological interventions. Study quality was high in five RCTs and acceptable in 25. PPI treatment in patients with GERD (5 RCTs, 192 patients was more effective than placebo [pooled OR 11.7 (95% CI 5.5 to 25.0, heterogeneity I2 = 6.1%]. The pooled OR in GERD negative patients (4 RCTs, 156 patients was 0.8 (95% CI 0.2 to 2.8, heterogeneity I2 = 50.4%. In musculoskeletal NCCP (2 RCTs, 229 patients manual therapy was more effective than usual care but not than home exercise [pooled mean difference 0.5 (95% CI -0.3 to 1.3, heterogeneity I2 = 46.2%]. The findings for cognitive behavioral treatment, serotonin reuptake inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants were mixed. Most evidence was available for cognitive behavioral treatment interventions. LIMITATIONS: Only a small number of studies were available. CONCLUSIONS: Timely diagnostic evaluation and treatment of the disease underlying NCCP is important. For patients with suspected GERD, high-dose treatment with PPI is effective. Only limited evidence was available

  18. Reduced radiation dose and improved image quality at cardiovascular CT angiography by automated attenuation-based tube voltage selection: intra-individual comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krazinski, Aleksander W.; Silverman, Justin R. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Meinel, Felix G.; Geyer, Lucas L. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Schoepf, U.J. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States); Canstein, Christian [Siemens Healthcare, CT Division, Malvern, PA (United States); De Cecco, Carlo N. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University of Rome ' ' Sapienza' ' - Polo Pontino, Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology, Latina (Italy)


    To evaluate the effect of automated tube voltage selection on radiation dose and image quality at cardiovascular CT angiography (CTA). We retrospectively analysed paired studies in 72 patients (41 male, 60.5 ± 16.5 years), who had undergone CTA acquisitions of the heart or aorta both before and after the implementation of an automated x-ray tube voltage selection algorithm (ATVS). All other parameters were kept identical between the two acquisitions. Subjective image quality (IQ) was rated and objective IQ was measured by image noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and figure of merit (FOM). Image quality parameters and effective dose were compared between acquisitions. Overall subjective image quality improved with the percentage of cases scored as adequate or higher increasing from 79 % to 92 % after implementation of ATVS (P = 0.03). SNR (14.1 ± 5.9, 15.7 ± 6.1, P = 0.009), CNR (11.6 ± 5.3, 13.2 ± 5.6, P = 0.011), and FOM (19.9 ± 23.3, 43.8 ± 51.1, P < 0.001) were significantly higher after implementation of ATVS. Mean image noise (24.1 ± 8.4 HU, 22.7 ± 7.1 HU, P = 0.048) and mean effective dose (10.6 ± 5.9 mSv, 8.8 ± 5.0 mSv, P = 0.003) were significantly lower after implementation of ATVS. Automated tube voltage selection can operator-independently optimize cardiovascular CTA image acquisition parameters with improved image quality at reduced dose. (orig.)

  19. Image analysis of insulation mineral fibres. (United States)

    Talbot, H; Lee, T; Jeulin, D; Hanton, D; Hobbs, L W


    We present two methods for measuring the diameter and length of man-made vitreous fibres based on the automated image analysis of scanning electron microscopy images. The fibres we want to measure are used in materials such as glass wool, which in turn are used for thermal and acoustic insulation. The measurement of the diameters and lengths of these fibres is used by the glass wool industry for quality control purposes. To obtain reliable quality estimators, the measurement of several hundred images is necessary. These measurements are usually obtained manually by operators. Manual measurements, although reliable when performed by skilled operators, are slow due to the need for the operators to rest often to retain their ability to spot faint fibres on noisy backgrounds. Moreover, the task of measuring thousands of fibres every day, even with the help of semi-automated image analysis systems, is dull and repetitive. The need for an automated procedure which could replace manual measurements is quite real. For each of the two methods that we propose to accomplish this task, we present the sample preparation, the microscope setting and the image analysis algorithms used for the segmentation of the fibres and for their measurement. We also show how a statistical analysis of the results can alleviate most measurement biases, and how we can estimate the true distribution of fibre lengths by diameter class by measuring only the lengths of the fibres visible in the field of view.

  20. Clinical values dataset processing through cluster analysis to find cardiovascular risk (United States)

    Bucci, C. M.; Legnani, W. E.; Armentano, R. L.


    The scope of this work is to show another way to grouping population with clinical variables measured in health centres and to assign a cardiovascular risk indicator. To do this, two different datasets were used, one coming from France and another coming from Uruguay. The well proved Framingham index was used to validate the results. The preliminary results are very auspicious to encourage the research and get deeper knowledge of the cardiovascular risk indicators.

  1. Present and future of clinical cardiovascular PET imaging in Europe - a position statement by the European Council of Nuclear Cardiology (ECNC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Guludec, D. [Bichat Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Paris (France); European Council of Nuclear Cardiology, Vienna (Austria); Lautamaeki, R.; Bengel, F.M. [Johns Hopkins University, Cardiovascular Nuclear Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Knuuti, J. [University of Turku, Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Bax, J.J. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Leiden (Netherlands)


    This position statement was prepared by the European Council of Nuclear Cardiology and summarises the current and future potential of PET as a clinical cardiovascular diagnostic imaging tool. The first section describes how methodological developments have positively influenced the transition of PET from a research tool towards a clinical diagnostic test. In the second section, evidence in support of its superior diagnostic accuracy, its value to guide decision making and to predict outcome and its cost effectiveness is summarised. The third section finally outlines new PET-based approaches and concepts, which will likely influence clinical cardiovascular medicine in the future. The notion that integration of cardiac PET into healthcare systems and disease management algorithms will advance quality of care is increasingly supported by the literature highlighted in this statement. (orig.)

  2. Critical Analysis of Cardiovascular and Central Nervous System Fixed Dose Combinations Available in Indian Market (United States)

    Prajapati, Krunal; Shah, Samidh


    Introduction Fixed Dose Combinations (FDCs) are being increasingly used to improve compliance and achieve greater benefits of the two or more active ingredients given together than the corresponding individual drug components given separately. Aim To analyse the rationality of Cardiovascular (CV) and Central Nervous System (CNS) FDCs available in Indian market. Materials and Methods CVS and CNS FDCs, enlisted in Indian Drug Review, 2014, were analysed by a pretested validated eight point criteria tool. Each FDC was assessed for number of active pharmacological ingredients, approval by regulatory authority, listing in WHO Essential Medicine List. While efficacy, safety, pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic interactions and advantages of each FDC were analysed by literature search. The total score of the tool was 12 and score ≥7 was considered rational. FDCs were divided in four groups as per rationality and DCGI approval. ANOVA was used for statistical analysis and p45 belonged to CNS group and 40 had documented evidence of efficacy and safety. Majority of FDCs showed advantage of being convenient by reducing pill count and only 32 showed reducing adverse drug reactions. Out of 107 CV FDCs, 46 were rational and 61 were irrational with a mean rationality score of 6.72±2.82 (CI– 95 %, 3.90 - 9.54). While out of 45 CNS FDCs, 8 were rational and 37 were irrational with a mean rationality score of 6.22±2.08 (CI – 95 %, 4.14 - 8.30). A significant difference in mean rationality score of group A (DCGI approved + rational) was observed as compared to group B (DCGI approved + irrational) and group C (DCGI unapproved + rational) as compared to group D (DCGI unapproved + irrational) (p<0.05). Conclusion The absence of watertight pre-requisite, critical analysis of the scientific validity of the formulations and ‘convenience’ category has resulted into proliferation of irrational FDCs. This calls for strict regulatory approval process to avoid miserable FDC scenario in

  3. Accelerated cardiovascular magnetic resonance of the mouse heart using self-gated parallel imaging strategies does not compromise accuracy of structural and functional measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörries Carola


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-gated dynamic cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR enables non-invasive visualization of the heart and accurate assessment of cardiac function in mouse models of human disease. However, self-gated CMR requires the acquisition of large datasets to ensure accurate and artifact-free reconstruction of cardiac cines and is therefore hampered by long acquisition times putting high demands on the physiological stability of the animal. For this reason, we evaluated the feasibility of accelerating the data collection using the parallel imaging technique SENSE with respect to both anatomical definition and cardiac function quantification. Results Findings obtained from accelerated data sets were compared to fully sampled reference data. Our results revealed only minor differences in image quality of short- and long-axis cardiac cines: small anatomical structures (papillary muscles and the aortic valve and left-ventricular (LV remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI were accurately detected even for 3-fold accelerated data acquisition using a four-element phased array coil. Quantitative analysis of LV cardiac function (end-diastolic volume (EDV, end-systolic volume (ESV, stroke volume (SV, ejection fraction (EF and LV mass in healthy and infarcted animals revealed no substantial deviations from reference (fully sampled data for all investigated acceleration factors with deviations ranging from 2% to 6% in healthy animals and from 2% to 8% in infarcted mice for the highest acceleration factor of 3.0. CNR calculations performed between LV myocardial wall and LV cavity revealed a maximum CNR decrease of 50% for the 3-fold accelerated data acquisition when compared to the fully-sampled acquisition. Conclusions We have demonstrated the feasibility of accelerated self-gated retrospective CMR in mice using the parallel imaging technique SENSE. The proposed method led to considerably reduced acquisition times, while preserving high

  4. Principal Components Analysis In Medical Imaging (United States)

    Weaver, J. B.; Huddleston, A. L.


    Principal components analysis, PCA, is basically a data reduction technique. PCA has been used in several problems in diagnostic radiology: processing radioisotope brain scans (Ref.1), automatic alignment of radionuclide images (Ref. 2), processing MRI images (Ref. 3,4), analyzing first-pass cardiac studies (Ref. 5) correcting for attenuation in bone mineral measurements (Ref. 6) and in dual energy x-ray imaging (Ref. 6,7). This paper will progress as follows; a brief introduction to the mathematics of PCA will be followed by two brief examples of how PCA has been used in the literature. Finally my own experience with PCA in dual-energy x-ray imaging will be given.

  5. Deep Learning in Medical Image Analysis. (United States)

    Shen, Dinggang; Wu, Guorong; Suk, Heung-Il


    This review covers computer-assisted analysis of images in the field of medical imaging. Recent advances in machine learning, especially with regard to deep learning, are helping to identify, classify, and quantify patterns in medical images. At the core of these advances is the ability to exploit hierarchical feature representations learned solely from data, instead of features designed by hand according to domain-specific knowledge. Deep learning is rapidly becoming the state of the art, leading to enhanced performance in various medical applications. We introduce the fundamentals of deep learning methods and review their successes in image registration, detection of anatomical and cellular structures, tissue segmentation, computer-aided disease diagnosis and prognosis, and so on. We conclude by discussing research issues and suggesting future directions for further improvement. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering Volume 19 is June 4, 2017. Please see for revised estimates.

  6. Fourier analysis: from cloaking to imaging (United States)

    Wu, Kedi; Cheng, Qiluan; Wang, Guo Ping


    Regarding invisibility cloaks as an optical imaging system, we present a Fourier approach to analytically unify both Pendry cloaks and complementary media-based invisibility cloaks into one kind of cloak. By synthesizing different transfer functions, we can construct different devices to realize a series of interesting functions such as hiding objects (events), creating illusions, and performing perfect imaging. In this article, we give a brief review on recent works of applying Fourier approach to analysis invisibility cloaks and optical imaging through scattering layers. We show that, to construct devices to conceal an object, no constructive materials with extreme properties are required, making most, if not all, of the above functions realizable by using naturally occurring materials. As instances, we experimentally verify a method of directionally hiding distant objects and create illusions by using all-dielectric materials, and further demonstrate a non-invasive method of imaging objects completely hidden by scattering layers.

  7. Measuring toothbrush interproximal penetration using image analysis (United States)

    Hayworth, Mark S.; Lyons, Elizabeth K.


    An image analysis method of measuring the effectiveness of a toothbrush in reaching the interproximal spaces of teeth is described. Artificial teeth are coated with a stain that approximates real plaque and then brushed with a toothbrush on a brushing machine. The teeth are then removed and turned sideways so that the interproximal surfaces can be imaged. The areas of stain that have been removed within masked regions that define the interproximal regions are measured and reported. These areas correspond to the interproximal areas of the tooth reached by the toothbrush bristles. The image analysis method produces more precise results (10-fold decrease in standard deviation) in a fraction (22%) of the time as compared to our prior visual grading method.

  8. Unsupervised hyperspectral image analysis using independent component analysis (ICA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. S. Chiang; I. W. Ginsberg


    In this paper, an ICA-based approach is proposed for hyperspectral image analysis. It can be viewed as a random version of the commonly used linear spectral mixture analysis, in which the abundance fractions in a linear mixture model are considered to be unknown independent signal sources. It does not require the full rank of the separating matrix or orthogonality as most ICA methods do. More importantly, the learning algorithm is designed based on the independency of the material abundance vector rather than the independency of the separating matrix generally used to constrain the standard ICA. As a result, the designed learning algorithm is able to converge to non-orthogonal independent components. This is particularly useful in hyperspectral image analysis since many materials extracted from a hyperspectral image may have similar spectral signatures and may not be orthogonal. The AVIRIS experiments have demonstrated that the proposed ICA provides an effective unsupervised technique for hyperspectral image classification.

  9. An image processing analysis of skin textures

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, A


    Colour and coarseness of skin are visually different. When image processing is involved in the skin analysis, it is important to quantitatively evaluate such differences using texture features. In this paper, we discuss a texture analysis and measurements based on a statistical approach to the pattern recognition. Grain size and anisotropy are evaluated with proper diagrams. The possibility to determine the presence of pattern defects is also discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Gonçalves Terra


    Full Text Available The common sense knowledge formation is object of study of the Social Representation Theory, which highlights the role of communication in the production of comprehension by the subjects. The visual images favor the socialization of meanings and are active elements in the formation of social representations. Given the expressive role of the images in the formation of representational contents, this paper aims to present a semiotics analysis method for researches on social representations. The semiotic analysis of images was selected as a theoretical and methodological basis, for offering the means required for guidance for an effective research method to identify the social representations of socially shared iconic signs. The analysis method was explored by means of analytical procedures, employed for the apprehension of social representations of the feminine in posters for Brazilian Ministry of Health campaigns, which allowed access to the network of meanings associated with the analyzed visual image. It should be emphasized that the relevance of the use of semiotic analysis to analyze social representations, which presents itself as a fertile perspective for further studies expanding the possibilities of exploitation of visual content.

  11. Scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Pennycook, Stephen J


    Provides the first comprehensive treatment of the physics and applications of this mainstream technique for imaging and analysis at the atomic level Presents applications of STEM in condensed matter physics, materials science, catalysis, and nanoscience Suitable for graduate students learning microscopy, researchers wishing to utilize STEM, as well as for specialists in other areas of microscopy Edited and written by leading researchers and practitioners

  12. Visualization of Parameter Space for Image Analysis (United States)

    Pretorius, A. Johannes; Bray, Mark-Anthony P.; Carpenter, Anne E.; Ruddle, Roy A.


    Image analysis algorithms are often highly parameterized and much human input is needed to optimize parameter settings. This incurs a time cost of up to several days. We analyze and characterize the conventional parameter optimization process for image analysis and formulate user requirements. With this as input, we propose a change in paradigm by optimizing parameters based on parameter sampling and interactive visual exploration. To save time and reduce memory load, users are only involved in the first step - initialization of sampling - and the last step - visual analysis of output. This helps users to more thoroughly explore the parameter space and produce higher quality results. We describe a custom sampling plug-in we developed for CellProfiler - a popular biomedical image analysis framework. Our main focus is the development of an interactive visualization technique that enables users to analyze the relationships between sampled input parameters and corresponding output. We implemented this in a prototype called Paramorama. It provides users with a visual overview of parameters and their sampled values. User-defined areas of interest are presented in a structured way that includes image-based output and a novel layout algorithm. To find optimal parameter settings, users can tag high- and low-quality results to refine their search. We include two case studies to illustrate the utility of this approach. PMID:22034361

  13. Web Based Distributed Coastal Image Analysis System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project develops Web based distributed image analysis system processing the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to provide decision...

  14. 2014 Korean guidelines for appropriate utilization of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging: A joint report of the Korean Society of Cardiology and the Korean Society of Radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Yeon Yee E. [Dept. of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Yoo Jin; Choi, Eui Young [Dept. of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others


    The use of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is increasing for the assessment of certain cardiovascular diseases, due to recent technical developments. CMR can give physicians information that cannot be found with other imaging modalities. However, there has been no guideline for the use of CMR in Korean people. Therefore, we have prepared a Korean guideline for the appropriate utilization of CMR to guide Korean physicians, imaging specialists, medical associates, and patients to improve the overall performances in medical system. By addressing CMR usage and creating these guidelines, we hope to contribute to the promotion of public health. This guideline is a joint report of the Korean Society of Cardiology and the Korean Society of Radiology.

  15. 2014 Korean Guidelines for Appropriate Utilization of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Joint Report of the Korean Society of Cardiology and the Korean Society of Radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Yeonyee E. [Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Yoo Jin [Department of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung-Kwan [Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Cardiovascular Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeong A [Department of Radiology, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang 411-706 (Korea, Republic of); Na, Jin Oh [Cardiovascular Center, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul 152-703 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Dong Hyun [Department of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Jin [Department of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eui-Young [Division of Cardiology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 135-720 (Korea, Republic of)


    Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is now widely used in several fields of cardiovascular disease assessment due to recent technical developments. CMR can give physicians information that cannot be found with other imaging modalities. However, there is no guideline which is suitable for Korean people for the use of CMR. Therefore, we have prepared a Korean guideline for the appropriate utilization of CMR to guide Korean physicians, imaging specialists, medical associates and patients to improve the overall medical system performances. By addressing CMR usage and creating these guidelines we hope to contribute towards the promotion of public health. This guideline is a joint report of the Korean Society of Cardiology and the Korean Society of Radiology.

  16. Human postmortem device retrieval and analysis--orthopaedic, cardiovascular, and dental systems. (United States)

    Lemons, J; Brott, B; Eberhardt, A


    On the basis of decades of analyzing implant devices, tissues, and clinical records from revision surgical explants (called device failure), studies now include postmortem donors and in situ conditions (called success). A key issue has been information exchange from an interdisciplinary team where basic physical and biological studies complement details of the clinical conditions for each device. Overall, the summary information has shown that most revisions were based on factors associated with the patient health, disease, and compliance, with few outcomes directly correlated with technology and device-specific factors. However, because of the large numbers of devices implanted annually (millions), any sampling that reveals adverse circumstances could result in a high level of importance and the need for additional studies of this type. Experience from prior retrieval and analysis demonstrates significant value where peer reviewed results from investigations have altered the discipline and have improved the quality and longevity of health care associated with implanted devices. This report summarizes completed and ongoing studies of cardiovascular, dental, and orthopaedic systems. Endovascular stents from autopsies showed damage including fretting and corrosion from overlapping and intersecting conditions, plus some corrosion and element transfers to tissues from individual stents. Studies are proposed to increase numbers to evaluate clinical significance. Dental implants from postmortem donors that functioned more than 10 years provided evaluations of cobalt alloy devices and calcium phosphate bone graft substitutes originally investigated in the 1970s. Tissue integration and stability correlated with data from prior laboratory in vitro and in vivo investigations. Studies of articulation and fixation from orthopaedic total joint arthroplasties showed some limitations related to surface changes of YTZ zirconia, specific damage due to implantation procedures, which

  17. Gene expression analysis approach to establish possible links between Parkinson's disease, cancer and cardiovascular diseases. (United States)

    Karim, Sajjad; Mirza, Zeenat; Kamal, Mohammad A; Abuzenadah, Adel M; Al-Qahtani, Mohammed H


    Non-communicable chronic diseases have been apparently established as threat to human health, and are currently the world's main killer. Cardiovascular diseases (CVD), cancer, diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases are collectively amounting to more than 60% of non-communicable disease burden across world. Tremendous advancements in healthcare enabled us to fight several health problems primarily infectious diseases. However, this increased longevity where in many cases an individual suffers from several such chronic diseases simultaneously, making treatment complex. Finding whether diseases can coexist in an individual by chance or there exists a possible association between them is vital. Our goal is to establish possible existing link among CVD, cancer and Parkinson's disease (PD) for better understanding of the associated molecular network. In this study, we integrated multiple dataset retrieved from the National Centre for Biotechnology Information's Gene Expression Omnibus database, and took a systems-biology approach to compare and distinguish the molecular network associated with PD, cancer and CVD. We identified 230, 308 and 1619 differentially expressed genes for CVD, cancer and PD dataset respectively using cut off p value2. We integrated these data with known pathways using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis tool and found following common pathways associated with all three diseases to be most affected; epithelial adherens junction signaling, remodelling of epithelial adherens junctions, role of BRCA1 in DNA damage response, sphingomyelin metabolism, 3- phosphoinositide biosynthesis, acute myeloid leukemia signaling, type I diabetes mellitus signaling, agrin interactions at neuromuscular junction, role of IL-17A in arthritis, and antigen presentation pathways. In conclusion, CVD, cancer and PD appear tightly associated at molecular level.

  18. Doenças periodontais causam doenças cardiovasculares? Análise das evidências epidemiológicas Does periodontal disease cause cardiovascular disease? Analysis of epidemiological evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Cunha-Cruz


    Full Text Available Este artigo é uma análise de estudos epidemiológicos que avaliaram a doença periodontal como causa de doenças cardiovasculares. Foram identificados 35 estudos por meio de busca manual nos volumes especiais de resumos do periódico Journal of Dental Research; de busca nos bancos de dados eletrônicos MEDLINE, LILACS e ISI; e da inspeção de bibliografias dos artigos identificados. Os critérios de inclusão foram: artigos em qualquer idioma publicados entre 1989 e 2000, que relataram a ausência ou presença de associação entre doenças periodontais e doenças cardiovasculares. As evidências disponíveis ainda são esparsas e suas interpretações são limitadas por potenciais vieses e situação de confusão. Os estudos analisados, tanto separadamente quanto juntos, não fornecem evidência epidemiológica convincente para uma associação causal entre doenças periodontais e doenças cardiovasculares. Entretanto, a possibilidade das doenças bucais causarem doenças cardiovasculares ainda não pode ser descartada. Até que dados adequados estejam disponíveis, não se deve considerar as doenças periodontais ou qualquer outra infecção bucal como causa de doenças cardiovasculares.This article reports a critical analysis of epidemiologic studies that evaluated periodontal disease as a cause of cardiovascular disease. Thirty-five studies were identified through a manual search of the special abstracts volumes of the Journal of Dental Research, as well as an electronic search on MEDLINE, LILACS, and ISI and inspection of the articles' bibliographies. Inclusion criteria were: articles in any language published between 1989 and 2000 reporting the presence or absence of an association between periodontal and cardiovascular diseases. Available studies are scarce, and interpretations are limited by potential bias and confounding. The studies analyzed (whether separately or jointly fail to provide convincing epidemiologic evidence for a

  19. Image analysis for ophthalmological diagnosis image processing of Corvis ST images using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Koprowski, Robert


    This monograph focuses on the use of analysis and processing methods for images from the Corvis® ST tonometer. The presented analysis is associated with the quantitative, repeatable and fully automatic evaluation of the response of the eye, eyeball and cornea to an air-puff. All the described algorithms were practically implemented in MATLAB®. The monograph also describes and provides the full source code designed to perform the discussed calculations. As a result, this monograph is intended for scientists, graduate students and students of computer science and bioengineering as well as doctors wishing to expand their knowledge of modern diagnostic methods assisted by various image analysis and processing methods.

  20. Air pollution and cardiovascular and respiratory emergency visits in Central Arkansas: A time-series analysis (United States)

    Rodopoulou, Sophia; Samoli, Evangelia; Chalbot, Marie-Cecile G.; Kavouras, Ilias G.


    Background Heart disease and stroke mortality and morbidity rates in Arkansas are among the highest in the U.S. While the effect of air pollution on cardiovascular health was identified in traffic-dominated metropolitan areas, there is a lack of studies for populations with variable exposure profiles, demographic and disease characteristics. Objective Determine the short-term effects of air pollution on cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity in the stroke and heart failure belt. Methods We investigated the associations of fine particles and ozone with respiratory and cardiovascular emergency room visits during the 2002–2012 period for adults in Central Arkansas using Poisson generalized models adjusted for temporal, seasonal and meteorological effects. We evaluated sensitivity of the associations to mutual pollutant adjustment and effect modification patterns by sex, age, race and season. Results We found effects on cardiovascular and respiratory emergencies for PM2.5 (1.52% [95%CI: −1.10, 4.20]; 1.45% [95%CI: −2.64, 5.72] per 10 μg/m3) and O3 (0.93% [95%CI: −0.87, 2.76]; 0.76 [95%CI: −1.92, 3.52] per 10 ppbv) during the cold period (October–March). The effects were stronger among whites, except for the respiratory effects of O3 that were higher among Blacks/African-Americans. Effect modification patterns by age and sex differed by association. Both pollutants were associated with increases in emergency room visits for hypertension, heart failure and asthma. Effects on cardiovascular and respiratory emergencies were observed during the cold period when particulate matter was dominated by secondary nitrate and wood burning. Conclusion Outdoor particulate pollution during winter had an effect of cardiovascular morbidity in central Arkansas, the region with high stroke and heart disease incidence rates. PMID:26232212

  1. Digital image sequence processing, compression, and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Todd R



  2. Cardiovascular risk profile: Cross-sectional analysis of motivational determinants, physical fitness and physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiers Henri


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular risk factors are associated with physical fitness and, to a lesser extent, physical activity. Lifestyle interventions directed at enhancing physical fitness in order to decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases should be extended. To enable the development of effective lifestyle interventions for people with cardiovascular risk factors, we investigated motivational, social-cognitive determinants derived from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB and other relevant social psychological theories, next to physical activity and physical fitness. Methods In the cross-sectional Utrecht Police Lifestyle Intervention Fitness and Training (UP-LIFT study, 1298 employees (aged 18 to 62 were asked to complete online questionnaires regarding social-cognitive variables and physical activity. Cardiovascular risk factors and physical fitness (peak VO2 were measured. Results For people with one or more cardiovascular risk factors (78.7% of the total population, social-cognitive variables accounted for 39% (p In addition to the prediction of intention to engage in physical activity and physical active behavior, we explored the impact of the intensity of physical activity. The intentsity of physical activity was only significantly related to physical active behavior (beta = .253, p 2 = .06, p 2 = .23, p For people with one or more cardiovascular risk factors, 39.9% had positive intentions to engage in physical activity and were also physically active, and 10.5% had a low intentions but were physically active. 37.7% had low intentions and were physically inactive, and about 11.9% had high intentions but were physically inactive. Conclusions This study contributes to our ability to optimize cardiovascular risk profiles by demonstrating an important association between physical fitness and social-cognitive variables. Physical fitness can be predicted by physical active behavior as well as by self-efficacy and the intensity of

  3. Comprehensive assessment of a post-coronary bypass graft patient with cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging and multi-detector computed tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pairoj Rerkpattanapipat; Patcharee Paijitprapaporn; Suthipong Jongjirasiri; Jiraporn Laothamatas; Nithi Mahanonda


    Coronary bypass graft surgery (CABG) is a revascularization procedure which reduces myocardial ischemia and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in selected patients; however, up to 40% of saphanous vein grafts may degenerate over 10 years. Although coronary angiography is the gold standard to detect graft patency and native vessel disease, sometimes it is difficult to locate the grafts resulting in increased exposure to radiation and contrast administration. This case highlights the utility of cardiac computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to provide comprehensive noninvasive assessment in a patient post CABG.

  4. Recent Advances in Morphological Cell Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengyong Chen


    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the recent advances in image processing methods for morphological cell analysis. The topic of morphological analysis has received much attention with the increasing demands in both bioinformatics and biomedical applications. Among many factors that affect the diagnosis of a disease, morphological cell analysis and statistics have made great contributions to results and effects for a doctor. Morphological cell analysis finds the cellar shape, cellar regularity, classification, statistics, diagnosis, and so forth. In the last 20 years, about 1000 publications have reported the use of morphological cell analysis in biomedical research. Relevant solutions encompass a rather wide application area, such as cell clumps segmentation, morphological characteristics extraction, 3D reconstruction, abnormal cells identification, and statistical analysis. These reports are summarized in this paper to enable easy referral to suitable methods for practical solutions. Representative contributions and future research trends are also addressed.

  5. Distribution of Ankle-Brachial Index among Inpatients with Cardiovascular Disease: Analysis Using the Kumamoto University Hospital Medical Database (United States)

    Soejima, Hirofumi; Kojima, Sunao; Kaikita, Koichi; Yamamuro, Megumi; Izumiya, Yasuhiro; Tsujita, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Eiichiro; Tanaka, Tomoko; Sugamura, Koichi; Arima, Yuichiro; Sakamoto, Kenji; Akasaka, Tomonori; Tabata, Noriaki; Sueta, Daisuke; Miyoshi, Izuru; Usami, Makiko; Ogawa, Hisao


    Objective: To describe the distribution of ankle-brachial index (ABI) among Japanese cardiovascular inpatients and to explore risk factors of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) associated with ABI ≤0.9. Materials and Methods: This study was a retrospective analysis using clinical record databases of patients with cardiovascular disease admitted to the Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Kumamoto University Hospital between 2007 and 2014. Results: Of 3639 patients included in the analysis, male patients accounted for 62.1% and the mean age of patients was 66.1 years. Ischemic heart disease (IHD) was observed in 49.1%. ABI ≤0.9 was observed in 11.3% of all patients, 14.1% in the IHD group and 8.5% in the non-IHD group. Age of ≥65 years (odds ratio [OR]: 2.93, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.22–3.86), current smoking (OR: 2.28, 95%CI:1.71–3.04), diabetes (OR: 2.15, 95%CI:1.71–2.71), hypertension (OR: 1.42, 95%CI:1.12–1.81) and chronic kidney disease (OR: 2.52, 95%CI:1.82–3.48) were significantly associated factors with ABI ≤0.9. Conclusions: This study suggests that PAD is prevalent even in patients without IHD. Active management of risk factors, early detection of PAD based on ABI, and therapeutic intervention could be effective in preventing future cardiovascular events or death. PMID:27087869

  6. A comparative meta-analysis of maximal aerobic metabolism of vertebrates: implications for respiratory and cardiovascular limits to gas exchange. (United States)

    Hillman, Stanley S; Hancock, Thomas V; Hedrick, Michael S


    Maximal aerobic metabolic rates (MMR) in vertebrates are supported by increased conductive and diffusive fluxes of O(2) from the environment to the mitochondria necessitating concomitant increases in CO(2) efflux. A question that has received much attention has been which step, respiratory or cardiovascular, provides the principal rate limitation to gas flux at MMR? Limitation analyses have principally focused on O(2) fluxes, though the excess capacity of the lung for O(2) ventilation and diffusion remains unexplained except as a safety factor. Analyses of MMR normally rely upon allometry and temperature to define these factors, but cannot account for much of the variation and often have narrow phylogenetic breadth. The unique aspect of our comparative approach was to use an interclass meta-analysis to examine cardio-respiratory variables during the increase from resting metabolic rate to MMR among vertebrates from fish to mammals, independent of allometry and phylogeny. Common patterns at MMR indicate universal principles governing O(2) and CO(2) transport in vertebrate cardiovascular and respiratory systems, despite the varied modes of activities (swimming, running, flying), different cardio-respiratory architecture, and vastly different rates of metabolism (endothermy vs. ectothermy). Our meta-analysis supports previous studies indicating a cardiovascular limit to maximal O(2) transport and also implicates a respiratory system limit to maximal CO(2) efflux, especially in ectotherms. Thus, natural selection would operate on the respiratory system to enhance maximal CO(2) excretion and the cardiovascular system to enhance maximal O(2) uptake. This provides a possible evolutionary explanation for the conundrum of why the respiratory system appears functionally over-designed from an O(2) perspective, a unique insight from previous work focused solely on O(2) fluxes. The results suggest a common gas transport blueprint, or Bauplan, in the vertebrate clade.

  7. Association between transportation noise and cardiovascular disease: A meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies among adult populations from 1980 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibyendu Banerjee


    Full Text Available Background: It is hypothesized that exposure to transportation noise is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease among adult population. The present study further explores this association in the light of new findings. The objective of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of studies reported during the last 3 decades on the association of transportation noise exposure with cardiovascular disease endpoints among adult population in cross-sectional studies. Materials and Methods: Relative risks were pooled from 12 studies by using an inverse-variance weighted fixed-effects model. The cardiovascular health outcomes included ischemic heart disease, myocardial infraction, angina pectoris, electrocardiogram-ischemia and cardiovascular medication. Results: The pooled risk estimate (95% confidence interval of 1.04 (0.96-1.12, shows a positive but nonsignificant association. The sensitivity analysis, conducted by excluding studies one by one, resulted in a positive and significant risk estimate. Contrary to the earlier meta-analysis, this study observed heterogeneity among subgroups and produced significant positive results to show that there exists an association between air traffic noise exposure and cardiovascular disease. It was also observed that the risk of cardiovascular disease due to exposure to transportation noise has increase to significant levels over the last 30 years. Conclusion: It can be concluded that though the association between transportation noise exposure and cardiovascular disease is evident, but not at a significant level. This study although provides evidence that air traffic noise is a serious cause of concern.

  8. Quantitative Analysis in Nuclear Medicine Imaging

    CERN Document Server


    This book provides a review of image analysis techniques as they are applied in the field of diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine. Driven in part by the remarkable increase in computing power and its ready and inexpensive availability, this is a relatively new yet rapidly expanding field. Likewise, although the use of radionuclides for diagnosis and therapy has origins dating back almost to the discovery of natural radioactivity itself, radionuclide therapy and, in particular, targeted radionuclide therapy has only recently emerged as a promising approach for therapy of cancer and, to a lesser extent, other diseases. As effort has, therefore, been made to place the reviews provided in this book in a broader context. The effort to do this is reflected by the inclusion of introductory chapters that address basic principles of nuclear medicine imaging, followed by overview of issues that are closely related to quantitative nuclear imaging and its potential role in diagnostic and therapeutic applications. ...

  9. Cardiovascular Deconditioning (United States)

    Charles, John B.; Fritsch-Yelle, Janice M.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Wood, Margie L.; Brown, Troy E.; Fortner, G. William


    Spaceflight causes adaptive changes in cardiovascular function that may deleteriously affect crew health and safety. Over the last three decades, symptoms of cardiovascular changes have ranged from postflight orthostatic tachycardia and decreased exercise capacity to serious cardiac rhythm disturbances during extravehicular activities (EVA). The most documented symptom of cardiovascular dysfunction, postflight orthostatic intolerance, has affected a significant percentage of U.S. Space Shuttle astronauts. Problems of cardiovascular dysfunction associated with spaceflight are a concern to NASA. This has been particularly true during Shuttle flights where the primary concern is the crew's physical health, including the pilot's ability to land the Orbiter, and the crew's ability to quickly egress and move to safety should a dangerous condition arise. The study of astronauts during Shuttle activities is inherently more difficult than most human research. Consequently, sample sizes have been small and results have lacked consistency. Before the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP), there was a lack of normative data on changes in cardiovascular parameters during and after spaceflight. The EDOMP for the first time allowed studies on a large enough number of subjects to overcome some of these problems. There were three primary goals of the Cardiovascular EDOMP studies. The first was to establish, through descriptive studies, a normative data base of cardiovascular changes attributable to spaceflight. The second goal was to determine mechanisms of cardiovascular changes resulting from spaceflight (particularly orthostatic hypotension and cardiac rhythm disturbances). The third was to evaluate possible countermeasures. The Cardiovascular EDOMP studies involved parallel descriptive, mechanistic, and countermeasure evaluations.

  10. Genomics in cardiovascular diseases: analysis of the importance of the toll-like receptor signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bustamante J


    Full Text Available J Bustamante,1 E Tamayo,2 J Herreros3,41Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Hospital Universitario La Princesa, Madrid, 2Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Hospital Clinico Universitario de Valladolid, Valladolid, 3Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Hospital Universitario Valdecilla, Santander, 4Biomedical Engineering Institute of Santander, Santander, SpainAbstract: The development of techniques for genomics study makes it possible for us to further our knowledge about the physiopathology of various immunological or infectious diseases. These techniques improve our understanding of the development and evolution of such diseases, including those of cardiovascular origin, whilst they help to bring about the design of new therapeutic strategies. We are reviewing the genetic alterations of immunity in said field, and focusing on the signaling pathway of toll-like receptors because not only does this play a decisive role in response to microorganisms, it is also heavily involved in modulating the inflammatory response to tissue damage, a side effect of numerous cardiovascular diseases. These alterations in tissue homeostasis are present under a wide range of circumstances, such as reperfusion ischemia (myocardial infarction phenomena, arteriosclerosis, or valvulopathy.Keywords: genome-wide association study, single-nucleotide polymorphism, innate immune system, ischemic/reperfusion, myocardial infarction

  11. Cardiovascular disease after treatment for Hodgkin's lymphoma : an analysis of nine collaborative EORTC-LYSA trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maraldo, Maja V.; Giusti, Francesco; Vogelius, Ivan R.; Lundemann, Michael; van der Kaaij, Marleen A. E.; Ramadan, Safaa; Meulemans, Bart; Henry-Amar, Michel; Aleman, Berthe M. P.; Raemaekers, John; Meijnders, Paul; Moser, Elisabeth C.; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C.; Feugier, Pierre; Casasnovas, Olivier; Fortpied, Catherine; Specht, Lena


    Background Cardiovascular disease after treatment is an important concern in cancer survivors. However, knowledge of cardiotoxicity is limited by the retrospective nature of data, which often does not contain details of treatment exposure. To facilitate individual risk counselling of patients, we ai

  12. Cardiovascular disease after treatment for Hodgkin's lymphoma: an analysis of nine collaborative EORTC-LYSA trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maraldo, M.V.; Giusti, F.; Vogelius, I.R.; Lundemann, M.; Kaaij, M.A. van der; Ramadan, S.; Meulemans, B.; Henry-Amar, M.; Aleman, B.M.; Raemaekers, J.M.M.; Meijnders, P.; Moser, E.C.; Kluin-Nelemans, H.C.; Feugier, P.; Casasnovas, O.; Fortpied, C.; Specht, L.


    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease after treatment is an important concern in cancer survivors. However, knowledge of cardiotoxicity is limited by the retrospective nature of data, which often does not contain details of treatment exposure. To facilitate individual risk counselling of patients, we a

  13. Cardiovascular disease after treatment for Hodgkin's lymphoma: an analysis of nine collaborative EORTC-LYSA trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraldo, Maja V.; Giusti, Francesco; Vogelius, Ivan R.


    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease after treatment is an important concern in cancer survivors. However, knowledge of cardiotoxicity is limited by the retrospective nature of data, which often does not contain details of treatment exposure. To facilitate individual risk counselling of patients, we...

  14. Analysis of production of the decellularized scaffolds and their potential use in cardiovascular surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brumberg V.A.


    Full Text Available Data on application of decellularized scaffolds and tissue-engineered vascular conduits in the field of cardiovascular surgery have been analyzed, and also techniques for their procurement have been studied. For finding, selection and synthesis resources of research data from the systems Pubmed, ScienceDirect were used. The preference was given to the most informative, comprehensive and contemporary publications.

  15. Image Processing and Analysis for DTMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondapalli Srinivasa Vara Prasad


    Full Text Available This paper describes image processing techniques for Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance. In Diffusion Tensor MRI, a tensor describing local water diffusion is acquired for each voxel. The geometric nature of the diffusion tensors can quantitatively characterize the local structure in tissues such as bone, muscles, and white matter of the brain. The close relationship between local image structure and apparent diffusion makes this image modality very interesting for medical image analysis. We present a decomposition of the diffusion tensor based on its symmetry properties resulting in useful measures describing the geometry of the diffusion ellipsoid. A simple anisotropy measure follows naturally from this analysis. We describe how the geometry, or shape, of the tensor can be visualized using a coloring scheme based on the derived shape measures. We show how filtering of the tensor data of a human brain can provide a description of macro structural diffusion which can be used for measures of fiber-tract organization. We also describe how tracking of white matter tracts can be implemented using the introduced methods. These methods offers unique tools for the in vivo demonstration of neural connectivity in healthy and diseased brain tissue.

  16. Pain related inflammation analysis using infrared images (United States)

    Bhowmik, Mrinal Kanti; Bardhan, Shawli; Das, Kakali; Bhattacharjee, Debotosh; Nath, Satyabrata


    Medical Infrared Thermography (MIT) offers a potential non-invasive, non-contact and radiation free imaging modality for assessment of abnormal inflammation having pain in the human body. The assessment of inflammation mainly depends on the emission of heat from the skin surface. Arthritis is a disease of joint damage that generates inflammation in one or more anatomical joints of the body. Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most frequent appearing form of arthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most threatening form of them. In this study, the inflammatory analysis has been performed on the infrared images of patients suffering from RA and OA. For the analysis, a dataset of 30 bilateral knee thermograms has been captured from the patient of RA and OA by following a thermogram acquisition standard. The thermograms are pre-processed, and areas of interest are extracted for further processing. The investigation of the spread of inflammation is performed along with the statistical analysis of the pre-processed thermograms. The objectives of the study include: i) Generation of a novel thermogram acquisition standard for inflammatory pain disease ii) Analysis of the spread of the inflammation related to RA and OA using K-means clustering. iii) First and second order statistical analysis of pre-processed thermograms. The conclusion reflects that, in most of the cases, RA oriented inflammation affects bilateral knees whereas inflammation related to OA present in the unilateral knee. Also due to the spread of inflammation in OA, contralateral asymmetries are detected through the statistical analysis.

  17. Analysis of Cardiovascular Diseases Costs and Their Effective Factors in Tabriz Hospitalized Patients, 2015

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    Full Text Available Background Cardiovascular diseases are the most important chronic diseases with significant negative effects on the individuals’ quality of life and communities’ economic productivity. Objectives The present study aimed to analyze the costs of cardiovascular diseases and identify the related factors in hospitalized patients of Tabriz Shahid Madani hospital in 2015. Patients and Methods This paper was a cross-sectional study. Cost information was obtained by a bottom-up approach from the patients and their families’ perspective. A number of 285 patients were randomly selected to participate in the study. For data collection, the study deployed a researcher-made questionnaire whose validity and reliability were confirmed by statistical tests. First, the collected data were analyzed using descriptive methods. And then, the researchers used t-test and ANOVA to analyze the relationship between demographic variables and the different types of cost. Tukey test was used to compare differences between groups groups, the researchers used. Results The Study findings showed that the total cost of cardiovascular diseases was 13,074,700 Rials (US$462 per patient. The details of the costs of cardiovascular diseases also showed that direct medical costs, direct non-medical costs, and indirect costs were 10,909,100 Rials (US$386, 109’940 Rials (US$38.90, and 1,066,200 Rials (37.73 US$ which were 83.4%, 8.4% and 8.2% of the total costs, respectively. Statistical analyses indicated a significant relationship between gender, marital status, education, job status, location, type of disease, type of admission, and the reason for hospitalization and some types of assessed costs (P < 0.05. Conclusions The study showed that the costs associated with cardiovascular diseases were not reasonable for many of these patients and their families. This certainly requires more consideration by managers and policy makers in the health care sector and the implementation of

  18. Biomedical Image Analysis by Program "Vision Assistant" and "Labview"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Izak


    Full Text Available This paper introduces application in image analysis of biomedical images. General task is focused on analysis and diagnosis biomedical images obtained from program ImageJ. There are described methods which can be used for images in biomedical application. The main idea is based on particle analysis, pattern matching techniques. For this task was chosensophistication method by program Vision Assistant, which is a part of program LabVIEW.

  19. Quantitative image analysis of celiac disease (United States)

    Ciaccio, Edward J; Bhagat, Govind; Lewis, Suzanne K; Green, Peter H


    We outline the use of quantitative techniques that are currently used for analysis of celiac disease. Image processing techniques can be useful to statistically analyze the pixular data of endoscopic images that is acquired with standard or videocapsule endoscopy. It is shown how current techniques have evolved to become more useful for gastroenterologists who seek to understand celiac disease and to screen for it in suspected patients. New directions for focus in the development of methodology for diagnosis and treatment of this disease are suggested. It is evident that there are yet broad areas where there is potential to expand the use of quantitative techniques for improved analysis in suspected or known celiac disease patients. PMID:25759524

  20. Morphometric image analysis of giant vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husen, Peter Rasmussen; Arriaga, Laura; Monroy, Francisco;


    (GUVs), a dedicated 3D-image analysis, and a quantitative analysis based in equilibrium thermodynamic considerations. This approach was tested in GUVs composed of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine/1,2-palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine/cholesterol. In general, our results show a reasonable......We have developed a strategy to determine lengths and orientations of tie lines in the coexistence region of liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered phases of cholesterol containing ternary lipid mixtures. The method combines confocal-fluorescence-microscopy image stacks of giant unilamellar vesicles...... agreement with previously reported data obtained by other methods. For example, our computed tie lines were found to be nonhorizontal, indicating a difference in cholesterol content in the coexisting phases. This new, to our knowledge, analytical strategy offers a way to further exploit fluorescence...

  1. Quantitative image analysis of celiac disease. (United States)

    Ciaccio, Edward J; Bhagat, Govind; Lewis, Suzanne K; Green, Peter H


    We outline the use of quantitative techniques that are currently used for analysis of celiac disease. Image processing techniques can be useful to statistically analyze the pixular data of endoscopic images that is acquired with standard or videocapsule endoscopy. It is shown how current techniques have evolved to become more useful for gastroenterologists who seek to understand celiac disease and to screen for it in suspected patients. New directions for focus in the development of methodology for diagnosis and treatment of this disease are suggested. It is evident that there are yet broad areas where there is potential to expand the use of quantitative techniques for improved analysis in suspected or known celiac disease patients.

  2. Machine learning for medical images analysis. (United States)

    Criminisi, A


    This article discusses the application of machine learning for the analysis of medical images. Specifically: (i) We show how a special type of learning models can be thought of as automatically optimized, hierarchically-structured, rule-based algorithms, and (ii) We discuss how the issue of collecting large labelled datasets applies to both conventional algorithms as well as machine learning techniques. The size of the training database is a function of model complexity rather than a characteristic of machine learning methods.

  3. Image-Based Computational Fluid Dynamics in Blood Vessel Models: Toward Developing a Prognostic Tool to Assess Cardiovascular Function Changes in Prolonged Space Flights (United States)

    Chatzimavroudis, George P.; Spirka, Thomas A.; Setser, Randolph M.; Myers, Jerry G.


    One of NASA's objectives is to be able to perform a complete, pre-flight, evaluation of cardiovascular changes in astronauts scheduled for prolonged space missions. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has shown promise as a method for estimating cardiovascular function during reduced gravity conditions. For this purpose, MRI can provide geometrical information, to reconstruct vessel geometries, and measure all spatial velocity components, providing location specific boundary conditions. The objective of this study was to investigate the reliability of MRI-based model reconstruction and measured boundary conditions for CFD simulations. An aortic arch model and a carotid bifurcation model were scanned in a 1.5T Siemens MRI scanner. Axial MRI acquisitions provided images for geometry reconstruction (slice thickness 3 and 5 mm; pixel size 1x1 and 0.5x0.5 square millimeters). Velocity acquisitions provided measured inlet boundary conditions and localized three-directional steady-flow velocity data (0.7-3.0 L/min). The vessel walls were isolated using NIH provided software (ImageJ) and lofted to form the geometric surface. Constructed and idealized geometries were imported into a commercial CFD code for meshing and simulation. Contour and vector plots of the velocity showed identical features between the MRI velocity data, the MRI-based CFD data, and the idealized-geometry CFD data, with less than 10% differences in the local velocity values. CFD results on models reconstructed from different MRI resolution settings showed insignificant differences (less than 5%). This study illustrated, quantitatively, that reliable CFD simulations can be performed with MRI reconstructed models and gives evidence that a future, subject-specific, computational evaluation of the cardiovascular system alteration during space travel is feasible.

  4. Characteristics and popular topics of latest researches into the effects of air particulate matter on cardiovascular system by bibliometric analysis. (United States)

    Jia, Xiaofeng; Guo, Xinbiao; Li, Haicun; An, Xinying; Zhao, Yingguang


    In recent years, many epidemiological and toxicological studies have investigated the adverse effects of air particulate matter (PM) on the cardiovascular system. However, it is difficult for the researchers to have a timely and effective overall command of the latest characteristics and popular topics in such a wide field. Different from the previous reviews, in which the research characteristics and trends are empirically concluded by experts, we try to have a comprehensive evaluation of the above topics for the first time by bibliometric analysis, a quantitative tool in information exploration. This study aims to introduce the bibliometric method into the field of PM and cardiovascular system. The articles were selected by searching PubMed/MEDLINE (from 2007 to 2012) using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms "particulate matter" and "cardiovascular system". A total of 935 eligible articles and 1895 MeSH terms were retrieved and processed by the software Thomson Data Analyzer (TDA). The bibliographic information and the MeSH terms of these articles were classified and analyzed to summarize the research characteristics. The top 200 high-frequency MeSH terms (the cumulative frequency percentage was 74.2%) were clustered for popular-topic conclusion. We summarized the characteristics of published articles, of researcher collaborations and of the contents. Ten clusters of MeSH terms are presented. Six popular topics are concluded and elaborated for reference. Our study presents an overview of the characteristics and popular topics in the field of PM and cardiovascular system in the past five years by bibliometric tools, which may provide a new perspective for future researchers.

  5. Image analysis of blood platelets adhesion. (United States)

    Krízová, P; Rysavá, J; Vanícková, M; Cieslar, P; Dyr, J E


    Adhesion of blood platelets is one of the major events in haemostatic and thrombotic processes. We studied adhesion of blood platelets on fibrinogen and fibrin dimer sorbed on solid support material (glass, polystyrene). Adhesion was carried on under static and dynamic conditions and measured as percentage of the surface covered with platelets. Within a range of platelet counts in normal and in thrombocytopenic blood we observed a very significant decrease in platelet adhesion on fibrin dimer with bounded active thrombin with decreasing platelet count. Our results show the imperative use of platelet poor blood preparations as control samples in experiments with thrombocytopenic blood. Experiments carried on adhesive surfaces sorbed on polystyrene showed lower relative inaccuracy than on glass. Markedly different behaviour of platelets adhered on the same adhesive surface, which differed only in support material (glass or polystyrene) suggest that adhesion and mainly spreading of platelets depends on physical quality of the surface. While on polystyrene there were no significant differences between fibrin dimer and fibrinogen, adhesion measured on glass support material markedly differed between fibrin dimer and fibrinogen. We compared two methods of thresholding in image analysis of adhered platelets. Results obtained by image analysis of spreaded platelets showed higher relative inaccuracy than results obtained by image analysis of platelets centres and aggregates.

  6. Predictive Value of Carotid Distensibility Coefficient for Cardiovascular Diseases and All-Cause Mortality: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Yuan

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to determine the pooled predictive value of carotid distensibility coefficient (DC for cardiovascular (CV diseases and all-cause mortality.Arterial stiffness is associated with future CV events. Aortic pulse wave velocity is a commonly used predictor for CV diseases and all-cause mortality; however, its assessment requires specific devices and is not always applicable in all patients. In addition to the aortic artery, the carotid artery is also susceptible to atherosclerosis, and is highly accessible because of the surficial property. Thus, carotid DC, which indicates the intrinsic local stiffness of the carotid artery and may be determined using ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, is of interest for the prediction. However, the role of carotid DC in the prediction of CV diseases and all-cause mortality has not been thoroughly characterized, and the pooled predictive value of carotid DC remains unclear.A meta-analysis, which included 11 longitudinal studies with 20361 subjects, was performed.Carotid DC significantly predicted future total CV events, CV mortality and all-cause mortality. The pooled risk ratios (RRs of CV events, CV mortality and all-cause mortality were 1.19 (1.06-1.35, 95%CI, 9 studies with 18993 subjects, 1.09 (1.01-1.18, 95%CI, 2 studies with 2550 subjects and 1.65 (1.15-2.37, 95%CI, 6 studies with 3619 subjects, respectively, for the subjects who had the lowest quartile of DC compared with their counterparts who had higher quartiles. For CV events, CV mortality and all-cause mortality, a decrease in DC of 1 SD increased the risk by 13%, 6% and 41% respectively, whereas a decrease in DC of 1 unit increased the risk by 3%, 1% and 6% respectively.Carotid DC is a significant predictor of future CV diseases and all-cause mortality, which may facilitate the identification of high-risk patients for the early diagnosis and prompt treatment of CV diseases.

  7. A systematic review of image segmentation methodology, used in the additive manufacture of patient-specific 3D printed models of the cardiovascular system

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    N Byrne


    Full Text Available Background Shortcomings in existing methods of image segmentation preclude the widespread adoption of patient-specific 3D printing as a routine decision-making tool in the care of those with congenital heart disease. We sought to determine the range of cardiovascular segmentation methods and how long each of these methods takes. Methods A systematic review of literature was undertaken. Medical imaging modality, segmentation methods, segmentation time, segmentation descriptive quality (SDQ and segmentation software were recorded. Results Totally 136 studies met the inclusion criteria (1 clinical trial; 80 journal articles; 55 conference, technical and case reports. The most frequently used image segmentation methods were brightness thresholding, region growing and manual editing, as supported by the most popular piece of proprietary software: Mimics (Materialise NV, Leuven, Belgium, 1992–2015. The use of bespoke software developed by individual authors was not uncommon. SDQ indicated that reporting of image segmentation methods was generally poor with only one in three accounts providing sufficient detail for their procedure to be reproduced. Conclusions and implication of key findings Predominantly anecdotal and case reporting precluded rigorous assessment of risk of bias and strength of evidence. This review finds a reliance on manual and semi-automated segmentation methods which demand a high level of expertise and a significant time commitment on the part of the operator. In light of the findings, we have made recommendations regarding reporting of 3D printing studies. We anticipate that these findings will encourage the development of advanced image segmentation methods.

  8. Reticle defect sizing of optical proximity correction defects using SEM imaging and image analysis techniques (United States)

    Zurbrick, Larry S.; Wang, Lantian; Konicek, Paul; Laird, Ellen R.


    Sizing of programmed defects on optical proximity correction (OPC) feature sis addressed using high resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and image analysis techniques. A comparison and analysis of different sizing methods is made. This paper addresses the issues of OPC defect definition and discusses the experimental measurement results obtained by SEM in combination with image analysis techniques.

  9. Xanthine oxidase inhibition for the treatment of cardiovascular disease: an updated systematic review and meta‐analysis (United States)

    Dierckx, Riet; Mohee, Kevin; Clark, Andrew L.; Cleland, John G.


    Abstract Background Previous studies have shown that xanthine oxidase inhibitors (XOI) might improve outcome for patients with cardiovascular disease. However, more evidence is required. Methods and results We published a meta‐analysis of trials conducted before 2014 examining the effects of XOI on mortality in patients with cardiovascular disease. At least two further trials (N = 323 patients) have since been published. Accordingly, we repeated our analysis after a further search for randomized controlled trials of XOI in PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Databases. We identified eight relevant trials with 1031 patients. The average age of the patients was 61 years and 68% were men (one study did not report gender). There were 57 deaths in these eight trials, 26 in those assigned to XOI, and 31 in those assigned to the control. The updated meta‐analysis could not confirm a reduction in mortality for patients assigned to XOI compared with placebo (odds ratio 0.84) but 95% confidence intervals were wide (0.48–1.47). Conclusions This updated meta‐analysis does not suggest that XOI exert a large reduction in mortality but also cannot exclude the possibility of substantial harm or benefit. PMID:28217311

  10. Rosiglitazone: can meta-analysis accurately estimate excess cardiovascular risk given the available data? Re-analysis of randomized trials using various methodologic approaches

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    Friedrich Jan O


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent and provocative meta-analysis, based on few outcome events, suggested that rosiglitazone increased cardiovascular mortality and myocardial infarction. However, results of meta-analyses of trials with sparse events, often performed when examining uncommon adverse effects due to common therapies, can vary substantially depending on methodologic decisions. The objective of this study was to assess the robustness of the rosiglitazone results by using alternative reasonable methodologic approaches and by analyzing additional related outcomes. Findings In duplicate and independently, we abstracted all myocardial and cerebrovascular ischemic events from all randomized controlled trials listed on the manufacturer's web site meeting inclusion criteria of the original meta-analysis (at least 24 weeks of rosiglitazone exposure in the intervention group and any control group without rosiglitazone. We performed meta-analyses of these data under different methodologic conditions. An unconfounded comparison that includes only trials (or arms of trials in which medications apart from rosiglitazone are identical suggests higher risks than previously reported, making even the risk of cardiovascular death statistically significant. Alternatively, meta-analysis that includes all trials comparing a treatment arm receiving rosiglitazone to any control arm without rosiglitazone (as in the original meta-analysis but also including trials with no events in both the rosiglitazone and control arms (not incorporated in the original meta-analysis, shows adverse but non-statistically significant effects of rosiglitazone on myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality. Rosiglitazone appears to have inconsistent effects on a wider range of cardiovascular outcomes. It increases the risk of a broad range of myocardial ischemic events (not just myocardial infarction. However, its effect on cerebrovascular ischemic events suggests benefit

  11. Image analysis of Renaissance copperplate prints (United States)

    Hedges, S. Blair


    From the fifteenth to the nineteenth centuries, prints were a common form of visual communication, analogous to photographs. Copperplate prints have many finely engraved black lines which were used to create the illusion of continuous tone. Line densities generally are 100-2000 lines per square centimeter and a print can contain more than a million total engraved lines 20-300 micrometers in width. Because hundreds to thousands of prints were made from a single copperplate over decades, variation among prints can have historical value. The largest variation is plate-related, which is the thinning of lines over successive editions as a result of plate polishing to remove time-accumulated corrosion. Thinning can be quantified with image analysis and used to date undated prints and books containing prints. Print-related variation, such as over-inking of the print, is a smaller but significant source. Image-related variation can introduce bias if images were differentially illuminated or not in focus, but improved imaging technology can limit this variation. The Print Index, the percentage of an area composed of lines, is proposed as a primary measure of variation. Statistical methods also are proposed for comparing and identifying prints in the context of a print database.

  12. Multispectral laser imaging for advanced food analysis (United States)

    Senni, L.; Burrascano, P.; Ricci, M.


    A hardware-software apparatus for food inspection capable of realizing multispectral NIR laser imaging at four different wavelengths is herein discussed. The system was designed to operate in a through-transmission configuration to detect the presence of unwanted foreign bodies inside samples, whether packed or unpacked. A modified Lock-In technique was employed to counterbalance the significant signal intensity attenuation due to transmission across the sample and to extract the multispectral information more efficiently. The NIR laser wavelengths used to acquire the multispectral images can be varied to deal with different materials and to focus on specific aspects. In the present work the wavelengths were selected after a preliminary analysis to enhance the image contrast between foreign bodies and food in the sample, thus identifying the location and nature of the defects. Experimental results obtained from several specimens, with and without packaging, are presented and the multispectral image processing as well as the achievable spatial resolution of the system are discussed.

  13. Introduction: Cardiovascular physics. (United States)

    Wessel, Niels; Kurths, Jürgen; Ditto, William; Bauernschmitt, Robert


    The number of patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases increases unproportionally high with the increase of the human population and aging, leading to very high expenses in the public health system. Therefore, the challenge of cardiovascular physics is to develop high-sophisticated methods which are able to, on the one hand, supplement and replace expensive medical devices and, on the other hand, improve the medical diagnostics with decreasing the patient's risk. Cardiovascular physics-which interconnects medicine, physics, biology, engineering, and mathematics-is based on interdisciplinary collaboration of specialists from the above scientific fields and attempts to gain deeper insights into pathophysiology and treatment options. This paper summarizes advances in cardiovascular physics with emphasis on a workshop held in Bad Honnef, Germany, in May 2005. The meeting attracted an interdisciplinary audience and led to a number of papers covering the main research fields of cardiovascular physics, including data analysis, modeling, and medical application. The variety of problems addressed by this issue underlines the complexity of the cardiovascular system. It could be demonstrated in this Focus Issue, that data analyses and modeling methods from cardiovascular physics have the ability to lead to significant improvements in different medical fields. Consequently, this Focus Issue of Chaos is a status report that may invite all interested readers to join the community and find competent discussion and cooperation partners.

  14. The role of gene variants of the inflammatory markers CRP and TNF-α in cardiovascular heart disease: systematic review and meta-analysis



    It is widely acknowledged that cardiovascular heart disease (CHD) has a genetic influence. Several studies have investigated the role of inflammatory markers like C-reactive protein (CRP) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in the causation of cardiovascular diseases. Although there have been several positive studies associating CRP and TNF-α genes with CHD, the evidence is not entirely consistent. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to gain a better understanding into this issue. The met...

  15. The effectiveness and cost effectiveness of dark chocolate consumption as prevention therapy in people at high risk of cardiovascular disease: best case scenario analysis using a Markov model


    Zomer, Ella; Owen, Alice; Magliano, Dianna J; Liew, Danny; Reid, Christopher M


    Objective To model the long term effectiveness and cost effectiveness of daily dark chocolate consumption in a population with metabolic syndrome at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Design Best case scenario analysis using a Markov model. Setting Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle study. Participants 2013 people with hypertension who met the criteria for metabolic syndrome, with no history of cardiovascular disease and not receiving antihypertensive therapy. Main outcome measures ...

  16. Analysis of reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs) after cardiovascular surgery as a marker of oxidative stress. (United States)

    Kanaoka, Yuji; Inagaki, Ei-ichirou; Hamanaka, Souhei; Masaki, Hisao; Tanemoto, Kazuo


    The transient systemic low perfusion that occurs during cardiovascular surgery leads to oxidative stress and the production of free radicals. A systemic increase of various markers of oxidative stress has been shown to occur during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). However, these markers have not been adequately evaluated because they seem to be reactive and short-lived. Here, oxidative stress was measured using the free radical analytical system (FRAS 4) assessing the derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP). Blood samples were taken from 21 patients undergoing elective cardiovascular surgery. CPB was used in 15 patients, and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) surgery without CPB was performed in 6. Measurements of d-ROMs and BAP were taken before surgery, 1 day, 1 week, and 2 weeks after surgery, and oxidative stress was evaluated. The d-ROM level increased gradually after cardiovascular surgery up to 2 weeks. Over time, the d-ROM level after surgery involving CPB became higher than that after AAA surgery. This difference reached statistical significance at 1 week and lasted to 2 weeks. The prolongation of CPB was prone to elevate the d-ROM level whereas the duration of the aortic clamp in AAA surgery had no relation to the d-ROM level. The BAP was also elevated after surgery, and was positively correlated with the level of d-ROMs. In this study, patients who underwent cardiovascular surgery involving CPB had significant oxidative damage. The production of ROMs was shown to depend on the duration of CPB. Damage can be reduced if CPB is avoided. When CPB must be used, shortening the CPB time may be effective in reducing oxidative stress.

  17. Analysis of the costs and quality of cardiovascular care in oncological monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élide Sbardellotto Mariano da Costa

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: To analyze the health care costs specifically related to cardiovascular diseases, which were spent by patients of a private healthcare provider in southern Brazil, after their diagnosis of cancer. Method: We developed an observational, cross-sectional, retrospective study, with a qualitative-quantitative strategy, through the activity of analytical internal audit of medical accounts. Results: 860 accounts from 2012 to 2015 were analyzed, 73% referred to female users, with average age of 62.38 years, and a total direct cost of BRL 241,103.72. There was prevalence of 37% of breast cancer, 15% of prostate cancer and 9% of colon cancer. In relation to the cardiovascular care, 44% were consultations, 44% were complementary exams, 10% were emergency care, and 3% were hospitalizations. Regarding the health care costs with cardiovascular services, higher costs were in hospitalizations (51%, followed by complementary exams (37%, consultations (8% and emergency care (4%. Conclusion: The cancer survivors commonly use health care in other specialties such as cardiology, and the main cost refers to hospitalization. It is recommended to invest in prevention (consultation and complementary exam as well as in programs of chronic disease management to reduce costs and improve the quality of health care.

  18. Association analysis of polymorphisms in ROCK2 with cardiovascular disease in a Chinese population.

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    Lei Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rho-kinase (ROCK has been shown to play an important role in cardiovascular disease such as coronary artery disease (CAD and hypertension. Recently, common variants of ROCK2 have been reported to influence blood pressure, but the relationship between common ROCK2 variants and cardiovascular disease has not been extensively studied in the Chinese population. METHODS: To derive a more precise estimation of their relationship, we screened for the common variants by direct sequencing of all exons of ROCK2, and then we performed genetic association analyses in a CAD case-control study, including a total of 1344 cases and 1267 ethnically and geographically matched controls. RESULTS: Unconditional logistic regression showed that no significant association between common variants in the coding region of ROCK2 and CAD was observed in our study (for rs978906, OR = 0.92, 95% CI 0.72-1.20 and P = 0.63; for rs2230774, OR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.70-1.16 and P = 0.47; for rs56304104, OR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.70-1.31 and P = 0.83; respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The relationship between the ROCK2 polymorphisms and cardiovascular disease risk cannot be entirely discounted and warrants further evaluation in a large population.

  19. Multifactorial Analysis of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in a Group of Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim George Razvan


    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Acute myocardial infarction is one of the main causes of mortality worldwide, atherosclerosis being the most common mechanism of coronary artery obstruction. Many cardiovascular (CV risk factors are associated with these pathogenic processes. The aim of our study was to investigate a group of patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction in terms of the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. Materials and Methods: We investigated 97 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI and 30 persons without AMI (control group for CV risk parameters (metabolic syndrome, diabetes, sedentary, dyslipidemia, glycosylated hemoglobin- HbA1c, and the risk of developing AMI. Results: We found statistically significant differences (p<0.05 for the patients with metabolic syndrome, diabetes, sedentary lifestyle, high level of total cholesterol, LDLc, HbA1c, low level of HDLc for the risk to develop AMI. Conclusion: This study emphasizes the need to implement measures of primary and secondary prevention, and carry out a strict control of cardiovascular risk factors as well as implicitly improve the therapeutic conduct.

  20. Remote Sensing Digital Image Analysis An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Richards, John A


    Remote Sensing Digital Image Analysis provides the non-specialist with a treatment of the quantitative analysis of satellite and aircraft derived remotely sensed data. Since the first edition of the book there have been significant developments in the algorithms used for the processing and analysis of remote sensing imagery; nevertheless many of the fundamentals have substantially remained the same.  This new edition presents material that has retained value since those early days, along with new techniques that can be incorporated into an operational framework for the analysis of remote sensing data. The book is designed as a teaching text for the senior undergraduate and postgraduate student, and as a fundamental treatment for those engaged in research using digital image processing in remote sensing.  The presentation level is for the mathematical non-specialist.  Since the very great number of operational users of remote sensing come from the earth sciences communities, the text is pitched at a leve...

  1. Simple Low Level Features for Image Analysis (United States)

    Falcoz, Paolo

    As human beings, we perceive the world around us mainly through our eyes, and give what we see the status of “reality”; as such we historically tried to create ways of recording this reality so we could augment or extend our memory. From early attempts in photography like the image produced in 1826 by the French inventor Nicéphore Niépce (Figure 2.1) to the latest high definition camcorders, the number of recorded pieces of reality increased exponentially, posing the problem of managing all that information. Most of the raw video material produced today has lost its memory augmentation function, as it will hardly ever be viewed by any human; pervasive CCTVs are an example. They generate an enormous amount of data each day, but there is not enough “human processing power” to view them. Therefore the need for effective automatic image analysis tools is great, and a lot effort has been put in it, both from the academia and the industry. In this chapter, a review of some of the most important image analysis tools are presented.

  2. Nursing image: an evolutionary concept analysis. (United States)

    Rezaei-Adaryani, Morteza; Salsali, Mahvash; Mohammadi, Eesa


    A long-term challenge to the nursing profession is the concept of image. In this study, we used the Rodgers' evolutionary concept analysis approach to analyze the concept of nursing image (NI). The aim of this concept analysis was to clarify the attributes, antecedents, consequences, and implications associated with the concept. We performed an integrative internet-based literature review to retrieve English literature published from 1980-2011. Findings showed that NI is a multidimensional, all-inclusive, paradoxical, dynamic, and complex concept. The media, invisibility, clothing style, nurses' behaviors, gender issues, and professional organizations are the most important antecedents of the concept. We found that NI is pivotal in staff recruitment and nursing shortage, resource allocation to nursing, nurses' job performance, workload, burnout and job dissatisfaction, violence against nurses, public trust, and salaries available to nurses. An in-depth understanding of the NI concept would assist nurses to eliminate negative stereotypes and build a more professional image for the nurse and the profession.

  3. Quantifying the association between physical activity and cardiovascular disease & diabetes:a systematic review and meta-analysis


    Wahid, Abdul Ahad; Manek, Nishma; Nicols, melanie; Kelly, Paul; Webster, Premila; Kaur, Asha; Friedemann, Claire; Wilkins, Elizabeth; Rayner, Mike; Roberts, Nia; Scarborough, Peter


    Background: The relationships between physical activity (PA) and both cardiovascular disease (CVD) and Type II Diabetes (T2DM) have predominantly been estimated using categorical measures of PA, masking the shape of the dose response relationship.In this systematic review and meta-analysis, for the very first time we are able to derive a single continuous PA metric to compare the association between PA and CVD/T2DM, both before and after adjustment for a measure of body weight.Methods and Res...

  4. Analysis on enhanced depth of field for integral imaging microscope. (United States)

    Lim, Young-Tae; Park, Jae-Hyeung; Kwon, Ki-Chul; Kim, Nam


    Depth of field of the integral imaging microscope is studied. In the integral imaging microscope, 3-D information is encoded as a form of elemental images Distance between intermediate plane and object point decides the number of elemental image and depth of field of integral imaging microscope. From the analysis, it is found that depth of field of the reconstructed depth plane image by computational integral imaging reconstruction is longer than depth of field of optical microscope. From analyzed relationship, experiment using integral imaging microscopy and conventional microscopy is also performed to confirm enhanced depth of field of integral imaging microscopy.

  5. The effectiveness and cost effectiveness of dark chocolate consumption as prevention therapy in people at high risk of cardiovascular disease: best case scenario analysis using a Markov model (United States)

    Zomer, Ella; Owen, Alice; Magliano, Dianna J; Liew, Danny


    Objective To model the long term effectiveness and cost effectiveness of daily dark chocolate consumption in a population with metabolic syndrome at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Design Best case scenario analysis using a Markov model. Setting Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle study. Participants 2013 people with hypertension who met the criteria for metabolic syndrome, with no history of cardiovascular disease and not receiving antihypertensive therapy. Main outcome measures Treatment effects associated with dark chocolate consumption derived from published meta-analyses were used to determine the absolute number of cardiovascular events with and without treatment. Costs associated with cardiovascular events and treatments were applied to determine the potential amount of funding required for dark chocolate therapy to be considered cost effective. Results Daily consumption of dark chocolate (polyphenol content equivalent to 100 g of dark chocolate) can reduce cardiovascular events by 85 (95% confidence interval 60 to 105) per 10 000 population treated over 10 years. $A40 (£25; €31; $42) could be cost effectively spent per person per year on prevention strategies using dark chocolate. These results assume 100% compliance and represent a best case scenario. Conclusions The blood pressure and cholesterol lowering effects of dark chocolate consumption are beneficial in the prevention of cardiovascular events in a population with metabolic syndrome. Daily dark chocolate consumption could be an effective cardiovascular preventive strategy in this population. PMID:22653982

  6. Optimization of cardiovascular stent against restenosis: factorial design-based statistical analysis of polymer coating conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayathri Acharya

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to optimize the physicodynamic conditions of polymeric system as a coating substrate for drug eluting stents against restenosis. As Nitric Oxide (NO has multifunctional activities, such as regulating blood flow and pressure, and influencing thrombus formation, a continuous and spatiotemporal delivery of NO loaded in the polymer based nanoparticles could be a viable option to reduce and prevent restenosis. To identify the most suitable carrier for S-Nitrosoglutathione (GSNO, a NO prodrug, stents were coated with various polymers, such as poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA, polyethylene glycol (PEG and polycaprolactone (PCL, using solvent evaporation technique. Full factorial design was used to evaluate the effects of the formulation variables in polymer-based stent coatings on the GSNO release rate and weight loss rate. The least square regression model was used for data analysis in the optimization process. The polymer-coated stents were further assessed with Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis (FTIR, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM images and platelet adhesion studies. Stents coated with PCL matrix displayed more sustained and controlled drug release profiles than those coated with PLGA and PEG. Stents coated with PCL matrix showed the least platelet adhesion rate. Subsequently, stents coated with PCL matrix were subjected to the further optimization processes for improvement of surface morphology and enhancement of the drug release duration. The results of this study demonstrated that PCL matrix containing GSNO is a promising system for stent surface coating against restenosis.

  7. Analysis of the effectiveness of moderate levels of physical activity to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, A Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Martin Garcia


    Full Text Available Objectives: a. The determination of the efficacy of physical activity in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease; b. The Analysis of the relative changes in the levels of cardiovascular disease risk according to different intensities of physical activity (low-moderate. Methodology: The search was performed for studies with PUBMED data base. Then, the mean effect size of the studies included in the meta-analysis was calculated and Egger's test was applied to rule out any possible publication bias. Upon detection of heterogeneity, we proceeded to an analysis of the moderating variables. Results: A mean effect size of 0.762 (95% confidence interval 0678-0857 was obtained. Then The Egger test was applied which yielded a p-value of 0.67 (CI 0.95, such that the absence of publication bias was confirmed. The analysis of the moderating variables determined that the ensuing years (p = 0.000, 95% CI and the countries of study (p = 0.0096; 95% CI in part explain the heterogeneity detected. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the practice of physical activity at moderate intensities provides a protective effect on the individuals who make physical activity by reducing the risk these individuals to cardiovascular diseases.

  8. Impact of walking on glycemic control and other cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanhu Qiu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Walking is the most popular and most preferred exercise among type 2 diabetes patients, yet compelling evidence regarding its beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors is still lacking. The aim of this meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs was to evaluate the association between walking and glycemic control and other cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes patients. METHODS: Three databases were searched up to August 2014. English-language RCTs were eligible for inclusion if they had assessed the walking effects (duration ≥8 weeks on glycemic control or other cardiovascular risk factors among type 2 diabetes patients. Data were pooled using a random-effects model. Subgroup analyses based on supervision status and meta-regression analyses of variables regarding characteristics of participants and walking were performed to investigate their association with glycemic control. RESULTS: Eighteen studies involving 20 RCTs (866 participants were included. Walking significantly decreased glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c by 0.50% (95% confidence intervals [CI]: -0.78% to -0.21%. Supervised walking was associated with a pronounced decrease in HbA1c (WMD -0.58%, 95% CI: -0.93% to -0.23%, whereas non-supervised walking was not. Further subgroup analysis suggested non-supervised walking using motivational strategies is also effective in decreasing HbA1c (WMD -0.53%, 95% CI: -1.05% to -0.02%. Effects of covariates on HbA1c change were generally unclear. For other cardiovascular risk factors, walking significantly reduced body mass index (BMI and lowered diastolic blood pressure (DBP, but non-significantly lowered systolic blood pressure (SBP, or changed high-density or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis supports that walking decreases HbA1c among type 2 diabetes patients. Supervision or the use of motivational strategies should be suggested when prescribed walking to ensure

  9. Performance of cardiac cadmium-zinc-telluride gamma camera imaging in coronary artery disease: a review from the cardiovascular committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostini, Denis [CHU Caen and Normandy University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Caen (France); Normandy University, Caen (France); Marie, Pierre-Yves [University of Lorraine, Faculty of Medicine, Nancyclotep Experimental Imaging Platform, Nancy (France); University of Lorraine, Faculty of Medicine, CHU Nancy, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nancy (France); University of Lorraine, Faculty of Medicine, Nancy (France); Ben-Haim, Simona [University College London, University College Hospital, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ramat Gan (Israel); Rouzet, Francois [University Hospital of Paris-Bichat, UMR 1148, Inserm et Paris Diderot-Paris 7 University Paris, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Paris (France); UMR 1148, Inserm and Paris Diderot-Paris 7 University Paris, Paris (France); Songy, Bernard [Centre Cardiologique du Nord, Saint-Denis (France); Giordano, Alessandro [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Largo A. Gemelli, Department of Bioimages and Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy); Gimelli, Alessia [Fondazione Toscana Gabriele Monasterio, Pisa (Italy); Hyafil, Fabien [Bichat University Hospital, Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Paris, UMR 1148, Inserm and Paris Diderot-Paris 7 University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Paris (France); Sciagra, Roberto [University of Florence, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences, Florence (Italy); Bucerius, Jan [Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht (Netherlands); University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Verberne, Hein J. [Academic Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Slart, Riemer H.J.A. [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); University of Twente, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Biomedical Photonic Imaging, Enschede (Netherlands); Lindner, Oliver [Institute of Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Heart and Diabetes Center NRW, Bad Oeynhausen (Germany); Collaboration: Cardiovascular Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM)


    The trade-off between resolution and count sensitivity dominates the performance of standard gamma cameras and dictates the need for relatively high doses of radioactivity of the used radiopharmaceuticals in order to limit image acquisition duration. The introduction of cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT)-based cameras may overcome some of the limitations against conventional gamma cameras. CZT cameras used for the evaluation of myocardial perfusion have been shown to have a higher count sensitivity compared to conventional single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) techniques. CZT image quality is further improved by the development of a dedicated three-dimensional iterative reconstruction algorithm, based on maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM), which corrects for the loss in spatial resolution due to line response function of the collimator. All these innovations significantly reduce imaging time and result in a lower patient's radiation exposure compared with standard SPECT. To guide current and possible future users of the CZT technique for myocardial perfusion imaging, the Cardiovascular Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine, starting from the experience of its members, has decided to examine the current literature regarding procedures and clinical data on CZT cameras. The committee hereby aims (1) to identify the main acquisitions protocols; (2) to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of CZT derived myocardial perfusion, and finally (3) to determine the impact of CZT on radiation exposure. (orig.)

  10. Rapid spectral analysis for spectral imaging. (United States)

    Jacques, Steven L; Samatham, Ravikant; Choudhury, Niloy


    Spectral imaging requires rapid analysis of spectra associated with each pixel. A rapid algorithm has been developed that uses iterative matrix inversions to solve for the absorption spectra of a tissue using a lookup table for photon pathlength based on numerical simulations. The algorithm uses tissue water content as an internal standard to specify the strength of optical scattering. An experimental example is presented on the spectroscopy of portwine stain lesions. When implemented in MATLAB, the method is ~100-fold faster than using fminsearch().

  11. Research on automatic human chromosome image analysis (United States)

    Ming, Delie; Tian, Jinwen; Liu, Jian


    Human chromosome karyotyping is one of the essential tasks in cytogenetics, especially in genetic syndrome diagnoses. In this thesis, an automatic procedure is introduced for human chromosome image analysis. According to different status of touching and overlapping chromosomes, several segmentation methods are proposed to achieve the best results. Medial axis is extracted by the middle point algorithm. Chromosome band is enhanced by the algorithm based on multiscale B-spline wavelets, extracted by average gray profile, gradient profile and shape profile, and calculated by the WDD (Weighted Density Distribution) descriptors. The multilayer classifier is used in classification. Experiment results demonstrate that the algorithms perform well.

  12. ImageJ-MATLAB: a bidirectional framework for scientific image analysis interoperability. (United States)

    Hiner, Mark C; Rueden, Curtis T; Eliceiri, Kevin W


    ImageJ-MATLAB is a lightweight Java library facilitating bi-directional interoperability between MATLAB and ImageJ. By defining a standard for translation between matrix and image data structures, researchers are empowered to select the best tool for their image-analysis tasks.

  13. The triple line pattern on carotid intima media thickness imaging and its relationship to cardiovascular risk factors in patients on lipid lowering therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh TA


    Full Text Available Tania A Singh,1 Todd C Villines,2 Allen J Taylor31Division of Cardiology, Medstar Georgetown University Hospital, 2Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, MD, 3Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA Background: Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT infrequently identifies a triple line pattern (TLP in the visualization of the internal elastic lamina. We examined the prevalence and predictors of the TLP among a consecutive series of subjects enrolled in a CIMT clinical trial, and also the effects of lipid lowering therapy.Methods: Baseline CIMT studies of subjects with known heart disease, or high risk for heart disease, were evaluated from a single site of the Arterial Biology for the Investigation of the Treatment Effects of Reducing Cholesterol 6-HDL and LDL Treatment Strategies in Atherosclerosis trial (N=120. One sonographer obtained four views of the right and left far wall common CIMT, using a 13 MHz ultrasound probe. Images were blindly reviewed for the presence of the TLP. The TLP was defined as absent (0, possible (1, or definite (2. A composite score from all four views was calculated. A patient was defined as having the TLP if the composite score was ≥4. Univariate predictors of the TLP were explored. Follow-up ultrasounds at 14 months were also reviewed for presence of the TLP.Results: The prevalence of the TLP at baseline was 22.5%. Among cardiovascular risk variables, systolic blood pressure was significantly higher in subjects displaying the TLP (141.3±15.6 mmHg versus 133.1±18.4 mmHg; P=0.036. There were no differences among those with, and without, the TLP, with respect to other cardiovascular risk variables (age, sex, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, glucose, weight, waist girth, tobacco use, medications, quantitative CIMT, or image quality. During ongoing lipid lowering therapy, the prevalence of the TLP increased to 54

  14. SimVascular 2.0: an Integrated Open Source Pipeline for Image-Based Cardiovascular Modeling and Simulation (United States)

    Lan, Hongzhi; Merkow, Jameson; Updegrove, Adam; Schiavazzi, Daniele; Wilson, Nathan; Shadden, Shawn; Marsden, Alison


    SimVascular ( is currently the only fully open source software package that provides a complete pipeline from medical image based modeling to patient specific blood flow simulation and analysis. It was initially released in 2007 and has contributed to numerous advances in fundamental hemodynamics research, surgical planning, and medical device design. However, early versions had several major barriers preventing wider adoption by new users, large-scale application in clinical and research studies, and educational access. In the past years, SimVascular 2.0 has made significant progress by integrating open source alternatives for the expensive commercial libraries previously required for anatomic modeling, mesh generation and the linear solver. In addition, it simplified the across-platform compilation process, improved the graphical user interface and launched a comprehensive documentation website. Many enhancements and new features have been incorporated for the whole pipeline, such as 3-D segmentation, Boolean operation for discrete triangulated surfaces, and multi-scale coupling for closed loop boundary conditions. In this presentation we will briefly overview the modeling/simulation pipeline and advances of the new SimVascular 2.0.

  15. Digital image analysis of palaeoenvironmental records and applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Environmental change signals in geological or biological records are commonly reflected on their reflecting or transmitting images. These environmental signals can be extracted through digital image analysis. The analysis principle involves section line selection, color value reading and calculating environmental proxy index along the section lines, layer identification, auto-chronology and investigation of structure evolution of growth bands. On detailed illustrations of the image technique, this note provides image analyzing procedures of coral, tree-ring and stalagmite records. The environmental implications of the proxy index from image analysis are accordingly given through application demonstration of the image technique.

  16. Milk Consumption and Mortality from All Causes, Cardiovascular Disease, and Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna C. Larsson


    Full Text Available Results from epidemiological studies of milk consumption and mortality are inconsistent. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies assessing the association of non-fermented and fermented milk consumption with mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. PubMed was searched until August 2015. A two-stage, random-effects, dose-response meta-analysis was used to combine study-specific results. Heterogeneity among studies was assessed with the I2 statistic. During follow-up periods ranging from 4.1 to 25 years, 70,743 deaths occurred among 367,505 participants. The range of non-fermented and fermented milk consumption and the shape of the associations between milk consumption and mortality differed considerably between studies. There was substantial heterogeneity among studies of non-fermented milk consumption in relation to mortality from all causes (12 studies; I2 = 94%, cardiovascular disease (five studies; I2 = 93%, and cancer (four studies; I2 = 75% as well as among studies of fermented milk consumption and all-cause mortality (seven studies; I2 = 88%. Thus, estimating pooled hazard ratios was not appropriate. Heterogeneity among studies was observed in most subgroups defined by sex, country, and study quality. In conclusion, we observed no consistent association between milk consumption and all-cause or cause-specific mortality.

  17. Comparative Analysis of Various Image Fusion Techniques For Biomedical Images: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayera Nahvi,


    Full Text Available Image Fusion is a process of combining the relevant information from a set of images, into a single image, wherein the resultant fused image will be more informative and complete than any of the input images. This paper discusses implementation of DWT technique on different images to make a fused image having more information content. As DWT is the latest technique for image fusion as compared to simple image fusion and pyramid based image fusion, so we are going to implement DWT as the image fusion technique in our paper. Other methods such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA based fusion, Intensity hue Saturation (IHS Transform based fusion and high pass filtering methods are also discussed. A new algorithm is proposed using Discrete Wavelet transform and different fusion techniques including pixel averaging, min-max and max-min methods for medical image fusion. KEYWORDS:

  18. Wavelet Analysis of Space Solar Telescope Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-An Zhu; Sheng-Zhen Jin; Jing-Yu Wang; Shu-Nian Ning


    The scientific satellite SST (Space Solar Telescope) is an important research project strongly supported by the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Every day,SST acquires 50 GB of data (after processing) but only 10GB can be transmitted to the ground because of limited time of satellite passage and limited channel volume.Therefore, the data must be compressed before transmission. Wavelets analysis is a new technique developed over the last 10 years, with great potential of application.We start with a brief introduction to the essential principles of wavelet analysis,and then describe the main idea of embedded zerotree wavelet coding, used for compressing the SST images. The results show that this coding is adequate for the job.

  19. The Scientific Image in Behavior Analysis. (United States)

    Keenan, Mickey


    Throughout the history of science, the scientific image has played a significant role in communication. With recent developments in computing technology, there has been an increase in the kinds of opportunities now available for scientists to communicate in more sophisticated ways. Within behavior analysis, though, we are only just beginning to appreciate the importance of going beyond the printing press to elucidate basic principles of behavior. The aim of this manuscript is to stimulate appreciation of both the role of the scientific image and the opportunities provided by a quick response code (QR code) for enhancing the functionality of the printed page. I discuss the limitations of imagery in behavior analysis ("Introduction"), and I show examples of what can be done with animations and multimedia for teaching philosophical issues that arise when teaching about private events ("Private Events 1 and 2"). Animations are also useful for bypassing ethical issues when showing examples of challenging behavior ("Challenging Behavior"). Each of these topics can be accessed only by scanning the QR code provided. This contingency has been arranged to help the reader embrace this new technology. In so doing, I hope to show its potential for going beyond the limitations of the printing press.

  20. Percent area coverage through image analysis (United States)

    Wong, Chung M.; Hong, Sung M.; Liu, De-Ling


    The notion of percent area coverage (PAC) has been used to characterize surface cleanliness levels in the spacecraft contamination control community. Due to the lack of detailed particle data, PAC has been conventionally calculated by multiplying the particle surface density in predetermined particle size bins by a set of coefficients per MIL-STD-1246C. In deriving the set of coefficients, the surface particle size distribution is assumed to follow a log-normal relation between particle density and particle size, while the cross-sectional area function is given as a combination of regular geometric shapes. For particles with irregular shapes, the cross-sectional area function cannot describe the true particle area and, therefore, may introduce error in the PAC calculation. Other errors may also be introduced by using the lognormal surface particle size distribution function that highly depends on the environmental cleanliness and cleaning process. In this paper, we present PAC measurements from silicon witness wafers that collected fallouts from a fabric material after vibration testing. PAC calculations were performed through analysis of microscope images and compare them to values derived through the MIL-STD-1246C method. Our results showed that the MIL-STD-1246C method does provide a reasonable upper bound to the PAC values determined through image analysis, in particular for PAC values below 0.1.

  1. Current Trend of Robotic Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeries in Korea: Analysis of Seven-Year National Data (United States)

    Kang, Chang Hyun; Bok, Jin San; Lee, Na Rae; Kim, Young Tae; Lee, Seon Heui; Lim, Cheong


    Background Robotic surgery is an alternative to minimally invasive surgery. The aim of this study was to report on current trends in robotic thoracic and cardiovascular surgical techniques in Korea. Methods Data from the National Evidence-based Healthcare Collaborating Agency (NECA) between January 2006 and June 2012 were used in this study, including a total of 932 cases of robotic surgeries reported to NECA. The annual trends in the case volume, indications for robotic surgery, and distribution by hospitals and surgeons were analyzed in this study. Results Of the 932 cases, 591 (63%) were thoracic operations and 340 (37%) were cardiac operations. The case number increased explosively in 2007 and 2008. However, the rate of increase regained a steady state after 2011. The main indications for robotic thoracic surgery were pulmonary disease (n=271, 46%), esophageal disease (n=199, 34%), and mediastinal disease (n=117, 20%). The main indications for robotic cardiac surgery were valvular heart disease (n=228, 67%), atrial septal defect (n=79, 23%), and cardiac myxoma (n=27, 8%). Robotic thoracic and cardiovascular surgeries were performed in 19 hospitals. Three large volume hospitals performed 94% of the case volume of robotic cardiac surgery and 74% of robotic thoracic surgery. Centralization of robotic operation was significantly (probotic surgeries. However, only 27% of cardiac surgeons and 23% of thoracic surgeons performed more than 10 cases of robotic surgery. Conclusion Trend analysis of robotic and cardiovascular operations demonstrated a gradual increase in the surgical volume in Korea. Meanwhile, centralization of surgical cases toward specific surgeons in specific hospitals was observed. PMID:26509124

  2. Omega-3 fatty acids in high-risk cardiovascular patients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bielinski Michael


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple randomized controlled trials (RCTs have examined the cardiovascular effects of omega-3 fatty acids and have provided unexplained conflicting results. A meta-analysis of these RCTs to estimate efficacy and safety and potential sources of heterogeneity may be helpful. Methods The Cochrane library, MEDLINE, and EMBASE were systematically searched to identify all interventional trials of omega-3 fatty acids compared to placebo or usual diet in high-risk cardiovascular patients. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality and secondary outcomes were coronary restenosis following percutaneous coronary intervention and safety. Meta-analyses were carried out using Bayesian random-effects models, and heterogeneity was examined using meta-regression. Results A total of 29 RCTs (n = 35,144 met our inclusion criteria, with 25 reporting mortality and 14 reporting restenosis. Omega-3 fatty acids were not associated with a statistically significant decreased mortality (relative risk [RR] = 0.88, 95% Credible Interval [CrI] = 0.64, 1.03 or with restenosis prevention (RR = 0.89, 95% CrI = 0.72, 1.06, though the probability of some benefit remains high (0.93 and 0.90, respectively. However in meta-regressions, there was a >90% probability that larger studies and those with longer follow-up were associated with smaller benefits. No serious safety issues were identified. Conclusions Although not reaching conventional statistical significance, the evidence to date suggests that omega-3 fatty acids may result in a modest reduction in mortality and restenosis. However, caution must be exercised in interpreting these benefits as results were attenuated in higher quality studies, suggesting that bias may be at least partially responsible. Additional high quality studies are required to clarify the role of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

  3. Association of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with major adverse cardiovascular events: A systematic review and meta-analysis (United States)

    Wu, Shunquan; Wu, Fuquan; Ding, Yingying; Hou, Jun; Bi, Jingfeng; Zhang, Zheng


    Increasing evidence connects non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) to cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study is to assess whether and to what extent the excess risk of CVD is conferred by NAFLD in a meta-analysis. We systematically searched PubMed, EmBase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library for reports published between 1965 and July 3, 2015. Studies that reported data on association between NAFLD and adverse cardiovascular events or mortality were included. Thirty-four studies (164,494 participants, 21 cross-sectional studies, and 13 cohort studies) were included. NAFLD was not associated with overall mortality (HR = 1.14, 95% CI: 0.99–1.32) and CVD mortality (HR = 1.10, 95% CI: 0.86–1.41). However, NAFLD was associated with an increased risk of prevalent (OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.23–2.66) and incident (HR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.10–1.72) CVD. For some specific CVDs, NAFLD was associated with an increased risk of prevalent (OR = 1.87, 95% CI: 1.47–2.37) and incident (HR = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.46–3.65) coronary artery disease (CAD), prevalent (OR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.14–1.36) and incident (HR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.06–1.27) hypertension, and prevalent (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.07–1.62) atherosclerosis. In conclusion, the presence of NAFLD is associated with an increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events, although it is not related to mortality from all causes or CVD. PMID:27633274

  4. From Pixels to Geographic Objects in Remote Sensing Image Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Addink, E.A.; Van Coillie, Frieke M.B.; Jong, Steven M. de


    Traditional image analysis methods are mostly pixel-based and use the spectral differences of landscape elements at the Earth surface to classify these elements or to extract element properties from the Earth Observation image. Geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA) has received considerabl

  5. Image analysis and platform development for automated phenotyping in cytomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Kuan


    This thesis is dedicated to the empirical study of image analysis in HT/HC screen study. Often a HT/HC screening produces extensive amounts that cannot be manually analyzed. Thus, an automated image analysis solution is prior to an objective understanding of the raw image data. Compared to general a

  6. Functional analysis of cardiovascular renin-angiotensin system using a gain or loss of function approach. (United States)

    Morishita, R; Aoki, M; Ogihara, T


    The study of the effect of autocrine-paracrine vasoactive modulators on cardiovascular biology is very difficult in vivo, because in vivo studies are limited. In particular, characterization of the role of components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in vivo is limited by the difficulty in manipulating individual components of the RAS as well as by methodological limitations in studying the function of a local RAS in the absence of any contribution by the circulatory system. Recent progress in in vivo gene transfer technologies has provided us with the opportunity to study cellular responses to the manipulation of the individual components (i.e., by overexpression or inhibition). Many researchers have recently developed various in vivo gene transfer techniques for cardiovascular applications. Using in vivo gene transfer approaches, the roles of various tissues in the RAS, such as cardiac angiotensin, have been identified. Such an approach may increase our understanding of the biology and pathobiology of the autocrine-paracrine system. This review discusses the potential utility of in vivo gene transfer methods.

  7. Meta-analysis of psoriasis, cardiovascular disease, and associated risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Iben Marie; Ellervik, Christina; Yazdanyar, Shiva


    : Of 835 references in the original search, 75 relevant articles were identified. We included 503,686 cases and 29,686,694 controls. Psoriasis was associated with cardiovascular disease in total (odds ratio [OR] 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-1.7), ischemic heart disease (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.......2-1.9), peripheral vascular disease (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.2-1.8), atherosclerosis (OR 1.1; 95% CI 1.1-1.2), diabetes (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.5-2.5), hypertension (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.6-2.0), dyslipidemia (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.4-1.7), obesity by body mass index (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.4-2.2), obesity by abdominal fat (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1...... significant associations, with the exception of dyslipidemia. LIMITATIONS: The heterogeneity of the studies makes clinical interpretation challenging. CONCLUSIONS: In aggregate, psoriasis was associated with ischemic heart disease and cardiovascular risk factors. The association was only significant...

  8. Cardiovascular Risk Factor Analysis in Patients with a Recent Clinical Fracture at the Fracture Liaison Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline E. Wyers


    Full Text Available Patients with a low bone mineral density have an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD and venous thromboembolic events (VTE. The aim of our retrospective chart review was to investigate the prevalence of CVD, VTE, hypertension (HT, and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2 in patients with a recent clinical fracture visiting the Fracture Liaison Service (FLS. Out of 3057 patients aged 50–90 years, 1359 consecutive patients, who agreed and were able to visit the FLS for fracture risk evaluation, were included (71.7% women; mean age 65.2 yrs. Based on medical history, 29.9% had a history of CVD (13.7%, VTE (1.7%, HT (14.9%, and DM2 (7.1% or a combination. Their prevalence increased with age (21% in patients aged 50–59 years to 48% in patients aged >80 years and was higher in men than in women (36% versus 27%, but independent of bone mineral density and fracture type. Careful evaluation of medical history with respect to these risk factors should be performed in patients with a recent clinical fracture before starting treatment with medications that increase the risk of VTE or cardiovascular events, such as raloxifene, strontium ranelate, or NSAIDs.

  9. Machine learning approaches in medical image analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Bruijne, Marleen


    Machine learning approaches are increasingly successful in image-based diagnosis, disease prognosis, and risk assessment. This paper highlights new research directions and discusses three main challenges related to machine learning in medical imaging: coping with variation in imaging protocols...


    Delgado Floody, Pedro; Alarcón Hormazábal, Manuel; Caamaño Navarrete, Felipe


    Antecedentes: la obesidad es una de las enfermedades no transmisibles más graves y prevalentes en la actualidad, y se considera un factor de riesgo importante para la enfermedad cardiovascular asociándose con la resistencia a la insulina, la intolerancia a la glucosa, la hipertensión arterial y el síndrome metabólico. Objetivo: el propósito del estudio fue analizar el estado nutricional de jóvenes universitarios y su asociación con los factores de riesgo cardiovascular. Pacientes y métodos: se evaluaron 153 estudiantes universitarios, 51 hombres y 102 mujeres, de entre 17 y 33 años de edad. Se realizaron mediciones antropométricas de IMC y contorno cintura, presión arterial sistólica y diastólica, colesterol, colesterol HDL (cHDL), colesterol LDL (cLDL), triglicéridos y glicemia. Resultados: las variables cHDL (p = 0,000) y la presión sistólica (p = 0,043) presentaron diferencias significativas en la comparación por género. El 35,29 % presentó sobrepeso u obesidad. En la comparación según estado nutricional, el contorno de cintura y la presión sistólica y diastólica presentaron diferencias significativas (p colesterol, cLDL, presión sistólica y diastólica (p < 0,05). El contorno de cintura presentó una asociación con la presión sistólica y diastólica (p < 0,05). Conclusiones: existe elevada prevalencia de malnutrición por exceso en la muestra de jóvenes universitarios, que además se asocia con los factores de riesgo cardiovascular, siendo los estudiantes obesos los que presentan mayor deterioro en todas las variables evaluadas.

  11. Molecular Analysis of Oral Bacteria in Heart Valve of Patients With Cardiovascular Disease by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (United States)

    Oliveira, Francisco Artur Forte; Forte, Clarissa Pessoa Fernandes; Silva, Paulo Goberlânio de Barros; Lopes, Camile B.; Montenegro, Raquel Carvalho; dos Santos, Ândrea Kely Campos Ribeiro; Sobrinho, Carlos Roberto Martins Rodrigues; Mota, Mário Rogério Lima; Sousa, Fabrício Bitu; Alves, Ana Paula Negreiros Nunes


    Abstract Structural deficiencies and functional abnormalities of heart valves represent an important cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and a number of diseases, such as aortic stenosis, have been recently associated with infectious agents. This study aimed to analyze oral bacteria in dental plaque, saliva, and cardiac valves of patients with cardiovascular disease. Samples of supragingival plaque, subgingival plaque, saliva, and cardiac valve tissue were collected from 42 patients with heart valve disease. Molecular analysis of Streptococcus mutans, Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Treponema denticola was performed through real-time PCR. The micro-organism most frequently detected in heart valve samples was the S. mutans (89.3%), followed by P. intermedia (19.1%), P. gingivalis (4.2%), and T. denticola (2.1%). The mean decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) was 26.4 ± 6.9 (mean ± SD), and according to the highest score of periodontal disease observed for each patient, periodontal pockets > 4 mm and dental calculus were detected in 43.4% and 34.7% of patients, respectively. In conclusion, oral bacteria, especially S. mutans, were found in the cardiac valve samples of patients with a high rate of caries and gingivitis/periodontitis. PMID:26632711

  12. Multilevel modeling versus cross-sectional analysis for assessing the longitudinal tracking of cardiovascular risk factors over time. (United States)

    Xanthakis, Vanessa; Sullivan, Lisa M; Vasan, Ramachandran S


    Correlated data are obtained in longitudinal epidemiological studies, where repeated measurements are taken on individuals or groups over time. Such longitudinal data are ideally analyzed using multilevel modeling approaches, which appropriately account for the correlations in repeated responses in the same individual. Commonly used regression models are inappropriate as they assume that measurements are independent. In this tutorial, we use multilevel modeling to demonstrate its use for analysis of correlated data obtained from serial examinations on individuals. We focus on cardiovascular epidemiological research where investigators are often interested in quantifying the relations between clinical risk factors and outcome measures (X and Y, respectively), where X and Y are measured repeatedly over time, for example, using serial observations on participants attending multiple examinations in a longitudinal cohort study. For instance, it may be of interest to evaluate the relations between serial measures of left ventricular mass (outcome) and of its potential determinants (i.e., body mass index and blood pressure), both of which are measured over time. In this tutorial, we describe the application of multilevel modeling to cardiovascular risk factors and outcome data (using serial echocardiographic data as an example of an outcome). We suggest an analytical approach that can be implemented to evaluate relations between any potential outcome of interest and risk factors, including assessment of random effects and nonlinear relations. We illustrate these steps using echocardiographic data from the Framingham Heart Study with SAS PROC MIXED.

  13. Blind Analysis of CT Image Noise Using Residual Denoised Images

    CERN Document Server

    Roychowdhury, Sohini; Alessio, Adam


    CT protocol design and quality control would benefit from automated tools to estimate the quality of generated CT images. These tools could be used to identify erroneous CT acquisitions or refine protocols to achieve certain signal to noise characteristics. This paper investigates blind estimation methods to determine global signal strength and noise levels in chest CT images. Methods: We propose novel performance metrics corresponding to the accuracy of noise and signal estimation. We implement and evaluate the noise estimation performance of six spatial- and frequency- based methods, derived from conventional image filtering algorithms. Algorithms were tested on patient data sets from whole-body repeat CT acquisitions performed with a higher and lower dose technique over the same scan region. Results: The proposed performance metrics can evaluate the relative tradeoff of filter parameters and noise estimation performance. The proposed automated methods tend to underestimate CT image noise at low-flux levels...

  14. 3-dimensional terahertz imaging and analysis of historical art pieces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    Imaging with terahertz (THz) waves offers the capability of seeing through traditionally opaque materials, with maintaining a spatial resolution comparable to that of the naked eye. The use of ultrashort THz pulses allow for depth resolved imaging by time-of-flight analysis of reflected signals f...... such as x-ray radiography and infrared imaging. Here we present comprehensive, fully depth-resolved imaging and analysis of a historical wall painting, an easel painting and a gilded panel....

  15. Troponin elevations in patients with chronic cardiovascular disease: An analysis of current evidence and significance. (United States)

    Martin, Archer K; Malhotra, Anita K; Sullivan, Breandan L; Ramakrishna, Harish


    Serum troponin elevation above the 99th percentile of the upper reference limit in healthy subjects (troponin laboratory assays) is required to establish the diagnosis the diagnosis of myocardial necrosis in acute cardiovascular syndromes, as well as guide prognosis and therapy. In the perioperative period, for patients with cardiac disease undergoing noncardiac surgery, it is a particularly critical biomarker universally used to assess the myocardial damage. The value of troponin testing and elevation (as well as its significance) in patients with chronic cardiac valvular, vascular, and renal disease is relatively less well understood. This evidence-based review seeks to examine the currently available data assessing the significance of troponin elevation in certain chronic valvular and other disease states.

  16. New Cardiovascular Indices Based on a Nonlinear Spectral Analysis of Arterial Blood Pressure Waveforms

    CERN Document Server

    Laleg, Taous-Meriem; Papelier, Yves; Crépeau, Emmanuelle; Sorine, Michel


    A new method for analyzing arterial blood pressure is presented in this report. The technique is based on the scattering transform and consists in solving the spectral problem associated to a one-dimensional Schr\\"odinger operator with a potential depending linearly upon the pressure. This potential is then expressed with the discrete spectrum which includes negative eigenvalues and corresponds to the interacting components of an N-soliton. The approach is similar to a nonlinear Fourier transform where the solitons play the role of sine and cosine components. The method provides new cardiovascular indices that seem to contain relevant physiological information. We first show how to use this approach to decompose the arterial blood pressure pulse into elementary waves and to reconstruct it or to separate its systolic and diastolic phases. Then we analyse the parameters computed from this technique in two physiological conditions, the head-up 60 degrees tilt test and the isometric handgrip test, widely used for...

  17. Television viewing and incident cardiovascular disease: prospective associations and mediation analysis in the EPIC Norfolk Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrien Wijndaele

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although television viewing time is detrimentally associated with intermediate cardiovascular risk factors, the relationship with incident total (i.e. combined fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease (CVD, non-fatal CVD and coronary heart disease is largely unknown. This study examined whether television viewing time is associated with these three outcomes, independently of physical activity energy expenditure and other confounding variables. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A population-based cohort of 12,608 men and women (aged 61.4±9.0, free from stroke, myocardial infarction and cancer at baseline in 1998-2000 were followed up until 2007 (6.9±1.9 years. Participants self-reported education, smoking, alcohol use, antihypertensive, lipid lowering and antidepressant medication, disease history, total energy intake, sleep duration, physical activity and television viewing. BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol and glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c were measured by standardized procedures; a clustered metabolic risk score was constructed. Every one hour/day increase in television viewing was associated with an increased hazard for total (HR = 1.06, 95%CI = 1.03-1.08; 2,620 cases, non-fatal CVD (HR = 1.06, 95%CI = 1.03-1.09; 2,134 cases, and coronary heart disease (HR = 1.08, 95%CI = 1.03-1.13; 940 cases, independent of gender, age, education, smoking, alcohol, medication, diabetes status, CVD family history, sleep duration and physical activity energy expenditure. Energy intake, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, HbA(1c and the clustered metabolic risk score only partially mediated these associations. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that the most prevalent leisure time (sedentary behaviour, television viewing, independently contributes to increased CVD risk. Recommendations on reducing television viewing time should be considered.

  18. Variations in cardiovascular disease under-diagnosis in England: national cross-sectional spatial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walford Hannah


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is under-diagnosis of cardiovascular disease (CVD in the English population, despite financial incentives to encourage general practices to register new cases. We compared the modelled (expected and diagnosed (observed prevalence of three cardiovascular conditions- coronary heart disease (CHD, hypertension and stroke- at local level, their geographical variation, and population and healthcare predictors which might influence diagnosis. Methods Cross-sectional observational study in all English local authorities (351 and general practices (8,372 comparing model-based expected prevalence with diagnosed prevalence on practice disease registers. Spatial analyses were used to identify geographic clusters and variation in regression relationships. Results A total of 9,682,176 patients were on practice CHD, stroke and transient ischaemic attack, and hypertension registers. There was wide spatial variation in observed: expected prevalence ratios for all three diseases, with less than five per cent of expected cases diagnosed in some areas. London and the surrounding area showed statistically significant discrepancies in observed: expected prevalence ratios, with observed prevalence much lower than the epidemiological models predicted. The addition of general practitioner supply as a variable yielded stronger regression results for all three conditions. Conclusions Despite almost universal access to free primary healthcare, there may be significant and highly variable under-diagnosis of CVD across England, which can be partially explained by persistent inequity in GP supply. Disease management studies should consider the possible impact of under-diagnosis on population health outcomes. Compared to classical regression modelling, spatial analytic techniques can provide additional information on risk factors for under-diagnosis, and can suggest where healthcare resources may be most needed.

  19. Direct identification of fungi using image analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dørge, Thorsten Carlheim; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Frisvad, Jens Christian


    Filamentous fungi have often been characterized, classified or identified with a major emphasis on macromorphological characters, i.e. the size, texture and color of fungal colonies grown on one or more identification media. This approach has been rejcted by several taxonomists because of the sub......Filamentous fungi have often been characterized, classified or identified with a major emphasis on macromorphological characters, i.e. the size, texture and color of fungal colonies grown on one or more identification media. This approach has been rejcted by several taxonomists because...... of the subjectivity in the visual evaluation and quantification (if any)of such characters and the apparent large variability of the features. We present an image analysis approach for objective identification and classification of fungi. The approach is exemplified by several isolates of nine different species...... of the genus Penicillium, known to be very difficult to identify correctly. The fungi were incubated on YES and CYA for one week at 25 C (3 point inoculation) in 9 cm Petri dishes. The cultures are placed under a camera where a digital image of the front of the colonies is acquired under optimal illumination...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoganand Balagurunathan


    Full Text Available Sediments are routinely analyzed in terms of the sizing characteristics of the grains of which they are composed. Via sieving methods, the grains are separated and a weight-based size distribution constructed. Various moment parameters are computed from the size distribution and these serve as sediment characteristics. This paper examines the feasibility of a fully electronic granularity analysis using digital image processing. The study uses a random model of three-dimensional grains in conjunction with the morphological method of granulometric size distributions. The random model is constructed to simulate sand, silt, and clay particle distributions. Owing to the impossibility of perfectly sifting small grains so that they do not touch, the model is used in both disjoint and non-disjoint modes, and watershed segmentation is applied in the non-disjoint model. The image-based granulometric size distributions are transformed so that they take into account the necessity to view sediment fractions at different magnifications and in different frames. Gray-scale granulometric moments are then computed using both ordinary and reconstructive granulometries. The resulting moments are then compared to moments found from real grains in seven different sediments using standard weight-based size distributions.

  1. Low carbohydrate versus isoenergetic balanced diets for reducing weight and cardiovascular risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeste E Naude

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Some popular weight loss diets restricting carbohydrates (CHO claim to be more effective, and have additional health benefits in preventing cardiovascular disease compared to balanced weight loss diets. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We compared the effects of low CHO and isoenergetic balanced weight loss diets in overweight and obese adults assessed in randomised controlled trials (minimum follow-up of 12 weeks, and summarised the effects on weight, as well as cardiovascular and diabetes risk. Dietary criteria were derived from existing macronutrient recommendations. We searched Medline, EMBASE and CENTRAL (19 March 2014. Analysis was stratified by outcomes at 3-6 months and 1-2 years, and participants with diabetes were analysed separately. We evaluated dietary adherence and used GRADE to assess the quality of evidence. We calculated mean differences (MD and performed random-effects meta-analysis. Nineteen trials were included (n = 3209; 3 had adequate allocation concealment. In non-diabetic participants, our analysis showed little or no difference in mean weight loss in the two groups at 3-6 months (MD 0.74 kg, 95%CI -1.49 to 0.01 kg; I2 = 53%; n = 1745, 14 trials; moderate quality evidence and 1-2 years (MD 0.48 kg, 95%CI -1.44 kg to 0.49 kg; I2 = 12%; n = 1025; 7 trials, moderate quality evidence. Furthermore, little or no difference was detected at 3-6 months and 1-2 years for blood pressure, LDL, HDL and total cholesterol, triglycerides and fasting blood glucose (>914 participants. In diabetic participants, findings showed a similar pattern. CONCLUSIONS: Trials show weight loss in the short-term irrespective of whether the diet is low CHO or balanced. There is probably little or no difference in weight loss and changes in cardiovascular risk factors up to two years of follow-up when overweight and obese adults, with or without type 2 diabetes, are randomised to low CHO diets and isoenergetic balanced weight loss

  2. Some selected quantitative methods of thermal image analysis in Matlab. (United States)

    Koprowski, Robert


    The paper presents a new algorithm based on some selected automatic quantitative methods for analysing thermal images. It shows the practical implementation of these image analysis methods in Matlab. It enables to perform fully automated and reproducible measurements of selected parameters in thermal images. The paper also shows two examples of the use of the proposed image analysis methods for the area of ​​the skin of a human foot and face. The full source code of the developed application is also provided as an attachment. The main window of the program during dynamic analysis of the foot thermal image.

  3. Image processing and analysis with graphs theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Lézoray, Olivier


    Covering the theoretical aspects of image processing and analysis through the use of graphs in the representation and analysis of objects, Image Processing and Analysis with Graphs: Theory and Practice also demonstrates how these concepts are indispensible for the design of cutting-edge solutions for real-world applications. Explores new applications in computational photography, image and video processing, computer graphics, recognition, medical and biomedical imaging With the explosive growth in image production, in everything from digital photographs to medical scans, there has been a drast

  4. Cardiovascular pharmacogenetics. (United States)

    Myburgh, Renier; Hochfeld, Warren E; Dodgen, Tyren M; Ker, James; Pepper, Michael S


    Human genetic variation in the form of single nucleotide polymorphisms as well as more complex structural variations such as insertions, deletions and copy number variants, is partially responsible for the clinical variation seen in response to pharmacotherapeutic drugs. This affects the likelihood of experiencing adverse drug reactions and also of achieving therapeutic success. In this paper, we review key studies in cardiovascular pharmacogenetics that reveal genetic variations underlying the outcomes of drug treatment in cardiovascular disease. Examples of genetic associations with drug efficacy and toxicity are described, including the roles of genetic variability in pharmacokinetics (e.g. drug metabolizing enzymes) and pharmacodynamics (e.g. drug targets). These findings have functional implications that could lead to the development of genetic tests aimed at minimizing drug toxicity and optimizing drug efficacy in cardiovascular medicine.

  5. Image analysis and microscopy: a useful combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinotti L.


    Full Text Available The TSE Roadmap published in 2005 (DG for Health and Consumer Protection, 2005 suggests that short and medium term (2005-2009 amendments to control BSE policy should include “a relaxation of certain measures of the current total feed ban when certain conditions are met”. The same document noted “the starting point when revising the current feed ban provisions should be risk-based but at the same time taking into account the control tools in place to evaluate and ensure the proper implementation of this feed ban”. The clear implication is that adequate analytical methods to detect constituents of animal origin in feedstuffs are required. The official analytical method for the detection of constituents of animal origin in feedstuffs is the microscopic examination technique as described in Commission Directive 2003/126/EC of 23 December 2003 [OJ L 339, 24.12.2003, 78]. Although the microscopic method is usually able to distinguish fish from land animal material, it is often unable to distinguish between different terrestrial animals. Fulfillments of the requirements of Regulation 1774/2002/EC laying down health rules concerning animal by-products not intended for human consumption, clearly implies that it must be possible to identify the origin animal materials, at higher taxonomic levels than in the past. Thus improvements in all methods of detecting constituents of animal origin are required, including the microscopic method. This article will examine the problem of meat and bone meal in animal feeds, and the use of microscopic methods in association with computer image analysis to identify the source species of these feedstuff contaminants. Image processing, integrated with morphometric measurements can provide accurate and reliable results and can be a very useful aid to the analyst in the characterization, analysis and control of feedstuffs.

  6. Dynamic Chest Image Analysis: Model-Based Perfusion Analysis in Dynamic Pulmonary Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiuru Aaro


    Full Text Available The "Dynamic Chest Image Analysis" project aims to develop model-based computer analysis and visualization methods for showing focal and general abnormalities of lung ventilation and perfusion based on a sequence of digital chest fluoroscopy frames collected with the dynamic pulmonary imaging technique. We have proposed and evaluated a multiresolutional method with an explicit ventilation model for ventilation analysis. This paper presents a new model-based method for pulmonary perfusion analysis. According to perfusion properties, we first devise a novel mathematical function to form a perfusion model. A simple yet accurate approach is further introduced to extract cardiac systolic and diastolic phases from the heart, so that this cardiac information may be utilized to accelerate the perfusion analysis and improve its sensitivity in detecting pulmonary perfusion abnormalities. This makes perfusion analysis not only fast but also robust in computation; consequently, perfusion analysis becomes computationally feasible without using contrast media. Our clinical case studies with 52 patients show that this technique is effective for pulmonary embolism even without using contrast media, demonstrating consistent correlations with computed tomography (CT and nuclear medicine (NM studies. This fluoroscopical examination takes only about 2 seconds for perfusion study with only low radiation dose to patient, involving no preparation, no radioactive isotopes, and no contrast media.

  7. An application of image processing techniques in computed tomography image analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEvoy, Fintan


    number of animals and image slices, automation of the process was desirable. The open-source and free image analysis program ImageJ was used. A macro procedure was created that provided the required functionality. The macro performs a number of basic image processing procedures. These include an initial...... process designed to remove the scanning table from the image and to center the animal in the image. This is followed by placement of a vertical line segment from the mid point of the upper border of the image to the image center. Measurements are made between automatically detected outer and inner...... boundaries of subcutaneous adipose tissue along this line segment. This process was repeated as the image was rotated (with the line position remaining unchanged) so that measurements around the complete circumference were obtained. Additionally, an image was created showing all detected boundary points so...

  8. Correlation of left ventricular wall thickness, heart mass, serological parameters and late gadolinium enhancement in cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging of myocardial inflammation in an experimental animal model of autoimmune myocarditis. (United States)

    Kromen, Wolfgang; Korkusuz, Huedayi; Korkusuz, Yuecel; Esters, Philip; Bauer, Ralf W; Huebner, Frank; Lindemayr, Sebastian; Vogl, Thomas J


    For a definitive diagnosis of myocarditis, different strategies like analysis of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) in cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) up to invasive endomyocardial biopsy have been applied. The objective of the study was to investigate inflammatory changes like left ventricular wall thickening and increase of ventricular mass and to quantitatively analyse their correlation with extent and localisation of myocardial damage in CMR and with subsequent changes of serological markers in an animal model of an experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM). In the current study, an EAM was induced in 10 male Lewis rats, 10 rats served as control. On day 21, animals were examined with four CMR protocols to assess the extent of LGE in a 12 segment model of the rat heart. Left myocardial wall thickness and mass and histological grade of inflammation were measured to determine localisation and severity of the induced myocarditis. Depending on the CMR sequence, LGE was mostly found in the left anterior (9.6%) and left lateral (8.7%) myocardial wall segments. Wall thickness correlated with the LGE area in CMR imaging and the histopathological severity of myocarditis for the left lateral myocardial wall segment. In a similar way, the heart mass correlated to the extent of LGE for the left lateral segment. We conclude that in our animal model left ventricular wall thickness and mass reflect the severity of myocardial changes in myocarditis and that the EAM rat model is well suited for further investigations of myocarditis.

  9. Meta-analysis of the diagnostic performance of stress perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance for detection of coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehtisham Javed


    Full Text Available Abstract Aim Evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of stress perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance for the diagnosis of significant obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD through meta-analysis of the available data. Methodology Original articles in any language published before July 2009 were selected from available databases (MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and BioMedCentral using the combined search terms of magnetic resonance, perfusion, and coronary angiography; with the exploded term coronary artery disease. Statistical analysis was only performed on studies that: (1 used a [greater than or equal to] 1.5 Tesla MR scanner; (2 employed invasive coronary angiography as the reference standard for diagnosing significant obstructive CAD, defined as a [greater than or equal to] 50% diameter stenosis; and (3 provided sufficient data to permit analysis. Results From the 263 citations identified, 55 relevant original articles were selected. Only 35 fulfilled all of the inclusion criteria, and of these 26 presented data on patient-based analysis. The overall patient-based analysis demonstrated a sensitivity of 89% (95% CI: 88-91%, and a specificity of 80% (95% CI: 78-83%. Adenosine stress perfusion CMR had better sensitivity than with dipyridamole (90% (88-92% versus 86% (80-90%, P = 0.022, and a tendency to a better specificity (81% (78-84% versus 77% (71-82%, P = 0.065. Conclusion Stress perfusion CMR is highly sensitive for detection of CAD but its specificity remains moderate.

  10. Cardiac Sarcoidosis or Giant Cell Myocarditis? On Treatment Improvement of Fulminant Myocarditis as Demonstrated by Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Bogabathina


    Full Text Available Giant cell myocarditis, but not cardiac sarcoidosis, is known to cause fulminant myocarditis resulting in severe heart failure. However, giant cell myocarditis and cardiac sarcoidosis are pathologically similar, and attempts at pathological differentiation between the two remain difficult. We are presenting a case of fulminant myocarditis that has pathological features suggestive of cardiac sarcoidosis, but clinically mimicking giant cell myocarditis. This patient was treated with cyclosporine and prednisone and recovered well. This case we believe challenges our current understanding of these intertwined conditions. By obtaining a sense of severity of cardiac involvement via delayed hyperenhancement of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, we were more inclined to treat this patient as giant cell myocarditis with cyclosporine. This resulted in excellent improvement of patient’s cardiac function as shown by delayed hyperenhancement images, early perfusion images, and SSFP videos.

  11. Three modality image registration of brain SPECT/CT and MR images for quantitative analysis of dopamine transporter imaging (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Yuzuho; Takeda, Yuta; Hara, Takeshi; Zhou, Xiangrong; Matsusako, Masaki; Tanaka, Yuki; Hosoya, Kazuhiko; Nihei, Tsutomu; Katafuchi, Tetsuro; Fujita, Hiroshi


    Important features in Parkinson's disease (PD) are degenerations and losses of dopamine neurons in corpus striatum. 123I-FP-CIT can visualize activities of the dopamine neurons. The activity radio of background to corpus striatum is used for diagnosis of PD and Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB). The specific activity can be observed in the corpus striatum on SPECT images, but the location and the shape of the corpus striatum on SPECT images only are often lost because of the low uptake. In contrast, MR images can visualize the locations of the corpus striatum. The purpose of this study was to realize a quantitative image analysis for the SPECT images by using image registration technique with brain MR images that can determine the region of corpus striatum. In this study, the image fusion technique was used to fuse SPECT and MR images by intervening CT image taken by SPECT/CT. The mutual information (MI) for image registration between CT and MR images was used for the registration. Six SPECT/CT and four MR scans of phantom materials are taken by changing the direction. As the results of the image registrations, 16 of 24 combinations were registered within 1.3mm. By applying the approach to 32 clinical SPECT/CT and MR cases, all of the cases were registered within 0.86mm. In conclusions, our registration method has a potential in superimposing MR images on SPECT images.

  12. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging and transthoracic echocardiography in the assessment of stenotic aortic valve area: a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitriou, Praxitelis; Kaehaeri, Anders [Dept. of Radiology, Oerebro Univ. Hospital, Oerebro (Sweden); Emilsson, Kent [Dept. of Clinical Physiology, Oerebro Univ. Hospital, Oerebro (Sweden); School of Health and Medical Sciences, Oerebro Univ., Oerebro (Sweden); Thunberg, Per [School of Health and Medical Sciences, Oerebro Univ., Oerebro (Sweden); Dept. of Medical Physics, Oerebro Univ. Hospital, Oerebro (Sweden)], E-mail:


    Background Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and echocardiography both allow assessment of aortic valve stenosis. In MR the aortic valve area (AvA) is measured using planimetry while in transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) AvA is usually calculated by applying the continuity equation. Purpose To compare the measured stenotic aortic valve areas using five different MR-acquisition alternatives with the corresponding area values calculated by TTE. Material and Methods The aortic valve was imaged in 14 patients, with diagnosed aortic valve stenosis, using balanced steady state free precession (bSSFP) gradient echo (GE) and phase contrast imaging (PC). Three adjacent slices were planned to encompass the aortic valve and the aortic valve area was measured using planimetry. The two sets of complex valued images generated by the PC sequence formed three kinds of images that could be used for aortic valve area measurements: the magnitude image (PC/Mag), the modulus (PCA/M), and phase difference (PCA/P) between the two complex images, respectively. The valve area from TTE was calculated using the continuity equation. A cut-off of <1.0 cm{sup 2} was used as a criteria for severe stenosis. Results The mean area differences between the different MR acquisitions and TTE method were -0.05 {+-} 0.37 cm{sup 2} (GE), -0.18 {+-} 0.46 cm{sup 2} (bSSFP), 0.27 {+-} 0.43 cm{sup 2} (PC/Mag), 0.15 {+-} 0.32 cm{sup 2} (PCA/P), and 0.26 {+-} 0.27 cm{sup 2} (PCA/M). The valve area was significantly overestimated using PCA/M that, in turn, implied a significant underestimation of the aortic valve stenosis severity compared to the assessments using TTE. Conclusion The smallest area valve difference between TTE and an MR-acquisition alternative is obtained with gradient echo images. The use of PCA/M leads to significant differences in planimetry measurements of the aortic valve orifice and the gradation of the stenosis severity compared to TTE.

  13. Cardiovascular safety of exenatide BID: an integrated analysis from controlled clinical trials in participants with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushmanova Irina


    Full Text Available Abstract It is important for patients that treatments for diabetes not increase cardiovascular (CV risk. The objective of this analysis was to examine retrospectively the CV safety of exenatide BID, a GLP-1 receptor agonist approved for treating hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes not adequately controlled with diet and exercise. Individual participant data was pooled to assess the relative risk (RR of CV events with exenatide BID versus a pooled comparator (PC group treated with either placebo or insulin from 12 controlled, randomized, clinical trials ranging from 12-52 weeks. Mean baseline values for HbA1c (8.33-8.38%, BMI (31.3-31.5 kg/m2, and duration of diabetes (8 y were similar between groups. Trials included patients with histories of microvascular and/or macrovascular disease. Customized primary major adverse CV events (MACE included stroke, myocardial infarction, cardiac mortality, acute coronary syndrome, and revascularization procedures. The Primary MACE RR (0.7; 95% CI 0.38, 1.31, calculated by the Mantel-Haenszel method (stratified by study, suggested that exenatide use (vs. PC did not increase CV risk; this result was consistent across multiple analytic methods. Because the trials were not designed to assess CV outcomes, events were identified retrospectively from a list of preferred terms by physicians blinded to treatment. Other limitations included the low number of CV events, the short duration of trials (≤1 y, and a single active comparator (insulin. The results of these analyses are consistent with those of a recent retrospective analysis of a large insurance database that found that patients treated with exenatide twice daily were less likely to have a CV event than were patients treated with other glucose-lowering therapies. Keywords: GLP-1 receptor agonist, diabetes, cardiovascular safety

  14. Image Retrieval: Theoretical Analysis and Empirical User Studies on Accessing Information in Images. (United States)

    Ornager, Susanne


    Discusses indexing and retrieval for effective searches of digitized images. Reports on an empirical study about criteria for analysis and indexing digitized images, and the different types of user queries done in newspaper image archives in Denmark. Concludes that it is necessary that the indexing represent both a factual and an expressional…

  15. Medical Image Analysis by Cognitive Information Systems - a Review. (United States)

    Ogiela, Lidia; Takizawa, Makoto


    This publication presents a review of medical image analysis systems. The paradigms of cognitive information systems will be presented by examples of medical image analysis systems. The semantic processes present as it is applied to different types of medical images. Cognitive information systems were defined on the basis of methods for the semantic analysis and interpretation of information - medical images - applied to cognitive meaning of medical images contained in analyzed data sets. Semantic analysis was proposed to analyzed the meaning of data. Meaning is included in information, for example in medical images. Medical image analysis will be presented and discussed as they are applied to various types of medical images, presented selected human organs, with different pathologies. Those images were analyzed using different classes of cognitive information systems. Cognitive information systems dedicated to medical image analysis was also defined for the decision supporting tasks. This process is very important for example in diagnostic and therapy processes, in the selection of semantic aspects/features, from analyzed data sets. Those features allow to create a new way of analysis.

  16. Analysis of Galileo Style Geostationary Satellite Imaging: Image Reconstruction (United States)


    obtained using only baselines longer than 8 m does not sample the short spacial frequencies, and the image reconstruction is not able to recover the...the long spacial frequencies sampled in a shorter baseline overlap the short spacial frequencies sampled in a longer baseline. This technique will

  17. SAR Image Texture Analysis of Oil Spill (United States)

    Ma, Long; Li, Ying; Liu, Yu

    Oil spills are seriously affecting the marine ecosystem and cause political and scientific concern since they have serious affect on fragile marine and coastal ecosystem. In order to implement an emergency in case of oil spills, it is necessary to monitor oil spill using remote sensing. Spaceborne SAR is considered a promising method to monitor oil spill, which causes attention from many researchers. However, research in SAR image texture analysis of oil spill is rarely reported. On 7 December 2007, a crane-carrying barge hit the Hong Kong-registered tanker "Hebei Spirit", which released an estimated 10,500 metric tons of crude oil into the sea. The texture features on this oil spill were acquired based on extracted GLCM (Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix) by using SAR as data source. The affected area was extracted successfully after evaluating capabilities of different texture features to monitor the oil spill. The results revealed that the texture is an important feature for oil spill monitoring. Key words: oil spill, texture analysis, SAR

  18. Analysis of physical processes via imaging vectors (United States)

    Volovodenko, V.; Efremova, N.; Efremov, V.


    Practically, all modeling processes in one way or another are random. The foremost formulated theoretical foundation embraces Markov processes, being represented in different forms. Markov processes are characterized as a random process that undergoes transitions from one state to another on a state space, whereas the probability distribution of the next state depends only on the current state and not on the sequence of events that preceded it. In the Markov processes the proposition (model) of the future by no means changes in the event of the expansion and/or strong information progression relative to preceding time. Basically, modeling physical fields involves process changing in time, i.e. non-stationay processes. In this case, the application of Laplace transformation provides unjustified description complications. Transition to other possibilities results in explicit simplification. The method of imaging vectors renders constructive mathematical models and necessary transition in the modeling process and analysis itself. The flexibility of the model itself using polynomial basis leads to the possible rapid transition of the mathematical model and further analysis acceleration. It should be noted that the mathematical description permits operator representation. Conversely, operator representation of the structures, algorithms and data processing procedures significantly improve the flexibility of the modeling process.

  19. Link Graph Analysis for Adult Images Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Kharitonov, Evgeny; Muchnik, Ilya; Romanenko, Fedor; Belyaev, Dmitry; Kotlyarov, Dmitry


    In order to protect an image search engine's users from undesirable results adult images' classifier should be built. The information about links from websites to images is employed to create such a classifier. These links are represented as a bipartite website-image graph. Each vertex is equipped with scores of adultness and decentness. The scores for image vertexes are initialized with zero, those for website vertexes are initialized according to a text-based website classifier. An iterative algorithm that propagates scores within a website-image graph is described. The scores obtained are used to classify images by choosing an appropriate threshold. The experiments on Internet-scale data have shown that the algorithm under consideration increases classification recall by 17% in comparison with a simple algorithm which classifies an image as adult if it is connected with at least one adult site (at the same precision level).

  20. Dynamic chest image analysis: model-based pulmonary perfusion analysis with pyramid images (United States)

    Liang, Jianming; Haapanen, Arto; Jaervi, Timo; Kiuru, Aaro J.; Kormano, Martti; Svedstrom, Erkki; Virkki, Raimo


    The aim of the study 'Dynamic Chest Image Analysis' is to develop computer analysis and visualization methods for showing focal and general abnormalities of lung ventilation and perfusion based on a sequence of digital chest fluoroscopy frames collected at different phases of the respiratory/cardiac cycles in a short period of time. We have proposed a framework for ventilation study with an explicit ventilation model based on pyramid images. In this paper, we extend the framework to pulmonary perfusion study. A perfusion model and the truncated pyramid are introduced. The perfusion model aims at extracting accurate, geographic perfusion parameters, and the truncated pyramid helps in understanding perfusion at multiple resolutions and speeding up the convergence process in optimization. Three cases are included to illustrate the experimental results.

  1. Endothelial dysfunction and brachial intima-media thickness: long term cardiovascular risk with claudication related to peripheral arterial disease: a prospective analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Hafner

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Endothelial dysfunction plays a key role in the development, progression, and clinical manifestation of atherosclerosis, and in symptomatic peripheral arterial disease, endothelial dysfunction and enlarged intima-media thickness might be associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Flow-mediated dilatation and serologic parameters are used to evaluate individual endothelial function. Brachial intima-media thickness, a less recognized parameter of cardiovascular risk, is independently associated with coronary artery disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of ultrasound and serologic parameters of endothelial function in relation to cardiovascular mortality in peripheral arterial disease. DESIGN: monocentric, prospective cohort study. METHODS: Flow mediated dilatation and brachial intima-media thickness were assessed in 184 (124 male patients with peripheral arterial disease (Rutherford stages 2-3. Serologic parameters of endothelial function included asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA, and L-homoarginine. Cardiovascular events were recorded during a follow-up of 99.1±11.1 months. Subjects who died of noncardiovascular causes were excluded from further analysis. RESULTS: Eighty-two patients (44.6% died during follow-up after a mean duration of 49.7±28.3 months. There were 49 cardiovascular deaths (59.8% and 33 other deaths (40.2%. Flow mediated dilatation was associated with cardiovascular death [1.17% (0.0, 4.3 vs. 4.1% (1.2, 6.4, p<0.001]. Intima-media thickness was greater in patients who succumbed to cardiovascular disease [0.37 mm (0.30, 0.41] than in survivors [0.21 mm (0.15, 0.38, p<0.001]. Brachial intima-media thickness above 0.345 mm was most predictive of cardiovascular death, with sensitivity and specificity values of 0.714 and 0.657, respectively (p<0.001. Furthermore, ADMA levels above 0.745 µmol/l and SDMA levels above 0.825 µmol/l were significantly

  2. Principal component analysis of psoriasis lesions images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maletti, Gabriela Mariel; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær


    A set of RGB images of psoriasis lesions is used. By visual examination of these images, there seem to be no common pattern that could be used to find and align the lesions within and between sessions. It is expected that the principal components of the original images could be useful during future...

  3. Mesh Processing in Medical-Image Analysis-a Tutorial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levine, Joshua A.; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Zhang, Yongjie


    Medical-image analysis requires an understanding of sophisticated scanning modalities, constructing geometric models, building meshes to represent domains, and downstream biological applications. These four steps form an image-to-mesh pipeline. For research in this field to progress, the imaging...

  4. Subsurface offset behaviour in velocity analysis with extended reflectivity images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, W.A.


    Migration velocity analysis with the constant-density acoustic wave equation can be accomplished by the focusing of extended migration images, obtained by introducing a subsurface shift in the imaging condition. A reflector in a wrong velocity model will show up as a curve in the extended image. In

  5. Contextual socioeconomic determinants of cardiovascular risk factors in rural south-west China: a multilevel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geater Alan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined independent influences of contextual variables on cardiovascular risk factors in Shilin county, Yunnan province, South-west China. Methods Three villages were selected from each of the ten townships based on probability proportional to size. In each selected village, 200 individuals aged ≥ 45 years were chosen based on simple random sampling method. From 6006 individuals, information on demographic characteristics, smoking and drinking status was obtained by interview. Blood pressure, height, weight, and waist and hip girth were measured. Fasting blood sugar was measured in a 10-percent subsample. Contextual data were from official reports. Multi-level regression modelling with adjustment for individual and contextual variables was used. Results Contextual variables associated with CVD risk factors included: remoteness of village with higher blood pressure and fasting blood sugar, high proportion of Yi minority with drinking, high literacy rate with a lower rate of smoking and a lower mean waist-hip ratio, and high average income with lower systolic blood pressure and body mass index (BMI but higher FBS. Conclusion While contextual SES is associated with a few CVD risk factors, villages with high level of income are worse off in fasting blood sugar. Strategies of economic development should be reviewed to avoid adverse effects on health.

  6. Age-related changes in cardiovascular performance in mitral regurgitation: analysis of 61 patients. (United States)

    Clancy, K F; Iskandrian, A S; Hakki, A H; Nestico, P; DePace, N L


    This study examines the cardiovascular performance in relation to age in 61 patients with moderate or severe chronic mitral regurgitation (MR). Coronary artery disease (CAD) (50% or more diameter narrowing of one or more major coronary arteries) was present in 20 patients (33%). Patients less than 60 years (n = 33) had lower pulmonary artery pressure, systolic arterial pressure, left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic pressure, and pulmonary artery wedge pressure than the patients greater than or equal to 60 years (n = 28) (p less than 0.05). In the 41 patients without associated CAD, the LV end-diastolic pressure and systemic arterial pressure were higher in patients greater than or equal to 60 years (n = 14) than patients less than 60 years (n = 27) (p less than 0.05). The LV end-diastolic pressure showed an age-related increase in the presence or absence of CAD. Thus, older patients with MR have higher LV end-diastolic pressure, probably because of an increase in myocardial stiffness.

  7. Comparative study on individual aromatase inhibitors on cardiovascular safety profile: a network meta-analysis (United States)

    Zhao, Xihe; Liu, Lei; Li, Kai; Li, Wusheng; Zhao, Li; Zou, Huawei


    The third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs: anastrozole, letrozole, and exemestane) have now become standard adjuvant endocrine treatment for postmenopausal estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer complementing chemotherapy and surgery. Because of the absence of direct head-to-head comparisons of these AIs, an indirect comparison is needed for individual treatment choice. In this network systemic assessment, the cardiovascular (CV) side effects in using anastrozole, letrozole, and exemestane based on original studies on AIs vs placebo or tamoxifen were compared. We integrated all available direct and indirect evidences. The odds ratio (OR) of severe CV events for indirect comparisons between exemestane and anastrozole was 1.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] =0.49–2.78), letrozole and anastrozole was 1.80 (95% CI =0.40–3.92), and letrozole and exemestane was 1.46 (95% CI =0.34–3.4). OR of subgroup risk for AIs and tamoxifen were all >1 except for thrombolism risk subgroup. The results showed that the total and severe CV risk ranking is letrozole, exemestane, and anastrozole in descending order. None of the AIs showed advantages in CV events than tamoxifen except for thromboembolism event incidence. PMID:26491345

  8. Analysis of online information searching for cardiovascular diseases on a consumer health information portal. (United States)

    Jadhav, Ashutosh; Sheth, Amit; Pathak, Jyotishman


    Since the early 2000's, Internet usage for health information searching has increased significantly. Studying search queries can help us to understand users "information need" and how do they formulate search queries ("expression of information need"). Although cardiovascular diseases (CVD) affect a large percentage of the population, few studies have investigated how and what users search for CVD. We address this knowledge gap in the community by analyzing a large corpus of 10 million CVD related search queries from Using UMLS MetaMap and UMLS semantic types/concepts, we developed a rule-based approach to categorize the queries into 14 health categories. We analyzed structural properties, types (keyword-based/Wh-questions/Yes-No questions) and linguistic structure of the queries. Our results show that the most searched health categories are 'Diseases/Conditions', 'Vital-Sings', 'Symptoms' and 'Living-with'. CVD queries are longer and are predominantly keyword-based. This study extends our knowledge about online health information searching and provides useful insights for Web search engines and health websites.

  9. 5th German cardiodiagnostic meeting 2013 with the 6th Leipzig Symposium on non-invasive cardiovascular imaging. Challenges and limit of the non-invasive cardiac imaging; 5. Deutsche Kardiodiagnostik-Tage 2013 mit 6. Leipziger Symposium Nichtinvasive Kardiovaskulaere Bildgebung. Herausforderungen und Grenzen der nicht-invasiven kardialen Bildgebung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The proceedings on the German cardiodiagnostic meeting 2013 together with the 6th Leipzig Symposium on non-invasive cardiovascular imaging include abstracts concerning the following topics: Imaging in the rhythmology; adults with congenital cardiac defects; cardiac myopathies - myocarditis; cardiac valves (before and after transcutaneous valve replacement); coronary heart diseases; technical developments.

  10. CMOS Image Sensor with On-Chip Image Compression: A Review and Performance Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milin Zhang


    Full Text Available Demand for high-resolution, low-power sensing devices with integrated image processing capabilities, especially compression capability, is increasing. CMOS technology enables the integration of image sensing and image processing, making it possible to improve the overall system performance. This paper reviews the current state of the art in CMOS image sensors featuring on-chip image compression. Firstly, typical sensing systems consisting of separate image-capturing unit and image-compression processing unit are reviewed, followed by systems that integrate focal-plane compression. The paper also provides a thorough review of a new design paradigm, in which image compression is performed during the image-capture phase prior to storage, referred to as compressive acquisition. High-performance sensor systems reported in recent years are also introduced. Performance analysis and comparison of the reported designs using different design paradigm are presented at the end.

  11. Image analysis for dental bone quality assessment using CBCT imaging (United States)

    Suprijanto; Epsilawati, L.; Hajarini, M. S.; Juliastuti, E.; Susanti, H.


    Cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) is one of X-ray imaging modalities that are applied in dentistry. Its modality can visualize the oral region in 3D and in a high resolution. CBCT jaw image has potential information for the assessment of bone quality that often used for pre-operative implant planning. We propose comparison method based on normalized histogram (NH) on the region of inter-dental septum and premolar teeth. Furthermore, the NH characteristic from normal and abnormal bone condition are compared and analyzed. Four test parameters are proposed, i.e. the difference between teeth and bone average intensity (s), the ratio between bone and teeth average intensity (n) of NH, the difference between teeth and bone peak value (Δp) of NH, and the ratio between teeth and bone of NH range (r). The results showed that n, s, and Δp have potential to be the classification parameters of dental calcium density.

  12. Cardiovascular risk factor management of myocardial infarction patients with and without diabetes in the Netherlands between 2002 and 2006: a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Giltay, E.J.; Kromhout, D.


    Objective: We examined levels and trends in cardiovascular risk factors and drug treatment in myocardial infarction (MI) patients with and without diabetes. Design: Cross-sectional analysis of baseline Alpha Omega Trial data, a randomised controlled trial. Setting: 32 hospitals in the Netherlands. P

  13. Technique of Hadamard transform microscope fluorescence image analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅二文; 顾文芳; 曾晓斌; 陈观铨; 曾云鹗


    Hadamard transform spatial multiplexed imaging technique is combined with fluorescence microscope and an instrument of Hadamard transform microscope fluorescence image analysis is developed. Images acquired by this instrument can provide a lot of useful information simultaneously, including three-dimensional Hadamard transform microscope cell fluorescence image, the fluorescence intensity and fluorescence distribution of a cell, the background signal intensity and the signal/noise ratio, etc.

  14. Analysis of engineering drawings and raster map images

    CERN Document Server

    Henderson, Thomas C


    Presents up-to-date methods and algorithms for the automated analysis of engineering drawings and digital cartographic maps Discusses automatic engineering drawing and map analysis techniques Covers detailed accounts of the use of unsupervised segmentation algorithms to map images

  15. New approaches in intelligent image analysis techniques, methodologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamatsu, Kazumi


    This book presents an Introduction and 11 independent chapters, which are devoted to various new approaches of intelligent image processing and analysis. The book also presents new methods, algorithms and applied systems for intelligent image processing, on the following basic topics: Methods for Hierarchical Image Decomposition; Intelligent Digital Signal Processing and Feature Extraction; Data Clustering and Visualization via Echo State Networks; Clustering of Natural Images in Automatic Image Annotation Systems; Control System for Remote Sensing Image Processing; Tissue Segmentation of MR Brain Images Sequence; Kidney Cysts Segmentation in CT Images; Audio Visual Attention Models in Mobile Robots Navigation; Local Adaptive Image Processing; Learning Techniques for Intelligent Access Control; Resolution Improvement in Acoustic Maps. Each chapter is self-contained with its own references. Some of the chapters are devoted to the theoretical aspects while the others are presenting the practical aspects and the...

  16. Slide Set: Reproducible image analysis and batch processing with ImageJ. (United States)

    Nanes, Benjamin A


    Most imaging studies in the biological sciences rely on analyses that are relatively simple. However, manual repetition of analysis tasks across multiple regions in many images can complicate even the simplest analysis, making record keeping difficult, increasing the potential for error, and limiting reproducibility. While fully automated solutions are necessary for very large data sets, they are sometimes impractical for the small- and medium-sized data sets common in biology. Here we present the Slide Set plugin for ImageJ, which provides a framework for reproducible image analysis and batch processing. Slide Set organizes data into tables, associating image files with regions of interest and other relevant information. Analysis commands are automatically repeated over each image in the data set, and multiple commands can be chained together for more complex analysis tasks. All analysis parameters are saved, ensuring transparency and reproducibility. Slide Set includes a variety of built-in analysis commands and can be easily extended to automate other ImageJ plugins, reducing the manual repetition of image analysis without the set-up effort or programming expertise required for a fully automated solution.

  17. Development of the Digital Astronaut Project for the analysis of the mechanisms of physiologic adaptation to microgravity: Validation of the cardiovascular system module (United States)

    Summers, Richard; Coleman, Thomas; Meck, Janice

    The physiologic adaptation of humans to the microgravity environment is complex and requires an integrative perspective to fully understand the mechanisms involved. A large computer model of human systems physiology provides the framework for the development of the Digital Astronaut to be used by NASA in the analysis of adaptive mechanisms. While project expansion is ongoing to include all relevant systems, we describe the validation results of the cardiovascular phase of model development. The cardiovascular aspects of the model were validated by benchmark comparisons to published literature findings of changes in left ventricular mass, right atrial pressure and plasma volumes. Computer simulations using the model predicted microgravity induced changes in the target endpoints within statistical validity of experimental findings. Therefore, the current cardiovascular portion of the Digital Astronaut Project computer model appears to accurately predict observed microgravity induced physiologic adaptations. The ongoing process of model development to include all spaceflight relevant systems will require similar validations.

  18. Multi-spectral Image Analysis for Astaxanthin Coating Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungqvist, Martin Georg; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht


    Industrial quality inspection using image analysis on astaxanthin coating in aquaculture feed pellets is of great importance for automatic production control. In this study multi-spectral image analysis of pellets was performed using LDA, QDA, SNV and PCA on pixel level and mean value of pixels f...

  19. Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis: Towards a new paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaschke, T.; Hay, G.J.; Kelly, M.; Lang, S.; Hofmann, P.; Addink, E.A.; Queiroz Feitosa, R.; van der Meer, F.D.; van der Werff, H.M.A.; van Coillie, F.; Tiede, A.


    The amount of scientific literature on (Geographic) Object-based Image Analysis – GEOBIA has been and still is sharply increasing. These approaches to analysing imagery have antecedents in earlier research on image segmentation and use GIS-like spatial analysis within classification and feature extr

  20. Facial Image Analysis Based on Local Binary Patterns: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, D.; Shan, C.; Ardebilian, M.; Chen, L.


    Facial image analysis, including face detection, face recognition,facial expression analysis, facial demographic classification, and so on, is an important and interesting research topic in the computervision and image processing area, which has many important applications such as human-computer


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Lopez


    Full Text Available Through laboratory research performed over the past ten years, many of the critical links between fracture characteristics and hydromechanical and mechanical behaviour have been made for individual fractures. One of the remaining challenges at the laboratory scale is to directly link fracture morphology of shear behaviour with changes in stress and shear direction. A series of laboratory experiments were performed on cement mortar replicas of a granite sample with a natural fracture perpendicular to the axis of the core. Results show that there is a strong relationship between the fracture's geometry and its mechanical behaviour under shear stress and the resulting damage. Image analysis, geostatistical, stereological and directional data techniques are applied in combination to experimental data. The results highlight the role of geometric characteristics of the fracture surfaces (surface roughness, size, shape, locations and orientations of asperities to be damaged in shear behaviour. A notable improvement in shear understanding is that shear behaviour is controlled by the apparent dip in the shear direction of elementary facets forming the fracture.

  2. Software development for the analysis of heartbeat sounds with LabVIEW in diagnosis of cardiovascular disease. (United States)

    Topal, Taner; Polat, Hüseyin; Güler, Inan


    In this paper, a time-frequency spectral analysis software (Heart Sound Analyzer) for the computer-aided analysis of cardiac sounds has been developed with LabVIEW. Software modules reveal important information for cardiovascular disorders, it can also assist to general physicians to come up with more accurate and reliable diagnosis at early stages. Heart sound analyzer (HSA) software can overcome the deficiency of expert doctors and help them in rural as well as urban clinics and hospitals. HSA has two main blocks: data acquisition and preprocessing, time-frequency spectral analyses. The heart sounds are first acquired using a modified stethoscope which has an electret microphone in it. Then, the signals are analysed using the time-frequency/scale spectral analysis techniques such as STFT, Wigner-Ville distribution and wavelet transforms. HSA modules have been tested with real heart sounds from 35 volunteers and proved to be quite efficient and robust while dealing with a large variety of pathological conditions.

  3. Hierarchical manifold learning for regional image analysis. (United States)

    Bhatia, Kanwal K; Rao, Anil; Price, Anthony N; Wolz, Robin; Hajnal, Joseph V; Rueckert, Daniel


    We present a novel method of hierarchical manifold learning which aims to automatically discover regional properties of image datasets. While traditional manifold learning methods have become widely used for dimensionality reduction in medical imaging, they suffer from only being able to consider whole images as single data points. We extend conventional techniques by additionally examining local variations, in order to produce spatially-varying manifold embeddings that characterize a given dataset. This involves constructing manifolds in a hierarchy of image patches of increasing granularity, while ensuring consistency between hierarchy levels. We demonstrate the utility of our method in two very different settings: 1) to learn the regional correlations in motion within a sequence of time-resolved MR images of the thoracic cavity; 2) to find discriminative regions of 3-D brain MR images associated with neurodegenerative disease.

  4. Cardiac troponin and C-reactive protein for predicting all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease: a meta-analysis. (United States)

    Li, Wei-Jie; Chen, Xu-Miao; Nie, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Jing; Cheng, Yun-Jiu; Lin, Xiao-Xiong; Wu, Su-Hua


    Elevated serum levels of cardiac troponin and C-reactive protein are associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease. However, the relationship between these two biomarker levels and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease remains unclear. We conducted a meta-analysis to quantify the association of cardiac troponin and C-reactive protein levels with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. Relevant studies were identified by searching the MEDLINE database through November 2013. Studies were included in the meta-analysis if they reported the long-term all-cause or cardiovascular mortality of chronic kidney disease patients with abnormally elevated serum levels of cardiac troponin or C-reactive protein. Summary estimates of association were obtained using a random-effects model. Thirty-two studies met our inclusion criteria. From the pooled analysis, cardiac troponin and C-reactive protein were significantly associated with all-cause (HR 2.93, 95% CI 1.97-4.33 and HR 1.21, 95% CI 1.14-1.29, respectively) and cardiovascular (HR 3.27, 95% CI 1.67-6.41 and HR 1.19, 95% CI 1.10-1.28, respectively) mortality. In the subgroup analysis of cardiac troponin and C-reactive protein, significant heterogeneities were found among the subgroups of population for renal replacement therapy and for the proportion of smokers and the C-reactive protein analysis method. Elevated serum levels of cardiac troponin and C-reactive protein are significant associated with higher risks of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. Further studies are warranted to explore the risk stratification in chronic kidney disease patients.

  5. Digital image processing and analysis for activated sludge wastewater treatment. (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Burhan; Lee, Xue Yong; Nisar, Humaira; Ng, Choon Aun; Yeap, Kim Ho; Malik, Aamir Saeed


    Activated sludge system is generally used in wastewater treatment plants for processing domestic influent. Conventionally the activated sludge wastewater treatment is monitored by measuring physico-chemical parameters like total suspended solids (TSSol), sludge volume index (SVI) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) etc. For the measurement, tests are conducted in the laboratory, which take many hours to give the final measurement. Digital image processing and analysis offers a better alternative not only to monitor and characterize the current state of activated sludge but also to predict the future state. The characterization by image processing and analysis is done by correlating the time evolution of parameters extracted by image analysis of floc and filaments with the physico-chemical parameters. This chapter briefly reviews the activated sludge wastewater treatment; and, procedures of image acquisition, preprocessing, segmentation and analysis in the specific context of activated sludge wastewater treatment. In the latter part additional procedures like z-stacking, image stitching are introduced for wastewater image preprocessing, which are not previously used in the context of activated sludge. Different preprocessing and segmentation techniques are proposed, along with the survey of imaging procedures reported in the literature. Finally the image analysis based morphological parameters and correlation of the parameters with regard to monitoring and prediction of activated sludge are discussed. Hence it is observed that image analysis can play a very useful role in the monitoring of activated sludge wastewater treatment plants.

  6. Some developments in multivariate image analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucheryavskiy, Sergey

    and classification. MIA considers all image pixels as objects and their color values (or spectrum in the case of hyperspectral images) as variables. So it gives data matrices with hundreds of thousands samples in the case of laboratory scale images and even more for aerial photos, where the number of pixels could...... subspace have been considered in respect to MIA purposes. First of all, Robust PCA has been applied to several images with and without outliers. Being proposed as a method to deal with high-dimensional data, it suits the needs of MIA very well. Also several non-linear methods have been tried, including...

  7. Multimodal digital color imaging system for facial skin lesion analysis (United States)

    Bae, Youngwoo; Lee, Youn-Heum; Jung, Byungjo


    In dermatology, various digital imaging modalities have been used as an important tool to quantitatively evaluate the treatment effect of skin lesions. Cross-polarization color image was used to evaluate skin chromophores (melanin and hemoglobin) information and parallel-polarization image to evaluate skin texture information. In addition, UV-A induced fluorescent image has been widely used to evaluate various skin conditions such as sebum, keratosis, sun damages, and vitiligo. In order to maximize the evaluation efficacy of various skin lesions, it is necessary to integrate various imaging modalities into an imaging system. In this study, we propose a multimodal digital color imaging system, which provides four different digital color images of standard color image, parallel and cross-polarization color image, and UV-A induced fluorescent color image. Herein, we describe the imaging system and present the examples of image analysis. By analyzing the color information and morphological features of facial skin lesions, we are able to comparably and simultaneously evaluate various skin lesions. In conclusion, we are sure that the multimodal color imaging system can be utilized as an important assistant tool in dermatology.

  8. PS2-07: The Association of Cyberbullying with Cardiovascular Health in Adolescents: A Preliminary Analysis (United States)

    Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea; Johnson, Dayna; Joseph, Christine


    Background/Aims With increasing access to the internet and other technology, adolescents may become victims of online harassment, referred to as cyberbullying. Cyberbullying may cause worry, fear, and distress among youth, all which increase cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in adults. To our knowledge, no study has examined the potential association of cyberbullying with CVD risk factors in adolescents. We examined the association of cyberbullying with overweight/obesity and elevated blood pressure (BP) among healthy adolescents. Methods Adolescents age 14–17 years and parent/guardian were invited to a research visit between November, 2009 and present. Height, weight, and BP were measured by trained staff and internet experiences quantified by questionnaire. Race was defined as African-American or other race. Cyberbullying was defined as self-report in the past year of being worried or threatened because of being bothered or harassed online or of being embarrassed by others online. Overweight/ obesity was defined as BMI >=85th percentile for gender and age. Elevated BP was defined as a SBP or DBP >=90th percentile for gender, age and height. Logistic regression models were fit to estimate the association of cyberbulling with overweight/obesity or elevated BP. Results As of October, 2010, 190 adolescents with complete data have been recruited into the study. Mean age was 16.5±1.0 years; 76 (40%) were male and 112 (59.0%) were African-American. Mean BMI of adolescents was 24.2±6.4 kg/m^2 and mean SBP and DBP were 117.7±11.3 mmHg and 63.9±7.1mmHg, respectively; 62 (32.6%) were classified as overweight/obese and 28 (14.7%) had an elevated BP. A total of 29 (15.3%) adolescents reported being cyberbullied; older adolescents (P=0.061) were more likely and African-Americans (P=0.040) were less likely to report being cyberbullied. Gender was not associated with cyberbullying (P=0.143). Cyberbullying was not associated with overweight/obesity (P=0.951) or elevated BP

  9. PIZZARO: Forensic analysis and restoration of image and video data. (United States)

    Kamenicky, Jan; Bartos, Michal; Flusser, Jan; Mahdian, Babak; Kotera, Jan; Novozamsky, Adam; Saic, Stanislav; Sroubek, Filip; Sorel, Michal; Zita, Ales; Zitova, Barbara; Sima, Zdenek; Svarc, Petr; Horinek, Jan


    This paper introduces a set of methods for image and video forensic analysis. They were designed to help to assess image and video credibility and origin and to restore and increase image quality by diminishing unwanted blur, noise, and other possible artifacts. The motivation came from the best practices used in the criminal investigation utilizing images and/or videos. The determination of the image source, the verification of the image content, and image restoration were identified as the most important issues of which automation can facilitate criminalists work. Novel theoretical results complemented with existing approaches (LCD re-capture detection and denoising) were implemented in the PIZZARO software tool, which consists of the image processing functionality as well as of reporting and archiving functions to ensure the repeatability of image analysis procedures and thus fulfills formal aspects of the image/video analysis work. Comparison of new proposed methods with the state of the art approaches is shown. Real use cases are presented, which illustrate the functionality of the developed methods and demonstrate their applicability in different situations. The use cases as well as the method design were solved in tight cooperation of scientists from the Institute of Criminalistics, National Drug Headquarters of the Criminal Police and Investigation Service of the Police of the Czech Republic, and image processing experts from the Czech Academy of Sciences.

  10. SCCT guidelines for the performance and acquisition of coronary computed tomographic angiography: A report of the society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography Guidelines Committee: Endorsed by the North American Society for Cardiovascular Imaging (NASCI). (United States)

    Abbara, Suhny; Blanke, Philipp; Maroules, Christopher D; Cheezum, Michael; Choi, Andrew D; Han, B Kelly; Marwan, Mohamed; Naoum, Chris; Norgaard, Bjarne L; Rubinshtein, Ronen; Schoenhagen, Paul; Villines, Todd; Leipsic, Jonathon

    In response to recent technological advancements in acquisition techniques as well as a growing body of evidence regarding the optimal performance of coronary computed tomography angiography (coronary CTA), the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography Guidelines Committee has produced this update to its previously established 2009 "Guidelines for the Performance of Coronary CTA" (1). The purpose of this document is to provide standards meant to ensure reliable practice methods and quality outcomes based on the best available data in order to improve the diagnostic care of patients. Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography Guidelines for the Interpretation is published separately (2). The Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography Guidelines Committee ensures compliance with all existing standards for the declaration of conflict of interest by all authors and reviewers for the purpose ofclarity and transparency.

  11. A linear mixture analysis-based compression for hyperspectral image analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. I. Chang; I. W. Ginsberg


    In this paper, the authors present a fully constrained least squares linear spectral mixture analysis-based compression technique for hyperspectral image analysis, particularly, target detection and classification. Unlike most compression techniques that directly deal with image gray levels, the proposed compression approach generates the abundance fractional images of potential targets present in an image scene and then encodes these fractional images so as to achieve data compression. Since the vital information used for image analysis is generally preserved and retained in the abundance fractional images, the loss of information may have very little impact on image analysis. In some occasions, it even improves analysis performance. Airborne visible infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS) data experiments demonstrate that it can effectively detect and classify targets while achieving very high compression ratios.

  12. Experimental study and constitutive modelling of the passive mechanical properties of the porcine carotid artery and its relation to histological analysis: Implications in animal cardiovascular device trials. (United States)

    García, A; Peña, E; Laborda, A; Lostalé, F; De Gregorio, M A; Doblaré, M; Martínez, M A


    The present study focusses on the determination, comparison and constitutive modelling of the passive mechanical properties of the swine carotid artery over very long stretches in both proximal and distal regions. Special attention is paid to the histological and mechanical variations of these properties depending on the proximity to the heart. The results can have clinical relevance, especially in the research field of intravascular device design. Before the final clinical trials on humans, research in the vascular area is conducted on animal models, swine being the most common due to the similarities between the human and swine cardiovascular systems as well as the fact that the swine size is suitable for testing devices, in this case endovascular carotid systems. The design of devices usually involves numerical techniques, and an important feature is the appropriate modelling of the mechanical properties of the vessel. Fourteen carotid swine arteries were harvested just after sacrifice and cyclic uniaxial tension tests in longitudinal and circumferential directions were performed for distal and proximal samples. The stress-stretch curves obtained were fitted with a hyperelastic anisotropic model. Stress-free configuration states were also analyzed. Finally, human and swine samples were processed in a histological laboratory and images were used to quantify their microconstituents. The statistical analysis revealed significant differences between the mechanical behavior of proximal and distal locations in the circumferential but not in the longitudinal direction. Circumferential direction samples show clear differences both in residual stretches and tensile curves between the two locations, while the features of longitudinal specimens are independent of the axial position. The statistical analysis provides significant evidence of changes depending on the position of the sample, mainly in elastin and SMC quantification.

  13. Whole-slide imaging and automated image analysis: considerations and opportunities in the practice of pathology. (United States)

    Webster, J D; Dunstan, R W


    Digital pathology, the practice of pathology using digitized images of pathologic specimens, has been transformed in recent years by the development of whole-slide imaging systems, which allow for the evaluation and interpretation of digital images of entire histologic sections. Applications of whole-slide imaging include rapid transmission of pathologic data for consultations and collaborations, standardization and distribution of pathologic materials for education, tissue specimen archiving, and image analysis of histologic specimens. Histologic image analysis allows for the acquisition of objective measurements of histomorphologic, histochemical, and immunohistochemical properties of tissue sections, increasing both the quantity and quality of data obtained from histologic assessments. Currently, numerous histologic image analysis software solutions are commercially available. Choosing the appropriate solution is dependent on considerations of the investigative question, computer programming and image analysis expertise, and cost. However, all studies using histologic image analysis require careful consideration of preanalytical variables, such as tissue collection, fixation, and processing, and experimental design, including sample selection, controls, reference standards, and the variables being measured. The fields of digital pathology and histologic image analysis are continuing to evolve, and their potential impact on pathology is still growing. These methodologies will increasingly transform the practice of pathology, allowing it to mature toward a quantitative science. However, this maturation requires pathologists to be at the forefront of the process, ensuring their appropriate application and the validity of their results. Therefore, histologic image analysis and the field of pathology should co-evolve, creating a symbiotic relationship that results in high-quality reproducible, objective data.

  14. Cardiovascular disease and impoverishment averted due to a salt reduction policy in South Africa: an extended cost-effectiveness analysis. (United States)

    Watkins, David A; Olson, Zachary D; Verguet, Stéphane; Nugent, Rachel A; Jamison, Dean T


    The South African Government recently set targets to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) by lowering salt consumption. We conducted an extended cost-effectiveness analysis (ECEA) to model the potential health and economic impacts of this salt policy. We used surveys and epidemiologic studies to estimate reductions in CVD resulting from lower salt intake. We calculated the average out-of-pocket (OOP) cost of CVD care, using facility fee schedules and drug prices. We estimated the reduction in OOP expenditures and government subsidies due to the policy. We estimated public and private sector costs of policy implementation. We estimated financial risk protection (FRP) from the policy as (1) cases of catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) averted or (2) cases of poverty averted. We also performed a sensitivity analysis. We found that the salt policy could reduce CVD deaths by 11%, with similar health gains across income quintiles. The policy could save households US$ 4.06 million (2012) in OOP expenditures (US$ 0.29 per capita) and save the government US$ 51.25 million in healthcare subsidies (US$ 2.52 per capita) each year. The cost to the government would be only US$ 0.01 per capita; hence, the policy would be cost saving. If the private sector food reformulation costs were passed on to consumers, food expenditures would increase by salt reduction can have positive economic impacts-substantially reducing OOP expenditures and providing FRP, particularly for the middle class. The policy could also provide large government savings on health care.

  15. Coffee consumption and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: a dose-response meta-analysis. (United States)

    Crippa, Alessio; Discacciati, Andrea; Larsson, Susanna C; Wolk, Alicja; Orsini, Nicola


    Several studies have analyzed the relationship between coffee consumption and mortality, but the shape of the association remains unclear. We conducted a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies to examine the dose-response associations between coffee consumption and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and all cancers. Pertinent studies, published between 1966 and 2013, were identified by searching PubMed and by reviewing the reference lists of the selected articles. Prospective studies in which investigators reported relative risks of mortality from all causes, CVD, and all cancers for 3 or more categories of coffee consumption were eligible. Results from individual studies were pooled using a random-effects model. Twenty-one prospective studies, with 121,915 deaths and 997,464 participants, met the inclusion criteria. There was strong evidence of nonlinear associations between coffee consumption and mortality for all causes and CVD (P for nonlinearity Coffee consumption was not associated with cancer mortality. Findings from this meta-analysis indicate that coffee consumption is inversely associated with all-cause and CVD mortality.

  16. Dynamic Chest Image Analysis: Evaluation of Model-Based Pulmonary Perfusion Analysis With Pyramid Images (United States)


    Address(es) US Army Research, Development & Standardization Group (UK) PSC 802 Box 15 FPO AE 09499-1500 Sponsor/Monitor’s Acronym(s) Sponsor...6G O D 2 O P " GH I KJML E8 O D 83O P " (8) This naturally implies that as long as O D 2 O P KJ...A method for the solution of certain problems in least squares. Quart. Appl. Math ., 2:164–168, 1944. [8] J. Liang. Dynamic Chest Image Analysis. Turku

  17. Adaptive Local Image Registration: Analysis on Filter Size


    Vishnukumar S; M.Wilscy


    Adaptive Local Image Registration is a Local Image Registration based on an Adaptive Filtering frame work. A filter of appropriate size convolves with reference image and gives the pixel values corresponding to the distorted image and the filter is updated in each stage of the convolution. When the filter converges to the system model, it provides the registered image. The filter size plays an important role in this method. The analysis on the filter size is done using Peak Signal-to-Noise Ra...

  18. Image analysis benchmarking methods for high-content screen design. (United States)

    Fuller, C J; Straight, A F


    The recent development of complex chemical and small interfering RNA (siRNA) collections has enabled large-scale cell-based phenotypic screening. High-content and high-throughput imaging are widely used methods to record phenotypic data after chemical and small interfering RNA treatment, and numerous image processing and analysis methods have been used to quantify these phenotypes. Currently, there are no standardized methods for evaluating the effectiveness of new and existing image processing and analysis tools for an arbitrary screening problem. We generated a series of benchmarking images that represent commonly encountered variation in high-throughput screening data and used these image standards to evaluate the robustness of five different image analysis methods to changes in signal-to-noise ratio, focal plane, cell density and phenotype strength. The analysis methods that were most reliable, in the presence of experimental variation, required few cells to accurately distinguish phenotypic changes between control and experimental data sets. We conclude that by applying these simple benchmarking principles an a priori estimate of the image acquisition requirements for phenotypic analysis can be made before initiating an image-based screen. Application of this benchmarking methodology provides a mechanism to significantly reduce data acquisition and analysis burdens and to improve data quality and information content.

  19. Lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and higher albuminuria are associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. A collaborative meta-analysis of high-risk population cohorts. (United States)

    van der Velde, Marije; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Coresh, Josef; Astor, Brad C; Woodward, Mark; Levey, Andrew; de Jong, Paul; Gansevoort, Ron T; van der Velde, Marije; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Coresh, Josef; Astor, Brad C; Woodward, Mark; Levey, Andrew S; de Jong, Paul E; Gansevoort, Ron T; Levey, Andrew; El-Nahas, Meguid; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Kasiske, Bertram L; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Chalmers, John; Macmahon, Stephen; Tonelli, Marcello; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Sacks, Frank; Curhan, Gary; Collins, Allan J; Li, Suying; Chen, Shu-Cheng; Hawaii Cohort, K P; Lee, Brian J; Ishani, Areef; Neaton, James; Svendsen, Ken; Mann, Johannes F E; Yusuf, Salim; Teo, Koon K; Gao, Peggy; Nelson, Robert G; Knowler, William C; Bilo, Henk J; Joosten, Hanneke; Kleefstra, Nanno; Groenier, K H; Auguste, Priscilla; Veldhuis, Kasper; Wang, Yaping; Camarata, Laura; Thomas, Beverly; Manley, Tom


    Screening for chronic kidney disease is recommended in people at high risk, but data on the independent and combined associations of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality are limited. To clarify this, we performed a collaborative meta-analysis of 10 cohorts with 266,975 patients selected because of increased risk for chronic kidney disease, defined as a history of hypertension, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease. Risk for all-cause mortality was not associated with eGFR between 60-105 ml/min per 1.73 m², but increased at lower levels. Hazard ratios at eGFRs of 60, 45, and 15 ml/min per 1.73 m² were 1.03, 1.38 and 3.11, respectively, compared to an eGFR of 95, after adjustment for albuminuria and cardiovascular risk factors. Log albuminuria was linearly associated with log risk for all-cause mortality without thresholds. Adjusted hazard ratios at albumin-to-creatinine ratios of 10, 30 and 300 mg/g were 1.08, 1.38, and 2.16, respectively compared to a ratio of five. Albuminuria and eGFR were multiplicatively associated with all-cause mortality, without evidence for interaction. Similar associations were observed for cardiovascular mortality. Findings in cohorts with dipstick data were generally comparable to those in cohorts measuring albumin-to-creatinine ratios. Thus, lower eGFR and higher albuminuria are risk factors for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in high-risk populations, independent of each other and of cardiovascular risk factors.

  20. Multivariate image analysis for quality inspection in fish feed production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungqvist, Martin Georg

    , or synthesised chemically. Common for both types is that they are relatively expensive in comparison to the other feed ingredients. This thesis investigates multi-variate data collection for visual inspection and optimisation of industrial production in the fish feed industry. Quality parameters focused on here...... are: pellet size, type and concentration level of astaxanthin in pellet coating, as well as astaxanthin type detected in salmonid fish. Methods used are three different devices for multi- and hyper-spectral imaging, together with shape analysis and multi-variate statistical analysis. The results...... of the work demonstrate a high potential of image analysis and spectral imaging for assessing the product quality of fish feed pellets, astaxanthin and fish meat. We show how image analysis can be used to inspect the pellet size, and how spectral imaging can be used to inspect the surface quality...

  1. Analysis of adipose tissue distribution using whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (United States)

    Wald, Diana; Schwarz, Tobias; Dinkel, Julien; Delorme, Stefan; Teucher, Birgit; Kaaks, Rudolf; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Heimann, Tobias


    Obesity is an increasing problem in the western world and triggers diseases like cancer, type two diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. In recent years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become a clinically viable method to measure the amount and distribution of adipose tissue (AT) in the body. However, analysis of MRI images by manual segmentation is a tedious and time-consuming process. In this paper, we propose a semi-automatic method to quantify the amount of different AT types from whole-body MRI data with less user interaction. Initially, body fat is extracted by automatic thresholding. A statistical shape model of the abdomen is then used to differentiate between subcutaneous and visceral AT. Finally, fat in the bone marrow is removed using morphological operators. The proposed method was evaluated on 15 whole-body MRI images using manual segmentation as ground truth for adipose tissue. The resulting overlap for total AT was 93.7% +/- 5.5 with a volumetric difference of 7.3% +/- 6.4. Furthermore, we tested the robustness of the segmentation results with regard to the initial, interactively defined position of the shape model. In conclusion, the developed method proved suitable for the analysis of AT distribution from whole-body MRI data. For large studies, a fully automatic version of the segmentation procedure is expected in the near future.

  2. Quantitative methods for the analysis of electron microscope images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skands, Peter Ulrik Vallø


    The topic of this thesis is an general introduction to quantitative methods for the analysis of digital microscope images. The images presented are primarily been acquired from Scanning Electron Microscopes (SEM) and interfermeter microscopes (IFM). The topic is approached though several examples...... foundation of the thesis fall in the areas of: 1) Mathematical Morphology; 2) Distance transforms and applications; and 3) Fractal geometry. Image analysis opens in general the possibility of a quantitative and statistical well founded measurement of digital microscope images. Herein lies also the conditions...

  3. Theoretical analysis of radiographic images by nonstationary Poisson processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, K.; Uchida, S. (Gifu Univ. (Japan)); Yamada, I.


    This paper deals with the noise analysis of radiographic images obtained in the usual fluorescent screen-film system. The theory of nonstationary Poisson processes is applied to the analysis of the radiographic images containing the object information. The ensemble averages, the autocorrelation functions, and the Wiener spectrum densities of the light-energy distribution at the fluorescent screen and of the film optical-density distribution are obtained. The detection characteristics of the system are evaluated theoretically. Numerical examples one-dimensional image are shown and the results are compared with those obtained under the assumption that the object image is related to the background noise by the additive process.

  4. Theoretical Analysis of Radiographic Images by Nonstationary Poisson Processes (United States)

    Tanaka, Kazuo; Yamada, Isao; Uchida, Suguru


    This paper deals with the noise analysis of radiographic images obtained in the usual fluorescent screen-film system. The theory of nonstationary Poisson processes is applied to the analysis of the radiographic images containing the object information. The ensemble averages, the autocorrelation functions, and the Wiener spectrum densities of the light-energy distribution at the fluorescent screen and of the film optical-density distribution are obtained. The detection characteristics of the system are evaluated theoretically. Numerical examples of the one-dimensional image are shown and the results are compared with those obtained under the assumption that the object image is related to the background noise by the additive process.

  5. Digital image processing and analysis human and computer vision applications with CVIPtools

    CERN Document Server

    Umbaugh, Scott E


    Section I Introduction to Digital Image Processing and AnalysisDigital Image Processing and AnalysisOverviewImage Analysis and Computer VisionImage Processing and Human VisionKey PointsExercisesReferencesFurther ReadingComputer Imaging SystemsImaging Systems OverviewImage Formation and SensingCVIPtools SoftwareImage RepresentationKey PointsExercisesSupplementary ExercisesReferencesFurther ReadingSection II Digital Image Analysis and Computer VisionIntroduction to Digital Image AnalysisIntroductionPreprocessingBinary Image AnalysisKey PointsExercisesSupplementary ExercisesReferencesFurther Read


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纳瑟; 刘重庆


    A method that incorporates edge detection technique, Markov Random field (MRF), watershed segmentation and merging techniques was presented for performing image segmentation and edge detection tasks. It first applies edge detection technique to obtain a Difference In Strength (DIS) map. An initial segmented result is obtained based on K-means clustering technique and the minimum distance. Then the region process is modeled by MRF to obtain an image that contains different intensity regions. The gradient values are calculated and then the watershed technique is used. DIS calculation is used for each pixel to define all the edges (weak or strong) in the image. The DIS map is obtained. This help as priority knowledge to know the possibility of the region segmentation by the next step (MRF), which gives an image that has all the edges and regions information. In MRF model,gray level l, at pixel location i, in an image X, depends on the gray levels of neighboring pixels. The segmentation results are improved by using watershed algorithm. After all pixels of the segmented regions are processed, a map of primitive region with edges is generated. The edge map is obtained using a merge process based on averaged intensity mean values. A common edge detectors that work on (MRF) segmented image are used and the results are compared. The segmentation and edge detection result is one closed boundary per actual region in the image.

  7. Image Harvest: an open-source platform for high-throughput plant image processing and analysis. (United States)

    Knecht, Avi C; Campbell, Malachy T; Caprez, Adam; Swanson, David R; Walia, Harkamal


    High-throughput plant phenotyping is an effective approach to bridge the genotype-to-phenotype gap in crops. Phenomics experiments typically result in large-scale image datasets, which are not amenable for processing on desktop computers, thus creating a bottleneck in the image-analysis pipeline. Here, we present an open-source, flexible image-analysis framework, called Image Harvest (IH), for processing images originating from high-throughput plant phenotyping platforms. Image Harvest is developed to perform parallel processing on computing grids and provides an integrated feature for metadata extraction from large-scale file organization. Moreover, the integration of IH with the Open Science Grid provides academic researchers with the computational resources required for processing large image datasets at no cost. Image Harvest also offers functionalities to extract digital traits from images to interpret plant architecture-related characteristics. To demonstrate the applications of these digital traits, a rice (Oryza sativa) diversity panel was phenotyped and genome-wide association mapping was performed using digital traits that are used to describe different plant ideotypes. Three major quantitative trait loci were identified on rice chromosomes 4 and 6, which co-localize with quantitative trait loci known to regulate agronomically important traits in rice. Image Harvest is an open-source software for high-throughput image processing that requires a minimal learning curve for plant biologists to analyzephenomics datasets.

  8. Hyperspectral Image Analysis of Food Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngren, Morten

    Assessing the quality of food is a vital step in any food processing line to ensurethe best food quality and maximum profit for the farmer and food manufacturer.Traditional quality evaluation methods are often destructive and labourintensive procedures relying on wet chemistry or subjective human......, the visualisation and interpretation of hyperspectral images are discussed.A Bayesian based unmixing method is presented as a novel approachto decompose a hyperspectral image into interpretable components. Secondly,hyperspectral imaging is applied to a dedicated application of predicting the degreeof pre-germination...

  9. Electromagnetic Time Reversal Imaging: Analysis and Experimentation (United States)


    Biomedical Imaging: From Nano to Macro, ISBI󈧌, Paris, Friance, May 14-17, 2008 [6] Y. Jin, J. M. F. Moura, N. O’Donoughue, "Adaptive Time Reversal...Zhu, and Q. He, “Breast cancer detection by time reversal imaging,” 5th IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: From Nano to (a galvanized steel sheet) is surrounded by a large amount of PVC rods. Our experiments showed that the collected EM data in frequency and

  10. Exploiting multi-context analysis in semantic image classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yong-hong; HUANG Tie-jun; GAO Wen


    As the popularity of digital images is rapidly increasing on the Internet, research on technologies for semantic image classification has become an important research topic. However, the well-known content-based image classification methods do not overcome the so-called semantic gap problem in which low-level visual features cannot represent the high-level semantic content of images. Image classification using visual and textual information often performs poorly since the extracted textual features are often too limited to accurately represent the images. In this paper, we propose a semantic image classification approach using multi-context analysis. For a given image, we model the relevant textual information as its multi-modal context, and regard the related images connected by hyperlinks as its link context. Two kinds of context analysis models, i.e., cross-modal correlation analysis and link-based correlation model, are used to capture the correlation among different modals of features and the topical dependency among images induced by the link structure. We propose a new collective classification model called relational support vector classifier (RSVC) based on the well-known Support Vector Machines (SVMs) and the link-based correlation model. Experiments showed that the proposed approach significantly improved classification accuracy over that of SVM classifiers using visual and/or textual features.

  11. Autonomous image data reduction by analysis and interpretation (United States)

    Eberlein, Susan; Yates, Gigi; Ritter, Niles

    Image data is a critical component of the scientific information acquired by space missions. Compression of image data is required due to the limited bandwidth of the data transmission channel and limited memory space on the acquisition vehicle. This need becomes more pressing when dealing with multispectral data where each pixel may comprise 300 or more bytes. An autonomous, real time, on-board image analysis system for an exploratory vehicle such as a Mars Rover is developed. The completed system will be capable of interpreting image data to produce reduced representations of the image, and of making decisions regarding the importance of data based on current scientific goals. Data from multiple sources, including stereo images, color images, and multispectral data, are fused into single image representations. Analysis techniques emphasize artificial neural networks. Clusters are described by their outlines and class values. These analysis and compression techniques are coupled with decision-making capacity for determining importance of each image region. Areas determined to be noise or uninteresting can be discarded in favor of more important areas. Thus limited resources for data storage and transmission are allocated to the most significant images.

  12. Research of second harmonic generation images based on texture analysis (United States)

    Liu, Yao; Li, Yan; Gong, Haiming; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Huang, Zufang; Chen, Guannan


    Texture analysis plays a crucial role in identifying objects or regions of interest in an image. It has been applied to a variety of medical image processing, ranging from the detection of disease and the segmentation of specific anatomical structures, to differentiation between healthy and pathological tissues. Second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy as a potential noninvasive tool for imaging biological tissues has been widely used in medicine, with reduced phototoxicity and photobleaching. In this paper, we clarified the principles of texture analysis including statistical, transform, structural and model-based methods and gave examples of its applications, reviewing studies of the technique. Moreover, we tried to apply texture analysis to the SHG images for the differentiation of human skin scar tissues. Texture analysis method based on local binary pattern (LBP) and wavelet transform was used to extract texture features of SHG images from collagen in normal and abnormal scars, and then the scar SHG images were classified into normal or abnormal ones. Compared with other texture analysis methods with respect to the receiver operating characteristic analysis, LBP combined with wavelet transform was demonstrated to achieve higher accuracy. It can provide a new way for clinical diagnosis of scar types. At last, future development of texture analysis in SHG images were discussed.

  13. Pattern recognition software and techniques for biological image analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lior Shamir

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of automated image acquisition systems is enabling new types of microscopy experiments that generate large image datasets. However, there is a perceived lack of robust image analysis systems required to process these diverse datasets. Most automated image analysis systems are tailored for specific types of microscopy, contrast methods, probes, and even cell types. This imposes significant constraints on experimental design, limiting their application to the narrow set of imaging methods for which they were designed. One of the approaches to address these limitations is pattern recognition, which was originally developed for remote sensing, and is increasingly being applied to the biology domain. This approach relies on training a computer to recognize patterns in images rather than developing algorithms or tuning parameters for specific image processing tasks. The generality of this approach promises to enable data mining in extensive image repositories, and provide objective and quantitative imaging assays for routine use. Here, we provide a brief overview of the technologies behind pattern recognition and its use in computer vision for biological and biomedical imaging. We list available software tools that can be used by biologists and suggest practical experimental considerations to make the best use of pattern recognition techniques for imaging assays.

  14. Pattern recognition software and techniques for biological image analysis. (United States)

    Shamir, Lior; Delaney, John D; Orlov, Nikita; Eckley, D Mark; Goldberg, Ilya G


    The increasing prevalence of automated image acquisition systems is enabling new types of microscopy experiments that generate large image datasets. However, there is a perceived lack of robust image analysis systems required to process these diverse datasets. Most automated image analysis systems are tailored for specific types of microscopy, contrast methods, probes, and even cell types. This imposes significant constraints on experimental design, limiting their application to the narrow set of imaging methods for which they were designed. One of the approaches to address these limitations is pattern recognition, which was originally developed for remote sensing, and is increasingly being applied to the biology domain. This approach relies on training a computer to recognize patterns in images rather than developing algorithms or tuning parameters for specific image processing tasks. The generality of this approach promises to enable data mining in extensive image repositories, and provide objective and quantitative imaging assays for routine use. Here, we provide a brief overview of the technologies behind pattern recognition and its use in computer vision for biological and biomedical imaging. We list available software tools that can be used by biologists and suggest practical experimental considerations to make the best use of pattern recognition techniques for imaging assays.

  15. Innovative parameters obtained for digital analysis of microscopic images to evaluate in vitro hemorheological action of anesthetics (United States)

    Alet, Analía. I.; Basso, Sabrina; Delannoy, Marcela; Alet, Nicolás. A.; D'Arrigo, Mabel; Castellini, Horacio V.; Riquelme, Bibiana D.


    Drugs used during anesthesia could enhance microvascular flow disturbance, not only for their systemic cardiovascular actions but also by a direct effect on the microcirculation and in particular on hemorheology. This is particularly important in high-risk surgical patients such as those with vascular disease (diabetes, hypertension, etc.). Therefore, in this work we propose a set of innovative parameters obtained by digital analysis of microscopic images to study the in vitro hemorheological effect of propofol and vecuronium on red blood cell from type 2 diabetic patients compared to healthy donors. Obtained innovative parameters allow quantifying alterations in erythrocyte aggregation, which can increase the in vivo risk of microcapillary obstruction.

  16. Introducing PLIA: Planetary Laboratory for Image Analysis (United States)

    Peralta, J.; Hueso, R.; Barrado, N.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.


    We present a graphical software tool developed under IDL software to navigate, process and analyze planetary images. The software has a complete Graphical User Interface and is cross-platform. It can also run under the IDL Virtual Machine without the need to own an IDL license. The set of tools included allow image navigation (orientation, centring and automatic limb determination), dynamical and photometric atmospheric measurements (winds and cloud albedos), cylindrical and polar projections, as well as image treatment under several procedures. Being written in IDL, it is modular and easy to modify and grow for adding new capabilities. We show several examples of the software capabilities with Galileo-Venus observations: Image navigation, photometrical corrections, wind profiles obtained by cloud tracking, cylindrical projections and cloud photometric measurements. Acknowledgements: This work has been funded by Spanish MCYT PNAYA2003-03216, fondos FEDER and Grupos UPV 15946/2004. R. Hueso acknowledges a post-doc fellowship from Gobierno Vasco.

  17. Social Media Image Analysis for Public Health



    Several projects have shown the feasibility to use textual social media data to track public health concerns, such as temporal influenza patterns or geographical obesity patterns. In this paper, we look at whether geo-tagged images from Instagram also provide a viable data source. Especially for "lifestyle" diseases, such as obesity, drinking or smoking, images of social gatherings could provide information that is not necessarily shared in, say, tweets. In this study, we explore whether (i) ...

  18. Diagnostic imaging analysis of the impacted mesiodens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Jeong Jun; Choi, Bo Ram; Jeong, Hwan Seok; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul [School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The research was performed to predict the three dimensional relationship between the impacted mesiodens and the maxillary central incisors and the proximity with the anatomic structures by comparing their panoramic images with the CT images. Among the patients visiting Seoul National University Dental Hospital from April 2003 to July 2007, those with mesiodens were selected (154 mesiodens of 120 patients). The numbers, shapes, orientation and positional relationship of mesiodens with maxillary central incisors were investigated in the panoramic images. The proximity with the anatomical structures and complications were investigated in the CT images as well. The sex ratio (M : F) was 2.28 : 1 and the mean number of mesiodens per one patient was 1.28. Conical shape was 84.4% and inverted orientation was 51.9%. There were more cases of anatomical structures encroachment, especially on the nasal floor and nasopalatine duct, when the mesiodens was not superimposed with the central incisor. There were, however, many cases of the nasopalatine duct encroachment when the mesiodens was superimpoised with the apical 1/3 of central incisor (52.6%). Delayed eruption (55.6%), crown rotation (66.7%) and crown resorption (100%) were observed when the mesiodens was superimposed with the crown of the central incisor. It is possible to predict three dimensional relationship between the impacted mesiodens and the maxillary central incisors in the panoramic images, but more details should be confirmed by the CT images when necessary.

  19. Efficiency analysis of color image filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egiazarian Karen


    Full Text Available Abstract This article addresses under which conditions filtering can visibly improve the image quality. The key points are the following. First, we analyze filtering efficiency for 25 test images, from the color image database TID2008. This database allows assessing filter efficiency for images corrupted by different noise types for several levels of noise variance. Second, the limit of filtering efficiency is determined for independent and identically distributed (i.i.d. additive noise and compared to the output mean square error of state-of-the-art filters. Third, component-wise and vector denoising is studied, where the latter approach is demonstrated to be more efficient. Fourth, using of modern visual quality metrics, we determine that for which levels of i.i.d. and spatially correlated noise the noise in original images or residual noise and distortions because of filtering in output images are practically invisible. We also demonstrate that it is possible to roughly estimate whether or not the visual quality can clearly be improved by filtering.

  20. A cardiovascular life history: a life course analysis of the original Framingham Heart Objective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, A.; Mamun, A.A.; Willekens, F.J.; Bonneux, L.


    dietary behaviour and to further examine the associations of different dietary compositions with selected characteristics. Design: Latent class analysis was applied to data from the recent cross-sectional National Family Health Survey that collected information on the intake frequency of selected fo

  1. Applications of Digital Image Analysis in Experimental Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngbye, J. : Ph.D.

    The present thesis "Application of Digital Image Analysis in Experimental Mechanics" has been prepared as a part of Janus Lyngbyes Ph.D. study during the period December 1988 to June 1992 at the Department of Building technology and Structural Engineering, University of Aalborg, Denmark....... In this thesis attention will be focused on optimal use and analysis of the information of digital images. This is realized during investigation and application of parametric methods in digital image analysis. The parametric methods will be implemented in applications representative for the area of experimental...

  2. Image analysis of moving seeds in an indented cylinder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Ole; Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn


    -Spline surfaces. Using image analysis, the seeds will be tracked using a kalman filter and the 2D trajectory, length, velocity, weight, and rotation will be sampled. We expect a high correspondence between seed length and certain spatially optimal seed trajectories. This work is done in collaboration with Westrup...... work we will seek to understand more about the internal dynamics of the indented cylinder. We will apply image analysis to observe the movement of seeds in the indented cylinder. This work is laying the groundwork for future studies into the application of image analysis as a tool for autonomous...

  3. Analysis of filtering techniques and image quality in pixel duplicated images (United States)

    Mehrubeoglu, Mehrube; McLauchlan, Lifford


    When images undergo filtering operations, valuable information can be lost besides the intended noise or frequencies due to averaging of neighboring pixels. When the image is enlarged by duplicating pixels, such filtering effects can be reduced and more information retained, which could be critical when analyzing image content automatically. Analysis of retinal images could reveal many diseases at early stage as long as minor changes that depart from a normal retinal scan can be identified and enhanced. In this paper, typical filtering techniques are applied to an early stage diabetic retinopathy image which has undergone digital pixel duplication. The same techniques are applied to the original images for comparison. The effects of filtering are then demonstrated for both pixel duplicated and original images to show the information retention capability of pixel duplication. Image quality is computed based on published metrics. Our analysis shows that pixel duplication is effective in retaining information on smoothing operations such as mean filtering in the spatial domain, as well as lowpass and highpass filtering in the frequency domain, based on the filter window size. Blocking effects due to image compression and pixel duplication become apparent in frequency analysis.

  4. The impact of traditional cardiovascular risk factors on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena R Baghdadi

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is known to increase the risk of cardiovascular (CV disease. However, the individual impact of traditional CV risk factors in RA is unknown.To assess the strength of the association between individual CV risk factors and rate of either myocardial infarction (MI, combined CV morbidity (MI, angina pectoris, heart failure, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease (PAD or CV mortality in RA patients.RA studies reporting traditional CV risk factors [hypertension, type 2 diabetes (T2D, smoking, hypercholesterolaemia, obesity, and physical inactivity] as exposures and MI, CV morbidity (MI, angina, heart failure, stroke, and PAD combined or CV mortality alone as outcomes were searched until March 2013 using MEDLINE, Scopus and Cochrane. Meta-analyses combined relative risk (RR estimates from each study where either the RR and 95% confidence intervals or where raw counts were available.Ten studies reporting sufficient data for inclusion into meta-analyses were identified. Relevant data was available for each risk factor and MI and CV morbidity but no studies reported on CV mortality. Risk of MI increased in RA patients with hypertension (RR 1.84, 95% CI 1.38, 2.46 and T2D (RR 1.89, 95% CI 1.36, 2.63. CV morbidity increased with hypertension (RR 2.24, 95% CI 1.42, 3.06, T2D (RR 1.94, 95% CI 1.58, 2.30, smoking (RR 1.50, 95% CI 1.15, 1.84, hypercholesterolaemia (RR 1.73, 95% CI 1.03, 2.44 and obesity (RR 1.16, 95% CI 1.03, 1.29 but not with physical inactivity (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.71, 1.29.Hypertension, T2D, smoking, hypercholesterolaemia and obesity increased CV risk in patients with RA. These results highlight the importance of managing CV risk factors in RA, similarly to non-RA patients.

  5. Basic research planning in mathematical pattern recognition and image analysis (United States)

    Bryant, J.; Guseman, L. F., Jr.


    Fundamental problems encountered while attempting to develop automated techniques for applications of remote sensing are discussed under the following categories: (1) geometric and radiometric preprocessing; (2) spatial, spectral, temporal, syntactic, and ancillary digital image representation; (3) image partitioning, proportion estimation, and error models in object scene interference; (4) parallel processing and image data structures; and (5) continuing studies in polarization; computer architectures and parallel processing; and the applicability of "expert systems" to interactive analysis.

  6. Computer Vision-Based Image Analysis of Bacteria. (United States)

    Danielsen, Jonas; Nordenfelt, Pontus


    Microscopy is an essential tool for studying bacteria, but is today mostly used in a qualitative or possibly semi-quantitative manner often involving time-consuming manual analysis. It also makes it difficult to assess the importance of individual bacterial phenotypes, especially when there are only subtle differences in features such as shape, size, or signal intensity, which is typically very difficult for the human eye to discern. With computer vision-based image analysis - where computer algorithms interpret image data - it is possible to achieve an objective and reproducible quantification of images in an automated fashion. Besides being a much more efficient and consistent way to analyze images, this can also reveal important information that was previously hard to extract with traditional methods. Here, we present basic concepts of automated image processing, segmentation and analysis that can be relatively easy implemented for use with bacterial research.

  7. Association of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease with Subclinical Cardiovascular Changes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enea Bonci


    Full Text Available In the last 20 years, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has become the leading cause of chronic liver disease worldwide, primarily as a result of the epidemic of obesity. NAFLD is strongly associated with insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and dyslipidemia and is currently regarded as the liver manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, a highly atherogenic condition even at a very early age. Patients with NAFLD including pediatric subjects have a higher prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis, as shown by impaired flow-mediated vasodilation, increased carotid artery intima-media thickness, and arterial stiffness, which are independent of obesity and other established risk factors. More recent work has identified NAFLD as a risk factor not only for premature coronary heart disease and cardiovascular events, but also for early subclinical abnormalities in myocardial structure and function. Thus, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to test the hypothesis that NAFLD is associated with evidence of subclinical cardiac structural and functional abnormalities.

  8. Amniotic fluid stem cells morph into a cardiovascular lineage: analysis of a chemically induced cardiac and vascular commitment. (United States)

    Maioli, Margherita; Contini, Giovanni; Santaniello, Sara; Bandiera, Pasquale; Pigliaru, Gianfranco; Sanna, Raimonda; Rinaldi, Salvatore; Delitala, Alessandro P; Montella, Andrea; Bagella, Luigi; Ventura, Carlo


    Mouse embryonic stem cells were previously observed along with mesenchymal stem cells from different sources, after being treated with a mixed ester of hyaluronan with butyric and retinoic acids, to show a significant increase in the yield of cardiogenic and vascular differentiated elements. The aim of the present study was to determine if stem cells derived from primitive fetal cells present in human amniotic fluid (hAFSCs) and cultured in the presence of a mixture of hyaluronic (HA), butyric (BU), and retinoic (RA) acids show a higher yield of differentiation toward the cardiovascular phenotype as compared with untreated cells. During the differentiation process elicited by exposure to HA + BU + RA, genes controlling pluripotency and plasticity of stem cells, such as Sox2, Nanog, and Oct4, were significantly downregulated at the transcriptional level. At this point, a significant increase in expression of genes controlling the appearance of cardiogenic and vascular lineages in HA + BU + RA-treated cells was observed. The protein expression levels typical of cardiac and vascular phenotypes, evaluated by Western blotting, immunofluorescence, and flow cytometry, were higher in hAFSCs cultured in the presence of HA + BU + RA, as compared with untreated control cells. Appearance of the cardiac phenotype was further inferred by ultrastructural analysis using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. These results demonstrate that a mixture of HA + BU + RA significantly increased the yield of elements committed toward cardiac and vascular phenotypes, confirming what we have previously observed in other cellular types.

  9. Exploring causal associations of alcohol with cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors in a Chinese population using Mendelian randomization analysis. (United States)

    Taylor, Amy E; Lu, Feng; Carslake, David; Hu, Zhibin; Qian, Yun; Liu, Sijun; Chen, Jiaping; Shen, Hongbing; Smith, George Davey


    Observational studies suggest that moderate alcohol consumption may be protective for cardiovascular disease, but results may be biased by confounding and reverse causality. Mendelian randomization, which uses genetic variants as proxies for exposures, can minimise these biases and therefore strengthen causal inference. Using a genetic variant in the ALDH2 gene associated with alcohol consumption, rs671, we performed a Mendelian randomization analysis in 1,712 diabetes cases and 2,076 controls from Nantong, China. Analyses were performed using linear and logistic regression, stratified by sex and diabetes status. The A allele of rs671 was strongly associated with reduced odds of being an alcohol drinker in all groups, but prevalence of alcohol consumption amongst females was very low. The A allele was associated with reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure and decreased total and HDL cholesterol in males. The A allele was also associated with decreased triglyceride levels, but only robustly in diabetic males. There was no strong evidence for associations between rs671 and any outcomes in females. Our results suggest that associations of alcohol consumption with blood pressure and HDL-cholesterol are causal. Alcohol also appeared to have adverse effects on triglyceride levels, although this may be restricted to diabetics.

  10. Breast arterial calcifications : A systematic review and meta-analysis of their determinants and their association with cardiovascular events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Eva J E; de Jong, Pim; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Mali, Willem P Th M; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Beulens, Joline W J


    Objective: Breast arterial calcifications (BAC), regularly observed at mammography, are medial calcifications and as such an expression of arteriosclerosis. Our objective was to evaluate and summarize the available evidence on the associations of BAC with cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascul

  11. Uncooled LWIR imaging: applications and market analysis (United States)

    Takasawa, Satomi


    The evolution of infrared (IR) imaging sensor technology for defense market has played an important role in developing commercial market, as dual use of the technology has expanded. In particular, technologies of both reduction in pixel pitch and vacuum package have drastically evolved in the area of uncooled Long-Wave IR (LWIR; 8-14 μm wavelength region) imaging sensor, increasing opportunity to create new applications. From the macroscopic point of view, the uncooled LWIR imaging market is divided into two areas. One is a high-end market where uncooled LWIR imaging sensor with sensitivity as close to that of cooled one as possible is required, while the other is a low-end market which is promoted by miniaturization and reduction in price. Especially, in the latter case, approaches towards consumer market have recently appeared, such as applications of uncooled LWIR imaging sensors to night visions for automobiles and smart phones. The appearance of such a kind of commodity surely changes existing business models. Further technological innovation is necessary for creating consumer market, and there will be a room for other companies treating components and materials such as lens materials and getter materials and so on to enter into the consumer market.

  12. Analysis of Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis Gel Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars


    This thesis describes and proposes solutions to some of the currently most important problems in pattern recognition and image analysis of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE) images. 2DGE is the leading technique to separate individual proteins in biological samples with many biological...

  13. Disability in Physical Education Textbooks: An Analysis of Image Content (United States)

    Taboas-Pais, Maria Ines; Rey-Cao, Ana


    The aim of this paper is to show how images of disability are portrayed in physical education textbooks for secondary schools in Spain. The sample was composed of 3,316 images published in 36 textbooks by 10 publishing houses. A content analysis was carried out using a coding scheme based on categories employed in other similar studies and adapted…

  14. Higher Education Institution Image: A Correspondence Analysis Approach. (United States)

    Ivy, Jonathan


    Investigated how marketing is used to convey higher education institution type image in the United Kingdom and South Africa. Using correspondence analysis, revealed the unique positionings created by old and new universities and technikons in these countries. Also identified which marketing tools they use in conveying their image. (EV)

  15. Direct identification of pure penicillium species using image analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dørge, Thorsten Carlheim; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Frisvad, Jens Christian


    This paper presents a method for direct identification of fungal species solely by means of digital image analysis of colonies as seen after growth on a standard medium. The method described is completely automated and hence objective once digital images of the reference fungi have been establish...

  16. VIDA: an environment for multidimensional image display and analysis (United States)

    Hoffman, Eric A.; Gnanaprakasam, Daniel; Gupta, Krishanu B.; Hoford, John D.; Kugelmass, Steven D.; Kulawiec, Richard S.


    Since the first dynamic volumetric studies were done in the early 1980s on the dynamic spatial reconstructor (DSR), there has been a surge of interest in volumetric and dynamic imaging using a number of tomographic techniques. Knowledge gained in handling DSR image data has readily transferred to the current use of a number of other volumetric and dynamic imaging modalities including cine and spiral CT, MR, and PET. This in turn has lead to our development of a new image display and quantitation package which we have named VIDATM (volumetric image display and analysis). VIDA is written in C, runs under the UNIXTM operating system, and uses the XView toolkit to conform to the Open LookTM graphical user interface specification. A shared memory structure has been designed which allows for the manipulation of multiple volumes simultaneously. VIDA utilizes a windowing environment and allows execution of multiple processes simultaneously. Available programs include: oblique sectioning, volume rendering, region of interest analysis, interactive image segmentation/editing, algebraic image manipulation, conventional cardiac mechanics analysis, homogeneous strain analysis, tissue blood flow evaluation, etc. VIDA is a built modularly, allowing new programs to be developed and integrated easily. An emphasis has been placed upon image quantitation for the purpose of physiological evaluation.

  17. Spinal X-ray image analysis in scoliosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sardjono, Tri Arief


    In this thesis new image analysis methods are discussed to determine the curvature of scoliotic patients characterised by the Cobb angle and to enhance the vertebral parts based on features from a frontal X-ray image. Chapter 1 provides some background information on scoliosis, how to diagnose it, t

  18. Subsurface offset behaviour in velocity analysis with extended reflectivity images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, W.A.


    Migration velocity analysis with the wave equation can be accomplished by focusing of extended migration images, obtained by introducing a subsurface offset or shift. A reflector in the wrong velocity model will show up as a curve in the extended image. In the correct model, it should collapse to a

  19. Four challenges in medical image analysis from an industrial perspective. (United States)

    Weese, Jürgen; Lorenz, Cristian


    Today's medical imaging systems produce a huge amount of images containing a wealth of information. However, the information is hidden in the data and image analysis algorithms are needed to extract it, to make it readily available for medical decisions and to enable an efficient work flow. Advances in medical image analysis over the past 20 years mean there are now many algorithms and ideas available that allow to address medical image analysis tasks in commercial solutions with sufficient performance in terms of accuracy, reliability and speed. At the same time new challenges have arisen. Firstly, there is a need for more generic image analysis technologies that can be efficiently adapted for a specific clinical task. Secondly, efficient approaches for ground truth generation are needed to match the increasing demands regarding validation and machine learning. Thirdly, algorithms for analyzing heterogeneous image data are needed. Finally, anatomical and organ models play a crucial role in many applications, and algorithms to construct patient-specific models from medical images with a minimum of user interaction are needed. These challenges are complementary to the on-going need for more accurate, more reliable and faster algorithms, and dedicated algorithmic solutions for specific applications.

  20. The ImageJ ecosystem: An open platform for biomedical image analysis. (United States)

    Schindelin, Johannes; Rueden, Curtis T; Hiner, Mark C; Eliceiri, Kevin W


    Technology in microscopy advances rapidly, enabling increasingly affordable, faster, and more precise quantitative biomedical imaging, which necessitates correspondingly more-advanced image processing and analysis techniques. A wide range of software is available-from commercial to academic, special-purpose to Swiss army knife, small to large-but a key characteristic of software that is suitable for scientific inquiry is its accessibility. Open-source software is ideal for scientific endeavors because it can be freely inspected, modified, and redistributed; in particular, the open-software platform ImageJ has had a huge impact on the life sciences, and continues to do so. From its inception, ImageJ has grown significantly due largely to being freely available and its vibrant and helpful user community. Scientists as diverse as interested hobbyists, technical assistants, students, scientific staff, and advanced biology researchers use ImageJ on a daily basis, and exchange knowledge via its dedicated mailing list. Uses of ImageJ range from data visualization and teaching to advanced image processing and statistical analysis. The software's extensibility continues to attract biologists at all career stages as well as computer scientists who wish to effectively implement specific image-processing algorithms. In this review, we use the ImageJ project as a case study of how open-source software fosters its suites of software tools, making multitudes of image-analysis technology easily accessible to the scientific community. We specifically explore what makes ImageJ so popular, how it impacts the life sciences, how it inspires other projects, and how it is self-influenced by coevolving projects within the ImageJ ecosystem.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chongjie


    Full Text Available Mulan is an ancient Chinese heroine. The story shows that she is the same as other women,having personal life, but also has a heart that loves her country and her parents. She always thinksabout her family, society, dan country. This article was based on library research, using Mulan poemdan a folklore entitled Mulan Pergi Berperang as media to analyze Mulan’s image. It can be said thateventhough at that time there was no gender perspective concept, Mulan had been able to replace herfather to go to war. She gave a lot of contributions for her country, society, and family. Analysisrepresents that Mulan has three images, as a heroine, as a daughter for her family, and self-image orleader for the women. Having good character and spirit to love country, people, and family make herequal to men. And, it makes her respected by people in each generation.

  2. Migraine and cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo E. Bigal


    Full Text Available Migraine, especially migraine with aura is an established risk factor for ischemic lesions of the brain. Recent evidence has also linked migraine with and without aura to a broader range of ischemic vascular disorders including angina, myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, claudication and cardiovascular mortality. The topic is therefore of considerable interest. Accordingly, herein we review the association between migraine and cardiovascular disease. We start by briefly presenting diagnostic criteria for migraine and revising its pathophysiology. We follow by summarizing the evidence on the topic. We then briefly present the results of a recent meta-analysis. We close by highlighting results of a large epidemiological study conducted after the publication of the meta-analysis.

  3. SLAR image interpretation keys for geographic analysis (United States)

    Coiner, J. C.


    A means for side-looking airborne radar (SLAR) imagery to become a more widely used data source in geoscience and agriculture is suggested by providing interpretation keys as an easily implemented interpretation model. Interpretation problems faced by the researcher wishing to employ SLAR are specifically described, and the use of various types of image interpretation keys to overcome these problems is suggested. With examples drawn from agriculture and vegetation mapping, direct and associate dichotomous image interpretation keys are discussed and methods of constructing keys are outlined. Initial testing of the keys, key-based automated decision rules, and the role of the keys in an information system for agriculture are developed.

  4. Electron Microscopy and Image Analysis for Selected Materials (United States)

    Williams, George


    This particular project was completed in collaboration with the metallurgical diagnostics facility. The objective of this research had four major components. First, we required training in the operation of the environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) for imaging of selected materials including biological specimens. The types of materials range from cyanobacteria and diatoms to cloth, metals, sand, composites and other materials. Second, to obtain training in surface elemental analysis technology using energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis, and in the preparation of x-ray maps of these same materials. Third, to provide training for the staff of the metallurgical diagnostics and failure analysis team in the area of image processing and image analysis technology using NIH Image software. Finally, we were to assist in the sample preparation, observing, imaging, and elemental analysis for Mr. Richard Hoover, one of NASA MSFC's solar physicists and Marshall's principal scientist for the agency-wide virtual Astrobiology Institute. These materials have been collected from various places around the world including the Fox Tunnel in Alaska, Siberia, Antarctica, ice core samples from near Lake Vostoc, thermal vents in the ocean floor, hot springs and many others. We were successful in our efforts to obtain high quality, high resolution images of various materials including selected biological ones. Surface analyses (EDX) and x-ray maps were easily prepared with this technology. We also discovered and used some applications for NIH Image software in the metallurgical diagnostics facility.

  5. Identification of Trichoderma strains by image analysis of HPLC chromatograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Ulf; Poulsen, S.B.; Nirenberg, H.I.


    Forty-four Trichoderma strains from water-damaged building materials or indoor dust were classified with chromatographic image analysis on full chromatographic matrices obtained by high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection of culture extracts. The classes were compared...

  6. A performance analysis system for MEMS using automated imaging methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaVigne, G.F.; Miller, S.L.


    The ability to make in-situ performance measurements of MEMS operating at high speeds has been demonstrated using a new image analysis system. Significant improvements in performance and reliability have directly resulted from the use of this system.

  7. Analysis Operator Learning and Its Application to Image Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Hawe, Simon; Diepold, Klaus


    Exploiting a priori known structural information lies at the core of many image reconstruction methods that can be stated as inverse problems. The synthesis model, which assumes that images can be decomposed into a linear combination of very few atoms of some dictionary, is now a well established tool for the design of image reconstruction algorithms. An interesting alternative is the analysis model, where the signal is multiplied by an analysis operator and the outcome is assumed to be the sparse. This approach has only recently gained increasing interest. The quality of reconstruction methods based on an analysis model severely depends on the right choice of the suitable operator. In this work, we present an algorithm for learning an analysis operator from training images. Our method is based on an $\\ell_p$-norm minimization on the set of full rank matrices with normalized columns. We carefully introduce the employed conjugate gradient method on manifolds, and explain the underlying geometry of the constrai...

  8. Determination of fish gender using fractal analysis of ultrasound images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEvoy, Fintan J.; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Støttrup, Josianne;


    The gender of cod Gadus morhua can be determined by considering the complexity in their gonadal ultrasonographic appearance. The fractal dimension (DB) can be used to describe this feature in images. B-mode gonadal ultrasound images in 32 cod, where gender was known, were collected. Fractal...... by subjective analysis alone. The mean (and standard deviation) of the fractal dimension DB for male fish was 1.554 (0.073) while for female fish it was 1.468 (0.061); the difference was statistically significant (P=0.001). The area under the ROC curve was 0.84 indicating the value of fractal analysis in gender...... result. Fractal analysis is useful for gender determination in cod. This or a similar form of analysis may have wide application in veterinary imaging as a tool for quantification of complexity in images...

  9. Image Segmentation Analysis for NASA Earth Science Applications (United States)

    Tilton, James C.


    NASA collects large volumes of imagery data from satellite-based Earth remote sensing sensors. Nearly all of the computerized image analysis of this data is performed pixel-by-pixel, in which an algorithm is applied directly to individual image pixels. While this analysis approach is satisfactory in many cases, it is usually not fully effective in extracting the full information content from the high spatial resolution image data that s now becoming increasingly available from these sensors. The field of object-based image analysis (OBIA) has arisen in recent years to address the need to move beyond pixel-based analysis. The Recursive Hierarchical Segmentation (RHSEG) software developed by the author is being used to facilitate moving from pixel-based image analysis to OBIA. The key unique aspect of RHSEG is that it tightly intertwines region growing segmentation, which produces spatially connected region objects, with region object classification, which groups sets of region objects together into region classes. No other practical, operational image segmentation approach has this tight integration of region growing object finding with region classification This integration is made possible by the recursive, divide-and-conquer implementation utilized by RHSEG, in which the input image data is recursively subdivided until the image data sections are small enough to successfully mitigat the combinatorial explosion caused by the need to compute the dissimilarity between each pair of image pixels. RHSEG's tight integration of region growing object finding and region classification is what enables the high spatial fidelity of the image segmentations produced by RHSEG. This presentation will provide an overview of the RHSEG algorithm and describe how it is currently being used to support OBIA or Earth Science applications such as snow/ice mapping and finding archaeological sites from remotely sensed data.

  10. Image analysis of self-organized multicellular patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thies Christian


    Full Text Available Analysis of multicellular patterns is required to understand tissue organizational processes. By using a multi-scale object oriented image processing method, the spatial information of cells can be extracted automatically. Instead of manual segmentation or indirect measurements, such as general distribution of contrast or flow, the orientation and distribution of individual cells is extracted for quantitative analysis. Relevant objects are identified by feature queries and no low-level knowledge of image processing is required.

  11. Wound Image Analysis Using Contour Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sundeep Kumar


    Full Text Available The aim of the algorithm described in this paper is to segment wound images from the normal and classify them according to the types of the wound. The segmentation of wounds extravagates color representation, which has been followed by an algorithm of grayscale segmentation based on the stack mathematical approach. Accurate classification of wounds and analyzing wound healing process is a critical task for patient care and health cost reduction at hospital. The tissue uniformity and flatness leads to a simplified approach but requires multispectral imaging for enhanced wound delineation. Contour Evolution method which uses multispectral imaging replaces more complex tools such as, SVM supervised classification, as no training step is required. In Contour Evolution, classification can be done by clustering color information, with differential quantization algorithm, the color centroids of small squares taken from segmented part of the wound image in (C1,C2 plane. Where C1, C2 are two chrominance components. Wound healing is identified by measuring the size of the wound through various means like contact and noncontact methods of wound. The wound tissues proportion is also estimated by a qualitative visual assessment based on the red-yellow-black code. Moreover, involving all the spectral response of the tissue and not only RGB components provides a higher discrimination for separating healed epithelial tissue from granulation tissue.

  12. Exploratory matrix factorization for PET image analysis. (United States)

    Kodewitz, A; Keck, I R; Tomé, A M; Lang, E W


    Features are extracted from PET images employing exploratory matrix factorization techniques such as nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF). Appropriate features are fed into classifiers such as a support vector machine or a random forest tree classifier. An automatic feature extraction and classification is achieved with high classification rate which is robust and reliable and can help in an early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.

  13. On two methods of statistical image analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Missimer, J; Knorr, U; Maguire, RP; Herzog, H; Seitz, RJ; Tellman, L; Leenders, KL


    The computerized brain atlas (CBA) and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) are two procedures for voxel-based statistical evaluation of PET activation studies. Each includes spatial standardization of image volumes, computation of a statistic, and evaluation of its significance. In addition, smooth

  14. Enhanced Image Analysis Using Cached Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabeer Mohammed


    Full Text Available In the field of Artificial intelligence Image processing plays a vital role in Decision making .Now a day’s Mobile robots work as a Network sharing Centralized Data base.All Image inputs are compared against this database and decision is made.In some cases the Centralized database is in other side of the globe and Mobile robots compare Input image through satellite link this sometime results in delays in decision making which may result in castrophe.This Research paper is about how to make image processing in mobile robots less time consuming and fast decision making.This research paper compares search techniques employed currently and optimum search method which we are going to state.Now a days Mobile robots are extensively used in environments which are dangerous to human beings.In this dangerous situations quick Decision making makes the difference between Hit and Miss this can also results in Day to day tasks performed by Mobile robots Successful or Failure.

  15. Image registration based on matrix perturbation analysis using spectral graph

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengcai Leng; Zheng Tian; Jing Li; Mingtao Ding


    @@ We present a novel perspective on characterizing the spectral correspondence between nodes of the weighted graph with application to image registration.It is based on matrix perturbation analysis on the spectral graph.The contribution may be divided into three parts.Firstly, the perturbation matrix is obtained by perturbing the matrix of graph model.Secondly, an orthogonal matrix is obtained based on an optimal parameter, which can better capture correspondence features.Thirdly, the optimal matching matrix is proposed by adjusting signs of orthogonal matrix for image registration.Experiments on both synthetic images and real-world images demonstrate the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method.

  16. Independent component analysis applications on THz sensing and imaging (United States)

    Balci, Soner; Maleski, Alexander; Nascimento, Matheus Mello; Philip, Elizabath; Kim, Ju-Hyung; Kung, Patrick; Kim, Seongsin M.


    We report Independent Component Analysis (ICA) technique applied to THz spectroscopy and imaging to achieve a blind source separation. A reference water vapor absorption spectrum was extracted via ICA, then ICA was utilized on a THz spectroscopic image in order to clean the absorption of water molecules from each pixel. For this purpose, silica gel was chosen as the material of interest for its strong water absorption. The resulting image clearly showed that ICA effectively removed the water content in the detected signal allowing us to image the silica gel beads distinctively even though it was totally embedded in water before ICA was applied.

  17. A collaborative biomedical image mining framework: application on the image analysis of microscopic kidney biopsies. (United States)

    Goudas, T; Doukas, C; Chatziioannou, A; Maglogiannis, I


    The analysis and characterization of biomedical image data is a complex procedure involving several processing phases, like data acquisition, preprocessing, segmentation, feature extraction and classification. The proper combination and parameterization of the utilized methods are heavily relying on the given image data set and experiment type. They may thus necessitate advanced image processing and classification knowledge and skills from the side of the biomedical expert. In this work, an application, exploiting web services and applying ontological modeling, is presented, to enable the intelligent creation of image mining workflows. The described tool can be directly integrated to the RapidMiner, Taverna or similar workflow management platforms. A case study dealing with the creation of a sample workflow for the analysis of kidney biopsy microscopy images is presented to demonstrate the functionality of the proposed framework.

  18. Chemical imaging and solid state analysis at compact surfaces using UV imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jian X.; Rehder, Sönke; van den Berg, Frans;


    Fast non-destructive multi-wavelength UV imaging together with multivariate image analysis was utilized to visualize distribution of chemical components and their solid state form at compact surfaces. Amorphous and crystalline solid forms of the antidiabetic compound glibenclamide...... and excipients in a non-invasive way, as well as mapping the glibenclamide solid state form. An exploratory data analysis supported the critical evaluation of the mapping results and the selection of model parameters for the chemical mapping. The present study demonstrated that the multi-wavelength UV imaging...

  19. Critical analysis of autoregressive and fast Fourier transform markers of cardiovascular variability in rats and humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.J.J. Silva


    Full Text Available The autonomic nervous system plays an important role in physiological and pathological conditions, and has been extensively evaluated by parametric and non-parametric spectral analysis. To compare the results obtained with fast Fourier transform (FFT and the autoregressive (AR method, we performed a comprehensive comparative study using data from humans and rats during pharmacological blockade (in rats, a postural test (in humans, and in the hypertensive state (in both humans and rats. Although postural hypotension in humans induced an increase in normalized low-frequency (LFnu of systolic blood pressure, the increase in the ratio was detected only by AR. In rats, AR and FFT analysis did not agree for LFnu and high frequency (HFnu under basal conditions and after vagal blockade. The increase in the LF/HF ratio of the pulse interval, induced by methylatropine, was detected only by FFT. In hypertensive patients, changes in LF and HF for systolic blood pressure were observed only by AR; FFT was able to detect the reduction in both blood pressure variance and total power. In hypertensive rats, AR presented different values of variance and total power for systolic blood pressure. Moreover, AR and FFT presented discordant results for LF, LFnu, HF, LF/HF ratio, and total power for pulse interval. We provide evidence for disagreement in 23% of the indices of blood pressure and heart rate variability in humans and 67% discordance in rats when these variables are evaluated by AR and FFT under physiological and pathological conditions. The overall disagreement between AR and FFT in this study was 43%.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Zhao


    Full Text Available As the received radar signal is the sum of signal contributions overlaid in one single pixel regardless of the travel path, the multipath effect should be seriously tackled as the multiple bounce returns are added to direct scatter echoes which leads to ghost scatters. Most of the existing solution towards the multipath is to recover the signal propagation path. To facilitate the signal propagation simulation process, plenty of aspects such as sensor parameters, the geometry of the objects (shape, location, orientation, mutual position between adjacent buildings and the physical parameters of the surface (roughness, correlation length, permittivitywhich determine the strength of radar signal backscattered to the SAR sensor should be given in previous. However, it's not practical to obtain the highly detailed object model in unfamiliar area by field survey as it's a laborious work and time-consuming. In this paper, SAR imaging simulation based on RaySAR is conducted at first aiming at basic understanding of multipath effects and for further comparison. Besides of the pre-imaging simulation, the product of the after-imaging, which refers to radar images is also taken into consideration. Both Cosmo-SkyMed ascending and descending SAR images of Lupu Bridge in Shanghai are used for the experiment. As a result, the reflectivity map and signal distribution map of different bounce level are simulated and validated by 3D real model. The statistic indexes such as the phase stability, mean amplitude, amplitude dispersion, coherence and mean-sigma ratio in case of layover are analyzed with combination of the RaySAR output.

  1. Diagnostic support for glaucoma using retinal images: a hybrid image analysis and data mining approach. (United States)

    Yu, Jin; Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza; Artes, Paul; McIntyre, Andy; Heywood, Malcolm


    The availability of modern imaging techniques such as Confocal Scanning Laser Tomography (CSLT) for capturing high-quality optic nerve images offer the potential for developing automatic and objective methods for diagnosing glaucoma. We present a hybrid approach that features the analysis of CSLT images using moment methods to derive abstract image defining features. The features are then used to train classifers for automatically distinguishing CSLT images of normal and glaucoma patient. As a first, in this paper, we present investigations in feature subset selction methods for reducing the relatively large input space produced by the moment methods. We use neural networks and support vector machines to determine a sub-set of moments that offer high classification accuracy. We demonstratee the efficacy of our methods to discriminate between healthy and glaucomatous optic disks based on shape information automatically derived from optic disk topography and reflectance images.

  2. Digital pathology and image analysis in tissue biomarker research. (United States)

    Hamilton, Peter W; Bankhead, Peter; Wang, Yinhai; Hutchinson, Ryan; Kieran, Declan; McArt, Darragh G; James, Jacqueline; Salto-Tellez, Manuel


    Digital pathology and the adoption of image analysis have grown rapidly in the last few years. This is largely due to the implementation of whole slide scanning, advances in software and computer processing capacity and the increasing importance of tissue-based research for biomarker discovery and stratified medicine. This review sets out the key application areas for digital pathology and image analysis, with a particular focus on research and biomarker discovery. A variety of image analysis applications are reviewed including nuclear morphometry and tissue architecture analysis, but with emphasis on immunohistochemistry and fluorescence analysis of tissue biomarkers. Digital pathology and image analysis have important roles across the drug/companion diagnostic development pipeline including biobanking, molecular pathology, tissue microarray analysis, molecular profiling of tissue and these important developments are reviewed. Underpinning all of these important developments is the need for high quality tissue samples and the impact of pre-analytical variables on tissue research is discussed. This requirement is combined with practical advice on setting up and running a digital pathology laboratory. Finally, we discuss the need to integrate digital image analysis data with epidemiological, clinical and genomic data in order to fully understand the relationship between genotype and phenotype and to drive discovery and the delivery of personalized medicine.

  3. Association between consumption of soy and risk of cardiovascular disease: A meta-analysis of observational studies. (United States)

    Yan, Zhaoli; Zhang, Xinyue; Li, Chunlin; Jiao, Shouchun; Dong, Wenyao


    Background The relationships between dietary intake of soy foods and risk of cardiovascular disease are uncertain. The aims of this study were to evaluate and summarize the evidence on the association between consumption of soy and risk of cardiovascular disease (including stroke and coronary heart disease). Methods We systematically searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases from their inception up to 22 February 2016. We included only observational studies, and used random-effects models to calculate summary relative risks (SRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results A total of 10 prospective cohort and seven case-control studies met the inclusion criteria. There were a total of 17,269 cardiovascular disease events, including 6265 stroke events, 10,806 coronary heart disease events, and 198 other cardiovascular disease events. A significant negative association was shown between soy intake and risk of cardiovascular disease (SRR = 0.84 95% CI: 0.75-0.94; pheterogeneitycardiovascular disease (SRR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.64-1.00). A significant negative association was shown for the association between soy intake and risk of stroke (SRR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.68-0.99) and coronary heart disease (SRR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.72-0.95). There were no associations between soy isoflavones consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and coronary heart disease. Conclusion Overall evidence indicated that consumption of soy was negatively associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and coronary heart disease risk.

  4. An investigation of image compression on NIIRS rating degradation through automated image analysis (United States)

    Chen, Hua-Mei; Blasch, Erik; Pham, Khanh; Wang, Zhonghai; Chen, Genshe


    The National Imagery Interpretability Rating Scale (NIIRS) is a subjective quantification of static image widely adopted by the Geographic Information System (GIS) community. Efforts have been made to relate NIIRS image quality to sensor parameters using the general image quality equations (GIQE), which make it possible to automatically predict the NIIRS rating of an image through automated image analysis. In this paper, we present an automated procedure to extract line edge profile based on which the NIIRS rating of a given image can be estimated through the GIQEs if the ground sampling distance (GSD) is known. Steps involved include straight edge detection, edge stripes determination, and edge intensity determination, among others. Next, we show how to employ GIQEs to estimate NIIRS degradation without knowing the ground truth GSD and investigate the effects of image compression on the degradation of an image's NIIRS rating. Specifically, we consider JPEG and JPEG2000 image compression standards. The extensive experimental results demonstrate the effect of image compression on the ground sampling distance and relative edge response, which are the major factors effecting NIIRS rating.

  5. Effect of anti-obesity drug on cardiovascular risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hao Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anti-obesity drugs are widely used to prevent the complications of obesity, however, the effects of anti-obesity drugs on cardiovascular risk factors are unclear at the present time. We carried out a comprehensively systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effects of anti-obesity drugs on cardiovascular risk factors. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We systematically searched Medline, EmBase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, reference lists of articles and proceedings of major meetings for relevant literatures. We included randomized placebo-controlled trials that reported the effects of anti-obesity drugs on cardiovascular risk factors compared to placebo. Overall, orlistat produced a reduction of 2.39 kg (95%CI-3.34 to -1.45 for weight, a reduction of 0.27 mmol/L (95%CI: -0.36 to -0.17 for total cholesterol, a reduction of 0.21 mmol/L (95%CI: -0.30 to -0.12 for LDL, a reduction of 0.12 mmol/L (95%CI: -0.20 to -0.04 for fasting glucose, 1.85 mmHg reduction (95%CI: -3.30 to -0.40 for SBP, and a reduction of 1.49 mmHg (95%CI: -2.39 to -0.58 for DBP. Sibutramine only showed effects on weight loss and triglycerides reduction with statistical significances. Rimonabant was associated with statistically significant effects on weight loss, SBP reduction and DBP reduction. No other significantly different effects were identified between anti-obesity therapy and placebo. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We identified that anti-obesity therapy was associated with a decrease of weight regardless of the type of the drug. Orlistat and rimonabant could lead to an improvement on cardiovascular risk factors. However, Sibutramine may have a direct effect on cardiovascular risk factors.

  6. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and cardiovascular or all-cause mortality in the general population: A meta-analysis (United States)

    Geng, Zhaohua; Huang, Lan; Song, Mingbao; Song, Yaoming


    The prognostic role of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in the general population remains controversial. We conducted this meta-analysis to investigate the association between baseline NT-proBNP concentrations and cardiovascular or all-cause mortality in the general population. PubMed and Embase databases were systematically searched from their inception to August 2016. Prospective observational studies that investigated the association between baseline NT-proBNP concentrations and cardiovascular or all-cause mortality in the general population were eligible. A summary of the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of mortality were calculated by the highest versus the lowest category of NT-proBNP concentrations. Eleven studies with a total of 25,715 individuals were included. Compared individuals in the highest with those in the lowest category of NT-proBNP, the pooled HR was 2.44 (95% CI 2.11–2.83) for all-cause mortality, 3.77 (95% CI 2.85–5.00) for cardiovascular mortality, and 2.35 (95% CI 1.45–3.82) for coronary heart disease mortality, respectively. Subgroup analyses indicated that the effects of NT-proBNP on the risk of cardiovascular mortality (RR 2.27) and all-cause mortality (RR 3.00) appeared to be slightly lower among men. Elevated NT-proBNP concentrations appeared to be independently associated with increased risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in the general population. PMID:28134294

  7. Use of selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors in the first trimester and risk of cardiovascular-related malformations: a meta-analysis of cohort studies (United States)

    Zhang, Tie-Ning; Gao, Shan-Yan; Shen, Zi-Qi; Li, Da; Liu, Cai-Xia; Lv, Hai-Chen; Zhang, Yuan; Gong, Ting-Ting; Xu, Xin; Ji, Chao; Wu, Qi-Jun


    The relationship between selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) use during first trimester and cardiovascular-related malformations of infants is still uncertain. Therefore, we conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the aforementioned association. A systematic literature review identified studies for cohort studies about SSRIs use and cardiovascular-related malformations in PubMed and Web of Science. We summarized relative risk (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of cardiovascular-related malformations using random-effects model, and heterogeneity and publication-bias analyses were conducted. Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Pregnant women who were exposed to SSRIs at any point during the first trimester had a statistically significant increased risk of infant cardiovascular-related malformations (RR = 1.26, 95%CI = 1.13–1.39), with moderate heterogeneity (I2 = 53.6). The corresponding RR of atrial septal defects (ASD), ventricular septal defects (VSD), ASD and/or VSD was 2.06 (95%CI = 1.40–3.03, I2 = 57.8), 1.15 (95%CI = 0.97–1.36; I2 = 30.3), and 1.27 (95%CI = 1.14–1.42; I2 = 40.0), respectively. No evidence of publication bias and significant heterogeneity between subgroups was detected by meta-regression analyses. In conclusion, SSRIs use of pregnant women during first trimester is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular-related malformations of infants including septal defects. The safety of SSRIs use during first trimester should be discussed to pregnant women with depression. PMID:28220881

  8. Extended -Regular Sequence for Automated Analysis of Microarray Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hee-Jeong


    Full Text Available Microarray study enables us to obtain hundreds of thousands of expressions of genes or genotypes at once, and it is an indispensable technology for genome research. The first step is the analysis of scanned microarray images. This is the most important procedure for obtaining biologically reliable data. Currently most microarray image processing systems require burdensome manual block/spot indexing work. Since the amount of experimental data is increasing very quickly, automated microarray image analysis software becomes important. In this paper, we propose two automated methods for analyzing microarray images. First, we propose the extended -regular sequence to index blocks and spots, which enables a novel automatic gridding procedure. Second, we provide a methodology, hierarchical metagrid alignment, to allow reliable and efficient batch processing for a set of microarray images. Experimental results show that the proposed methods are more reliable and convenient than the commercial tools.

  9. Quantitative and qualitative analysis and interpretation of CT perfusion imaging. (United States)

    Valdiviezo, Carolina; Ambrose, Marietta; Mehra, Vishal; Lardo, Albert C; Lima, Joao A C; George, Richard T


    Coronary artery disease (CAD) remains the leading cause of death in the United States. Rest and stress myocardial perfusion imaging has an important role in the non-invasive risk stratification of patients with CAD. However, diagnostic accuracies have been limited, which has led to the development of several myocardial perfusion imaging techniques. Among them, myocardial computed tomography perfusion imaging (CTP) is especially interesting as it has the unique capability of providing anatomic- as well as coronary stenosis-related functional data when combined with computed tomography angiography (CTA). The primary aim of this article is to review the qualitative, semi-quantitative, and quantitative analysis approaches to CTP imaging. In doing so, we will describe the image data required for each analysis and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each approach.

  10. Analysis and Management System of Digital Ultrasonic Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Qiang; ZHANG Hai-yan; LI Xia; WANG Ke


    This paper presents the analysis and management system of digital ultrasonic image. The system can manage medical ultrasonic image by collecting, saving and transferring, and realize that section offices of ultrasonic image in hospital network manage. The system use network technology in transferring image between ultrasonic equipments to share patient data in ultrasonic equipments. And doctors can input patient diagnostic report,saved by text file and case history, digitally managed. The system can be realized by Visual C++ which make windows applied. The system can be brought forward because PACS prevail with various hospitals,but PACS is expensive. In view of this status, we put forward to the analysis and management system of digital ultrasonic image,which is similar to PACS.

  11. 3D Images of Materials Structures Processing and Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ohser, Joachim


    Taking and analyzing images of materials' microstructures is essential for quality control, choice and design of all kind of products. Today, the standard method still is to analyze 2D microscopy images. But, insight into the 3D geometry of the microstructure of materials and measuring its characteristics become more and more prerequisites in order to choose and design advanced materials according to desired product properties. This first book on processing and analysis of 3D images of materials structures describes how to develop and apply efficient and versatile tools for geometric analysis

  12. Risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality among diabetic patients prescribed rosiglitazone or pioglitazone: a meta-analysis of retrospective cohort studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xin; YANG Li; ZHAI Suo-di


    Background The difference of cardiovascular effects between rosiglitazone and pioglitazone treatment for diabetic patients has not been thoroughly studied.We performed a meta-analysis to compare the risk of cardiovascular adverse effects in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with rosiglitazone compared to pioglitazone.Methods The Cochrane Library,PubMed,and Embase were searched to identify retrospective cohort studies assessing cardiovascular outcomes with rosiglitazone and pioglitazone.Meta-analysis of retrospective cohort studies was conducted using RevMan 5.0 software to calculate risk ratios.Results Of the 74 references identified,eight studies involving 945 286 patients fit the inclusion criteria for the analysis.The results of meta-analyses showed that,compared with pioglitazone,rosiglitazone therapy significantly increased the risk of myocardial infarction (risk ratios (RR) 1.17,95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.32; P=0.01),the risk of heart failure (RR 1.18,95% CI 1.02-1.36; P=0.03),and total mortality (RR 1.13,95% CI 1.08-1.20; P <0.00001).Conclusion Compared with pioglitazone,rosiglitazone was associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction,heart failure,and all-cause mortality in diabetic patients.

  13. Analysis of an Image Secret Sharing Scheme to Identify Cheaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-San LEe


    Full Text Available Secret image sharing mechanisms have been widely applied to the military, e-commerce, and communications fields. Zhao et al. introduced the concept of cheater detection into image sharing schemes recently. This functionality enables the image owner and authorized members to identify the cheater in reconstructing the secret image. Here, we provide an analysis of Zhao et al.¡¦s method: an authorized participant is able to restore the secret image by him/herself. This contradicts the requirement of secret image sharing schemes. The authorized participant utilizes an exhaustive search to achieve the attempt, though, simulation results show that it can be done within a reasonable time period.

  14. Method for measuring anterior chamber volume by image analysis (United States)

    Zhai, Gaoshou; Zhang, Junhong; Wang, Ruichang; Wang, Bingsong; Wang, Ningli


    Anterior chamber volume (ACV) is very important for an oculist to make rational pathological diagnosis as to patients who have some optic diseases such as glaucoma and etc., yet it is always difficult to be measured accurately. In this paper, a method is devised to measure anterior chamber volumes based on JPEG-formatted image files that have been transformed from medical images using the anterior-chamber optical coherence tomographer (AC-OCT) and corresponding image-processing software. The corresponding algorithms for image analysis and ACV calculation are implemented in VC++ and a series of anterior chamber images of typical patients are analyzed, while anterior chamber volumes are calculated and are verified that they are in accord with clinical observation. It shows that the measurement method is effective and feasible and it has potential to improve accuracy of ACV calculation. Meanwhile, some measures should be taken to simplify the handcraft preprocess working as to images.

  15. Osteoporosis and ischemic cardiovascular disease. (United States)

    Laroche, Michel; Pécourneau, Virginie; Blain, Hubert; Breuil, Véronique; Chapurlat, Roland; Cortet, Bernard; Sutter, Bruno; Degboe, Yannick


    Osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease were long viewed as independent of each other. However, numerous epidemiological studies, which are discussed in the first part of this review, have provided incontrovertible evidence of a link. Thus, the risk of coronary artery disease and stroke is higher in patients with a history of osteoporotic fracture or low bone mineral density than in non-osteoporotic patients. In the other direction, patients with cardiovascular disease are at higher risk for bone loss and osteoporotic fracture. The link between osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease is due in part to shared conventional risk factors such as estrogen deprivation in women, smoking, low physical activity, and diabetes. In addition, atheroma plaque calcification involves cytokines and growth factors that also play a role in bone turnover, including proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNFα), osteoprotegerin, sclerostin, matrix GLA protein, and FGF-23. Several recent studies have provided support for these pathophysiological hypotheses. Thus, elevation of osteoprotegerin, sclerostin, or FGF-23 levels may explain and predict the occurrence of both osteoporotic fractures and cardiovascular events. The association between osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease found in most epidemiological and pathophysiological studies suggests a need for evaluating potential benefits from routine bone absorptiometry and osteoporotic fracture detection in patients with cardiovascular disease and from exercise testing and arterial Doppler imaging in patients with osteoporosis.

  16. Cardiac nonrigid motion analysis from image sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Huafeng


    Noninvasive estimation of the soft tissue kinematics properties from medical image sequences has many important clinical and physiological implications, such as the diagnosis of heart diseases and the understanding of cardiac mechanics. In this paper, we present a biomechanics based strategy, framed as a priori constraints for the ill-posed motion recovery problema, to realize estimation of the cardiac motion and deformation parameters. By constructing the heart dynamics system equations from biomechanics principles, we use the finite element method to generate smooth estimates.of heart kinematics throughout the cardiac cycle. We present the application of the strategy to the estimation of displacements and strains from in vivo left ventricular magnetic resonance image sequence.

  17. Real-time video-image analysis (United States)

    Eskenazi, R.; Rayfield, M. J.; Yakimovsky, Y.


    Digitizer and storage system allow rapid random access to video data by computer. RAPID (random-access picture digitizer) uses two commercially-available, charge-injection, solid-state TV cameras as sensors. It can continuously update its memory with each frame of video signal, or it can hold given frame in memory. In either mode, it generates composite video output signal representing digitized image in memory.

  18. Forensic Analysis of Digital Image Tampering (United States)


    2.2 – Example of invisible watermark using Steganography Software F5 ............. 8 Figure 2.3 – Example of copy-move image forgery [12...examples of this evolution. Audio has progressed from analog audio tapes and records to Compact Discs and MP3s. Video displays have advanced from the...on it for security or anti-tamper reasons. Figure 2.2 shows an example of this. Figure 2.2 – Example of invisible watermark using Steganography

  19. Measurement and analysis of image sensors (United States)

    Vitek, Stanislav


    For astronomical applications is necessary to have high precision in sensing and processing the image data. In this time are used the large CCD sensors from the various reasons. For the replacement of CCD sensors with CMOS sensing devices is important to know transfer characteristics of used CCD sensors. In the special applications like the robotic telescopes (fully automatic, without human interactions) seems to be good using of specially designed smart sensors, which have integrated more functions and have more features than CCDs.

  20. Imaging System and Method for Biomedical Analysis (United States)


    fluorescent nanoparticles . Generally, Noiseux et al. teach injecting multiple fluorescent nanoparticle dyes into the food sample, imaging the sample a...example, AIDS, malaria , cholera, lymphoma, and typhoid. The present disclosure can be used to capture and count microscopic cells for application as...Base plate 214 is sealed against cover 204 by the adhesive 210. Base plate 214 can have a thickness 216 of, for example, about 100 µm. At least a



    Barrett Lowe; Arun Kulkarni


    Classical methods for classification of pixels in multispectral images include supervised classifiers such as the maximum-likelihood classifier, neural network classifiers, fuzzy neural networks, support vector machines, and decision trees. Recently, there has been an increase of interest in ensemble learning – a method that generates many classifiers and aggregates their results. Breiman proposed Random Forestin 2001 for classification and clustering. Random Forest grows many decision tre...

  2. An approach for quantitative image quality analysis for CT (United States)

    Rahimi, Amir; Cochran, Joe; Mooney, Doug; Regensburger, Joe


    An objective and standardized approach to assess image quality of Compute Tomography (CT) systems is required in a wide variety of imaging processes to identify CT systems appropriate for a given application. We present an overview of the framework we have developed to help standardize and to objectively assess CT image quality for different models of CT scanners used for security applications. Within this framework, we have developed methods to quantitatively measure metrics that should correlate with feature identification, detection accuracy and precision, and image registration capabilities of CT machines and to identify strengths and weaknesses in different CT imaging technologies in transportation security. To that end we have designed, developed and constructed phantoms that allow for systematic and repeatable measurements of roughly 88 image quality metrics, representing modulation transfer function, noise equivalent quanta, noise power spectra, slice sensitivity profiles, streak artifacts, CT number uniformity, CT number consistency, object length accuracy, CT number path length consistency, and object registration. Furthermore, we have developed a sophisticated MATLAB based image analysis tool kit to analyze CT generated images of phantoms and report these metrics in a format that is standardized across the considered models of CT scanners, allowing for comparative image quality analysis within a CT model or between different CT models. In addition, we have developed a modified sparse principal component analysis (SPCA) method to generate a modified set of PCA components as compared to the standard principal component analysis (PCA) with sparse loadings in conjunction with Hotelling T2 statistical analysis method to compare, qualify, and detect faults in the tested systems.

  3. Association of Vasomotor and Other Menopausal Symptoms with Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taulant Muka

    Full Text Available Vasomotor symptoms (hot flushes and night sweats and other symptoms, including depression, anxiety and panic attacks, are commonly experienced by menopausal women and have been associated with an unfavourable cardiovascular risk profile.To investigate whether presence of menopausal symptoms is associated with the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD.Five electronic databases (Medline, EMBASE and Web of Science were search until February 17th, 2015 to identify relevant studies. Observational cohort studies or randomised intervention studies were eligible for inclusion if they followed participants prospectively (at least 1 year of follow-up, and reported relevant estimates on the association of any vasomotor symptoms, or other menopausal symptoms, with risk of CVD, coronary heart disease (CHD, or stroke in perimenopausal, menopausal, or postmenopausal women. Data were extracted by two independent reviewers using a pre-designed data collection form. Separate pooled relative risks (RRs for age and non-established cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., education, ethnicity adjusted data and for established cardiovascular risk factors and potential mediators-adjusted data (e.g., smoking, body mass index, and hypertension were calculated.Out of 9,987 initially identified references, ten studies were selected, including 213,976 women with a total of 10,037 cardiovascular disease outcomes. The age and non-established cardiovascular risk factors adjusted RRs [95% confidence intervals] for development of CHD, Stroke and CVD comparing women with and without any menopausal symptoms were 1.34 [1.13-1.58], 1.30 [0.99-1.70], 1.48 [1.21-1.80] respectively, and the corresponding RRs adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors and potential mediators were 1.18 [1.03-1.35], 1.08 [0.89-1.32], 1.29 [0.98-1.71]. However, these analyses were limited by potential unmeasured confounding and the small number of studies on this topic.Presence of vasomotor symptoms and

  4. Mice cardiovascular imaging using ultrasound biomicroscopy in comparison with magnetic resonance imaging%小鼠心血管超声生物显微镜显像与磁共振成像的对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨娅; 李治安; 王艳红; 谢谨捷; 董莉; 王咏梅; 孙军燕; 秦彦文; 张兆琪


    Objective To establish the method and cardiovascular imaging in mice using ultrasound biomicroscopy(UBM) with anatomical confirmation by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and to evaluate the feasibility and value of UBM in mice cardiovascular imaging.Methods The mouse thoracic anatomy was elucidated using Signo 3.0T MR imaging on 2 healthy C57BL/6 adult male mice.The structures and flow of mice heart and great vessels in 16 healthy C57BL/6 adult male mice were showed and analyzed by Visualsonics Vevo 770 UBM through several acoustic windows, including left parasternal, right parasternal, apical regions, and suprasternalis.The systolic and diastolic function of mice heart were also evaluated.ResultsAnatomic characteristic of mice could be displayed by MR imaging.The heart was mostly located in left thoracic cavity.The angle between long axis of the heart and the midline of the chest was about 45 degrees.Left atrium,left ventricle, mitral valve and right ventricle were located on the left side of the midline of the chest.Aortic valve orifice, ascending aorta,right atrium and tricuspid valve were located on the right side of the midline of the chest.Left heart long axis view,left ventricular short axis view,ascending aorta long axis view,long axis view of aortic arch, aortic short axis view, right ventricular inflow tract long axis view, pulmonary artery long axis view and so on were obtained clearly using UBM.The structures of heart and great vessels were displayed and the cardiovascular parameters could be measured accurately,including left atrium,left ventricle,aorta and aortic arch,interventricular septum,right atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary artery, innominate artery, right internal carotid artery and the velocity in each valve orifices from Doppler flow spectrum.No significant difference was found in the measurements between different age groups.Conclusions The cardiovascular structures and hemodynamics could be displayed by UBM in mice when appropriate

  5. Automated image analysis of atomic force microscopy images of rotavirus particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkataraman, S. [Life Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Allison, D.P. [Life Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Department of Biochemistry, Cellular, and Molecular Biology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Molecular Imaging Inc. Tempe, AZ, 85282 (United States); Qi, H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Morrell-Falvey, J.L. [Life Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Kallewaard, N.L. [Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232-2905 (United States); Crowe, J.E. [Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232-2905 (United States); Doktycz, M.J. [Life Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)]. E-mail:


    A variety of biological samples can be imaged by the atomic force microscope (AFM) under environments that range from vacuum to ambient to liquid. Generally imaging is pursued to evaluate structural features of the sample or perhaps identify some structural changes in the sample that are induced by the investigator. In many cases, AFM images of sample features and induced structural changes are interpreted in general qualitative terms such as markedly smaller or larger, rougher, highly irregular, or smooth. Various manual tools can be used to analyze images and extract more quantitative data, but this is usually a cumbersome process. To facilitate quantitative AFM imaging, automated image analysis routines are being developed. Viral particles imaged in water were used as a test case to develop an algorithm that automatically extracts average dimensional information from a large set of individual particles. The extracted information allows statistical analyses of the dimensional characteristics of the particles and facilitates interpretation related to the binding of the particles to the surface. This algorithm is being extended for analysis of other biological samples and physical objects that are imaged by AFM.

  6. Comparative study on individual aromatase inhibitors on cardiovascular safety profile: a network meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao XH


    Full Text Available Xihe Zhao,1 Lei Liu,2 Kai Li,1 Wusheng Li,1 Li Zhao,1 Huawei Zou1 1Department of Oncology, 2Department of General Surgery, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs: anastrozole, letrozole, and exemestane have now become standard adjuvant endocrine treatment for postmenopausal estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer complementing chemotherapy and surgery. Because of the absence of direct head-to-head comparisons of these AIs, an indirect comparison is needed for individual treatment choice. In this network systemic assessment, the cardiovascular (CV side effects in using anastrozole, letrozole, and exemestane based on original studies on AIs vs placebo or tamoxifen were compared. We integrated all available direct and indirect evidences. The odds ratio (OR of severe CV events for indirect comparisons between exemestane and anastrozole was 1.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] =0.49–2.78, letrozole and anastrozole was 1.80 (95% CI =0.40–3.92, and letrozole and exemestane was 1.46 (95% CI =0.34–3.4. OR of subgroup risk for AIs and tamoxifen were all >1 except for thrombolism risk subgroup. The results showed that the total and severe CV risk ranking is letrozole, exemestane, and anastrozole in descending order. None of the AIs showed advantages in CV events than tamoxifen except for thromboembolism event incidence. Keywords: CV risk, breast cancer, AI, network meta-analysis

  7. Whole-Grain Intake and Mortality from All Causes, Cardiovascular Disease, and Cancer: A Systematic Review and Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies. (United States)

    Benisi-Kohansal, Sanaz; Saneei, Parvane; Salehi-Marzijarani, Mohammad; Larijani, Bagher; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad


    No conclusive information is available about the relation between the consumption of whole grains and the risk of mortality. We aimed to conduct a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to summarize the relation between whole-grain intake and risk of mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and total and specific cancers. A systematic search of the literature published earlier than March 2015 was conducted in Medline and PubMed, SCOPUS, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library to identify relevant articles. Prospective cohort studies that examined the association of total whole-grain intake or specific whole-grain foods with risk of mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and total and specific cancers were considered. Twenty prospective cohort studies were included in the systematic review: 9 studies reported total whole-grain intake and 11 others reported specific whole-grain food intake. In a follow-up period of 5.5 to 26 y, there were 191,979 deaths (25,595 from cardiovascular disease, 32,746 from total cancers, and 2671 from specific cancers) in 2,282,603 participants. A greater intake of both total whole grains and specific whole-grain foods was significantly associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality in the meta-analysis. The pooled RR for all-cause mortality for an increase of 3 servings total whole grains/d (90 g/d) was 0.83 (95% CI: 0.79, 0.88). Total whole-grain intake (0.84; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.93) and specific whole-grain foods (0.82; 95% CI: 0.75, 0.90) were also associated with a reduced risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease. Each additional 3 servings total whole grains/d was associated with a 25% lower risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease. An inverse association was observed between whole-grain intake and risk of mortality from total cancers (0.94; 95% CI: 0.91, 0.98). We found an inverse association between whole-grain intake and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and total cancers.

  8. Generalized cost-effectiveness analysis of a package of interventions to reduce cardiovascular disease in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souto Alberto


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic diseases, represented mainly by cardiovascular disease (CVD and cancer, are increasing in developing countries and account for 53% of chronic diseases in Argentina. There is strong evidence that a reduction of 50% of the deaths due to CVD can be attributed to a reduction in smoking, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. Generalized cost-effectiveness analysis (GCE is a methodology designed by WHO to inform decision makers about the extent to which current or new interventions represent an efficient use of resources. We aimed to use GCE analysis to identify the most efficient interventions to decrease CVD. Methods Six individual interventions (treatment of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking cessation and combined clinical strategies to reduce the 10 year CVD Risk and two population-based interventions (cooperation between government, consumer associations and bakery chambers to reduce salt in bread, and mass education strategies to reduce hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and obesity were selected for analysis. Estimates of effectiveness were entered into age and sex specific models to predict their impact in terms of age-weighted and discounted DALYs saved (disability-adjusted life years. To translate the age- and sex-adjusted incidence of CVD events into health changes, we used risk model software developed by WHO (PopMod. Costs of services were measured in Argentine pesos, and discounted at an annual rate of 3%. Different budgetary impact scenarios were explored. Results The average cost-effectiveness ratio in argentine pesos (ARS$ per DALY for the different interventions were: (i less salt in bread $151; (ii mass media campaign $547; (iii combination drug therapy provided to subjects with a 20%, 10% and 5% global CVD risk, $3,599, $4,113 and $4,533, respectively; (iv high blood pressure (HBP lowering therapy $7,716; (v tobacco cessation with bupropion $ 33,563; and (iv high-cholesterol lowering therapy

  9. Enhanced bone structural analysis through pQCT image preprocessing. (United States)

    Cervinka, T; Hyttinen, J; Sievanen, H


    Several factors, including preprocessing of the image, can affect the reliability of pQCT-measured bone traits, such as cortical area and trabecular density. Using repeated scans of four different liquid phantoms and repeated in vivo scans of distal tibiae from 25 subjects, the performance of two novel preprocessing methods, based on the down-sampling of grayscale intensity histogram and the statistical approximation of image data, was compared to 3 x 3 and 5 x 5 median filtering. According to phantom measurements, the signal to noise ratio in the raw pQCT images (XCT 3000) was low ( approximately 20dB) which posed a challenge for preprocessing. Concerning the cortical analysis, the reliability coefficient (R) was 67% for the raw image and increased to 94-97% after preprocessing without apparent preference for any method. Concerning the trabecular density, the R-values were already high ( approximately 99%) in the raw images leaving virtually no room for improvement. However, some coarse structural patterns could be seen in the preprocessed images in contrast to a disperse distribution of density levels in the raw image. In conclusion, preprocessing cannot suppress the high noise level to the extent that the analysis of mean trabecular density is essentially improved, whereas preprocessing can enhance cortical bone analysis and also facilitate coarse structural analyses of the trabecular region.

  10. Towards a quantitative OCT image analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Garcia Garrido

    Full Text Available Optical coherence tomography (OCT is an invaluable diagnostic tool for the detection and follow-up of retinal pathology in patients and experimental disease models. However, as morphological structures and layering in health as well as their alterations in disease are complex, segmentation procedures have not yet reached a satisfactory level of performance. Therefore, raw images and qualitative data are commonly used in clinical and scientific reports. Here, we assess the value of OCT reflectivity profiles as a basis for a quantitative characterization of the retinal status in a cross-species comparative study.Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT, confocal Scanning-Laser Ophthalmoscopy (SLO, and Fluorescein Angiography (FA were performed in mice (Mus musculus, gerbils (Gerbillus perpadillus, and cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis using the Heidelberg Engineering Spectralis system, and additional SLOs and FAs were obtained with the HRA I (same manufacturer. Reflectivity profiles were extracted from 8-bit greyscale OCT images using the ImageJ software package ( profiles obtained from OCT scans of all three animal species correlated well with ex vivo histomorphometric data. Each of the retinal layers showed a typical pattern that varied in relative size and degree of reflectivity across species. In general, plexiform layers showed a higher level of reflectivity than nuclear layers. A comparison of reflectivity profiles from specialized retinal regions (e.g. visual streak in gerbils, fovea in non-human primates with respective regions of human retina revealed multiple similarities. In a model of Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP, the value of reflectivity profiles for the follow-up of therapeutic interventions was demonstrated.OCT reflectivity profiles provide a detailed, quantitative description of retinal layers and structures including specialized retinal regions. Our results highlight the

  11. Spectral mixture analysis of EELS spectrum-images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobigeon, Nicolas [University of Toulouse, IRIT/INP-ENSEEIHT, 2 rue Camichel, 31071 Toulouse Cedex 7 (France); Brun, Nathalie, E-mail: [University of Paris Sud, Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, CNRS, UMR 8502, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)


    Recent advances in detectors and computer science have enabled the acquisition and the processing of multidimensional datasets, in particular in the field of spectral imaging. Benefiting from these new developments, Earth scientists try to recover the reflectance spectra of macroscopic materials (e.g., water, grass, mineral types Horizontal-Ellipsis ) present in an observed scene and to estimate their respective proportions in each mixed pixel of the acquired image. This task is usually referred to as spectral mixture analysis or spectral unmixing (SU). SU aims at decomposing the measured pixel spectrum into a collection of constituent spectra, called endmembers, and a set of corresponding fractions (abundances) that indicate the proportion of each endmember present in the pixel. Similarly, when processing spectrum-images, microscopists usually try to map elemental, physical and chemical state information of a given material. This paper reports how a SU algorithm dedicated to remote sensing hyperspectral images can be successfully applied to analyze spectrum-image resulting from electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). SU generally overcomes standard limitations inherent to other multivariate statistical analysis methods, such as principal component analysis (PCA) or independent component analysis (ICA), that have been previously used to analyze EELS maps. Indeed, ICA and PCA may perform poorly for linear spectral mixture analysis due to the strong dependence between the abundances of the different materials. One example is presented here to demonstrate the potential of this technique for EELS analysis. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EELS spectrum images are identical to hyperspectral images for Earth science. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spectral unmixing algorithms have proliferated in the remote sensing field. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These powerful techniques can be successfully applied to EELS mapping. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Potential

  12. Dark blood versus bright blood T2* acquisition in cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) for thalassaemia major (TM) patients: Evaluation of feasibility, reproducibility and image quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liguori, Carlo, E-mail: [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Campus Bio Medico University, via Alvaro del Portillo 200, 00128 Rome (Italy); Di Giampietro, Ilenia; Pitocco, Francesca; De Vivo, Aldo Eros [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Campus Bio Medico University, via Alvaro del Portillo 200, 00128 Rome (Italy); Schena, Emiliano [Unit of Measurements and Biomedical Instrumentation, Campus Bio Medico University, via Alvaro del Portillo 200, 00128 Rome (Italy); Mortato, Luca [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Campus Bio Medico University, via Alvaro del Portillo 200, 00128 Rome (Italy); Pirro, Federica [Department of Biomaging and Radiological Sciences, Catholic University of Sacred Herart, Largo A. Gemelli 1, 00135 Rome (Italy); Cianciulli, Paolo [Thalassemia Unit, Ospedale Sant Eugenio, Piazzale dell’Umanesimo 10, 00143 Rome (Italy); Zobel, Bruno Beomonte [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Campus Bio Medico University, via Alvaro del Portillo 200, 00128 Rome (Italy)


    Objectives: To compare the effectiveness of dark blood (DB) versus bright blood (BB) sequences. To assess the intra and inter-observer variability and inter-study reproducibility between BB versus DB. To evaluate image quality level in the two sequences. Methods: In a setting of 138 patients we performed CMR using cardiac gated Gradient-multiecho single breath-hold BB and DB sequences in the middle ventricular septum. Each acquisition was repeated during the same exam. Truncation method was used to account for background noise. Image quality (IQ) was assessed using a 5 point grading scale and image analysis was conducted by 2 experienced observers. Results: Compared with the conventional BB acquisition, the coefficient of correlation and significance of the DB technique was superior for intra-observer reproducibility (p < 0.001), inter-observer reproducibility (p < 0.001) and inter-study reproducibility (p < 0.001). The variability is also lower for DB sequences for T2* values <14 ms. Assessment of artifacts showed a superior score for DB versus BB scans (4 versus 3, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Improvement in terms of inter observer and inter study variability using DB sequences was obtained. The greatest disparity between them was seen in inter-study reproducibility and higher IQ in DB was seen. Study demonstrates better performance of DB imaging compared to BB in presence of comparable effectiveness.

  13. HDL cholesterol and residual risk of first cardiovascular events after treatment with potent statin therapy: an analysis from the JUPITER trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridker, P.M.; Genest, J.; Boekholdt, S.M.;


    Background HDL-cholesterol concentrations are inversely associated with occurrence of cardiovascular events. We addressed, using the JUPITER trial cohort, whether this association remains when LDL-cholesterol concentrations are reduced to the very low ranges with high-dose statin treatment. Methods...... Participants in the randomised placebo-controlled JUPITER trial were adults without diabetes or previous cardiovascular disease, and had baseline concentrations of LDL cholesterol of less than 3.37 mmol/L and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein of 2 mg/L or more. Participants were randomly allocated...... by a computer-generated sequence to receive rosuvastatin 20 mg per day or placebo, with participants and adjudicators masked to treatment assignment. In the present analysis, we divided the participants into quartiles of HDL-cholesterol or apolipoprotein A1 and sought evidence of association between...

  14. [Triglycerides--a long known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Subgroup analysis shows the importance after acute coronary syndrome]. (United States)

    Olsson, Anders


    An increased blood concentration of triglycerides (TG) has long been recognized as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Through competition from HDL cholesterol and the arrival of statin treatment for high LDL cholesterol the importance of TG as risk factor was largely forgotten. A high concentration of TG indicates high blood levels of TG-rich lipoproteins including cholesterol rich remnant particles. Studies using Mendelian randomizations have demonstrated that a low HDL cholesterol does not carry a direct atherogenic function and that remnant particles do so. New efforts should be exercised in order to diminish residual cardiovascular risk during statin treatment through decreasing TG rich lipoproteins.

  15. Quantitative analysis of in vivo confocal microscopy images: a review. (United States)

    Patel, Dipika V; McGhee, Charles N


    In vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) is a non-invasive method of examining the living human cornea. The recent trend towards quantitative studies using IVCM has led to the development of a variety of methods for quantifying image parameters. When selecting IVCM images for quantitative analysis, it is important to be consistent regarding the location, depth, and quality of images. All images should be de-identified, randomized, and calibrated prior to analysis. Numerous image analysis software are available, each with their own advantages and disadvantages. Criteria for analyzing corneal epithelium, sub-basal nerves, keratocytes, endothelium, and immune/inflammatory cells have been developed, although there is inconsistency among research groups regarding parameter definition. The quantification of stromal nerve parameters, however, remains a challenge. Most studies report lower inter-observer repeatability compared with intra-observer repeatability, and observer experience is known to be an important factor. Standardization of IVCM image analysis through the use of a reading center would be crucial for any future large, multi-centre clinical trials using IVCM.

  16. Advanced Color Image Processing and Analysis

    CERN Document Server


    This volume does much more than survey modern advanced color processing. Starting with a historical perspective on ways we have classified color, it sets out the latest numerical techniques for analyzing and processing colors, the leading edge in our search to accurately record and print what we see. The human eye perceives only a fraction of available light wavelengths, yet we live in a multicolor world of myriad shining hues. Colors rich in metaphorical associations make us “purple with rage” or “green with envy” and cause us to “see red.” Defining colors has been the work of centuries, culminating in today’s complex mathematical coding that nonetheless remains a work in progress: only recently have we possessed the computing capacity to process the algebraic matrices that reproduce color more accurately. With chapters on dihedral color and image spectrometers, this book provides technicians and researchers with the knowledge they need to grasp the intricacies of today’s color imaging.

  17. Analysis of Fast- ICA Algorithm for Separation of Mixed Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmay Awasthy


    Full Text Available Independent component analysis (ICA is a newly developed method in which the aim is to find a linear representation of nongaussian statistics so that the components are statistically independent, or as independent as possible. Such techniques are actively being used in study of both statistical image processing and unsupervised neural learning application. This paper represents the Fast Independent component analysis algorithm for separation of mixed images. To solve the blind signal separation problems Independent component analysis approach used statistical independence of the source signals. This paper focuses on the theory and methods of ICA in contrast to classical transformations along with the applications of this method to blind source separation .For an illustration of the algorithm, visualized the immixing process with a set of images has been done. To express the results of our analysis simulations have been presented.

  18. NEPR Principle Component Analysis - NOAA TIFF Image (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GeoTiff is a representation of seafloor topography in Northeast Puerto Rico derived from a bathymetry model with a principle component analysis (PCA). The area...

  19. Deep Learning for Intelligent Substation Device Infrared Fault Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Ying


    Full Text Available As an important kind of data for device status evaluation, the increasing infrared image data in electrical system puts forward a new challenge to traditional manually processing mode. To overcome this problem, this paper proposes a feasible way to automatically process massive infrared fault images. We take advantage of the imaging characteristics of infrared fault images and detect fault regions together with its belonging device part by our proposed algorithm, which first segment images into superpixels, and then adopt the state-of-the-art convolutional and recursive neural network for intelligent object recognition. In the experiment, we compare several unsupervised pre-training methods considering the importance of a pre-train procedure, and discuss the proper parameters for the proposed network. The experimental results show the good performance of our algorithm, and its efficiency for infrared analysis.

  20. Image analysis of ocular fundus for retinopathy characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushizima, Daniela; Cuadros, Jorge


    Automated analysis of ocular fundus images is a common procedure in countries as England, including both nonemergency examination and retinal screening of patients with diabetes mellitus. This involves digital image capture and transmission of the images to a digital reading center for evaluation and treatment referral. In collaboration with the Optometry Department, University of California, Berkeley, we have tested computer vision algorithms to segment vessels and lesions in ground-truth data (DRIVE database) and hundreds of images of non-macular centric and nonuniform illumination views of the eye fundus from EyePACS program. Methods under investigation involve mathematical morphology (Figure 1) for image enhancement and pattern matching. Recently, we have focused in more efficient techniques to model the ocular fundus vasculature (Figure 2), using deformable contours. Preliminary results show accurate segmentation of vessels and high level of true-positive microaneurysms.

  1. Genetic analysis of the cardiac methylome at single nucleotide resolution in a model of human cardiovascular disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle D Johnson


    Full Text Available Epigenetic marks such as cytosine methylation are important determinants of cellular and whole-body phenotypes. However, the extent of, and reasons for inter-individual differences in cytosine methylation, and their association with phenotypic variation are poorly characterised. Here we present the first genome-wide study of cytosine methylation at single-nucleotide resolution in an animal model of human disease. We used whole-genome bisulfite sequencing in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR, a model of cardiovascular disease, and the Brown Norway (BN control strain, to define the genetic architecture of cytosine methylation in the mammalian heart and to test for association between methylation and pathophysiological phenotypes. Analysis of 10.6 million CpG dinucleotides identified 77,088 CpGs that were differentially methylated between the strains. In F1 hybrids we found 38,152 CpGs showing allele-specific methylation and 145 regions with parent-of-origin effects on methylation. Cis-linkage explained almost 60% of inter-strain variation in methylation at a subset of loci tested for linkage in a panel of recombinant inbred (RI strains. Methylation analysis in isolated cardiomyocytes showed that in the majority of cases methylation differences in cardiomyocytes and non-cardiomyocytes were strain-dependent, confirming a strong genetic component for cytosine methylation. We observed preferential nucleotide usage associated with increased and decreased methylation that is remarkably conserved across species, suggesting a common mechanism for germline control of inter-individual variation in CpG methylation. In the RI strain panel, we found significant correlation of CpG methylation and levels of serum chromogranin B (CgB, a proposed biomarker of heart failure, which is evidence for a link between germline DNA sequence variation, CpG methylation differences and pathophysiological phenotypes in the SHR strain. Together, these results will

  2. Mathematical methods in time series analysis and digital image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Kurths, J; Maass, P; Timmer, J


    The aim of this volume is to bring together research directions in theoretical signal and imaging processing developed rather independently in electrical engineering, theoretical physics, mathematics and the computer sciences. In particular, mathematically justified algorithms and methods, the mathematical analysis of these algorithms, and methods as well as the investigation of connections between methods from time series analysis and image processing are reviewed. An interdisciplinary comparison of these methods, drawing upon common sets of test problems from medicine and geophysical/enviromental sciences, is also addressed. This volume coherently summarizes work carried out in the field of theoretical signal and image processing. It focuses on non-linear and non-parametric models for time series as well as on adaptive methods in image processing.

  3. Standardization of Image Quality Analysis – ISO 19264

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad; Wüller, Dietmar


    There are a variety of image quality analysis tools available for the archiving world, which are based on different test charts and analysis algorithms. ISO has formed a working group in 2012 to harmonize these approaches and create a standard way of analyzing the image quality for archiving...... systems. This has resulted in three documents that have been or are going to be published soon. ISO 19262 defines the terms used in the area of image capture to unify the language. ISO 19263 describes the workflow issues and provides detailed information on how the measurements are done. Last...... but not least ISO 19264 describes the measurements in detail and provides aims and tolerance levels for the different aspects. This paper will present the new ISO 19264 technical specification to analyze image quality based on a single capture of a multi-pattern test chart, and discuss the reasoning behind its...

  4. Issues in Quantitative Analysis of Ultraviolet Imager (UV) Data: Airglow (United States)

    Germany, G. A.; Richards, P. G.; Spann, J. F.; Brittnacher, M. J.; Parks, G. K.


    The GGS Ultraviolet Imager (UVI) has proven to be especially valuable in correlative substorm, auroral morphology, and extended statistical studies of the auroral regions. Such studies are based on knowledge of the location, spatial, and temporal behavior of auroral emissions. More quantitative studies, based on absolute radiometric intensities from UVI images, require a more intimate knowledge of the instrument behavior and data processing requirements and are inherently more difficult than studies based on relative knowledge of the oval location. In this study, UVI airglow observations are analyzed and compared with model predictions to illustrate issues that arise in quantitative analysis of UVI images. These issues include instrument calibration, long term changes in sensitivity, and imager flat field response as well as proper background correction. Airglow emissions are chosen for this study because of their relatively straightforward modeling requirements and because of their implications for thermospheric compositional studies. The analysis issues discussed here, however, are identical to those faced in quantitative auroral studies.

  5. Peripheral blood smear image analysis: A comprehensive review. (United States)

    Mohammed, Emad A; Mohamed, Mostafa M A; Far, Behrouz H; Naugler, Christopher


    Peripheral blood smear image examination is a part of the routine work of every laboratory. The manual examination of these images is tedious, time-consuming and suffers from interobserver variation. This has motivated researchers to develop different algorithms and methods to automate peripheral blood smear image analysis. Image analysis itself consists of a sequence of steps consisting of image segmentation, features extraction and selection and pattern classification. The image segmentation step addresses the problem of extraction of the object or region of interest from the complicated peripheral blood smear image. Support vector machine (SVM) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) are two common approaches to image segmentation. Features extraction and selection aims to derive descriptive characteristics of the extracted object, which are similar within the same object class and different between different objects. This will facilitate the last step of the image analysis process: pattern classification. The goal of pattern classification is to assign a class to the selected features from a group of known classes. There are two types of classifier learning algorithms: supervised and unsupervised. Supervised learning algorithms predict the class of the object under test using training data of known classes. The training data have a predefined label for every class and the learning algorithm can utilize this data to predict the class of a test object. Unsupervised learning algorithms use unlabeled training data and divide them into groups using similarity measurements. Unsupervised learning algorithms predict the group to which a new test object belong to, based on the training data without giving an explicit class to that object. ANN, SVM, decision tree and K-nearest neighbor are possible approaches to classification algorithms. Increased discrimination may be obtained by combining several classifiers together.

  6. Peripheral blood smear image analysis: A comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad A Mohammed


    Full Text Available Peripheral blood smear image examination is a part of the routine work of every laboratory. The manual examination of these images is tedious, time-consuming and suffers from interobserver variation. This has motivated researchers to develop different algorithms and methods to automate peripheral blood smear image analysis. Image analysis itself consists of a sequence of steps consisting of image segmentation, features extraction and selection and pattern classification. The image segmentation step addresses the problem of extraction of the object or region of interest from the complicated peripheral blood smear image. Support vector machine (SVM and artificial neural networks (ANNs are two common approaches to image segmentation. Features extraction and selection aims to derive descriptive characteristics of the extracted object, which are similar within the same object class and different between different objects. This will facilitate the last step of the image analysis process: pattern classification. The goal of pattern classification is to assign a class to the selected features from a group of known classes. There are two types of classifier learning algorithms: supervised and unsupervised. Supervised learning algorithms predict the class of the object under test using training data of known classes. The training data have a predefined label for every class and the learning algorithm can utilize this data to predict the class of a test object. Unsupervised learning algorithms use unlabeled training data and divide them into groups using similarity measurements. Unsupervised learning algorithms predict the group to which a new test object belong to, based on the training data without giving an explicit class to that object. ANN, SVM, decision tree and K-nearest neighbor are possible approaches to classification algorithms. Increased discrimination may be obtained by combining several classifiers together.

  7. Acne image analysis: lesion localization and classification (United States)

    Abas, Fazly Salleh; Kaffenberger, Benjamin; Bikowski, Joseph; Gurcan, Metin N.


    Acne is a common skin condition present predominantly in the adolescent population, but may continue into adulthood. Scarring occurs commonly as a sequel to severe inflammatory acne. The presence of acne and resultant scars are more than cosmetic, with a significant potential to alter quality of life and even job prospects. The psychosocial effects of acne and scars can be disturbing and may be a risk factor for serious psychological concerns. Treatment efficacy is generally determined based on an invalidated gestalt by the physician and patient. However, the validated assessment of acne can be challenging and time consuming. Acne can be classified into several morphologies including closed comedones (whiteheads), open comedones (blackheads), papules, pustules, cysts (nodules) and scars. For a validated assessment, the different morphologies need to be counted independently, a method that is far too time consuming considering the limited time available for a consultation. However, it is practical to record and analyze images since dermatologists can validate the severity of acne within seconds after uploading an image. This paper covers the processes of region-ofinterest determination using entropy-based filtering and thresholding as well acne lesion feature extraction. Feature extraction methods using discrete wavelet frames and gray-level co-occurence matrix were presented and their effectiveness in separating the six major acne lesion classes were discussed. Several classifiers were used to te