WorldWideScience

Sample records for cardiovascular heart protection

  1. Urocortin and cardiovascular protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu HUANG; Xiao-qiang YAO; Chi-wai LAU; Yau-chi CHAN; Suk-ying TSANG; Franky Leung CHAN

    2004-01-01

    Urocortin and other hypothalamus corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) polypeptides play biologically diverse roles in the stress, cardiovascular and inflammatory responses by acting on central and peripheral CRF receptors.Urocortin shows a significantly high sequence homology to CRF, and the concurrent expression of type-2 CRF (CRF2) receptors with urocortin in the heart suggests that urocortin may play a physiological role in the cardiac function. Urocortin is thought to be the endogenous agonist producing the cardiovascular actions previously attributed to CRF. This review highlights the current novel findings on the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which urocortin may exert its cardiovascular protective action.

  2. Genetically Low Antioxidant Protection and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Heart Failure in Diabetic Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobylecki, Camilla J; Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress is one mechanism believed to underlie diabetic vascular disease. We tested the hypothesis that diabetic subjects heterozygous for extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3) R213G, which entails lower antioxidant capacity in tissues, have increased...... risk of cardiovascular disease and heart failure. METHODS: We used the prospective Copenhagen General Population Study and Copenhagen City Heart Study and genotyped 95,871 individuals for the rs1799895 R213G variation in the SOD3 gene, of which 4498 had diabetes. We used national hospitalization...... and death registers to assess cardiovascular disease and heart failure. FINDINGS: Out of 95,871 individuals, we identified 93,521 R213G non-carriers (213RR, 97.5%), 2336 heterozygotes (213RG, 2.4%) and 14 homozygotes (213GG, 0.01%). In diabetic subjects, the hazard ratio for cardiovascular disease in R213G...

  3. Protect your heart: a culture-specific multimedia cardiovascular health education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Amy; Clayman, Marla L; Glass, Sara; Kandula, Namratha R

    2015-04-01

    South Asians, the second fastest growing racial/ethnic minority in the United States, have high rates of coronary heart disease. Few coronary heart disease prevention efforts target this population. The authors developed and tested a culture-specific, multimedia coronary heart disease prevention education program in English and Hindi for South Asians. Participants were recruited from community organizations in Chicago, Illinois, between June and October of 2011. Bilingual interviewers used questionnaires to assess participants' knowledge and perceptions before and after the patient education program. The change from pretest score to posttest score was calculated using a paired t test. Linear regression was used to determine the association between posttest scores and education and language. Participants' (N = 112) average age was 41 years, 67% had more than a high school education, and 50% spoke Hindi. Participants' mean pretest score was 15 (SD = 4). After the patient education program, posttest scores increased significantly among all participants (posttest score = 24, SD = 4), including those with limited English proficiency. Lower education was associated with a lower posttest score (β = -2.2, 95% CI [-0.68, -3.83]) in adjusted regression. A culture-specific, multimedia patient education program significantly improved knowledge and perceptions about coronary heart disease prevention among South Asian immigrants. Culturally salient multimedia education may be an effective and engaging way to deliver health information to diverse patient populations.

  4. From basic mechanisms to clinical applications in heart protection, new players in cardiovascular diseases and cardiac theranostics:meeting report from the third international symposium on "New frontiers in cardiovascular research"

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera-Fuentes, Hector A.; Aragones, Julian; Bernhagen, Jürgen; Boening, Andreas; William A. Boisvert; Bøtker, Hans E.; Bulluck, Heerajnarain; Cook, Stuart; Di Lisa, Fabio; Engel, Felix B.; Engelmann, Bernd; Ferrazzi, Fulvia; Ferdinandy, Péter; Fong, Alan; Fleming, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    In this meeting report, particularly addressing the topic of protection of the cardiovascular system from ischemia/reperfusion injury, highlights are presented that relate to conditioning strategies of the heart with respect to molecular mechanisms and outcome in patients' cohorts, the influence of co-morbidities and medications, as well as the contribution of innate immune reactions in cardioprotection. Moreover, developmental or systems biology approaches bear great potential in systematica...

  5. A computational model of cardiovascular physiology and heart sound generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watrous, Raymond L

    2009-01-01

    A computational model of the cardiovascular system is described which provides a framework for implementing and testing quantitative physiological models of heart sound generation. The lumped-parameter cardiovascular model can be solved for the hemodynamic variables on which the heart sound generation process is built. Parameters of the cardiovascular model can be adjusted to represent various normal and pathological conditions, and the acoustic consequences of those adjustments can be explored. The combined model of the physiology of cardiovascular circulation and heart sound generation has promise for application in teaching, training and algorithm development in computer-aided auscultation of the heart.

  6. Heart Disease, Stroke, or Other Cardiovascular Disease and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adult Vaccination Resources for Healthcare Professionals Heart Disease, Stroke, or Other Cardiovascular Disease and Adult Vaccination Language: ... with heart disease and those who have suffered stroke are at higher risk for serious problems from ...

  7. Tea and coronary heart disease : protection through estrogenlike activity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geleijnse, J.M.; Witteman, J.C.; Launer, L.J.; Lamberts, S.J.; Pols, H.A.

    2000-01-01

    Tea drinking appears to be protective against coronary heart disease in a number of epidemiologic studies. It has been suggested that tea flavonols with antioxidative activity, including quercetin, kaempferol, and myricetin,1 could account for the favorable effect on cardiovascular health. In the ol

  8. Applied Cardiovascular Physiology in Dogs with Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Álvarez Ramírez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Congestive heart failure is related to abnormal ventricular contraction and relaxation. Recent publications show that the alteration of systolic and diastolic function coexists in most patients with heart diseases. There are currently several ambiguities in the daily use of clinical and physiological terms regarding this topic. This paper aims to review certain physiological concepts of the cardiovascular system.

  9. Optimal Vitamin D Supplementation Levels for Cardiovascular Disease Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugg, Sebastian T; Howells, Phillip A; Thickett, David R

    2015-01-01

    First described in relation to musculoskeletal disease, there is accumulating data to suggest that vitamin D may play an important role in cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this review we aim to provide an overview of the role of vitamin D status as both a marker of and potentially causative agent of hypertension, coronary artery disease, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease. The role of vitamin D levels as a disease marker for all-cause mortality is also discussed. We review the current knowledge gathered from experimental studies, observational studies, randomised controlled trials, and subsequent systematic reviews in order to suggest the optimal vitamin D level for CVD protection.

  10. Isolated heart models: cardiovascular system studies and technological advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejnickova, Veronika; Novakova, Marie; Provaznik, Ivo

    2015-07-01

    Isolated heart model is a relevant tool for cardiovascular system studies. It represents a highly reproducible model for studying broad spectrum of biochemical, physiological, morphological, and pharmaceutical parameters, including analysis of intrinsic heart mechanics, metabolism, and coronary vascular response. Results obtained in this model are under no influence of other organ systems, plasma concentration of hormones or ions and influence of autonomic nervous system. The review describes various isolated heart models, the modes of heart perfusion, and advantages and limitations of various experimental setups. It reports the improvements of perfusion setup according to Langendorff introduced by the authors.

  11. The protective role of curcumin in cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongcharoen, Wanwarang; Phrommintikul, Arintaya

    2009-04-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a polyphenol responsible for the yellow color of the curry spice turmeric. It has been used in a variety of diseases in traditional medicine. Modern scientific research has demonstrated its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-thrombotic, and cardiovascular protective effects. In this review, we focused mainly on the effects of curcumin on the cardiovascular system. The antioxidant effects of curcumin have been shown to attenuate adriamycin-induced cardiotoxicity and may prevent diabetic cardiovascular complications. The anti-thrombotic, anti-proliferative, and anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin and the effect of curcumin in decreasing the serum cholesterol level may protect against the pathological changes occurring with atherosclerosis. The p300-HAT inhibitory effects of curcumin have been demonstrated to ameliorate the development of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure in animal models. The inflammatory effects of curcumin may have the possibility of preventing atrial arrhythmias and the possible effect of curcumin for correcting the Ca(2+) homeostasis may play a role in the prevention of some ventricular arrhythmias. The preclinical studies from animal to clinical data in human are discussed.

  12. Simplifying cardiovascular risk estimation using resting heart rate.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2010-09-01

    Elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is a known, independent cardiovascular (CV) risk factor, but is not included in risk estimation systems, including Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE). We aimed to derive risk estimation systems including RHR as an extra variable and assess the value of this addition.

  13. Multifractal heart rate dynamics in human cardiovascular model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Kiyoshi; Takamasu, Kiyoshi; Safonov, Leonid; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu

    2003-05-01

    Human cardiovascular and/or cardio-respiratory systems are shown to exhibit both multifractal and synchronous dynamics, and we recently developed a nonlinear, physiologically plausible model for the synchronization between heartbeat and respiration (Kotani, et al. Phys. Rev. E 65: 051923, 2002). By using the same model, we now show the multifractality in the heart rate dynamics. We find that beat-to-beat monofractal noise (fractional Brownian motion) added to the brain stem cardiovascular areas results in significantly broader singularity spectra for heart rate through interactions between sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. We conclude that the model proposed here would be useful in studying the complex cardiovascular and/or cardio- respiratory dynamics in humans.

  14. Taking Aspirin to Protect Your Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toolkit No. 23 Taking Aspirin to Protect Your Heart What can taking aspirin do for me? If you are at high risk for or if you have heart disease, taking a low dose aspirin every day may help. Aspirin can also help ...

  15. Whole grains protect against atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James W

    2003-02-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is the most common cause of death in most Western countries. Nutrition factors contribute importantly to this high risk for ASCVD. Favourable alterations in diet can reduce six of the nine major risk factors for ASCVD, i.e. high serum LDL-cholesterol levels, high fasting serum triacylglycerol levels, low HDL-cholesterol levels, hypertension, diabetes and obesity. Wholegrain foods may be one the healthiest choices individuals can make to lower the risk for ASCVD. Epidemiological studies indicate that individuals with higher levels (in the highest quintile) of whole-grain intake have a 29 % lower risk for ASCVD than individuals with lower levels (lowest quintile) of whole-grain intake. It is of interest that neither the highest levels of cereal fibre nor the highest levels of refined cereals provide appreciable protection against ASCVD. Generous intake of whole grains also provides protection from development of diabetes and obesity. Diets rich in wholegrain foods tend to decrease serum LDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels as well as blood pressure while increasing serum HDL-cholesterol levels. Whole-grain intake may also favourably alter antioxidant status, serum homocysteine levels, vascular reactivity and the inflammatory state. Whole-grain components that appear to make major contributions to these protective effects are: dietary fibre; vitamins; minerals; antioxidants; phytosterols; other phytochemicals. Three servings of whole grains daily are recommended to provide these health benefits.

  16. [Cardiovascular-protective effect of tadalafil in the treatment of erectile dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan

    2013-12-01

    The enzyme phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5), widely distributed in the heart, smooth muscle, and blood vessels, catalyzes the hydrolysis of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), a potent vasodilator, and is also a nitric oxide (NO) donor. Tadalafil is the first PDE 5 inhibitor approved by FDA for the treatment of ED. Recent studies have shown several pleiotropic beneficial effects of PDE-5 inhibitors in patients with cardiovascular diseases (coronary heart disease, hypertension, heart failure, and pulmonary arterial hypertension) and diabetes mellitus. It has been demonstrated that tadalafil can not only improve sexual function, but also elevate the endothelial cell-derived NO level, activate protein kinase A, upregulate the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, and improve hemodynamic indexes. Thus, the PDE-5 inhibitor tadalafil, with its cardiovascular-protective effect, can be a therapeutic option for the treatment of ED patients with cardiovascular disease.

  17. Protect Your Heart: Check Food Labels to Make Heart-Healthy Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Protein 15g Total Amounts To make heart-healthy food choices, look at the totals and cut back on • ... Toolkit No. 8: Protect Your Heart: Make Smart Food Choices • Toolkit No. 9: Protect Your Heart: Choose Fats ...

  18. Adiponectin provides cardiovascular protection in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Yoshihisa

    2011-01-23

    Adipose tissue plays a central role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Adiponectin (APN) is a bioactive adipocytokine secreted from adipocytes. Low plasma APN levels (hypoadiponectinemia) are observed among obese individuals and in those with related disorders such as diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. APN ameliorates such disorders. Hypoadiponectinemia is also associated with major cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis and cardiac hypertrophy. Accumulating evidence indicates that APN directly interacts with cardiovascular tissue and prevents cardiovascular pathology. Increasing plasma APN or enhancing APN signal transduction may be an ideal strategy to prevent and treat the cardiovascular diseases associated with metabolic syndrome. However, further studies are required to uncover the precise biological actions of APN.

  19. Disparities in heart failure and other cardiovascular diseases among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, Jean; Pettey, Christina; Lefler, Leanne L; Heo, Seongkum

    2012-07-01

    This article reviews literature pertinent to cardiovascular disparities in women, focusing primarily on heart failure (HF). It provides an in-depth look at causes, biological influences, self-management and lack of adherence to HF-treatment guidelines in women. Disparities in treatment of causative factors of HF, such as myocardial infarction and hypertension, contribute to women having poorer HF outcomes than men. This article discusses major contributing reasons for nonadherence to medication regimes for HF in women, including advanced age at time of diagnosis, likelihood of multiple comorbidities, lack of social support and low socioeconomic status. Limited inclusion of women in clinical trials and the scarcity of gender analyses for HF and other cardiovascular diseases continues to limit the applicability of research findings to women.

  20. Depressive Symptoms, Health Behaviors, and Risk of Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whooley, Mary A.; de Jonge, Peter; Vittinghoff, Eric; Otte, Christian; Moos, Rudolf; Carney, Robert M.; Ali, Sadia; Dowray, Sunaina; Na, Beeya; Feldman, Mitchell D.; Schiller, Nelson B.; Browner, Warren S.

    2008-01-01

    Context Depressive symptoms predict adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with coronary heart disease, but the mechanisms responsible for this association are unknown. Objective To determine why depressive symptoms are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Design and Part

  1. Rhizoma Coptidis: A Potential Cardiovascular Protective Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hui-Li; Chan, Kok-Gan; Pusparajah, Priyia; Duangjai, Acharaporn; Saokaew, Surasak; Mehmood Khan, Tahir; Lee, Learn-Han; Goh, Bey-Hing

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in both the developed and developing world. Rhizoma coptidis (RC), known as Huang Lian in China, is the dried rhizome of medicinal plants from the family Ranunculaceae, such as Coptis chinensis Franch, C. deltoidea C.Y. Cheng et Hsiao, and C. teeta Wall which has been used by Chinese medicinal physicians for more than 2000 years. In China, RC is a common component in traditional medicines used to treat CVD associated problems including obesity, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia and disorders of lipid metabolism. In recent years, numerous scientific studies have sought to investigate the biological properties of RC to provide scientific evidence for its traditional medical uses. RC has been found to exert significant beneficial effects on major risk factors for CVDs including anti-atherosclerotic effect, lipid-lowering effect, anti-obesity effect and anti-hepatic steatosis effect. It also has myocardioprotective effect as it provides protection from myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. These properties have been attributed to the presence of bioactive compounds contained in RC such as berberine, coptisine, palmatine, epiberberine, jatrorrhizine, and magnoflorine; all of which have been demonstrated to have cardioprotective effects on the various parameters contributing to the occurrence of CVD through a variety of pathways. The evidence available in the published literature indicates that RC is a herb with tremendous potential to reduce the risks of CVDs, and this review aims to summarize the cardioprotective properties of RC with reference to the published literature which overall indicates that RC is a herb with remarkable potential to reduce the risks and damage caused by CVDs. PMID:27774066

  2. Drug Does Not Improve Set of Cardiovascular Outcomes for Diastolic Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not improve set of cardiovascular outcomes for diastolic heart failure NIH-supported study finds drug does appear to reduce hospitalizations for diastolic heart failure. A drug that blocks the action of a ...

  3. Adiponectin Provides Cardiovascular Protection in Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihisa Okamoto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue plays a central role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Adiponectin (APN is a bioactive adipocytokine secreted from adipocytes. Low plasma APN levels (hypoadiponectinemia are observed among obese individuals and in those with related disorders such as diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. APN ameliorates such disorders. Hypoadiponectinemia is also associated with major cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis and cardiac hypertrophy. Accumulating evidence indicates that APN directly interacts with cardiovascular tissue and prevents cardiovascular pathology. Increasing plasma APN or enhancing APN signal transduction may be an ideal strategy to prevent and treat the cardiovascular diseases associated with metabolic syndrome. However, further studies are required to uncover the precise biological actions of APN.

  4. Noisy fluctuation of heart rate indicates cardiovascular system instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortrat, Jacques-Olivier; Baum, Charlotte; Jeanguillaume, Christian; Custaud, Marc-Antoine

    2013-09-01

    Heart rate spontaneously fluctuates despite homeostatic regulatory mechanisms to stabilize it. Harmonic and fractal fluctuations have been described. Non-harmonic non-fractal fluctuation has not been studied because it is usually thought that it is caused by apparatus noise. We hypothesized that this fluctuation looking like apparatus noise (that we call "noisy fluctuation") is linked to challenged blood pressure stabilization and not to apparatus noise. We assessed noisy fluctuation by quantifying the small and fastest beat-to-beat fluctuation of RR-interval by means of spectral analysis (Nyquist power of heart rate variability: nyHRV) after filtering out its fractal component. We observed nyHRV in healthy supine subjects and in patients with vasovagal symptoms. We challenged stabilization of blood pressure by upright posture (by means of a head-up tilt table test). Head-up position on the tilt table dramatically decreased nyHRV (0.128 ± 0.063 vs. 0.004 ± 0.002, p system is challenged (upright posture). It also indicates cardiovascular instability because it does not disappear in upright patients before vasovagal syncope, a transient failure of cardiovascular regulation.

  5. Myocardial protection during heart surgery in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bingyang Ji; Jinping Liu

    2007-01-01

    @@ Myocardial protection (MP) is the key for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) heart surgery. MP during cardiac surgery (CS) aims to preserve myocardial function while providing a bloodless and motionless operating field. Strategies on how to attenuate or prevent post-ischemic myocardial dysfunction that occurs intra-operatively during CS have been discussed for more than half a century. In 1950, Bigelow et al1 first reported to decrease myocardial oxygen demand by means of hypothermia.

  6. Prognostic significance of cardiovascular biomarkers and renal dysfunction in outpatients with systolic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bosselmann, Helle; Egstrup, Michael; Rossing, Kasper

    2013-01-01

    To assess whether the prognostic significance of cardiovascular (CV) biomarkers, is affected by renal dysfunction (RD) in systolic heart failure (HF).......To assess whether the prognostic significance of cardiovascular (CV) biomarkers, is affected by renal dysfunction (RD) in systolic heart failure (HF)....

  7. Cardiovascular Effects of Caffeine: Misconceptions about caffeine use and caronary heart disease

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Martin G.

    1992-01-01

    A review of the literature on the cardiovascular effects of caffeine indicates that moderate caffeine consumption does not cause cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension, or an increased incidence of coronary heart disease. Caffeine use is often associated with atherogenic behavior, such as cigarette smoking. Failure to take into account covariables for cardiovascular disease could be responsible for commonly held misconceptions about caffeine and heart disease.

  8. Adiponectin Provides Cardiovascular Protection in Metabolic Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshihisa Okamoto

    2011-01-01

    Adipose tissue plays a central role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Adiponectin (APN) is a bioactive adipocytokine secreted from adipocytes. Low plasma APN levels (hypoadiponectinemia) are observed among obese individuals and in those with related disorders such as diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. APN ameliorates such disorders. Hypoadiponectinemia is also associated with major cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis and cardiac hypertrophy. Accumulating evidence...

  9. Freqüência cardíaca e risco cardiovascular Heart rate and cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Machado César

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A freqüência cardíaca (FC também está no centro das determinantes do tempo de vida dos seres vivos animais. Há quase uma constante quando se multiplica a FC pelo número de anos que, em média, vive um animal. O ser humano também tem correlações interessantes de tempo de vida e FC, com estudos epidemiológicos demonstrando maior sobrevivência naqueles com menor FC em repouso, hipertensos, com doença coronariana e na população geral. Neste artigo, revemos estes estudos epidemiológicos e a perspectiva de se, de fato reduzindo a FC, poderemos aumentar o tempo de vida, no caso dos pacientes com doença cardiovascular, de forma independente de outros fatores.Heart rate (HR is known to be one of the factors that in the animal world are related to mortality. When one multiplies resting HR by the average life time, for each animal species, the result is almost the same number, similar to a constant. Apparently, each class of living beings has its "maximal number of heart beats for a life". Herein considerations are made about the relationship between HR and survival in human beings. Some epidemiological studies are reviewed, especially those related to cardiovascular and coronary diseases correlated to deaths and discussions are directed towards the perspective of living longer by lowering the HR.

  10. Protect Your Heart in the Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cholesterol Tools & Resources Congenital Defects Children & Adults About Congenital Heart Defects The Impact of Congenital Heart Defects Understand Your Risk for Congenital Heart Defects Symptoms & ...

  11. [Soya isoflavones and evidences on cardiovascular protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Cañete, Natalia; Durán Agüero, Samuel

    2014-06-01

    Soya isoflavones represent a group of non-nutritive, bioactive compounds, of non-steroidal phenolic nature that are present in soy bean and derived foods. They share with other compounds the capacity of binding to estrogenic receptors from different cells and tissues so that they may act as phytoestrogens. The current interest in these compounds comes from the knowledge that in Asian populations with high levels of their consumption the prevalence of cancer and cardiovascular disease is lower, as compared to the Western countries populations. This cardiovascular benefit would be the result not only of the modulation of plasma lipids, which is a widely studied mechanism. This paper reviews the published evidence about the beneficial effects of soya isoflavones and the different mechanisms of action that would benefit cardiovascular health and that surpass the mechanisms traditionally approached such as the modulation of plasma lipids, and that implicate the regulation of cellular and enzymatic functions in situations such as inflammation, thrombosis, and atherosclerotic progression.

  12. Valvular heart disease: what does cardiovascular MRI add?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masci, Pier G.; Dymarkowski, Steven; Bogaert, Jan [Gasthuisberg University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium)

    2008-02-15

    Although ischemic heart disease remains the leading cause of cardiac-related morbidity and mortality in the industrialized countries, a growing number of mainly elderly patients will experience a problem of valvular heart disease (VHD), often requiring surgical intervention at some stage. Doppler-echocardiography is the most popular imaging modality used in the evaluation of this disease entity. It encompasses, however, some non-negligible constraints which may hamper the quality and thus the interpretation of the exam. Cardiac catheterization has been considered for a long time the reference technique in this field, however, this technique is invasive and considered far from optimal. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is already considered an established diagnostic method for studying ventricular dimensions, function and mass. With improvement of MRI soft- and hardware, the assessment of cardiac valve function has also turned out to be fast, accurate and reproducible. This review focuses on the usefulness of MRI in the diagnosis and management of VHD, pointing out its added value in comparison with more conventional diagnostic means. (orig.)

  13. Cardiovascular protection of magnolol: cell-type specificity and dose-related effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Jennifer

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Magnolia officinalis has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. Magnolol, an active component isolated from Magnolia officinalis, is known to be a cardiovascular protector since 1994. The multiplex mechanisms of magnolol on cardiovascular protection depends on cell types and dosages, and will be reviewed and discussed in this article. Magnolol under low and moderate dosage possesses the ability to protect heart from ischemic/reperfusion injury, reduces atherosclerotic change, protects endothelial cell against apoptosis and inhibits neutrophil-endothelial adhesion. The moderate to high concentration of magnolol mainly acts on smooth muscle cells and platelets. Magnolol induces apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells at moderate concentration and inhibits proliferation at moderate and high concentration. High concentration of magnolol also abrogates platelet activation, aggregation and thrombus formation. Magnolol also serves as an smooth muscle relaxant only upon the high concentration. Oral intake of magnolol to reach the therapeutic level for cardiovascular protection is applicable, thus makes magnolol an agent of great potential for preventing cardiovascular diseases in high-risk patients.

  14. Patients' knowledge of risk and protective factors for cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartak, Siddharth A; Friderici, Jennifer; Lotfi, Amir; Verma, Ashish; Kleppel, Reva; Naglieri-Prescod, Deborah; Rothberg, Michael B

    2011-05-15

    Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. The American Heart Association has proposed improving overall cardiovascular health by promoting 7 components of ideal cardiovascular health, including health behaviors (not smoking, regular exercise, and healthy diet) and health factors (ideal body mass index, cholesterol, blood pressure, and blood glucose). The patients' knowledge of these 7 components is unknown. We performed a cross-sectional survey of patients at 4 primary care and 1 cardiology clinic. The survey measured demographic data, personal behaviors/health factors, cardiovascular disease history, and knowledge about these 7 components. A multivariate model was developed to assess patient characteristics associated with high knowledge scores. Of the 2,200 surveys distributed, 1,702 (77%) were returned with sufficient responses for analysis. Of these, 49% correctly identified heart disease as the leading cause of death, and 37% (95% confidence interval [CI] 35% to 39%) correctly identified all 7 components. The average respondent identified 4.9 components (95% CI 4.7 to 5.0). The lowest recognition rates were for exercise (57%), fruit/vegetable consumption (58%), and diabetes (63%). In a multivariate model, knowledge of all 7 components was positively associated with high school education or greater (odds ratio 2.43, 95% CI 1.68 to 3.52) and white ethnicity (odds ratio 1.78, 95% CI 1.27 to 2.50), and negatively associated with attending an urban neighborhood clinic (odds ratio 0.60, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.82). In conclusion, just >1/3 of patients could identify all 7 components of ideal cardiovascular health. Educational efforts should target patients in low socioeconomic strata and focus on improving knowledge about healthy diet and regular exercise. Although patients with diabetes were more likely than those without diabetes to recognize their risk, 1 in 5 were not aware that diabetes is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

  15. Optimal Vitamin D Supplementation Levels for Cardiovascular Disease Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian T. Lugg; Howells, Phillip A; Thickett, David R.

    2015-01-01

    First described in relation to musculoskeletal disease, there is accumulating data to suggest that vitamin D may play an important role in cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this review we aim to provide an overview of the role of vitamin D status as both a marker of and potentially causative agent of hypertension, coronary artery disease, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease. The role of vitamin D levels as a disease marker for all-cause mortality is also...

  16. Heart valve disease: investigation by cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myerson Saul G

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR has become a valuable investigative tool in many areas of cardiac medicine. Its value in heart valve disease is less well appreciated however, particularly as echocardiography is a powerful and widely available technique in valve disease. This review highlights the added value that CMR can bring in valve disease, complementing echocardiography in many areas, but it has also become the first-line investigation in some, such as pulmonary valve disease and assessing the right ventricle. CMR has many advantages, including the ability to image in any plane, which allows full visualisation of valves and their inflow/outflow tracts, direct measurement of valve area (particularly for stenotic valves, and characterisation of the associated great vessel anatomy (e.g. the aortic root and arch in aortic valve disease. A particular strength is the ability to quantify flow, which allows accurate measurement of regurgitation, cardiac shunt volumes/ratios and differential flow volumes (e.g. left and right pulmonary arteries. Quantification of ventricular volumes and mass is vital for determining the impact of valve disease on the heart, and CMR is the 'Gold standard' for this. Limitations of the technique include partial volume effects due to image slice thickness, and a low ability to identify small, highly mobile objects (such as vegetations due to the need to acquire images over several cardiac cycles. The review examines the advantages and disadvantages of each imaging aspect in detail, and considers how CMR can be used optimally for each valve lesion.

  17. Exercise protects the cardiovascular system: effects beyond traditional risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Michael J; Green, Daniel J

    2009-12-01

    In humans, exercise training and moderate to high levels of physical activity are protective against cardiovascular disease. In fact they are 40% more protective than predicted based on the changes in traditional risk factors (blood lipids, hypertension, diabetes etc.) that they cause. In this review, we highlight the positive effects of exercise on endothelial function and the autonomic nervous system. We also ask if these effects alone, or in combination, might explain the protective effects of exercise against cardiovascular disease that appear to be independent of traditional risk factor modification. Our goal is to use selected data from our own work and that of others to stimulate debate on the nature and cause of the 'risk factor gap' associated with exercise and physical activity.

  18. Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease: Original Insights from the Framingham Heart Study

    OpenAIRE

    Qazi, Mohammad U.; Malik, Shaista

    2013-01-01

    The role of diabetes in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD) was unclear until 1979 when Kannel et al used data from the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) to identify diabetes as a major cardiovascular risk factor. It was also one of the first studies to demonstrate the higher risk of CVD in women with diabetes compared to men with diabetes. Since then, multiple studies have been done to recognize and curtail cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking, obesity, hypertension, hyperlipi...

  19. Chemokines and Heart Disease: A Network Connecting Cardiovascular Biology to Immune and Autonomic Nervous Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Veronica Dusi; Alice Ghidoni; Alice Ravera; De Ferrari, Gaetano M.; Laura Calvillo

    2016-01-01

    Among the chemokines discovered to date, nineteen are presently considered to be relevant in heart disease and are involved in all stages of cardiovascular response to injury. Chemokines are interesting as biomarkers to predict risk of cardiovascular events in apparently healthy people and as possible therapeutic targets. Moreover, they could have a role as mediators of crosstalk between immune and cardiovascular system, since they seem to act as a “working-network” in deep linkage with the a...

  20. Protective actions of melatonin and growth hormone on the aged cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Sergio D; Forman, Katherine A; García, Cruz; Vara, Elena; Escames, Germaine; Tresguerres, Jesús A F

    2014-05-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that certain aspects of lifestyle and genetics act as risk factors for a variety of cardiovascular disorders, including coronary disease, hypertension, heart failure and stroke. Aging, however, appears to be the major contributor for morbidity and mortality of the impaired cardiovascular system. Growth hormone (GH) and melatonin seem to prevent cardiac aging, as they contribute to the recovery of several physiological parameters affected by age. These hormones exhibit antioxidant properties and decrease oxidative stress and apoptosis. This paper summarizes a set of studies related to the potential role that therapy with GH and melatonin may play in the protection of the altered cardiac function due to aging, with a focus on experiments performed in our laboratory using the senescence-accelerated mouse as an aging model. In general, we observed significantly increased inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis markers in hearts from senescence-accelerated prone 10-month-old animals compared to 2-month-old controls, while anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic markers as well as endothelial nitric oxide synthase were decreased. Senescence-accelerated resistant animals showed no significant changes with age. GH or melatonin treatment prevented the age-dependent cardiac alterations observed in the senescence-accelerated prone group. Combined administration of GH plus melatonin reduced the age-related changes in senescence-accelerated prone hearts in an additive fashion that was different to that displayed when administered alone. GH and melatonin may be potential agents for counteracting oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammation in the aging heart.

  1. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in the evaluation of heart failure: a luxury or a need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, Antonello; Fontana, Marianna; Cocchia, Rosangela; Scarafile, Raffaella; Calabrò, Raffaele; Moon, James C

    2012-01-01

    Heart failure is a common syndrome with multiple causes. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), using the available range of technique, is establishing itself as the gold standard noninvasive test for determining the underlying causes, and adding prognostic value, guiding therapy. Progress is continuing and rapid with promising new techniques such as diffuse fibrosis assessment. This article discusses the diverse roles of CMR in heart failure.

  2. Clinical impact of evaluation of cardiovascular control by novel methods of heart rate dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huikuri, Heikki V; Perkiömäki, Juha S; Maestri, Roberto; Pinna, Gian Domenico

    2009-04-13

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has been conventionally analysed with time- and frequency-domain methods, which measure the overall magnitude of RR interval fluctuations around its mean value or the magnitude of fluctuations in some predetermined frequencies. Analysis of heart rate dynamics by novel methods, such as heart rate turbulence after ventricular premature beats, deceleration capacity of heart rate and methods based on chaos theory and nonlinear system theory, have gained recent interest. Recent observational studies have suggested that some indices describing nonlinear heart rate dynamics, such as fractal scaling exponents, heart rate turbulence and deceleration capacity, may provide useful prognostic information in various clinical settings and their reproducibility may be better than that of traditional indices. For example, the short-term fractal scaling exponent measured by the detrended fluctuation analysis method has been shown to predict fatal cardiovascular events in various populations. Similarly, heart rate turbulence and deceleration capacity have performed better than traditional HRV measures in predicting mortality in post-infarction patients. Approximate entropy, a nonlinear index of heart rate dynamics, which describes the complexity of RR interval behaviour, has provided information on the vulnerability to atrial fibrillation. There are many other nonlinear indices which also give information on the characteristics of heart rate dynamics, but their clinical usefulness is not as well established. Although the concepts of nonlinear dynamics, fractal mathematics and complexity measures of heart rate behaviour, heart rate turbulence, deceleration capacity in relation to cardiovascular physiology or various cardiovascular events are still far away from clinical medicine, they are a fruitful area for research to expand our knowledge concerning the behaviour of cardiovascular oscillations in normal healthy conditions as well as in disease states.

  3. Protective Role of the ACE2/Ang-(1–9 Axis in Cardiovascular Remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Paz Ocaranza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite reduction in cardiovascular (CV events and end-organ damage with the current pharmacologic strategies, CV disease remains the primary cause of death in the world. Pharmacological therapies based on the renin angiotensin system (RAS blockade are used extensively for the treatment of hypertension, heart failure, and CV remodeling but in spite of their success the prevalence of end-organ damage and residual risk remain still high. Novel approaches must be discovered for a more effective treatment of residual CV remodeling and risk. The ACE2/Ang-(1–9 axis is a new and important target to counterbalance the vasoconstrictive/proliferative RAS axis. Ang-(1–9 is hydrolyzed slower than Ang-(1–7 and is able to bind the Ang II type 2 receptor. We review here the current experimental evidence suggesting that activation of the ACE2/Ang-(1–9 axis protects the heart and vessels (and possibly the kidney from adverse cardiovascular remodeling in hypertension as well as in heart failure.

  4. Heart Rate and Cardiovascular Disease: An Alternative to Beta Blockers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Liang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ivabradine, an If inhibitor, acts primarily on the sinoatrial node and is used to reduce the heart rate with minimal effect on myocardial contractility, blood pressure, and intracardiac conduction. Heart rate reduction is an important aspect of care in patients with chronic stable angina and heart failure. Many patients with coronary artery disease have coexisting asthma or chronic obstructive airway disease, and most of them are unable to tolerate beta blockers. Ivabradine may thus be a useful medicine in therapeutic heart rate management especially in patients who are intolerant of beta-blockers.

  5. Ozone protects rat heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury: A role for oxidative preconditioning in attenuating mitochondrial injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Weixin; Xu, Ying; Li, Dandan; Zhu, Erjun; Deng, Li; Liu, Zonghong; Zhang, Guowei; Liu, Hongyu

    2017-04-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a major cause of cardiac dysfunction during cardiovascular surgery, heart transplantation and cardiopulmonary bypass procedures. The purpose of the present study was to explore, firstly, whether ozone induces oxidative preconditioning by activation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) and, secondly, whether ozone oxidative preconditioning (OzoneOP) can protect the heart against IRI by attenuating mitochondrial damage. Rats were subjected to 30min of cardiac ischemia followed by 2h of reperfusion, with or without prior OzoneOP (100μg/kg/day) for 5 days. Antioxidant capacity, myocardial apoptosis and mitochondrial damage were evaluated and compared at the end of reperfusion. OzoneOP was found to increase antioxidant capacity and to protect the myocardium against IRI by attenuating mitochondrial damage and myocardial apoptosis. The study suggests a potential role for OzoneOP in protecting the heart against IRI during cardiovascular surgery, cardiopulmonary bypass procedures or transplantation.

  6. Heart rate control with adrenergic blockade: Clinical outcomes in cardiovascular medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Feldman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available David Feldman1, Terry S Elton2, Doron M Menachemi3, Randy K Wexler41Heart Failure/Transplant and VAD Programs, Minneapolis Heart Institute, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA; 2Division of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA; 3Heart Failure Services, Edith Wolfson Medical Center, The Heart Institute, Sakler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Holon, Israel; 4Department of Clinical Family Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USAAbstract: The sympathetic nervous system is involved in regulating various cardiovascular parameters including heart rate (HR and HR variability. Aberrant sympathetic nervous system expression may result in elevated HR or decreased HR variability, and both are independent risk factors for development of cardiovascular disease, including heart failure, myocardial infarction, and hypertension. Epidemiologic studies have established that impaired HR control is linked to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. One successful way of decreasing HR and cardiovascular mortality has been by utilizing β-blockers, because their ability to alter cell signaling at the receptor level has been shown to mitigate the pathogenic effects of sympathetic nervous system hyperactivation. Numerous clinical studies have demonstrated that β-blocker-mediated HR control improvements are associated with decreased mortality in postinfarct and heart failure patients. Although improved HR control benefits have yet to be established in hypertension, both traditional and vasodilating β-blockers exert positive HR control effects in this patient population. However, differences exist between traditional and vasodilating β-blockers; the latter reduce peripheral vascular resistance and exert neutral or positive effects on important metabolic parameters. Clinical evidence suggests that attainment of HR control is an important treatment objective for patients with cardiovascular

  7. Vitamin D receptor signaling in renal and cardiovascular protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan Chun

    2013-09-01

    The high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in patients with chronic kidney disease is believed to be an important risk factor for the cardiorenal syndrome commonly seen in this patient population. African Americans suffer a disproportionally high incidence of renal and cardiovascular disease with poor disease outcome, which may be partly attributed to their low vitamin D status in part owing to low subcutaneous photoproduction of vitamin D. Mounting evidence from animal and clinical studies has shown beneficial effects of vitamin D therapy on the renal and cardiovascular systems, and the underlying renoprotective and cardioprotective mechanisms of vitamin D receptor (VDR)-mediated signaling are under intense investigation. In this article, our most recent understanding of the renal protective mechanism of the podocyte VDR signaling against diabetic nephropathy and the anti-atherosclerotic role of macrophage VDR signaling in the regulation of atherosclerosis is reviewed.

  8. The Framingham Heart Study, on its way to becoming the gold standard for Cardiovascular Genetic Epidemiology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaquish Cashell E

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Framingham Heart Study, founded in 1948 to examine the epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in a small town outside of Boston, has become the worldwide standard for cardiovascular epidemiology. It is among the longest running, most comprehensively characterized multi-generational studies in the world. Such seminal findings as the effects of smoking and high cholesterol on heart disease came from the Framingham Heart Study. At the time of publication these were novel cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors, now they are the basis of treatment and prevention in the US. Is the Framingham study now on it's way to becoming the gold standard for genetic epidemiology of CVD? Will the novel genetic findings of today become the health care standards of tomorrow? The accompanying articles summarizing the results of genome-wide association studies (GWAS give the reader a first glimpse into the possibilities.

  9. [Broader indication for treatment with statins; the 'heart protection study'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stalenhoef, A.F.H.; Stuyt, P.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    The introduction of statins has been a breakthrough in the treatment of hypercholesterolaemia. Statins are safe and effective in reducing the risk of coronary heart disease in the general population. The 'Heart protection study' has provided evidence for the benefit of statin treatment in much broad

  10. Aldosterone does not predict cardiovascular events following acute coronary syndrome in patients initially without heart failure

    OpenAIRE

    Pitts, Reynaria; Gunzburger, Elise; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Barter, Philip J.; Kallend, David; Leiter, Lawrence A.; Leitersdorf, Eran; Nicholls, Stephen J.; Prediman K Shah; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Olsson, Anders G.; McMurray, John J.V.; Kittelson, John; Schwartz, Gregory G.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Aldosterone may have adverse effects in the myocardium and vasculature. Treatment with an aldosterone antagonist reduces cardiovascular risk in patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by heart failure (HF) and left ventricular systolic dysfunction. However, most patients with acute coronary syndrome do not have advanced HF. Among such patients, it is unknown whether aldosterone predicts cardiovascular risk.\\ud \\ud Methods and Results: To address this question, we exa...

  11. Nonlinear systems dynamics in cardiovascular physiology: The heart rate delay map and lower body negative pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, John C.

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary study of the applicability of nonlinear dynamic systems analysis techniques to low body negative pressure (LBNP) studies. In particular, the applicability of the heart rate delay map is investigated. It is suggested that the heart rate delay map has potential as a supplemental tool in the assessment of subject performance in LBNP tests and possibly in the determination of susceptibility to cardiovascular deconditioning with spaceflight.

  12. Cardiovascular cast model fabrication and casting effectiveness evaluation in fetus with severe congenital heart disease or normal heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Cao, Hai-yan; Xie, Ming-xing; He, Lin; Han, Wei; Hong, Liu; Peng, Yuan; Hu, Yun-fei; Song, Ben-cai; Wang, Jing; Wang, Bin; Deng, Cheng

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the application and effectiveness of vascular corrosion technique in preparing fetal cardiovascular cast models, 10 normal fetal heart specimens with other congenital disease (control group) and 18 specimens with severe congenital heart disease (case group) from induced abortions were enrolled in this study from March 2013 to June 2015 in our hospital. Cast models were prepared by injecting casting material into vascular lumen to demonstrate real geometries of fetal cardiovascular system. Casting effectiveness was analyzed in terms of local anatomic structures and different anatomical levels (including overall level, atrioventricular and great vascular system, left-sided and right-sided heart), as well as different trimesters of pregnancy. In our study, all specimens were successfully casted. Casting effectiveness analysis of local anatomic structures showed a mean score from 1.90±1.45 to 3.60±0.52, without significant differences between case and control groups in most local anatomic structures except left ventricle, which had a higher score in control group (P=0.027). Inter-group comparison of casting effectiveness in different anatomical levels showed no significant differences between the two groups. Intra-group comparison also revealed undifferentiated casting effectiveness between atrioventricular and great vascular system, or left-sided and right-sided heart in corresponding group. Third-trimester group had a significantly higher perfusion score in great vascular system than second-trimester group (P=0.046), while the other anatomical levels displayed no such difference. Vascular corrosion technique can be successfully used in fabrication of fetal cardiovascular cast model. It is also a reliable method to demonstrate three-dimensional anatomy of severe congenital heart disease and normal heart in fetus.

  13. How to protect the heart in septic shock: a hypothesis on the pathophysiology and treatment of septic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmittinger, Christian A; Wurzinger, Bettina; Deutinger, Martina; Wohlmuth, Christoph; Knotzer, Hans; Torgersen, Christian; Dünser, Martin W; Hasibeder, Walter R

    2010-03-01

    Heart failure is a well-recognized manifestation of organ failure in sepsis and septic shock. The pathophysiology of septic heart failure is complex and currently believed to involve several mechanisms. So far, the contributory role of high plasma catecholamine levels has not been investigated. In this manuscript, we present a hypothesis suggesting that excessive catecholamine production and exogenous administration of catecholamines may relevantly contribute to the development of heart failure and cardiovascular collapse in patients suffering from septic shock. Substantially elevated plasma catecholamine levels were measured during critical illness and sepsis or septic shock. There is a growing body of clinical and experimental evidence demonstrating that high catecholamine plasma levels exert direct toxic effects on the heart. The pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in catecholamine-induced cardiomyocyte toxicity may involve a combination of inflammation, oxidative stress, and abnormal calcium handling resulting in myocardial stunning, apoptosis and necrosis. Clinical signs of catecholamine-induced heart failure can present with a wide range of symptoms reaching from subtle histological changes with preserved myocardial pump function to severe heart failure exhibiting a distinctive echocardiographic pattern which became known as "Takotsubo"-like cardiomyopathy or the left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome. In a medical intensive care unit patient population, presence of sepsis was the only variable associated with the development of left ventricular apical ballooning. Since several therapeutic interventions influence catecholamine plasma levels in septic shock patients, treatment strategies aiming at the reduction of endogenous or exogenous catecholamine exposure may protect the heart during septic shock and could facilitate patient survival.

  14. Erythropoietin in heart failure : pathology and protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westenbrink, Berend Daan

    2008-01-01

    Anemia is common in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients and related to impaired survival. The etiology of anemia in CHF-patients is often unknown. We hypothesized that dysregulation of erythropoietin (EPO) synthesis by the kidney or an altered sensitivity of the bone marrow to EPO might represent c

  15. Risk Prediction of Cardiovascular Complications in Pregnant Women With Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Carvalho Martins

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Heart disease in pregnancy is the leading cause of non- obstetric maternal death. Few Brazilian studies have assessed the impact of heart disease during pregnancy. Objective: To determine the risk factors associated with cardiovascular and neonatal complications. Methods: We evaluated 132 pregnant women with heart disease at a High-Risk Pregnancy outpatient clinic, from January 2005 to July 2010. Variables that could influence the maternal-fetal outcome were selected: age, parity, smoking, etiology and severity of the disease, previous cardiac complications, cyanosis, New York Heart Association (NYHA functional class > II, left ventricular dysfunction/obstruction, arrhythmia, drug treatment change, time of prenatal care beginning and number of prenatal visits. The maternal-fetal risk index, Cardiac Disease in Pregnancy (CARPREG, was retrospectively calculated at the beginning of prenatal care, and patients were stratified in its three risk categories. Results: Rheumatic heart disease was the most prevalent (62.12%. The most frequent complications were heart failure (11.36% and arrhythmias (6.82%. Factors associated with cardiovascular complications on multivariate analysis were: drug treatment change (p = 0.009, previous cardiac complications (p = 0.013 and NYHA class III on the first prenatal visit (p = 0.041. The cardiovascular complication rates were 15.22% in CARPREG 0, 16.42% in CARPREG 1, and 42.11% in CARPREG > 1, differing from those estimated by the original index: 5%, 27% and 75%, respectively. This sample had 26.36% of prematurity. Conclusion: The cardiovascular complication risk factors in this population were drug treatment change, previous cardiac complications and NYHA class III at the beginning of prenatal care. The CARPREG index used in this sample composed mainly of patients with rheumatic heart disease overestimated the number of events in pregnant women classified as CARPREG 1 and > 1, and underestimated

  16. Acute and long-term cardiovascular effects of coffee: implications for coronary heart disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riksen, N.P.; Rongen, G.A.P.J.M.; Smits, P.

    2009-01-01

    Despite decades of research, the question as to whether coffee intake increases the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) remains controversial. In the current paper, we discuss the acute and long-term cardiovascular effects of coffee, and its major constituents, which could underlie such an associat

  17. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Structural and Valvular Heart Disease Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, João L; Lalude, Omosalewa O; Schoenhagen, Paul; Lerakis, Stamatios

    2016-03-14

    The field of percutaneous interventions for the treatment of structural and valvular heart diseases has been expanding rapidly in the last 5 years. Noninvasive cardiac imaging has been a critical part of the planning, procedural guidance, and follow-up of these procedures. Although echocardiography and cardiovascular computed tomography are the most commonly used and studied imaging techniques in this field today, advances in cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging continue to provide important contributions in the comprehensive assessment and management of these patients. In this comprehensive paper, we will review and demonstrate how cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging can be used to assist in diagnosis, treatment planning, and follow-up of patients who are being considered for and/or who have undergone interventions for structural and valvular heart diseases.

  18. Implementing a Graduate Certificate Program in Cardiovascular Epidemiology: The Jackson Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda W. Campbell Jenkins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Jackson Heart Study (JHS is committed to providing opportunities for expanding the understanding of the epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The JHS Graduate Training and Education Center (GTEC has initiated the Daniel Hale Williams Scholar (DHWS program where students are afforded the opportunity to interact with epidemiologists and other biomedical scientists to learn to identify, predict, and prevent cardiovascular disease using the Jackson Heart Study data. This study describes the structured programs developed by JHS GTEC seeking to alleviate the shortage of trained professionals in cardiovascular epidemiology by training graduate students while they complete their academic degrees. The DHWS program provides: (1 an enrichment curriculum; (2 a learning community; (3 quarterly seminars; and (4 a Summer Institute. Students attend enrichment activities comprising: (1 Applied Biostatistics; (2 Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiology; (3 Social Epidemiology; (4 Emerging Topics; and (5 Research Writing. Training focuses on developing proficiency in cardiovascular health knowledge. The DHWS program is a unique strategy for incorporating rigorous academic and career-focused training to graduate students and has enabled the acquisition of competencies needed to impact cardiovascular disease management programs.

  19. Implementing a Graduate Certificate Program in Cardiovascular Epidemiology: The Jackson Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell Jenkins, Brenda W; Addison, Clifton; Wilson, Gregory; Young, Lavon; Fields, Regina; Woodberry, Clevette; Payton, Marinelle

    2015-12-22

    The Jackson Heart Study (JHS) is committed to providing opportunities for expanding the understanding of the epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The JHS Graduate Training and Education Center (GTEC) has initiated the Daniel Hale Williams Scholar (DHWS) program where students are afforded the opportunity to interact with epidemiologists and other biomedical scientists to learn to identify, predict, and prevent cardiovascular disease using the Jackson Heart Study data. This study describes the structured programs developed by JHS GTEC seeking to alleviate the shortage of trained professionals in cardiovascular epidemiology by training graduate students while they complete their academic degrees. The DHWS program provides: (1) an enrichment curriculum; (2) a learning community; (3) quarterly seminars; and (4) a Summer Institute. Students attend enrichment activities comprising: (1) Applied Biostatistics; (2) Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiology; (3) Social Epidemiology; (4) Emerging Topics; and (5) Research Writing. Training focuses on developing proficiency in cardiovascular health knowledge. The DHWS program is a unique strategy for incorporating rigorous academic and career-focused training to graduate students and has enabled the acquisition of competencies needed to impact cardiovascular disease management programs.

  20. Cardiovascular microRNAs: as modulators and diagnostic biomarkers of diabetic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Shruti; Manning, Patrick; Katare, Rajesh

    2014-02-14

    Diabetic heart disease (DHD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among the people with diabetes, with approximately 80% of the deaths in diabetics are due to cardiovascular complications. Importantly, heart disease in the diabetics develop at a much earlier stage, although remaining asymptomatic till the later stage of the disease, thereby restricting its early detection and active therapeutic management. Thus, a better understanding of the modulators involved in the pathophysiology of DHD is necessary for the early diagnosis and development of novel therapeutic implications for diabetes-associated cardiovascular complications. microRNAs (miRs) have recently been evolved as key players in the various cardiovascular events through the regulation of cardiac gene expression. Besides their credible involvement in controlling the cellular processes, they are also released in to the circulation in disease states where they serve as potential diagnostic biomarkers for cardiovascular disease. However, their potential role in DHD as modulators as well as diagnostic biomarkers is largely unexplored. In this review, we describe the putative mechanisms of the selected cardiovascular miRs in relation to cardiovascular diseases and discuss their possible involvement in the pathophysiology and early diagnosis of DHD.

  1. Differential protection against oxidative stress and nitric oxide overproduction in cardiovascular and pulmonary systems by propofol during endotoxemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yen-Chin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both overproduction of nitric oxide (NO and oxidative injury of cardiovascular and pulmonary systems contribute to fatal cardiovascular depression during endotoxemia. We investigated in the present study the relative contribution of oxidative stress and NO to cardiovascular depression during different stages of endotoxemia, and delineated their roles in cardiovascular protective effects of a commonly used anesthetic propofol during endotoxemia. Methods Experimental endotoxemia was induced by systemic injection of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 15 mg/kg to Sprague-Dawley rats that were maintained under propofol (15 or 30 mg/kg/h, i.v. anesthesia. Mean systemic arterial pressure (MSAP and heart rate (HR were monitored for 6 h after the endotoxin. Tissue level of NO was measured by chemical reduction-linked chemiluminescence and oxidative burst activity was determined using dihydroethidium method. Expression of NO synthase (NOS was determined by immunoblotting. The Scheffé multiple range test was used for post hoc statistical analysis. Results Systemic injection of LPS (15 mg/kg induced biphasic decreases in MSAP and HR. In the heart, lung and aorta, an abrupt increase in lipid peroxidation, our experimental index of oxidative tissue injury, was detected in early stage and sustained during late stage cardiovascular depression. LPS injection, on the other hand, induced a gradual increase in tissue nitrite and nitrate levels in the same organs that peaked during late stage endotoxemia. Propofol infusion (15 or 30 mg/kg/h, i.v. significantly attenuated lipid peroxidation in the heart, lung and aorta during early and late stage endotoxemia. High dose (30 mg/kg/h, i.v. propofol also reversed the LPS-induced inducible NO synthase (iNOS upregulation and NO production in the aorta, alongside a significant amelioration of late stage cardiovascular depression and increase in survival time during endotoxemia. Conclusion Together these

  2. Exercise mediated protection of diabetic heart through modulation of microRNA mediated molecular pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Jason Kar Sheng; Pearson, James T; Schwenke, Daryl O; Katare, Rajesh

    2017-01-13

    Hyperglycaemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance collectively impact on the myocardium of people with diabetes, triggering molecular, structural and myocardial abnormalities. These have been suggested to aggravate oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, myocardial lipotoxicity and impaired myocardial substrate utilization. As a consequence, this leads to the development of a spectrum of cardiovascular diseases, which may include but not limited to coronary endothelial dysfunction, and left ventricular remodelling and dysfunction. Diabetic heart disease (DHD) is the term used to describe the presence of heart disease specifically in diabetic patients. Despite significant advances in medical research and long clinical history of anti-diabetic medications, the risk of heart failure in people with diabetes never declines. Interestingly, sustainable and long-term exercise regimen has emerged as an effective synergistic therapy to combat the cardiovascular complications in people with diabetes, although the precise molecular mechanism(s) underlying this protection remain unclear. This review provides an overview of the underlying mechanisms of hyperglycaemia- and insulin resistance-mediated DHD with a detailed discussion on the role of different intensities of exercise in mitigating these molecular alterations in diabetic heart. In particular, we provide the possible role of exercise on microRNAs, the key molecular regulators of several pathophysiological processes.

  3. Sedentary Behavior and Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality: A Science Advisory From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Deborah Rohm; Hivert, Marie-France; Alhassan, Sofiya; Camhi, Sarah M; Ferguson, Jane F; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Lewis, Cora E; Owen, Neville; Perry, Cynthia K; Siddique, Juned; Yong, Celina M

    2016-09-27

    Epidemiological evidence is accumulating that indicates greater time spent in sedentary behavior is associated with all-cause and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in adults such that some countries have disseminated broad guidelines that recommend minimizing sedentary behaviors. Research examining the possible deleterious consequences of excess sedentary behavior is rapidly evolving, with the epidemiology-based literature ahead of potential biological mechanisms that might explain the observed associations. This American Heart Association science advisory reviews the current evidence on sedentary behavior in terms of assessment methods, population prevalence, determinants, associations with cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality, potential underlying mechanisms, and interventions. Recommendations for future research on this emerging cardiovascular health topic are included. Further evidence is required to better inform public health interventions and future quantitative guidelines on sedentary behavior and cardiovascular health outcomes.

  4. Renal protection in cardiovascular surgery [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Di Tomasso

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is one of the most relevant complications after major surgery and is a predictor of mortality. In Western countries, patients at risk of developing AKI are mainly those undergoing cardiovascular surgical procedures. In this category of patients, AKI depends on a multifactorial etiology, including low ejection fraction, use of contrast media, hemodynamic instability, cardiopulmonary bypass, and bleeding. Despite a growing body of literature, the treatment of renal failure remains mainly supportive (e.g. hemodynamic stability, fluid management, and avoidance of further damage; therefore, the management of patients at risk of AKI should aim at prevention of renal damage. Thus, the present narrative review analyzes the pathophysiology underlying AKI (specifically in high-risk patients, the preoperative risk factors that predispose to renal damage, early biomarkers related to AKI, and the strategies employed for perioperative renal protection. The most recent scientific evidence has been considered, and whenever conflicting data were encountered possible suggestions are provided.

  5. HEART RATE VARIABILITY AS THE ADAPTATION RESERVE INDICATOR OF CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksana Kotava

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The efectiveness of the vegetative regulation action might be controlled by the method of heart rate variability (HRV, which has been very popularly used over the last 10 years worldwide. The analysis of many clinical studies indicates that the severity of the disease might be controlled using the method of HRV. Material and methods: All the experimental and controlled group participants, which consisted of healthy students with none sports experience, underwent the examination according to the 5-minute standard protocol of HRV. In addition, all the examinees performed a bicycle stress test. After the bicycle stress test, some additional tests of HRV were also carried out. Results: It was found that some signifcant diferences, between the group of sportsmen and the group of patients, exist. The parasympathetic activity of LF is maximum in athletes and tends to decrease in patients with cardiovascular pathologies. The decreases of the activity of the vasomotor centre was noticed in both study groups. The sympathetic system activity was the lowest in athletes. Conclusions: At the high depression of the vegetative regulation, any signifcant load (physical or psycho-emotional indicates cardiovascular instability which remains beyond the capacity of adaptation. The higher the variability, the more stable the CVS is to the external loads. A sharp decrease of the variability, such as the heart vegetative innervations, causes deteriorating quality of the regulatory mechanisms and, as a result, the risk of cardiovascular diseases increases. Keywords: heart rate variability, deterministic and stochastic loads, cardiovascular system

  6. The Association between Neuroticism and Heart Rate Variability Is Not Fully Explained by Cardiovascular Disease and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čukić, Iva; Bates, Timothy C

    2015-01-01

    Neuroticism is associated with cardiovascular disease, autonomic reactivity, and depression. Here we address the extent to which neuroticism accounts for the excess heart disease risk associated with depression and test whether cardiac autonomic tone plays a role as mediator. Subjects were derived from a nationally representative sample (n = 1,255: mean age 54.5, SD = 11.5). Higher neuroticism was associated with reduced heart rate variability equally under rest and stress. The baseline structural equation model revealed significant paths from neuroticism to heart rate variability, cardiovascular disease and depression, and between depression and cardiovascular disease, controlling for age, sex, height, weight, and BMI. Dropping both the neuroticism to heart rate variability, and neuroticism to heart disease paths significantly reduced the model fit (p neuroticism has independent associations with both autonomic reactivity and cardiovascular disease, over and above its associations with depression and other related variables.

  7. Cardiovascular Health Promotion in Children: Challenges and Opportunities for 2020 and Beyond: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberger, Julia; Daniels, Stephen R; Hagberg, Nancy; Isasi, Carmen R; Kelly, Aaron S; Lloyd-Jones, Donald; Pate, Russell R; Pratt, Charlotte; Shay, Christina M; Towbin, Jeffrey A; Urbina, Elaine; Van Horn, Linda V; Zachariah, Justin P

    2016-09-20

    This document provides a pediatric-focused companion to "Defining and Setting National Goals for Cardiovascular Health Promotion and Disease Reduction: The American Heart Association's Strategic Impact Goal Through 2020 and Beyond," focused on cardiovascular health promotion and disease reduction in adults and children. The principles detailed in the document reflect the American Heart Association's new dynamic and proactive goal to promote cardiovascular health throughout the life course. The primary focus is on adult cardiovascular health and disease prevention, but critical to achievement of this goal is maintenance of ideal cardiovascular health from birth through childhood to young adulthood and beyond. Emphasis is placed on the fundamental principles and metrics that define cardiovascular health in children for the clinical or research setting, and a balanced and critical appraisal of the strengths and weaknesses of the cardiovascular health construct in children and adolescents is provided. Specifically, this document discusses 2 important factors: the promotion of ideal cardiovascular health in all children and the improvement of cardiovascular health metric scores in children currently classified as having poor or intermediate cardiovascular health. Other topics include the current status of cardiovascular health in US children, opportunities for the refinement of health metrics, improvement of health metric scores, and possibilities for promoting ideal cardiovascular health. Importantly, concerns about the suitability of using single thresholds to identify elevated cardiovascular risk throughout the childhood years and the limits of our current knowledge are noted, and suggestions for future directions and research are provided.

  8. MR evaluation of cardiovascular physiology in congenital heart disease: flow and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Oliver M; Higgins, Charles B

    2006-01-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has become the method of choice in the evaluation of a number of questions in congenital heart disease. In addition to morphology, modern CMR techniques allow the visualization of function and flow in a temporally resolved manner. Among the pathologies where these methods play a major role are shunts, septal defects, aortic coarctation, anomalies of the pulmonary arteries, and valvular regurgitation. This paper explains the basics of functional and flow encoded CMR and discusses their application in the assessment of several types of congenital heart disease.

  9. Plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine and cardiovascular events in patients with acute decompensated heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dückelmann, Christina; Mittermayer, Friedrich; Haider, Dominik G; Altenberger, Johann; Wolzt, Michael

    2008-07-01

    This prospective study investigated whether plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) concentrations are related to cardiovascular events in patients with acute heart failure. It has been reported that increased plasma ADMA concentrations are associated with adverse cardiovascular outcome in chronic heart failure. In 118 patients with acute decompensated heart failure and impaired left ventricular function, ADMA and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography and by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Venous blood was collected at admission and after 1 week, and clinical events were observed during follow-up. All patients (median age 73 years, 96 males) were followed up for a median of 10.7 months. A clinical endpoint (cardiac decompensation, major adverse cardiovascular event, or all-cause mortality) occurred in 66 patients. In 81 patients, changes (Delta) in ADMA or NT-proBNP between admission and a median of 7 days were available. ADMA, NT-proBNP at admission, and DeltaADMA or DeltaNT-proBNP were comparable in patients with and without a clinical endpoint. In contrast to ADMA, NT-proBNP concentrations above the median were associated with higher adjusted hazard ratio for occurrence of an endpoint (HR 2.1; 95% confidence interval 1.2-3.9; P = 0.013). An inverse relationship was observed between DeltaNT-proBNP and endpoints before (P = 0.010) and after (P = 0.015) adjustment for confounders. In patients with acute heart failure, ADMA did not detect patients at future cardiovascular risk.

  10. [Gliptins, cardiovascular safety and congestive heart failure: state of the art after TECOS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheen, A J

    2015-08-26

    The cardiovascular safety of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (gliptins) has been well studied. Favourable effects of these oral antidiabetic agents have been reported in meta-analyses of phase II-III randomised controlled trials. Three large prospective trials, which were specifically designed to investigate cardiovascular safety, showed non-inferiority of saxagliptin (SAVOR-TIMI 53), alogliptin (EXA-MINE) and sitagliptin (TECOS) versus placebo as far as major cardiovascular events are concerned, including mortality. The suspected increase in the rate of hospitalisation due to congestive heart failure reported in SAVOR-TIMI 53 was neither found in EXAMINE nor recently confirmed in TECOS. Direct comparative trials, evaluating not only safety but also efficacy, with other oral antidiabetic medications would be of major interest.

  11. Left Ventricular Wall Stress-Mass-Heart Rate Product and Cardiovascular Events in Treated Hypertensive Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devereux, Richard B; Bang, Casper N; Roman, Mary J;

    2015-01-01

    In the Losartan Intervention for End Point Reduction in Hypertension (LIFE) study, 4.8 years' losartan- versus atenolol-based antihypertensive treatment reduced left ventricular hypertrophy and cardiovascular end points, including cardiovascular death and stroke. However, there was no difference...... randomized treatment, the triple product was reduced more by atenolol, with prevalences of elevated triple product of 39% versus 51% on losartan (both P≤0.001). In Cox regression analyses adjusting for age, smoking, diabetes mellitus, and prior stroke, MI, and heart failure, 1 SD lower triple product...... was associated with 23% (95% confidence interval 13%-32%) fewer composite end points, 31% (18%-41%) less cardiovascular mortality, 30% (15%-41%) lower MI, and 22% (11%-33%) lower all-cause mortality (all P≤0.001), without association with stroke (P=0.34). Although losartan-based therapy reduced ventricular mass...

  12. Cardiovascular protection of deep-seawater drinking water in high-fat/cholesterol fed hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chin-Lin; Chang, Yuan-Yen; Chiu, Chih-Hsien; Yang, Kuo-Tai; Wang, Yu; Fu, Shih-Guei; Chen, Yi-Chen

    2011-08-01

    Cardiovascular protection of deep-seawater (DSW) drinking water was assessed using high-fat/cholesterol-fed hamsters in this study. All hamsters were fed a high-fat/cholesterol diet (12% fat/0.2% cholesterol), and drinking solutions were normal distiled water (NDW, hardness: 2.48ppm), DSW300 (hardness: 324.5ppm), DSW900 (hardness: 858.5ppm), and DSW1500 (hardness: 1569.0ppm), respectively. After a 6-week feeding period, body weight, heart rates, and blood pressures of hamsters were not influenced by DSW drinking waters. Serum total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TAG), atherogenic index, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were decreased (pdrinking-water groups, as compared to those in the NDW group. Additionally, increased (pdrinking-water groups. Hepatic low-density-lipoprotein receptor (LDL receptor) and cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) gene expressions were upregulated (pdrinking waters. These results demonstrate that DSW drinking water benefits the attenuation of high-fat/cholesterol-diet-induced cardiovascular disorders in hamsters.

  13. Coffee consumption and cardiovascular health: getting to the heart of the matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebello, Salome A; van Dam, Rob M

    2013-10-01

    As coffee-consumption is a widespread tradition, its possible impact on health has been of considerable interest. This review examines the effects of coffee on cardiovascular risk, outlines underlying biological mechanisms, and discusses implications for public health. In the past, coffee was often viewed as a cardiovascular risk-factor. However, in meta-analyses of recent well-controlled prospective epidemiologic studies, coffee-consumption was not associated with risk of coronary heart disease and weakly associated with a lower risk of stroke and heart failure. Also, available evidence largely suggests that coffee-consumption is not associated with a higher risk of fatal cardiovascular events. In randomized trials coffee-consumption resulted in small increases in blood pressure. Unfiltered coffee increased circulating LDL cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations, but filtered coffee had no substantial effects on blood lipids. In summary, for most healthy people, moderate coffee consumption is unlikely to adversely affect cardiovascular health. Future work should prioritize understanding the effects of coffee in at-risk populations.

  14. Resting, night-time, and 24 h heart rate as markers of cardiovascular risk in middle-aged and elderly men and women with no apparent heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Christine D; Olsen, Rasmus H; Pedersen, Lene R;

    2013-01-01

    AimsIncreased heart rate (HR) is a predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality. We tested which measure of HR had the strongest prognostic value in a population with no apparent heart disease.Methods and resultsSix hundred and fifty-three men and women between the age of 55 and 75...

  15. Sulforaphane Protects against Cardiovascular Disease via Nrf2 Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Bai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD causes an unparalleled proportion of the global burden of disease and will remain the main cause of mortality for the near future. Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathophysiology of cardiac disorders. Several studies have highlighted the cardinal role played by the overproduction of reactive oxygen or nitrogen species in the pathogenesis of ischemic myocardial damage and consequent cardiac dysfunction. Isothiocyanates (ITC are sulfur-containing compounds that are broadly distributed among cruciferous vegetables. Sulforaphane (SFN is an ITC shown to possess anticancer activities by both in vivo and epidemiological studies. Recent data have indicated that the beneficial effects of SFN in CVD are due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. SFN activates NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, a basic leucine zipper transcription factor that serves as a defense mechanism against oxidative stress and electrophilic toxicants by inducing more than a hundred cytoprotective proteins, including antioxidants and phase II detoxifying enzymes. This review will summarize the evidence from clinical studies and animal experiments relating to the potential mechanisms by which SFN modulates Nrf2 activation and protects against CVD.

  16. Association of Central Sleep Apnea with Impaired Heart Structure and Cardiovascular Hemodynamics in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazimierczak, Anna; Krzesiński, Paweł; Gielerak, Grzegorz; Uziebło-Życzkowska, Beata; Smurzyński, Paweł; Ryczek, Robert; Cwetsch, Andrzej; Skrobowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Background Advanced heart failure (HF) is commonly accompanied by central sleep apnea (CSA) with Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR). The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between CSA/CSR and other clinical features of HF, with particular emphasis on cardiovascular hemodynamics. Material/Methods In 161 stable HF patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤45% (NYHA class I–III; mean LVEF 32.8%) the clinical evaluation included: LVEF; left and right ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVDd, RVDd); ratio of early transmitral flow velocity to early diastolic septal mitral annulus velocity (E/e’) assessed by echocardiography; stroke index (SI); heart rate (HR); cardiac index (CI); and systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI) assessed by impedance cardiography (ICG). The comparison was performed between 2 subgroups: one with moderate/severe CSA/CSR - CSR_ [+] (n=51), and one with mild or no CSA/CSR – CSR_ [−] (n=110). Results CSR_ [+] patients presented more advanced NYHA class (pCSR_ [+] were identified: NYHA class (OR=3.34 per class, pCSR in HF is associated with NYHA class, atrial fibrillation and more advanced impairment of cardiovascular structure and hemodynamics. Patient functional state remains the main determinant of CSR. PMID:27558771

  17. Association of Central Sleep Apnea with Impaired Heart Structure and Cardiovascular Hemodynamics in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazimierczak, Anna; Krzesiński, Paweł; Gielerak, Grzegorz; Uziębło-Życzkowska, Beata; Smurzyński, Paweł; Ryczek, Robert; Cwetsch, Andrzej; Skrobowski, Andrzej

    2016-08-25

    BACKGROUND Advanced heart failure (HF) is commonly accompanied by central sleep apnea (CSA) with Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR). The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between CSA/CSR and other clinical features of HF, with particular emphasis on cardiovascular hemodynamics. MATERIAL AND METHODS In 161 stable HF patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤45% (NYHA class I-III; mean LVEF 32.8%) the clinical evaluation included: LVEF; left and right ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVDd, RVDd); ratio of early transmitral flow velocity to early diastolic septal mitral annulus velocity (E/e') assessed by echocardiography; stroke index (SI); heart rate (HR); cardiac index (CI); and systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI) assessed by impedance cardiography (ICG). The comparison was performed between 2 subgroups: one with moderate/severe CSA/CSR - CSR_ [+] (n=51), and one with mild or no CSA/CSR - CSR_ [-] (n=110). RESULTS CSR_ [+] patients presented more advanced NYHA class (pCSR_ [+] were identified: NYHA class (OR=3.34 per class, pCSR in HF is associated with NYHA class, atrial fibrillation and more advanced impairment of cardiovascular structure and hemodynamics. Patient functional state remains the main determinant of CSR.

  18. Functional ingredients and cardiovascular protective effect of pumpkin seed oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Okbi, S. Y.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the cardiovascular protective effect of Egyptian and European umpkin seed oil (PSO in hypercholesterolemic rats. Tocopherols, fatty acids (FAs and unsaponifiable matter (UNSAP were assessed in both oils. The results showed that α-tocopherol was 108 and 273, γ-tocopherol was 3.95 and 0 and d-tocopherol was 0 and 1.58 mg·100 g-1 oil of the Egyptian and European, respectively. GLC analysis of FAs revealed the presence of linoleic acid as the major fatty acid in both oils. Feeding a hypercholesterolemic diet produced a significant increase in plasma total cholesterol (T-Ch, triglycerides (TGs, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, T-Ch/HDL-Ch, TGs/HDL-Ch and malondialdehyde and a significant reduction in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-Ch, vitamin E, and adiponectin. Rats fed on hypercholesterolemic diet with either oil showed a significant improvement in all biochemical parametersEl objetivo fue evaluar el efecto protector cardiovascular de aceites de semilla de calabaza (PSO de variedades egipcia y europea en ratas con hipercolesterolemia. Se evaluó tocoferoles, ácidos grasos (FAs y materia insaponificable (UNSAP en ambos aceites. Los resultados mostraron valores de α-tocoferol de 108 y 273, γ-tocoferol 3,95 y 0 y δ-tocoferol de 0 y 1,58 mg·100 g-1 en las variedades egipcia y europea, respectivamente. El análisis por GLC de los ácidos grasos (FAS mostró al linoleico como mayoritario en ambos aceites. La alimentación con una dieta hipercolesterolémica produjo en plasma un aumento significativo de colesterol total (T-Ch, triglicéridos (TG, colesterol en lipoproteínas de baja densidad, T-Ch/HDL-Ch, TGs/HDL- ch y malondialdehído y una reducción significativa en el colesterol de lipoproteínas de alta densidad (HDL-cH, vitamina E, y adiponectina. Las ratas alimentadas con una dieta hipercolesterolémica y con ambos aceites, mostraron mejoras significativas en todos los par

  19. [Cardiovascular protection and mechanisms of actions of aerobic exercise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zuo-Xu; Zhang, Yuan; Gao, Feng

    2014-08-01

    It is well established that aerobic exercise exerts beneficial effect on cardiovascular system, but the underlying mechanisms are yet to be elucidated. Recent studies have shown that aerobic exercise ameliorates insulin resistance, inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction which play important roles in the development of cardiovascular disease. In this review, we discussed the underlying mechanisms of the cardioprotective role of aerobic exercise, especially the latest progress in this field.

  20. Skinfold thickness is related to cardiovascular autonomic control as assessed by heart rate variability and heart rate recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esco, Michael R; Williford, Henry N; Olson, Michele S

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if heart rate recovery (HRR) and heart rate variability (HRV) are related to maximal aerobic fitness and selected body composition measurements. Fifty men (age = 21.9 ± 3.0 years, height = 180.8 ± 7.2 cm, weight = 80.4 ± 9.1 kg, volunteered to participate in this study. For each subject, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and the sum of skinfolds across the chest, abdomen, and thigh regions (SUMSF) were recorded. Heart rate variability (HRV) was assessed during a 5-minute period while the subjects rested in a supine position. The following frequency domain parameters of HRV were recorded: normalized high-frequency power (HFnu), and low-frequency to high-frequency power ratio (LF:HF). To determine maximal aerobic fitness (i.e., VO2max), each subject performed a maximal graded exercise test on a treadmill. Heart rate recovery was recorded 1 (HRR1) and 2 (HRR2) minutes during a cool-down period. Mean VO2max and BMI for all the subjects were 49.5 ± 7.5 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) and 24.7 ± 2.2 kg·m(-2), respectively. Although VO2max, WC, and SUMSF was each significantly correlated to HRR and HRV, only SUMSF had a significant independent correlation to HRR1, HRR2, HFnu, LF:HF (p < 0.01). The results of the regression procedure showed that SUMSF accounted for the greatest variance in HRR1, HRR2, HFnu, and LF:HF (p < 0.01). The results of this study suggest that cardiovascular autonomic modulation is significantly related to maximal aerobic fitness and body composition. However, SUMSF appears to have the strongest independent relationship with HRR and HRV, compared to other body composition parameters and VO2max.

  1. Maximal heart rate does not limit cardiovascular capacity in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, G D W; Svendsen, J H; Damsgaard, R

    2014-01-01

    In humans, maximal aerobic power (VO2 max ) is associated with a plateau in cardiac output (Q), but the mechanisms regulating the interplay between maximal heart rate (HRmax) and stroke volume (SV) are unclear. To evaluate the effect of tachycardia and elevations in HRmax on cardiovascular function...... and RAP (P VO2 max in healthy...... individuals. A limited left ventricular filling and possibly altered contractility reduce SV during atrial pacing, whereas a plateau in LVFP appears to restrict Q close to VO2 max ....

  2. Clinical Update: Cardiovascular Disease in Diabetes Mellitus: Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease and Heart Failure in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus - Mechanisms, Management, and Clinical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low Wang, Cecilia C; Hess, Connie N; Hiatt, William R; Goldfine, Allison B

    2016-06-14

    Cardiovascular disease remains the principal cause of death and disability among patients with diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus exacerbates mechanisms underlying atherosclerosis and heart failure. Unfortunately, these mechanisms are not adequately modulated by therapeutic strategies focusing solely on optimal glycemic control with currently available drugs or approaches. In the setting of multifactorial risk reduction with statins and other lipid-lowering agents, antihypertensive therapies, and antihyperglycemic treatment strategies, cardiovascular complication rates are falling, yet remain higher for patients with diabetes mellitus than for those without. This review considers the mechanisms, history, controversies, new pharmacological agents, and recent evidence for current guidelines for cardiovascular management in the patient with diabetes mellitus to support evidence-based care in the patient with diabetes mellitus and heart disease outside of the acute care setting.

  3. 二甲双胍的心血管保护作用%Cardiovascular protective effects of metformin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方丽娟; 刘乃丰

    2011-01-01

    二甲双胍(Metformin)属双胍类药物,作为口服降糖药应用于2型糖尿病(T2DM)已有50年的历程,其降糖作用已得到公认.近年越来越多的研究发现,二甲双胍具有降糖以外的心血管保护作用,能抑制动脉粥样硬化(Atherosclerosis,AS)、心衰、心肌梗死等心血管病的发生和发展.但二甲双胍确切的心血管保护机制仍不明确,本文综述了二甲双胍对心血管疾病的作用,并探讨其可能的作用机制.%Metformin belongs to biguanide drugs, used as oral hypoglycemic agents in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) for 50 years, and its anti-hyperglycemic effect has been recognized.Furthermore, in recent years more and more studies found that metformin has additional cardiovascular protective effects, including the inhibition of atherosclerosis (AS), heart failure and myocardial infarction.However, the specific effect of metformin on cardiovascular protection is still unclear.This article reviews the effect of metformin in cardiovascular disease and discusses its possible mechanisms.

  4. Resting heart rate is associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality after adjusting for inflammatory markers: The Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Magnus Thorsten; Marott, Jacob L; Allin, Kristine H

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the association between resting heart rate (RHR) and markers of chronic low-grade inflammation. Also, to examine whether elevated resting heart rate is independently associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in the general population, or whether elevated RHR...... is merely a marker of chronic low-grade inflammation. Methods and results: A group of 6518 healthy subjects from the the Danish general population were followed for 18 years during which 1924 deaths occurred. Subjects underwent assessment of baseline RHR, conventional cardiovascular risk factors, high...

  5. Investigating developmental cardiovascular biomechanics and the origins of congenital heart defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J Kowalski

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Innovative research on the interactions between biomechanical load and cardiovascular (CV morphogenesis by multiple investigators over the past 3 decades, including the application of bioengineering approaches, has shown that the embryonic heart adapts both structure and function in order to maintain cardiac output to the rapidly growing embryo. Acute adaptive hemodynamic mechanisms in the embryo include the redistribution of blood flow within the heart, dynamic adjustments in heart rate and developed pressure, and beat to beat variations in blood flow and vascular resistance. These biomechanically relevant events occur coincident with adaptive changes in gene expression and trigger adaptive mechanisms that include alterations in myocardial cell growth and death, regional and global changes in myocardial architecture, and alterations in central vascular morphogenesis and remodeling. These adaptive mechanisms allow the embryo to survive these biomechanical stresses (environmental, maternal and to compensate for developmental errors (genetic. Recent work from numerous laboratories shows that a subset of these adaptive mechanisms is present in every developing multicellular organism with a heart equivalent structure. This chapter will provide the reader with an overview of some of the approaches used to quantify embryonic CV functional maturation and performance, provide several illustrations of experimental interventions that explore the role of biomechanics in the regulation of CV morphogenesis including the role of computational modeling, and identify several critical areas for future investigation as available experimental models and methods expand.

  6. Million hearts: prevalence of leading cardiovascular disease risk factors--United States, 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, Matthew D; Wall, Hilary K; Gillespie, Cathleen; George, Mary G; Jamal, Ahmed

    2014-05-30

    Each year, approximately 1.5 million U.S. adults have a heart attack or stroke, resulting in approximately 30 deaths every hour and, for nonfatal events, often leading to long-term disability. Overall, an estimated 14 million survivors of heart attacks and strokes are living in the United States. In 2011, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, in collaboration with nonprofit and private organizations, launched Million Hearts (http://www.millionhearts.hhs.gov), an initiative focused on implementing clinical and community-level evidence-based strategies to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and prevent a total of 1 million heart attacks and strokes during the 5-year period 2012-2016. From 2005-2006 to the period with the most current data, analysis of the Million Hearts four "ABCS" clinical measures (for aspirin, blood pressure, cholesterol, and smoking) showed 1) no statistically significant change in the prevalence of aspirin use for secondary prevention (53.8% in 2009-2010), 2) an increase to 51.9% in the prevalence of blood pressure control (in 2011-2012), 3) an increase to 42.8% in the prevalence of cholesterol management (in 2011-2012), and 4) no statistically significant change in the prevalence of smoking assessment and treatment (22.2% in 2009-2010). In addition, analysis of two community-level indicators found 1) a decrease in current tobacco product smoking (including cigarette, cigar, or pipe use) prevalence to 25.1% in 2011-2012 and 2) minimal change in mean daily sodium intake (3,594 mg/day in 2009-2010). Although trends in some measures are encouraging, further reductions of CVD risk factors will be needed to meet Million Hearts goals by 2017.

  7. Melusin Promotes a Protective Signal Transduction Cascade in Stressed Hearts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorge, Matteo; Brancaccio, Mara

    2016-01-01

    Melusin is a chaperone protein selectively expressed in heart and skeletal muscles. Melusin expression levels correlate with cardiac function in pre-clinical models and in human patients with aortic stenosis. Indeed, previous studies in several animal models indicated that Melusin plays a broad cardioprotective role in different pathological conditions. Chaperone proteins, besides playing a role in protein folding, are also able to facilitate supramolecular complex formation and conformational changes due to activation/deactivation of signaling molecules. This role sets chaperone proteins as crucial regulators of intracellular signal transduction pathways. In particular Melusin activates AKT and ERK1/2 signaling, protects cardiomyocytes from apoptosis and induces a compensatory hypertrophic response in several pathological conditions. Therefore, selective delivery of the Melusin gene in heart via cardiotropic adenoviral associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9), may represent a new promising gene-therapy approach for different cardiac pathologies. PMID:27672636

  8. Melatonin protects against ischemic heart failure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şehirli, Ahmet Özer; Koyun, Derya; Tetik, Şermin; Özsavcı, Derya; Yiğiner, Ömer; Çetinel, Şule; Tok, Olgu Enis; Kaya, Zehra; Akkiprik, Mustafa; Kılıç, Ertugrul; Şener, Göksel

    2013-09-01

    Ischemic injury, which occurs as a result of sympathetic hyperactivity, plays an important role in heart failure. Melatonin is thought to have antiatherogenic, antioxidant, and vasodilatory effects. In this study, we investigated whether melatonin protects against ischemic heart failure (HF). In Wistar albino rats, HF was induced by left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery ligation and rats were treated with either vehicle or melatonin (10 mg/kg) for 4 weeks. At the end of this period, echocardiographic measurements were recorded and the rats were decapitated to obtain plasma and cardiac tissue samples. Lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and lysosomal enzymes (β-D-glucuronidase, β-galactosidase, β-D-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase, acid phosphatase, and cathepsin-D) were studied in plasma samples, while malondialdehyde and glutathione levels and Na+, K+-ATPase, caspase-3 and myeloperoxidase activities were determined in the cardiac samples. Sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) and caveolin-3 levels in cardiac tissues were evaluated using Western blot analyses. Furthermore, caveolin-3 levels were also determined by histological analyses. In the vehicle-treated HF group, cardiotoxicity resulted in decreased cardiac Na+, K+-ATPase and SERCA activities, GSH contents and caveolin-3 levels, while plasma LDH, CK, and lysosomal enzyme activities and cardiac MDA and Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities were found to be increased. On the other hand, melatonin treatment reversed all the functional and biochemical changes. The present results demonstrate that Mel ameliorates ischemic heart failure in rats. These observations highlight that melatonin is a promising supplement for improving defense mechanisms in the heart against oxidative stress caused by heart failure.

  9. The Canadian Cardiovascular Society Heart Failure Companion: Bridging Guidelines to Your Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, Jonathan G; Chan, Michael; Ezekowitz, Justin A; Harkness, Karen; Heckman, George A; Kouz, Simon; Leblanc, Marie-Hélène; Moe, Gordon W; O'Meara, Eileen; Abrams, Howard; Ducharme, Anique; Grzeslo, Adam; Hamilton, Peter G; Koshman, Sheri L; Lepage, Serge; McDonald, Michael; McKelvie, Robert; Rajda, Miroslaw; Swiggum, Elizabeth; Virani, Sean; Zieroth, Shelley

    2016-03-01

    The Canadian Cardiovascular Society Heart Failure (HF) Guidelines Program has generated annual HF updates, including formal recommendations and supporting Practical Tips since 2006. Many clinicians indicate they routinely use the Canadian Cardiovascular Society HF Guidelines in their daily practice. However, many questions surrounding the actual implementation of the Guidelines into their daily practice remain. A consensus-based approach was used, including feedback from the Primary and Secondary HF Panels. This companion is intended to answer several key questions brought forth by HF practitioners such as appropriate timelines for initial assessments and subsequent reassessments of patients, the order in which medications should be added, how newer medications should be included in treatment algorithms, and when left ventricular function should be reassessed. A new treatment algorithm for HF with reduced ejection fraction is included. Several other practical issues are addressed such as an approach to management of hyperkalemia/hypokalemia, treatment of gout, when medications can be stopped, and whether a target blood pressure or heart rate is suggested. Finally, elements and teaching of self-care are described. This tool will hopefully function to allow better integration of the HF Guidelines into clinical practice.

  10. Open Heart Surgery in a Newly Established Cardiovascular Department: The first 300 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Korkmaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Evaluation of the results of open heart surgery in a newly established cardiovascular clinic: Ankara Numune Education and Research Hospital. Material and Method: Between June 2012 and January 2014, 300 open heart surgeries were performed. Urgent operation was performed in 22 patients (7.3% because of ST-elevation myocardial infarction and in 1 patient because of left ventricular aneurysm rupture. Coronary artery bypass grafting was performed in 211 (70.3% patients. The other patients underwent various complex operations such as valve repair, Tirone-David procedure and repair of atrioventricular canal defect. Results: In 3 patients (1% hospital mortality was seen. Reoperation was performed in 8 patients (2.6% because of pericardial tamponade and in 9 patients (3% because of bleeding. Atrial fibrillation was developed in 28 patients (9.3% in the postoperative period and normal sinus rhythm was established with medical cardioversion. Intra-aortic balloon pump(IABP was used in 4 patients preoperatively and in 11 patients postoperatively, including 15 patients(%5. Discussion: In the current era, the patients who are consulted to cardiovascular surgery clinics become more chronic, high risk and patients with additional co-morbid diseases because of the developments in interventional cardiology. Our newly established center aims to be a nationally and internationally successful clinic which was proved by low mortality and morbidity rates with a team who follows the developments and constantly educate and trained.

  11. Angiotensin Receptor Blockers: Cardiovascular Protection in the Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash C Deedwania

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available It is well recognised that the metabolic syndrome, a constellation of risk factors including obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia, is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular complications and the development of Type 2 diabetes. Consequently, timely identification and management of all components of the metabolic syndrome is warranted. In particular, guidelines have emphasised the importance of targeting elevated blood pressure (BP and dyslipidaemia as a method of reducing global cardiovascular risk.Findings from the Valsartan Antihypertensive Long-term Use Evaluation (VALUE trial show that the angiotensin receptor blocker, valsartan, reduces cardiovascular events and the development of Type 2 diabetes in high-risk individuals. This profile is being further explored in the ongoing Nateglinide And Valsartan in Impaired Glucose Tolerance Outcomes Research (NAVIGATOR trial.Given the potential advantages to patients and physicians of tackling more than one of the components of the metabolic syndrome, antihypertensive agents such as valsartan would appear to be an important addition to the management of vulnerable patients at high risk of cardiovascular events.

  12. Multimarker proteomic profiling for the prediction of cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic heart failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Lemesle

    Full Text Available Risk stratification of patients with systolic chronic heart failure (HF is critical to better identify those who may benefit from invasive therapeutic strategies such as cardiac transplantation. Proteomics has been used to provide prognostic information in various diseases. Our aim was to investigate the potential value of plasma proteomic profiling for risk stratification in HF. A proteomic profiling using surface enhanced laser desorption ionization - time of flight - mass spectrometry was performed in a case/control discovery population of 198 patients with systolic HF (left ventricular ejection fraction <45%: 99 patients who died from cardiovascular cause within 3 years and 99 patients alive at 3 years. Proteomic scores predicting cardiovascular death were developed using 3 regression methods: support vector machine, sparse partial least square discriminant analysis, and lasso logistic regression. Forty two ion m/z peaks were differentially intense between cases and controls in the discovery population and were used to develop proteomic scores. In the validation population, score levels were higher in patients who subsequently died within 3 years. Similar areas under the curves (0.66 - 0.68 were observed for the 3 methods. After adjustment on confounders, proteomic scores remained significantly associated with cardiovascular mortality. Use of the proteomic scores allowed a significant improvement in discrimination of HF patients as determined by integrated discrimination improvement and net reclassification improvement indexes. In conclusion, proteomic analysis of plasma proteins may help to improve risk prediction in HF patients.

  13. Heart rate variability biofeedback as a method for assessing baroreflex function: a preliminary study of resonance in the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaschillo, Evgeny; Lehrer, Paul; Rishe, Naphtali; Konstantinov, Mikhail

    2002-03-01

    This study describes the use of a biofeedback method for the noninvasive study of baroreflex mechanisms. Five previously untrained healthy male participants learned to control oscillations in heart rate using biofeedback training to modify their heart rate variability at specific frequencies. They were instructed to match computer-generated sinusoidal oscillations with oscillations in heart rate at seven frequencies within the range of 0.01-0.14 Hz. All participants successfully produced high-amplitude target-frequency oscillations in both heart rate and blood pressure. Stable and predictable transfer functions between heart rate and blood pressure were obtained in all participants. The highest oscillation amplitudes were produced in the range of 0.055-0.11 Hz for heart rate and 0.02-0.055 Hz for blood pressure. Transfer functions were calculated among sinusoidal oscillations in the target stimuli, heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration for frequencies at which subjects received training. High and low target-frequency oscillation amplitudes at specific frequencies could be explained by resonance among various oscillatory processes in the cardiovascular system. The exact resonant frequencies differed among individuals. Changes in heart rate oscillations could not be completely explained by changes in breathing. The biofeedback method also allowed us to quantity characteristics of inertia, delay, and speed sensitivity in baroreflex system. We discuss the implications of these findings for using heart rate variability biofeedback as an aid in diagnosing various autonomic and cardiovascular system disorders and as a method for treating these disorders.

  14. The bitter fate of the sweet heart: impairment of iron homeostasis in diabetic heart leads to failure in myocardial protection by preconditioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Vinokur

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular dysfunction is a major complication of diabetes. Examining mechanistic aspects underlying the incapacity of the diabetic heart to respond to ischemic preconditioning (IPC, we could show that the alterations in iron homeostasis can explain this phenomenon. Correlating the hemodynamic parameters with levels of ferritin, the main iron storage and detoxifying protein, without and with inhibitors of protein degradation, substantiated this explanation. Diabetic hearts were less sensitive to ischemia-reperfusion stress, as indicated by functional parameters and histology. Mechanistically, since ferritin has been shown to provide cellular protection against insults, including ischemia-reperfusion stress and as the basal ferritin level in diabetic heart was 2-fold higher than in controls, these are in accord with the greater resistance of the diabetic heart to ischemia-reperfusion. Additionally, during ischemia-reperfusion, preceded by IPC, a rapid and extensive loss in ferritin levels, during the prolonged ischemia, in diabetic heart but not in non-diabetic controls, provide additional substantiation to the explanation for loss of respond to IPC. Current research is shedding light on the mechanism behind ferritin degradation as well, suggesting a novel explanation for diabetes-induced loss of cardioprotection.

  15. The bitter fate of the sweet heart: impairment of iron homeostasis in diabetic heart leads to failure in myocardial protection by preconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinokur, Vladimir; Berenshtein, Eduard; Bulvik, Baruch; Grinberg, Leonid; Eliashar, Ron; Chevion, Mordechai

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular dysfunction is a major complication of diabetes. Examining mechanistic aspects underlying the incapacity of the diabetic heart to respond to ischemic preconditioning (IPC), we could show that the alterations in iron homeostasis can explain this phenomenon. Correlating the hemodynamic parameters with levels of ferritin, the main iron storage and detoxifying protein, without and with inhibitors of protein degradation, substantiated this explanation. Diabetic hearts were less sensitive to ischemia-reperfusion stress, as indicated by functional parameters and histology. Mechanistically, since ferritin has been shown to provide cellular protection against insults, including ischemia-reperfusion stress and as the basal ferritin level in diabetic heart was 2-fold higher than in controls, these are in accord with the greater resistance of the diabetic heart to ischemia-reperfusion. Additionally, during ischemia-reperfusion, preceded by IPC, a rapid and extensive loss in ferritin levels, during the prolonged ischemia, in diabetic heart but not in non-diabetic controls, provide additional substantiation to the explanation for loss of respond to IPC. Current research is shedding light on the mechanism behind ferritin degradation as well, suggesting a novel explanation for diabetes-induced loss of cardioprotection.

  16. Power Spectrum Analysis of Heart Rate Fluctuation: A Quantitative Probe of Beat-To-Beat Cardiovascular Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akselrod, Solange; Gordon, David; Ubel, F. Andrew; Shannon, Daniel C.; Barger, A. Clifford; Cohen, Richard J.

    1981-07-01

    Power spectrum analysis of heart rate fluctuations provides a quantitative noninvasive means of assessing the functioning of the short-term cardiovascular control systems. We show that sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous activity make frequency-specific contributions to the heart rate power spectrum, and that renin-angiotensin system activity strongly modulates the amplitude of the spectral peak located at 0.04 hertz. Our data therefore provide evidence that the reninangiotensin system plays a significant role in short-term cardiovascular control on the time scale of seconds to minutes.

  17. Cardiovascular effects of black tea and nicotine alone or in combination against experimental induced heart injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joukar, Siyavash; Bashiri, Hamideh; Dabiri, Shahriar; Ghotbi, Payam; Sarveazad, Arash; Divsalar, Kouros; Joukar, Farzin; Abbaszadeh, Mahsa

    2012-06-01

    The present study was designed to elucidate the outcome of subchronic co-administration of black tea and nicotine on cardiovascular performance and whether these substances could modulate the isoproterenol-induced cardiac injury. Animal groups were control, black tea, nicotine and black tea plus nicotine. Test groups received nicotine (2 mg/kg s.c.) and black tea brewed (p.o.) each alone and in combination for 4 weeks. On the 28th day, myocardial damage was induced by isoproterenol (50 mg/kg i.p.), and blood samples were taken. On day 29, after hemodynamic parameters recording, hearts were removed for histopathological evaluation. Tea or nicotine consumption had no significant effects on hemodynamic indices of animals without heart damage. When the cardiac injury was induced, tea consumption maintained the maximum dp/dt, and nicotine significantly decreased the pressure-rate product. Moreover, severity of heart lesions was lower in the presence of nicotine or black tea. Concomitant use of these materials did not show extra effects on mentioned parameters more than the effect of each of them alone. The results suggest that subchronic administration of black tea or nicotine for a period of 4 weeks may have a mild cardioprotective effect, while concomitant use of these materials cannot intensify this beneficial effect.

  18. Protective effects of Nigella sativa against hypertension-induced oxidative stress and cardiovascular dysfunction in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Taşar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the protective effect of Nigella sativa against oxidative injury in the heart and kidney tissues of rats with renovascular hypertension (RVH. RVH model was induced by placing a renal artery clip (2-kidney-1-clip, 2K1C in Wistar albino rats (n= 8, while sham rats (n= 8 had no clip placement. Starting on the 3rd week after the operation, rats received Nigella sativa (0.2 ml/kg/day, intraperitoneally or vehicle for the following 6 weeks. Blood pressures (BP were recorded at the beginning of the study and at the end of the 3rd and 9th weeks. Cardiac functions were assessed using transthoracic echocardiography before the rats were decapitated. Plasma samples were obtained to assay asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, nitric oxide (NO, creatine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH levels. Production of reactive oxidants was monitored by chemiluminescence (CL assay in the cardiac and renal tissues. Moreover oxidative injury was examined through malondialdehyde (MDA and glutathione (GSH levels and Na+,K+-ATPase activity in these tissues. 2K1C caused increased BP and left ventricular (LV dysfunction, while plasma ADMA, CK, and LDH levels were increased (p<0.05-0.001. Moreover, hypertension caused significant decreases in plasma NO levels, as well as in tissue Na+,K+-ATPase activities and GSH contents, while MDA levels in both tissues were increased (p<0.05-0.001. On the other hand, Nigella sativa treatment significantly reduced BP, attenuated oxidative injury and improved LV function. Nigella sativa protected against hypertension-induced tissue damage and improved cardiovascular function via its antioxidant and antihypertensive actions, suggesting a therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa in renovascular hypertension.

  19. Lack of association of ischemic heart disease with COPD when taking into account classical cardiovascular risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Izquierdo, José Luis; Martínez, Arturo; Guzmán, Elizabet; Lucas, Pilar; Rodríguez, José Miguel

    2010-01-01

    The aim of our study is to determine whether chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an independent risk factor for ischemic heart disease and whether this association is related with a greater prevalence of classical cardiovascular risk factors. Ours is a case-control cross-sectional study design. Cases were hospital patients with ischemic heart disease in stable phase, compared with control hospital patients. All patients underwent post-bronchodilator (PBD) spirometry, a standardize...

  20. Prospective isolation of human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiovascular progenitors that integrate into human fetal heart tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardehali, Reza; Ali, Shah R; Inlay, Matthew A; Abilez, Oscar J; Chen, Michael Q; Blauwkamp, Timothy A; Yazawa, Masayuki; Gong, Yongquan; Nusse, Roeland; Drukker, Micha; Weissman, Irving L

    2013-02-26

    A goal of regenerative medicine is to identify cardiovascular progenitors from human ES cells (hESCs) that can functionally integrate into the human heart. Previous studies to evaluate the developmental potential of candidate hESC-derived progenitors have delivered these cells into murine and porcine cardiac tissue, with inconclusive evidence regarding the capacity of these human cells to physiologically engraft in xenotransplantation assays. Further, the potential of hESC-derived cardiovascular lineage cells to functionally couple to human myocardium remains untested and unknown. Here, we have prospectively identified a population of hESC-derived ROR2(+)/CD13(+)/KDR(+)/PDGFRα(+) cells that give rise to cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro at a clonal level. We observed rare clusters of ROR2(+) cells and diffuse expression of KDR and PDGFRα in first-trimester human fetal hearts. We then developed an in vivo transplantation model by transplanting second-trimester human fetal heart tissues s.c. into the ear pinna of a SCID mouse. ROR2(+)/CD13(+)/KDR(+)/PDGFRα(+) cells were delivered into these functioning fetal heart tissues: in contrast to traditional murine heart models for cell transplantation, we show structural and functional integration of hESC-derived cardiovascular progenitors into human heart.

  1. Non Hodgkin lymphoma metastasis to the heart detected by cardiovascular magnetic resonance; Metastasis cardiaca secundaria al linfoma de Hodgkin detectada por la resonancia magnetica cardiovascular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Florange; Morales, Marisela; Pedreanez, Norma, E-mail: martinez.florangel@gmail.com [Hospital Cardiologico Infantil Latinoamericano Dr Gilberto Rodriguez Ochoa, Carcacas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Pabon, Luz; Carrillo, Milton [Universidad Central de Venezuela (UCV/HUC), Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). Instituto de Hematoncologia. Hospital Universitario; Fernandes, Juliano Lara [Universidade de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2009-10-15

    Primary and secondary heart tumors are relatively rare occurrences but usually imply significant treatment decisions. The differential diagnosis among these tumors and other masses can sometimes be difficult and require the use of different imaging modalities to establish a confident verdict. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance CMR imaging is a very useful tool in these cases by allowing for the application of different strategies to better delineate masses, heart structures and adjacent tissues. In this case description, we present a woman with shortness of breath and a paracardiac mass showing how CMR can be applied. (author)

  2. Cardiovascular and renal effects of carvedilol in dogs with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uechi, Masami; Sasaki, Takahiro; Ueno, Kouichiro; Yamamoto, Taiji; Ishikawa, Yumi

    2002-06-01

    To determine the acute effects of carvedilol (beta-blocker) on cardiovascular and renal function and its pharmacokinetics in dogs. Fifteen mature mongrel dogs (7-15 kg) of both sexes were used in these experiments. Eight dogs served as controls, and seven dogs served as iatrogenic mitral regurgitation (MR) experimental animals. Carvedilol (0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 mg/kg, P.O.) was administered, and the blood carvedilol concentration was analyzed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The response to isoproterenol or phenylephrine was also evaluated. Isoproterenol (0.025 microg/kg/min) was infused via the saphenous vein for 5 min, and phenylephrine (5 microg/kg) was injected with carvedilol (0.2, 0.4 mg/kg) or placebo for 4 days. The heart rate and arterial blood pressure were measured, and LV fractional shortening was measured by echocardiography. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow (RPF) were measured by intravenous infusion of sodium thiosulfate and sodium para-aminohippurate. Carvedilol (0.2 mg/kg) decreased the heart rate, whereas renal function, arterial blood pressure, and left ventricular contractile function were not affected. Carvedilol (0.4 mg/kg) decreased heart rate, blood pressure, and renal function. The tachycardic response to isoproterenol was significantly diminished for 36 hr by 0.4 mg/kg carvedilol. Carvedilol 0.2 mg/kg inhibited this effect for 24 hr. Thus, it is necessary to titrate the dosage of carvedilol, it should be initiated at less than 0.2 mg/kg and titrated up to 0.4 mg/kg for heart failure dogs.

  3. BENEFITS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE

    OpenAIRE

    Aristizabal, Jose Fernando

    2007-01-01

      It was considered that physical inactivity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease independent (1), for this reason today is given much importance to the activityPhysics for this concept becomes protective factor against coronary heart disease. In relation to physical activity and cardiovascular disease, applying the concept ofprimary cardiovascular prevention, authors like Paffenbarger, Morris, have stated that this is beneficial in terms of reducing risk of coronary heart disease (2-3...

  4. Reappraisal of role of angiotensin receptor blockers in cardiovascular protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram CV

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available C Venkata S RamTexas Blood Pressure Institute, Clinical Research Institute of Dallas Nephrology Associates; and Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX, USAAbstract: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs have shown cardioprotective and renoprotective properties. These agents are recommended as first-line therapy for the treatment of hypertension and the reduction of cardiovascular risk. Early studies pointed to the cardioprotective and renoprotective effects of ARBs in high-risk patients. The ONgoing Telmisartan Alone and in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET established the clinical equivalence of the cardioprotective and renoprotective effects of telmisartan and ramipril, but did not find an added benefit of the combination over ramipril alone. Similar findings were observed in the Telmisartan Randomized AssessmeNt Study in aCE INtolerant subjects with cardiovascular Disease (TRANSCEND trial conducted in ACEI-intolerant patients. In ONTARGET, telmisartan had a better tolerability profile with similar renoprotective properties compared with ramipril, suggesting a potential clinical benefit over ramipril. The recently completed Olmesartan Reducing Incidence of Endstage Renal Disease in Diabetic Nephropathy Trial (ORIENT and Olmesartan and Calcium Antagonists Randomized (OSCAR studies will further define the role of ARBs in cardioprotection and renoprotection for high-risk patients.Keywords: angiotensin receptor blockers, hypertension, outcomes, clinical trials

  5. Multiscale model of the human cardiovascular system: Description of heart failure and comparison of contractility indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosta, S; Negroni, J; Lascano, E; Dauby, P C

    2017-02-01

    A multiscale model of the cardiovascular system is presented. Hemodynamics is described by a lumped parameter model, while heart contraction is described at the cellular scale. An electrophysiological model and a mechanical model were coupled and adjusted so that the pressure and volume of both ventricles are linked to the force and length of a half-sarcomere. Particular attention was paid to the extreme values of the sarcomere length, which must keep physiological values. This model is able to reproduce healthy behavior, preload variations experiments, and ventricular failure. It also allows to compare the relevance of standard cardiac contractility indices. This study shows that the theoretical gold standard for assessing cardiac contractility, namely the end-systolic elastance, is actually load-dependent and therefore not a reliable index of cardiac contractility.

  6. Heart Rate and Cardiovascular Responses to Commercial Flights: Relationships with Physical Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Silva, Iransé; Leicht, Anthony S.; Moraes, Milton R.; Simões, Herbert G.; Del Rosso, Sebastián; Córdova, Cláudio; Boullosa, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of physical fitness on cardiac autonomic control in passengers prior to, during and following commercial flights. Twenty-two, physically active men (36.4 ± 6.4 years) undertook assessments of physical fitness followed by recordings of 24-h heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), and blood pressure (BP) on a Control (no flight) and Experimental (flight) day. Recordings were analyzed using a two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures with relationships between variables examined via Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients. Compared to the Control day, 24-h HR was significantly greater (>7%) and HRV measures (5–39%) significantly lower on the Experimental day. During the 1-h flight, HR (24%), and BP (6%) were increased while measures of HRV (26–45%) were reduced. Absolute values of HRV during the Experimental day and relative changes in HRV measures (Control-Experimental) were significantly correlated with measures of aerobic fitness (r = 0.43 to 0.51; −0.53 to −0.52) and body composition (r = −0.63 to −0.43; 0.48–0.61). The current results demonstrated that short-term commercial flying significantly altered cardiovascular function including the reduction of parasympathetic modulations. Further, greater physical fitness and lower body fat composition were associated with greater cardiac autonomic control for passengers during flights. Enhanced physical fitness and leaner body composition may enable passengers to cope better with the cardiovascular stress and high allostatic load associated with air travel for enhanced passenger well-being. PMID:28082914

  7. Literature-based genetic risk scores for coronary heart disease : the Cardiovascular Registry Maastricht (CAREMA) Prospective Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaathorst, A.A.; Lu Yingchang (Kevin), Y.; Heijmans, B.T.; Dolle, M.E.; Bohringer, S.; Putter, de H.; Imholz, S.; Merry, A.H.; Greevenbroek, M.M.; Jukema, J.W.; Gorgels, A.P.; Brandt, van den P.A.; Muller, M.R.; Schouten, L.J.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Boer, J.M.A.; Slagboom, P.E.

    2012-01-01

    Background-Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified many single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) or CHD risk factors (RF). Using a case-cohort study within the prospective Cardiovascular Registry Maastricht (CAREMA) cohort, we tested if genet

  8. Sudden cardiovascular death following myocardial infarction: the importance of left ventricular systolic dysfunction and congestive heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildstrøm, Steen Zabell; Ottesen, Michael M; Rask-Madsen, Christian;

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To study the prognostic information of congestive heart failure (CHF) and left ventricular systolic dysfunction regarding sudden and non-sudden cardiovascular death (SCD and non-SCD) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI), as this may indicate the potential benefit...

  9. The Healthy Heart Race: A Short-Duration, Hands-on Activity in Cardiovascular Physiology for Museums and Science Festivals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressley, Thomas A.; Limson, Melvin; Byse, Miranda; Matyas, Marsha Lakes

    2011-01-01

    The "Healthy Heart Race" activity provides a hands-on demonstration of cardiovascular function suitable for lay audiences. It was field tested during the United States of America Science and Engineering Festival held in Washington, DC, in October 2010. The basic equipment for the activity consisted of lengths of plastic tubing, a hand…

  10. The Healthy Heart Race: A Short-Duration, Hands-on Activity in Cardiovascular Physiology for Museums and Science Festivals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressley, Thomas A.; Limson, Melvin; Byse, Miranda; Matyas, Marsha Lakes

    2011-01-01

    The "Healthy Heart Race" activity provides a hands-on demonstration of cardiovascular function suitable for lay audiences. It was field tested during the United States of America Science and Engineering Festival held in Washington, DC, in October 2010. The basic equipment for the activity consisted of lengths of plastic tubing, a hand pump,…

  11. Association of heart rate variability and inflammatory response in patients with cardiovascular diseases: current strengths and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Vasilios; Pneumatikos, Ioannis; Maglaveras, Nikos

    2013-01-01

    Many experimental and clinical studies have confirmed a continuous cross-talk between both sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of autonomic nervous system and inflammatory response, in different clinical scenarios. In cardiovascular diseases, inflammation has been proven to play a pivotal role in disease progression, pathogenesis and resolution. A few clinical studies have assessed the possible inter-relation between neuro-autonomic output, estimated with heart rate variability analysis, which is the variability of R-R in the electrocardiogram, and different inflammatory biomarkers, in patients suffering from stable or unstable coronary artery disease (CAD) and heart failure. Moreover, different indices derived from heart rate signals' processing, have been proven to correlate strongly with severity of heart disease and predict final outcome. In this review article we will summarize major findings from different investigators, evaluating neuro-immunological interactions through heart rate variability analysis, in different groups of cardiovascular patients. We suggest that markers originating from variability analysis of heart rate signals seem to be related to inflammatory biomarkers. However, a lot of open questions remain to be addressed, regarding the existence of a true association between heart rate variability and autonomic nervous system output or its adoption for risk stratification and therapeutic monitoring at the bedside. Finally, potential therapeutic implications will be discussed, leading to autonomic balance restoration in relation with inflammatory control.

  12. Changes in cardiovascular function induced by verapamil in healthy subjects and in patients with ischemic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincenzi, M; Morlino, T; Allegri, P; Barbieri, E; Cappelletti, F; De Lio, U; Ometto, R; Maiolino, P

    1981-01-01

    Alterations in cardiovascular function induced by the acute intravenous administration of verapamil (5 or 10 mg) in 52 patients (29 with ischemic heart disease and 23 without heart disease) were evaluated with use of invasive techniques (right and left heart catheterization, left ventricular cineangiography, and coronary arteriography). The most significant changes were represented by a decrease in systemic vascular resistance and systemic arterial pressure, and an increase in heart rate and cardiac output. Contractility indexes were not depressed in either group, and altered ventricular wall motion tended to improve to a slightly smaller degree than in patients treated with nitroglycerin. The use of verapamil in patients with ischemic heart disease appears to be safe, and concern about the negative inotropic influences in humans no longer seems justified.

  13. A rigid barrier between the heart and sternum protects the heart and lungs against rupture during negative pressure wound therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malmsjö Malin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Right ventricular heart rupture is a devastating complication associated with negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT in cardiac surgery. The use of a rigid barrier has been suggested to offer protection against this lethal complication, by preventing the heart from being drawn up and damaged by the sharp edges of the sternum. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a rigid barrier protects the heart and lungs against injury during NPWT. Methods Sixteen pigs underwent median sternotomy followed by NPWT at -120 mmHg for 24 hours, in the absence (eight pigs or presence (eight pigs of a rigid plastic disc between the heart and the sternal edges. The macroscopic appearance of the heart and lungs was inspected after 12 and 24 hours of NPWT. Results After 24 hours of NPWT at -120 mmHg the area of epicardial petechial bleeding was 11.90 ± 1.10 cm2 when no protective disc was used, and 1.15 ± 0.19 cm2 when using the disc (p Conclusion Inserting a rigid barrier between the heart and the sternum edges offers protection against heart rupture and lung injury during NPWT.

  14. Can folic acid protect against congenital heart defects in Down syndrome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Willemijn M.; Werler, Martha M.; Louik, Carol; Hernandez-Diaz, Sonia; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T. W.; Mitchell, Allen A.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested a protective effect of folic acid (FA) on congenital heart anomalies. Down syndrome (DS) infants are known to have a high frequency of heart anomalies. Not all children with DS suffer from heart anomalies, which raises the question whether maternal factors

  15. Protective Effects of Panax Notoginseng Saponins on Cardiovascular Diseases: A Comprehensive Overview of Experimental Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochen Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS are one of the most important compounds derived from roots of the herb Panax notoginseng which are traditionally used as a hemostatic medicine to control internal and external bleeding in China for thousands of years. To date, at least twenty saponins were identified and some of them including notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rb1, and ginsenoside Rg1 were researched frequently in the area of cardiovascular protection. However, the protective effects of PNS on cardiovascular diseases based on experimental studies and its underlying mechanisms have not been reviewed systematically. This paper reviewed the pharmacology of PNS and its monomers Rb1, Rg1, and R1 in the treatment for cardiovascular diseases.

  16. Exosomes and exosomal miRNAs in cardiovascular protection and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanueli, Costanza; Shearn, Andrew I U; Angelini, Gianni D; Sahoo, Susmita

    2015-08-01

    Cell-cell communication between cardiac and vascular cells and from stem and progenitor cells to differentiated cardiovascular cells is both an important and complex process, achieved through a diversity of mechanisms that have an impact on cardiovascular biology, disease and therapeutics. In recent years, evidence has accumulated suggesting that extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a new system of intercellular communication. EVs of different sizes are produced via different biogenesis pathways and have been shown to be released and taken up by most of known cell types, including heart and vascular cells, and stem and progenitor cells. This review will focus on exosomes, the smallest EVs (up to 100nm in diameter) identified so far. Cells can package cargoes consisting of selective lipids, proteins and RNA in exosomes and such cargoes can be shipped to recipient cells, inducing expressional and functional changes. This review focuses on exosomes and microRNAs in the context of cardiovascular disease and repair. We will describe exosome biogenesis and cargo formation and discuss the available information on in vitro and in vivo exosomes-based cell-to-cell communication relevant to cardiovascular science. The methods used in exosome research will be also described. Finally, we will address the promise of exosomes as clinical biomarkers and their impact as a biomedical tool in stem cell-based cardiovascular therapeutics.

  17. Cardiovascular protective effects of astragaloside Ⅳ%黄芪甲苷对心血管的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘帅; 张金国

    2013-01-01

    Astragali Radix has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries,especially for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.Astragaloside Ⅳ (AST Ⅳ),one of the main active ingredients in Astragali Radix,is involved in various functions,including vasodilating effect,protecting the vascular endothelial cells,anti-inflammatory effect,antivirus effect,positive inotropism and so on.These functions are attributed to the ability of AST Ⅳ in scavenging oxygen free radicals,the regulation of calcium homeostasis,its anti-oxidative effect and prevention of mitochondrial damage.Astragaloside Ⅳ has been effectively used to treat coronary artery disease,heart failure,viral myocarditis,hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases.Its cardiovascular protective effects and mechanisms are worth studying.%黄芪甲苷作为中药黄芪的主要有效成分,具有舒张血管,保护血管内皮细胞,抗炎,抗病毒,正性肌力等多方面作用,这些作用是通过抗氧化损伤、清除氧自由基、调节钙稳态、抗线粒体损伤等途径实现的.黄芪甲苷目前已有效用于治疗冠心病、心力衰竭、高血压、心肌炎等心血管疾病,其对心血管的保护作用和机制有待进一步研究.

  18. Moderation of dietary sodium potentiates the renal and cardiovascular protective effects of angiotensin receptor blockers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J.; Holtkamp, Frank A.; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Navis, Gerjan J.; Lewis, Julia B.; Ritz, Eberhard; de Graeff, Pieter A.; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2012-01-01

    Dietary sodium restriction has been shown to enhance the short-term response of blood pressure and albuminuria to angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). Whether this also enhances the long-term renal and cardiovascular protective effects of ARBs is unknown. Here we conducted a post-hoc analysis of th

  19. Particulate matter air pollution and cardiovascular disease: An update to the scientific statement from the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Robert D; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Pope, C Arden; Brook, Jeffrey R; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Diez-Roux, Ana V; Holguin, Fernando; Hong, Yuling; Luepker, Russell V; Mittleman, Murray A; Peters, Annette; Siscovick, David; Smith, Sidney C; Whitsel, Laurie; Kaufman, Joel D

    2010-06-01

    In 2004, the first American Heart Association scientific statement on "Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Disease" concluded that exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution contributes to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In the interim, numerous studies have expanded our understanding of this association and further elucidated the physiological and molecular mechanisms involved. The main objective of this updated American Heart Association scientific statement is to provide a comprehensive review of the new evidence linking PM exposure with cardiovascular disease, with a specific focus on highlighting the clinical implications for researchers and healthcare providers. The writing group also sought to provide expert consensus opinions on many aspects of the current state of science and updated suggestions for areas of future research. On the basis of the findings of this review, several new conclusions were reached, including the following: Exposure to PM American Heart Association scientific statement was published. Finally, PM(2.5) exposure is deemed a modifiable factor that contributes to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  20. Modifications of the isolated frog heart preparation in Carl Ludwig's Leipzig Physiological Institute: relevance for cardiovascular research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, H G

    2000-01-01

    Carl Ludwig was the first physiologist to systematically study isolated organs (heart, muscle, kidney, liver, lung). In his Leipzig Physiological Institute, the isolated perfused frog heart preparation was established in 1866 by Elias Cyon. This preparation was subsequently subjected to various modifications, and many important observations were made by scientists such as Joseph Coats, Henry Pickering Bowditch, Luigi Luciani, Michael Joseph Rossbach, Hugo Kronecker and Otto Frank. The influence of filling pressure on contraction amplitude, the all-or-none law of the heart, the absolute refractory period, postextrasystolic potentiation, the staircase ('Treppe') phenomenon and the dependence of heart function on oxidative metabolism were discovered. The negative chronotropic and inotropic effects of vagus nerve stimulation were also first documented, and a model to induce arrhythmias was established. The isolated frog heart preparation became a widely used standard model for teaching and for basic cardiovascular research. Sidney Ringer discovered the essential role of calcium ions for heart function. Otto Loewi discovered the chemical transduction mechanism of the vagus with acetylcholine as transmitter. In more recent times, the cyclical changes in cAMP and cGMP that occur during the cardiac cycle were first described in the frog heart by Wollenberger and associates. Thus, the isolated perfused frog heart established and modified in Carl Ludwig's Leipzig Physiological Institute led not only to the discovery of basic phenomena, but also to observations that became the basis for concepts to be developed and elaborated later. Furthermore, the isolated perfused frog heart was the starting point for the development of the isolated mammalian heart in the retrogradely perfused, nonworking mode in the heart-lung modification and in the working heart preparation.

  1. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in migrants participating in the PEP family heart study, Nuremberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda-Maria Haas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in adults and their children from the 3 major groups of migrants participating in the PEP Family Heart Study [11] and to compare the cardio-metabolic risk profiles between migrants and German participants. Methods: In this community-based cross-sectional study, anthropometric data, blood pressure and lipid profiles of migrants (480 children, 363 adults from Turkey (TUR, Eastern Europe (EEU and German immigrants from the former Soviet Union (GFSU were compared with age and gender adjusted German (GER resi-dents (3253 children, 2491 adults. Results: The profile of risk factors differed considerably regarding specificity and frequency. The prevalence of ≥3 risk factors was as follows: in GFSU men 62%, women 36%, boys 19% and girls 17%; in TUR men 57%, women 30%, 15% boys and 6% girls; in GER men 48%, women 19%, boys 4% and girls 6%; for EEU men 38%, women 25% and 0% in children. No risk factor was present in GFSU men 13%, women 25%, boys 38% and girls 42%; TUR men 13%, women 28%, boys 27% and girls 22 %; GER men16%, women 45%, boys 46% and girls 41%; EEU men 17%, women 42 %, boys 29% and girls 27%. About 50% of the adults from Turkey and Eastern Europe were current smokers and one third of women and half of men from these two countries were over-weight. Conclusions: The implementation of primary care measures for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in migrants is necessary, and it should consider the ethnic differences and the heterogene-ous risk profiles.

  2. Heart rate variability and arrhythmic patterns of 24-hour Holter electrocardiography among Nigerians with cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo RA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Rasaaq Ayodele Adebayo, Amanze Nkemjika Ikwu, Michael Olabode Balogun, Anthony Olubunmi Akintomide, Olufemi Eyitayo Ajayi, Victor Oladeji Adeyeye, Tuoyo Omasan Mene-Afejuku, Olaniyi James Bamikole, Suraj Adefabi Ogunyemi, Adeola Olubunmi Ajibare, Omolola Abiodun OketonaCardiology Unit, Department of Medicine, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex (OAUTHC, Ile-Ife, Osun State, NigeriaBackground: Facilities for Holter electrocardiography (ECG monitoring in many Nigerian hospitals are limited. There are few published works in Nigeria on the use of 24-hour Holter ECG in cardiac arrhythmic evaluation of patients with cardiovascular diseases.Objective: To study the clinical indications, arrhythmic pattern, and heart rate variability (HRV among subjects referred for 24-hour Holter ECG at our Cardiac Care Unit.Methods: Three-hundred and ten patients (134 males and 176 females were studied consecutively over a 48-month period using Schiller type (MT-101 Holter ECG machine.Results: Out of the 310 patients reviewed, 134 were males (43.2% and 176 were females (56.8%. The commonest indication for Holter ECG was palpitation followed by syncope in 71 (23% and 49 (15.8% of subjects, respectively. Premature ventricular complex and premature atrial complex were the commonest types of arrhythmia in 51.5% and 15% subjects, respectively. Ventricular arrhythmia was more prevalent in dilated cardiomyopathy patients (85.7%. The HRV of subjects with palpitation, stroke, and diabetes mellitus with autonomic neuropathy, using standard deviation of normal to normal intervals average (milliseconds, were 107.32±49.61, 79.15±49.15, and 66.50±15.54, respectively. The HRV, using standard deviation of averages of normal to normal intervals average (milliseconds, of patients with palpitation, stroke, and diabetes mellitus with autonomic neuropathy were 77.39±62.34, 57.82±37.05, and 55.50±12.71, respectively.Conclusion: Palpitation and syncope were the

  3. Protective effect of thymoquinone improves cardiovascular function, and attenuates oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis by mediating the PI3K/Akt pathway in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Liu, Hong-Yang; Jiang, Yi-Nong; Li, Nan

    2016-03-01

    Thymoquinone is the main active monomer extracted from black cumin and has anti‑inflammatory, antioxidant and anti‑apoptotic functions. However, the protective effects of thymoquinone on cardiovascular function in diabetes remain to be fully elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms underling the beneficial effects of thymoquinone on the cardiovascular function in streptozotocin‑induced diabetes mellitus (DM) rats. Supplement thymoquinone may recover the insulin levels and body weight, inhibit blood glucose levels and reduce the heart rate in DM‑induced rats. The results indicated that the heart, liver and lung to body weight ratios, in addition to the blood pressure levels, were similar for each experimental group. Treatment with thymoquinone significantly reduced oxidative stress damage, inhibited the increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase protein expression and suppressed the elevation of cyclooxygenase‑2 levels in DM‑induced rats. In addition, thymoquinone significantly suppressed the promotion of tumor necrosis factor‑α and interleukin‑6 levels in the DM‑induced rats. Furthermore, administration of thymoquinone significantly reduced caspase‑3 activity and the promotion of phosphorylated‑protein kinase B (Akt) protein expression levels in DM‑induced rats. These results suggest that the protective effect of thymoquinone improves cardiovascular function and attenuates oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis by mediating the phosphatidylinositol 3‑kinase/Akt pathway in DM‑induced rats.

  4. The 2013 Canadian Cardiovascular Society Heart Failure Management Guidelines Update: focus on rehabilitation and exercise and surgical coronary revascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Gordon W; Ezekowitz, Justin A; O'Meara, Eileen; Howlett, Jonathan G; Fremes, Steve E; Al-Hesayen, Abdul; Heckman, George A; Ducharme, Anique; Estrella-Holder, Estrellita; Grzeslo, Adam; Harkness, Karen; Lepage, Serge; McDonald, Michael; McKelvie, Robert S; Nigam, Anil; Rajda, Miroslaw; Rao, Vivek; Swiggum, Elizabeth; Virani, Sean; Van Le, Vy; Zieroth, Shelley; Arnold, J Malcolm O; Ashton, Tom; D'Astous, Michel; Dorian, Paul; Giannetti, Nadia; Haddad, Haissam; Isaac, Debra L; Kouz, Simon; Leblanc, Marie-Hélène; Liu, Peter; Ross, Heather J; Sussex, Bruce; White, Michel

    2014-03-01

    The 2013 Canadian Cardiovascular Society Heart Failure Management Guidelines Update provides focused discussions on the management recommendations on 2 topics: (1) exercise and rehabilitation; and (2) surgical coronary revascularization in patients with heart failure. First, all patients with stable New York Heart Association class I-III symptoms should be considered for enrollment in a tailored exercise training program, to improve exercise tolerance and quality of life. Second, selected patients with suitable coronary anatomy should be considered for bypass graft surgery. As in previous updates, the topics were chosen in response to stakeholder feedback. The 2013 Update also includes recommendations, values and preferences, and practical tips to assist the clinicians and health care workers manage their patients with heart failure.

  5. The role of autonomic cardiovascular neuropathy in pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease in patients with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Pejičić Snježana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Diabetes is strongly associated with macrovascular complications, among which ischemic heart disease is the major cause of mortality. Autonomic neuropathy increases the risk of complications, which calls for an early diagnosis. The aim of this study was to determine both presence and extent of cardiac autonomic neuropathy, in regard to the type of diabetes mellitus, as well as its correlation with coronary disease and major cardiovascular risk factors. Material and methods. We have examined 90 subjects, classified into three groups, with 30 patients each: those with type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes and control group of healthy subjects. All patients underwent cardiovascular tests (Valsalva maneuver, deep breathing test, response to standing, blood pressure response to standing sustained, handgrip test, electrocardiogram, treadmill exercise test and filled out a questionnaire referring to major cardiovascular risk factors: smoking, obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Results. Our results showed that cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy was more frequent in type 2 diabetes, manifesting as autonomic neuropathy. In patients with autonomic neuropathy, regardless of the type of diabetes, the treadmill test was positive, i.e. strongly correlating with coronary disease. In regard to coronary disease risk factors, the most frequent correlation was found for obesity and hypertension. Discussion Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy is considered to be the principal cause of arteriosclerosis and coronary disease. Our results showed that the occurrence of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy increases the risk of coronary disease due to dysfunction of autonomic nervous system. Conclusions. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes that significantly correlates with coronary disease. Early diagnosis of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy points to increased cardiovascular risk, providing a basis for preventive

  6. Multi-organ protection during open heart surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万松; 严秉泉

    2001-01-01

    Purpose and Methods Open-heart surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is associated with an inflammatory cascade which contributes to the development of postoperative complications including multiple organ failure. To provide an update on the subject, we briefly review the recent English-language literature. Results During CPB, various factors have been recognized to induce a complex inflammatory response. Based on an enhanced understanding of the underlying mechanisms, therapeutic strategies have been developed to reduce this inflammatory reaction and its subsequent damaging effects. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting may result in less inflammatory injury as compared with the conventional maneuver, which can in turn, diminish the incidence of cardiac, renal, or neurological dysfunction. It is also clear that improving the biocompatibility of CPB materials can lead to a better patient recovery. Inasmuch as the pathophysiology involved appears to be multifactorial, it is unlikely that a single intervention could achieve the desired goal. Both pharmacologic strategies, such as steroid pretreatment, and modification of mechanical devices, such as the use of heparin-coated CPB circuits, could have important clinical implications. The balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory responses may be crucial in limiting the extent of inflammatory injury. Conclusions To date, the concept of organ protection should no longer be limited to the individual organ. Instead, investigations must be extended to focus on a systemic level.

  7. Heart and aortic baroreceptors: operation in providing hemodynamic processes in cardiovascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Y. Rudenko

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims Up to the present, ECGs have been classified on the basis of the analysis of the ECG curve shape. But this made impossible to classify many ECG shapes. The most promising methods for the classification must evaluate each of the 10 cardiac cycle phases both by their functions and hemodynamic parameters. The aim hereof is to develop the new classification principles for all possible ECG shape variations. Materials and methods The heart cycle phase analysis method is used to calculate the hemodynamic parameters in each of 10 phases, like the phase-related blood volumes and the level of contraction of the corresponding cardiovascular musculature determining its function dynamics in the cardiac cycle phase structure related to the compensation mechanism for maintaining normal hemodynamics. Results An ECG phase changes periodic table consisting of 10 groups of the actual ECG curves typical for the corresponding pathologies is proposed. Each group contains 4 levels of characteristic phase changes. Conclusion The ECG phase changes periodic table is the first attempt to classify the great variety of the ECG shapes. In this case the proposed system requires further investigations. It has been demonstrated that the theoretical concept of the table is in compliance with practice. Further it is planned to improve characteristics of every group and every level.

  8. Tobacco Use and Cardiovascular Disease among American Indians: The Strong Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas K. Welty

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use among American Indians has a long and complicated history ranging from its utilization in spiritual ceremonies to its importance as an economic factor for survival. Despite this cultural tradition and long history, there are few studies of the health effects of tobacco in this population. The Strong Heart Study is a prospective observational study of cardiovascular disease (CVD in 13 American Indian tribes in Arizona, Oklahoma, and North and South Dakota with 4,549 participants. Baseline examinations were followed by two examinations at regular intervals and 16 years of morbidity and mortality follow-up. Hazard ratios (HRs for non-fatal CVD for current smokers vs. non-smokers after adjusting for other risk factors were significant in women (HR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.54 to 2.45 and men (HR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.16 to 2.18. Hazard ratios for fatal CVD for current smokers vs. non-smokers after adjusting for other risk factors were significant in women (HR = 1.64, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.58, but not in men. Individuals who smoked and who were diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, hypertension or renal insufficiency were more likely to quit smoking than those without these conditions. On average, American Indians smoke fewer cigarettes per day than other racial/ethnic groups; nevertheless, the ill effects of habitual tobacco use are evident in this population.

  9. Geographical variation in cardiovascular incidence: results from the British Women's Heart and Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Shah

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD in women shows regional variations not explained by common risk factors. Analysis of CVD incidence will provide insight into whether there is further divergence between regions with increasing age. Methods Seven-year follow-up data on 2685 women aged 59-80 (mean 69 at baseline from 23 towns in the UK were available from the British Women's Heart and Health Study. Time to fatal or non-fatal CVD was analyzed using Cox regression with adjustment for risk factors, using multiple imputation for missing values. Results Compared to South England, CVD incidence is similar in North England (HR 1.05 (95% CI 0.84, 1.31 and Scotland (0.93 (0.68, 1.27, but lower in Midlands/Wales (0.85 (0.64, 1.12. Event severity influenced regional variation, with South England showing lower fatal incident CVD than other regions, but higher non-fatal incident CVD. Kaplan-Meier plots suggested that regional divergence in CVD occurred before baseline (before mean baseline age of 69. Conclusions In women, regional differences in CVD early in adult life do not further diverge in later life. This may be due to regional differences in early detection, survivorship of women entering the study, or event severity. Targeting health care resources for CVD by geographic variation may not be appropriate for older age-groups.

  10. Tobacco Use and Cardiovascular Disease among American Indians: The Strong Heart Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichner, June E.; Wang, Wenyu; Zhang, Ying; Lee, Elisa T.; Welty, Thomas K.

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco use among American Indians has a long and complicated history ranging from its utilization in spiritual ceremonies to its importance as an economic factor for survival. Despite this cultural tradition and long history, there are few studies of the health effects of tobacco in this population. The Strong Heart Study is a prospective observational study of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 13 American Indian tribes in Arizona, Oklahoma, and North and South Dakota with 4,549 participants. Baseline examinations were followed by two examinations at regular intervals and 16 years of morbidity and mortality follow-up. Hazard ratios (HRs) for non-fatal CVD for current smokers vs. non-smokers after adjusting for other risk factors were significant in women (HR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.54 to 2.45) and men (HR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.16 to 2.18). Hazard ratios for fatal CVD for current smokers vs. non-smokers after adjusting for other risk factors were significant in women (HR = 1.64, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.58), but not in men. Individuals who smoked and who were diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, hypertension or renal insufficiency were more likely to quit smoking than those without these conditions. On average, American Indians smoke fewer cigarettes per day than other racial/ethnic groups; nevertheless, the ill effects of habitual tobacco use are evident in this population. PMID:21139862

  11. Criteria for anatomical compatibility of the total artificial heart: computerized three-dimensional modeling of the cardiovascular anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatel, D; Martin-Bouyer, Y; Vicaut, E; Bouchoucha, H; Achard, F; Sablayrolles, J L; Carpentier, A

    1993-12-01

    A quantitative study of cardiovascular anatomy was performed by obtaining three-dimensional reconstructions from regular computed tomography scan images in 15 patients, all candidates for heart transplantation. Volumetric estimates of the cardiovascular structures were obtained from these three-dimensional reconstructions using data directly related to total artificial heart (TAH) implantations. By using computerized three-dimensional modeling of these structures, reproducible measurements of the parameters defining the shape and the anatomical connections of the intrathoracic space available for TAH implantation could be derived. The results are intended to be used for both technical and clinical applications such as computer-assisted drawing of the pericardial cavity and the anatomical connections (useful for improving the design of TAH) and combined statistical calculations (multiple regressions, cluster algorithm) of the measurement results, which will then enable the best selection to be made among two or three TAH models for each patient.

  12. Moderation of dietary sodium potentiates the renal and cardiovascular protective effects of angiotensin receptor blockers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J; Holtkamp, Frank A; Parving, Hans-Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    Dietary sodium restriction has been shown to enhance the short-term response of blood pressure and albuminuria to angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). Whether this also enhances the long-term renal and cardiovascular protective effects of ARBs is unknown. Here we conducted a post-hoc analysis...... of the RENAAL and IDNT trials to test this in patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy randomized to ARB or non-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (non-RAASi)-based antihypertensive therapy. Treatment effects on renal and cardiovascular outcomes were compared in subgroups based on dietary sodium intake...... effects of ARB compared with non-RAASi-based therapy on renal and cardiovascular outcomes were greater in patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy with lower than higher dietary sodium intake. This underscores the avoidance of excessive sodium intake, particularly in type 2 diabetic patients receiving...

  13. Cardiovascular disease, risk factors and heart rate variability in the elderly general population: Design and objectives of the CARdiovascular disease, Living and Ageing in Halle (CARLA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuss Oliver

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD in the ageing population of industrialized nations requires an intensive search for means of reducing this epidemic. In order to improve prevention, detection, therapy and prognosis of cardiovascular diseases on the population level in Eastern Germany, it is necessary to examine reasons for the East-West gradient of CVD morbidity and mortality, potential causal mechanisms and prognostic factors in the elderly. Psychosocial and nutritional factors have previously been discussed as possible causes for the unexplained part of the East-West gradient. A reduced heart rate variability appears to be associated with cardiovascular disease as well as with psychosocial and other cardiovascular risk factors and decreases with age. Nevertheless, there is a lack of population-based data to examine the role of heart rate variability and its interaction with psychosocial and nutritional factors regarding the effect on cardiovascular disease in the ageing population. There also is a paucity of epidemiological data describing the health situation in Eastern Germany. Therefore, we conduct a population-based study to examine the distribution of CVD, heart rate variability and CVD risk factors and their associations in an elderly East German population. This paper describes the design and objectives of the CARLA Study. Methods/design For this study, a random sample of 45–80 year-old inhabitants of the city of Halle (Saale in Eastern Germany was drawn from the population registry. By the end of the baseline examination (2002–2005, 1750 study participants will have been examined. A multi-step recruitment strategy aims at achieving a 70 % response rate. Detailed information is collected on own and family medical history, socioeconomic, psychosocial, behavioural and biomedical factors. Medical examinations include anthropometric measures, blood pressure of arm and ankle, a 10-second and a 20

  14. Genomic approach to therapeutic target validation identifies a glucose-lowering GLP1R variant protective for coronary heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Robert A.; Freitag, Daniel F.; Li, Li; Chu, Audrey Y.; Surendran, Praveen; Young, Robin; Grarup, Niels; Stancáková, Alena; Chen, Yuning; V.Varga, Tibor; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Luan, Jian'an; Zhao, Jing Hua; Willems, Sara M.; Wessel, Jennifer; Wang, Shuai; Maruthur, Nisa; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Pirie, Ailith; van der Lee, Sven J.; Gillson, Christopher; Olama, Ali Amin Al; Amouyel, Philippe; Arriola, Larraitz; Arveiler, Dominique; Aviles-Olmos, Iciar; Balkau, Beverley; Barricarte, Aurelio; Barroso, Inês; Garcia, Sara Benlloch; Bis, Joshua C.; Blankenberg, Stefan; Boehnke, Michael; Boeing, Heiner; Boerwinkle, Eric; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Bork-Jensen, Jette; Bowden, Sarah; Caldas, Carlos; Caslake, Muriel; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Cruchaga, Carlos; Czajkowski, Jacek; den Hoed, Marcel; Dunn, Janet A.; Earl, Helena M.; Ehret, Georg B.; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrieres, Jean; Foltynie, Thomas; Ford, Ian; Forouhi, Nita G.; Gianfagna, Francesco; Gonzalez, Carlos; Grioni, Sara; Hiller, Louise; Jansson, Jan-Håkan; Jørgensen, Marit E.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kee, Frank; Kerrison, Nicola D.; Key, Timothy J.; Kontto, Jukka; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Kraja, Aldi T.; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Kuusisto, Johanna; Linneberg, Allan; Liu, Chunyu; Marenne, Gaëlle; Mohlke, Karen L.; Morris, Andrew P.; Muir, Kenneth; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Munroe, Patricia B.; Navarro, Carmen; Nielsen, Sune F.; Nilsson, Peter M.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Packard, Chris J.; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Peloso, Gina M.; Perola, Markus; Peters, Annette; Poole, Christopher J.; Quirós, J. Ramón; Rolandsson, Olov; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Salomaa, Veikko; Sánchez, María-José; Sattar, Naveed; Sharp, Stephen J.; Sims, Rebecca; Slimani, Nadia; Smith, Jennifer A.; Thompson, Deborah J.; Trompet, Stella; Tumino, Rosario; van der A, Daphne L.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Virtamo, Jarmo; Walker, Mark; Walter, Klaudia; Abraham, Jean E.; Amundadottir, Laufey T.; Aponte, Jennifer L.; Butterworth, Adam S.; Dupuis, Josée; Easton, Douglas F.; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Erdmann, Jeanette; Franks, Paul W.; Frayling, Timothy M.; Hansen, Torben; Howson, Joanna M. M.; Jørgensen, Torben; Kooner, Jaspal; Laakso, Markku; Langenberg, Claudia; McCarthy, Mark I.; Pankow, James S.; Pedersen, Oluf; Riboli, Elio; Rotter, Jerome I.; Saleheen, Danish; Samani, Nilesh J.; Schunkert, Heribert; Vollenweider, Peter; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Deloukas, Panos; Danesh, John; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Meigs, James B.; Ehm, Margaret G.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Waterworth, Dawn M.

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory authorities have indicated that new drugs to treat type 2 diabetes (T2D) should not be associated with an unacceptable increase in cardiovascular risk. Human genetics may be able to inform development of antidiabetic therapies by predicting cardiovascular and other health endpoints. We therefore investigated the association of variants in 6 genes that encode drug targets for obesity or T2D with a range of metabolic traits in up to 11,806 individuals by targeted exome sequencing, and follow-up in 39,979 individuals by targeted genotyping, with additional in silico follow up in consortia. We used these data to first compare associations of variants in genes encoding drug targets with the effects of pharmacological manipulation of those targets in clinical trials. We then tested the association those variants with disease outcomes, including coronary heart disease, to predict cardiovascular safety of these agents. A low-frequency missense variant (Ala316Thr;rs10305492) in the gene encoding glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP1R), the target of GLP1R agonists, was associated with lower fasting glucose and lower T2D risk, consistent with GLP1R agonist therapies. The minor allele was also associated with protection against heart disease, thus providing evidence that GLP1R agonists are not likely to be associated with an unacceptable increase in cardiovascular risk. Our results provide an encouraging signal that these agents may be associated with benefit, a question currently being addressed in randomised controlled trials. Genetic variants associated with metabolic traits and multiple disease outcomes can be used to validate therapeutic targets at an early stage in the drug development process. PMID:27252175

  15. German Heart Surgery Report 2015: The Annual Updated Registry of the German Society for Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Andreas; Funkat, Anne-Katrin; Lewandowski, Jana; Frie, Michael; Ernst, Markus; Hekmat, Khosro; Schiller, Wolfgang; Gummert, Jan F; Welz, Armin

    2016-09-01

    On the basis of a long-standing voluntary registry, which was founded by the German Society for Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery (GSTCVS), well-defined data of all heart, thoracic, and vascular surgery procedures performed in 78 German heart surgery departments during 2015 are analyzed. In 2015, a total of 103,967 heart surgery procedures (implantable cardioverter defibrillator, pacemaker, and extracardiac procedures without ECC excluded) were submitted to the database. Approximately 14.8% of the patients were at least 80 years old, resulting in an increase of 0.6% compared with the data of 2014. For 38,601 isolated coronary artery bypass grafting procedures (relationship on-/off-pump: 5:1), the unadjusted inhospital mortality was 2.7%. Concerning the 32,346 isolated heart valve procedures (including 10,606 catheter-based implantations) an unadjusted inhospital mortality of 4.4% was observed.This annual updated registry of the GSTCVS represents voluntary public reporting by accumulating actual information for nearly all heart surgical procedures in Germany, demonstrates advancements in heart medicine, and enables internal/external quality assurance for all participants. In addition, the registry demonstrates that the provision of heart surgery in Germany is appropriate and patients are treated nationwide in a round-the-clock service.

  16. Left Ventricular Wall Stress-Mass-Heart Rate Product and Cardiovascular Events in Treated Hypertensive Patients: LIFE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devereux, Richard B; Bang, Casper N; Roman, Mary J; Palmieri, Vittorio; Boman, Kurt; Gerdts, Eva; Nieminen, Markku S; Papademetriou, Vasilios; Wachtell, Kristian; Hille, Darcy A; Dahlöf, Björn

    2015-11-01

    In the Losartan Intervention for End Point Reduction in Hypertension (LIFE) study, 4.8 years' losartan- versus atenolol-based antihypertensive treatment reduced left ventricular hypertrophy and cardiovascular end points, including cardiovascular death and stroke. However, there was no difference in myocardial infarction (MI), possibly related to greater reduction in myocardial oxygen demand by atenolol-based treatment. Myocardial oxygen demand was assessed indirectly by the left ventricular mass×wall stress×heart rate (triple product) in 905 LIFE participants. The triple product was included as time-varying covariate in Cox models assessing predictors of the LIFE primary composite end point (cardiovascular death, MI, or stroke), its individual components, and all-cause mortality. At baseline, the triple product in both treatment groups was, compared with normal adults, elevated in 70% of patients. During randomized treatment, the triple product was reduced more by atenolol, with prevalences of elevated triple product of 39% versus 51% on losartan (both P≤0.001). In Cox regression analyses adjusting for age, smoking, diabetes mellitus, and prior stroke, MI, and heart failure, 1 SD lower triple product was associated with 23% (95% confidence interval 13%-32%) fewer composite end points, 31% (18%-41%) less cardiovascular mortality, 30% (15%-41%) lower MI, and 22% (11%-33%) lower all-cause mortality (all P≤0.001), without association with stroke (P=0.34). Although losartan-based therapy reduced ventricular mass more, greater heart rate reduction with atenolol resulted in larger reduction of the triple product. Lower triple product during antihypertensive treatment was strongly, independently associated with lower rates of the LIFE primary composite end point, cardiovascular death, and MI, but not stroke.

  17. Lifetime Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Among Individuals With and Without Diabetes Stratified by Obesity Status in the Framingham Heart Study

    OpenAIRE

    Pencina, Michael J.; Wilson, Peter W. F.; Vasan, Ramachandran S; D’Agostino, Ralph B.; Fox, Caroline; Paynter, Nina Palanza

    2008-01-01

    Objective: We assessed the lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among individuals with and without obesity and diabetes. Research Design and Methods: Participants were drawn from the original and offspring cohorts of the Framingham Heart Study. Lifetime (30-year) risk of CVD was assessed using a modified Kaplan-Meier approach adjusting for the competing risk of death, beginning from age 50 years. Results: Over 30 years, the lifetime risk of CVD among women with diabetes was 54.8% amo...

  18. Moderation of dietary sodium potentiates the renal and cardiovascular protective effects of angiotensin receptor blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J; Holtkamp, Frank A; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Navis, Gerjan J; Lewis, Julia B; Ritz, Eberhard; de Graeff, Pieter A; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2012-08-01

    Dietary sodium restriction has been shown to enhance the short-term response of blood pressure and albuminuria to angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). Whether this also enhances the long-term renal and cardiovascular protective effects of ARBs is unknown. Here we conducted a post-hoc analysis of the RENAAL and IDNT trials to test this in patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy randomized to ARB or non-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (non-RAASi)-based antihypertensive therapy. Treatment effects on renal and cardiovascular outcomes were compared in subgroups based on dietary sodium intake during treatment, measured as the 24-h urinary sodium/creatinine ratio of 1177 patients with available 24-h urinary sodium measurements. ARB compared to non-RAASi-based therapy produced the greatest long-term effects on renal and cardiovascular events in the lowest tertile of sodium intake. Compared to non-RAASi, the trend in risk for renal events was significantly reduced by 43%, not changed, or increased by 37% for each tertile of increased sodium intake, respectively. The trend for cardiovascular events was significantly reduced by 37%, increased by 2% and 25%, respectively. Thus, treatment effects of ARB compared with non-RAASi-based therapy on renal and cardiovascular outcomes were greater in patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy with lower than higher dietary sodium intake. This underscores the avoidance of excessive sodium intake, particularly in type 2 diabetic patients receiving ARB therapy.

  19. Simulated Microgravity Exerts an Age-Dependent Effect on the Differentiation of Cardiovascular Progenitors Isolated from the Human Heart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania I Fuentes

    Full Text Available Microgravity has a profound effect on cardiovascular function, however, little is known about the impact of microgravity on progenitors that reside within the heart. We investigated the effect of simulated microgravity exposure on progenitors isolated from the neonatal and adult human heart by quantifying changes in functional parameters, gene expression and protein levels after 6-7 days of 2D clinorotation. Utilization of neonatal and adult cardiovascular progenitors in ground-based studies has provided novel insight into how microgravity may affect cells differently depending on age. Simulated microgravity exposure did not impact AKT or ERK phosphorylation levels and did not influence cell migration, but elevated transcripts for paracrine factors were identified in neonatal and adult cardiovascular progenitors. Age-dependent responses surfaced when comparing the impact of microgravity on differentiation. Endothelial cell tube formation was unchanged or increased in progenitors from adults whereas neonatal cardiovascular progenitors showed a decline in tube formation (p<0.05. Von Willebrand Factor, an endothelial differentiation marker, and MLC2v and Troponin T, markers for cardiomyogenic differentiation, were elevated in expression in adult progenitors after simulated microgravity. DNA repair genes and telomerase reverse transcriptase which are highly expressed in early stem cells were increased in expression in neonatal but not adult cardiac progenitors after growth under simulated microgravity conditions. Neonatal cardiac progenitors demonstrated higher levels of MESP1, OCT4, and brachyury, markers for early stem cells. MicroRNA profiling was used to further investigate the impact of simulated microgravity on cardiovascular progenitors. Fifteen microRNAs were significantly altered in expression, including microRNAs-99a and 100 (which play a critical role in cell dedifferentiation. These microRNAs were unchanged in adult cardiac progenitors

  20. Update: Systemic Diseases and the Cardiovascular System (II). The endocrine system and the heart: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Soo S; Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2011-03-01

    Normal endocrine function is essential for cardiovascular health. Disorders of the endocrine system, consisting of hormone hyperfunction and hypofunction, have multiple effects on the cardiovascular system. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of disorders of the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal glands, with respect to the impact of endocrine dysfunction on the cardiovascular system. We also review the cardiovascular benefits of restoring normal endocrine function.

  1. Prognostic value of heart valve calcifications for cardiovascular events in a lung cancer screening population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemink, Martin J.; Takx, Richard A. P.; Isgum, Ivana; de Koning, Harry J.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Mali, Willem P. Th. M.; Budde, Ricardo P. J.; Leiner, Tim; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; de Jong, Pim A.

    2015-01-01

    To assess the prognostic value of aortic valve and mitral valve/annulus calcifications for cardiovascular events in heavily smoking men without a history of cardiovascular disease. Heavily smoking men without a cardiovascular disease history who underwent non-contrast-enhanced low-radiation-dose che

  2. The protective effect of lipoic acid on selected cardiovascular diseases caused by age-related oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skibska, Beata; Goraca, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is considered to be the primary cause of many cardiovascular diseases, including endothelial dysfunction in atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease, hypertension, and heart failure. Oxidative stress increases during the aging process, resulting in either increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production or decreased antioxidant defense. The increase in the incidence of cardiovascular disease is directly related to age. Aging is also associated with oxidative stress, which in turn leads to accelerated cellular senescence and organ dysfunction. Antioxidants may help lower the incidence of some pathologies of cardiovascular diseases and have antiaging properties. Lipoic acid (LA) is a natural antioxidant which is believed to have a beneficial effect on oxidative stress parameters in relation to diseases of the cardiovascular system.

  3. Inverse problems in reduced order models of cardiovascular haemodynamics: aspects of data assimilation and heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Sanjay; Corsini, Chiara; Baker, Catriona; Hsia, Tain-Yen; Pennati, Giancarlo; Vignon-Clementel, Irene E

    2017-01-01

    Inverse problems in cardiovascular modelling have become increasingly important to assess each patient individually. These problems entail estimation of patient-specific model parameters from uncertain measurements acquired in the clinic. In recent years, the method of data assimilation, especially the unscented Kalman filter, has gained popularity to address computational efficiency and uncertainty consideration in such problems. This work highlights and presents solutions to several challenges of this method pertinent to models of cardiovascular haemodynamics. These include methods to (i) avoid ill-conditioning of the covariance matrix, (ii) handle a variety of measurement types, (iii) include a variety of prior knowledge in the method, and (iv) incorporate measurements acquired at different heart rates, a common situation in the clinic where the patient state differs according to the clinical situation. Results are presented for two patient-specific cases of congenital heart disease. To illustrate and validate data assimilation with measurements at different heart rates, the results are presented on a synthetic dataset and on a patient-specific case with heart valve regurgitation. It is shown that the new method significantly improves the agreement between model predictions and measurements. The developed methods can be readily applied to other pathophysiologies and extended to dynamical systems which exhibit different responses under different sets of known parameters or different sets of inputs (such as forcing/excitation frequencies).

  4. Influence of Cardiovascular and Noncardiovascular Co-morbidities on Outcomes and Treatment Effect of Heart Rate Reduction With Ivabradine in Stable Heart Failure (from the SHIFT Trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Michael; Robertson, Michele; Ford, Ian; Borer, Jeffrey S; Komajda, Michel; Kindermann, Ingrid; Maack, Christoph; Lainscak, Mitja; Swedberg, Karl; Tavazzi, Luigi

    2015-12-15

    Incidence of chronic heart failure (HF) increases with age and cardiovascular (CV) morbidity. Co-morbidities increase hospitalization and mortality in HF, and non-CV co-morbidities may lead to preventable hospitalizations. We studied the impact of co-morbidities on mortality and morbidity in Systolic Heart Failure Treatment with the I(f) Inhibitor Ivabradine Trial, and investigated whether the impact of ivabradine was affected by co-morbidities. We analyzed the Systolic Heart Failure Treatment with the I(f) Inhibitor Ivabradine Trialpopulation, with moderate-to-severe HF and left ventricular dysfunction (in sinus rhythm with heart rate at rest ≥70 beats/min), according to co-morbidity: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, anemia, stroke, impaired renal function, myocardial infarction, hypertension, and peripheral artery disease. Co-morbidity load was classed as 0, 1, 2, 3, 4+ or 1 to 2 co-morbidities, or 3+ co-morbidities. Co-morbidities were evenly distributed between the placebo and ivabradine groups. Patients with more co-morbidities were likely to be older, women, had more advanced HF, were less likely to be on β blockers, with an even distribution on ivabradine 2.5, 5, or 7.5 mg bid and placebo at all co-morbidity loads. Number of co-morbidities was related to outcomes. Cardiovascular death or HF hospitalization events significantly increased (p 3 co-morbidities for both, ivabradine and placebo. There was no interaction between co-morbidity load and the treatment effects of ivabradine. Hospitalization rate was lower at all co-morbidity loads for ivabradine. In conclusion, cardiac and noncardiac co-morbidities significantly affect CV outcomes, particularly if there are >3 co-morbidities. The effect of heart rate reduction with ivabradine is maintained at all co-morbidity loads.

  5. The Association of Sleep Disordered Breathing with Heart Failure and Other Cardiovascular Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Stopford

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An abundance of evidence exists in support of primary and secondary prevention for tackling the scourge of cardiovascular disease. Despite our wealth of knowledge, certain deficiencies still remain. One such example is the association between sleep disordered breathing (SDB and cardiovascular disease. A clear body of evidence exists to link these two disease entities (independent of other factors such as obesity and smoking, yet our awareness of this association and its clinical implication does not match that of other established cardiovascular risk factors. Here, we outline the available evidence linking SDB and cardiovascular disease as well as discussing the potential consequences and management in the cardiovascular disease population.

  6. Cardiovascular age of aviation personnel:based on the principal component analysis of heart rate and blood pressure variability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛有国; 王守岩; 张玉海; 王兴邦; 张立藩

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To introduce a method to calculate cardiovascular age, a new, accurate and much simpler index for assessing cardiovascular autonomic regulatory function, based on statistical analysis of heart rate and blood pressure variability (HRV and BPV) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) data. Methods: Firstly, HRV and BPV of 89 healthy aviation personnel were analyzed by the conventional autoregressive (AR) spectral analysis and their spontaneous BRS was obtained by the sequence method. Secondly, principal component analysis was conducted over original and derived indices of HRV, BPV and BRS data and the relevant principal components, Pciorig and Pcideri (I=1, 2, 3,...) were obtained. Finally, the equation for calculating cardiovascular age was obtained by multiple regression with the chronological age being assigned as the dependent variable and the principal components significantly related to age as the regressors. Results: The first four principal components of original indices accounted for over 90% of total variance of the indices, so did the first three principal components of derived indices. So, these seven principal components could reflect the information of cardiovascular autonomic regulation which was embodied in the 17 indices of HRV, BPV and BRS exactly with a minimal loss of information. Of the seven principal components, PC2orig, PC4orig and PC2deri were negatively correlated with the chronological age (P<0.05), whereas the PC3orig was positively correlated with the chronological age (P<0.01). The cardiovascular age thus calculated from the regression equation was significantly correlated with the chronological age among the 89 aviation personnel (r=0.73, P<0.01). Conclusion: The cardiovascular age calculated based on a multi-variate analysis of HRV, BPV and BRS could be regarded as a comprehensive indicator reflecting the age dependency of autonomic regulation of cardiovascular system in healthy aviation personnel.

  7. Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Migrants Participating in the PEP Family Heart Study, Nuremberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda-Maria Haas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of cardiovascularrisk factors in adults and their children from the 3 majorgroups of migrants participating in the PEP Family Heart Study 11 andto compare the cardio-metabolic risk profiles between migrants andGerman participants.Methods: In this community-based cross-sectional study, anthropometricdata, blood pressure and lipid profiles of migrants (480 children,363 adults from Turkey (TUR, Eastern Europe (EEU and Germanimmigrants from the former Soviet Union (GFSU were comparedwith age- and gender adjusted German (GER residents (3253 children,2491 adults.Results: The profile of risk factors differed considerably regardingspecificity and frequency. The prevalence of ≥3 risk factors was asfollows: in GFSU men 62%, women 36%, boys 19% and girls 17%; inTUR men 57%, women 30%, 15% boys and 6% girls; in GER men48%, women 19%, boys 4% and girls 6%; for EEU men 38%, women25% and 0% in children. No risk factor was present in GFSU men13%, women 25%, boys 38% and girls 42%; TUR men 13%, women28%, boys 27% and girls 22 %; GER men16%, women 45%, boys 46%and girls 41%; EEU men 17%, women 42 %, boys 29% and girls 27%.About 50% of the adults from Turkey and Eastern Europe were currentsmokers and one third of women and half of men from these twocountries were overweight.Conclusions: The implementation of primary care measures for theprevention of cardiovascular disease in migrants is necessary, and itshould consider the ethnic differences and the heterogeneous risk profiles

  8. Effects of heart rate variability biofeedback on cardiovascular responses and autonomic sympathovagal modulation following stressor tasks in prehypertensives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S; Sun, P; Wang, S; Lin, G; Wang, T

    2016-02-01

    Autonomic dysfunction is implicated in prehypertension, and previous studies have suggested that therapies that improve modulation of sympathovagal balance, such as biofeedback and slow abdominal breathing, are effective in patients with prehypertension at rest. However, considering that psychophysiological stressors may be associated with greater cardiovascular risk in prehypertensives, it is important to investigate whether heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) results in equivalent effects on autonomic cardiovascular responses control during stressful conditions in prehypertensives. A total of 32 college students with prehypertension were enrolled and randomly assigned to HRV-BF (n=12), slow abdominal breathing (SAB, n=10) or no treatment (control, n=10) groups. Then, a training experiment consisting of 15 sessions was employed to compare the effect of each intervention on the following cardiovascular response indicators before and after intervention: heart rate (HR); heart rate variability (HRV) components; blood volume pulse amplitude (BVPamp); galvanic skin response; respiration rate (RSP); and blood pressure. In addition, the cold pressor test and the mental arithmetic challenge test were also performed over two successive days before and after the invention as well as after 3 months of follow-up. A significant decrease in HR and RSP and a significant increase in BVPamp were observed after the HRV-BF intervention (P<0.001). For the HRV analysis, HRV-BF significantly reduced the ratio of low-frequency power to high-frequency power (the LF/HF ratio, P<0.001) and increased the normalized high-frequency power (HFnm) (P<0.001) during the stress tests, and an added benefit over SAB by improving HRV was also observed. In the 3-month follow-up study, similar effects on RSP, BVPamp, LF/HF and HFnm were observed in the HRV-BF group compared with the SAB group. HRV-BF training contributes to the beneficial effect of reducing the stress-related cardiovascular

  9. cardiovasculares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Guerrero

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los aspectos que más discusión ha suscitado en los últimos tiempos entre quienes nos dedicamos al estudio de la emoción tiene que ver con la eventual asociación entre percepción, valoración y respuesta fisiológica. Esto es, siguiendo la máxima aristotélica, cabría cuestionar si las cosas son como son o son como cada quien las percibe. El objetivo de este experimento ha sido establecer la existencia de una conexión entre percepción de control y responsividad cardiovascular. La muestra estudiada ha estado conformada por estudiantes de la Universidad de Castellón; todos ellos han participado de forma voluntaria. La prueba de estrés ha consistido en un examen real de una asignatura troncal de la titulación que cursaban los participantes. Así pues, utilizando una situación de estrés real, hipotetizamos que las respuestas cardiovasculares (medidas a través de la tasa cardiaca, la presión sanguínea sistólica y la presión sanguínea diastólica dependen de la percepción de control que el individuo tiene, o cree tener, sobre la situación.

  10. Estimating Longitudinal Risks and Benefits From Cardiovascular Preventive Therapies Among Medicare Patients: The Million Hearts Longitudinal ASCVD Risk Assessment Tool: A Special Report From the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Huffman, Mark D; Karmali, Kunal N; Sanghavi, Darshak M; Wright, Janet S; Pelser, Colleen; Gulati, Martha; Masoudi, Frederick A; Goff, David C

    2017-03-28

    The Million Hearts Initiative has a goal of preventing 1 million heart attacks and strokes-the leading causes of mortality-through several public health and healthcare strategies by 2017. The American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology support the program. The Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Model was developed by Million Hearts and the Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services as a strategy to assess a value-based payment approach toward reduction in 10-year predicted risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) by implementing cardiovascular preventive strategies to manage the "ABCS" (aspirin therapy in appropriate patients, blood pressure control, cholesterol management, and smoking cessation). The purpose of this special report is to describe the development and intended use of the Million Hearts Longitudinal ASCVD Risk Assessment Tool. The Million Hearts Tool reinforces and builds on the "2013 ACC/AHA Guideline on the Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk" by allowing clinicians to estimate baseline and updated 10-year ASCVD risk estimates for primary prevention patients adhering to the appropriate ABCS over time, alone or in combination. The tool provides updated risk estimates based on evidence from high-quality systematic reviews and meta-analyses of the ABCS therapies. This novel approach to personalized estimation of benefits from risk-reducing therapies in primary prevention may help target therapies to those in whom they will provide the greatest benefit, and serves as the basis for a Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services program designed to evaluate the Million Hearts Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Model.

  11. Tests That Can Help Protect Your Heart Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of your weight in relation to your height. Waist circumference is a measure of the fat around your middle. Why: To find out whether your body type raises your risk of heart disease. A BMI of 25 or ...

  12. Cardiovascular function and treatment in β-thalassemia major: a consensus statement from the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennell, Dudley J; Udelson, James E; Arai, Andrew E; Bozkurt, Biykem; Cohen, Alan R; Galanello, Renzo; Hoffman, Timothy M; Kiernan, Michael S; Lerakis, Stamatios; Piga, Antonio; Porter, John B; Walker, John Malcolm; Wood, John

    2013-07-16

    This aim of this statement is to report an expert consensus on the diagnosis and treatment of cardiac dysfunction in β-thalassemia major (TM). This consensus statement does not cover other hemoglobinopathies, including thalassemia intermedia and sickle cell anemia, in which a different spectrum of cardiovascular complications is typical. There are considerable uncertainties in this field, with a few randomized controlled trials relating to treatment of chronic myocardial siderosis but none relating to treatment of acute heart failure. The principles of diagnosis and treatment of cardiac iron loading in TM are directly relevant to other iron-overload conditions, including in particular Diamond-Blackfan anemia, sideroblastic anemia, and hereditary hemochromatosis. Heart failure is the most common cause of death in TM and primarily results from cardiac iron accumulation. The diagnosis of ventricular dysfunction in TM patients differs from that in nonanemic patients because of the cardiovascular adaptation to chronic anemia in non-cardiac-loaded TM patients, which includes resting tachycardia, low blood pressure, enlarged end-diastolic volume, high ejection fraction, and high cardiac output. Chronic anemia also leads to background symptomatology such as dyspnea, which can mask the clinical diagnosis of cardiac dysfunction. Central to early identification of cardiac iron overload in TM is the estimation of cardiac iron by cardiac T2* magnetic resonance. Cardiac T2* <10 ms is the most important predictor of development of heart failure. Serum ferritin and liver iron concentration are not adequate surrogates for cardiac iron measurement. Assessment of cardiac function by noninvasive techniques can also be valuable clinically, but serial measurements to establish trends are usually required because interpretation of single absolute values is complicated by the abnormal cardiovascular hemodynamics in TM and measurement imprecision. Acute decompensated heart failure is a

  13. Cardiovascular protection in type 2 diabetes: time to ADVANCE management ACCORDing to the evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajhosseiny R

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Reza Hajhosseiny,1 Kaivan Khavandi,1 Soudeh Mashayekhi,2 Adam S Greenstein,3 Rayaz A Malik31British Heart Foundation Centre of Cardiovascular Excellence, St Thomas' Hospital, London, UK; 2Department of Primary Care and Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK; 3Institute of Human Development, University of Manchester, Manchester, UKAbstract: Individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus are at very substantial risk of cardiovascular disease, and most will succumb to complications from premature coronary artery events. At the same time, the diabetic myocardium undergoes unique phenotypic alterations as a consequence of multiple structural and cellular injuries, which together form "diabetic cardiomyopathy." Attempts to curb risk through intensive modulation of glycemia and blood pressure have proven disappointing in preventing cardiovascular events, and potentially even dangerous. Conversely, prior to development of disease, there appears to be a linear relationship between risk parameters and events. These observations are likely the consequence of widespread vascular damage, which is present at the point that glycemic thresholds meet diagnostic criteria for diabetes. This is particularly true of the microcirculation. Interventions at the prediabetic stage have been consistent with this, where early intensive risk-factor modulation has been successful in preventing events and even regressing existing risk. Upstream, the force driving these pathologies is being overweight and obesity. High-risk individuals can be identified through simple body mass parameters, with confirmation of prediabetes/metabolic syndrome with further assessment of other metabolic parameters such as glucose and lipids. A number of novel pharmacotherapies may prove beneficial at this stage, and incretin-based therapies appear particularly promising in this respect. Similarly, bariatric procedures have shown remarkable improvements in metabolic and cardiovascular

  14. Lack of association of ischemic heart disease with COPD when taking into account classical cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, José Luis; Martínez, Arturo; Guzmán, Elizabet; de Lucas, Pilar; Rodríguez, José Miguel

    2010-11-08

    The aim of our study is to determine whether chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an independent risk factor for ischemic heart disease and whether this association is related with a greater prevalence of classical cardiovascular risk factors. Ours is a case-control cross-sectional study design. Cases were hospital patients with ischemic heart disease in stable phase, compared with control hospital patients. All patients underwent post-bronchodilator (PBD) spirometry, a standardized questionnaire, and blood analysis. COPD was defined as per GOLD PBD forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV(1))/forced vital capacity (FVC) abdominal perimeter was significantly greater in cases (mean 101 cm ± standard deviation [SD] 10 versus 96 cm ± 11; P diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia (OR 2.10, 95% CI: 1.29-3.42), arterial hypertension (OR 2.47, 95% CI: 1.51-4.05), and increased abdominal perimeter (OR 1.71, 95% CI: 1.06-2.78). Percent predicted PBD FEV(1) was 97.6% ± 23% in the patient group and 104% ± 19% in the control group (P = 0.01), but the prevalence of COPD was 24.1% in cases and 21% in controls. Therefore, COPD was not associated with ischemic heart disease: at the crude level (OR 1.19, 95% CI: 0.67-2.13) or after adjustment (OR 1.14, 95% CI:0.57-2.29). In conclusion, COPD was not associated with ischemic heart disease. The greater prevalence of classical cardiovascular risk factors in COPD patients could explain the higher occurrence of ischemic heart disease in these patients.

  15. Molecular Analysis of Oral Bacteria in Heart Valve of Patients With Cardiovascular Disease by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Francisco Artur Forte; Forte, Clarissa Pessoa Fernandes; Silva, Paulo Goberlânio de Barros; Lopes, Camile B.; Montenegro, Raquel Carvalho; dos Santos, Ândrea Kely Campos Ribeiro; Sobrinho, Carlos Roberto Martins Rodrigues; Mota, Mário Rogério Lima; Sousa, Fabrício Bitu; Alves, Ana Paula Negreiros Nunes

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Structural deficiencies and functional abnormalities of heart valves represent an important cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and a number of diseases, such as aortic stenosis, have been recently associated with infectious agents. This study aimed to analyze oral bacteria in dental plaque, saliva, and cardiac valves of patients with cardiovascular disease. Samples of supragingival plaque, subgingival plaque, saliva, and cardiac valve tissue were collected from 42 patients with heart valve disease. Molecular analysis of Streptococcus mutans, Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Treponema denticola was performed through real-time PCR. The micro-organism most frequently detected in heart valve samples was the S. mutans (89.3%), followed by P. intermedia (19.1%), P. gingivalis (4.2%), and T. denticola (2.1%). The mean decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) was 26.4 ± 6.9 (mean ± SD), and according to the highest score of periodontal disease observed for each patient, periodontal pockets > 4 mm and dental calculus were detected in 43.4% and 34.7% of patients, respectively. In conclusion, oral bacteria, especially S. mutans, were found in the cardiac valve samples of patients with a high rate of caries and gingivitis/periodontitis. PMID:26632711

  16. Protective effect of the extract of Yi-Qi-Fu-Mai preparation on hypoxia-induced heart injury in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Ya-Qian; JU Ai-Chun; LIU Chun-Hua; WANG Ting; YU Bo-Yang; QI Jin

    2016-01-01

    Yi-Qi-Fu-Mai (YQFM) is extensively used clinically to treat cardiovascular diseases in China.To explore the anti-hypoxia effect of the extract of YQFM preparation (EYQFM),the EYQFM (1.4,2.8,and 5.5 g·kg-1·d-1) was assessed for its heart-protective effect in a chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) animal model (oxygen pressure 7%-8%,20 min per day) for 28 days of treatment.Betaloc (0.151 6 g·kg-1·d-1) was used as a positive control.The histopathological analyses of heart in CIH mice were conducted.Several cardiac state parameters,such as left ventricular ejection fractions (EF),stroke volume (SV),expression of creatine kinase (CK),lactate dehydrogenase (LDH),superoxide dismutase (SOD),and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured.The results showed that treatment with EYQFM markedly reversed swelling of the endothelial cells and vacuolization in the heart when compared with the model group.Further study demonstrated that EYQFM significantly improved ventricular myocardial contractility by increasing EF and SV.In addition,EYQFM inhibited the activity of CK,LDH,decreased the level of MDA and improved SOD activity.The results demonstrated that EYQFM significantly improved the tolerability of myocardium to hypoxia and ameliorated the cardiac damage in the CIH model.

  17. Endothelial function impairment in chronic venous insufficiency: effect of some cardiovascular protectant agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Omar F; Ranero, Alejandra; Hong, Enrique; Vidrio, Horacio

    In segments of human varicose veins, endothelial function was assessed by measuring relaxation induced by acetylcholine in noradrenaline-precontracted preparations. In addition, concentration-response curves to acetylcholine were obtained before and after incubation with the arterial endothelium protectant agents captopril, losartan, troglitazone, pravastatin, or simvastatin. The antivaricose agent escin was also tested. Mean acetylcholine-induced relaxation of varicose venous rings was about 13%, approximately one third of that reported for control saphenous veins. Concentration-response curves to acetylcholine were ''u'' shaped, the result of endothelium-mediated relaxation at low concentrations, superseded by subsequent smooth muscle contractile responses. Relaxation was enhanced by the endothelium-protecting agents and by escin, troglitazone being the least, and simvastatin the most effective. It was concluded that endothelial dysfunction is present in varicose veins, that this anomaly can be reverted by cardiovascular protecting agents, and that it can play a role in the pathogenesis and treatment of chronic venous insufficiency.

  18. Resting Heart Rate Is Not a Good Predictor of a Clustered Cardiovascular Risk Score in Adolescents: The HELENA Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto César Ferreira de Moraes

    Full Text Available Resting heart rate (RHR reflects sympathetic nerve activity a significant association between RHR and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality has been reported in some epidemiologic studies.To analyze the predictive power and accuracy of RHR as a screening measure for individual and clustered cardiovascular risk in adolescents. The study comprised 769 European adolescents (376 boys participating in the HELENA cross-sectional study (2006-2008 were included in this study. Measurements on systolic blood pressure, HOMA index, triglycerides, TC/HDL-c, VO2máx and the sum of four skinfolds were obtained, and a clustered cardiovascular disease (CVD risk index was computed. The receiver operating characteristics curve was applied to calculate the power and accuracy of RHR to predict individual and clustered CVD risk factors.RHR showed low accuracy for screening CVD risk factors in both sexes (range 38.5%-54.4% in boys and 45.5%-54.3% in girls. Low specificity's (15.6%-19.7% in boys; 18.1%-20.0% in girls were also found. Nevertheless, the sensitivities were moderate-to-high (61.4%-89.1% in boys; 72.9%-90.3% in girls.RHR is a poor predictor of individual CVD risk factors and of clustered CVD and the estimates based on RHR are not accurate. The use of RHR as an indicator of CVD risk in adolescents may produce a biased screening of cardiovascular health in both sexes.

  19. How to stay heart healthy in 2011: considerations for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Melinda B; Duvernoy, Claire S

    2011-07-01

    More women die of cardiovascular disease than any other cause. Effective primary prevention depends on accurate assessment of risk status. While most risk factors are similar for men and women, risk factors may differ in magnitude between the sexes, and recognition of gender-specific risk factors such as gestational diabetes, hypertensive syndromes of pregnancy and polycystic ovarian syndrome provides opportunities for early intervention and prevention. Obesity, hypertension and hyperlipidemia affect both genders; however, women often postpone addressing these risk factors until later in life. The American Heart Association emphasizes that all women are at cardiovascular risk and should maintain a healthy lifestyle and avoid smoking. Blood pressure, hyperlipidemia and diabetes should be aggressively treated. Current available data regarding proposed preventive drug therapies including daily aspirin, HRT, vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acid supplements will be reviewed.

  20. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute state of the science symposium in therapeutic apheresis-Therapeutic apheresis in cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Jeffrey L; Cooper, Leslie T; Ratcliffe, Nora R; Wu, Yanyun; Moriarty, Patrick M

    2015-06-01

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute in collaboration with the American Society for Apheresis, convened a State of the Science Symposium in November of 2012 due to the expanding application of therapeutic apheresis despite the lack of well-designed research to address its efficacy. This article reviews the opportunities that were presented at this meeting in the area of cardiovascular disease (CVD), specifically the use of columns to adsorb autoantibodies in dilated cardiomyopathy or damaging lipids in peripheral vascular disease. Understanding how absorption of these pathologic substances alters the inflammatory response in these disorders is important for the application of these technologies to the treatment of CVD.

  1. Understanding cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000759.htm Understanding cardiovascular disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... lead to heart attack or stroke. Types of Cardiovascular Disease Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common ...

  2. The healthy heart race: a short-duration, hands-on activity in cardiovascular physiology for museums and science festivals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressley, Thomas A; Limson, Melvin; Byse, Miranda; Matyas, Marsha Lakes

    2011-09-01

    The "Healthy Heart Race" activity provides a hands-on demonstration of cardiovascular function suitable for lay audiences. It was field tested during the United States of America Science and Engineering Festival held in Washington, DC, in October 2010. The basic equipment for the activity consisted of lengths of plastic tubing, a hand pump, collection containers, clamps, and simulated blood prepared by tinting water with red food coloring. Student participants were first asked to experience the effort required to pump through an unaltered tube. A presenter then applied a strong clamp that pinched each tube downstream from the pump, and students were asked to pump against the increased resistance. The students' observations were then used as the basis for discussions of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease with the presenters. Distribution of informative postcards during the 2 days of the festival indicated that at least 2,500 students completed the Healthy Heart Race activity. Our experiences to date suggest that the Healthy Heart Race activity can be accomplished effectively in the high-volume, high-distraction environment of a science fair or museum.

  3. Sample Entropy and Traditional Measures of Heart Rate Dynamics Reveal Different Modes of Cardiovascular Control During Low Intensity Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Weippert

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear parameters of heart rate variability (HRV have proven their prognostic value in clinical settings, but their physiological background is not very well established. We assessed the effects of low intensity isometric (ISO and dynamic (DYN exercise of the lower limbs on heart rate matched intensity on traditional and entropy measures of HRV. Due to changes of afferent feedback under DYN and ISO a distinct autonomic response, mirrored by HRV measures, was hypothesized. Five-minute inter-beat interval measurements of 43 healthy males (26.0 ± 3.1 years were performed during rest, DYN and ISO in a randomized order. Blood pressures and rate pressure product were higher during ISO vs. DYN (p < 0.001. HRV indicators SDNN as well as low and high frequency power were significantly higher during ISO (p < 0.001 for all measures. Compared to DYN, sample entropy (SampEn was lower during ISO (p < 0.001. Concluding, contraction mode itself is a significant modulator of the autonomic cardiovascular response to exercise. Compared to DYN, ISO evokes a stronger blood pressure response and an enhanced interplay between both autonomic branches. Non-linear HRV measures indicate a more regular behavior under ISO. Results support the view of the reciprocal antagonism being only one of many modes of autonomic heart rate control. Under different conditions; the identical “end product” heart rate might be achieved by other modes such as sympathovagal co-activation as well.

  4. Non-linear Equation using Plasma Brain Natriuretic Peptide Levels to Predict Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients with Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Hiroki; Suwa, Hideaki; Nakano, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Mari; Imazu, Miki; Hasegawa, Takuya; Takahama, Hiroyuki; Amaki, Makoto; Kanzaki, Hideaki; Anzai, Toshihisa; Mochizuki, Naoki; Ishii, Akira; Asanuma, Hiroshi; Asakura, Masanori; Washio, Takashi; Kitakaze, Masafumi

    2016-11-01

    Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is the most effective predictor of outcomes in chronic heart failure (CHF). This study sought to determine the qualitative relationship between the BNP levels at discharge and on the day of cardiovascular events in CHF patients. We devised a mathematical probabilistic model between the BNP levels at discharge (y) and on the day (t) of cardiovascular events after discharge for 113 CHF patients (Protocol I). We then prospectively evaluated this model on another set of 60 CHF patients who were readmitted (Protocol II). P(t|y) was the probability of cardiovascular events occurring after >t, the probability on t was given as p(t|y) = -dP(t|y)/dt, and p(t|y) = pP(t|y) = αyβP(t|y), along with p = αyβ (α and β were constant); the solution was p(t|y) = αyβ exp(-αyβt). We fitted this equation to the data set of Protocol I using the maximum likelihood principle, and we obtained the model p(t|y) = 0.000485y0.24788 exp(-0.000485y0.24788t). The cardiovascular event-free rate was computed as P(t) = 1/60Σi=1,…,60 exp(-0.000485yi0.24788t), based on this model and the BNP levels yi in a data set of Protocol II. We confirmed no difference between this model-based result and the actual event-free rate. In conclusion, the BNP levels showed a non-linear relationship with the day of occurrence of cardiovascular events in CHF patients.

  5. Muscle strength in youth and cardiovascular risk in young adulthood (the European Youth Heart Study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Møller, Niels Christian

    2015-01-01

    -1.03 to -0.20) in young adulthood in multivariable-adjusted analyses including fitness. Associations to triglyceride, diastolic BP and the cardiovascular risk factor score remained with additional adjustment for waist circumference or BMI. Each 1 SD difference in isometric muscle strength in youth......BACKGROUND: Whether muscle strength in youth is related to cardiovascular risk later in life independent of cardiorespiratory fitness is unclear. METHODS: We examined the independent association of isometric muscle strength in youth with cardiovascular risk factors in young adulthood using data...... and cardiorespiratory fitness was obtained from a maximal cycle ergometer test. Cardiovascular risk factors were obtained in youth and in young adulthood. Associations were examined using multivariable-adjusted regression models including major confounding factors. RESULTS: Each 1 SD difference in isometric muscle...

  6. Ivabradine in acute coronary syndromes: Protection beyond heart rate lowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niccoli, Giampaolo; Borovac, Josip Anđelo; Vetrugno, Vincenzo; Camici, Paolo G; Crea, Filippo

    2017-02-22

    Ivabradine is a heart rate reducing agent that exhibits anti-ischemic effects through the inhibition of funny electrical current in the sinus node resulting in heart rate reduction, thus enabling longer diastolic perfusion time, and reduced myocardial oxygen consumption without detrimental changes in arterial blood pressure, coronary vasomotion, and ventricular contractility. The current guideline-based clinical use of Ivabradine is reserved for patients with stable angina pectoris who cannot tolerate or whose symptoms are inadequately controlled with beta blockers. In patients with chronic heart failure and reduced ejection fraction, Ivabradine has demonstrated beneficial effects in improving clinical outcomes when added to conventional therapy. However, the role of Ivabradine in acute coronary syndromes has not been established. Based on the results from some relevant preclinical studies and a limited amount of clinical data that were reported recently, the role of Ivabradine in acute ischemic events warrants further investigation. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the available literature on the potential role of Ivabradine in the clinical context of acute coronary syndromes.

  7. Transitions of cardiovascular risk from adolescence to young adulthood--the Bogalusa Heart Study: I. Effects of alterations in lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, J B; Foster, T A; Parker, F C; Cresanta, J L; Hunter, S M; Webber, L S; Srinivasan, S R; Berenson, G S

    1986-01-01

    Adolescence and young adulthood represents a transition period for biologic and lifestyle characteristics. In a preliminary investigation of young adults (ages 18-20 years), the Bogalusa Heart Study documented patterns of alcohol, tobacco, and oral contraceptive use, as well as changes in education, occupational, marital and parenting status. Such behaviors accelerate the cardiovascular disease process and may differentially influence risk factor patterns of race and sex groups. Adverse levels of systolic blood pressure and alpha-lipoprotein cholesterol were more frequent in married vs single men; elevated triglyceride levels were more frequent in married vs single whites. However adverse levels of beta- and alpha-lipoprotein cholesterol were more frequent in nonparents than in parents. Cigarette smoking and oral contraceptive use were independently related to elevated beta-lipoprotein cholesterol and decreased alpha-lipoprotein cholesterol levels of young white women. Alcohol consumption was highest among white males, with 32% reporting daily consumption of the equivalent of two or more beers or one mixed drink. Alcohol consumption was negatively correlated with blood pressure in white males and positively correlated with alpha-lipoprotein cholesterol in black males. Since such lifestyle factors are related to physiologic risk factors that result in heart disease and adult cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the older ages, early targeting during adolescence and young adulthood is important.

  8. The Genetic Response to Short-term Interventions Affecting Cardiovascular Function: Rationale and Design of the HAPI Heart Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Braxton D.; McArdle, Patrick F.; Shen, Haiqing; Rampersaud, Evadnie; Pollin, Toni I.; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Jaquish, Cashell; Douglas, Julie A.; Roy-Gagnon, Marie-Hélène; Sack, Paul; Naglieri, Rosalie; Hines, Scott; Horenstein, Richard B.; Chang, Yen-Pei C.; Post, Wendy; Ryan, Kathleen A.; Brereton, Nga Hong; Pakyz, Ruth E.; Sorkin, John; Damcott, Coleen M.; O’Connell, Jeffrey R.; Mangano, Charles; Corretti, Mary; Vogel, Robert; Herzog, William; Weir, Matthew R.; Peyser, Patricia A.; Shuldiner, Alan R.

    2008-01-01

    Background The etiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is multifactorial. Efforts to identify genes influencing CVD risk have met with limited success to date, likely due to the small effect sizes of common CVD risk alleles and the presence of gene by gene and gene by environment interactions. Methods The Heredity and Phenotype Intervention (HAPI) Heart Study was initiated in 2002 to measure the cardiovascular response to four short-term interventions affecting cardiovascular risk factors and to identify the genetic and environmental determinants of these responses. The measurements included blood pressure responses to the cold pressor stress test and to a high salt diet, triglyceride excursion in response to a high fat challenge, and response in platelet aggregation to aspirin therapy. Results The interventions were carried out in 868 relatively healthy Amish adults from large families. The heritabilities of selected response traits for each intervention ranged from 8–38%, suggesting that some of the variation associated with response to each intervention can be attributed to the additive effects of genes. Conclusions Identifying these response genes may identify new mechanisms influencing CVD and may lead to individualized preventive strategies and improved early detection of high-risk individuals. PMID:18440328

  9. Palliative Care and Cardiovascular Disease and Stroke: A Policy Statement From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Lynne T; Grady, Kathleen L; Kutner, Jean S; Adler, Eric; Berlinger, Nancy; Boss, Renee; Butler, Javed; Enguidanos, Susan; Friebert, Sarah; Gardner, Timothy J; Higgins, Phil; Holloway, Robert; Konig, Madeleine; Meier, Diane; Morrissey, Mary Beth; Quest, Tammie E; Wiegand, Debra L; Coombs-Lee, Barbara; Fitchett, George; Gupta, Charu; Roach, William H

    2016-09-13

    The mission of the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association includes increasing access to high-quality, evidence-based care that improves patient outcomes such as health-related quality of life and is consistent with the patients' values, preferences, and goals. Awareness of and access to palliative care interventions align with the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association mission. The purposes of this policy statement are to provide background on the importance of palliative care as it pertains to patients with advanced cardiovascular disease and stroke and their families and to make recommendations for policy decisions. Palliative care, defined as patient- and family-centered care that optimizes health-related quality of life by anticipating, preventing, and treating suffering, should be integrated into the care of all patients with advanced cardiovascular disease and stroke early in the disease trajectory. Palliative care focuses on communication, shared decision making about treatment options, advance care planning, and attention to physical, emotional, spiritual, and psychological distress with inclusion of the patient's family and care system. Our policy recommendations address the following: reimbursement for comprehensive delivery of palliative care services for patients with advanced cardiovascular disease and stroke; strong payer-provider relationships that involve data sharing to identify patients in need of palliative care, identification of better care and payment models, and establishment of quality standards and outcome measurements; healthcare system policies for the provision of comprehensive palliative care services during hospitalization, including goals of care, treatment decisions, needs of family caregivers, and transition to other care settings; and health professional education in palliative care as part of licensure requirements.

  10. The role of gene variants of the inflammatory markers CRP and TNF-α in cardiovascular heart disease: systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that cardiovascular heart disease (CHD) has a genetic influence. Several studies have investigated the role of inflammatory markers like C-reactive protein (CRP) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in the causation of cardiovascular diseases. Although there have been several positive studies associating CRP and TNF-α genes with CHD, the evidence is not entirely consistent. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to gain a better understanding into this issue. The met...

  11. Canadian Cardiovascular Society 2009 Consensus Conference on the management of adults with congenital heart disease: complex congenital cardiac lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silversides, Candice K; Salehian, Omid; Oechslin, Erwin; Schwerzmann, Markus; Vonder Muhll, Isabelle; Khairy, Paul; Horlick, Eric; Landzberg, Mike; Meijboom, Folkert; Warnes, Carole; Therrien, Judith

    2010-03-01

    With advances in pediatric cardiology and cardiac surgery, the population of adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) has increased. In the current era, there are more adults with CHD than children. This population has many unique issues and needs. They have distinctive forms of heart failure and their cardiac disease can be associated with pulmonary hypertension, thromboemboli, complex arrhythmias and sudden death. Medical aspects that need to be considered relate to the long-term and multisystemic effects of single ventricle physiology, cyanosis, systemic right ventricles, complex intracardiac baffles and failing subpulmonary right ventricles. Since the 2001 Canadian Cardiovascular Society Consensus Conference report on the management of adults with CHD, there have been significant advances in the field of adult CHD. Therefore, new clinical guidelines have been written by Canadian adult CHD physicians in collaboration with an international panel of experts in the field. Part III of the guidelines includes recommendations for the care of patients with complete transposition of the great arteries, congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries, Fontan operations and single ventricles, Eisenmenger's syndrome, and cyanotic heart disease. Topics addressed include genetics, clinical outcomes, recommended diagnostic workup, surgical and interventional options, treatment of arrhythmias, assessment of pregnancy risk and follow-up requirements. The complete document consists of four manuscripts, which are published online in the present issue of The Canadian Journal of Cardiology. The complete document and references can also be found at www.ccs.ca or www.cachnet.org.

  12. Carvedilol protected diabetic rat hearts via reducing oxidative stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG He; SHAN Jiang; PAN Xiao-hong; WANG Hui-ping; QIAN Ling-bo

    2006-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a dominant role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. Bcl-2 gene has close connection with antioxidant stress destruction in many diseases including diabetes. Carvedilol, an adrenoceptor blocker, also has antioxidant properties. To study the effect of carvedilol on the antioxidant status in diabetic hearts, we investigated carvedilol-administrated healthy and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. After small and large dosage carvedilol-administered for 5 weeks, hemodynamic parameters, the levels of malondialdehyde, activities of antioxidant enzymes and expression of Bcl-2 mRNA in the cardiac tissues were measured. The diabetic rats not only had cardiac disfunction, weaker activities of antioxidant enzymes, but also showed lower expression of Bcl-2. Carvedilol treatment increased activities of antioxidant enzymes and expression of Bcl-2 in healthy rats as well as diabetic rats. These results indicated that earvedilol partly improves cardiac function via its antioxidant properties in diabetic rats.

  13. Lack of association of ischemic heart disease with COPD when taking into account classical cardiovascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Izquierdo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available José Luis Izquierdo, Arturo Martínez, Elizabet Guzmán, Pilar de Lucas, José Miguel RodríguezPulmonology Department, Hospital Universitario, Guadalajara, Spain; Pulmonology Department, Hospital Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, SpainAbstract: The aim of our study is to determine whether chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is an independent risk factor for ischemic heart disease and whether this association is related with a greater prevalence of classical cardiovascular risk factors. Ours is a case-control cross-sectional study design. Cases were hospital patients with ischemic heart disease in stable phase, compared with control hospital patients. All patients underwent post-bronchodilator (PBD spirometry, a standardized questionnaire, and blood analysis. COPD was defined as per GOLD PBD forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC < 0.70. In our series of patient cases (n = 204 and controls (n = 100, there were 169 men in the case group (83% and 84 in the control group (84%. Ages were 67 and 64 years, respectively (P < 0.05. There were no significant differences by weight, body mass index (BMI, pack-years, leukocytes, or homocysteine. The abdominal perimeter was significantly greater in cases (mean 101 cm ± standard deviation [SD] 10 versus 96 cm ± 11; P < 0.000. Both groups also had significant differences by C-reactive protein (CRP, fibrinogen, and hemoglobin values. In univariate analysis, increased risks for cases to show with individual classical cardiovascular risk factors were seen, with odds ratio (OR 1.86 and 95% confidence interval (CI (1.04–3.33 for diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia (OR 2.10, 95% CI: 1.29–3.42, arterial hypertension (OR 2.47, 95% CI: 1.51–4.05, and increased abdominal perimeter (OR 1.71, 95% CI: 1.06–2.78. Percent predicted PBD FEV1 was 97.6% ± 23% in the patient group and 104% ± 19% in the control group (P = 0.01, but the prevalence of COPD was 24.1% in cases and 21

  14. The Heart's Content : The Association between Positive Psychological Well-Being and Cardiovascular Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Julia K.; Kubzansky, Laura D.

    2012-01-01

    This review investigates the association between positive psychological well-being (PPWB) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We also consider the mechanisms by which PPWB may be linked with CVD, focusing on the health behaviors (e.g., smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, sleep quality and quantity, and food consumption) and biological…

  15. CAN HIGHER WAGES PROTECT YOUR HEART? REGIONAL EVIDENCE FROM ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian INCALTARAU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a bilateral influence between health and economic development. On the one hand, population health influences economic performance, both at micro and macro levels. On the other, being reflected in higher wellbeing, economic performance also influences health of population. Therefore, according to the materialist view, health status is dependent on the standard of living, whereas low living standards can increase the probability of morbidity and mortality by feeding poverty, poor hygiene and restricting access to health care and education, which is truly important in preventing diseases. Being generally considered to be a representative indicator for the standards of living, we have assessed the impact of wage variations on cardiovascular diseases (CVD mortality, as CVD were proved to be more sensitive to socio-economic conditions, but also generally the main mortality cause in post-communist countries including Romania. Carrying out a panel data analysis over the 1995-2012 period on Romanian NUTSIII regions, the results showed a direct link between wage level and CVD mortality proving that the higher wages reach, the lower mortality is, thus confirming assumed materialist hypothesis.

  16. The Heart-Placenta Axis in the First Month of Pregnancy: Induction and Prevention of Cardiovascular Birth Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kersti K. Linask

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extrapolating from animal studies to human pregnancy, our studies showed that folate (FA deficiency as well as one-time exposure to environmental factors in the first two to three weeks of human gestation can result in severe congenital heart defects (CHDs. Considering that approximately 49% of pregnancies are unplanned, this period of pregnancy can be considered high-risk for cardiac, as well as for neural, birth defects, as the woman usually is not aware of her pregnancy and may not yet be taking precautionary actions to protect the developing embryo. Using avian and mouse vertebrate models, we demonstrated that FA supplementation prevents CHD induced by alcohol, lithium, or elevation of the metabolite homocysteine, a marker for FA deficiency. All three factors affected the important Wnt signaling pathway by suppressing Wnt-mediated gene expression in the heart fields, resulting in a delay of cardiomyocyte migration, cardiomyogenesis, and CHD. Optimal protection of cardiogenesis was observed to occur with FA supplementation provided upon morning after conception and at higher doses than the presently available in prenatal vitamin supplementation. Our studies demonstrate pathways and cell processes that are involved with protection of one-carbon metabolism during heart development.

  17. Effectiveness of a Walking Group Intervention to Promote Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Health in Predominantly Non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic Urban Neighborhoods: Findings from the Walk Your Heart to Health Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Amy J.; Israel, Barbara A.; Mentz, Graciela B.; Bernal, Cristina; Caver, Deanna; DeMajo, Ricardo; Diaz, Gregoria; Gamboa, Cindy; Gaines, Causandra; Hoston, Bernadine; Opperman, Alisha; Reyes, Angela G.; Rowe, Zachary; Sand, Sharon L.; Woods, Sachiko

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the "Walk Your Heart to Health" ("WYHH") intervention, one component of the multilevel Community Approaches to Cardiovascular Health: Pathways to Heart Health (CATCH:PATH) intervention designed to promote physical activity and reduce cardiovascular risk…

  18. Sirtuin 6 protects the heart from hypoxic damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksin-Matveev, Anna; Kanfi, Yariv [The Mina and Everard Goodman, Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan 52900 (Israel); Hochhauser, Edith [The Laboratory of the Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Felsenstein Medical Research Center, Rabin Medical Center, Petach Tikva (Israel); Isak, Ahuva; Cohen, Haim Y. [The Mina and Everard Goodman, Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan 52900 (Israel); Shainberg, Asher, E-mail: asher.shainberg@gmail.com [The Mina and Everard Goodman, Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan 52900 (Israel)

    2015-01-01

    Sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) is a protein associated with prolonged life expectancy. We investigated whether life extension is associated with cardioprotection against hypoxia. The proposed study is to develop approaches to reduce hypoxic damage through the use of the sirtuin pathway and to elucidate the mechanism involved. For that purpose we subjected cardiomyocytes from transgenic mice (TG) with over-expression of SIRT6, to hypoxic stress in cell cultures. We hypothesized that cardiomyocytes from transgenic mice subjected to prolonged hypoxia may release survival factors or fewer damage markers to protect them from hypoxic stress compared with wild type (WT) mice. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) released to the medium and propidium iodide (PI) binding, were markedly decreased following hypoxia in TG cardiomyocytes. The protective mechanism of SIRT6 over-expression includes the activation of pAMPKα pathway, the increased protein level of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2), the inhibition of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB), the decrease of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the reduction in the protein level of phospho-protein kinase B (pAkt) during hypoxia. Together, all these processes impede the necrosis/apoptosis pathways leading to the improved survival of cardiomyocytes following hypoxia, which might explain life extension. - Highlights: • Sirtuin 6 is a protein associated with prolonged life expectancy. • Over-expression of sirtuin 6 protects cardiocytes from hypoxia and oxidative stress. • Over-expression of sirtuin 6 activates the pAMPKα pathway and the Bcl2 expression. • Over-expression of sirtuin 6 decreases ROS formation and pAkt level during hypoxia. • These pathways protect cardiocytes from hypoxia and might explain lifespan extension.

  19. Implementation of case management to reduce cardiovascular disease risk in the Stanford and San Mateo Heart to Heart randomized controlled trial: study protocol and baseline characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stafford Randall S

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Case management has emerged as a promising alternative approach to supplement traditional one-on-one sessions between patients and doctors for improving the quality of care in chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease (CHD. However, data are lacking in terms of its efficacy and cost-effectiveness when implemented in ethnic and low-income populations. Methods The Stanford and San Mateo Heart to Heart (HTH project is a randomized controlled clinical trial designed to rigorously evaluate the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a multi-risk cardiovascular case management program in low-income, primarily ethnic minority patients served by a local county health care system in California. Randomization occurred at the patient level. The primary outcome measure is the absolute CHD risk over 10 years. Secondary outcome measures include adherence to guidelines on CHD prevention practice. We documented the study design, methodology, and baseline sociodemographic, clinical and lifestyle characteristics of 419 participants. Results We achieved equal distributions of the sociodemographic, biophysical and lifestyle characteristics between the two randomization groups. HTH participants had a mean age of 56 years, 63% were Latinos/Hispanics, 65% female, 61% less educated, and 62% were not employed. Twenty percent of participants reported having a prior cardiovascular event. 10-year CHD risk averaged 18% in men and 13% in women despite a modest low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level and a high on-treatment percentage at baseline. Sixty-three percent of participants were diagnosed with diabetes and an additional 22% had metabolic syndrome. In addition, many participants had depressed high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol levels and elevated values of total cholesterol-to-HDL ratio, triglycerides, triglyceride-to-HDL ratio, and blood pressure. Furthermore, nearly 70% of participants were obese, 45% had a family history of CHD or

  20. Trust Your Gut: Galvanizing Nutritional Interest in Intestinal Cholesterol Metabolism for Protection Against Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyoung Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated that the intestine is a key target organ for overall health and longevity. Complementing these studies is the discovery of the trans-intestinal cholesterol efflux pathway and the emerging role of the intestine in reverse cholesterol transport. The surfacing dynamics of the regulation of cholesterol metabolism in the intestine provides an attractive platform for intestine-specific nutritional intervention strategies to lower blood cholesterol levels for protection against cardiovascular diseases. Notably, there is mounting evidence that stimulation of pathways associated with calorie restriction may have a large effect on the regulation of cholesterol removal by the intestine. However, intestinal energy metabolism, specifically the idiosyncrasies surrounding intestinal responses to energy deprivation, is poorly understood. The goal of this paper is to review recent insights into cholesterol regulation by the intestine and to discuss the potential for positive regulation of intestine-driven cholesterol removal through the nutritional induction of pathways associated with calorie restriction.

  1. Downregulation of adenosine and P2X receptor-mediated cardiovascular responses in heart failure rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Xin; Sun, X Y; Erlinge, D;

    2000-01-01

    Neurohormonal changes in congestive heart failure (CHF) include an enhanced peripheral sympathetic nerve activity which results in increased release of noradrenaline, neuropeptide Y and ATP. To examine if such changes in CHF would modulate peripheral pre- and postsynaptic receptors of ATP and its...... effects mediated by the endothelial P2Y receptors are unaffected in CHF. Moreover, the adenosine-mediated inhibitory effects on heart rate and blood pressure were also attenuated in the CHF rats. The most important changes in adenosine and P2-receptor function induced by ischaemic CHF were the reduced...... pressor effect mediated by the P2X receptor and the increased heart rate due to an attenuated inhibitory effect of adenosine....

  2. Calmodulin kinase II inhibition protects against structural heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Khoo, Michelle S C; Wu, Yuejin; Yang, Yingbo; Grueter, Chad E; Ni, Gemin; Price, Edward E; Thiel, William; Guatimosim, Silvia; Song, Long-Sheng; Madu, Ernest C; Shah, Anisha N; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Atkinson, James B; Gurevich, Vsevolod V; Salama, Guy; Lederer, W J; Colbran, Roger J; Anderson, Mark E

    2005-04-01

    Beta-adrenergic receptor (betaAR) stimulation increases cytosolic Ca(2+) to physiologically augment cardiac contraction, whereas excessive betaAR activation causes adverse cardiac remodeling, including myocardial hypertrophy, dilation and dysfunction, in individuals with myocardial infarction. The Ca(2+)-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a recently identified downstream element of the betaAR-initiated signaling cascade that is linked to pathological myocardial remodeling and to regulation of key proteins involved in cardiac excitation-contraction coupling. We developed a genetic mouse model of cardiac CaMKII inhibition to test the role of CaMKII in betaAR signaling in vivo. Here we show CaMKII inhibition substantially prevented maladaptive remodeling from excessive betaAR stimulation and myocardial infarction, and induced balanced changes in excitation-contraction coupling that preserved baseline and betaAR-stimulated physiological increases in cardiac function. These findings mark CaMKII as a determinant of clinically important heart disease phenotypes, and suggest CaMKII inhibition can be a highly selective approach for targeting adverse myocardial remodeling linked to betaAR signaling.

  3. [Hyperhomocysteinemia and cardiovascular risk profile in ischemic heart disease and acid peptic disease comorbidity patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zharkova, A V; Orlovs'kyĭ, V F

    2014-01-01

    Present article is devoted to the study of the clinic features of ischemic heart desease associated with acid peptic disease. It was shown the more evident increase of myocardial infarction risk in associated pathology patients. Such results have to be caused by the special risk factor. As such factor we desided to study the hyperhomosysteinemia. During research there were discovered that the lowest vitamin B12 serum level and the highest homocysteine serum level have been registrated in associated pathology (ischemic heart disease and acid peptic disease according to long-term proton pump inhibitor use) patients. It was shown evident correlation between that changes and dyslipidemia.

  4. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance for evaluation of heart involvement in ANCA-associated vasculitis. A luxury or a valuable diagnostic tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogeni, Sophie; Markousis-Mavrogenis, George; Kolovou, Genovefa

    2014-01-01

    Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-related vasculitis is a systemic small-vessel vasculitis, including 3 clinical syndromes: granulomatosis with polyangiitis, known as Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) and the Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS). ANCA-related vasculitis usually presents with severe kidney or pulmonary disease, has a mortality of 28% at 5 years, and also contributes to increased morbidity in vasculitis patients. Cardiac involvement in this entity may have different forms, including coronary vessels, pericarditis, myocarditis, endocarditis, myocardial infarction and subendocardial vasculitis that can contribute to reduced life expectancy. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance using oedema and fibrosis imaging can early reveal, noninvasively and without radiation, heart involvement during vasculitis, undetected by other imaging techniques and guide further risk stratification and treatment of these patients.

  5. An Update on the Utility of Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring for Coronary Heart Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kianoush, Sina; Al Rifai, Mahmoud; Cainzos-Achirica, Miguel; Umapathi, Priya; Graham, Garth; Blumenthal, Roger S; Nasir, Khurram; Blaha, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    Estimating cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is necessary for determining the potential net benefit of primary prevention pharmacotherapy. Risk estimation relying exclusively on traditional CVD risk factors may misclassify risk, resulting in both undertreatment and overtreatment. Coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring personalizes risk prediction through direct visualization of calcified coronary atherosclerotic plaques and provides improved accuracy for coronary heart disease (CHD) or CVD risk estimation. In this review, we discuss the most recent studies on CAC, which unlike historical studies, focus sharply on clinical application. We describe the MESA CHD risk calculator, a recently developed CAC-based 10-year CHD risk estimator, which can help guide preventive therapy allocation by better identifying both high- and low-risk individuals. In closing, we discuss calcium density, regional distribution of CAC, and extra-coronary calcification, which represent the future of CAC and CVD risk assessment research and may lead to further improvements in risk prediction.

  6. A genomic approach to therapeutic target validation identifies a glucose-lowering GLP1R variant protective for coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, Robert A.; Freitag, Daniel F.; Li, Li

    2016-01-01

    . We used these data to first compare associations of variants in genes encoding drug targets with the effects of pharmacological manipulation of those targets in clinical trials. We then tested the association of those variants with disease outcomes, including coronary heart disease, to predict...... associated with protection against heart disease, thus providing evidence that GLP1R agonists are not likely to be associated with an unacceptable increase in cardiovascular risk. Our results provide an encouraging signal that these agents may be associated with benefit, a question currently being addressed...... therefore investigated the association of variants in six genes that encode drug targets for obesity or T2D with a range of metabolic traits in up to 11, 806 individuals by targeted exome sequencing and follow-up in 39, 979 individuals by targeted genotyping, with additional in silico follow-up in consortia...

  7. Protective role of Kalpaamruthaa in type II diabetes mellitus-induced cardiovascular disease through the modulation of protease-activated receptor-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Latha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kalpaamruthaa (KA is a formulatory herbal preparation has beneficial antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties against cardiovascular damage (CVD. Objective: The present study was undertaken to investigate the protective role of KA in type II diabetes mellitus-induced CVD through the modulation of protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1. Materials and Methods: CVD was developed in 8 weeks after type II diabetes mellitus induction with high fat diet (2 weeks and low dose of streptozotocin (2 × 35 mg/kg b.w. i.p. in 24 h interval. CVD-induced rats treated with KA (200 mg/kg b.w. in 0.5 ml of olive oil orally for 4 weeks. Results: KA increased the activities of enzymatic antioxidants and the levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants in pancreas of CVD-induced rats. KA effectively reduced the lipid peroxides and carbonyl content in the pancreas of CVD-induced rats. KA reduced cellular damage by ameliorating the activities of marker enzymes in plasma, heart and liver. The protective nature of KA was further evidenced by histological observation in pancreas. Further, KA reduced CVD by decreasing the expression of PAR1 in heart. Conclusion: This study exhibits the defending role of KA in type II diabetes mellitus-induced CVD through altering PAR1.

  8. Comparison of the impact of atrial fibrillation on the risk of stroke and cardiovascular death in women versus men (The Copenhagen City Heart Study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Jens; Scharling, Henrik; Gadsbøll, Niels

    2004-01-01

    The Copenhagen City Heart Study is a population-based cohort study. Using baseline data from 3 cohort examinations (1976 to 1978, 1981 to 1983, and 1991 to 1994), we analyzed the gender-specific effect of atrial fibrillation (AF) on the risk of stroke and cardiovascular death during 5 years...

  9. Fitness, work, and leisure-time physical activity and ischaemic heart disease and all-cause mortality among men with pre-existing cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Burr, Hermann

    2010-01-01

    Our aim was to study the relative impact of physical fitness, physical demands at work, and physical activity during leisure time on ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and all-cause mortality among employed men with pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD)....

  10. A summary of the update on cardiovascular implantable electronic device infections and their management A scientific statement from the American Heart Association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baddour, Larry M.; Epstein, Andrew E.; Erickson, Christopher C.; Knight, Bradley P.; Levison, Matthew E.; Lockhart, Peter B.; Masoudi, Frederick A.; Okum, Eric J.; Wilson, Walter R.; Beerman, Lee B.; Bolger, Ann F.; Estes, N. A. Mark; Gewitz, Michael; Newburger, Jane W.; Schron, Eleanor B.; Taubert, Kathryn A.

    2011-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this statement is to update the recommendations by the American Heart Association (AHA) for cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) infections and their management, which were last published in 2003. Methods and Results. The AHA commissioned this scientific sta

  11. Resting heart rate and risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes in asymptomatic aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Anders M; Bang, Casper N; Berg, Ronan M G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An elevated resting heart rate (RHR) may be an early sign of cardiac failure, but its prognostic value during watchful waiting in asymptomatic aortic stenosis (AS) is largely unknown. METHODS: RHR was determined by annual ECGs in the Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis (SEAS...

  12. Association of β-blocker therapy with risks of adverse cardiovascular events and deaths in patients with ischemic heart disease undergoing noncardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Charlotte; Mérie, Charlotte; Jørgensen, Mads

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Clinical guidelines have been criticized for encouraging the use of β-blockers in noncardiac surgery despite weak evidence. Relevant clinical trials have been small and have not convincingly demonstrated an effect of β-blockers on hard end points (ie, perioperative myocardial infarction......, ischemic stroke, cardiovascular death, and all-cause death). OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of β-blocker treatment with major cardiovascular adverse events (MACE) and all-cause mortality in patients with ischemic heart disease undergoing noncardiac surgery. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, AND EXPOSURE...... to calculate the 30-day risks of MACE (ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, or cardiovascular death) and all-cause mortality associated with β-blocker therapy. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Thirty-day risk of MACE and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Of 28,263 patients with ischemic heart disease undergoing...

  13. Canadian Cardiovascular Society 2009 Consensus Conference on the management of adults with congenital heart disease: executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silversides, Candice K; Marelli, Ariane; Beauchesne, Luc; Dore, Annie; Kiess, Marla; Salehian, Omid; Bradley, Timothy; Colman, Jack; Connelly, Michael; Harris, Louise; Khairy, Paul; Mital, Seema; Niwa, Koichiro; Oechslin, Erwin; Poirier, Nancy; Schwerzmann, Markus; Taylor, Dylan; Vonder Muhll, Isabelle; Baumgartner, Helmut; Benson, Lee; Celermajer, David; Greutmann, Matthias; Horlick, Eric; Landzberg, Mike; Meijboom, Folkert; Mulder, Barbara; Warnes, Carole; Webb, Gary; Therrien, Judith

    2010-03-01

    With advances in pediatric cardiology and cardiac surgery, the population of adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) has increased. In the current era, there are more adults with CHD than children. This population has many unique issues and needs. They have distinctive forms of heart failure, and their cardiac disease can be associated with pulmonary hypertension, thromboemboli, complex arrhythmias and sudden death.Medical aspects that need to be considered relate to the long-term and multisystemic effects of single-ventricle physiology, cyanosis, systemic right ventricles, complex intracardiac baffles and failing subpulmonary right ventricles. Since the 2001 Canadian Cardiovascular Society Consensus Conference report on the management of adults with CHD, there have been significant advances in the understanding of the late outcomes, genetics, medical therapy and interventional approaches in the field of adult CHD. Therefore, new clinical guidelines have been written by Canadian adult CHD physicians in collaboration with an international panel of experts in the field. The present executive summary is a brief overview of the new guidelines and includes the recommendations for interventions. The complete document consists of four manuscripts that are published online in the present issue of The Canadian Journal of Cardiology, including sections on genetics, clinical outcomes, recommended diagnostic workup, surgical and interventional options, treatment of arrhythmias, assessment of pregnancy and contraception risks, and follow-up requirements. The complete document and references can also be found at www.ccs.ca or www.cachnet.org.

  14. Development of a hospital-based cardiovascular risk factor reduction program for the community: Beyond Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipon, K R; Carlson, L R

    1994-01-01

    The current and future trend of the health care delivery system is prevention and health promotion. Long-term viability of hospitals depends on meeting community health education needs. With heart disease as the leading cause of death among adults nationwide, hospitals have an opportunity to offer appropriate lifestyle theory and guidance beyond conventional medical and interventional practices. Sequoia Hospital in Redwood City is one of the first hospitals in Northern California to develop a comprehensive outpatient program to complement its world renowned cardiovascular services. This paper details the Beyond Heart Disease (BHD) program designed by nurses. The goal of this program is to effectively help people reduce their risk of coronary events via successful long-term risk factor interventions. BHD, a unique medical and business venture, spans a six-week period. Group members meet in the evening for two hours, twice a week. The program includes lipid testing, a complete program syllabus, didactic lectures, small group discussion, support and goal-setting, nutritional analysis, and experiential stress reduction sessions.

  15. Eponymous cardiovascular surgeries for congenital heart diseases--imaging review and historical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buethe, Ji; Ashwath, Ravi C; Rajiah, Prabhakar

    2015-01-01

    Advances in pediatric cardiology and cardiac surgical techniques over the past few decades have revolutionized the management of the patients with congenital heart disease, and many now survive into adulthood. Several eponymous surgical procedures performed for congenital heart disease have been named after eminent surgeons. In this article, we provide a short biography of the surgeons associated with these eponymous surgical procedures along with their other important scientific contributions. This is followed by a review of these surgical procedures and their most common complications. Imaging appearances of these surgical procedures along with common complications are described and illustrated, with particular emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging. The surgical procedures described in this review include Blalock-Taussig, Potts, Waterston, Glenn, Fontan, Kawashima, Norwood, Sano, Damus-Kaye-Stansel, Mustard, Senning, Jatene, LeCompte, Rastelli, Rashkind, Ross, and Waldenhausen.

  16. Population cardiovascular health and urban environments: the Heart Healthy Hoods exploratory study in Madrid, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usama Bilal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our aim is to conduct an exploratory study to provide an in-depth characterization of a neighborhood’s social and physical environment in relation to cardiovascular health. A mixed-methods approach was used to better understand the food, alcohol, tobacco and physical activity domains of the urban environment. Methods We conducted this study in an area of 16,000 residents in Madrid (Spain. We obtained cardiovascular health and risk factors data from all residents aged 45 and above using Electronic Health Records from the Madrid Primary Health Care System. We used several quantitative audit tools to assess: the type and location of food outlets and healthy food availability; tobacco and alcohol points of sale; walkability of all streets and use of parks and public spaces. We also conducted 11 qualitative interviews with key informants to help understanding the relationships between urban environment and cardiovascular behaviors. We integrated quantitative and qualitative data following a mixed-methods merging approach. Results Electronic Health Records of the entire population of the area showed similar prevalence of risk factors compared to the rest of Madrid/Spain (prevalence of diabetes: 12 %, hypertension: 34 %, dyslipidemia: 32 %, smoking: 10 %, obesity: 20 %. The food environment was very dense, with many small stores (n = 44 and a large food market with 112 stalls. Residents highlighted the importance of these small stores for buying healthy foods. Alcohol and tobacco environments were also very dense (n = 91 and 64, respectively, dominated by bars and restaurants (n = 53 that also acted as food services. Neighbors emphasized the importance of drinking as a socialization mechanism. Public open spaces were mostly used by seniors that remarked the importance of accessibility to these spaces and the availability of destinations to walk to. Conclusion This experience allowed testing and refining

  17. Tissue Doppler echocardiography predicts acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, and cardiovascular death in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogelvang, Rasmus; Biering-Sørensen, Tor; Jensen, Jan Skov

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To improve risk prediction of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, we need sensitive markers of cardiac dysfunction; Echocardiographic Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI) is feasible and harmless and may be ideal for this purpose. METHODS AND RESULTS: Within the community-based Copenhagen City...... by TDI was associated with increased risk of the combined end point, even in the subgroup of persons with a normal conventional echocardiographic examination [per 1 cm/s decrease: s': HR 1.32 (1.12-1.57), P ... in persons with a normal conventional echocardiographic examination....

  18. Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering Research Support at the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Martha Shauck

    2013-01-01

    Tissue engineering aims at building three-dimensional living substitutes that are equal to or better than the damaged tissue to be replaced. The development of such a tissue replacement requires a multidisciplinary approach and careful attention to the optimal cell source, the interactions of growth factors and extracellular milieu, and the scaffolding design. This article is a review of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's (NHLBI) tissue engineering programs, which support researc...

  19. Role of neuregulin-1/ErbB signaling in cardiovascular physiology and disease: implications for therapy of heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, Katrien; Doggen, Kris; De Keulenaer, Gilles W

    2007-08-21

    Since the discovery that neuregulin-1 (NRG-1)/ErbB signaling is indispensable in cardiac development, evidence has shown that this system also plays a crucial role in the adult heart. In patients, an inhibitory ErbB2 antibody, trastuzumab, used in the treatment of mammary carcinomas, increases the risk for the development of cardiotoxic cardiomyopathy. Postnatal disruption of NRG-1/ErbB signaling by gene targeting in mice leads to dilated cardiomyopathy. Initially, the search for the mechanisms behind these observations focused mainly on the effects of NRG-1 on cardiomyocyte growth and survival and revealed that NRG-1 has Akt-dependent antiapoptotic effects in cultured cardiomyocytes. In vivo studies, however, did not uniformly reinforce a role for apoptosis in the development of cardiomyopathy induced by impaired NRG-1/ErbB signaling. More recent studies have revealed that NRG-1 is involved in the regulation of cardiac sympathovagal balances by counterbalancing adrenergic stimulation of the adult myocardium and through an obligatory interaction with the muscarinic cholinergic system. NRG-1 is synthesized and released by the endocardial and cardiac microvascular endothelium, dynamically controlled by neurohormonal and biomechanical stimuli. The physiology of the cardiac NRG-1/ErbB system has implications for the treatment of both cancer and heart failure. Clinical studies in breast cancer with novel ErbB inhibitors are currently underway. Novel oncological indications for ErbB inhibition are emerging; cardiovascular side effects need to be carefully monitored. On the other hand, pharmacological activation of ErbB signaling is likely an unrecognized and beneficial effect of currently used drugs in heart failure and a promising therapeutic approach to prevent or reverse myocardial dysfunction.

  20. The male heart and the female mind: a study in the gendering of antidepressants and cardiovascular drugs in advertisements in Irish medical publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Phillip; O'Brien, Marita

    2006-04-01

    Stereotypes which suggest that cardiovascular disease and depression are related to gender can have consequences for the mental and physical health outcomes of both men and women. This study examines how these stereotypes may be reinforced by medical publications advertising for cardiovascular and antidepressant medication. A random sample of 61 (with no repeats) advertisements which appeared in Irish medical publications between July 2001 and December 2002 were analysed using both content and semiotic analysis. Results indicate that the meanings created by advertisers for cardiovascular drugs and antidepressants did in fact gender these products. Women were depicted as the predominant users of antidepressants and men as the main users of cardiovascular drugs. The images used identified two stereotyped patients: the 'male' heart patient and the depressed 'female' patient. Furthermore, the imagery and language used to promote the two categories of medication tended to strengthen gendered associations.

  1. Heart palpitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 10th ... Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of ...

  2. Heart pacemaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 10th ... Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of ...

  3. Origin of heart rate variability and turbulence: an appraisal of autonomic modulation of cardiovascular function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico eLombardi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of autonomic modulation of sinus node by non-invasive techniques has provided relevant clinical information in patients with several cardiac and non-cardiac diseases and has facilitated the appraisal of neural regulatory mechanisms in normal and diseased subjects. The finding that even during resting conditions the heart period changes on a beat to beat basis and that after a premature ventricular beat there are small variations in RR interval whose measurements may be utilised to evaluate the autonomic modulation of sinus node, has provided unprecedented clinical and pathophysiological information. Heart rate variability (HRV and Heart Rate Turbulence (HRT have been extensively utilised in the clinical setting. To explain the negative predictive value of a reduced HRV it was determined that overall HRV was largely dependent on vagal mechanisms and that a reduction in HRV could reflect an increased sympathetic and a reduced vagal modulation of sinus node; i.e. an autonomic alteration favouring cardiac electrical instability. This initial interpretation was challenged by several findings indicating a greater complexity of the relationship between neural input and sinus node responsiveness as well as the possible interference with non-neural mechanisms.Under controlled conditions, however, the computation of low and high frequency components and of their ratio seems capable of providing adequate information on sympatho-vagal balance in normal subjects as well as in most patients with a preserved left ventricular function, thus providing a unique tool to investigate neural control mechanisms. Analysis on non-linear dynamics of HRV has also been utilised to describe the fractal like characteristic of the variability signal and proven effective to identify patients at risk for sudden cardiac death. A reduction on HRT parameters reflecting reduced baroreflex sensitivity as a likely result of a reduced vagal and of an increased sympathetic

  4. Obesity, mortality and cardiovascular disease in the Münster Heart Study (PROCAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, H; Cullen, P; Assmann, G

    1999-05-01

    In the Münster Heart Study (PROCAM), 16,288 men aged 40.6 +/- 11.3 years (mean +/- S.D.) and 7328 women aged 36.0 +/- 12.3 years were enrolled between 1979 and 1991. Mean body mass indices (BMIs) were 25.6 +/- 3.3 and 23.8 +/- 4.1 kg/m2 in men and women, respectively. There was a graded and continuous positive interaction in both men and women between BMI, age and serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and blood pressure (both systolic and diastolic). High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol tended to increase with age, but decreased in graded fashion with increases in BMI in both sexes. Triglyceride increased with BMI in both sexes and with age in women, but decreased in the older age groups of overweight and obese men. Though fasting blood glucose increased with age and BMI in both sexes, the increase was more marked in women. Among the 10,856 men aged 36-65 years at study entry, 313 deaths occurred within a follow-up period of 7.1 +/- 2.4 years. Among these men, increased mortality was seen at high BMIs in both smokers and non-smokers and was caused by coronary heart disease (CHD). Increased mortality at low BMI was seen in smokers but not in non-smokers and was due to an increase in cancer deaths. The BMI-associated increase in CHD death was completely accounted for by the factors contained in the Münster Heart Study (PROCAM) risk algorithm, indicating that the effect of overweight and obesity on CHD is mediated via other risk factors.

  5. Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field Conditioning Protects against I/R Injury and Contractile Dysfunction in the Isolated Rat Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialy, Dariusz; Wawrzynska, Magdalena; Bil-Lula, Iwona; Krzywonos-Zawadzka, Anna; Wozniak, Mieczyslaw; Cadete, Virgilio J J; Sawicki, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Low frequency electromagnetic field (LF-EMF) decreases the formation of reactive oxygen species, which are key mediators of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Therefore, we hypothesized that the LF-EMF protects contractility of hearts subjected to I/R injury. Isolated rat hearts were subjected to 20 min of global no-flow ischemia, followed by 30 min reperfusion, in the presence or absence of LF-EMF. Coronary flow, heart rate, left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), and rate pressure product (RPP) were determined for evaluation of heart mechanical function. The activity of cardiac matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and the contents of coronary effluent troponin I (TnI) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured as markers of heart injury. LF-EMF prevented decreased RPP in I/R hearts, while having no effect on coronary flow. In addition, hearts subjected to I/R exhibited significantly increased LVDP when subjected to LF-EMF. Although TnI and IL-6 levels were increased in I/R hearts, their levels returned to baseline aerobic levels in I/R hearts subjected to LF-EMF. The reduced activity of MMP-2 in I/R hearts was reversed in hearts subjected to LF-EMF. The data presented here indicate that acute exposure to LF-EMF protects mechanical function of I/R hearts and reduces I/R injury.

  6. Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field Conditioning Protects against I/R Injury and Contractile Dysfunction in the Isolated Rat Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Bialy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Low frequency electromagnetic field (LF-EMF decreases the formation of reactive oxygen species, which are key mediators of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury. Therefore, we hypothesized that the LF-EMF protects contractility of hearts subjected to I/R injury. Isolated rat hearts were subjected to 20 min of global no-flow ischemia, followed by 30 min reperfusion, in the presence or absence of LF-EMF. Coronary flow, heart rate, left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP, and rate pressure product (RPP were determined for evaluation of heart mechanical function. The activity of cardiac matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 and the contents of coronary effluent troponin I (TnI and interleukin-6 (IL-6 were measured as markers of heart injury. LF-EMF prevented decreased RPP in I/R hearts, while having no effect on coronary flow. In addition, hearts subjected to I/R exhibited significantly increased LVDP when subjected to LF-EMF. Although TnI and IL-6 levels were increased in I/R hearts, their levels returned to baseline aerobic levels in I/R hearts subjected to LF-EMF. The reduced activity of MMP-2 in I/R hearts was reversed in hearts subjected to LF-EMF. The data presented here indicate that acute exposure to LF-EMF protects mechanical function of I/R hearts and reduces I/R injury.

  7. Needle Migration to the Heart: An Unusual Association of Hemodialysis and Cardiovascular Morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honikman, Rafael; Chikwe, Joanna; Tokita, Joji Erik; Mittnacht, Alexander J C

    2015-10-15

    In this report, we present a unique complication of hemodialysis: the hemodialysis access needle was lost into an arteriovenous fistula. The event went unnoticed for several months. The needle eventually migrated into the right ventricle, requiring an operative retrieval. Loss of the needle was likely unrecognized because of the use of a retracting safety cannula that conceals the needle within a sheath after removal. This case highlights a rare and potentially serious complication of hemodialysis access, demonstrates a possible hazard of retracting safety needles, and reviews the management of foreign bodies that have migrated into the heart.

  8. On the heart, the mind, and how inflammation killed the Cartesian dualism. Commentary on the 2015 Named Series: Psychological Risk Factors and Immune System Involvement in Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondelli, Valeria; Pariante, Carmine M

    2015-11-01

    The 2015 Named Series on "Psychological Risk Factors and Immune System Involvement in Cardiovascular Disease" was conceived with the idea of drawing attention to the interdisciplinary work aimed at investigating the relationships between the heart, metabolic system, brain, and mental health. In this commentary, we provide a brief overview of the manuscripts included in this Named Series and highlight how a better understanding of immune regulation will help us to move forward from the current "dualistic" perspective of the heart as separate from the mind to a more comprehensive understanding of the physiological links between cardiovascular and mental disorders. The manuscripts included in this Named Series range across a wide spectrum of topics, from understanding biological mechanisms explaining comorbidity between cardiovascular disease and psychiatric disorders to new insights into the dysregulation of inflammation associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Clearly, inflammation emerges as a cross-cutting theme across all studies. Data presented in this Series contribute to putting an end to an era in which the heart and the mind were considered to be separate entities in which the responses of one system did not affect the other.

  9. A meta-analysis of non-invasive brain stimulation and autonomic functioning: Implications for brain-heart pathways to cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makovac, Elena; Thayer, Julian F; Ottaviani, Cristina

    2017-03-01

    Given the intrinsic connection between the brain and the heart, a recent body of research emerged with the aim to influence cardiovascular system functioning by non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) methods such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation. Despite the implications of cardiovascular activity modulation for therapeutic purposes, such effects of NIBS have not yet been quantified. The aim of this study was to meta-analyze studies on NIBS effects on blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and its variability (HRV). PubMed and Scopus databases were searched for English language studies conducted in humans. Twenty-nine studies were eligible for the analyses. Pooled effect sizes (Hedges' g) were compared. Random effect models were used. NIBS was effective in reducing HR (g=0.17) and enhancing HRV (g=0.30). A marginal effect emerged for BP (g=0.21). Significant moderators were the stimulation technique and the site of stimulation. Results show that NIBS affects cardiovascular and autonomic nervous system activity, confirming a potential pathogenic brain-heart pathway to cardiovascular disease.

  10. Improved cardiac protection with Sabax cardioplegia in Langendorff isolated rat hearts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perian M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cardioplegia is an important step to facilitate cardiac surgery while limiting intraoperative myocardial injury. Although recent advances in cardioplegic arrest methods have significantly contributed to better postoperative outcomes, there is still controversy regarding the optimal composition and temperature of the cardioplegic solution. Accordingly, we aimed to assess whether cold or lukewarm Sabax cardioplegia offer improved myocardial protection compared with the classical Krebs-Henseleit solution. Methods: The hearts of 40 male Wistar rats were isolated and submitted to constant-flow retrograde perfusion using a Langendorff perfusion apparatus. The hearts were randomly assigned to cold Krebs-Henseleit (K-H, cold Sabax, or lukewarm Sabax cardioplegia. The ECG, heart rates, and left ventricular systolic pressures (LVSP were recorded pre- and post-cardioplegia. The time needed for cardioplegia induction and post-cardioplegia recovery were also noted. Results: Both cold and lukewarm Sabax cardioplegia insured faster induction and faster recovery following isothermic reperfusion compared to the standard K-H solution (both p< 0.01. With K-H cardioplegia, the hearts presented a 21.7% force loss after reperfusion (p< 0.001, whilst Sabax cardioplegia was associated with a slight increase in ventricular mechanical activity (3% LVSP increase with lukewarm Sabax cardioplegia, p< 0.001 and 2% LVSP increase with cold Sabax cardioplegia, p = 0.02. With Sabax cardioplegia the hearts displayed considerably less major arrhythmic events and presented less significant bradycardia. Conclusions: The present data suggest that Sabax cardioplegia may be superior to the classical cold crystalloid K-H solution in preserving mechanical activity of the heart and may provide superior protection against major arrhythmias.

  11. Urotensin II in cardiovascular regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser D Russell

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Fraser D RussellSchool of Health and Sport Sciences, Faculty of Science, Health and Education, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, Queensland, AustraliaAbstract: Cardiovascular function is modulated by neuronal transmitters, circulating hormones, and factors that are released locally from tissues. Urotensin II (UII is an 11 amino acid peptide that stimulates its’ obligatory G protein coupled urotensin II receptors (UT to modulate cardiovascular function in humans and in other animal species, and has been implicated in both vasculoprotective and vasculopathic effects. For example, tissue and circulating concentrations of UII have been reported to increase in some studies involving patients with atherosclerosis, heart failure, hypertension, preeclampsia, diabetes, renal disease and liver disease, raising the possibility that the UT receptor system is involved in the development and/or progression of these conditions. Consistent with this hypothesis, administration of UT receptor antagonists to animal models of cardiovascular disease have revealed improvements in cardiovascular remodelling and hemodynamics. However, recent studies have questioned this contributory role of UII in disease, and have instead postulated a protective effect on the cardiovascular system. For example, high concentrations of circulating UII correlated with improved clinical outcomes in patients with renal disease or myocardial infarction. The purpose of this review is to consider the regulation of the cardiovascular system by UII, giving consideration to methodologies for measurement of plasma concentrations, sites of synthesis and triggers for release.Keywords: urotensin II, cardiovascular disease, heart failure, hypertension

  12. Evolution of cardiovascular risk factors and ischemic heart disease in an elderly urban Romanian population over the course of 1 year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop D

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Dana Pop, Alexandra Dădârlat, Mihnea Zdrenghea, Dumitru Tudor Zdrenghea, Adela Viviana Sitar-Taăut Faculty of Medicine, Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania Background: Romania has some of the highest mortality figures in the world attributable to ischemic heart disease and stroke among both men and women. Objectives: To assess the changes in cardiovascular risk factors and ischemic heart disease in a group of subjects over 65 years of age during 1 year in an urban community of Romania. Materials and methods: We studied 515 subjects (264 women and 251 men with a mean age of 73.41±6.44 years, followed up over the course of 1 year in order to determine the changes that occurred in cardiovascular risk factors and in the evolution of ischemic heart disease. At the beginning and after 1 year, we determined the following parameters: anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, smoking status, lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipid cholesterol, low-density lipid cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose, and the presence of ischemic heart disease. Results: There were no differences between the first and second assessments concerning the incidence of smoking (12.3% versus (vs 12.5%, obesity (25% vs 26%, diabetes mellitus (19% vs 22.9%, or hypertension (88.2% vs 92.2%. Statistically significant differences were recorded regarding dyslipidemia (40.6% vs 30.3%, P<0.001. Cholesterol median values decreased (204 mg/dL vs 194 mg/dL, P=0.003, while median concentrations of plasma glucose increased (101 mg/dL vs 105 mg/dL, P<0.05. At the same time, we noted a higher incidence of ischemic heart disease (51.65% vs 63%. Conclusion: Our data show that in subjects over 65 years of age, cardiovascular disease occurs more often in women, but with certain features that should be taken into account. In addition, we point out the importance of reducing cardiovascular risk factors. However, we should not

  13. HDL-related mechanisms of olive oil protection in cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou-Bonafonte, José M; Fitó, Montse; Covas, María-Isabel; Farràs, Marta; Osada, Jesús

    2012-07-01

    The low incidence of cardiovascular disease in countries bordering the Mediterranean basin, where olive oil is the main source of dietary fat, and the negative association between this disease with high density lipoproteins has stimulated interest. This review summarizes the current knowledge gathered from human and animal studies regarding olive oil and high density lipoproteins. Cumulative evidence suggests that high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and its main apolipoprotein A1, may be increased by consuming olive oil when compared with carbohydrate and low fat diets in humans. Conflicting results have been found in many studies when olive oil diets were compared with other sources of fat. The role of virgin olive oil minor components on its protective effect has been demonstrated by a growing number of studies although its exact mechanism remains to be elucidated. Dietary amount of olive oil, use of virgin olive oil, cholesterol intake, and physiopathological states such as genetic background, sex, age, obesity or fatty liver are variables that may offset those effects. Further studies in this field in humans and in animal models are warranted due to the complexity of HDL particles.

  14. HIGH HEART RATE AS A POTENTIAL RISK FACTOR FOR DEVELOPMENT OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES IN WOMEN WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Novikova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study relationship between heart rate (HR and traditional risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (TRF for CVD, subclinical structural and functional changes in the heart and vessels, as well as the activity and severity of rheumatoid inflammation in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Material and methods. A total of 291 female patients less than 60 years of age with a definite diagnosis of RA were examined. The control group consisted of 125 women without rheumatic diseases. Aside from clinical symptoms, activity and severity level of RA, the presence of main TRF for CVD were assessed, 24 h Holter ECG monitoring (24-h ECG, duplex scanning of common carotid arteries, transthoracic echocardiography were performed and the serum levels of inflammatory markers were determined.  Results. RA patients compared with the control group women had higher values of minimum (52.3±0.4 vs 47.5±0.4; p<0.001 and mean (78.5±0.5 vs 75.5±0.5; p<0.001 HR according to 24-h ECG, after adjustment for main TRF for CVD (age, arterial hypertension, menopause, levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Accelerated HR in RA directly correlated with an increased joint functional disability index - HAQ, RA severity index, the level of inflammatory markers and administration of leflunomide after adjustment for age (р<0.05. Patients with HR≥86 beats per minute compared with RA patients with values of HR≤71 beats per min had lower total cholesterol (5.84±0.13 vs 5.11±0.17; p=0.001 and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (4.06±0.13 vs 3.28±0.18; p=0.001, longer duration, higher activity (Visual Analog Pain Scale, DAS28, extra-articular manifestations of RA, concentration of proinflammatory markers and severity level of RA (severity index, HAQ, radiological stage III/IV, as well as  higher percentage of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD after adjustment for age. Conclusion. According to 24-h ECG, an

  15. Central and peripheral testosterone effects in men with heart failure: An approach for cardiovascular research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ?eljko; Bu?i?; Viktor; ?uli?

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure(HF) is a syndrome recognized as a health problem worldwide. Despite advances in treatment, patients with HF still have increased morbidity and mortality. Testosterone is one of the most researched hormones in the course of HF. Growing interest regarding the effect of testosterone, on a variety of body systems, has increased the knowledge about its mechanisms of action. The terms central and peripheral effects are used to distinguish the effects of testosterone on cardiac and extracardiac structures. Central effects include influences on cardiomyocytes and electrophysiology. Peripheral effects include influences on blood vessels, baroreceptor reactivity, skeletal muscles and erythropoesis. Current knowledge about peripheral effects of testosterone may explain much about beneficiary effects in the pathophysiology of HF syndrome. However, central, i.e., cardiac effects of testosterone are to be further explored.

  16. Assessment of Cardiovascular Apoptosis in the Isolated Rat Heart by Magnetic Resonance Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl-Heinz Hiller

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis, an active process of cell self-destruction, is associated with myocardial ischemia. The redistribution of phosphatidylserine (PS from the inner to the outer leaflet of the cell membrane is an early event in apoptosis. Annexin V, a protein with high specificity and tight binding to PS, was used to identify and localize apoptosis in the ischemic heart. Fluorescein-labeled annexin V has been used routinely for the assessment of apoptosis in vitro. For the detection of apoptosis in vivo, positron emission tomography and single-photon emission computed tomography have been shown to be suitable tools. In view of the relatively low spatial resolution of nuclear imaging techniques, we developed a high-resolution contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI method that allows rapid and noninvasive monitoring of apoptosis in intact organs. Instead of employing superparamagnetic iron oxide particles linked to annexin V, a new T1 contrast agent was used. To this effect, annexin V was linked to gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (Gd-DTPA-coated liposomes. The left coronary artery of perfused isolated rat hearts was ligated for 30 min followed by reperfusion. T1 and T2* images were acquired by using an 11.7-T magnet before and after intracoronary injection of Gd-DTP-labeled annexin V to visualize apoptotic cells. A significant increase in signal intensity was visible in those regions containing cardiomyocytes in the early stage of apoptosis. Because labeling of early apoptotic cell death in intact organs by histological and immunohistochemical methods remains challenging, the use of Gd-DTPA-labeled annexin V in MRI is clearly an improvement in rapid targeting of apoptotic cells in the ischemic and reperfused myocardium.

  17. Pharmacodynamic models for the cardiovascular effects of moxonidine in patients with congestive heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brynne, Lena; McNay, John L; Schaefer, Hans G; Swedberg, Karl; Wiltse, Curtis G; Karlsson, Mats O

    2001-01-01

    Aims To assess the pharmacodynamics of moxonidine in patients with functional NYHA Class II-III congestive heart failure (CHF). Methods A parallel population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) analysis was performed to assess the effect of moxonidine (0.1, 0.2, 0.3 mg twice daily) and placebo treatment on plasma noradrenaline (NA) levels, standing systolic blood pressure (SBP), and heart rate (HR) over 12 weeks in 97 patients with CHF using a parallel group design with dose escalation. A sequential analysis was also developed, where the relative changes in NA concentration were related to both SBP and HR. Results In the parallel PD analysis, an effect delay was shown for all three end points (NA, SBP, and HR). An inhibitory Emax model was used to characterize the concentration-effect relationships. For SBP and HR, the EC50 value increased over time. For NA, there was a positive baseline drift over the 12 weeks; this was interpreted as disease progression. Moxonidine delayed this increase by 9.8 weeks. For SBP, there was a circadian pattern at baseline. In the sequential PD analysis, the relationship between the drug response (NA) and SBP or HR was best described by an inhibitory Emax model. No effect delays between the response and effects were found. Conclusions Effects of moxonidine on NA, SBP, and HR could be quantified by an effect compartment model in the presence of disease progression and circadian variations. Disease progression, as judged by increasing NA levels with time, was delayed by moxonidine. A direct relationship was found between NA and SBP/HR. PMID:11167663

  18. Cardiovascular genetic medicine: genomic assessment of prognosis and diagnosis in patients with cardiomyopathy and heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidecker, Bettina; Hare, Joshua M

    2008-09-01

    In the last half century, epidemiologic studies and basic science investigations revealed that hypertension (Kannel et al., Ann Intern Med 55:33-50, 1961), hyperlipidemia (Dawber et al., Am J Public Health Nations Health 49:1349-1356, 1959), diabetes (Kannel et al., Am J Cardiol 34(1):29-34, 1974), smoking (Dawber et al., Am J Public Health Nations Health 49:1349-1356, 1959), and inflammation (Rossmann et al., Exp Gerontol 43(3):229-237, 2008) posed increased risk for cardiovascular disease. These associations served both as risk factors and offered insight into disease pathophysiology. Currently, it is increasingly appreciated that polygenic factors may also play a role as etiologic or risk factors (Chakravarti and Little, Nature 421(6921):412-414, 2003; Dorn and Molkentin, Circulation 109(2):150-158, 2004). Recent technologic advances in genomic screening make the search for these factors possible, and robust technologies are now available for both entire genome screening for expression or single nucleotide polymorphisms. In this paper, we review the basic principles of gene expression and molecular signature analysis in the context of potential clinical applications of transcriptomics.

  19. APPLICATION OF WESTERN BLOTTING TECHNIQUE FOR EVALUATING THE EXPRESSION OF VASOPRESSIN RECEPTORS IN THE HEART CELLS; IMPORTANCE IN THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj G Tyagi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Vasopressin, a posterior pituitary hormone is responsible for water reabsorption by the kidneys and maintenance of cardio-vascular homeostasis. Vasopressin receptors are characterized as VR 1 (V1a, VR2 (V2, and VR3 (V1b. VR1, which is abundant in vascular smooth muscles, causes vasoconstriction by increasing intracellular calcium via the phosphatidylinositol bisphosphonate pathway and a positive inotropic effect in cardiac muscle. VR2 has also been shown to be expressed in the heart. There is emerging role for vasopressin receptors in health and disease. This study describes the application of Western blotting to elucidate the importance of vasopressin receptors in the heart cells.

  20. DETERMINANTS OF PREVENTIVE BEHAVIOR REGARDING CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES AND RISK FACTORS IN PATIENTS WITH ESSENTIAL HYPERTENSION AND CHRONIC ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yu. Platonov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To analyze potential determinants of preventive behavior (PB in patients with essential hypertension (HT and chronic ischemic heart disease (CIHD, and to establish their significance and hierarchy. Material and methods. Patients with HT (n=285 and CIHD (n=223 were studied. Questioning of all patients was performed to assess the characteristics of their PB. Differentiated multivariate analysis of activity and efficacy of PB determinants was performed in HT and CIHD patients by the method of step-by-step backward logistic regression. Results. Awareness of the cardiovascular diseases (CVD and its prevention (odds ratio [OR] 6.08 as well as high level of general education (OR=2.29 were the most significant determinants of active PB in HT patients. Sufficient social support (OR=3.77, awareness of CVD and its prevention (OR=3.16 were the most significant determinants of active PB in patients with CIHD. Efficacy of PB in patients with HT and CIHD mostly depends on satisfaction of medical service (OR=10.2 and 6.63, respectively, social support (OR=6.25 and 10.5, respectively, adequate awareness of CVD and its prevention (OR, 6.92 and 6.64, respectively. Conclusion. PB activity and efficacy in patients with HT and CIHD depends on many contributing and impeding factors. Disregarding these factors can result in failure in preventive efforts at both individual and population levels.

  1. Nutrition and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Four Age Groups of Female Individuals: The PEP Family Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schwandt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Assessment of nutritional habits and associations with cardio-metabolic risk factors in four age groups of women partici-pating in the Prevention Education Program, Family Heart Study.Methods: Anthropometric variables, systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP, DBP, lipoproteins, glucose and insulin were measured in 141 children, 211 adolescents, 151 women 3 times more common in adolescents. Thirty six percent of junior women were overweight (BMI ≥25 kg/m² and 21% had central adiposity obese. Sixty eight year-old women had a far more adverse risk profile than 35 year-old women. In terms of energy consumption, 14 year-old women had the lowest fat intake and the highest consumption of carbohydrates whereas intake of protein was lowest in 10 year-old girls. Intake of unsaturated fat was lower in youths than in adults amounting to 37 g unsaturated fat respectively 53.4% of total fat consumption. The asso-ciation between energy consumption and overweight was significant and calorie intake was associated with clustering of ≥3 cardiovascular risk factors (OR :4.72; 95% CI 1.22-18.33.Conclusions: The prevalence of CVD risk factors increased continuously from girls and adolescents to junior and senior women. However, dietary intake was different in the four age groups. Caloric intake was associated with overweight and clustering of risk factors in adult women.

  2. A Novel Closed-Chest Porcine Model of Chronic Ischemic Heart Failure Suitable for Experimental Research in Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac pathologies are among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in industrialized countries, with myocardial infarction (MI representing one of the major conditions leading to heart failure (HF. Hitherto, the development of consistent, stable, and reproducible models of closed-chest MI in large animals, meeting the clinical realism of a patient with HF subsequent to chronic ischemic necrosis, has not been successful. We hereby report the design and ensuing application of a novel porcine experimental model of closed-chest chronic ischemia suitable for biomedical research, mimicking post-MI HF. We also emphasize the key procedural steps involved in replicating this unprecedented model, from femoral artery and vein catheterization to MI induction by permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery through superselective deployment of platinum-nylon coils, as well as endomyocardial biopsy sampling for histologic analysis and cell harvesting. Our model could indeed represent a valuable contribution and tool for translational research, providing precious insights to understand and overcome the many hurdles concerning, and currently quenching, the preclinical steps mandatory for the clinical translation of new cardiovascular technologies for personalized HF treatments.

  3. A Data Mining Approach for Cardiovascular Disease Diagnosis Using Heart Rate Variability and Images of Carotid Arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeongsoo Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we proposed not only an extraction methodology of multiple feature vectors from ultrasound images for carotid arteries (CAs and heart rate variability (HRV of electrocardiogram signal, but also a suitable and reliable prediction model useful in the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease (CVD. For inventing the multiple feature vectors, we extract a candidate feature vector through image processing and measurement of the thickness of carotid intima-media (IMT. As a complementary way, the linear and/or nonlinear feature vectors are also extracted from HRV, a main index for cardiac disorder. The significance of the multiple feature vectors is tested with several machine learning methods, namely Neural Networks, Support Vector Machine (SVM, Classification based on Multiple Association Rule (CMAR, Decision tree induction and Bayesian classifier. As a result, multiple feature vectors extracted from both CAs and HRV (CA+HRV showed higher accuracy than the separative feature vectors of CAs and HRV. Furthermore, the SVM and CMAR showed about 89.51% and 89.46%, respectively, in terms of diagnosing accuracy rate after evaluating the diagnosis or prediction methods using the finally chosen multiple feature vectors. Therefore, the multiple feature vectors devised in this paper can be effective diagnostic indicators of CVD. In addition, the feature vector analysis and prediction techniques are expected to be helpful tools in the decisions of cardiologists.

  4. "Beauty is a light in the heart": the transformative potential of optogenetics for clinical applications in cardiovascular medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Patrick M; Karathanos, Thomas V; Trayanova, Natalia A

    2015-02-01

    Optogenetics is an exciting new technology in which viral gene or cell delivery is used to inscribe light sensitivity in excitable tissue to enable optical control of bioelectric behavior. Initial progress in the fledgling domain of cardiac optogenetics has included in vitro expression of various light-sensitive proteins in cell monolayers and transgenic animals to demonstrate an array of potentially useful applications, including light-based pacing, silencing of spontaneous activity, and spiral wave termination. In parallel to these developments, the cardiac modeling community has developed a versatile computational framework capable of realistically simulating optogenetics in biophysically detailed, patient-specific representations of the human heart, enabling the exploration of potential clinical applications in a predictive virtual platform. Toward the ultimate goal of assessing the feasibility and potential impact of optogenetics-based therapies in cardiovascular medicine, this review provides (1) a detailed synopsis of in vivo, in vitro, and in silico developments in the field and (2) a critical assessment of how existing clinical technology for gene/cell delivery and intra-cardiac illumination could be harnessed to achieve such lofty goals as light-based arrhythmia termination.

  5. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: prevalence and estimated risk of coronary heart disease in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, O; Arildsen, H; Damsgaard, E M

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in Type 1 diabetes mellitus in the general population and to assess the relationship between CAN and risk of future coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: The Type 1 diabetes mellitus......-R interval in expiration divided by the shortest in inspiration during deep breathing at 6 breaths min(-1) and taken to express the degree of CAN. A maximal symptom-limited exercise test was carried out and the VA Prognostic Score, indicating risk of cardiovascular death or non-fatal myocardial infarction...... = 0.001). Exercise capacity, rise in systolic blood pressure and heart rate were positively correlated with the E/I ratio. A high VA Prognostic Score was correlated with a low E/I ratio (r = - 0.58, P

  6. Data on IL-6 c.-174 G>C genotype and allele frequencies in patients with coronary heart disease in dependence of cardiovascular outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Reichert

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this data article we present data on the distribution of alleles and genotypes of the interleukin (IL-6 c.-174 G>C polymorphism (rs 1800795 in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD in dependence of the incidence of new cardiovascular events (combined endpoint: myocardial infarction, stroke/TIA, cardiac death, death according to stroke within three years follow-up. Moreover, we investigated putative associations between individual expression of IL-6 genotypes and IL-6 serum level. This investigation is a subanalysis of the article entitled “The Interleukin 6 c.-174 CC genotype is a predictor for new cardiovascular events in patients with coronary heart disease within three years follow-up“ (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01045070 (Reichert et al., 2016 [1].

  7. Segmentation of the heart and major vascular structures in cardiovascular CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, J.; Ecabert, O.; Lorenz, C.; von Berg, J.; Walker, M. J.; Ivanc, T. B.; Vembar, M.; Olszewski, M. E.; Weese, J.

    2008-03-01

    Segmentation of organs in medical images can be successfully performed with shape-constrained deformable models. A surface mesh is attracted to detected image boundaries by an external energy, while an internal energy keeps the mesh similar to expected shapes. Complex organs like the heart with its four chambers can be automatically segmented using a suitable shape variablility model based on piecewise affine degrees of freedom. In this paper, we extend the approach to also segment highly variable vascular structures. We introduce a dedicated framework to adapt an extended mesh model to freely bending vessels. This is achieved by subdividing each vessel into (short) tube-shaped segments ("tubelets"). These are assigned to individual similarity transformations for local orientation and scaling. Proper adaptation is achieved by progressively adapting distal vessel parts to the image only after proximal neighbor tubelets have already converged. In addition, each newly activated tubelet inherits the local orientation and scale of the preceeding one. To arrive at a joint segmentation of chambers and vasculature, we extended a previous model comprising endocardial surfaces of the four chambers, the left ventricular epicardium, and a pulmonary artery trunk. Newly added are the aorta (ascending and descending plus arch), superior and inferior vena cava, coronary sinus, and four pulmonary veins. These vessels are organized as stacks of triangulated rings. This mesh configuration is most suitable to define tubelet segments. On 36 CT data sets reconstructed at several cardiac phases from 17 patients, segmentation accuracies of 0.61-0.80mm are obtained for the cardiac chambers. For the visible parts of the newly added great vessels, surface accuracies of 0.47-1.17mm are obtained (larger errors are asscociated with faintly contrasted venous structures).

  8. Relationship between Medication Use and Cardiovascular Disease Health Outcomes in the Jackson Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique S. White

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Even though some medications have the potential to slow the progress of atherosclerosis and development of CVD, there are many at-risk individuals who continue to resist the benefits that are available by not following the advice of medical professionals. Non-adherence to prescribed drug regimens is a pervasive medical problem that negatively affects treatment outcomes. Information from standardized interviews of 5301 African Americans participating in the Jackson Heart Study was examined to determine the association between demographic parameters, behavior including adherence to prescribed medical regimens, and health outcomes. Data were also collected at Annual Follow-Up and Surveillance visits. During the two weeks prior to the examination visit, almost 52% of the participants reported taking blood pressure medication, 14% took cholesterol medication, 16% took medication for diabetes, and 19% took blood thinning medication. Of those who did not take the prescribed medications, the reasons given were the following: 47% were in a hurry, too busy, or forgot to take medications; 23% were trying to do without medications; 18% had no money to purchase medications; 19% indicated that the medications made them feel bad; 17% felt that they could not carry out daily functions when taking medications. The African American population can benefit from heightened awareness of the risk factors that are associated with CVD and the benefits of following a prescribed treatment regimen. Unacceptable secondary effects of prescribed medication comprised an important cause of non-compliance. Encouragement of this population to communicate with their healthcare providers to ensure that medication regimens are better tolerated could increase compliance and improve health outcomes.

  9. Relationship between medication use and cardiovascular disease health outcomes in the Jackson Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Clifton C; Jenkins, Brenda W; Sarpong, Daniel; Wilson, Gregory; Champion, Cora; Sims, Jeraline; White, Monique S

    2011-06-01

    Even though some medications have the potential to slow the progress of atherosclerosis and development of CVD, there are many at-risk individuals who continue to resist the benefits that are available by not following the advice of medical professionals. Non-adherence to prescribed drug regimens is a pervasive medical problem that negatively affects treatment outcomes. Information from standardized interviews of 5301 African Americans participating in the Jackson Heart Study was examined to determine the association between demographic parameters, behavior including adherence to prescribed medical regimens, and health outcomes. Data were also collected at Annual Follow-Up and Surveillance visits. During the two weeks prior to the examination visit, almost 52% of the participants reported taking blood pressure medication, 14% took cholesterol medication, 16% took medication for diabetes, and 19% took blood thinning medication. Of those who did not take the prescribed medications, the reasons given were the following: 47% were in a hurry, too busy, or forgot to take medications; 23% were trying to do without medications; 18% had no money to purchase medications; 19% indicated that the medications made them feel bad; 17% felt that they could not carry out daily functions when taking medications. The African American population can benefit from heightened awareness of the risk factors that are associated with CVD and the benefits of following a prescribed treatment regimen. Unacceptable secondary effects of prescribed medication comprised an important cause of non-compliance. Encouragement of this population to communicate with their healthcare providers to ensure that medication regimens are better tolerated could increase compliance and improve health outcomes.

  10. Associations between cardiovascular parameters and uteroplacental Doppler (blood) flow patterns during pregnancy in women with congenital heart disease: Rationale and design of the Zwangerschap bij Aangeboren Hartafwijking (ZAHARA) II study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balci, A.; Sollie, K.M.; Mulder, B.J.; Laat, M.W. de; Roos-Hesselink, J.W.; Dijk, A.P. van; Wajon, E.M.; Vliegen, H.W.; Drenthen, W.; Hillege, H.L.; Aarnoudse, J.G.; Veldhuisen, D.J. van; Pieper, P.G.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous research has shown that women with congenital heart disease (CHD) are more susceptible to cardiovascular, obstetric, and offspring events. The causative pathophysiologic mechanisms are incompletely understood. Inadequate uteroplacental circulation is an important denominator in

  11. Associations between cardiovascular parameters and uteroplacental Doppler (blood) flow patterns during pregnancy in women with congenital heart disease : Rationale and design of the Zwangerschap bij Aangeboren Hartafwijking (ZAHARA) II study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balci, Ali; Sollie, Krystyna M.; Mulder, Barbara J. M.; de Laat, Monique W. M.; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.; van Dijk, Arie P. J.; Wajon, Elly M. C. J.; Vliegen, Hubert W.; Drenthen, Willem; Hillege, Hans L.; Aarnoudse, Jan G.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Pieper, Petronella G.

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous research has shown that women with congenital heart disease (CHD) are more susceptible to cardiovascular, obstetric, and offspring events. The causative pathophysiologic mechanisms are incompletely understood. Inadequate uteroplacental circulation is an important denominator in a

  12. Novel Protective Role of Endogenous Cardiac Myocyte P2X4 Receptors in Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tiehong; Shen, Jian-bing; Yang, Ronghua; Redden, John; Dodge-Kafka, Kimberly; Grady, James; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Liang, Bruce T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Heart failure (HF), despite continuing progress, remains a leading cause of mortality and morbidity. P2X4 receptors (P2X4R) have emerged as potentially important molecules in regulating cardiac function and as potential targets for HF therapy. Transgenic P2X4R overexpression can protect against HF, but this does not explain the role of native cardiac P2X4R. Our goal is to define the physiological role of endogenous cardiac myocyte P2X4R under basal conditions and during HF induced by myocardial infarction or pressure overload. Methods and Results Mice established with conditional cardiac-specific P2X4R knockout were subjected to left anterior descending coronary artery ligation–induced postinfarct or transverse aorta constriction–induced pressure overload HF. Knockout cardiac myocytes did not show P2X4R by immunoblotting or by any response to the P2X4R-specific allosteric enhancer ivermectin. Knockout hearts showed normal basal cardiac function but depressed contractile performance in postinfarct and pressure overload models of HF by in vivo echocardiography and ex vivo isolated working heart parameters. P2X4R coimmunoprecipitated and colocalized with nitric oxide synthase 3 (eNOS) in wild-type cardiac myocytes. Mice with cardiac-specific P2X4R overexpression had increased S-nitrosylation, cyclic GMP, NO formation, and were protected from postinfarct and pressure overload HF. Inhibitor of eNOS, L-N5-(1-iminoethyl)ornithine hydrochloride, blocked the salutary effect of cardiac P2X4R overexpression in postinfarct and pressure overload HF as did eNOS knockout. Conclusions This study establishes a new protective role for endogenous cardiac myocyte P2X4R in HF and is the first to demonstrate a physical interaction between the myocyte receptor and eNOS, a mediator of HF protection. PMID:24622244

  13. Hyperleptinemia May Protect From Cardio-Vascular Complications: A Small Georgian Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Zerekidze

    2014-12-01

    CONCLUSION: Leptin might act as a preventive measure for cardiovascular complications only in the presence of sufficient amount of fat mass. Further studies are warranted in order to support these results.

  14. Grape seed and skin extract protects against arsenic trioxide induced oxidative stress in rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfaxi, Ichraf; Charradi, Kamel; Limam, Ferid; El May, Michèle Veronique; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2015-07-29

    Arsenic is a metalloid found in water, soil, and air from natural and anthropogenic sources, and is commonly found in inorganic as well as organic forms. The clinical use of arsenic trioxide (As2O3) in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is limited by its cardiotoxic side effects. Grape seed and skin extract (GSSE) is a polyphenolic mixture with antioxidant properties. This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of GSSE on arsenic-induced cardiac oxidative stress and injury. Animals exposed to 2.5 mg/kg As2O3 for 21 days exhibited a relevant increase in heart lipoperoxidation, protein carbonylation, and inflammation, as well as a drop in the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). In addition, As2O3 disturbed heart lipidemia and lipase activity, transition metals distribution and the associated enzymes, intracellular mediators such as calcium and the associated calpain activity, as well as myocardial architecture. Treatment with 4 g/kg GSSE protected against most of the deleterious effects provoked by As2O3. Our data suggest that GSSE has the potential to protect against As2O3-induced cardiotoxicity.

  15. Complex Networks Approach for Analyzing the Correlation of Traditional Chinese Medicine Syndrome Evolvement and Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Stable Coronary Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuye Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a multicenter prospective cohort study to analyze the correlation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM syndrome evolvement and cardiovascular events in patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD. The impact of syndrome evolvement on cardiovascular events during the 6-month and 12-month follow-up was analyzed using complex networks approach. Results of verification using Chi-square test showed that the occurrence of cardiovascular events was positively correlated with syndrome evolvement when it evolved from toxic syndrome to Qi deficiency, blood stasis, or sustained toxic syndrome, when it evolved from Qi deficiency to blood stasis, toxic syndrome, or sustained Qi deficiency, and when it evolved from blood stasis to Qi deficiency. Blood stasis, Qi deficiency, and toxic syndrome are important syndrome factors for stable CHD. There are positive correlations between cardiovascular events and syndrome evolution from toxic syndrome to Qi deficiency or blood stasis, from Qi deficiency to blood stasis, or toxic syndrome and from blood stasis to Qi deficiency. These results indicate that stable CHD patients with pathogenesis of toxin consuming Qi, toxin leading to blood stasis, and mutual transformation of Qi deficiency and blood stasis are prone to recurrent cardiovascular events.

  16. Relation of Serum Adiponectin Levels to Number of Traditional Atherosclerotic Risk Factors and All-Cause Mortality and Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events (from the Copenhagen City Heart Study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Soren; Mogelvang, Rasmus; Pedersen, Sune H;

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin exerts anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic effects and appears to protect against arteriosclerosis. Accordingly, an association between low concentrations of plasma adiponectin and cardiovascular (CV) disease has been demonstrated in several studies. In contrast, elevated plasma...... or nonfatal myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke (n = 502). High adiponectin was inversely associated with an increasing number of traditional CV risk factors (p...

  17. Increasing Area Deprivation and Socioeconomic Inequalities in Heart Disease, Stroke, and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Among Working Age Populations, United States, 1969-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal K. Singh, PhD

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We examined the extent to which area- and individual-level socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular-disease (CVD, heart disease, and stroke mortality among United States men and women aged 25-64 years changed between 1969 and 2011. Methods: National vital statistics data and the National Longitudinal Mortality Study were used to estimate area- and individual-level socioeconomic gradients in mortality over time. Rate ratios and log-linear and Cox regression were used to model mortality trends and differentials. Results: Area socioeconomic gradients in mortality from CVD, heart disease, and stroke increased substantially during the study period. Compared to those in the most affluent group, individuals in the most deprived area group had, respectively 35%, 29%, and 73% higher CVD, heart disease, and stroke mortality in 1969, but 120-121% higher mortality in 2007-2011. Gradients were steeper for women than for men. Education, income, and occupation were inversely associated with CVD, heart disease, and stroke mortality, with individual-level socioeconomic gradients being steeper during 1990-2002 than in 1979-1989. Individuals with low education and incomes had 2.7 to 3.7 times higher CVD, heart disease, and stroke mortality risks than their counterparts with high education and income levels. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Although mortality declined for all US groups during 1969-2011, socioeconomic disparities in mortality from CVD, heart disease and stroke remained marked and increased over time because of faster declines in mortality among higher socioeconomic groups. Widening disparities in mortality may reflect increasing temporal areal inequalities in living conditions, behavioral risk factors such as smoking, obesity and physical inactivity, and access to and use of health services. With social inequalities and prevalence of smoking, obesity, and physical inactivity on the rise, most segments of the working

  18. The South Asian Heart Lifestyle Intervention (SAHELI) study to improve cardiovascular risk factors in a community setting: design and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandula, Namratha R; Patel, Yasin; Dave, Swapna; Seguil, Paola; Kumar, Santosh; Baker, David W; Spring, Bonnie; Siddique, Juned

    2013-11-01

    Disseminating and implementing evidence-based, cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention lifestyle interventions in community settings and in ethnic minority populations is a challenge. We describe the design and methods for the South Asian Heart Lifestyle Intervention (SAHELI) study, a pilot study designed to determine the feasibility and initial efficacy of a culturally-targeted, community-based lifestyle intervention to improve physical activity and diet behaviors among medically underserved South Asians (SAs). Participants with at least one CVD risk factor will be randomized to either a lifestyle intervention or a control group. Participants in both groups will be screened in a community setting and receive a primary care referral after randomization. Intervention participants will receive 6weeks of group classes, followed by 12weeks of individual telephone support where they will be encouraged to initiate and maintain a healthy lifestyle goal. Control participants will receive their screening results and monthly mailings on CVD prevention. Primary outcomes will be changes in moderate/vigorous physical activity and saturated fat intake between baseline, 3-, and 6-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes will be changes in weight, clinical risk factors, primary care visits, self-efficacy, and social support. This study will be one of the first to pilot-test a lifestyle intervention for SAs, one of the fastest growing racial/ethnic groups in the U.S. and one with disparate CVD risk. Results of this pilot study will provide preliminary data about the efficacy of a lifestyle intervention on CVD risk in SAs and inform community-engaged CVD prevention efforts in an increasingly diverse U.S. population.

  19. Availability and quality of coronary heart disease family history in primary care medical records: implications for cardiovascular risk assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Dhiman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The potential to use data on family history of premature disease to assess disease risk is increasingly recognised, particularly in scoring risk for coronary heart disease (CHD. However the quality of family health information in primary care records is unclear. AIM: To assess the availability and quality of family history of CHD documented in electronic primary care records. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: 537 UK family practices contributing to The Health Improvement Network database. METHOD: Data were obtained from patients aged 20 years or more, registered with their current practice between 1(st January 1998 and 31(st December 2008, for at least one year. The availability and quality of recorded CHD family history was assessed using multilevel logistic and ordinal logistic regression respectively. RESULTS: In a cross-section of 1,504,535 patients, 19% had a positive or negative family history of CHD recorded. Multilevel logistic regression showed patients aged 50-59 had higher odds of having their family history recorded compared to those aged 20-29 (OR:1.23 (1.21 to 1.25, however most deprived patients had lower odds compared to those least deprived (OR: 0.86 (0.85 to 0.88. Of the 140,058 patients with a positive family history recorded (9% of total cohort, age of onset was available in 45%; with data specifying both age of onset and relative affected available in only 11% of records. Multilevel ordinal logistic regression confirmed no statistical association between the quality of family history recording and age, gender, deprivation and year of registration. CONCLUSION: Family history of CHD is documented in a small proportion of primary care records; and where positive family history is documented the details are insufficient to assess familial risk or populate cardiovascular risk assessment tools. Data capture needs to be improved particularly for more disadvantaged patients who may be most likely to benefit from

  20. Safe Oral Triiodo-L-Thyronine Therapy Protects from Post-Infarct Cardiac Dysfunction and Arrhythmias without Cardiovascular Adverse Effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viswanathan Rajagopalan

    Full Text Available A large body of evidence suggests that thyroid hormones (THs are beneficial for the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. We have shown that 3 days of triiodo-L-thyronine (T3 treatment in myocardial infarction (MI rats increased left ventricular (LV contractility and decreased myocyte apoptosis. However, no clinically translatable protocol is established for T3 treatment of ischemic heart disease. We hypothesized that low-dose oral T3 will offer safe therapeutic benefits in MI.Adult female rats underwent left coronary artery ligation or sham surgeries. T3 (~6 μg/kg/day was available in drinking water ad libitum immediately following MI and continuing for 2 month(s (mo. Compared to vehicle-treated MI, the oral T3-treated MI group at 2 mo had markedly improved anesthetized Magnetic Resonance Imaging-based LV ejection fraction and volumes without significant negative changes in heart rate, serum TH levels or heart weight, indicating safe therapy. Remarkably, T3 decreased the incidence of inducible atrial tachyarrhythmias by 88% and improved remodeling. These were accompanied by restoration of gene expression involving several key pathways including thyroid, ion channels, fibrosis, sympathetic, mitochondria and autophagy.Low-dose oral T3 dramatically improved post-MI cardiac performance, decreased atrial arrhythmias and cardiac remodeling, and reversed many adverse changes in gene expression with no observable negative effects. This study also provides a safe and effective treatment/monitoring protocol that should readily translate to humans.

  1. Relation between preoperative renal dysfunction and cardiovascular events (stroke, myocardial infarction, or heart failure or death) within three months of isolated coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzmann, Martin J; Sartipy, Ulrik

    2013-11-01

    Renal dysfunction is related to long-term mortality and myocardial infarction after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We aimed to investigate the association between preoperative renal dysfunction and early risk of stroke, myocardial infarction, or heart failure after CABG. From the Swedish Web-system for Enhancement and Development of Evidence-based care in Heart disease Evaluated According to Recommended Therapies registry, we included all 36,284 patients who underwent primary isolated CABG from 2000 to 2008 in Sweden. The Swedish National Inpatient Registry was used to obtain the primary end point, which was rehospitalization for stroke, myocardial infarction, or heart failure ≤90 days after CABG. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the risk for the primary outcome and the secondary outcome of death from any cause, while adjusting for confounders. During 90 days of follow-up, there were 2,462 cardiovascular events and 617 deaths. In total, 17% of patients developed acute kidney injury postoperatively. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for cardiovascular events after adjustment for age, gender, atrial fibrillation, left ventricular ejection fraction, diabetes mellitus, peripheral vascular disease, and history of myocardial infarction, heart failure, or stroke was 1.24 (1.06 to 1.45) in patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 15 to 45 ml/min/1.73 m(2) but became nonsignificant after acute kidney injury was introduced into the statistical model. The risk of death was significantly increased in patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate of 15 to 45 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (odds ratio 1.76, 95% confidence interval 1.38 to 2.25) even after adjustment for all confounders. Renal dysfunction was associated with all-cause mortality but not with cardiovascular events during the first 3 postoperative months after primary isolated CABG.

  2. Cardiovascular hypertensive emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, D P; Sanidas, E A; Viniou, N A; Gennimata, V; Chantziara, V; Barbetseas, I; Makris, T K

    2015-02-01

    Inevitably, a small proportion of patients with systematic hypertension will develop hypertensive crisis at some point. Hypertensive crises can be divided into hypertensive emergency or hypertensive urgency according to the presence or lack of acute target organ damage. In this review, we discuss cardiovascular hypertensive emergencies, including acute coronary syndrome, aortic dissection, congestive heart failure, and sympathomimetic hypertensive crises, including those caused by cocaine use. Each presents in a unique fashion, although some hypertensive emergency patients report nonspecific symptoms. Treatment includes several effective and rapid-acting medications to safely reduce the blood pressure, protect remaining end-organ function, relieve symptoms, minimize the risk of complications, and thereby improve patient outcomes.

  3. mIGF-1/JNK1/SirT1 signaling confers protection against oxidative stress in the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinciguerra, Manlio; Santini, Maria Paola; Martinez, Conception; Pazienza, Valerio; Claycomb, William C; Giuliani, Alessandro; Rosenthal, Nadia

    2012-02-01

    Oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of aging-associated heart failure. Among various signaling pathways mediating oxidative stress, the NAD(+) -dependent protein deacetylase SirT1 has been implicated in the protection of heart muscle. Expression of a locally acting insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) propeptide (mIGF-1) helps the heart to recover from infarct and enhances SirT1 expression in cardiomyocytes (CM) in vitro, exerting protection from hypertrophic and oxidative stresses. To study the role of mIGF-1/SirT1 signaling in vivo, we generated cardiac-specific mIGF-1 transgenic mice in which SirT1 was depleted from adult CM in a tamoxifen-inducible and conditional fashion. Analysis of these mice confirmed that mIGF-1-induced SirT1 activity is necessary to protect the heart from paraquat (PQ)-induced oxidative stress and lethality. In cultured CM, mIGF-1 increases SirT1 expression through a c-Jun NH(2)-terminal protein kinase 1 (JNK1)-dependent signaling mechanism. Thus, mIGF-1 protects the heart from oxidative stress via SirT1/JNK1 activity, suggesting new avenues for cardiac therapy during aging and heart failure.

  4. Multicentre, prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded end point trial of the efficacy of allopurinol therapy in improving cardiovascular outcomes in patients with ischaemic heart disease: protocol of the ALL-HEART study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Ian; Walker, Andrew; Hawkey, Chris; Begg, Alan; Avery, Anthony; Taggar, Jaspal; Wei, Li; Struthers, Allan D; MacDonald, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is one of the most common causes of death in the UK and treatment of patients with IHD costs the National Health System (NHS) billions of pounds each year. Allopurinol is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor used to prevent gout that also has several positive effects on the cardiovascular system. The ALL-HEART study aims to determine whether allopurinol improves cardiovascular outcomes in patients with IHD. Methods and analysis The ALL-HEART study is a multicentre, controlled, prospective, randomised, open-label blinded end point (PROBE) trial of allopurinol (up to 600 mg daily) versus no treatment in a 1:1 ratio, added to usual care, in 5215 patients aged 60 years and over with IHD. Patients are followed up by electronic record linkage and annual questionnaires for an average of 4 years. The primary outcome is the composite of non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke or cardiovascular death. Secondary outcomes include all-cause mortality, quality of life and cost-effectiveness of allopurinol. The study will end when 631 adjudicated primary outcomes have occurred. The study is powered at 80% to detect a 20% reduction in the primary end point for the intervention. Patient recruitment to the ALL-HEART study started in February 2014. Ethics and dissemination The study received ethical approval from the East of Scotland Research Ethics Service (EoSRES) REC 2 (13/ES/0104). The study is event-driven and results are expected after 2019. Results will be reported in peer-reviewed journals and at scientific meetings. Results will also be disseminated to guideline committees, NHS organisations and patient groups. Trial registration number 32017426, pre-results. PMID:27609859

  5. Protective Effect of Wenxin Granula on Heart from Myocardial Infarction through Regulating Intracellular Ca2+

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-xue; YANG Bao-feng; LI Xue-lian; CHU Wen-feng; CAI Rui-jun; SHI Yong-fang; XU Chao-qian; SHAN Hong-li; WANG Xing-yang; LU Yan-jie

    2011-01-01

    reduced ICa-L density in rat ventricular myocytes in MI rats. The results of LSCM showed that Wenxin Granula could recover the amplitude of [Ca2+]j decreased by heart failure during long term. Conclusion Wenxin Granula could not only inhibit the incidence of arrhythmia but also decrease the mortality, which was accompanied by recovering the amplitude of [Ca2+]j. This protective effect of Wenxin Granula may partially be mediated through changing ICa-L.as well as increasing [Ca2+]j.

  6. Pomegranate Supplementation Protects against Memory Dysfunction after Heart Surgery: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan A. Ropacki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Memory dysfunction is a common complaint following heart surgery and may be related to a diffuse ischemic state induced by microemboli dislodged during the procedure. Ischemia can induce damage by a number of mechanisms, including oxidative stress. Because pomegranates contain a variety of polyphenols with antioxidant and other potentially beneficial effects, we tested whether supplementation with a pomegranate extract before and after heart surgery could protect against postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass graft and/or valve surgery were given either 2 g of pomegranate extract (in 2 POMx pills or placebo (pills containing no pomegranate ingredients per day from one week before surgery to 6 weeks after surgery. The patients were also administered a battery of neuropsychological tests to assess memory function at 1 week before surgery (baseline, 2 weeks after surgery, and 6 weeks after surgery. The placebo group had significant deficits in postsurgery memory retention, and the pomegranate treatment not only protected against this effect, but also actually improved memory retention performance for up to 6 weeks after surgery as compared to presurgery baseline performance.

  7. Protein stability in stored decellularized heart valve scaffolds and diffusion kinetics of protective molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shangping; Oldenhof, Harriëtte; Dai, Xiaolei; Haverich, Axel; Hilfiker, Andres; Harder, Michael; Wolkers, Willem F

    2014-02-01

    Decellularized tissues can be used as matrix implants. The aims of this study were to investigate protein stability and solvent accessibility in decellularized pulmonary heart valve tissues. Protein denaturation profiles of tissues were studied by differential scanning calorimetry. Protein solvent accessibility of tissue exposed to D2O, and diffusion kinetics of various protective molecules were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Little changes were observed in the protein denaturation temperature during storage, at either 5 or 40°C. Glycerol was found to stabilize proteins; it increased the protein denaturation temperature. The stabilizing effect of glycerol disappeared after washing the sample with saline solution. Hydrogen-to-deuterium exchange rates of protein amide groups were fastest in leaflet tissue, followed by artery and muscle tissue. Diffusion of glycerol was found to be fastest in muscle tissue, followed by artery and leaflet tissue. Diffusion coefficients were derived and used to estimate the time needed to reach saturation. Fixation of tissue with glutaraldehyde had little effects on exchange and diffusion rates. Diffusion rates decreased with increasing molecular size. Proteins in decellularized heart valve tissue are stable during storage. Glycerol increases protein stability in a reversible manner. Solvent accessibility studies of protein amide groups provide an additional tool to study proteins in tissues. Diffusion coefficients can be derived to simulate diffusion kinetics of protective molecules in tissues. This study provides novel tools to evaluate protein stability and solvent accessibility in tissues, which can be used to develop biopreservation strategies.

  8. Honolulu Heart Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-13

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Heart Diseases; Heart Failure, Congestive; Myocardial Infarction; Asthma; Emphysema; Lung Diseases, Obstructive; Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal; Bronchitis; Dementia; Hypertension; Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; Heart Failure

  9. Worsening Heart Failure Following Admission for Acute Heart Failure A Pooled Analysis of the PROTECT and RELAX-AHF Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davison, Beth A.; Metra, Marco; Cotter, Gad; Massie, Barry M.; Cleland, John G. F.; Dittrich, Howard C.; Edwards, Christopher; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Givertz, Michael M.; Greenberg, Barry; Ponikowski, Piotr; Voors, Adriaan A.; O'Connor, Christopher M.; Teerlink, John R.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES These studies conducted analyses to examine patient characteristics and outcomes associated with worsening heart failure (WHF). BACKGROUND WHF during an admission for acute heart failure (AHF) represents treatment failure and is a potential therapeutic target for clinical trials of AHF. M

  10. Nrf2 and cardiovascular defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden, Reuben

    2013-01-01

    The cardiovascular system is susceptible to a group of diseases that are responsible for a larger proportion of morbidity and mortality than any other disease. Many cardiovascular diseases are associated with a failure of defenses against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage and/or death, leading to organ dysfunction. The pleiotropic transcription factor, nuclear factor-erythroid (NF-E) 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), regulates the expression of antioxidant enzymes and proteins through the antioxidant response element. Nrf2 is an important component in antioxidant defenses in cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and heart failure. Nrf2 is also involved in protection against oxidant stress during the processes of ischemia-reperfusion injury and aging. However, evidence suggests that Nrf2 activity does not always lead to a positive outcome and may accelerate the pathogenesis of some cardiovascular diseases (e.g., atherosclerosis). The precise conditions under which Nrf2 acts to attenuate or stimulate cardiovascular disease processes are unclear. Further studies on the cellular environments related to cardiovascular diseases that influence Nrf2 pathways are required before Nrf2 can be considered a therapeutic target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  11. Nrf2 and Cardiovascular Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuben Howden

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular system is susceptible to a group of diseases that are responsible for a larger proportion of morbidity and mortality than any other disease. Many cardiovascular diseases are associated with a failure of defenses against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage and/or death, leading to organ dysfunction. The pleiotropic transcription factor, nuclear factor-erythroid (NF-E 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, regulates the expression of antioxidant enzymes and proteins through the antioxidant response element. Nrf2 is an important component in antioxidant defenses in cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and heart failure. Nrf2 is also involved in protection against oxidant stress during the processes of ischemia-reperfusion injury and aging. However, evidence suggests that Nrf2 activity does not always lead to a positive outcome and may accelerate the pathogenesis of some cardiovascular diseases (e.g., atherosclerosis. The precise conditions under which Nrf2 acts to attenuate or stimulate cardiovascular disease processes are unclear. Further studies on the cellular environments related to cardiovascular diseases that influence Nrf2 pathways are required before Nrf2 can be considered a therapeutic target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  12. The anti-cancer components of Ganoderma lucidum possesses cardiovascular protective effect by regulating circular RNA expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Weijiang; Li, Xiangmin; Jiao, Chunwei; Huang, Ren; Yang, Burton B.

    2016-01-01

    To examine the role of oral Ganoderma spore oil in cardiovascular disease, we used transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in mice to model pressure overload-induced cardiomyopathy. Our preliminary results demonstrated a potential cardioprotective role for spore oil extracted from Ganoderma. We found that Ganoderma treatment normalized ejection fraction and corrected the fractional shortening generated by TAC. We also found evidence of reduced left ventricular hypertrophy as assessed by left ventricular end diastolic diameter. Analysis of total RNA expression using cardiac tissue samples from these mice corroborated our findings. We found reduced expression of genes associated with heart failure, including a novel circular RNA circ-Foxo3. Thus our data provides evidence for Ganoderma lucidum as a potential cardioprotective agent, warranting further preclinical exploration. PMID:27713910

  13. Dietary catechins and their potentially protective role in cardiovascular diseases and cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, I.

    2001-01-01

    Catechins are polyphenolic compounds in plant foods that belong to the family of flavonoids. Due to their strong antioxidant activity and their capacity to influence mammalian enzyme systems, catechins were hypothesized to affect risk of cardiovascular diseases and cancer in humans. After optimizing

  14. A review of Perindopril in the reduction of cardiovascular events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan J Campbell

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Duncan J CampbellSt. Vincent’s Institute of Medical Research and the Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, St. Vincent’s Hospital, Fitzroy, Victoria, AustraliaBackground: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI have a well-established role in the prevention of cardiovascular events in hypertension, left ventricular dysfunction, and heart failure. More recently, ACEI have been shown to prevent cardiovascular events in individuals with increased cardiovascular risk, where hypertension, left ventricular dysfunction, or heart failure was not the primary indication for ACEI therapy.Objective: To review studies of the effects of the ACEI perindopril on cardiovascular events.Method: The EUROPA (European Trial on Reduction of Cardiac Events with Perindopril in Patients with Stable Coronary Artery Disease Study, PROGRESS (Perindopril Protection Against Recurrent Stroke Study, and ASCOT-BPLA (Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial – Blood Pressure Lowering Arm trials are reviewed.Results: Perindopril alone reduced cardiovascular events in subjects with stable coronary heart disease. Perindopril in combination with indapamide reduced cardiovascular events in subjects with cerebrovascular disease. Perindopril in combination with amlodipine reduced cardiovascular events in subjects with hypertension.Conclusion: Perindopril reduced cardiovascular events. The reduction of cardiovascular events by perindopril was in large part associated with reduction of blood pressure, and greater reduction in cardiovascular events was associated with greater reduction of blood pressure. Perindopril may need to be combined with other antihypertensive agents to maximize reduction of cardiovascular events.Keywords: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure

  15. Cystathionine-γ lyase-derived hydrogen sulfide mediates the cardiovascular protective effects of moxonidine in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Shaimaa S; Zakaria, Mohamed N M; Abdel-Ghany, Rasha H; Abdel-Rahman, Abdel A

    2016-07-15

    Blunted cystathionine-γ lyase (CSE) activity (reduced endogenous H2S-level) is implicated in hypertension and myocardial dysfunction in diabetes. Here, we tested the hypothesis that CSE derived H2S mediates the cardiovascular protection conferred by the imidazoline I1 receptor agonist moxonidine in a diabetic rat model. We utilized streptozotocin (STZ; 55mg/kg i.p) to induce diabetes in male Wistar rats. Four weeks later, STZ-treated rats received vehicle, moxonidine (2 or 6mg/kg; gavage), CSE inhibitor DL-propargylglycine, (37.5mg/kg i.p) or DL-propargylglycine with moxonidine (6mg/kg) for 3 weeks. Moxonidine improved the glycemic state, and reversed myocardial hypertrophy, hypertension and baroreflex dysfunction in STZ-treated rats. Ex vivo studies revealed that STZ caused reductions in CSE expression/activity, H2S and nitric oxide (NO) levels and serum adiponectin and elevations in myocardial imidazoline I1 receptor expression, p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase, ERK1/2, phosphorylation and lipid peroxidation (expressed as malondialdehyde). Moxonidine reversed these biochemical responses, and suppressed the expression of death associated protein kinase-3. Finally, pharmacologic CSE inhibition (DL-propargylglycine) abrogated the favorable cardiovascular, glycemic and biochemical responses elicited by moxonidine. These findings present the first evidence for a mechanistic role for CSE derived H2S in the glycemic control and in the favorable cardiovascular effects conferred by imidazoline I1 receptor activation (moxonidine) in a diabetic rat model.

  16. Carotenoids and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voutilainen, Sari; Nurmi, Tarja; Mursu, Jaakko; Rissanen, Tiina H

    2006-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the main cause of death in Western countries. Nutrition has a significant role in the prevention of many chronic diseases such as CVD, cancers, and degenerative brain diseases. The major risk and protective factors in the diet are well recognized, but interesting new candidates continue to appear. It is well known that a greater intake of fruit and vegetables can help prevent heart diseases and mortality. Because fruit, berries, and vegetables are chemically complex foods, it is difficult to pinpoint any single nutrient that contributes the most to the cardioprotective effects. Several potential components that are found in fruit, berries, and vegetables are probably involved in the protective effects against CVD. Potential beneficial substances include antioxidant vitamins, folate, fiber, and potassium. Antioxidant compounds found in fruit and vegetables, such as vitamin C, carotenoids, and flavonoids, may influence the risk of CVD by preventing the oxidation of cholesterol in arteries. In this review, the role of main dietary carotenoids, ie, lycopene, beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin, in the prevention of heart diseases is discussed. Although it is clear that a higher intake of fruit and vegetables can help prevent the morbidity and mortality associated with heart diseases, more information is needed to ascertain the association between the intake of single nutrients, such as carotenoids, and the risk of CVD. Currently, the consumption of carotenoids in pharmaceutical forms for the treatment or prevention of heart diseases cannot be recommended.

  17. "You have the right to protect your health": Perceptions of Secondhand Smoke and Exposure Mitigation Strategies in Low-Income Patients With Heart Disease, San Francisco, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Johnson, Cati G; Oppezzo, Marily; Benowitz, Neal L; Prochaska, Judith J

    2016-08-25

    We examined the understanding of the harms of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among low-income, hospitalized adults with cardiovascular disease. Participants were 15 nonsmokers reporting daily SHS exposure and 15 light or nondaily cigarette smokers. We coded responses from audiotaped semistructured interviews for themes. No participant spontaneously identified heart risks related to SHS exposure. Strategies to avoid SHS included verbal requests to not smoke and physically avoiding smoke; both smokers and nonsmokers prioritized politeness over urgency. Most participants thought a blood test quantifying SHS exposure would be clinically useful. Health education, assertiveness communication training, and protective policies (eg, smoke-free multiunit housing) also were supported.

  18. Erythropoietin-mediated protection in kidney transplantation: nonerythropoietic EPO derivatives improve function without increasing risk of cardiovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijt, Willem G; van Goor, Harry; Ploeg, Rutger J; Leuvenink, Henri G D

    2014-03-01

    The protective, nonerythropoietic effects of erythropoietin (EPO) have become evident in preclinical models in renal ischaemia/reperfusion injury and kidney transplantation. However, four recently published clinical trials using high-dose EPO treatment following renal transplantation did not reveal any protective effect for short-term renal function and even reported an increased risk of thrombosis. This review focusses on the current status of protective pathways mediated by EPO, the safety concerns using high EPO dosage and discusses the discrepancies between pre-clinical and clinical studies. The protective effects are mediated by binding of EPO to a heteromeric receptor complex consisting of two β-common receptors and two EPO receptors. An important role for the activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase is proposed. EPO-mediated cytoprotection still has enormous potential. However, only nonerythropoietic EPO derivatives may induce protection without increasing the risk of cardiovascular events. In preclinical models, nonerythropoietic EPO derivatives, such as carbamoylated EPO and ARA290, have been tested. These EPO derivatives improve renal function and do not affect erythropoiesis. Therefore, nonerythropoietic EPO derivatives may be able to render EPO-mediated cytoprotection useful and beneficial for clinical transplantation.

  19. Cardiovascular risk protection from the Mediterranean diet and olive oil. A transcriptomic update in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Carrión

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights the human studies that explore the benefits of the Mediterranean diet and olive oil, based on gene expression analysis. We summarized consistent human transcriptomic studies on cardiovascular risk, based on TMD and olive oil interventions, with real life doses and conditions. A literature review was carried out leading up to February 2016. The results show that the TMD, specially supplemented with virgin olive oil, produces beneficial changes in the transcriptomic response of relevant genes in cardiovascular risk such as CAT, GPX1 and SIRT2. p65 and MCP-1, IL1B, IL6, CXCL1, INF-γ, ARHGAP15 and IL7R, which are involved in inflammation; and ABCA1, SR-B1, PPARBP, PPARα, PPARγ, PPARδ, CD-36 and COX-1, which play an important role in cholesterol efflux. The available data illustrate a transcriptomic effect on atherosclerosis, inflammation and oxidative stress pathways as well as the mentioned genes.

  20. Low health-related quality of life is a predictor of major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with chronic nonischemic heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakliczyński, Michał; Owczarek, Aleksander; Partyka, Robert; Mościński, Mateusz; Pudlo, Robert; Kaczmarczyk, Marcin; Zembala, Marian; Poloński, Lech

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The need to indentify patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) at a higher risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) has become increasingly important; therefore, new parameters, such as health-related quality of life (HRQoL), are gaining ground. The aim of this study The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors for MACEs, with a special emphasis on HRQoL in chronic non-ischemic heart failure (NIHF) patients. Material and methods This prospective study enrolled 271 hospitalized patients with heart failure symptoms (NYHA II and III), without neoplastic disease, diabetes, hepatic cirrhosis or chronic kidney disease, who had been receiving optimal medical treatment. In all the patients, laboratory examinations, electrocardiography, echocardiography, a 6-minute walking test, invasive right heart pressure measurements and coronary angiography were performed. HRQoL assessment was conducted with the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Clinical observation commenced on admission to the hospital and lasted 3 years. Data concerning MACE incidence (death, transplantation, circulatory support, hospitalization) were obtained during outpatient visits. Results The final analysis enrolled 202 patients, while 17 patients were lost to follow up. The MACE incidence was 42.1%. Major adverse cardiovascular events risk factors in multiple factor analysis were: alkaline phosphatase (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.01; p < 0.05); right ventricular end-diastolic diameter (HR = 1.08; p < 0.001); hsCRP (HR = 1.04; p < 0.05); and the following HRQoL indices: Bodily Pain (HR = 0.98; p < 0.05) and Mental Health (HR = 0.97; p < 0.01). Conclusions Low values for HRQoL parameters (Bodily Pain and Mental Health), right ventricular end-diastolic diameter, serum concentration of hsCRP and alkaline phosphatase are prognostic factors in NIHF patients. PMID:26336436

  1. Akt protects the heart against ischaemia-reperfusion injury by modulating mitochondrial morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Sang-Bing; Hall, Andrew R; Dongworth, Rachel K; Kalkhoran, Siavash; Pyakurel, Aswin; Scorrano, Luca; Hausenloy, Derek J

    2015-03-01

    The mechanism through which the protein kinase Akt (also called PKB), protects the heart against acute ischaemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is not clear. Here, we investigate whether Akt mediates its cardioprotective effect by modulating mitochondrial morphology. Transfection of HL-1 cardiac cells with constitutively active Akt (caAkt) changed mitochondrial morphology as evidenced by an increase in the proportion of cells displaying predominantly elongated mitochondria (73 ± 5.0 % caAkt vs 49 ± 5.8 % control: N=80 cells/group; pmitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening (by 2.4 ± 0.5 fold; N=80 cells/group: pmitochondrial morphology, MPTP opening, and cell survival post-IRI, were demonstrated with pharmacological activation of Akt using the known cardioprotective cytokine, erythropoietin (EPO). The effect of Akt on inducing mitochondrial elongation was found to be dependent on the mitochondrial fusion protein, Mitofusin-1 (Mfn1), as ablation of Mfn1 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) abrogated Akt-mediated mitochondrial elongation. Finally, in vivo pre-treatment with EPO reduced myocardial infarct size (as a % of the area at risk) in adult mice subjected to IRI (26.2 ± 2.6 % with EPO vs 46.1 ± 6.5 % in control; N=7/group: pmitochondrial fragmentation observed by electron microscopy in adult murine hearts subjected to ischaemia from 5.8 ± 1.0 % to 2.2 ± 1.0 % (N=5 hearts/group; pmitochondrial morphology.

  2. Severe Calorie Restriction Reduces Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and Protects Rat Hearts from Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Dirceu S.; Costa-Pereira, Liliane V.; Santos, Carina S.; Mendes, Bruno F.; Costa, Karine B.; Santos, Cynthia Fernandes F.; Rocha-Vieira, Etel; Magalhães, Flávio C.; Esteves, Elizabethe A.; Ferreira, Anderson J.; Guatimosim, Sílvia; Dias-Peixoto, Marco F.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Recent studies have proposed that if a severe caloric restriction (SCR) is initiated at the earliest period of postnatal life, it can lead to beneficial cardiac adaptations later on. We investigated the effects of SCR in Wistar rats from birth to adult age on risk factors for cardiac diseases (CD), as well as cardiac function, redox status, and HSP72 content in response to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Methods and Results: From birth to the age of 3 months, CR50 rats were fed 50% of the food that the ad libitum group (AL) was fed. Food intake was assessed daily and body weight were assessed weekly. In the last week of the SCR protocol, systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured and the double product index was calculated. Also, oral glucose and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance tests were performed. Thereafter, rats were decapitated, visceral fat was weighed, and blood and hearts were harvested for biochemical, functional, tissue redox status, and western blot analyzes. Compared to AL, CR50 rats had reduced the main risk factors for CD. Moreover, the FR50 rats showed increased cardiac function both at baseline conditions (45% > AL rats) and during the post-ischemic period (60% > AL rats) which may be explained by a decreased cardiac oxidative stress and increased HSP72 content. Conclusion: SCR from birth to adult age reduced risk factors for CD, increased basal cardiac function and protected hearts from the I/R, possibly by a mechanism involving ROS. PMID:27092082

  3. Diet and Lifestyle Protection Against the Heart Aging%预防心脏老龄化的饮食和生活方式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐艳; 龙良; 苏晓君

    2012-01-01

    Coronary heart disease is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity increases substantially with age. It is estimated that more than 1 in 3 men and 1 in 4 women aged over 75 are currently living with coronary heart disease. Evidence from epidemiologic studies indicate that the increased risks of coronary heart disease in middle-aged people are relevant to the morbidity of coronary heart disease in the elderly people. Clinical trials have shown that changing these risk factors in middle-aged adults and the elderly can reduce risk of coronary heart disease. A diet that is low in fat,rich in carbohydrate, contains plenty of fruits, vegetables and fish and is low in salt, can protect against heart disease. Such diets, together with regular physical activity, avoidance of smoking,reasonable drinking habits and maintenance of a healthy body weight,may prevent the majority of cardiovascular diseases.%冠心病是随着年龄的增长而引起患者病死率和发病率大幅增加的首要原因.据估计,75岁以上老年人当中超过1/3的男性和1/4的女性患有冠心病.流行病学研究的证据表明,中年人冠心病危险因素的增加与老年人冠心病的发病率是有关的.临床试验表明,改变这些危险因素可以在中年人及老年人中有效地减少冠心病的危险.饮食上低脂肪、富含碳水化合物、多食水果和蔬菜和鱼类及低盐可以有效预防心脏病.这样的饮食习惯,加上经常参加体育活动、避免吸烟、合理饮酒和保持健康的体质量,可阻止大多数心血管疾病的发生.

  4. Vitamin D and the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, L A; Witham, M D

    2013-08-01

    Vitamin D, a secosteroid hormone, affects multiple biological pathways via both genomic and nongenomic signalling. Several pathways have potential benefit to cardiovascular health, including effects on parathyroid hormone, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, vascular endothelial growth factor and cytokine production, as well as direct effects on endothelial cell function and myocyte calcium influx. Observational data supports a link between low vitamin D metabolite levels and cardiovascular health. Cross-sectional data shows associations between low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and stroke, myocardial infarction, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and heart failure. Longitudinal data also suggests a relationship with incident hypertension and new cardiovascular events. However, these associations are potentially confounded by reverse causality and by the effects that other cardiovascular risk factors have on vitamin D metabolite levels. Intervention studies to date suggest a modest antihypertensive effect of vitamin D, no effect on serum lipids, a small positive effect on insulin resistance and fasting glucose, and equivocal actions on arterial stiffness and endothelial function. Analysis of cardiovascular event data collected from osteoporosis trials does not currently show a clear signal for reduced cardiovascular events with vitamin D supplementation, but results may be confounded by the coadministration of calcium, and by the secondary nature of the analyses. Despite mechanistic and observational data that suggest a protective role for vitamin D in cardiovascular disease, intervention studies to date are less promising. Large trials using cardiovascular events as a primary outcome are needed before vitamin D can be recommended as a therapy for cardiovascular disease.

  5. Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Atherosclerosis is also the most common cause of cardiovascular disease. It can be caused by correctable problems, such as an unhealthy diet, lack of exercise, being overweight and smoking. Causes of heart arrhythmia ...

  6. Sevoflurane postconditioning protects isolated rat hearts against ischemia-reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Yun-tai; FANG Neng-xin; SHI Chun-xia; LI Li-huan

    2010-01-01

    Background Studies suggested that anesthetics administered upon the early reperfusion or "anesthetic postconditioning" could protect post-ischemic hearts against myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (MIRI).However, the mechanism responsible for such protection was not well-elucidated.We investigated the cardioprotection induced by sevoflurane postconditioning (SpostC) in rat hearts in vitro, and the respective role of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK 1/2), mitochondrial KATP channels (mitoKATP) and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), by selectively inhibiting PI3K, ERK 1/2, mitoKATP, with LY294002 (LY), PD98059 (PD), 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD) and by directly opening of mPTP with atractyloside (ATR), respectively.Methods Isolated rat hearts were randomly assigned to one of the 12 groups (n=15):Time control (continuous perfusion), ISCH (30 minutes of ischemia followed by 60 minutes of reperfusion alone), SpostC (3% sevoflurane postconditioning was administered during the first 15 minutes of reperfusion after 30 minutes of ischemia), ISCH+LY,ISCH+PD, ISCH+ATR, ISCH+5-HD and ISCH+ dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) groups (LY, PD, ATR, 5-HD and DMSO (the vehicle) was administered respectively during the first 15 minutes of reperfusion following test ischemia), SpostC+LY, SpostC+PD, SpostC+ATR and SpostC+5-HD groups (LY, PD, ATR and 5-HD was coadministered with 3% sevoflurane, respectively).Hemodynamics was compared within and between groups.Infarction size was determined at the end of experiments using triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining.Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) released from necrotic myocardium, were compared among TC, ISCH and SpostC groups.To investigate the relationships between RISK and mPTP implicated in SpostC, NAD+ content in myocardium, a marker of mPTP opening, was compared among some experimental groups (TC, ISCH, ISCH

  7. Does Evidence Support the American Heart Association's Recommendation to Screen Patients for Depression in Cardiovascular Care? An Updated Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thombs, Brett D.; Roseman, Michelle; Coyne, James C.; de Jonge, Peter; Delisle, Vanessa C.; Arthurs, Erin; Levis, Brooke; Ziegelstein, Roy C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To systematically review evidence on depression screening in coronary heart disease (CHD) by assessing the (1) accuracy of screening tools; (2) effectiveness of treatment; and (3) effect of screening on depression outcomes. Background: A 2008 American Heart Association (AHA) Science Advi

  8. (SPartners for Heart Health: a school-based program for enhancing physical activity and nutrition to promote cardiovascular health in 5th grade students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehnert Scott T

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The American Heart Association Position Statement on Cardiovascular Health Promotion in Public Schools encourages school-based interventions for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD through risk factor prevention or reduction in children with an emphasis on creating an environment that promotes healthy food choices and physical activity (PA. In an effort to address issues related to CVD risk factors including obesity in Michigan children, a multi-disciplinary team of Michigan State University (MSU faculty, clinicians, and health profession students was formed to "(Spartner" with elementary school physical education (PE teachers and MSU Extension staff to develop and implement a cost-effective, sustainable program aimed at CVD risk factor prevention and management for 5th grade students. This (Spartnership is intended to augment and improve the existing 5th grade PE, health and nutrition curriculum by achieving the following aims: 1 improve the students' knowledge, attitudes and confidence about nutrition, PA and heart health; 2 increase the number of students achieving national recommendations for PA and nutrition; and 3 increase the number of students with a desirable CVD risk factor status based on national pediatric guidelines. Secondary aims include promoting school staff and parental support for heart health to help children achieve their goals and to provide experiential learning and service for MSU health profession students for academic credit. Methods/Design This pilot effectiveness study was approved by the MSU IRB. At the beginning and the end of the school year students undergo a CVD risk factor assessment conducted by MSU medical students and graduate students. Key intervention components include eight lesson plans (conducted bi-monthly designed to promote heart healthy nutrition and PA behaviors conducted by PE teachers with assistance from MSU undergraduate dietetic and kinesiology students

  9. Protective Effect of Antenatal Antioxidant on Nicotine-Induced Heart Ischemia-Sensitive Phenotype in Rat Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, DaLiao; Wang, Lei; Huang, Xiaohui; Li, Yong; Dasgupta, Chiranjib; Zhang, Lubo

    2016-01-01

    Fetal nicotine exposure increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease later in life. The present study tested the hypothesis that perinatal nicotine-induced programming of heart ischemia-sensitive phenotype is mediated by enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in offspring. Nicotine was administered to pregnant rats via subcutaneous osmotic minipumps from day 4 of gestation to day 10 after birth, in the absence or presence of a ROS inhibitor, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) in drinking water. Experiments were conducted in 8 month old age male offspring. Isolated hearts were perfused in a Langendorff preparation. Perinatal nicotine treatment significantly increased ischemia and reperfusion-induced left ventricular injury, and decreased post-ischemic recovery of left ventricular function and coronary flow rate. In addition, nicotine enhanced cardiac ROS production and significantly attenuated protein kinase Cε (PKCε) protein abundance in the heart. Although nicotine had no effect on total cardiac glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) protein expression, it significantly increased the phosphorylation of GSK3β at serine 9 residue in the heart. NAC inhibited nicotine-mediated increase in ROS production, recovered PKCε gene expression and abrogated increased phosphorylation of GSK3β. Of importance, NAC blocked perinatal nicotine-induced increase in ischemia and reperfusion injury in the heart. These findings provide novel evidence that increased oxidative stress plays a causal role in perinatal nicotine-induced developmental programming of ischemic sensitive phenotype in the heart, and suggest potential therapeutic targets of anti-oxidative stress in the treatment of ischemic heart disease.

  10. Protective Effect of Antenatal Antioxidant on Nicotine-Induced Heart Ischemia-Sensitive Phenotype in Rat Offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DaLiao Xiao

    Full Text Available Fetal nicotine exposure increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease later in life. The present study tested the hypothesis that perinatal nicotine-induced programming of heart ischemia-sensitive phenotype is mediated by enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS in offspring. Nicotine was administered to pregnant rats via subcutaneous osmotic minipumps from day 4 of gestation to day 10 after birth, in the absence or presence of a ROS inhibitor, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC in drinking water. Experiments were conducted in 8 month old age male offspring. Isolated hearts were perfused in a Langendorff preparation. Perinatal nicotine treatment significantly increased ischemia and reperfusion-induced left ventricular injury, and decreased post-ischemic recovery of left ventricular function and coronary flow rate. In addition, nicotine enhanced cardiac ROS production and significantly attenuated protein kinase Cε (PKCε protein abundance in the heart. Although nicotine had no effect on total cardiac glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β protein expression, it significantly increased the phosphorylation of GSK3β at serine 9 residue in the heart. NAC inhibited nicotine-mediated increase in ROS production, recovered PKCε gene expression and abrogated increased phosphorylation of GSK3β. Of importance, NAC blocked perinatal nicotine-induced increase in ischemia and reperfusion injury in the heart. These findings provide novel evidence that increased oxidative stress plays a causal role in perinatal nicotine-induced developmental programming of ischemic sensitive phenotype in the heart, and suggest potential therapeutic targets of anti-oxidative stress in the treatment of ischemic heart disease.

  11. [Protective effect of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids on the development of cardiovascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, C M; Ramírez-Tortosa, M C; Mesa, M D; Gil, A

    2001-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease has a multifactorial aetiology, as is illustrated by the existence of numerous risk indicators, many of which can be influenced by dietary means. In this article, the effects of unsaturated fatty acids on cardiovascular disease are reviewed, with special emphasis on the modifications of the lipoprotein profile and the mechanism by which fatty acids may affect the immune response on the development of the atherosclerotic lesion. Atherosclerosis occurs fundamentally in three stages: dysfunction of the vascular endothelium, fatty streak and fibrous cap formation. Each of the three stages is regulated by the action of vasoactive molecules, growth factors and cytokines, mediators of the immune response. Dietary lipid quality can affect the lipoprotein metabolism, altering their concentrations in the blood, permitting a greater or lesser recruitment of them in the artery wall. The replacement of dietary saturated fat by mono- or polyunsaturated fats significantly lowers the plasma-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels. Likewise, an enriched monounsaturated fatty acid diet prevents LDL oxidative modifications more than an enriched polyunsaturated diet, and the oxidation of LDL in patients with peripheral vascular disease mediated by n-3 fatty acids can be reduced by the simultaneous consumption of olive oil. However, strong controversy surrounds the effect of the different unsaturated fatty acids. The type of dietary fat can directly or indirectly influence some of the mediating factors of the immune response; n-3 fatty acids have powerful antiinflammatory properties. Dietary fatty acids strongly determine the susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation, which also has an impact on the activation of molecules of adhesion and other inflammatory factors. Moreover, several works have demonstrated a direct effect of fatty acids on the genetic expression of many of those factors. Finally, certain aspects of blood platelet function, blood coagulability

  12. Combined effect of educational status and cardiovascular risk factors on the incidence of coronary heart disease and stroke in European cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veronesi, Giovanni; Tunstall-Pedoe, Hugh; Ferrario, Marco M

    2017-01-01

    of incident acute coronary heart disease and stroke. Results Compared with more educated smokers, the less educated had an added increase in absolute risk of cardiovascular disease of 3.1% (95% confidence interval + 0.1%, +6.2%) in men and of 1.5% (-1.9%, +5.0%) in women, consistent across smoking categories......Background The combined effect of social status and risk factors on the absolute risk of cardiovascular disease has been insufficiently investigated, but results provide guidance on who could benefit most through prevention. Methods We followed 77,918 cardiovascular disease-free individuals aged 35....... Conversely, the interaction was negative for overweight: -2.6% (95% CI: -5.6%, +0.3%) and obese: -3.6% (-7.6%, +0.4%) men, suggesting that the more educated would benefit more from the same reduction in body weight. A weaker interaction was observed for body weight in women, and for blood pressure in both...

  13. European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging/Cardiovascular Imaging Department of the Brazilian Society of Cardiology recommendations for the use of cardiac imaging to assess and follow patients after heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badano, Luigi P; Miglioranza, Marcelo H; Edvardsen, Thor; Colafranceschi, Alexandre Siciliano; Muraru, Denisa; Bacal, Fernando; Nieman, Koen; Zoppellaro, Giacomo; Marcondes Braga, Fabiana G; Binder, Thomas; Habib, Gilbert; Lancellotti, Patrizio

    2015-09-01

    The cohort of long-term survivors of heart transplant is expanding, and the assessment of these patients requires specific knowledge of the surgical techniques employed to implant the donor heart, the physiology of the transplanted heart, complications of invasive tests routinely performed to detect graft rejection (GR), and the specific pathologies that may affect the transplanted heart. A joint EACVI/Brazilian cardiovascular imaging writing group committee has prepared these recommendations to provide a practical guide to echocardiographers involved in the follow-up of heart transplant patients and a framework for standardized and efficient use of cardiovascular imaging after heart transplant. Since the transplanted heart is smaller than the recipient's dilated heart, the former is usually located more medially in the mediastinum and tends to be rotated clockwise. Therefore, standard views with conventional two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography are often difficult to obtain generating a large variability from patient to patient. Therefore, in echocardiography laboratories equipped with three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) scanners and specific expertise with the technique, 3DE may be a suitable alternative to conventional 2D echocardiography to assess the size and the function of cardiac chambers. 3DE measurement of left (LV) and right ventricular (RV) size and function are more accurate and reproducible than conventional 2D calculations. However, clinicians should be aware that cardiac chamber volumes obtained with 3DE cannot be compared with those obtained with 2D echocardiography. To assess cardiac chamber morphology and function during follow-up studies, it is recommended to obtain a comprehensive echocardiographic study at 6 months from the cardiac transplantation as a baseline and make a careful quantitation of cardiac chamber size, RV systolic function, both systolic and diastolic parameters of LV function, and pulmonary artery pressure. Subsequent

  14. Structural Model of psychological risk and protective factors affecting on quality of life in patients with coronary heart disease: A psychocardiology model

    OpenAIRE

    Zohreh Khayyam Nekouei; Alireza Yousefy; Hamid Taher Neshat Doost; Gholamreza Manshaee; Masoumeh Sadeghei

    2014-01-01

    Background: Conducted researches show that psychological factors may have a very important role in the etiology, continuity and consequences of coronary heart diseases. This study has drawn the psychological risk and protective factors and their effects in patients with coronary heart diseases (CHD) in a structural model. It aims to determine the structural relations between psychological risk and protective factors with quality of life in patients with coronary heart disease. Materials and M...

  15. Annexin 1 and Melanocortin Peptide Therapy for Protection Against Ischaemic-Reperfusion Damage in the Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.N.E. Gavins

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of mortality within the western world affecting 2.7 million British people. This review highlights the beneficial effects of naturally occurring hormones and their peptides, in myocardial ischaemic-injury (MI models, a disease pathology in which cytokines and neutrophils play a causal role. Here we discuss two distinct classes of endogenous peptides: the steroid inducible annexin 1 and the melanocortin peptides. Annexin 1 and the melanocortins counteract the most important part of the host inflammatory response, namely, the process of leukocyte extravasation, as well as release of proinflammatory mediators. Their biological effects are mediated via the seven transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors, the fMLP receptor family (or FPR, and the melanocortin receptors, respectively. Pharmacological analysis has demonstrated that the first 24 amino acids of the N-terminus (termed Ac2-26 are the most active region. Both exogenous annexin 1 and its peptides demonstrate cardioprotectiveness and continuing work is required to understand this annexin 1/FPR relationship fully. The melanocortin peptides are derived from a precursor molecule called the POMC protein. These peptides display potent anti-inflammatory effects in human and animal models of disease. In MI, the MC3R has been demonstrated to play an important role in mediating the protective effects of these peptides. The potential anti-inflammatory role for endogenous peptides in cardiac disease is in its infancy. The inhibition of cell migration and release of cytokines and other soluble mediators appears to play an important role in affording protection in ischaemic injury and thus may lead to potential therapeutic targets.

  16. 术中给予艾塞那肽对心脑血管的保护作用研究%Protective effects of Exenatide on cardiovascular function of patients underwent cardiac surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯丽娜

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the protective effect of exenatide on cardiovascular function of patients underwent cardiac surgery. Methods From March 2012 to August 2013,168 patients enrolled in our hospital were randomly divided into 2 groups including 80 cases of control group and 88 cases of exenatide group. Results Compared with the control group,exenatide group has lower blood sugar after surgery (P0. 05).Conclusion For cardiac surgery patients,exenatide could reduce cardiovascular disease complications caused by surgery by protecting effect on heart and brain.%目的:探讨术中给予艾塞那肽对心脑血管的保护作用。方法收集2012年3月-2013年8月我院择期心脏外科手术患者168例,随机分为对照组80例和艾塞那肽组88例。结果2组手术后血糖比较差异有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论艾塞那肽对心脏外科手术患者具有保护心脑血管的作用,可以减少手术引起的心脑血管疾病并发症,值得推广。

  17. 环氧二十碳三烯酸心血管保护作用研究进展%Research Progress of Protective Effects of Epoxyeicosatrienoic Acid on Cardiovascular Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    海春霞; 夏妍

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is not only a serious disease that risks to human health, but also one of the main causes of death. Numerous studies show that the main mechanism that lead to cardiovascular disease is the load of heart before and after increases, coronary artery blood perfusion is not enough, cardiac muscle tissues oxygen and energy supply barriers. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) is an endogenous cardiovascular active substances, it can act on the various pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, such as myocardial ischemia, inflammatory response, improving endothelial function, anti-platelet adhesion and aggregation and so on, and it plays an important role in the treatment of various cardiovascular diseases. In this paper, protective effects and mechanisms of EET on the cardiovascular was to do a review, so as to provide theoretical basis for developing new drugs of curing cardiovascular disease.%心血管疾病是危害人类健康的严重疾病,也是造成人类死亡的主要原因之一.大量研究表明心脏前后负荷增大、冠状动脉血液灌流不足、心肌组织氧气和能量供应障碍是导致心血管疾病发生的主要机制.环氧二十碳三烯酸(EET)是一种内源性 心血管活性物质,它可作用于心血管疾病的多种发病机制,如抗心肌缺血、抗炎症反应、改善内皮功能、抗血小板黏附与聚集等作用,在治疗各种心血管疾病中发挥了重要作用.本文就EET对心血管的保护作用及其机制做一综述,为研究开发新的治疗心血管疾病的药物提供理论依据.

  18. [Burnout syndrome: a "true" cardiovascular risk factor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cursoux, Pauline; Lehucher-Michel, Marie-Pascale; Marchetti, Hélène; Chaumet, Guillaume; Delliaux, Stéphane

    2012-11-01

    The burnout syndrome is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment in individuals professionally involved with others. The burnout syndrome is poorly recognized, particularly in France, as a distinct nosology from adaptation troubles, stress, depression, or anxiety. Several tools quantifying burnout and emotional exhaustion exist, the most spread is the questionnaire called Maslach Burnout Inventory. The burnout syndrome alters cardiovascular function and its neuroregulation by autonomic nervous system and is associated with: increased sympathetic tone to heart and vessels after mental stress, lowered physiological post-stress vagal rebound to heart, and lowered arterial baroreflex sensitivity. Job strain as burnout syndrome seems to be a real independent cardiovascular risk factor. Oppositely, training to manage emotions could increase vagal tone to heart and should be cardio-protective.

  19. Cardiovascular and metabolic effects of 48-h glucagon-like peptide-1 infusion in compensated chronic patients with heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halbirk, Mads; Nørrelund, Helene; Møller, Niels

    2010-01-01

    )) and placebo infusion. At 0 and 48 h, LVEF, diastolic function, tissue Doppler regional myocardial function, exercise testing, noninvasive cardiac output, and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were measured. Blood pressure, heart rate, and metabolic parameters were recorded. Fifteen patients completed...

  20. Canadian Cardiovascular Society 2009 Consensus Conference on the management of adults with congenital heart disease: Complex congenital cardiac lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Silversides, Candice K.; Oechslin, Erwin; Schwerzmann, Markus; Muhll, Isabelle Vonder; Khairy, Paul; Horlick, Eric; Landzberg, Mike; Meijboom, Folkert; Warnes, Carole; Therrien, Judith

    2010-01-01

    With advances in pediatric cardiology and cardiac surgery, the population of adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) has increased. In the current era, there are more adults with CHD than children. This population has many unique issues and needs. They have distinctive forms of heart failure and their cardiac disease can be associated with pulmonary hypertension, thromboemboli, complex arrhythmias and sudden death. Medical aspects that need to be considered relate to the long-term and mult...

  1. Canadian Cardiovascular Society 2009 Consensus Conference on the management of adults with congenital heart disease: Executive summary

    OpenAIRE

    Silversides, Candice K.; Bradley, Timothy; Colman, Jack; Connelly, Michael; Harris, Louise; Khairy, Paul; Mital, Seema; Niwa, Koichiro; Oechslin, Erwin; Poirier, Nancy; Schwerzmann, Markus; Taylor, Dylan; Muhll, Isabelle Vonder; Baumgartner, Helmut; Benson, Lee

    2010-01-01

    With advances in pediatric cardiology and cardiac surgery, the population of adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) has increased. In the current era, there are more adults with CHD than children. This population has many unique issues and needs. They have distinctive forms of heart failure, and their cardiac disease can be associated with pulmonary hypertension, thromboemboli, complex arrhythmias and sudden death. Medical aspects that need to be considered relate to the long-term and mul...

  2. Knowledge Gaps in Cardiovascular Care of the Older Adult Population: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology, and American Geriatrics Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Michael W; Chyun, Deborah A; Skolnick, Adam H; Alexander, Karen P; Forman, Daniel E; Kitzman, Dalane W; Maurer, Mathew S; McClurken, James B; Resnick, Barbara M; Shen, Win K; Tirschwell, David L

    2016-05-24

    The incidence and prevalence of most cardiovascular disorders increase with age, and cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and major disability in adults ≥75 years of age; however, despite the large impact of cardiovascular disease on quality of life, morbidity, and mortality in older adults, patients aged ≥75 years have been markedly underrepresented in most major cardiovascular trials, and virtually all trials have excluded older patients with complex comorbidities, significant physical or cognitive disabilities, frailty, or residence in a nursing home or assisted living facility. As a result, current guidelines are unable to provide evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of older patients typical of those encountered in routine clinical practice. The objectives of this scientific statement are to summarize current guideline recommendations as they apply to older adults, identify critical gaps in knowledge that preclude informed evidence-based decision making, and recommend future research to close existing knowledge gaps. To achieve these objectives, we conducted a detailed review of current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and American Stroke Association guidelines to identify content and recommendations that explicitly targeted older patients. We found that there is a pervasive lack of evidence to guide clinical decision making in older patients with cardiovascular disease, as well as a paucity of data on the impact of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions on key outcomes that are particularly important to older patients, such as quality of life, physical function, and maintenance of independence. Accordingly, there is a critical need for a multitude of large population-based studies and clinical trials that include a broad spectrum of older patients representative of those seen in clinical practice and that incorporate relevant outcomes important to older patients in the study design. The

  3. Knowledge Gaps in Cardiovascular Care of the Older Adult Population: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology, and American Geriatrics Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Michael W; Chyun, Deborah A; Skolnick, Adam H; Alexander, Karen P; Forman, Daniel E; Kitzman, Dalane W; Maurer, Mathew S; McClurken, James B; Resnick, Barbara M; Shen, Win K; Tirschwell, David L

    2016-05-24

    The incidence and prevalence of most cardiovascular disorders increase with age, and cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and major disability in adults ≥75 years of age; however, despite the large impact of cardiovascular disease on quality of life, morbidity, and mortality in older adults, patients aged ≥75 years have been markedly underrepresented in most major cardiovascular trials, and virtually all trials have excluded older patients with complex comorbidities, significant physical or cognitive disabilities, frailty, or residence in a nursing home or assisted living facility. As a result, current guidelines are unable to provide evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of older patients typical of those encountered in routine clinical practice. The objectives of this scientific statement are to summarize current guideline recommendations as they apply to older adults, identify critical gaps in knowledge that preclude informed evidence-based decision making, and recommend future research to close existing knowledge gaps. To achieve these objectives, we conducted a detailed review of current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and American Stroke Association guidelines to identify content and recommendations that explicitly targeted older patients. We found that there is a pervasive lack of evidence to guide clinical decision making in older patients with cardiovascular disease, as well as a paucity of data on the impact of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions on key outcomes that are particularly important to older patients, such as quality of life, physical function, and maintenance of independence. Accordingly, there is a critical need for a multitude of large population-based studies and clinical trials that include a broad spectrum of older patients representative of those seen in clinical practice and that incorporate relevant outcomes important to older patients in the study design. The

  4. Prevalence of cardiovascular risks factors and 10 year predictions of coronary heart disease in seafarers of Pertamina shipping (Indonesia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purnawarma, Irwin GNI; Jensen, Olaf Chresten; Canals, ML

    2011-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease is (CVD) is becoming a major health problem in the world and they have to be taken into account in shipping companies. Employees and Company management should be aware of the dangers and implications, CVD can bring. Objectives To obtain the prevalence of cardiova...

  5. Are Changes in Heart Rate Variability During Hypoglycemia Confounded by the Presence of Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy in Patients with Diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cichosz, Simon Lebech; Frystyk, Jan; Tarnow, Lise

    2017-01-01

    remain on how cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) influences these measurable changes. This study aims to examine if changes in HRV during hypoglycemia are confounded by the presence of CAN. METHODS: Twenty-one adults (hereof 13 men) with T1D prone to hypoglycemia were recruited and monitored...

  6. Maternal diabetes induces congenital heart defects in mice by altering the expression of genes involved in cardiovascular development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tay Samuel

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital heart defects are frequently observed in infants of diabetic mothers, but the molecular basis of the defects remains obscure. Thus, the present study was performed to gain some insights into the molecular pathogenesis of maternal diabetes-induced congenital heart defects in mice. Methods and results We analyzed the morphological changes, the expression pattern of some genes, the proliferation index and apoptosis in developing heart of embryos at E13.5 from streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Morphological analysis has shown the persistent truncus arteriosus combined with a ventricular septal defect in embryos of diabetic mice. Several other defects including defective endocardial cushion (EC and aberrant myofibrillogenesis have also been found. Cardiac neural crest defects in experimental embryos were analyzed and validated by the protein expression of NCAM and PGP 9.5. In addition, the protein expression of Bmp4, Msx1 and Pax3 involved in the development of cardiac neural crest was found to be reduced in the defective hearts. The mRNA expression of Bmp4, Msx1 and Pax3 was significantly down-regulated (p p p Conclusion It is suggested that the down-regulation of genes involved in development of cardiac neural crest could contribute to the pathogenesis of maternal diabetes-induced congenital heart defects.

  7. Dietary monounsaturated fatty acids are protective against metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillingham, Leah G; Harris-Janz, Sydney; Jones, Peter J H

    2011-03-01

    Over 50 years of research has sought to define the role dietary fat plays in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Although optimal dietary fat quantity has been keenly pursued over past decades, attention has recently centered on the value of dietary fat quality. The purpose of the present review is to provide a critical assessment of the current body of evidence surrounding efficacy of dietary monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) for reduction of traditional risk factors defining metabolic syndrome (MetS) and CVD. Due to existing and emerging research on health attributes of MUFA rich diets, and to the low prevalence of chronic disease in populations consuming MUFA rich Mediterranean diets, national dietary guidelines are increasingly recommending dietary MUFA, primarily at the expense of saturated fatty acids (SFA). Consumption of dietary MUFA promotes healthy blood lipid profiles, mediates blood pressure, improves insulin sensitivity and regulates glucose levels. Moreover, provocative newer data suggest a role for preferential oxidation and metabolism of dietary MUFA, influencing body composition and ameliorating the risk of obesity. Mounting epidemiological and human clinical trial data continue to demonstrate the cardioprotective activity of the MUFA content of dietary fat. As the debate on the optimal fatty acid composition of the diet continues, the benefit of increasing MUFA intakes, particularly as a substitute for dietary SFA, deserves considerable attention.

  8. Identificação de fatores de risco cardiovascular em pais/cuidadores de crianças cardiopatas Identification of cardiovascular risk factors in parents/caregivers of children with heart diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Feijó Borges

    2012-10-01

    morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Brazil, they are the major cause of death. OBJECTIVE: To identify cardiovascular risk factors in parents/caregivers of children with heart diseases by assessing their nutritional status, health conditions, and life style. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 150 parents or caregivers of children with heart diseases who attended a cardiology outpatient clinic. Data on identification, lifestyle and health conditions were collected by means of a structured questionnaire. For the assessment of the eating habits, a questionnaire on eating frequency was used; for the assessment of the nutritional status, weight, height, and waist circumference were measured, and the body mass index (BMI was calculated and classified. RESULTS: A total of 155 parents of children with heart diseases, predominantly of the female gender (91.6%, were evaluated; their mean age was 35.0 ± 10.6 years. The most prevalent risk factors were sedentary lifestyle (85.2%, obesity (28% and hypertension (22.6%. As regards the eating habits, a high frequency of intake of red meat, margarine, vegetable oil, and sugar and low intake of fish were observed. Comparison between genders showed a significant difference in relation to obesity, as detected by BMI, and hypertension, both more frequent among women. Waist circumference measurement also showed a higher cardiovascular risk in women. CONCLUSION: Cardiovascular risk factors such as excess weight, sedentary lifestyle, and hypertension as well as inadequate eating habits such as a high frequency of intake of saturated fat and cholesterol and low intake of unsaturated fat were identified in the parents/caregivers assessed.

  9. Fitness, work, and leisure-time physical activity and ischaemic heart disease and all-cause mortality among men with pre-existing cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Burr, Hermann

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to study the relative impact of physical fitness, physical demands at work, and physical activity during leisure time on ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and all-cause mortality among employed men with pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHOD: We carried out a 30-year...... physical work demands and leisure-time physical activity using a self-reported questionnaire. Results Among 274 men with a history of CVD, 93 men died from IHD. Using male employees with a history of CVD and a low level of fitness as the reference group, our Cox analyses - adjusted for age, blood pressure......, smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, diabetes, hypertension, physical work demands, leisure-time physical activity, and social class - showed a substantially reduced risk for IHD mortality among employees who were intermediately fit [VO (2)Max range 25-36; hazard ratio (HR) 0.54, 95% confidence...

  10. Hypertension and Cardiovascular Remodelling in Rats Exposed to Continuous Light: Protection by ACE-Inhibition and Melatonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedor Simko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure of rats to continuous light attenuates melatonin production and results in hypertension development. This study investigated whether hypertension induced by continuous light (24 hours/day exposure induces heart and aorta remodelling and if these alterations are prevented by melatonin or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor captopril. Four groups of 3-month-old male Wistar rats (10 per group were treated as follows for six weeks: untreated controls, exposed to continuous light, light-exposed, and treated with either captopril (100 mg/kg/day or melatonin (10 mg/kg/day. Exposure to continuous light led to hypertension, left ventricular (LV hypertrophy and fibrosis, and enhancement of the oxidative load in the LV and aorta. Increase in systolic blood pressure by continuous light exposure was prevented completely by captopril and partially by melatonin. Both captopril and melatonin reduced the wall thickness and cross-sectional area of the aorta and reduced the level of oxidative stress. However, only captopril reduced LV hypertrophy development and only melatonin reduced LV hydroxyproline concentration in insoluble and total collagen in rats exposed to continuous light. In conclusion, captopril prevented LV hypertrophy development in the continuous light-induced hypertension model, while only melatonin significantly reduced fibrosis. This antifibrotic action of melatonin may be protective in hypertensive heart disease.

  11. Apparent protective effect of high density lipoprotein against coronary heart disease in the elderly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李健斋; 陈曼丽; 王抒; 董军; 曾平; 侯鲁维

    2004-01-01

    Background This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and coronary heart disease (CHD)death and to explore the protective effect of HDL against CHD in the elderly Chinese.Methods Started from 1986, 1211 retirees (92% males) were enrolled consecutively and studied prospectively. The average starting age was 70 ±9 years, and that at the end of the study was 80 ±9years. During the follow-up study, all the participants received yearly physical examination and blood chemistry survey from 1986 -2000. The average duration of the follow up study was 11.2 years. The end point of this study was either attacks of AMI or death due to CHD and other causes. CHD risk factors were screened by logistic regression analysis. According to their HDL-C levels, cases were divided into Iow (<1.03 mmol/L), medium (or normal, 1.03 - 1.56 mmol/L) and high(>1.56mmol/L) level groups, the differences in incidence of AMI and CHD death in each group were analyzed.Results The cumulative attacks of acute coronary syndrome (mostly AMI) were 214 cases,including 89 cases of coronary death and 308 death caused by other diseases during the follow up study. AMI occurrence and CHD death in normal HDL-C group were lower than those in the low HDLC group by 40% and 53%; and those in the high HDL-C group were lower than in the normal group by 56% and 50%, respectively. Statistical analysis on normal lipid cases (411 cases, total cholesterol<5. 17mmol/L, triglyceride<1.69 mmol/L) revealed that the cases at low HDL-C level had similar rates of AMI events and CHD mortality as those of the entire group (including hyperlipidemia);however, AMI attacks and CHD deaths decreased significantly at the normal and high HDL-C levels.The results demonstrated that the protective effect of HDL against coronary artery disease is more prominent in people with low lipid level.Conclusion Low HDL is an important

  12. Glycated haemoglobin and the risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and all-cause mortality in the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskesen, K; Jensen, M T; Galatius, S;

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM) have a considerably elevated risk of developing serious health problems including cardiovascular disease (CVD). Long-term elevated levels of blood glucose in nondiabetic individuals may also be associated with increased risk of CVD. The aim of this study...... was to investigate the relationships between glycated haemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c) ) and CVD, DM and all-cause mortality....

  13. 2013 AHA/ACC guideline on lifestyle management to reduce cardiovascular risk: A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force on practice guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goals of the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and the American Heart Association (AHA) are to prevent cardiovascular (CV) diseases, improve the management of people who have these diseases through professional education and research, and develop guidelines, standards and policies that promot...

  14. Project h[schwa]li?dx[superscript w]/Healthy Hearts across Generations: Development and Evaluation Design of a Tribally Based Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Intervention for American Indian Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Karina L.; LaMarr, June; Levy, Rona L.; Pearson, Cynthia; Maresca, Teresa; Mohammed, Selina A.; Simoni, Jane M.; Evans-Campbell, Teresa; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen; Fryberg, Sheryl; Jobe, Jared B.

    2012-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) populations are disproportionately at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, and obesity, compared with the general US population. This article describes the h[schwa]li?dx[superscript w]/Healthy Hearts Across Generations project, an AIAN-run, tribally based randomized controlled trial (January…

  15. Elevated resting heart rate is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease in healthy men and women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2010-04-01

    Elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is known to be associated with reduced survival but inconsistencies remain, including lack of significance in most studies of healthy women, lack of independence from systolic blood pressure (SBP) in some, and the suggestion that RHR is merely functioning as a marker of physical inactivity or other comorbidities. We aimed to clarify these inconsistencies.

  16. Fatty acids in the de novo lipogenesis pathway and risk of coronary heart disease: the Cardiovascular Health Study123

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Jason HY; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; Imamura, Fumiaki; King, Irena B.; Song, Xiaoling; Spiegelman, Donna; Siscovick, David S.; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2011-01-01

    Background: De novo lipogenesis (DNL) is an endogenous pathway whereby carbohydrates and proteins are converted to fatty acids. DNL could affect coronary heart disease (CHD) or sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) via generation of specific fatty acids. Whether these fatty acids are prospectively associated with SCA or other CHD events is unknown.

  17. Deubiquitinase BRCC36 protects heart against chronic pressure overload-induced cardiac remodeling in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ru-jun; FANG Wei; ZHU Hua-jiang; ZHANG Feng-xia; XU Ou-fang; XU Li-juan; ZHANG Zhen-gang; GONG Kai-zheng

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence has indicated that BRCC 36-mediated K63-linked ubiquitination modification was involved in diverse cellular functions , including endocytosis , apoptosis and DNA damage repair .We previously showed that activation of cGMP/PKG pathway con-tributed to the binding of BRCC36 and the pro-fibrotic factor Smad3.The current study tested the hypothesis that BRCC 36 functions as a negative regulator of transforming growth factor-beta ( TGF-β)/Smad3 pathway and participates in cardiac remodeling .In isolated adult mouse cardiac fibroblasts , we have demonstrated that TGF-β1 treatment significantly increased the expression of BRCC 36.Over-expression BRCC36 suppressed TGF-β1-induced Smad3 phosphorylation, nuclear translocation, extracellular matrix molecular expres-sion and cell proliferation .On the contrary, silencing BRCC36 by transfection of adenovirus-carrying BRCC36 shRNA potentiated to enhance the pro-fibrotic effect of TGF-β.In vivo, under chronic pressure overload condition-induced by transverse aortic constriction , myocardial pro-survival protein Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 expression were significantly decreased and the pro-apoptosis protein Puma was in-creased.However, the cardiac-specific over-expression of BRCC36 significantly increased myocardial Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 and inhibited Puma expression .Interestingly , we also found that sustained pressure overload resulted in a significant myocardial DNA injury in wild type mice, which was characterized by the increase of γH2AX level.However, cardiac-specific BRCC36 over-expression significantly decreased the level of γH2AX in the pressure overloaded heart in the transgenic mice , while effectively enhanced myocardial RAD 51 expression, a marker of DNA damage repair.Furthermore, BRCC36 over-expression effectively attenuated TAC-induced cardiac fibro-sis and remodeling in the transgenic mice , compared with the wild type mice .Collectively , the results have suggested that BRCC 36 ef-fectively protected heart

  18. Sex difference in the effects of sociocultural status on diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors in Mexican Americans. The San Antonio Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, M P; Rosenthal, M; Haffner, S M; Hazuda, H P; Franco, L J

    1984-12-01

    The authors postulated that as Mexican Americans became more affluent and/or acculturated to "mainstream" United States life-style they would progressively lose their "obesity-related" pattern of cardiovascular risk factors which were defined as: obesity, diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia and low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. This hypothesis was tested in 1979-1982 in the San Antonio Heart Study, a population-based study on 1,288 Mexican Americans and 929 Anglos living in three San Antonio neighborhoods: a low-income barrio, a middle-income transitional neighborhood, and a high-income suburb. The study population comprised 25-65-year-old men and nonpregnant women. In Mexican American women, all of the "obesity-related" risk factors fell sharply with rising socioeconomic status. In Mexican American men, by contrast, diabetes was the only "obesity-related" risk factor which fell with rising socioeconomic status. Moreover, it fell less steeply, there being an approximately twofold difference in diabetes prevalence between the barrio and the suburbs in men compared to a fourfold difference in women. Also, total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol rose with rising socioeconomic status in Mexican American men, but not in Mexican American women. "Obesity-related" risk factors were generally higher in Mexican Americans of both sexes than in their Anglo neighbors who were of similar socioeconomic status. These results suggest that cultural factors exert a stronger influence on diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors in Mexican Americans than do purely socioeconomic factors.

  19. Impact of microalbuminuria on incident coronary heart disease, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Fang; Liu, Guanghua; Shi, Yifu; Zhang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    This study is to investigate the magnitude of relationship between microalbuminuria and incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and mortality in the general population by conducting a meta-analysis. A comprehensive literature search in Pubmed and Embase database was performed prior to March 2014. Only prospective studies investigating the presence of microalbuminuria and incident CHD, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and mortality and were selected. Pooled risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated by the presence of microalbuminuria versus without microalbuminuria. Finally, we identified 8 prospective studies involving 114,105 individuals. Participants with microalbuminuria were associated with 69% greater risk of CVD (RR=1.69; 95% CI 1.41-2.02) and 41% greater risk of CHD (RR=1.41; 95% CI 1.17-1.69). Participants with microalbuminuria were also associated with 57% greater risk of cardiovascular mortality (RR=1.57; 95% CI 1.20-2.06) and 65% greater risk of all-cause mortality (RR=1.65; 95% CI 1.45-1.88). Microalbuminuria is an independent predictor for CHD, CVD, and all-cause mortality in the general population. Early detection of microalbuminuria in the general population is likely to identify patients at increased risk of CVD and mortality.

  20. Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training versus Continuous Training on Physical Fitness, Cardiovascular Function and Quality of Life in Heart Failure Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie M M Benda

    Full Text Available Physical fitness is an important prognostic factor in heart failure (HF. To improve fitness, different types of exercise have been explored, with recent focus on high-intensity interval training (HIT. We comprehensively compared effects of HIT versus continuous training (CT in HF patients NYHA II-III on physical fitness, cardiovascular function and structure, and quality of life, and hypothesize that HIT leads to superior improvements compared to CT.Twenty HF patients (male:female 19:1, 64±8 yrs, ejection fraction 38±6% were allocated to 12-weeks of HIT (10*1-minute at 90% maximal workload-alternated by 2.5 minutes at 30% maximal workload or CT (30 minutes at 60-75% of maximal workload. Before and after intervention, we examined physical fitness (incremental cycling test, cardiac function and structure (echocardiography, vascular function and structure (ultrasound and quality of life (SF-36, Minnesota living with HF questionnaire (MLHFQ.Training improved maximal workload, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak related to the predicted VO2peak, oxygen uptake at the anaerobic threshold, and maximal oxygen pulse (all P<0.05, whilst no differences were present between HIT and CT (N.S.. We found no major changes in resting cardiovascular function and structure. SF-36 physical function score improved after training (P<0.05, whilst SF-36 total score and MLHFQ did not change after training (N.S..Training induced significant improvements in parameters of physical fitness, although no evidence for superiority of HIT over CT was demonstrated. No major effect of training was found on cardiovascular structure and function or quality of life in HF patients NYHA II-III.Nederlands Trial Register NTR3671.

  1. Rate of change in adiposity and its relationship to concomitant changes in cardiovascular risk variables among biracial (black-white) children and young adults: The Bogalusa Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, S R; Myers, L; Berenson, G S

    2001-03-01

    To assess the annual rate of change in adiposity and its relationship to concomitant changes in cardiovascular risk variables during childhood and young adulthood, serial data on black and white children (n = 3,459; initial and follow-up mean age, 8.1 and 14.4 years) and young adults (n = 1,263; initial and follow-up mean age, 22.5 and 30.9 years) enrolled in the Bogalusa Heart Study were examined. Body mass index (BMI) and sum of subscapular and triceps skinfolds were used as indicators of adiposity. In addition, measurements were made of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and fasting levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, and glucose. Annualized rate of change for each variable was estimated. The rate of increase in adiposity was significantly more pronounced during childhood versus adulthood. Race difference (blacks > whites) in the rate of increase in adiposity was seen only among females. Females, black females in particular, displayed greater rate of increase in adiposity than males. In a multivariate analysis, the rate of increase in adiposity was related independently of baseline age and baseline adiposity to adverse changes in measured cardiovascular risk variables, except glucose. Many of these associations were modulated significantly by race, sex, and age group. The impact was relatively greater for blood pressure and LDL cholesterol in adults and for triglycerides in children. The changes in blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol were greater in whites, while the rate of increase in insulin was greater in blacks. Females displayed greater changes in blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, and insulin. On the other hand, the rate of increase in triglycerides was greater in males. These results indicate that increases in adiposity regardless of initial status of body fatness alter cardiovascular risk variables towards increased risk beginning in childhood, and

  2. Activation of big conductance Ca(2+)-activated K (+) channels (BK) protects the heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Bo Hjorth; Osadchii, Oleg; Jespersen, Thomas;

    2009-01-01

    complexes, while producing no effect on cardiac K(ATP) channels. The cardioprotective effects of NS11021-induced BK channel activation were studied in isolated, perfused rat hearts subjected to 35 min of global ischemia followed by 120 min of reperfusion. 3 microM NS11021 applied prior to ischemia...... (3 microM) antagonized the protective effect. These findings suggest that tissue damage induced by ischemia and reperfusion can be reduced by activation of cardiac BK channels.......Activation of the large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel (BK) in the cardiac inner mitochondrial membrane has been suggested to protect the heart against ischemic injury. However, these findings are limited by the low selectivity profile and potency of the BK channel activator (NS1619...

  3. Glutamate protects against Ca(2+) paradox-induced injury and inhibits calpain activity in isolated rat hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Ying; Kong, Ling-Heng; Lai, Dong; Jin, Zhen-Xiao; Gu, Xiao-Ming; Zhou, Jing-Jun

    2016-10-01

    This study determined the effects of glutamate on the Ca(2+) paradoxical heart, which is a model for Ca(2+) overload-induced injury during myocardial ischaemia and reperfusion, and evaluated its effect on a known mediator of injury, calpain. An isolated rat heart was retrogradely perfused in a Langendorff apparatus. Ca(2+) paradox was elicited via perfusion with a Ca(2+) -free Krebs-Henseleit (KH) solution for 3 minutes followed by Ca(2+) -containing normal KH solution for 30 minutes. The Ca(2+) paradoxical heart exhibited almost no viable tissue on triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining and markedly increased LDH release, caspase-3 activity, cytosolic cytochrome c content, and apoptotic index. These hearts also displayed significantly increased LVEDP and a disappearance of LVDP. Glutamate (5 and 20 mmol/L) significantly alleviated Ca(2+) paradox-induced injury. In contrast, 20 mmol/L mannitol had no effect on Ca(2+) paradox. Ca(2+) paradox significantly increased the extent of the translocation of μ-calpain to the sarcolemmal membrane and the proteolysis of α-fodrin, which suggests calpain activation. Glutamate also blocked these effects. A non-selective inhibitor of glutamate transporters, dl-TBOA (10 μmol/L), had no effect on control hearts, but it reversed glutamate-induced cardioprotection and reduction in calpain activity. Glutamate treatment significantly increased intracellular glutamate content in the Ca(2+) paradoxical heart, which was also blocked by dl-TBOA. We conclude that glutamate protects the heart against Ca(2+) overload-induced injury via glutamate transporters, and the inhibition of calpain activity is involved in this process.

  4. Inflammation and Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Inflammation and Heart Disease Updated:Oct 12,2016 Understand the risks of ... inflammation causes cardiovascular disease, inflammation is common for heart disease and stroke patients and is thought to be ...

  5. Heart disease and women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007188.htm Heart disease and women To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. People often DO NOT consider heart disease a woman's disease. Yet cardiovascular disease is the ...

  6. Menopause and Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Menopause and Heart Disease Updated:Aug 30,2016 Heart ... can become more evident after the onset of menopause. Menopause does not cause cardiovascular diseases . However, certain ...

  7. Heart failure - home monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 10th ... Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of ...

  8. Heart failure - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 10th ... Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of ...

  9. Heart and Stroke Encyclopedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More The Heart and Stroke Encyclopedia Click a letter below to get a ... dozens of cardiovascular terms from our Heart and Stroke Encyclopedia and get links to in-depth information. ...

  10. Study of time reversibility/irreversibility of cardiovascular data: theoretical results and application to laser Doppler flowmetry and heart rate variability signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humeau-Heurtier, Anne; Mahé, Guillaume; Chapeau-Blondeau, François; Rousseau, David; Abraham, Pierre

    2012-07-01

    Time irreversibility can be qualitatively defined as the degree of a signal for temporal asymmetry. Recently, a time irreversibility characterization method based on entropies of positive and negative increments has been proposed for experimental signals and applied to heart rate variability (HRV) data (central cardiovascular system (CVS)). The results led to interesting information as a time asymmetry index was found different for young subjects and elderly people or heart disease patients. Nevertheless, similar analyses have not yet been conducted on laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) signals (peripheral CVS). We first propose to further investigate the above-mentioned characterization method. Then, LDF signals, LDF signals reduced to samples acquired during ECG R peaks (LDF_RECG signals) and HRV recorded simultaneously in healthy subjects are processed. Entropies of positive and negative increments for LDF signals show a nonmonotonic pattern: oscillations—more or less pronounced, depending on subjects—are found with a period matching the one of cardiac activity. However, such oscillations are not found with LDF_RECG nor with HRV. Moreover, the asymmetry index for LDF is markedly different from the ones of LDF_RECG and HRV. The cardiac activity may therefore play a dominant role in the time irreversibility properties of LDF signals.

  11. Resting heart rate in elderly patients with cardiovascular disease%老年患者静息心率与心血管疾病的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛苏宁; 封颖璐

    2012-01-01

    静息心率是指安静或不活动时的心率.在全身状态相对稳定的情况下,心率的改变直接反映了心脏的功能状态和交感神经张力,所以静息心率增快不仅参与了中老年患者冠心病、急性心肌梗死、心力衰竭、高血压等心血管疾病的发生发展,还和心血管事件及死亡有直接的因果关系.应用β受体阻滞刺适当减慢心率可在一定程度上降低心血管疾病的死亡风险,对应用β受体阻滞剂受限的老年患者,可使用单纯降低心率的药物伊伐布雷定,该药除降低心率以外,还可改善心肌重构.%Resting heart rate is the quiet or inactive heart rate. When general condition is relatively stable, changes of heart rate directly reflect the functional state of heart and sympatheticus. Therefore, resting heart rate is not only involved in heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases, but also has a direct causal relationship with cardiovascular events and death. Appropriate decrease of the heart rate by β-blockers can reduce the risk of cardiovascular death to some extent. For the elderly patients who cannot use β-blockers, ivabradine, which merely reduces heart rate, can improve not only myocardial remodeling and left ventricular systolic function, but also capillary density.

  12. Cardiovascular Protective Effects of Adjunctive Alternative Medicine (Salvia miltiorrhiza and Pueraria lobata in High-Risk Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Woo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hypertension in association with diabetes (DM, renal impairment (RI, and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH increases the risk of future cardiovascular events. We hypothesize, traditional herbal medicines Danshen and Gegen (D&G have beneficial effects on atherogenesis in these high-risk hypertensive subjects. Subjects and Methods. 90 asymptomatic hypertensive subjects associated with LVH (63.3%, DM (62.2%, or RI (30% were randomized to receive D&G herbal capsules 1 gm/day, 2 gm/day, or identical placebo capsules in double-blind and parallel fashion for 12 months. Brachial flow-mediated dilation (endothelium-dependent dilation, FMD and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT were measured by ultrasound. All data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences in Windows 16.0. Results. Their mean age was 55±8 years, and 74.4% were male. After 12 months of adjunctive therapies and compared with baseline, there were no significant changes in blood pressure, heart rate, hematological, glucose, and creatinine profiles in both placebo and D&G groups. FMD improved significantly during D&G (P=0.0001 and less so after placebo treatment (P=0.001. There was a mild but significant decrease in carotid IMT after D&G (P<0.001 but no significant changes after placebo. A trend of better improvement in FMD after higher versus lower D&G dosages was seen. D&G were well tolerated, with no significant adverse events or blood biochemistry changes. Conclusion. D&G adjunctive treatment was well tolerated and significantly improved atherogenesis in high-risk hypertensive patients, with potential in primary atherosclerosis prevention.

  13. Heart and Lungs Protection Technique for Cardiac Surgery with Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Pichugin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardioplegic cardiac arrest with subsequent ischemic-reperfusion injuries can lead to the development of inflammation of the myocardium, leucocyte activation, and release of cardiac enzymes. Flow reduction to the bronchial arteries, causing low-flow lung ischemia, leads to the development of a pulmonary regional inflammatory response. Hypoventilation during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB is responsible for development of microatelectasis, hydrostatic pulmonary edema, poor compliance, and a higher incidence of infection. Based on these facts, prevention methods of these complications were developed. The aim of this study was to evaluate constant coronary perfusion (CCP and the “beating heart” in combination with pulmonary artery perfusion (PAP and “ventilated lungs” technique for heart and lung protection in cardiac surgery with CPB.Methods. After ethical approval and written informed consent, 80 patients undergoing cardiac surgery with normothermic CPB were randomized in three groups. In the first group (22 patients, the crystalloid cardioplegia without lung ventilation/perfusion techniques were used. In the second group (30 patients, the CCP and “beating heart” without lung ventilation/perfusion techniques were used. In the third group (28 patients, the CCP with PAP and lung ventilation techniques were used. Clinical, functional parameters, myocardial damage markers (CK MB level, oxygenation index, and lung compliance were investigated.Results. There were higher rates of spontaneous cardiac recovery and lower doses of inotrops in the second and third groups. Myocardial contractility function was better preserved in the second and third groups. The post-operative levels of CK-MB were lower than in control group.  Three hours after surgery CK-MB levels in the second and third  groups were lower by 38.1% and 33.3%, respectively. Eight hours after surgery, CK-MB levels were lower in the second and third groups by 45.9% and

  14. Cardiovascular disease risk factors and blood pressure response during exercise in healthy children and adolescents: The European Youth Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels C; Grøntved, Anders; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2010-01-01

    aerobic fitness test. Examined CVD risk factors were high-density lipoprotein (HDL)- and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triglyceride, homeostasis model of assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) score, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and aerobic fitness. A random effect model...... that physiological cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors would influence BP response during exercise in children and adolescents. This is a cross-sectional study of 439 Danish third-grade children and 364 ninth-grade adolescents. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured with sphygmomanometer during a maximal...

  15. Lack of association of ischemic heart disease with COPD when taking into account classical cardiovascular risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    José Luis Izquierdo; Arturo Martínez; Elizabet Guzmán; et al

    2010-01-01

    José Luis Izquierdo, Arturo Martínez, Elizabet Guzmán, Pilar de Lucas, José Miguel RodríguezPulmonology Department, Hospital Universitario, Guadalajara, Spain; Pulmonology Department, Hospital Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, SpainAbstract: The aim of our study is to determine whether chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an independent risk factor for ischemic heart disease and whether this association is related...

  16. Transformative Impact of Proteomics on Cardiovascular Health and Disease: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Merry L; Mayr, Manuel; Gomes, Aldrin V; Delles, Christian; Arrell, D Kent; Murphy, Anne M; Lange, Richard A; Costello, Catherine E; Jin, Yu-Fang; Laskowitz, Daniel T; Sam, Flora; Terzic, Andre; Van Eyk, Jennifer; Srinivas, Pothur R

    2015-09-01

    The year 2014 marked the 20th anniversary of the coining of the term proteomics. The purpose of this scientific statement is to summarize advances over this period that have catalyzed our capacity to address the experimental, translational, and clinical implications of proteomics as applied to cardiovascular health and disease and to evaluate the current status of the field. Key successes that have energized the field are delineated; opportunities for proteomics to drive basic science research, facilitate clinical translation, and establish diagnostic and therapeutic healthcare algorithms are discussed; and challenges that remain to be solved before proteomic technologies can be readily translated from scientific discoveries to meaningful advances in cardiovascular care are addressed. Proteomics is the result of disruptive technologies, namely, mass spectrometry and database searching, which drove protein analysis from 1 protein at a time to protein mixture analyses that enable large-scale analysis of proteins and facilitate paradigm shifts in biological concepts that address important clinical questions. Over the past 20 years, the field of proteomics has matured, yet it is still developing rapidly. The scope of this statement will extend beyond the reaches of a typical review article and offer guidance on the use of next-generation proteomics for future scientific discovery in the basic research laboratory and clinical settings.

  17. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging assessment of diastolic dysfunction in a population without heart disease: a gender-based study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graca, Bruno; Donato, Paulo; Caseiro-Alves, Filipe [University of Coimbra, Medical Imaging Department, University Centre Hospitals of Coimbra, Faculty of Medicine, Coimbra (Portugal); Ferreira, Maria Joao [University of Coimbra, Cardiology Department, University Centre Hospitals of Coimbra, Faculty of Medicine, Coimbra (Portugal); Castelo-Branco, Miguel [University of Coimbra, Institute for Biomedical Imaging and Life Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Coimbra (Portugal)

    2014-01-15

    Asymptomatic left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction is increasingly recognised as an important diagnosis. Our goal was to study the prevalence and gender differences in subclinical LV diastolic dysfunction, using cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) at 3 T. We prospectively studied 48 volunteers (19 male and 29 female, mean age 49 ± 7 years) with no evidence of cardiovascular disease. We used CMR to measure left atrium (LA) and LV volumes, LV peak filling rate and transmitral flow. The overall prevalence of LV diastolic dysfunction in our cohort varied between 20 % (based on evaluation of LV filing profiles) and 24 % (based on the evaluation of the transmitral flow). The prevalence of diastolic dysfunction was higher in men than in women, independently of the criteria used (P between 0.004 and 0.022). Indexed LV end-diastolic volume, indexed LV stroke volume, indexed LV mass, indexed LA minimum volume and indexed LA maximum volume were significantly greater in men than in women (P < 0.05). All the subjects had LV ejection fractions within the normal range. It is clinically feasible to study diastolic flow and LV filling with CMR. CMR detected diastolic dysfunction in asymptomatic men and women. (orig.)

  18. Pivotal importance of STAT3 in protecting the heart from acute and chronic stress: new advancement and unresolved issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foaud A. Zouein

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The transcription factor Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3 has been implicated in protecting the heart from acute ischemic injury under both basal conditions and as a crucial component of pre- and post-conditioning protocols. A number of anti-oxidant and antiapoptotic genes are upregulated by STAT3 via canonical means involving phosphorylation on Y705 and S727, although other incompletely defined posttranslational modifications are involved. In addition, STAT3 is now known to be present in cardiac mitochondria and to exert actions that regulate the electron transport chain, reactive oxygen species (ROS production, and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP opening. These non-canonical actions of STAT3 are enhanced by S727 phosphorylation. The molecular basis for the mitochondrial actions of STAT3 are poorly understood, but STAT3 is known to interact with a critical subunit of complex I and to regulate complex I function. Dysfunctional complex I has been implicated in ischemic injury, heart failure, and the aging process. Evidence also indicates that STAT3 is protective to the heart under chronic stress conditions, including hypertension, pregnancy, and advanced age. Paradoxically, the accumulation of unphosphorylated STAT3 (U-STAT3 in the nucleus has been suggested to drive pathological cardiac hypertrophy and inflammation via noncanonical gene expression, perhaps involving a distinct acetylation profile. U-STAT3 may also regulate chromatin stability. Our understanding of how the noncanonical genomic and mitochondrial actions of STAT3 in the heart are regulated and coordinated with the canonical actions of STAT3 is rudimentary. Here we present an overview of what is currently known about the pleotropic actions of STAT3 in the heart in order to highlight controversies and unresolved issues.

  19. Protective effect of curcumin on pulmonary and cardiovascular effects induced by repeated exposure to diesel exhaust particles in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrahim Nemmar

    Full Text Available Particulate air pollution has been associated with increased risk of cardiopulmonary diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We have previously demonstrated that single dose exposure to diesel exhaust particle (DEP causes lung inflammation and peripheral thrombotic events. Here, we exposed mice with repeated doses of DEP (15 µg/animal every 2(nd day for 6 days (a total of 4 exposures, and measured several cardiopulmonary endpoints 48 h after the end of the treatments. Moreover, the potential protective effect of curcumin (the yellow pigment isolated from turmeric on DEP-induced cardiopulmonary toxicity was assessed. DEP exposure increased macrophage and neutrophil numbers, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF α in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid, and enhanced airway resistance to methacoline measured invasively using Flexivent. DEP also significantly increased plasma C-reactive protein (CRP and TNF α concentrations, systolic blood pressure (SBP as well as the pial arteriolar thrombosis. It also significantly enhanced the plasma D-dimer and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1. Pretreatment with curcumin by oral gavage (45 mg/kg 1 h before exposure to DEP significantly prevented the influx of inflammatory cells and the increase of TNF α in BAL, and the increased airway resistance caused by DEP. Likewise, curcumin prevented the increase of SBP, CRP, TNF α, D-dimer and PAI-1. The thrombosis was partially but significantly mitigated. In conclusion, repeated exposure to DEP induced lung and systemic inflammation characterized by TNFα release, increased SBP, and accelerated coagulation. Our findings indicate that curcumin is a potent anti-inflammatory agent that prevents the release of TNFα and protects against the pulmonary and cardiovascular effects of DEP.

  20. Can pure fruit and vegetable juices protect against cancer and cardiovascular disease too? A review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruxton, Carrie H S; Gardner, Elaine J; Walker, Drew

    2006-01-01

    While it is widely accepted that fruit and vegetables (F&V) lower the risk of cancer, and cardiovascular disease (CVD), the role of pure fruit and vegetable (PFV) juices is often downplayed. This review poses two questions: Are the protective benefits of F&V dependent upon constituents lacking in PFV juices (e.g. fibre)? Do PFV juices impact on disease risk when considered separately from F&V? Studies comparing the effects of fibre and antioxidants were reviewed, yielding the finding that the impact of F&V may relate more strongly to antioxidants, than to fibre. For the second question, high-quality published studies that considered PFV juices were reviewed. The impact of PFV juices on cancer risk was weakly positive, although a lack of human data and contradictory findings hampered conclusions. For CVD, there was convincing evidence from epidemiological and clinical studies that PFV juices reduced risk via a number of probable mechanisms. It was concluded that the view that PFV juices are nutritionally inferior to F&V, in relation to chronic disease risk reduction, is unjustified.

  1. Gene transfer of heat-shock protein 20 protects against ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat hearts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-hui ZHU; Tie-min MA; Xian WANG

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To explore whether overexpression of HSP20 in the myocardium could protect against ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Methods: Rat hearts were injected with vector, recombinant adenovirus encoding green fluorescent protein (Ad. GFP) or recombinant adenovirus encoding wild-type HSP20 (Ad. HSP20) in the left ventricle. Four days later, hearts were removed and expression of HSP20was measured in the left ventricle. Subsets of animals in the vector-, Ad. GFP-, and Ad. HSP20-treated groups were subjected to 20-min ischemia and 120-min reperfusion. Myocardial injury was evaluated by infarct size and level of serum cardiac troponin T and creatine phosphokinase. Apoptosis of cardiomyocytes was determined by TUNEL staining. Cardiac function was evaluated by hemodynamic indexes. Results: Infarct size and serum cardiac troponin T and creatine phosphokinase levels were significantly reduced in Ad. HSP20-treated hearts compared with vector- and Ad. GFP-treated hearts. The ratio of TUNEL-positive cardiomyocytes to total number of cardiomyocytes in the Ad. HSP20 group was significantly reduced as compared with the vector and Ad. GFP groups. Left ventricular end systolic pressure, and maximal rate of pressure increase (+dp/dtmax)and decrease (-dp/dtmin) values were increased significantly, while left ventricular end diastolic pressure was decreased significantly in Ad.HSP20-treated hearts compared with vector- and Ad. GFP-treated hearts. Conclusion: These data indicate that the cardioprotective effects of HSP20 may contribute to the reduction of myocardial necrosis and apoptosis in ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

  2. Plasma amino acid profiling identifies specific amino acid associations with cardiovascular function in patients with systolic heart failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daihiko Hakuno

    Full Text Available The heart has close interactions with other organs' functions and concomitant systemic factors such as oxidative stress, nitric oxide (NO, inflammation, and nutrition in systolic heart failure (HF. Recently, plasma amino acid (AA profiling as a systemic metabolic indicator has attracted considerable attention in predicting the future risk of human cardiometabolic diseases, but it has been scarcely studied in HF.Thirty-eight stable but greater than New York Heart Association class II symptomatic patients with left ventricular (LV ejection fraction <45% and 33 asymptomatic individuals with normal B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP value were registered as the HF and control groups, respectively. We analyzed fasting plasma concentrations of 41 AAs using high-performance liquid chromatography, serum NO metabolite concentration, hydroperoxide and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein measurements, echocardiography, and flow-mediated dilatation.We found that 17 AAs and two ratios significantly changed in the HF group compared with those in the control group (p < 0.05. In the HF group, subsequent univariate and stepwise multivariate analyses with clinical variables revealed that Fischer ratio and five specific AAs, ie, monoethanolamine, methionine, tyrosine, 1-methylhistidine, and histidine have significant correlation with BNP, LV ejection fraction, LV end-diastolic volume index, inferior vena cava diameter, the ratio of early diastolic velocity of the mitral inflow to mitral annulus, and BNP, respectively (p < 0.05. Interestingly, further exploratory factor analysis categorized these AAs into hepatic-related (monoethanolamine, tyrosine, and Fischer ratio and skeletal muscle-related (histidine, methionine, and 1-methylhistidine components. Some categorized AAs showed unique correlations with concomitant factors: monoethanolamine, tyrosine, and Fischer ratio with serum NO concentration; histidine with serum albumin; and 1-methylhistidine with flow

  3. The innate immune response to coxsackievirus B3 predicts progression to cardiovascular disease and heart failure in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onyimba Jennifer A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Men are at an increased risk of dying from heart failure caused by inflammatory heart diseases such as atherosclerosis, myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM. We previously showed that macrophages in the spleen are phenotypically distinct in male compared to female mice at 12 h after infection. This innate immune profile mirrors and predicts the cardiac immune response during acute myocarditis. Methods In order to study sex differences in the innate immune response, five male and female BALB/c mice were infected intraperitoneally with coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3 or phosphate buffered saline and their spleens were harvested 12 h later for microarray analysis. Gene expression was determined using an Affymetrix Mouse Gene 1.0 ST Array. Significant gene changes were verified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction or ELISA. Results During the innate immune response to CVB3 infection, infected males had higher splenic expression of genes which are important in regulating the influx of cholesterol into macrophages, such as phospholipase A2 (PLA2 and the macrophage scavenger receptor compared to the infected females. We also observed a higher expression in infected males compared to infected females of squalene synthase, an enzyme used to generate cholesterol within cells, and Cyp2e1, an enzyme important in metabolizing cholesterol and steroids. Infected males also had decreased levels of the translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO, which binds PLA2 and is the rate-limiting step for steroidogenesis, as well as decreased expression of the androgen receptor (AR, which indicates receptor activation. Gene differences were not due to increased viral replication, which was unaltered between sexes. Conclusions We found that, compared to females, male mice had a greater splenic expression of genes which are important for cholesterol metabolism and activation of the AR at 12 h after infection. Activation of the AR has been linked to

  4. Merging Electronic Health Record Data and Genomics for Cardiovascular Research: A Science Advisory From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jennifer L; Ryan, John J; Bray, Bruce E; Brown, Candice; Lanfear, David; Newby, L Kristin; Relling, Mary V; Risch, Neil J; Roden, Dan M; Shaw, Stanley Y; Tcheng, James E; Tenenbaum, Jessica; Wang, Thomas N; Weintraub, William S

    2016-04-01

    The process of scientific discovery is rapidly evolving. The funding climate has influenced a favorable shift in scientific discovery toward the use of existing resources such as the electronic health record. The electronic health record enables long-term outlooks on human health and disease, in conjunction with multidimensional phenotypes that include laboratory data, images, vital signs, and other clinical information. Initial work has confirmed the utility of the electronic health record for understanding mechanisms and patterns of variability in disease susceptibility, disease evolution, and drug responses. The addition of biobanks and genomic data to the information contained in the electronic health record has been demonstrated. The purpose of this statement is to discuss the current challenges in and the potential for merging electronic health record data and genomics for cardiovascular research.

  5. Treatment of anemia in heart failure: potential risks and benefits of intravenous iron therapy in cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelani, Qurat-ul-ain; Katz, Stuart D

    2010-01-01

    Iron-deficiency anemia is common in patients with heart failure (HF), but the optimum diagnostic tests to detect iron deficiency and the treatment options to replete iron have not been fully characterized. Recent studies in patients with HF indicate that intravenous iron can rapidly replenish iron stores in patients having iron-deficiency anemia, with resultant increased hemoglobin levels and improved functional capacity. Preliminary data from a subgroup analysis also suggest that supplemental intravenous iron therapy can improve functional capacity even in those subjects without anemia. The mechanisms responsible for this observation are not fully characterized, but may be related to beneficial effects of iron supplementation on mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle. The long-term safety of using intravenous iron supplementation in HF populations is not known. Iron is a known pro-oxidant factor that can inhibit nitric oxide signaling and irreversibly injury cells. Increased iron stores are associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction and increased risk of coronary heart disease events. Additional clinical trials are needed to more fully characterize the therapeutic potential and safety of intravenous iron in HF patients.

  6. Administration of aqueous extract of Desmodium gangeticum (L) root protects rat heart against ischemic reperfusion injury induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurian, Gino A; Paddikkala, Jose

    2009-02-01

    Myocardial reperfusion is believed to be associated with free radical injury. The present study evaluates the effect of aqueous extract of D. gangeticum (DG) on lipid peroxides and antioxidants in ischemic reperfused (IR) Wistar albino male rats. Significant elevation in lipid peroxide products (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) and decreased activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase) were observed in the rat hearts during ischemia reperfusion phase. Pre treatment of rats with aqueous extract of DG orally for 30 days showed significantly improved preservation of antioxidant enzymes and subsequent reduction in lipid peroxidation. But 2,3,5 triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) stained rat heart did not show much significant antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation. On the other hand, TTC unstained rat heart showed significant improvement in the antioxidant activities indicating cardio protective effect of aqueous extract of DG in myocardium affected by ischemia reperfusion insult. The administration of DG to normal rats did not have any significant effect on any of the parameter studied. These results indicate that DG improves the antioxidant capacity of heart and attenuate the degree of lipid peroxidation after IR.

  7. Short-term melatonin consumption protects the heart of obese rats independent of body weight change and visceral adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nduhirabandi, Frederic; Huisamen, Barbara; Strijdom, Hans; Blackhurst, Dee; Lochner, Amanda

    2014-10-01

    Chronic melatonin treatment has been shown to prevent the harmful effects of diet-induced obesity and reduce myocardial susceptibility to ischaemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). However, the exact mechanism whereby it exerts its beneficial actions on the heart in obesity/insulin resistance remains unknown. Herein, we investigated the effects of relatively short-term melatonin treatment on the heart in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. Control and diet-induced obese Wistar rats (fed a high calorie diet for 20 wk) were each subdivided into three groups receiving drinking water with or without melatonin (4 mg/kg/day) for the last 6 or 3 wk of experimentation. A number of isolated hearts were perfused in the working mode, subjected to regional or global ischaemia-reperfusion; others were nonperfused. Metabolic parameters, myocardial infarct sizes (IFS), baseline and postischaemic activation of PKB/Akt, ERK42/44, GSK-3β and STAT-3 were determined. Diet-induced obesity caused increases in body weight gain, visceral adiposity, fasting blood glucose, serum insulin and triglyceride (TG) levels with a concomitant cardiac hypertrophy, large postischaemic myocardial IFSs and a reduced cardiac output. Melatonin treatment (3 and 6 wk) decreased serum insulin levels and the HOMA index (P melatonin administration to obese/insulin resistant rats reduced insulin resistance and protected the heart against ex vivo myocardial IRI independently of body weight change and visceral adiposity.

  8. Vagal Nerve Stimulation Evoked Heart Rate Changes and Protection from Cardiac Remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rahul; Mokelke, Eric; Ruble, Stephen B; Stolen, Craig M

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated whether vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) leads to improvements in ischemic heart failure via heart rate modulation. At 7 ± 1 days post left anterior descending artery (LAD) ligation, 63 rats with myocardial infarctions (MI) were implanted with ECG transmitters and VNS devices (MI + VNS, N = 44) or just ECG transmitters (MI, N = 17). VNS stimulation was active from 14 ± 1 days to 8 ± 1 weeks post MI. The average left ventricular (LV) end diastolic volumes at 8 ± 1 weeks were MI = 672.40 μl and MI + VNS = 519.35 μl, p = 0.03. The average heart weights, normalized to body weight (± std) at 14 ± 1 weeks were MI = 3.2 ± 0.6 g*kg(-1) and MI + VNS = 2.9 ± 0.3 g*kg(-1), p = 0.03. The degree of cardiac remodeling was correlated with the magnitude of acute VNS-evoked heart rate (HR) changes. Further research is required to determine if the acute heart rate response to VNS activation is useful as a heart failure biomarker or as a tool for VNS therapy characterization.

  9. Pregnancy as a Window to Future Cardiovascular Health: Design and Implementation of the nuMoM2b Heart Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, David M; Ehrenthal, Deborah B; Koch, Matthew A; Catov, Janet M; Barnes, Shannon E; Facco, Francesca; Parker, Corette B; Mercer, Brian M; Bairey-Merz, C Noel; Silver, Robert M; Wapner, Ronald J; Simhan, Hyagriv N; Hoffman, Matthew K; Grobman, William A; Greenland, Philip; Wing, Deborah A; Saade, George R; Parry, Samuel; Zee, Phyllis C; Reddy, Uma M; Pemberton, Victoria L; Burwen, Dale R

    2016-03-15

    The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Nulliparous Pregnancy Outcomes Study-Monitoring Mothers-to-Be (nuMoM2b) Heart Health Study (HHS) was designed to investigate the relationships between adverse pregnancy outcomes and modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The ongoing nuMoM2b-HHS, which started in 2013, is a prospective follow-up of the nuMoM2b cohort, which included 10,038 women recruited between 2010 and 2013 from 8 centers across the United States who were initially observed over the course of their first pregnancies. In this report, we detail the design and study procedures of the nuMoM2b-HHS. Women in the pregnancy cohort who consented to be contacted for participation in future studies were approached at 6-month intervals to ascertain health information and to maintain ongoing contact. Two to 5 years after completion of the pregnancy documented in the nuMoM2b, women in the nuMoM2b-HHS were invited to an in-person study visit. During this visit, they completed psychosocial and medical history questionnaires and had clinical measurements and biological specimens obtained. A subcohort of participants who had objective assessments of sleep-disordered breathing during pregnancy were asked to repeat this investigation. This unique prospective observational study includes a large, geographically and ethnically diverse cohort, rich depth of phenotypic information about adverse pregnancy outcomes, and clinical data and biospecimens from early in the index pregnancy onward. Data obtained from this cohort will provide mechanistic and clinical insights into how data on a first pregnancy can provide information about the potential development of subsequent risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

  10. Role of Ca2+ in protecting the heart from hyperkalemia and acidosis in the rabbit: implications for exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitch, S P; Paterson, D J

    1994-11-01

    Catecholamines can offset the negative effect of acidosis and raised extracellular K+ concentration in the isolated rabbit heart when these factors are changed with similar kinetics and concentrations as those observed in exercise. This effect appears to be mediated by changes in Ca2+ handling in the heart. To test the role of Ca2+ in vivo, we studied the interactive effects of infusions of KCl, lactic acid, norepinephrine (NE), and CaCl2 on cardiovascular performance in the anesthetized rabbit. After propranolol, CaCl2 was given during acidosis and hyperkalemia. Acidosis (arterial pH 7.17 +/- 0.3) markedly reduced cardiac performance, and its effects were exacerbated by hyperkalemia (7.3 +/- 0.4 mM). NE reversed the cardiac response to combined acidosis and hyperkalemia. After propranolol, arterial pH and arterial K+ concentration changed more rapidly with acidosis and hyperkalemia, combined with a faster fall in cardiac performance, but CaCl2 offset these negative hemodynamic effects. The rises in plasma Ca2+, NE, and sympathetic activity during exercise may therefore interact to ameliorate the harmful effects of acidosis and hyperkalemia.

  11. New cholesterol guidelines for the management of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk: a comparison of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association cholesterol guidelines with the 2014 National Lipid Association recommendations for patient-centered management of dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhyaru, Bhavin B; Jacobson, Terry A

    2015-05-01

    This review discusses the 2013 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) Guideline on the Treatment of Blood Cholesterol to Reduce Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Risk in Adults and compares it with the 2014 National Lipid Association (NLA) Recommendations for Patient-Centered Management of Dyslipidemia. The review discusses some of the distinctions between the guidelines, including how to determine a patient's atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk, the role of lipoprotein treatment targets, the importance of moderate- and high-intensity statin therapy, and the use of nonstatin therapy in light of the IMProved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial (IMPROVE-IT) trial.

  12. Time-of-day variation in cardiovascular response to maximal exercise testing in coronary heart disease patients taking a beta-blocker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour Doiron, Monique; Prud'homme, Denis; Boulay, Pierre

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a beta-blocker (atenolol and metoprolol) on exercise heart rate (HR) and rate pressure product (RPP) during a morning and afternoon maximal exercise test (maxET) in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Twenty-one CHD patients (59.9 +/- 8.9 years of age) treated with either atenolol or metoprolol participated in this study. All subjects underwent a morning and afternoon symptom-limited maximal exercise test (maxET) 2-3 h and 8-10 h after medication intake. No significant differences in exercise capacity (atenolol: 8.3 +/- 1.9 vs. 8.3 +/- 2.1 metabolic equivalents (METs); metoprolol: 8.8 +/- 2.0 vs. 8.7 +/- 2.0 METs) or rate of perceived exertion (atenolol: 7.4 +/- 1.9 vs. 7.4 +/- 1.7 METs; metoprolol: 7.2 +/- 1.5 vs. 6.8 +/- 0.9 METs) were observed between the 2 maxETs in either group. However, there was a discrepancy in cardiovascular and ischemic responses between morning and afternoon maxET. Subjects treated with atenolol demonstrated better overall control of HR and RPP during the afternoon maxET. The difference between morning and afternoon HRmax (11 +/- 8 vs. 19 +/- 9 beats.min-1; p = 0.05) was significantly higher in the metoprolol group, but did not attain significance for RPP (31 +/- 30 vs. 54 +/- 28 mmHg.beats.min-1.10-2; p = 0.09). Also, nearly one quarter of our subjects who had a normal morning maxET demonstrated an abnormal electrocardiogram response and (or) ischemia when exercise testing was done in the late afternoon. These changes were more prevalent in subjects taking metoprolol. The results of this study suggest that there is considerable time-of-day variation in the cardiovascular response to a maxET in CHD patients treated with a beta-blocker.

  13. Exercise mediated protection of diabetic heart through modulation of microRNA mediated molecular pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Lew, Jason Kar Sheng; Pearson, James T; Schwenke, Daryl O.; Katare, Rajesh

    2017-01-01

    Hyperglycaemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance collectively impact on the myocardium of people with diabetes, triggering molecular, structural and myocardial abnormalities. These have been suggested to aggravate oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, myocardial lipotoxicity and impaired myocardial substrate utilization. As a consequence, this leads to the development of a spectrum of cardiovascular diseases, which may include but not limited to coronary endothelial dysfun...

  14. Health factors and risk of all-cause, cardiovascular, and coronary heart disease mortality: findings from the MONICA and HAPIEE studies in Lithuania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdonas Tamosiunas

    Full Text Available AIMS: This study investigated the trends and levels of the prevalence of health factors, and the association of all-cause and cardiovascular (CVD mortality with healthy levels of combined risk factors among Lithuanian urban population. METHODS: Data from five general population surveys in Kaunas, Lithuania, conducted between 1983 and 2008 were used. Healthy factors measured at baseline include non-smoking, normal weight, normal arterial blood pressure, normal level of total serum cholesterol, normal physical activity and normal level of fasting glucose. Among 9,209 men and women aged 45-64 (7,648 were free from coronary heart disease (CHD and stroke at baseline, 1,219 death cases from any cause, 589 deaths from CVD, and 342 deaths from CHD occurred during follow up. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the association between health factors and mortality from all causes, CVD and CHD. RESULTS: Between 1983 and 2008, the proportion of subjects with 6 healthy levels of risk factors was higher in 2006-2008 than in 1983-1984 (0.6% vs. 0.2%; p = 0.09, although there was a significant increase in fasting glucose and a decline in intermediate physical activity. Men and women with normal or intermediate levels of risk factors had significantly lower all-cause, CVD and CHD mortality risk than persons with high levels of risk factors. Subjects with 5-6 healthy factors had hazard ratio (HR of CVD mortality 0.35 (95% confidence interval (CI 0.15-0.83 compared to average risk in the whole population. The hazard ratio for CVD mortality risk was significant in men (HR 0.34, 95% CI 0.12-0.97 but not in women (HR 0.38, 95% CI 0.09-1.67. CONCLUSIONS: An inverse association of most healthy levels of cardiovascular risk factors with risk of all-cause and CVD mortality was observed in this urban population-based cohort. A greater number of cardiovascular health factors were related with significantly lower risk of CVD mortality, particularly among

  15. Three-Directional Evaluation of Mitral Flow in the Rat Heart by Phase-Contrast Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Skårdal

    Full Text Available Determination of mitral flow is an important aspect in assessment of cardiac function. Traditionally, mitral flow is measured by Doppler echocardiography which suffers from several challenges, particularly related to the direction and the spatial inhomogeneity of flow. These challenges are especially prominent in rodents. The purpose of this study was to establish a cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR protocol for evaluation of three-directional mitral flow in a rodent model of cardiac disease.Three-directional mitral flow were evaluated by phase contrast CMR (PC-CMR in rats with aortic banding (AB (N = 7 and sham-operated controls (N = 7. Peak mitral flow and deceleration rate from PC-CMR was compared to conventional Doppler echocardiography. The accuracy of PC-CMR was investigated by comparison of spatiotemporally integrated mitral flow with left ventricular stroke volume assessed by cine CMR.PC-CMR portrayed the spatial distribution of mitral flow and flow direction in the atrioventricular plane throughout diastole. Both PC-CMR and echocardiography demonstrated increased peak mitral flow velocity and higher deceleration rate in AB compared to sham. Comparison with cine CMR revealed that PC-CMR measured mitral flow with excellent accuracy. Echocardiography presented significantly lower values of flow compared to PC-CMR.For the first time, we show that PC-CMR offers accurate evaluation of three-directional mitral blood flow in rodents. The method successfully detects alterations in the mitral flow pattern in response to cardiac disease and provides novel insight into the characteristics of mitral flow.

  16. The study of lipid profile, diet and other cardiovascular risk factors in children born to parents having premature ischemic heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M R Savitha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dyslipidemia is a marker for ischemic heart disease (IHD, which can be detected in early childhood and tracks to adulthood. Dyslipidemia, along with factors like diet, obesity and sedentary activity, increases the risk of a child developing IHD in adulthood. Early detection and modification of these risk factors can prevent IHD. Objectives: To study the lipid profile in children born to parents with history of premature IHD and also to study the effect of diet, lifestyle factors, and obesity in the study group. Materials and Methods: Fifty children of parents with premature IHD and 50 control children without any family history of IHD were analyzed for cardiovascular risk factors such as lipid profile, body mass index (BMI and hypertension. The effects of modifiable risk factors like diet and physical activity on lipid profile were analyzed. The correlation between parent and child lipid profile was studied. Results: Mean total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly higher (P<0.05 in children with family history of IHD as compared to children without family history. There was a positive correlation between lipid levels of parents and their children. Children with elevated BMI, a sedentary lifestyle, and excess oily/junk diet intake showed increased incidence of dyslipidemia (P<0.05. Conclusions: Children of IHD patients have significant incidence of dyslipidemia. The risk factors like BMI, diet and physical activity increase the incidence of dyslipidemia. Therefore, all children of premature IHD patients should be screened for dyslipidemia.

  17. Psoriasis and risk of heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Usman; Ahlehoff, Ole; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar;

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Psoriasis is a common inflammatory disease that is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, including myocardial infarction. Heart failure (HF) is independently associated with several cardiovascular risk factors and is a major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality...

  18. Chlamydia pneumoniae, heat shock proteins 60 and risk of secondary cardiovascular events in patients with coronary heart disease under special consideration of diabetes: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Twardella Dorothee

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been suggestions of an association between Chlamydia pneumoniae, chlamydial heat shock protein (Ch-hsp 60 and human heat shock protein (h-hsp 60 infection sero-status and development of secondary cardiovascular events. Patients with diabetes might be at higher risk since they are prone to infections. The objective of this study was to investigate prospectively the role of Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP, chlamydial heat shock protein (Ch-hsp 60 and a possible intermediate role of human heat shock protein (h-hsp 60 sero-status in the development of secondary cardiovascular disease (CVD events in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD under special consideration of diabetes mellitus. Methods Patients aged 30–70 undergoing an in-patient rehabilitation program after acute manifestation of coronary heart disease (International Classification of Disease, 9th Rev. pos. 410–414 between January 1999 and May 2000 in one of two participating rehabilitation clinics in Germany were included in this analysis. Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP, chlamydial heat shock protein (Ch-hsp 60 and human heat shock protein (h-hsp 60 status at baseline were measured by serum immunoglobulin G and A antibodies. Secondary CVD events (myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular death were recorded during a mean follow-up period of 33.5 months (response = 87%. Results Among the 1052 subjects 37.4% and 39.3% were sero-positive to CP IgA and IgG respectively, 22.2% were sero-positive to Ch-hsp 60 IgG and 8.4% were positive to h-hsp 60 IgG at baseline. During follow-up, secondary CVD events occurred among 71 (6.8% participants. Occurrence of a secondary CVD event was more common among CP (IgA and CP (IgG sero-positive than among sero-negative patients (p-values 0.04 and 0.1, respectively. The risk of secondary CVD events was increased among patients with both a positive CP sero-status and diabetes compared to infection negative, non-diabetic patients

  19. Protective effects of calmodulin antagonists (trifluoperazine and W-7 on hypothermic ischemic rat hearts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugawara,Eiji

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available The cardioprotective effect of calmodulin antagonists, trifluoperazine (TFP and N-(6-aminohexyl-5-chloro-1-naphthalene sulfonamide (W-7 was examined on the isolated rat heart exposed to hypothermic and ischemic conditions by measuring distribution of lysosomal enzymes in myocardial cells, and leakage of creatine kinase (CK during reperfusion and postischemic recovery in myocardial systolic function. Experimental hearts were infused with 20 degrees C Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate buffer (KHB or KHB containing TFP or W-7 for 2min every 30min during hypothermic ischemia. After ischemia for 120min at 20 degrees C, rat hearts were reperfused at 37 degrees C for 30min. TFP and W-7 improved functional recovery and prevented CK release. In TFP treated hearts, leakage of lysosomal enzymes was reduced significantly, whereas stabilization of lysosomes by W-7 did not occur. These results suggest that calcium-calmodulin dependent enzymes may play an important role in the development of cellular damage of the myocardium during hypothermic ischemia, although levels of leakage of lysosomal enzymes may be unreliable predictors of functional recovery after hypothermic ischemia.

  20. Effect of myocardial protection during beating heart surgery with right sub-axiliary approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jie; LI Xin-hua; YAN Zi-xing; LIU Ai-jun; ZHANG Wen-kai; YANG Li-na

    2009-01-01

    Background Cardiac troponin-I (cTnl) is one of the three regulatory subunits of the cardiac troponin which has the high sensibility and specificity of responding to myocardial injury. Studies have demonstrated that cTnl is released into the blood stream within hours following acute myocardial reperfusion injury. The clinical utility of cTnl for the assessment of myocardial damage is that it is more specific than creatine kinase MB (CKMB). This study investigated cTnl as a sensitive marker of myocardial reperfusion injury and its clinical value on beating heart surgery with right sub-axiliary incision. Methods From December 2002 threugh December 2004,100 patients with atrial septal defect (ASD), ventricular septal defect (VSD), atrial septal defect and ventricular septal defect (ASD+VSD), and tetralogy of Fallot were randomly divided into two groups: the treatment group (n=50) was operated on with a beating heart under extracorporeal circulation (ECC), and the control group (n=50) on an conventional arresting heart under ECC. The two groups both used a right sub-axillary incision. Blood samples from a central venous catheter (CVC) were collected before, at the end of aortic clamping, immediately after discontinue cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), 3, 6, 24, and 48 hours after operation. The Abbott Axsym system with hol-automation fluorescent immunity analyzer was used for the quantitative determination of cTnl. cTnl was detected to investigate the effect of myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury and the clinical value of beating heart surgery with right sub-axillary incision. Results There were no significant differences between the two groups before operation. At the end of aortic clamping and thereafter, cTnl significantly increased in both groups, and reached the peak point at 6 hours after operation. At all the tested points, cTnl was significantly higher in the control group than the beating heart group (P <0.05), especially at 6 hours post operation (P <0.01). The

  1. Factors influencing the relation between alcohol and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbaek, Morten

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Light-to-moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties in some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relation between alcohol and cardiovascular disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Several large American studies have shown...... that the J-shaped relation is influenced by age and coronary heart disease risk-factor status since only middle-aged and elderly and those already at risk of developing coronary heart disease seem protected by drinking alcohol. It has also been suggested that only those who have a steady - in contrast...... to a binge - intake of alcohol have benefits with regard to cardiovascular disease. Prospective studies from the UK, Sweden and Denmark have further suggested that wine drinkers have a lower mortality than beer and spirits drinkers. SUMMARY: The J-shaped relation between alcohol intake and cardiovascular...

  2. Resistance exercise in individuals with and without cardiovascular disease: 2007 update: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Council on Clinical Cardiology and Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mark A; Haskell, William L; Ades, Philip A; Amsterdam, Ezra A; Bittner, Vera; Franklin, Barry A; Gulanick, Meg; Laing, Susan T; Stewart, Kerry J

    2007-07-31

    Prescribed and supervised resistance training (RT) enhances muscular strength and endurance, functional capacity and independence, and quality of life while reducing disability in persons with and without cardiovascular disease. These benefits have made RT an accepted component of programs for health and fitness. The American Heart Association recommendations describing the rationale for participation in and considerations for prescribing RT were published in 2000. This update provides current information regarding the (1) health benefits of RT, (2) impact of RT on the cardiovascular system structure and function, (3) role of RT in modifying cardiovascular disease risk factors, (4) benefits in selected populations, (5) process of medical evaluation for participation in RT, and (6) prescriptive methods. The purpose of this update is to provide clinicians with recommendations to facilitate the use of this valuable modality.

  3. Protective Effects of Ginger ( Extract against Diabetes-Induced Heart Abnormality in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Ilkhanizadeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDiabetic cardiomyopathy is an important causal factor in morbidity and mortality among diabetic patients, and currently, no effective means are available to reverse its pathological progress. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of ginger extract on apolipoproteins (apo A and B, hyperhomocysteinemia, cathepsin G and leptin changes, as well as cardiac fibrosis and heart muscle cell proliferation under hyperglycemic conditions in vivo.MethodsTwenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into three groups, namely: control, non-treated diabetic, and ginger extract-treated diabetic groups. The ginger extract-treated diabetic group received a 50 mg daily dose of ginger extract intragastrically for 6 weeks.ResultsThe results revealed concurrent significant increases in plasma C-reactive protein (CRP, homocysteine (Hcy, cathepsin G and apoB levels and decreases in apoA and leptin levels in the non-treated diabetic group compared to the control group. Moreover, heart structural changes, including fibrosis and heart muscle cell proliferation, were observed in non-treated diabetic rats compared to the control rats. Significant amelioration of changes in the heart structure together with restoration of the elevated levels of Hcy and CRP, leptin, cathepsin G, and apoA and B were found in the ginger extract-treated diabetic group compared to the non-treated diabetic group.ConclusionThe findings indicated that ginger extract significantly reduces heart structural abnormalities in diabetic rats and that these effects might be associated with improvements in serum apo, leptin, cathepsin G, and Hcy levels and with the antioxidant properties of ginger extract.

  4. Dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents and young adults: the Northern Ireland Young Hearts Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCourt, Hannah J; Draffin, Claire R; Woodside, Jayne V; Cardwell, Chris R; Young, Ian S; Hunter, Steven J; Murray, Liam J; Boreham, Colin A; Gallagher, Alison M; Neville, Charlotte E; McKinley, Michelle C

    2014-11-28

    Dietary pattern (DP) analysis allows examination of the combined effects of nutrients and foods on the markers of CVD. Very few studies have examined these relationships during adolescence or young adulthood. Traditional CVD risk biomarkers were analysed in 12-15-year-olds (n 487; Young Hearts (YH)1) and again in the same individuals at 20-25 years of age (n 487; YH3). Based on 7 d diet histories, in the present study, DP analysis was performed using a posteriori principal component analysis for the YH3 cohort and the a priori Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) was calculated for both YH1 and YH3 cohorts. In the a posteriori DP analysis, YH3 participants adhering most closely to the 'healthy' DP were found to have lower pulse wave velocity (PWV) and homocysteine concentrations, the 'sweet tooth' DP were found to have increased LDL concentrations, and decreased HDL concentrations, [corrected] the 'drinker/social' DP were found to have lower LDL and homocysteine concentrations, but exhibited a trend towards a higher TAG concentration, and finally the 'Western' DP were found to have elevated homocysteine and HDL concentrations. In the a priori dietary score analysis, YH3 participants adhering most closely to the Mediterranean diet were found to exhibit a trend towards a lower PWV. MDS did not track between YH1 and YH3, and nor was there a longitudinal relationship between the change in the MDS and the change in CVD risk biomarkers. In conclusion, cross-sectional analysis revealed that some associations between DP and CVD risk biomarkers were already evident in the young adult population, namely the association between the healthy DP (and the MDS) and PWV; however, no longitudinal associations were observed between these relatively short time periods.

  5. Protective Effects of Elaeagnus angustifolia Leaf Extract against Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Isolated Rat Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binsheng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to clarify the cardioprotective property of the aqueous extract of Elaeagnus angustifolia L. leaf (EA against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in isolated rat heart. The myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury model of isolated rat heart was set up by the use of improved Langendorff retrograde perfusion technology. Compared with the ischemia/reperfusion (I/R group, the aqueous extract of Elaeagnus angustifolia L. leaf (0.5 mg/mL, 1.0 mg/mL pretreatment markedly improved the coronary flow (CF and raised left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP and maximum rise/down velocity (±dp/dtmax. The infarct size of the EA-treated hearts was smaller than that of I/R group. After treatment with EA, the superoxide dismutase (SOD activity increased; malondialdehyde (MDA and protein carbonyl content reduced more obviously (P<0.01 than that of I/R injury myocardial tissue. Conclusion. Results from the present study showed that the aqueous extract of Elaeagnus angustifolia L. leaf has obvious protective effects on myocardial I/R injury, which may be related to the improvement of myocardial oxidative stress states.

  6. Exercise protects against chronic β-adrenergic remodeling of the heart by activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Yang

    Full Text Available Extensive data have shown that exercise training can provide cardio-protection against pathological cardiac hypertrophy. However, how long the heart can retain cardio-protective phenotype after the cessation of exercise is currently unknown. In this study, we investigated the time course of the loss of cardio-protection after cessation of exercise and the signaling molecules that are responsible for the possible sustained protection. Mice were made to run on a treadmill six times a week for 4 weeks and then rested for a period of 0, 1, 2 and 4 weeks followed by isoproterenol injection for 8 days. Morphological, echocardiographic and hemodynamic changes were measured, gene reactivation was determined by real-time PCR, and the expression and phosphorylation status of several cardio-protective signaling molecules were analyzed by Western-blot. HW/BW, HW/TL and LW/BW decreased significantly in exercise training (ER mice. The less necrosis and lower fetal gene reactivation induced by isoproterenol injection were also found in ER mice. The echocardiographic and hemodynamic changes induced by β-adrenergic overload were also attenuated in ER mice. The protective effects can be sustained for at least 2 weeks after the cessation of the training. Western-blot analysis showed that the alterations in the phosphorylation status of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS (increase in serine 1177 and decrease in threonine 495 continued for 2 weeks after the cessation of the training whereas increases of the phosphorylation of Akt and mTOR disappeared. Further study showed that L-NG-Nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME treatment abolished the cardio-protective effects of ER. Our findings demonstrate that stimulation of eNOS in mice through exercise training provides acute and sustained cardioprotection against cardiac hypertrophy.

  7. Triggering role of nitric oxide in the delayed protective effect of monophosphoryl lipid A in rat heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    György, Katalin; Muller, Bernard; Végh, Agnes; Kleschyov, Andrei L; Stoclet, Jean-Claud

    1999-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to further evaluate the role of nitric oxide (NO) in delayed cardiac protection against ischaemia-reperfusion injury induced by monophosphoryl lipid A (MLA).For this purpose, rats were administered with either 0.5 or 2.5 mg kg−1 MLA (i.p.). Eight or 24 h later, in vivo NO production in the heart was analysed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping technique. In parallel experiments, hearts were removed and perfused according to Langendorff. Functional ventricular parameters and incidence of ventricular fibrillation (VF) were determined after 30 min global ischaemic insult (37°C) followed by 30 min reperfusion. Vascular reactivity of aortic rings was also assessed.Hearts from rats pretreated with 2.5 mg kg−1 MLA for 24 h (but not those from rats treated with 0.5 mg kg−1 MLA for 8 and 24 h, or with 2.5 mg kg−1 MLA for 8 h) exhibited preservation of ventricular function (LVDP, ±dP/dtmax) and a reduced incidence of VF (25% vs 87.5% in vehicle control) during reperfusion. At the cardioprotective dose of 2.5 mg kg−1 (for 8 or 24 h), MLA did not produce alterations of the contractile response of aortic rings to noradrenaline.An increased formation of NO was detected in hearts removed from rats pretreated with 2.5 mg kg−1 MLA for 8 h, but not in those from rats treated for 24 h (or with 0.5 mg kg−1 MLA).Pretreatment of the animals with the inhibitors of inducible NO-synthase, aminoguanidine (2×300 mg kg−1) or L-N6-(1-Iminoethyl)-lysine (L-NIL, 10 mg kg−1) abolished both MLA (2.5 mg kg−1)-induced rise of NO production (observed 8 h after MLA) and cardioprotection (observed 24 h after MLA). However MLA-induced cardioprotection was not attenuated when the hearts were perfused with aminoguanidine (150 μM) for 30 min before the ischaemic insult.Altogether, the present data suggest that NO acts as a trigger rather then a direct

  8. Surgical outcomes in native valve infectious endocarditis: the experience of the Cardiovascular Surgery Department – Cluj-Napoca Heart Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOLNAR, ADRIAN; MURESAN, IOAN; TRIFAN, CATALIN; POP, DANA; SACUI, DIANA

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims The introduction of Duke’s criteria and the improvement of imaging methods has lead to an earlier and a more accurate diagnosis of infectious endocarditis (IE). The options for the best therapeutic approach and the timing of surgery are still a matter of debate and require a close colaboration between the cardiologist, the infectionist and the cardiac surgeon. Methods We undertook a retrospective, descriptive study, spanning over a period of five years (from January 1st, 2007 to December 31st, 2012), on 100 patients who underwent surgery for native valve infectious endocarditis in our unit. Results The patients’ age varied between 13 and 77 years (with a mean of 54 years), of which 85 were males (85%). The main microorganisms responsible for IE were: Streptococcus Spp. (21 cases – 21%), Staphylococcus Spp. (15 cases – 15%), and Enterococcus Spp. (9 cases – 9%). The potential source of infection was identified in 26 patients (26%), with most cases being in the dental area (16 cases – 16%). The lesions caused by IE were situated in the left heart in 96 patients (96%), mostly on the aortic valve (50 cases – 50%). In most cases (82%) we found preexisting endocardial lesions which predisposed to the development of IE, most of them being degenerative valvular lesions (38 cases – 38%). We performed the following surgical procedures: surgery on a single valve - aortic valve replacement (40 cases), mitral valve replacement (19 cases), mitral valve repair (1 case), surgery on more than one valve – mitral and aortic valve replacement (20 cases), aortic and tricuspid valve replacement (1 case), aortic valve replacement with a mechanical valve associated with mitral valve repair (5 cases), aortic valve replacement with a biological valve associated with mitral valve repair (2 cases), and mitral valve replacement with a mechanical valve combined with De Vega procedure on the tricuspid valve (1 case). In 5 patients (5%) the bacteriological

  9. Protective Effect of Qiliqiangxin Capsule on Energy Metabolism and Myocardial Mitochondria in Pressure Overload Heart Failure Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Qiliqiangxin capsule (QL was developed under the guidance of TCM theory of collateral disease and had been shown to be effective and safe for the treatment of heart failure. The present study explored the role of and mechanism by which the herbal compounds QL act on energy metabolism, in vivo, in pressure overload heart failure. SD rats received ascending aorta constriction (TAC to establish a model of myocardial hypertrophy. The animals were treated orally for a period of six weeks. QL significantly inhibited cardiac hypertrophy due to ascending aortic constriction and improved hemodynamics. This effect was linked to the expression levels of the signaling factors in connection with upregulated energy and the regulation of glucose and lipid substrate metabolism and with a decrease in metabolic intermediate products and the protection of mitochondrial function. It is concluded that QL may regulate the glycolipid substrate metabolism by activating AMPK/PGC-1α axis and reduce the accumulation of free fatty acids and lactic acid, to protect cardiac myocytes and mitochondrial function.

  10. Inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin protects against reperfusion injury in diabetic heart through STAT3 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anindita; Salloum, Fadi N; Filippone, Scott M; Durrant, David E; Rokosh, Gregg; Bolli, Roberto; Kukreja, Rakesh C

    2015-05-01

    Diabetic patients suffer augmented severity of myocardial infarction. Excessive activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and decreased activation of STAT3 are implicated in diabetic complications. Considering the potent cardioprotective effect of mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, we hypothesized that reperfusion therapy with rapamycin would reduce infarct size in the diabetic hearts through STAT3 signaling. Hearts from adult male db/db or wild type (WT) C57 mice were isolated and subjected to 30 min of normothermic global ischemia and 60 min of reperfusion in Langendorff mode. Rapamycin (100 nM) was infused at the onset of reperfusion. Myocardial infarct size (IS) was significantly reduced in rapamycin-treated mice (13.3 ± 2.4 %) compared to DMSO vehicle control (35.9 ± 0.9 %) or WT mice (27.7 ± 1.1 %). Rapamycin treatment restored phosphorylation of STAT3 and enhanced AKT phosphorylation (target of mTORC2), but significantly reduced ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation (target of mTORC1) in the diabetic heart. To determine the cause and effect relationship of STAT3 in cardioprotection, inducible cardiac-specific STAT3-deficient (MCM TG:STAT3(flox/flox)) and WT mice (MCM TG:STAT3(flox/flox)) were made diabetic by feeding high fat diet (HFD). Rapamycin given at reperfusion reduced IS in WT mice but not in STAT3-deficient mice following I/R. Moreover, cardiomyocytes isolated from HFD-fed WT mice showed resistance against necrosis (trypan blue staining) and apoptosis (TUNEL assay) when treated with rapamycin during reoxygenation following simulated ischemia. Such protection was absent in cardiomyocytes from HFD-fed STAT3-deficient mice. STAT3 signaling plays critical role in reducing IS and attenuates cardiomyocyte death following reperfusion therapy with rapamycin in diabetic heart.

  11. Heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008411 Expression of S100B during heart failure in rats. JIANG Zhenni(蒋珍妮), et al. Dept Cardiol, 2nd Affili Hosp, Zhejiang Univ, Coll Med Hangzhou 310009. Chin J Emerg Med 2008;17(5):475-478. Objective To evaluate the value of S100B gene on cardiovascular remodeling in rats with abdominal aorta coarctation.

  12. Cost-effectiveness of coronary artery calcium testing for coronary heart and cardiovascular disease risk prediction to guide statin allocation: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric T Roberts

    Full Text Available The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA showed that the addition of coronary artery calcium (CAC to traditional risk factors improves risk classification, particularly in intermediate risk asymptomatic patients with LDL cholesterol levels <160 mg/dL. However, the cost-effectiveness of incorporating CAC into treatment decision rules has yet to be clearly delineated.To model the cost-effectiveness of CAC for cardiovascular risk stratification in asymptomatic, intermediate risk patients not taking a statin. Treatment based on CAC was compared to (1 treatment of all intermediate-risk patients, and (2 treatment on the basis of United States guidelines.We developed a Markov model of first coronary heart disease (CHD and cardiovascular disease (CVD events. We modeled statin treatment in intermediate risk patients with CAC≥1 and CAC≥100, with different intensities of statins based on the CAC score. We compared these CAC-based treatment strategies to a "treat all" strategy and to treatment according to the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III guidelines. Clinical and economic outcomes were modeled over both five- and ten-year time horizons. Outcomes consisted of CHD and CVD events and Quality-Adjusted Life Years (QALYs. Sensitivity analyses considered the effect of higher event rates, different CAC and statin costs, indirect costs, and re-scanning patients with incidentalomas.We project that it is both cost-saving and more effective to scan intermediate-risk patients for CAC and to treat those with CAC≥1, compared to treatment based on established risk-assessment guidelines. Treating patients with CAC≥100 is also preferred to existing guidelines when we account for statin side effects and the disutility of statin use.Compared to the alternatives we assessed, CAC testing is both effective and cost saving as a risk-stratification tool, particularly if there are adverse effects of long-term statin use. CAC may enable providers to better tailor

  13. Women at cardiac risk: is HRT the route to maintaining cardiovascular health?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, B; Sørensen, M B

    1997-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women of postmenopausal age. Data from observational studies suggest that the risk of coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women can be reduced by 30-50% by estrogen replacement therapy. The protective effect of estrogen is multifactorial...

  14. 胰升糖素样肽1药物对2型糖尿病患者的心血管保护效应%Cardiovascular protective effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 agents in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯静; 魏蕊; 洪天配

    2015-01-01

    [Summary] Glucagon-like peptide-1 ( GLP-1 ) agents play important roles in glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. Moreover, these agents also show various protective effects on cardiovascular system. GLP-1 agents improve vascular endothelial function, ameliorate the risk factors of cardiovascular disease including obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and hypertension, delay the occurrence and progression of atherosclerosis, and protect against cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury and heart failure. Therefore, GLP-1 agents may have beneficial effects on cardiovascular diseases at different stages and in multiple aspects.%胰升糖素样肽1(GLP-1)药物在2型糖尿病患者的血糖控制中具有重要作用。此外,GLP-1药物还具有一定的心血管保护效应,其可改善血管内皮功能,缓解肥胖、高血糖、血脂异常、高血压等心血管危险因素,延缓动脉粥样硬化的发生和发展,改善心肌缺血-再灌注损伤和心力衰竭。因此,GLP-1药物在心血管疾病发生发展的不同阶段和环节中可能具有保护作用。

  15. Women and Heart Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹国如

    2005-01-01

    Heart disease is the leading killer of Americans. But it kills more women than men. The American Heart Association says heart disease and other cardiovascular (心血管的) disorders kill about five hundred thousand women a year. That is more than the next seven causes of death combined.

  16. Accelerated cardiovascular magnetic resonance of the mouse heart using self-gated parallel imaging strategies does not compromise accuracy of structural and functional measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörries Carola

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-gated dynamic cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR enables non-invasive visualization of the heart and accurate assessment of cardiac function in mouse models of human disease. However, self-gated CMR requires the acquisition of large datasets to ensure accurate and artifact-free reconstruction of cardiac cines and is therefore hampered by long acquisition times putting high demands on the physiological stability of the animal. For this reason, we evaluated the feasibility of accelerating the data collection using the parallel imaging technique SENSE with respect to both anatomical definition and cardiac function quantification. Results Findings obtained from accelerated data sets were compared to fully sampled reference data. Our results revealed only minor differences in image quality of short- and long-axis cardiac cines: small anatomical structures (papillary muscles and the aortic valve and left-ventricular (LV remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI were accurately detected even for 3-fold accelerated data acquisition using a four-element phased array coil. Quantitative analysis of LV cardiac function (end-diastolic volume (EDV, end-systolic volume (ESV, stroke volume (SV, ejection fraction (EF and LV mass in healthy and infarcted animals revealed no substantial deviations from reference (fully sampled data for all investigated acceleration factors with deviations ranging from 2% to 6% in healthy animals and from 2% to 8% in infarcted mice for the highest acceleration factor of 3.0. CNR calculations performed between LV myocardial wall and LV cavity revealed a maximum CNR decrease of 50% for the 3-fold accelerated data acquisition when compared to the fully-sampled acquisition. Conclusions We have demonstrated the feasibility of accelerated self-gated retrospective CMR in mice using the parallel imaging technique SENSE. The proposed method led to considerably reduced acquisition times, while preserving high

  17. The protective effects of Schisandra chinensis fruit extract and its lignans against cardiovascular disease: a review of the molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Jung Nyeo; Cho, Minsoo; So, Insuk; Jeon, Ju-Hong

    2014-09-01

    Schisandra chinensis fruit extract (SCE) has traditionally been used as an oriental medicine for the treatment of various human diseases, including cardiovascular disease. Advances in scientific knowledge and analytical technologies provide opportunities for translational research involving S. chinensis; such research may contribute to future drug discovery. To date, emerging experimental evidence supports the therapeutic effects of the SCE or its bioactive lignan ingredients in cardiovascular disease, unraveling the mechanistic basis for their pharmacological actions. In the present review, we highlight SCE and its lignans as promising resources for the development of safe, effective, and multi-targeted agents against cardiovascular disease. Moreover, we offer novel insight into future challenges and perspective on S. chinensis research to future clinical investigations and healthcare strategies.

  18. Glycyrrhizin protects rat heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury through blockade of HMGB1-dependent phospho-JNK/Bax pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-lin ZHAI; Mei-qi ZHANG; Yun ZHANG; Hong-xia XU; Jing-min WANG; Gui-peng AN; Yuan-yuan WANG; Li LI

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Glycyrrhizin (GL) has been found to inhibit extracellular HMGB1 cytokine's activity,and protect spinal cord,liver and brain against I/R-induced injury in experimental animals.The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effect of GL in rat myocardial I/R-induced injury and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms.Methods: Male adult Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a 30-min left coronary artery occlusion followed by a 24-h reperfusion.The rats were treated with glycyrrhizin or glycyrrhizin plus recombinant HMGB1 after 30 min of ischemia and before reperfusion.Serum HMGB1,TNF-α and IL-6 levels,and hemodynamic parameters were measured at the onset and different time points of reperfusion.At the end of the experiment,the heart was excised,and the infarct size and histological changes were examined.The levels of Bcl2,Bax and cytochrome c,as well as phospho-ERK1/2,phospho-JNK and phospho-P38 in the heart tissue were evaluated using Western blot analysis,and myocardial caspase-3 activity was measured colorimetrically using BD pharmingen caspase 3 assay kit.Results: Intravenous administration of GL (10 mg/kg) significantly reduced the infarct size,but did not change the hemodynamic parameters at different time points during reperfusion.GL significantly decreased the levels of serum HMGB1,TNF-α and IL-6.GL changed the distribution of Bax and cytochrome c expression between the mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions in the heart tissue,resulting in inhibition of myocardial apoptosis.Moreover,expression of phospho-JNK,but not ERK1/2 and P38 was decreased by GL in the heart tissue.All of the effects produced by GL treatment were reversed by co-administration with the recombinant HMGB1 (100 μg).Intravenous administration of SP600125,a selective phospho-JNK inhibitor (0.5 mg/kg),attenuated HMGB1-dependent Bax translocation and the subsequent apoptosis.Conclusion: These results demonstrate that GL alleviates rat myocardial I/R-induced injury via directly

  19. Inflammation, Infection, and Future Cardiovascular Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Myocardial Infarction; Venous Thromboembolism; Heart Diseases; Infection; Chlamydia Infections; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Helicobacter Infections; Herpesviridae Infections; Inflammation

  20. A cross-sectional study of the relationship between job demand-control, effort-reward imbalance and cardiovascular heart disease risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Söderberg Mia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This cross-sectional study explored relationships between psychosocial work environment, captured by job demand-control (JDC and effort-reward imbalance (ERI, and seven cardiovascular heart disease (CHD risk factors in a general population. Method The sampled consists of randomly-selected men and women from Gothenburg, Sweden and the city’s surrounding metropolitan areas. Associations between psychosocial variables and biomarkers were analysed with multiple linear regression adjusted for age, smoking, education and occupational status. Results The study included 638 men and 668 women aged 24–71. Analysis between JDC and CHD risk factors illustrated that, for men, JDC was associated with impaired scores in several biomarkers, especially among those in high strain jobs. For women, there were no relationships between JDC and biomarkers. In the analysis of links between ERI and CHD risk factors, most associations tested null. The only findings were raised triglycerides and BMI among men in the fourth quartile of the ERI-ratio distribution, and lowered LDL-cholesterol for women. An complementary ERI analysis, combining high/low effort and reward into categories, illustrated lowered triglycerides and elevated HDL-cholesterol values among women reporting high efforts and high rewards, compared to women experiencing low effort and high reward. Conclusions There were some associations between psychosocial stressors and CHD risk factors. The cross-sectional design did not allow conclusions about causality but some results indicated gender differences regarding sensitivity to work stressors and also how the models might capture different psychosocial dimensions.

  1. Vitamin D, cardiovascular disease and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, Stefan; Tomaschitz, Andreas; März, Winfried; Drechsler, Christiane; Ritz, Eberhard; Zittermann, Armin; Cavalier, Etienne; Pieber, Thomas R; Lappe, Joan M; Grant, William B; Holick, Michael F; Dekker, Jacqueline M

    2011-11-01

    A poor vitamin D status, i.e. low serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], is common in the general population. This finding is of concern not only because of the classic vitamin D effects on musculoskeletal outcomes, but also because expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and vitamin D metabolizing enzymes in the heart and blood vessels suggests a role of vitamin D in the cardiovascular system. VDR-knockout mice suffer from cardiovascular disease (CVD), and various experimental studies suggest cardiovascular protection by vitamin D, including antiatherosclerotic, anti-inflammatory and direct cardio-protective actions, beneficial effects on classic cardiovascular risk factors as well as suppression of parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels. In epidemiological studies, low levels of 25(OH)D are associated with increased risk of CVD and mortality. Data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are sparse and have partially, but not consistently, shown some beneficial effects of vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular risk factors (e.g. arterial hypertension). We have insufficient data on vitamin D effects on cardiovascular events, but meta-analyses of RCTs indicate that vitamin D may modestly reduce all-cause mortality. Despite accumulating data suggesting that a sufficient vitamin D status may protect against CVD, we still must wait for results of large-scale RCTs before raising general recommendations for vitamin D in the prevention and treatment of CVD. In current clinical practice, the overall risks and costs of vitamin D supplementation should be weighed against the potential adverse consequences of untreated vitamin D deficiency.

  2. 5-HT2B Receptor Antagonists Inhibit Fibrosis and Protect from RV Heart Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Wiebke Janssen; Yves Schymura; Tatyana Novoyatleva; Baktybek Kojonazarov; Mario Boehm; Astrid Wietelmann; Himal Luitel; Kirsten Murmann; Damian Richard Krompiec; Aleksandra Tretyn; Soni Savai Pullamsetti; Norbert Weissmann; Werner Seeger; Hossein Ardeschir Ghofrani; Ralph Theo Schermuly

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The serotonin (5-HT) pathway was shown to play a role in pulmonary hypertension (PH), but its functions in right ventricular failure (RVF) remain poorly understood. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of Terguride (5-HT2A and 2B receptor antagonist) or SB204741 (5-HT2B receptor antagonist) on right heart function and structure upon pulmonary artery banding (PAB) in mice. Methods. Seven days after PAB, mice were treated for 14 days with Terguride (0.2 mg/kg b...

  3. Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, A P; Aggarwal, K K; Zhang, P-Y

    2015-01-01

    Cardioceuticals are nutritional supplements that contain all the essential nutrients including vitamins, minerals, omega-3-fatty acids and other antioxidants like a-lipoic acid and coenzyme Q10 in the right proportion that provide all round protection to the heart by reducing the most common risks associated with the cardiovascular disease including high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels and factors that contribute to coagulation of blood. Omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to significantly reduce the risk for sudden death caused by cardiac arrhythmias and all-cause mortality in patients with known coronary heart disease. Omega-3 fatty acids are also used to treat hyperlipidemia and hypertension. There are no significant drug interactions with omega-3 fatty acids. The American Heart Association recommends consumption of two servings of fish per week for persons with no history of coronary heart disease and at least one serving of fish daily for those with known coronary heart disease. Approximately 1 g/day of eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid is recommended for cardio protection. Higher dosages of omega-3 fatty acids are required to reduce elevated triglyceride levels (2-4 g/day). Modest decreases in blood pressure occur with significantly higher dosages of omega-3 fatty acids.

  4. Cardiovascular prevention: lifestyle and statins--competitors or companions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opie, L H; Dalby, A J

    2014-03-01

    Favourable lifestyles promote cardiovascular protection. Exercise can induce beneficial changes in the genome that decrease low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and increase anti-inflammatory markers. The Mediterranean dietary pattern, fortified by nuts, while not reducing weight, reduces mortality. Lifestyle changes combined with statin therapy provide potent protection against coronary heart disease, especially when used for secondary prevention after cardiovascular events. Decisions regarding the initiation of statin therapy for primary prevention are more difficult, requiring consideration of both the LDL-C level and the degree of cardiovascular risk for dyslipidaemic patients. Combining intensive exercise and statin therapy substantially reduces the mortality risk, and thus is potentially the ideal risk-reducing combination.

  5. Heart failure - fluids and diuretics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 10th ... Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of ...

  6. Consumo de alimentos de risco e proteção para doenças cardiovasculares entre funcionários públicos Consumption of protective and promotive foods in cardiovascular diseases among public employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Africa Isabel de la Cruz Perez Neumann

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever o consumo de alimentos de risco e proteção para doenças cardiovasculares segundo escolaridade e renda familiar entre funcionários públicos. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se inquérito epidemiológico entre funcionários de sedes de secretarias estaduais do município de São Paulo, ambos os sexos, acima de 18 anos por meio de amostra aleatória (n=1 271 representativa do total de 4 665. Foram obtidas informações socioeconômicas, de estilo de vida e consumo alimentar, bem como morbidades referidas. O consumo alimentar foi avaliado por meio do questionário de freqüência alimentar. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se a presença dos fatores de risco: sedentarismo (88%, sobrepeso/obesidade (36%, tabagismo (27% e doenças do aparelho circulatório (30%. A média do consumo de alimentos de risco - ricos em gorduras saturadas, sódio e açúcares - foi estatisticamente maior entre os indivíduos de escolaridade fundamental e de renda familiar até três salários mínimos. Quanto aos alimentos protetores - fontes de fibra dietética, vitaminas, minerais, ácidos graxos insaturados e monoinsaturados, e fitoquímicos - a média de consumo foi estatisticamente maior entre os funcionários de escolaridade superior e renda superior a seis salários mínimos. CONCLUSÃO: Entre os indivíduos com nível de escolaridade fundamental e menor renda familiar há predominância de consumo de alimentos de risco para doenças cardiovasculares, além de outros fatores de risco associados. Os programas de intervenção devem priorizar tal segmento da população.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to describe the consumption of protective and promotive foods in cardiovascular diseases among public employees according to level of education and family income. METHODS: An epidemiologic investigation was carried out with public employees of state offices in São Paulo city, both sexes and aged up 18th on utilizing random sampling weighted (n=1 271 select from a

  7. Protection by the NO-Donor SNAP and BNP against Hypoxia/Reoxygenation in Rat Engineered Heart Tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Görbe

    Full Text Available In vitro assays could replace animal experiments in drug screening and disease modeling, but have shortcomings in terms of functional readout. Force-generating engineered heart tissues (EHT provide simple automated measurements of contractile function. Here we evaluated the response of EHTs to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R and the effect of known cardiocytoprotective molecules. EHTs from neonatal rat heart cells were incubated for 24 h in EHT medium. Then they were subjected to 180 min hypoxia (93% N2, 7% CO2 and 120 min reoxygenation (40% O2, 53% N2, 7% CO2, change of medium and additional follow-up of 48 h. Time-matched controls (40% O2, 53% N2, 7% CO2 were run for comparison. The following conditions were applied during H/R: fresh EHT medium (positive control, the NO-donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D,L-penicillamine (SNAP, 10(-7, 10(-6, 10(-5 M or the guanylate cyclase activator brain type natriuretic peptide (BNP, 10(-9, 10(-8, 10(-7 M. Frequency and force of contraction were repeatedly monitored over the entire experiment, pH, troponin I (cTnI, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and glucose concentrations measured in EHT medium. Beating activity of EHTs in 24 h-medium ceased during hypoxia, partially recovered during reoxygenation and reached time-control values during follow-up. H/R was accompanied by a small increase in LDH and non-significant increase in cTnI. In fresh medium, some EHTs continued beating during hypoxia and all EHTs recovered faster during reoxygenation. SNAP and BNP showed small but significant protective effects during reoxygenation. EHTs are applicable to test potential cardioprotective compounds in vitro, monitoring functional and biochemical endpoints, which otherwise could be only measured by using in vivo or ex vivo heart preparations. The sensitivity of the model needs improvement.

  8. Quantitative Mitochondrial Proteomics Study on Protective Mechanism of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extracts Against Ischemia/Reperfusion Heart Injury in Rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Wei-da; QIU Jie; ZHAO Gai-xia; QIE Liang-yi; WEI Xin-bing; GAO Hai-qing

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac ischemia/reperfusion(I/R) injury is a critical condition,often associated with high morbidity and mortality.The cardioprotective effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts(GSPE) against oxidant injury during I/R has been described in previous studies.However,the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been fully elucidated.This study investigated the effect of GSPE on reperfusion arrhythmias especially ventricular tachycardia(VT)and ventricular fibrillation(VF),the lactic acid accumulation and the ultrastructure of ischemic cardiomyocytes as well as the global changes of mitochondria proteins in in vivo rat heart model against I/R injury.GSPE significantly reduced the incidence of VF and VT,lessened the lactic acid accumulation and attenuated the ultrastructure damage.Twenty differential proteins related to cardiac protection were revealed by isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation(iTRAQ) profiling.These proteins were mainly involved in energy metabolism.Besides,monoamine oxidase A(MAOA) was also identified.The differential expression of several proteins was validated by Western blot.Our study offered important information on the mechanism of GSPE treatment in ischemic heart disease.

  9. Endocannabinoids and the cardiovascular response to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Saoirse E; Kendall, Patrick J; Kendall, David A

    2012-01-01

    Stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS), resulting in cardiovascular responses. The endocannabinoid system (ECS), a ubiquitously expressed lipid signalling system, modulates both HPA and SNS activity. The purpose of this review is to explore the possible involvement/role of the ECS in the cardiovascular response to stress. The ECS has numerous cardiovascular effects including modulation of blood pressure, heart rate, the baroreflex, and direct vascular actions. It is also involved in a protective manner in response to stressors in cardiac preconditioning, and various stressors (for example, pain, orthostasis and social stress) increase plasma levels of endocannabinoids. Given the multitude of vascular effects of endocannabinoids, this is bound to have consequences. Beneficial effects of ECS upregulation could include cardioprotection, vasodilatation, CB(2)-mediated anti-inflammatory effects and activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. Negative effects of endocannabinoids could include mediation of the effects of glucocorticoids, CB(1)-mediated metabolic changes, and metabolism to vasoconstrictor products. It is also likely that there is a central role for the ECS in modulating cardiovascular activity via the HPA and SNS. However, much more work is required to fully integrate the role of the ECS in mediating many of the physiological responses to stress, including cardiovascular responses.

  10. Role of Opioid Receptors Signaling in Remote Electrostimulation--Induced Protection against Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rat Hearts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Ju Tsai

    Full Text Available Our previous studies demonstrated that remote electro-stimulation (RES increased myocardial GSK3 phosphorylation and attenuated ischemia/ reperfusion (I/R injury in rat hearts. However, the role of various opioid receptors (OR subtypes in preconditioned RES-induced myocardial protection remains unknown. We investigated the role of OR subtype signaling in RES-induced cardioprotection against I/R injury of the rat heart.Male Spraque-Dawley rats were used. RES was performed on median nerves area with/without pretreatment with various receptors antagonists such as opioid receptor (OR subtype receptors (KOR, DOR, and MOR. The expressions of Akt, GSK3, and PKCε expression were analyzed by Western blotting. When RES was preconditioned before the I/R model, the rat's hemodynamic index, infarction size, mortality and serum CK-MB were evaluated. Our results showed that Akt, GSK3 and PKCε expression levels were significantly increased in the RES group compared to the sham group, which were blocked by pretreatment with specific antagonists targeting KOR and DOR, but not MOR subtype. Using the I/R model, the duration of arrhythmia and infarct size were both significantly attenuated in RES group. The mortality rates of the sham RES group, the RES group, RES group + KOR antagonist, RES group + DOR/MOR antagonists (KOR left, RES group + DOR antagonist, and RES group + KOR/MOR antagonists (DOR left were 50%, 20%, 67%, 13%, 50% and 55%, respectively.The mechanism of RES-induced myocardial protection against I/R injury seems to involve multiple target pathways such as Akt, KOR and/or DOR signaling.

  11. Cardiovascular risk prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Peter; Abildstrøm, Steen Z; Jespersen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    (ECG) abnormalities, heart rate, family history (of ischaemic heart disease), body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio, walking duration and pace, leisure time physical activity, forced expiratory volume (FEV)1%pred, household income, education, vital exhaustion, high-density lipoprotein (HDL......AIM: European society of cardiology (ESC) guidelines recommend that cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk stratification in asymptomatic individuals is based on the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) algorithm, which estimates individual 10-year risk of death from CVD. We assessed...

  12. Neuregulin-1 preconditioning protects the heart against ischemia/reperfusion injury through a PI3K/Akt-dependent mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Shan-juan; WU Xue-si; HAN Zhi-hong; ZHANG Xiao-xia; WANG Chun-mei; LI Xin-yan; LU Ling-qiao; ZHANG Jing-lan

    2010-01-01

    Background Neuregulin-1 (NRG-1), the ligand of the myocardial ErbB receptor, is a protein mediator with regulatory actions in the heart. This study investigated whether NRG-1 preconditioning has protective effects on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and its potential mechanism.Methods We worked with an in vivo rat model with induced myocardial ischemia (45 minutes) followed by reperfusion (3 hours). NRG-1 message was detected in the heart using RT-PCR and the protein levels of NRG-1 and ErbB4 were detected by Western blotting analysis. Infarct size was assessed using the staining agent triphenyltetrazolium chloride and cardiac function was continuously monitored. The levels of creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase in plasma were analyzed to assess the degree of cardiac injury. The extent of cardiac apoptosis was evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay and by Western blotting analysis of cleaved caspase-3. We examined the phosphorylation of Akt in the myocardium and the effect of PI3K/Akt inhibition on NRG-1-induced cardioprotection.Results Transcription and expression of NRG-1 and phosphorylation of its ErbB4 receptor were significantly upregulated in the I/R hearts. NRG-1 pretreatment reduced the infarct size following cardiac I/R in a concentration-dependent manner with an optimal concentration of 4 μg/kg in vivo. NRG-1 pretreatment with 4 μg/kg, i.v.markedly reduced the plasma creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase levels. Pretreatment with NRG-1 also significantly reduced the percentage of TUNEL positive myocytes and the level of cleaved caspase-3 in the I/R hearts.Pretreatment with NRG-1 significantly increased phosphorylation of Akt following I/R. Furthermore, the cardioprotective effect limiting the infarct size that was induced by NRG-1 was abolished by co-administration of the PI3K inhibitor LY294002.Conclusions The concentration of NRG-1, a new autacoid, was rapidly upregulated

  13. Protecting the delivery of heart failure: Regenerative Medicine/Stem Cell Therapeutics: Potential protections afforded by the Department of Health and Human Services and Health Resources Service Administration's Bureau of Special Programs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gary S Friedman; John S. Tomicki; Neil Cohen; Robert Marshall; Philip Lowry; Jeffrey Warsh

    2006-01-01

    , providing an umbrella of liability protection to other participants in the stem cell unit "chain of custody" under the FTCA-similar to the protection from product liability seen in organ and stem cell transplantation for the past 40-50 years.Efficacious development of regenerative medicine capabilities will mandate controlled access must first be provided for individuals with life-threatening diseases without therapeutic options or unable to benefit from or receive proven therapeutic options (ALS, cardiomyopathy and deemed not a candidate for heart transplantation, IDDM with hypoglyce mic unawareness and no allogeneic source of traditional islet cell replacement available via HRSA) and mandates the prompt adoption of business and legal principles to ensure that the fate of the vaccine manufacturing industry does not become the fate of the stem cell therapeutics industry.If legal and regulatory concerns consume an increasing percentage of health care dollars that could be focused upon innovation, the Regenerative Medicine model will have not realized its full potential.The Diabetes Transplantation/Regenerative Medicine Model is the first organ to cell transplant model outside of oncology to demonstrate the regenerative medicine paradigm. Since all human tissues can be already recapitulated by human stem cells and key patent holders already exist, outlet or distribution of "more-than-minimally-manipulated stem cell units" as an IND approved under FDA/CBER guidelines can be accomplished via the current HHS/HRSA/Dept of Transplant methodology. As cardiovascular stem cell researchers develop human therapeutics utilizing more-than-minimallymanipulated stem cell products, they could be afforded protections from product liability historically enjoyed by the transplant community. Extending the Diabetes Transplant/Regenerative Medicine Model to the more than 5 million Americans with chronic heart failure, cell-based therapies to regenerate myocardial contractility could fill an

  14. Crucial interactions between selective serotonin uptake inhibitors and sigma-1 receptor in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Md Shenuarin; Tagashira, Hideaki; Fukunaga, Kohji

    2013-01-01

    Depression is associated with a substantial increase in the risk of developing heart failure and is independently associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Inversely, cardiovascular disease can lead to severe depression. Thus, therapy with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is strongly recommended to reduce cardiovascular disease-induced morbidity and mortality. However, molecular mechanisms to support evidence-based SSRI treatment of cardiovascular disease have not been elucidated. We recently found very high expression of the sigma-1 receptor, an orphan receptor, in rat heart tissue and defined the cardiac sigma-1 receptor as a direct SSRI target in eliciting cardioprotection in both pressure overload (PO)induced and transverse aortic constriction (TAC)-induced myocardial hypertrophy models in rodents. Our findings suggest that SSRIs such as fluvoxamine protect against PO- and TAC-induced cardiac dysfunction by upregulating sigma-1 receptor expression and stimulating sigma-1 receptor-mediated Akt-eNOS signaling. Here, we discuss the association of depression and cardiovascular diseases, the protective mechanism of SSRIs in heart failure patients, and the pathophysiological relevance of sigma-1 receptors to progression of heart failure. These findings should promote development of clinical therapeutics targeting the sigma-1 receptor in cardiovascular diseases.

  15. 心血管内科心率变异性分析174例%Analysis of heart rate variability in 174 cases of cardiovascular department of Internal Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    独孤昌军

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解心内科心率变异性与心血管疾病的变化规律,主要影响因素。方法采用Holter对174名心内科住院患者进行24小时动态心电图监测,然后分析时域法指标随不同疾病的变化规律。进行统计学分析,t检验。结论心率变异性在高血压组、冠心病组、心肌梗塞组、糖尿病组、心力衰竭组明显降低,有统计学差异。在植物神经功能紊乱组无明显降低,无统计学差异。心律失常组与无心律失常的健康对照组有部分差异。%Objective To investigate the changes of heart rate variability and cardiovascular diseases in Department of Cardiology,and to investigate the main factors affecting the changes of heart rate variability and cardiovascular diseases..Methods Holter was used to monitor 174 hours of ambulatory ECG in 24 Department of Cardiology,and then the time domain index was analyzed with different disease.T test. Results The SDNN,SDANN,PNN50%in hypertension,coronary heart disease,myocardial infarction,diabetes,heart failure and other group decreased significantly,P<0.05 were considered to be statistically significant difference;RDSSM in hypertension,coronary heart disease with diabetes mellitus group decreased significantly,P value<0.05 significant difference.Conclusion The heart rate variability in the hypertension group,coronary heart disease group,myocardial infarction group,diabetes group,heart failure group were significantly lower,there were statistically significant differences.There was no significant difference in the functional disorder of the autonomic nervous system.There were some differences in the healthy control group of arrhythmia and arrhythmia.

  16. Influenza vaccines for preventing cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Clar

    and reported cardiovascular outcomes among their safety analyses; four trials (n = 1682 focused on prevention of cardiovascular events in patients with established coronary heart disease. These populations were analysed separately. Follow-up continued between 42 days and one year. Five RCTs showed deficits in at least three of the risk of bias criteria assessed. When reported (seven studies, vaccination provided adequate immunogenicity or protection against influenza. Cardiovascular mortality was reported by four secondary prevention trials and was significantly reduced by influenza vaccination overall (risk ratio (RR 0.45, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.26 to 0.76; P value 0.003 with no significant heterogeneity between studies, and by three trials reporting cardiovascular mortality as part of their safety analyses when the numbers of events were too small to permit conclusions. In studies of patients with coronary heart disease, composite outcomes of cardiovascular events tended to be decreased with influenza vaccination compared with placebo. Generally no significant difference was found between comparison groups regarding individual outcomes such as myocardial infarction.AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: In patients with cardiovascular disease, influenza vaccination may reduce cardiovascular mortality and combined cardiovascular events. However, studies had some risk of bias, and results were not always consistent, so additional higher-quality evidence is necessary to confirm these findings. Not enough evidence was available to establish whether influenza vaccination has a role to play in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

  17. Treatment-resistant hypertension and the incidence of cardiovascular disease and end-stage renal disease: results from the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntner, Paul; Davis, Barry R; Cushman, William C; Bangalore, Sripal; Calhoun, David A; Pressel, Sara L; Black, Henry R; Kostis, John B; Probstfield, Jeffrey L; Whelton, Paul K; Rahman, Mahboob

    2014-11-01

    Apparent treatment-resistant hypertension (aTRH) is defined as uncontrolled hypertension despite the use of ≥3 antihypertensive medication classes or controlled hypertension while treated with ≥4 antihypertensive medication classes. Although a high prevalence of aTRH has been reported, few data are available on its association with cardiovascular and renal outcomes. We analyzed data on 14 684 Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT) participants to determine the association between aTRH (n=1870) with coronary heart disease, stroke, all-cause mortality, heart failure, peripheral artery disease, and end-stage renal disease. We defined aTRH as blood pressure not at goal (systolic/diastolic blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg) while taking ≥3 classes of antihypertensive medication or taking ≥4 classes of antihypertensive medication with blood pressure at goal during the year 2 ALLHAT study visit (1996-2000). Use of a diuretic was not required to meet the definition of aTRH. Follow-up occurred through 2002. The multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) comparing participants with versus without aTRH were as follows: coronary heart disease (1.44 [1.18-1.76]), stroke (1.57 [1.18-2.08]), all-cause mortality (1.30 [1.11-1.52]), heart failure (1.88 [1.52-2.34]), peripheral artery disease (1.23 [0.85-1.79]), and end-stage renal disease (1.95 [1.11-3.41]). aTRH was also associated with the pooled outcomes of combined coronary heart disease (hazard ratio, 1.47; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-1.71) and combined cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio, 1.46; 95% confidence interval, 1.29-1.64). These results demonstrate that aTRH increases the risk for cardiovascular disease and end-stage renal disease. Studies are needed to identify approaches to prevent aTRH and reduce risk for adverse outcomes among individuals with aTRH.

  18. Pre-historic eating patterns in Latin America and protective effects of plant-based diets on cardiovascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio C. Acosta Navarro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we present the contributions to nutrition science from Latin American native peoples and scientists, appreciated from a historic point of view since pre-historic times to the modern age. Additionally, we present epidemiological and clinical studies on the area of plant-based diets and their relation with the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases conducted in recent decades, and we discuss challenges and perspectives regarding aspects of nutrition in the region

  19. A combined abnormality in heart rate variation and QT corrected interval is a strong predictor of cardiovascular death in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, J A; Tarnow, Lise; Parving, H H;

    2008-01-01

    Long-term diabetes is associated with excess morbidity and mortality, and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and QTc interval abnormalities are both predictive of early cardiovascular death in diabetes. We aimed to investigate the effect of these risk factors in a large cohort of type 1 diabetic...

  20. Metabolic Syndrome and Short-Term and Long-Term Heart Rate Variability in Elderly Free of Clinical Cardiovascular Disease : The PROOF Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assoumou, H. G. Ntougou; Pichot, V.; Barthelemy, J. C.; Dauphinot, V.; Celle, S.; Gosse, P.; Kossovsky, M.; Gaspoz, J. M.; Roche, F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity decrease has been associated with a higher risk of sudden cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. Thus, we explored the relationship between ANS control of the cardiovascular system and metabolic syndrome. Methods: We analyzed the relationship w

  1. Determination of Anti-Adeno-Associated Viral Vector Neutralizing Antibodies in Patients With Heart Failure in the Cardiovascular Foundation of Colombia (ANVIAS): Study Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, Carlos E; Lopez, Marcos; Castillo, Victor; Echeverria, Luis Eduardo; Serrano, Norma

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent progress in the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF) has led to the development of new therapeutic options such as gene therapy and the use of adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors. Despite the promising results in early clinical trials of gene therapy for HF, various obstacles have been faced, such as the presence of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against the capsid vectors. NAb activity limits vector transduction levels and therefore diminishes the final therapeutic response. Recent studies evaluating the prevalence of NAbs in various populations found considerable geographic variability for each AAV serotype. However, the levels of NAbs in Latin American populations are unknown, becoming a limiting factor to conducting AAV vector therapeutic trials in this population. Objective The goal of this study is to determine for the first time, the prevalence of anti-AAV NAbs for the serotypes 1, 2, and 9 in HF patients from the city of Bucaramanga, Colombia, using the in vitro transduction inhibition assay. Methods We will conduct a cross-sectional study with patients who periodically attend the HF clinic of the Cardiovascular Foundation of Colombia and healthy volunteers matched for age and sex. For all participants, we will evaluate the NAb levels against serotypes AAV1, AAV2, and AAV9. We will determine NAb levels using the in vitro transduction inhibition assay. In addition, participants will answer a survey to evaluate their epidemiological and socioeconomic variables. Participation in the study will be voluntary and all participants will sign an informed consent document before any intervention. Results The project is in the first phase: elaboration of case report forms and the informed consent form, and design of the recruitment strategy. Patient recruitment is expected to begin in the spring of 2016. We expect to have preliminary results, including the titer of the viral vectors, multiplicity of infections that we will use for each serotype

  2. Low heart-type fatty acid binding protein level during aging may protect down syndrome people against atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vianello Elena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aging is considered an important independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. Down syndrome people (DS display an accelerated aging process compared to healthy subjects, anyway they are relatively resistant to developing atherosclerosis. The mechanisms involved in such protective effect are not well known. Since heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP is a protein involved in the transport of fatty acids and it has been recently correlated with the presence of atherosclerosis, we aimed to measure H-FABP level both in DS and in healthy subjects during aging to evaluate the association between this molecule, aging and atherosclerosis. Findings We quantified plasmatic H-FABP level in three groups of male DS and age-matched healthy subjects (children, age 2–14 years; adults, age 20–50 years; elderly, > 60 years using a biochip array analyzer. We observed that aging is associated with increased H-FABP level in healthy subjects but not in DS which display both the same protein level in the different ages of life and have also lower level compared to their age-matched healthy subjects. Conclusion Reduced H-FABP level during aging in DS may play a protective role against atherosclerosis. The potential involvement of H-FABP in the relationship between aging, atherosclerosis and development of coronary artery disease needs further investigations.

  3. Protective effect of periconceptional folic acid supplements on the risk of congenital heart defects: a registry-based case-control study in the northern Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijnum, I.M. van; Kapusta, L.; Bakker, M.K.; Heijer, M. den; Blom, H.J.; Walle, H.E. de

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the potentially protective of periconceptional folic acid use on the risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs) relative to other non-folate related malformations. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analysed data from a large regional register of birth defects (EUROCAT-Northern Netherlands),

  4. Protective effect of periconceptional folic acid supplements on the risk of congenital heart defects : a registry-based case-control study in the northern Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beynum, Ingrid M.; Kapusta, Livia; Bakker, Marian K.; den Heijer, Martin; Blom, Henk J.; de Walle, Hermien E. K.

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the potentially protective of periconceptional folic acid use on the risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs) relative to other non-folate related malformations. We analysed data from a large regional register of birth defects (EUROCAT-Northern Netherlands), over a 10 year period (1996

  5. 冠心病患者心血管意外和凝血功能相关性分析%Cardiovascular Accidents and Blood Coagulation Function in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease Correlation Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许卓帆; 吴毅琴; 黄冠文

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究冠心病患者心血管意外和凝血功能相关性。方法从2013年4月到2014年1月,选取我院的96例冠心病患者进行回顾性分析,均采用冠脉CT检查心血管凝血情况,分析了解凝血功能与心血管意外的相关性。结果96例冠心病患者进行了随访,其中有16例患者因心血管意外而死亡,其中有34名患者发生心血管意外但并不致死,死亡以及非致死性心血管意外患者的调查中血浆高密度脂蛋白浓度较低,同时C反应蛋白,白细胞介素浓度较高;心血管意外死亡组患者的凝血功能指标显著高于比非致死性心血管意外组,而非致死性心血管意外组又显著高于无心血管意外组,组间的比较差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);凝血因子水平和其他心血管危险因素的关系vWF、PAP、浓度随着年龄的增长而升高,纤维蛋白原、TAT水平与年龄无关,其他凝血功能参数和心血管影响因素的关系。结论冠心病患者心血管意外与高凝血状态有一定的关系,为了减少心血管意外的发生。%Objective To study the correlation analysis of cardiovascular accidents and blood coagula-tion function in patients with coronary heart disease(CHD). Methods From April 2013 to January 2014,se-lected from 96 cases of coronary heart disease patients in our hospital,and they were retrospectively analyzed, both by coronary angiography examination of cardiovascular blood coagulation, analyzed and understood the correlation of blood coagulation function and cardiovascular accident. Results 96 cases of coronary heart dis-ease patients who were followed up,there are 16 patients died when the cardiovascular accident,there were 34 patients with cardiovascular accident but not death,death,nonfatal cardiovascular accident investigation in the patients with plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol( hdl-c) concentration was low,at the same time c-re-active protein

  6. Fruits, vegetables and coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauchet, Luc; Amouyel, Philippe; Dallongeville, Jean

    2009-09-01

    Diet plays an important part in the maintenance of optimal cardiovascular health. This Review summarizes the evidence for a relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and the occurrence of coronary heart disease. This evidence is based on observational cohort studies, nutrition prevention trials with fruit and vegetables, and investigations of the effects of fruit and vegetables on cardiovascular risk factors. Most of the evidence supporting a cardioprotective effect comes from observational epidemiological studies; these studies have reported either weak or nonsignificant associations. Controlled nutritional prevention trials are scarce and the existing data do not show any clear protective effects of fruit and vegetables on coronary heart disease. Under rigorously controlled experimental conditions, fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with a decrease in blood pressure, which is an important cardiovascular risk factor. However, the effects of fruit and vegetable consumption on plasma lipid levels, diabetes, and body weight have not yet been thoroughly explored. Finally, the hypothesis that nutrients in fruit and vegetables have a protective role in reducing the formation of atherosclerotic plaques and preventing complications of atherosclerosis has not been tested in prevention trials. Evidence that fruit and vegetable consumption reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease remains scarce thus far.

  7. Heart disease. Third edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braunwald, E.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 62 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Radiological and Angiographic Examination of the Heart; Newer Cardiac Imaging Techniques: Digital Subtraction Angiography, Computerized Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Nuclear Cardiology; and Genetics and Cardiovascular Disease.

  8. Fish, n-3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular diseases in women of reproductive age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Marin; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Mortensen, Erik L;

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated a protective effect of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn3FAs) against cardiovascular disease; however, women are underrepresented in cardiovascular research. The aim of this study was to explore the association between intake of LCn3FAs and the risk......, and ischemic heart disease used to define a combined measure of cardiovascular diseases. Intake of fish and LCn3FAs was assessed by a food-frequency questionnaire and telephone interviews. During follow-up (1996-2008; median: 8 years), 577 events of cardiovascular disease were identified. Low LCn3FA intake...... of cardiovascular disease in a large prospective cohort of young women (mean age at baseline: 29.9 years [range: 15.7-46.9]). Exposure information on 48 627 women from the Danish National Birth Cohort was linked to the Danish National Patients Registry for information on events of hypertensive, cerebrovascular...

  9. [Cardiovascular complications of hypertensive crisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Peralta, Martín; Borrayo-Sánchez, Gabriela; Madrid-Miller, Alejandra; Ramírez-Arias, Erick; Pérez-Rodríguez, Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    It is inexorable that a proportion of patients with systemic arterial hypertension will develop a hypertensive crisis at some point in their lives. The hypertensive crises can be divided in hypertensive patients with emergency or hypertensive emergency, according to the presence or absence of acute end-organ damage. In this review, we discuss the cardiovascular hypertensive emergencies, including acute coronary syndrome, congestive heart failure, aortic dissection and sympathomimetic hypertensive crises (those caused by cocaine use included). Each is presented in a unique way, although some patients with hypertensive emergency report non-specific symptoms. Treatment includes multiple medications for quick and effective action with security to reduce blood pressure, protect the function of organs remaining, relieve symptoms, minimize the risk of complications and improve patient outcomes.

  10. Cardiovascular effects of gliptins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheen, André J

    2013-02-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors (commonly referred to as gliptins) are a novel class of oral antihyperglycaemic agents with demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Preclinical data and mechanistic studies have indicated a possible beneficial action on blood vessels and the heart, via both glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1)-dependent and GLP-1-independent effects. DPP-4 inhibition increases the concentration of many peptides with potential vasoactive and cardioprotective effects. Clinically, DPP-4 inhibitors improve several risk factors in patients with T2DM. They improve blood glucose control (mainly by reducing postprandial glycaemia), are weight neutral (or even induce modest weight loss), lower blood pressure, improve postprandial lipaemia, reduce inflammatory markers, diminish oxidative stress, and improve endothelial function. Some positive effects on the heart have also been described in patients with ischaemic heart disease or congestive heart failure, although their clinical relevance requires further investigation. Post-hoc analyses of phase II-III, controlled trials suggest a possible cardioprotective effect with a trend for a lower incidence of major cardiovascular events with gliptins than with placebo or active agents. However, the actual relationship between DPP-4 inhibition and cardiovascular outcomes remains to be proven. Major prospective clinical trials with predefined cardiovascular outcomes and involving various DPP-4 inhibitors are now underway in patients with T2DM and a high-risk cardiovascular profile.

  11. Angiotensin II receptor blockers and cardiovascular protection: Focus on left ventricular hypertrophy regression and atrial fibrillation prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Cuspidi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Cesare Cuspidi1,2, Francesca Negri2, Alberto Zanchetti31Department of Clinical Medicine and Prevention, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milan, Italy; 2Policlinico di Monza; 3Centro Interuniversitario di Fisiologia Clinica e Ipertensione, Università di Milano, and Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Milan, ItalyAbstract: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH and atrial fibrillation (AF are strong predictors of cardiovascular (CV morbidity and mortality, independently of blood pressure levels and other modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors. The actions of circulating and tissue angiotensin II, mediated by AT1 receptors, play an important role in the development of a wide spectrum of cardiovascular alterations, including LVH, atrial enlargement and AF. Growing experimental and clinical evidence suggests that antihypertensive drugs may exert different effects on LVH regression and new onset AF in the setting of arterial hypertension. Since a number of large and adequately designed studies have found angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs to be more effective in reducing LVH than beta-blockers and data are also available showing their effectiveness in preventing new or recurrent AF, it is reasonable to consider this class of drugs among first line therapies in patients with hypertension and LVH (a very high risk phenotype predisposing to AF and as adjunctive therapy to antiarrhythmic agents in patients undergoing pharmacological or electrical cardioversion of AF.Keywords: angiotensin II receptor blockers, left ventricular hypertrophy, atrial fibrillation

  12. C1q/TNF-Related Protein 9 Protects Diabetic Rat Heart against Ischemia Reperfusion Injury: Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Sanxing; Cheng, Liang; Yang, Yang; Fan, Chongxi; Zhao, Dajun; Qin, Zhigang; Feng, Xiao; Zhao, Lin; Ma, Jipeng; Wang, Xiaowu; Yang, Jian; Xu, Xuezeng

    2016-01-01

    As a newly identified adiponectin paralog, C1q/TNF-related protein 9 (CTRP9) reduces myocardial ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury through partially understood mechanisms. In the present study, we sought to identify the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) in CTRP9 induced cardioprotection in diabetic heart. Isolated hearts from high-fat-diet (HFD) induced type 2 diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to ex vivo IR protocol via a Langendorff apparatus at the presence of globular CTRP9. CTRP9 significantly improved post-IR heart function and reduced cardiac infarction, cardiomyocytes apoptosis, Caspase-3, Caspase-9, Caspase-12, TNF-α expression, and lactate dehydrogenase activity. The cardioprotective effect of CTRP9 was associated with reduced ERS and increased expression of disulfide-bond A oxidoreductase-like protein (DsbA-L) in diabetic heart. CTRP9 reduced ERS in thapsigargin (TG) treated cardiomyocytes and protected endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stressed H9c2 cells against simulated ischemia reperfusion (SIR) injury, concurrent with increased expression of DsbA-L. Knockdown of DsbA-L increased ERS and attenuated CTRP9 induced protection against SIR injury in H9c2 cells. Our findings demonstrated for the first time that CTRP9 exerts cardioprotection by reducing ERS in diabetic heart through increasing DsbA-L.

  13. Down Syndrome: A Cardiovascular Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vis, J. C.; Duffels, M. G. J.; Winter, M. M.; Weijerman, M. E.; Cobben, J. M.; Huisman, S. A.; Mulder, B. J. M.

    2009-01-01

    This review focuses on the heart and vascular system in patients with Down syndrome. A clear knowledge on the wide spectrum of various abnormalities associated with this syndrome is essential for skillful management of cardiac problems in patients with Down syndrome. Epidemiology of congenital heart defects, cardiovascular aspects and…

  14. Erythropoietin-mediated protection in kidney transplantation : Nonerythropoietic EPO derivatives improve function without increasing risk of cardiovascular events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijt, Willem G; van Goor, Harry; Ploeg, Rutger J; Leuvenink, Henri G D

    2014-01-01

    The protective, nonerythropoietic effects of erythropoietin (EPO) have become evident in preclinical models in renal ischaemia/reperfusion injury and kidney transplantation. However, four recently published clinical trials using high-dose EPO treatment following renal transplantation did not reveal

  15. The atherosclerotic heart disease and protecting properties of garlic: contemporary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorinstein, Shela; Jastrzebski, Zenon; Namiesnik, Jacek; Leontowicz, Hanna; Leontowicz, Maria; Trakhtenberg, Simon

    2007-11-01

    This article reviews the contemporary data concerning atherosclerosis and protecting properties of garlic. Recent advances in basic science have established a fundamental role for inflammation in mediating all stages of this disease from initiation through progression and, ultimately, the thrombotic complications of atherosclerosis. These new findings provide important links between risk factors and the mechanisms of atherogenesis and garlic properties. Numerous in vitro studies have confirmed the ability of garlic to reduce the parameters of the risk of atherosclerosis: total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides, oxidized LDL. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant potentials in fresh, cooked, boiled and commercial garlic from different regions are presented, using beta-carotene, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) with K2S2O8 or MnO2, ferric-reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP), cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) and others assays for antioxidant status. In vivo studies were reviewed on with garlic and cholesterol supplemented diets. The positive influences of garlic on plasma lipids, proteins, antioxidant activity, and some indices of blood coagulation are dose dependent. Garlic could be a valuable component of atherosclerosis-preventing diets only in optimal doses. Many recently published reports show that garlic possesses plasma lipid-lowering and plasma anticoagulant and antioxidant properties and improves impaired endothelial function.

  16. Three-dimensional echocardiography in congenital heart disease : an expert consensus document from the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging and the American Society of Echocardiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simpson, John; Lopez, Leo; Acar, Philippe; Friedberg, Mark; Khoo, Nee; Ko, Helen; Marek, Jan; Marx, Gerald; McGhie, Jackie; Meijboom, Folkert; Roberson, David; Van den Bosch, Annemien; Miller, Owen; Shirali, Girish

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) has become important in the management of patients with congenital heart disease (CHD), particularly with pre-surgical planning, guidance of catheter intervention, and functional assessment of the heart. 3DE is increasingly used in children because of good ac

  17. Research progress on cardiovascular protection effect and its mechanisms of genistein%染料木素心血管保护作用及机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冬花(综述); 黄红林(审校)

    2015-01-01

    Genistein (Gen) is called phytoestrogens with a chemical structure similar to estrogen, which was mainly extracted by the leguminous plants such as soybeans, clover, and dye wood active ingredient. Numerous studied have demonstrated that genistein plays protective effects against arteriosclerosis, myocardial protection, arrhythmia and regulate blood pressure, via regulating lipid, resistance to oxidation and inlfammatory, protecting blood vessels. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to review the function and mechanisms of genistein in cardiovascular effects.%染料木素(genistein,Gen)是一种化学结构与雌激素相似,主要从大豆、三叶草、染料木等豆科植物中提取出来的活性成分,被称为植物雌激素。大量研究表明Gen可以通过调节脂类代谢、抗氧化、血管保护及抗炎等机制,从而发挥防治动脉粥样硬化(atherosclerosis,AS)、心肌保护、抗心律失常、调节血压等心血管的保护作用。本文就Gen的心血管保护作用机制的研究进展及展望作一综述。

  18. The role of vitamin D deficiency in cardiovascular disease: where do we stand in 2013?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, Stefan; Gaksch, Martin; O'Hartaigh, Bríain; Tomaschitz, Andreas; März, Winfried

    2013-12-01

    The high worldwide prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is largely the result of low sunlight exposure with subsequently limited cutaneous vitamin D production. Classic manifestations of vitamin D deficiency are linked to disturbances in bone and mineral metabolism, but the identification of the vitamin D receptor in almost every human cell suggests a broader role of vitamin D for overall and cardiovascular health. The various cardiovascular protective actions of vitamin D such as anti-diabetic and anti-hypertensive effects including renin suppression as well as protection against atherosclerosis and heart diseases are well defined in previous experimental studies. In line with this, large epidemiological studies have highlighted vitamin D deficiency as a marker of cardiovascular risk. However, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on vitamin D have largely failed to show its beneficial effects on cardiovascular diseases and its conventional risk factors. While most prior vitamin D RCTs were not designed to assess cardiovascular outcomes, some large RCTs have been initiated to evaluate the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular events in the general population. When considering the history of previous disappointing vitamin RCTs in general populations, more emphasis should be placed on RCTs among severely vitamin D-deficient populations who would most likely benefit from vitamin D treatment. At present, vitamin D deficiency can only be considered a cardiovascular risk marker, as vitamin D supplementation with doses recommended for osteoporosis treatment is neither proven to be beneficial nor harmful in cardiovascular diseases.

  19. Systemic-to-pulmonary collateral flow in patients with palliated univentricular heart physiology: measurement using cardiovascular magnetic resonance 4D velocity acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valverde Israel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic-to-pulmonary collateral flow (SPCF may constitute a risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality in patients with single-ventricle physiology (SV. However, clinical research is limited by the complexity of multi-vessel two-dimensional (2D cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR flow measurements. We sought to validate four-dimensional (4D velocity acquisition sequence for concise quantification of SPCF and flow distribution in patients with SV. Methods 29 patients with SV physiology prospectively underwent CMR (1.5 T (n = 14 bidirectional cavopulmonary connection [BCPC], age 2.9 ± 1.3 years; and n = 15 Fontan, 14.4 ± 5.9 years and 20 healthy volunteers (age, 28.7 ± 13.1 years served as controls. A single whole-heart 4D velocity acquisition and five 2D flow acquisitions were performed in the aorta, superior/inferior caval veins, right/left pulmonary arteries to serve as gold-standard. The five 2D velocity acquisition measurements were compared with 4D velocity acquisition for validation of individual vessel flow quantification and time efficiency. The SPCF was calculated by evaluating the disparity between systemic (aortic minus caval vein flows and pulmonary flows (arterial and venour return. The pulmonary right to left and the systemic lower to upper body flow distribution were also calculated. Results The comparison between 4D velocity and 2D flow acquisitions showed good Bland-Altman agreement for all individual vessels (mean bias, 0.05±0.24 l/min/m2, calculated SPCF (−0.02±0.18 l/min/m2 and significantly shorter 4D velocity acquisition-time (12:34 min/17:28 min,p 2; Fontan 0.62±0.82 l/min/m2 and not in controls (0.01 + 0.16 l/min/m2, (3 inverse relation of right/left pulmonary artery perfusion and right/left SPCF (Pearson = −0.47,p = 0.01 and (4 upper to lower body flow distribution trend related to the weight (r = 0.742, p  Conclusions 4D

  20. Clinical Effect of Statins Combined With Cardiovascular Drugs for Coronary Heart Disease%他汀类联合心血管药物治疗冠心病的临床效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晶

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate clinical effect of statins combined cardiovascular drugs for coronary heart disease. Methods 60 patients with cardiovascular diseases from 2010 to 2013 in our hospital were selected into control group and observation group. The control group patients received cardiovascular medications,the observation group received cardiovascular drugs and statins treatment,the clinical effects between the two groups were compared. Results The clinical effective rate of observation group was higher than control group significantly(P<0.05). The lever of total cholesterol,HDL cholesterol,LDL cholesterol and triglycerides in the observation group were better than control group significantly(P< 0.05). Conclusion The clinical treatment effect of statins combined cardiovascular drugs for coronary heart disease is good,the patient's blood lipids is improved.%目的:探讨他汀类药物和心血管药物联合使用治疗冠心病的临床效果。方法对2010~2013年我院接收的60例心血管患者进行研究分析,将这些患者分为对照组和观察组,对照组患者使用心血管药物治疗,观察组患者使用心血管药物和他汀类药物治疗,对两组的临床治疗效果进行对比分析。结果临床治疗后,观察组患者的临床治疗有效率比对照组高,两组结果存在统计学差异性,P<0.05。两组患者的总胆固醇、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇、甘油三酯等指标结果为观察组较好,两组具有统计学差异性,P<0.05。结论他汀类药物和心血管药物对冠心病患者的临床治疗效果好,患者的血脂得到了改善。

  1. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan C. Vesa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents some general facts about omega-3 fatty acids and their role in the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for the human body. Their beneficial effects in the prevention of cardiovascular disease have been known for decades. Since then, several epidemiological and interventional trials showed the value of omega-3 acids in the treatment of certain diseases. Most of them revealed the protective role of omega-3 fatty acids on heart and cardiac functions. However, some of these studies couldn?t demonstrate a positive association between fish oils and preventing cardiac events. The major cardiologic societies from European Union and United States of America recommend omega-3 fatty acids as supplements for primary and secondary prophylaxis of cardiovascular diseases.

  2. Hypnotizability modulates the cardiovascular correlates of subjective relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarcangelo, Enrica L; Paoletti, Giulia; Balocchi, Rita; Carli, Giancarlo; Morizzo, Carmela; Palombo, Carlo; Varanini, Maurizio

    2012-01-01

    Mean values and the spectral variability of heart rate (HRV), blood pressure, and skin blood flow were studied in high and low hypnotizable subjects during simple relaxation. Similar subjective relaxation was reported by highs and lows. A parasympathetic prevalence (indicated by a higher High-Frequency component of HRV and a lower High/Low-Frequency ratio) and lower renin-angiotensin activity (indicated by a lower Very-Low-Frequency component of HRV) could be attributed to highs with respect to lows. Hypnotizability did not affect blood pressure and its variability and modulated the skin blood flow across the session only in lows. The findings confirm that relaxation cannot be defined solely on cardiovascular parameters and also indicate that hypnotizability modulates cardiovascular activity during simple relaxation and suggest it may have a protective role against cardiovascular disease.

  3. Resting heart rate, heart rate variability and functional decline in old age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogliari, Giulia; Mahinrad, Simin; Stott, David J;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heart rate and heart rate variability, markers of cardiac autonomic function, have been linked with cardiovascular disease. We investigated whether heart rate and heart rate variability are associated with functional status in older adults, independent of cardiovascular disease. METHODS......: We obtained data from the Prospective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER). A total of 5042 participants were included in the present study, and mean followup was 3.2 years. Heart rate and heart rate variability were derived from baseline 10-second electrocardiograms. Heart rate...... heart rate and lower heart rate variability were associated with worse functional status and with higher risk of future functional decline in older adults...

  4. Heart failure in COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, Frans Hendrik

    2005-01-01

    The main aim of the thesis was to assess the prevalence of heart failure in patients with a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Furthermore, to explore diagnostic strategies (including natriuretic peptides and cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR)) to identify heart

  5. Is a reduction in albuminuria associated with renal and cardiovascular protection? : A post-hoc analysis of the ALTITUDE trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Persson, Frederik; Brenner, Barry M; Brunel, Patrick; Chaturvedi, Nish; Desai, Akshay S; Haffner, S M; Mcmurray, John J V; Solomon, Scott D; Pfeffer, Marc A; Parving, Hans-Henrik; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: In the ALTITUDE trial, direct renin inhibition with aliskiren on top of ACEi_or_ARB therapy decreased albuminuria by 14% while this did not lead to cardiorenal protection. Prior studies have demonstrated that the renoprotective effect of single RAAS blockade is associated with approximately 30

  6. Chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia protects the heart against ischemia/reperfusion injury through upregulation of antioxidant enzymes in adult guinea pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-cai GUO; Zhe ZHANG; Li-nan ZHANG; Chen XIONG; Chen FENG; Qian LIU; Xu LIU; Xiao-lu SHI; Yong-li WANG

    2009-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the protection and the anti-oxidative mechanism afforded by chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (CIHH) against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in guinea pig hearts.Methods:Adult male guinea pigs were exposed to CIHH by mimicking a 5000 m high altitude (pB=404 mmHg,p02=84 mmHg) in a hypobaric chamber for 6 h/day for 28 days.Langendorff-perfused isolated guinea pig hearts were used to measure variables of left ventricular function during baseline perfusion,ischemia and the reperfusion period.The activity and protein expression of antioxidant enzymes in the left myocardium were evaluated using biochemical methods and Western blotting.respectively.Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were assessed using ROS-sensitive fluorescence.Results:After 30 min of global no-flow ischemia followed by 60 min of reperfusion,myocardial function had better recovery rates in CIHH guinea pig hearts than in control hearts.The activity and protein expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were significantly increased in the myocardium of CIHH guinea pigs.Pretreatment of control hearts with an antioxidant mixture containing SOD and CAT exerted cardioprotective effects similar to CIHH.The irreversible CAT inhibitor aminotriazole (ATZ) abolished the cardioprotection of CIHH.Cardiac contractile dysfunction and oxidative stress induced by exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were attenuated by CIHH and CAT.Conclusions:These data suggest that CIHH protects the heart against I/R injury through upregulation of antioxidant enzymes in guinea pig.

  7. Association of copeptin and N-terminal proBNP concentrations with risk of cardiovascular death in older patients with symptoms of heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alehagen, Urban; Dahlström, Ulf; Rehfeld, Jens Frederik

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of plasma concentrations of the biomarker copeptin may help identify patients with heart failure at high and low risk of mortality, although the value of copeptin measurement in elderly patients is not fully known....

  8. Cardiac Fibroblast-Specific Activating Transcription Factor 3 Protects Against Heart Failure by Suppressing MAP2K3-p38 Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yulin; Li, Zhenya; Zhang, Congcong; Li, Ping; Wu, Yina; Wang, Chunxiao; Lau, Wayne Bond; Ma, Xin-Liang; Du, Jie

    2017-03-01

    Background -Hypertensive ventricular remodeling is a common cause of heart failure. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating ventricular remodeling remain poorly understood. Methods -We used a discovery-driven/nonbiased approach to indentify increased ATF3 expression in hypertensive heart. We employed loss/gain of function approaches to understand the role of ATF3 in heart failure. We also examine the mechanisms through transcriptome, CHIP-seq analysis and in vivo and vitro experiments. Results -ATF3 expression increased in murine hypertensive heart and human hypertrophic heart. Cardiac fibroblast cells are the primary cell type expressing high ATF3 levels in response to hypertensive stimuli. ATF3 knockout (ATF3KO) markedly exaggerated hypertensive ventricular remodeling, a state rescued by lentivirus-mediated/miRNA-aided cardiac fibroblast-selective ATF3 overexpression. Conversely, conditional cardiac fibroblast cell-specific ATF3 transgenic overexpression significantly ameliorated ventricular remodeling and heart failure. We identified Map2K3 as a novel ATF3 target. ATF3 binds with the Map2K3 promoter, recruiting HDAC1, resulting in Map2K3 gene-associated histone deacetylation, thereby inhibiting Map2K3 expression. Genetic Map2K3 knockdown rescued the pro-fibrotic/hypertrophic phenotype in ATF3KO cells. Finally, we demonstrated that p38 is the downstream molecule of Map2K3 mediating the pro-fibrotic/hypertrophic effects in ATF3KO animals. Inhibition of p38 signaling reduced TGF-β signaling-related pro-fibrotic and hypertrophic gene expression, and blocked exaggerated cardiac remodeling in ATF3KO cells. Conclusions -Our study provides the first evidence that ATF3 upregulation in cardiac fibroblasts in response to hypertensive stimuli protects heart by suppressing Map2K3 expression and subsequent p38-TGF-β signaling. These results suggest that positive modulation of cardiac fibroblast ATF3 may represent a novel therapeutic approach against hypertensive

  9. "Non Working Beating Heart": novo método de proteção miocárdica no transplante cardíaco Non Working Beating Heart: a new strategy of myocardial protection during heart transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarbas Jakson Dinkhuysen

    2011-12-01

    implantation of the donor heart in the bicaval bipulmonary orthotopic position using normothermic beating heart and thus, facilitate the transplanted heart adaptation to the recipient. This study presents a small experience about a new strategy of myocardial protection during heart transplant. METHODS: In cardiopulmonary bypass, the aorta anastomosis was done first, allowing the coronary arteries to receive blood flow and the recovering of the beats. The rest of the anastomosis is performed on a beating heart in sinus rhythm. The pulmonary anastomosis is the last to be done. This methodology was applied in 10 subjects: eight males, age 16-69 (mean 32.7 years, SPAo 90-100 mmHg (mean 96 mmHg, SPAP 25-65 mmHg (mean 46.1 mmHg, PVR 0.9 to 5.0 Wood (mean 3.17 Wood, GTP 4-13 mmHg (mean 7.9 mmHg, and eight male donors, age 15-48 years (mean 27.7 years, weight 65-114 kg (mean 83.1 kg. Causes of brain coma: encephalic trauma in five hemorrhagic stroke in four, and brain tumor in one. RESULTS: The ischemic time ranged from 58-90 minutes (mean 67.6 minutes and 8 donors were in hospitals of Sao Paulo and two in distant cities. All grafts assumed the cardiac output requiring low-dose inotropic therapy and maintained these conditions in the postoperative period. There were no deaths and all were discharged. The late evolution goes from 20 days to 10 months with one death occurred after 4 months due to sepsis. CONCLUSION: This method, besides reducing the ischemic time of the procedure, allows the donated organ to regain and maintain their beats without pre or after load during implantation entailing the physiological recovery of the graft.

  10. Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    2008-01-01

    and electrophysiological abnormalities, an entity that is different from alcoholic heart muscle disease. Being clinically latent, cirrhotic cardiomyopathy can be unmasked by physical or pharmacological strain. Consequently, caution should be exercised in the case of stressful procedures, such as large volume paracentesis......Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis include cardiac dysfunction and abnormalities in the central, splanchnic and peripheral circulation, and haemodynamic changes caused by humoral and nervous dysregulation. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy implies systolic and diastolic dysfunction....... The clinical significance of cardiovascular complications and cirrhotic cardiomyopathy is an important topic for future research, and the initiation of new randomised studies of potential treatments for these complications is needed....

  11. Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    2008-01-01

    and electrophysiological abnormalities, an entity that is different from alcoholic heart muscle disease. Being clinically latent, cirrhotic cardiomyopathy can be unmasked by physical or pharmacological strain. Consequently, caution should be exercised in the case of stressful procedures, such as large volume paracentesis......Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis include cardiac dysfunction and abnormalities in the central, splanchnic and peripheral circulation, and haemodynamic changes caused by humoral and nervous dysregulation. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy implies systolic and diastolic dysfunction....... The clinical significance of cardiovascular complications and cirrhotic cardiomyopathy is an important topic for future research, and the initiation of new randomised studies of potential treatments for these complications is needed.  ...

  12. Candy consumption in childhood is not predictive of weight, adiposity measures or cardiovascular risk factors in young adults: the Bogalusa Heart Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are limited data available on the longitudinal relationship between candy consumption by children on weight and other cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in young adults. The present study investigated whether candy consumption in children was predictive of weight and CVRF in young adults. A lo...

  13. National dissemination of StrongWomen – Healthy Hearts: A community-based program to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease among midlife and older women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: We describe the national dissemination of an evidence-based community cardiovascular disease prevention program for midlife and older women using the RE-AIM (reach effectiveness adoption implementation maintenance) framework and share key lessons learned during translation. Methods: In a ...

  14. Administration of zinc complex of acetylsalicylic acid after the onset of myocardial injury protects the heart by upregulation of antioxidant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz-Icöz, Sevil; Atmanli, Ayhan; Radovits, Tamás; Li, Shiliang; Hegedüs, Peter; Ruppert, Mihály; Brlecic, Paige; Yoshikawa, Yutaka; Yasui, Hiroyuki; Karck, Matthias; Szabó, Gábor

    2016-03-01

    We recently demonstrated that the pre-treatment of rats with zinc and acetylsalicylic acid complex in the form of bis(aspirinato)zinc(II) [Zn(ASA)2] is superior to acetylsalicylic acid in protecting the heart from acute myocardial ischemia. Herein, we hypothesized that Zn(ASA)2 treatment after the onset of an acute myocardial injury could protect the heart. The rats were treated with a vehicle or Zn(ASA)2 after an isoproterenol injection. Isoproterenol-induced cardiac damage [inflammatory infiltration into myocardial tissue, DNA-strand breakage evidenced by TUNEL-assay, increased 11-dehydro thromboxane (TX)B2-levels, elevated ST-segment, widened QRS complex and prolonged QT-interval] was prevented by the Zn(ASA)2 treatment. In isoproterenol-treated rats, load-independent left ventricular contractility parameters were significantly improved after Zn(ASA)2. Furthermore, Zn(ASA)2 significantly increased the myocardial mRNA-expression of superoxide dismutase-1, glutathione peroxidase-4 and decreased the level of Na(+)/K(+)/ATPase. Postconditioning with Zn(ASA)2 protects the heart from acute myocardial ischemia. Its mechanisms of action might involve inhibition of pro-inflammatory prostanoids and upregulation of antioxidant enzymes.

  15. Bacteriological Profile of Patients Undergoing Open Heart Surgery and Evaluation of a Bacterial Filter using Protected Broncho-Alveolar Lavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempe, D K; Mehta, N; Mishra, B; Tondon, M S; Tomar, A S; Budharaja, P; Nigam, M

    1998-01-01

    Twenty seven patients undergoing elective open heart surgery were included in this prospective study. They were randomly divided into two groups. Group C (n = 12) constituted the control group in whom no breathing filter was used in the anaesthesia circuit in the operating room or in the ICU. Humidification of breathing gases was achieved with the help of conventional heated humidifier. In group F (n = 15), heat and moisture exahanging bacterial / viral filter was incorporated in the breathing circuit at the patient end between the catheter mount and Y connection of the breathing circuit. In both the groups, samples of throat swab, protected broncho-alveolar lavage with double catheter and Ryles tube aspirate were collected preoperatively (in the operation theatre) and postoperatively (in the Intensive Care Unit on day 1). All the samples were sent to the laboratory immediately after the collection for Gram staining and culture and sensitivity. Pathogenic organisms were isolated from a total of 9 patients (33%) preoperatively. Exogenous spread of the organisms to the lungs was considered to have occurred if new pathogenic organisms were isolated from the postoperative bronchoalveolar lavage and the simultaneous samples of the throat swab and Ryles tube did not contain the same organism. By this definition, the exogenous spread of the organisms occurred in one patient in group C and in no patient in group F (P = 0.46, Fishers test). The commonest organisms isolated were Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella sp. and Pseudomonas sp. We conclude that colonization of the pathogenic organisms is common (33%) in orophrynx and gastrointestinal tract in hospitalized patients. There was no difference in the exogenous spread of the organisms between the two groups. The unity of the filter, therefore, appears to be limited to prevent contamination of anaesthesia machines or ventilators as has been shown by earlier studies.

  16. The cardiovascular effects of metformin: lost in translation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riksen, N.P.; Tack, C.J.J.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In overweight patients with diabetes, treatment with metformin improves cardiovascular outcomes. This observation has fuelled the hypothesis that metformin has direct cardiovascular protective properties over and above glucose lowering. Here, we discuss the various cardiovascular

  17. Role of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Asif

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs particularly ω-3 PUFAs showed great assure in prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD. The evidence for CV benefits of PUFA comes from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA with or without docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in primary prevention, after myocardial infarction (MI, with heart failure (HF. The epidemiologic studies and trials showing the benefits of PUFA, specifically EPA and DHA, in CV prevention and provide potential mechanisms. The target EPA and DHA consumption should be at least 500 mg/day for individuals without basic evident CV disease and at least 800 to 1,000 mg/day for individuals with known coronary heart disease (CHD and heart failure (HF and optimal dosing and relative ratio of DHA and EPA ω-3 PUFA that provides maximum cardio-protection at risk of CVD as well in treatment of atherosclerotic, arrhythmic, and primary myocardial disorders.

  18. What is the impact of chronic kidney disease stage and cardiovascular disease on the annual cost of hospital care in moderate-to-severe kidney disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kent, Seamus; Schlackow, Iryna; Lozano-Kühne, Jingky; Reith, Christina; Emberson, Jonathan; Haynes, Richard; Gray, Alastair; Cass, Alan; Baigent, Colin; Landray, Martin J; Herrington, William; Mihaylova, Borislava; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reliable estimates of the impacts of chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage, with and without cardiovascular disease, on hospital costs are needed to inform health policy. METHODS: The Study of Heart and Renal Protection (SHARP) randomized trial prospectively collected information on kidney

  19. What is the impact of chronic kidney disease stage and cardiovascular disease on the annual cost of hospital care in moderate-to-severe kidney disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kent, Seamus; Schlackow, Iryna; Lozano-Kühne, Jingky;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reliable estimates of the impacts of chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage, with and without cardiovascular disease, on hospital costs are needed to inform health policy. METHODS: The Study of Heart and Renal Protection (SHARP) randomized trial prospectively collected information on kidn...

  20. Exercise does not activate the β3 adrenergic receptor-eNOS pathway, but reduces inducible NOS expression to protect the heart of obese diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleindienst, Adrien; Battault, Sylvain; Belaidi, Elise; Tanguy, Stephane; Rosselin, Marie; Boulghobra, Doria; Meyer, Gregory; Gayrard, Sandrine; Walther, Guillaume; Geny, Bernard; Durand, Gregory; Cazorla, Olivier; Reboul, Cyril

    2016-07-01

    Obesity and diabetes are associated with higher cardiac vulnerability to ischemia-reperfusion (IR). The cardioprotective effect of regular exercise has been attributed to β3-adrenergic receptor (β3AR) stimulation and increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation. Here, we evaluated the role of the β3AR-eNOS pathway and NOS isoforms in exercise-induced cardioprotection of C57Bl6 mice fed with high fat and sucrose diet (HFS) for 12 weeks and subjected or not to exercise training during the last 4 weeks (HFS-Ex). HFS animals were more sensitive to in vivo and ex vivo IR injuries than control (normal diet) and HFS-Ex mice. Cardioprotection in HFS-Ex mice was not associated with increased myocardial eNOS activation and NO metabolites storage, possibly due to the β3AR-eNOS pathway functional loss in their heart. Indeed, a selective β3AR agonist (BRL37344) increased eNOS activation and had a protective effect against IR in control, but not in HFS hearts. Moreover, iNOS expression, nitro-oxidative stress (protein s-nitrosylation and nitrotyrosination) and ROS production during early reperfusion were increased in HFS, but not in control mice. Exercise normalized iNOS level and reduced protein s-nitrosylation, nitrotyrosination and ROS production in HFS-Ex hearts during early reperfusion. The iNOS inhibitor 1400 W reduced in vivo infarct size in HFS mice to control levels, supporting the potential role of iNOS normalization in the cardioprotective effects of exercise training in HFS-Ex mice. Although the β3AR-eNOS pathway is defective in the heart of HFS mice, regular exercise can protect their heart against IR by reducing iNOS expression and nitro-oxidative stress.

  1. Green tea catechins: defensive role in cardiovascular disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pooja Bhardwaj; Deepa Khanna

    2013-01-01

    Green tea,Camellia sinensis (Theaeeae),a major source of flavonoids such as catechins,has recently shown multiple cardiovascular health benefits through various experimental and clinical studies.These studies suggest that green tea catechins prevent the incidence of detrimental cardiovascular events,and also lower the cardiovascular mortality rate.Catechins present in green tea have the ability to prevent atherosclerosis,hypertension,endothelial dysfunction,ischemic heart diseases,cardiomyopathy,cardiac hypertrophy and congestive heart failure by decreasing oxidative stress,preventing inflammatory events,reducing platelet aggregation and halting the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells.Catechins afford an anti-oxidant effect by inducing anti-oxidant enzymes,inhibiting pro-oxidant enzymes and scavenging free radicals.Catechins present anti-inflammatory activity through the inhibition of transcriptional factor NF-κB-mediated production of cytokines and adhesion molecules.Green tea catechins interfere with vascular growth factors and thus inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation,and also inhibit thrombogenesis by suppressing platelet adhesion.Additionally,catechins could protect vascular endothelial cells and enhance vascular integrity and regulate blood pressure.In this review various experimental and clinical studies suggesting the role of green tea catechins against the markers of cardiovascular disorders and the underlying mechanisms for these actions are discussed.

  2. Preventing Heart Disease - At Any Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of your heart. Preventing heart disease (and all cardiovascular diseases ) means making smart choices now that will pay off the rest of your life. Lack of exercise, a poor diet and other unhealthy habits can ...

  3. Warning signs and symptoms of heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 10th ... Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of ...

  4. Hydrogen sulfide postconditioning protects isolated rat hearts against ischemia and reperfusion injury mediated by the JAK2/STAT3 survival pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng-Fei Luan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The JAK2/STAT3 signal pathway is an important component of survivor activating factor enhancement (SAFE pathway. The objective of the present study was to determine whether the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway participates in hydrogen sulfide (H2S postconditioning, protecting isolated rat hearts from ischemic-reperfusion injury. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (230-270 g were divided into 6 groups (N = 14 per group: time-matched perfusion (Sham group, ischemia/reperfusion (I/R group, NaHS postconditioning group, NaHS with AG-490 group, AG-490 (5 µM group, and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO; <0.2% group. Langendorff-perfused rat hearts, with the exception of the Sham group, were subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 90 min of reperfusion after 20 min of equilibrium. Heart rate, left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP, and the maximum rate of increase or decrease of left ventricular pressure (± dp/dt max were recorded. Infarct size was determined using triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC staining. Myocardial TUNEL staining was used as the in situ cell death detection method and the percentage of TUNEL-positive nuclei to all nuclei counted was used as the apoptotic index. The expression of STAT3, bcl-2 and bax was determined by Western blotting. After reperfusion, compared to the I/R group, H2S significantly improved functional recovery and decreased infarct size (23.3 ± 3.8 vs 41.2 ± 4.7%, P < 0.05 and apoptotic index (22.1 ± 3.6 vs 43.0 ± 4.8%, P < 0.05. However, H2S-mediated protection was abolished by AG-490, the JAK2 inhibitor. In conclusion, H2S postconditioning effectively protects isolated I/R rat hearts via activation of the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway.

  5. 葛根素心血管保护作用及其机制研究进展%Progress on cardiovascular protections and mechanism research of puerarin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏述永

    2015-01-01

    葛根素为传统中药葛根及粉葛的主要药效成分之一,具有典型的雌激素样生物学活性,在体内外试验中均表现出显著的心血管保护作用.研究发现,葛根素可以影响Na+,K+,Ca2+跨膜转运而改善心肌细胞膜电位及心律失常,并具有抗心肌纤维化损伤、舒张血管、抗动脉钙化及粥样硬化、促血管新生、改善微血流、抗血小板凝集、降脂、抗糖尿病等作用,其机制主要为改善心肌细胞离子流动,并减轻炎症、氧化应激及细胞凋亡所引起的心血管损伤,所调控的主要靶标为PI3K/Akt,NF-κB及caspase等信号通路.%Puerarin is one of the most important effective components of Pueraria lobata which exhibited classic estrogen-like biological activities and had remarkable cardiovascular protections in vivo and in vitro experiments.These protections of puerarin are mainly exhibited on improving the myocardial cells membrane potential and arrhythmia based on effecting the Na +,K +,and Ca2 + channels,resisting myocardial fibrosis damage,diastolic effect on blood vessels,promoting angiogenesis,resisting calcification and atherosclerosis,improving blood flow,antiplatelet aggregation,reducing lipid and resisting diabetes.The main mechanisms are to improve the membrane potential and reduce cardiovascular damage caused by inflammation,oxidative stress and apoptosis,and the main regulated signal pathways are the PI3K/Akt,the NF-kappa B and the caspases.

  6. 红景天苷及其苷元酪醇的心血管保护作用%Cardiovascular protection effect of salidroside and its aglycone tyrosol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明发; 沈雅琴

    2012-01-01

    本文综述了红景天苷及其苷元酪醇对心血管的主要保护作用:①抗氧化作用,促进一氧化氮合成和抑制炎症介质前列腺素合成.②激活PI3K/Akt信号转导通路,上调缺氧诱导因子-1和血管内皮生长因子表达及Bcl-2/Bax比值.③抑制线粒体通透性转换孔开放,维护线粒体跨膜电位,阻滞半胱天冬酶-3激活,保护心肌细胞和血管内皮细胞.红景天苷和酪醇对抗缺血、缺氧、缺血再灌注或氧化应激引起的心血管细胞损伤,抑制氧化修饰的低密度脂蛋白形成、血管平滑肌细胞增殖和血小板聚集,降低血液粘度等,阻碍动脉粥样硬化发生和发展,产生心血管保护作用.%Salidroside and its aglycone tyrosol can protect cardiomyocytes and vascular endothelial cells by: ① antioxidation, promoting NO synthesis and inhibiting inflammatory mediator prostaglandin synthesis; ② activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, up-regulating the expressions of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor and Bcl-2/Bax ratio; ③ inhibiting the open of mitochondrial permeability transition pore, maitaining mitochondrial transmembrane potential, and blocking the activation of caspase-3. Salidroide and tyrosol antagonize cardiovascular cells injury induced by ischemia, hypoxia, ischemia/reperfusion or oxidative stress, inhibit the formation of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and proliferation of vascular smooth cells and platelet aggregation, decrease blood viscosity, hinder the occurrence and development of atherosclerosis, and induce cardiovascular protection.

  7. Protective effects of GLP-1 analogues exendin-4 and GLP-1(9-36) amide against ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, David P; Engstrøm, Thomas; Treiman, Marek

    2007-01-01

    Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin peptide secreted from intestinal L-cells, whose potent plasma glucose-lowering action has prompted intense efforts to develop GLP-1 receptor-targeting drugs for treatment of diabetic hyperglycemia. More recently, GLP-1 and its analogues have been shown...... to exert cardiovascular effects in a number of experimental models. Here we tested exendin-4 (Exe-4), a peptide agonist at GLP-1 receptors, and GLP-1(9-36) amide, the primary endogenous metabolite of GLP-1 (both in the concentration range 0.03-3.0 nM), for their protective effects against ischemia...

  8. Fish consumption measured during pregnancy and risk of cardiovascular diseases later in life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Marin; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Henriksen, Tine B;

    2011-01-01

    was to explore the association between fish intake and cardiovascular disease among 7429 women from a prospective pregnancy cohort in Aarhus, Denmark, who were followed for 12-17 years. Exposure information derived from a questionnaire sent to the women in gestation week 16, and daily fish consumption...... was quantified based on assumptions of standard portion sizes and food tables. Information on admissions to hospital was obtained from the Danish National Patient Registry and diagnoses of hypertensive, cerebrovascular and ischaemic heart disease were used to define the outcome: cardiovascular disease. During......Previous studies have indicated a protective effect of long chain n-3 PUFAs against cardiovascular disease; however, the overall evidence remains uncertain, and there is a general lack of knowledge in the field of cardiovascular epidemiology in women. Therefore, the objective of this study...

  9. Exploring the link between nocturnal heart rate, sleep apnea and cardiovascular function in African and Caucasian men : the SABPA study / Y. van Rooyen.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Rooyen, Yolandi

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: There is a rapid escalation in urbanization amongst South Africans and it is known that urbanized South Africans are subjected to lifestyle factors conducive to an increase in the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been described as an independent risk factor for CVD, especially hypertension. OSA has also been associated with insomnia, and plays a contributory role in the co-morbidity of this disorder. The mechanisms employed by OSA, which pro...

  10. Role of ω-3 Fatty Acids in Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pei-Ying

    2015-07-01

    There is a large and increasing global burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The Indian subcontinent may be one of the regions with the highest burden of CVD in the world. With affluence and urbanization, fat intake, especially saturated fat, is increasing. Vitamins have beneficial effects which are useful to the heart, but do not provide the all-round cardioprotection that is required. Hence, there is a perceived need of nutritional supplement that is rich in these essential nutrients. Studies have shown multifactorial cardio-protective actions of ω-3 fatty acids. A cardioceutical contains all the essential nutrients, vitamins, and minerals including ω-3 fatty acids in the right proportion that will provide all-round protection to the heart.

  11. Incidence of Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease in Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-07

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Heart Diseases; Myocardial Infarction; Angina Pectoris; Death, Sudden, Cardiac; Cerebrovascular Disorders; Peripheral Vascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Diabetes Mellitus, Non-insulin Dependent; Diabetes Mellitus

  12. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism (C677T), hyperhomocysteinemia, and risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease and venous thromboembolism: prospective and case-control studies from the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jeppe; Juul, Klaus; Grande, Peer

    2004-01-01

    from the general population were followed for 23 years. Second, 2125 whites with ischemic heart disease and 836 whites with ischemic cerebrovascular disease were compared with 7568 controls from the general population. Plasma homocysteine was elevated 25% in homozygotes versus noncarriers (P

  13. Clarithromycin for stable coronary heart disease increases all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and cerebrovascular morbidity over 10years in the CLARICOR randomised, blinded clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Per; Hilden, Jørgen; Hansen, Jørgen Fischer

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The CLARICOR trial reported that clarithromycin compared with placebo increased all-cause mortality in patients with stable coronary heart disease. This study investigates the effects of clarithromycin versus placebo during 10years follow up. METHODS: The CLARICOR trial is a randomise...

  14. Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training versus Continuous Training on Physical Fitness, Cardiovascular Function and Quality of Life in Heart Failure Patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benda, N.M.M.; Seeger, J.P.; Stevens, G.G.; Hijmans-Kersten, B.T.P.; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Bellersen, L.; Lamfers, E.J.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Physical fitness is an important prognostic factor in heart failure (HF). To improve fitness, different types of exercise have been explored, with recent focus on high-intensity interval training (HIT). We comprehensively compared effects of HIT versus continuous training (CT) in HF pa

  15. Incidence of Atrial Fibrillation and Relationship With Cardiovascular Events, Heart Failure, and Mortality A Community-Based Study From the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermond, Rob A.; Geelhoed, Bastiaan; Verweij, Niek; Tieleman, Robert G.; Van der Harst, Pim; Hillege, Hans L.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Van Gelder, Isabelle C.; Rienstra, Michiel

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Important improvements have been made in treatment of diseases associated with atrial fibrillation (AF), such as hypertension, myocardial infarction, and heart failure. Incidence rates and risk factors may have changed with the aging of the population and changing lifestyles. Currently, t

  16. Cardiovascular Protective Effect of Metformin and Telmisartan: Reduction of PARP1 Activity via the AMPK-PARP1 Cascade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenqing Shang

    Full Text Available Hyperglycemia and hypertension impair endothelial function in part through oxidative stress-activated poly (ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP1. Biguanides and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs such as metformin and telmisartan have a vascular protective effect. We used cultured vascular endothelial cells (ECs, diabetic and hypertensive rodent models, and AMPKα2-knockout mice to investigate whether metformin and telmisartan have a beneficial effect on the endothelium via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK phosphorylation of PARP1 and thus inhibition of PARP1 activity. The results showed that metformin and telmisartan, but not glipizide and metoprolol, activated AMPK, which phosphorylated PARP1 Ser-177 in cultured ECs and the vascular wall of rodent models. Experiments using phosphorylated/de-phosphorylated PARP1 mutants show that AMPK phosphorylation of PARP1 leads to decreased PARP1 activity and attenuated protein poly(ADP-ribosylation (PARylation, but increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS activity and silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1 expression. Taken together, the data presented here suggest biguanides and ARBs have a beneficial effect on the vasculature by the cascade of AMPK phosphorylation of PARP1 to inhibit PARP1 activity and protein PARylation in ECs, thereby mitigating endothelial dysfunction.

  17. Cardiovascular Protective Effect of Metformin and Telmisartan: Reduction of PARP1 Activity via the AMPK-PARP1 Cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Fenqing; Zhang, Jiao; Li, Zhao; Zhang, Jin; Yin, Yanjun; Wang, Yaqiong; Marin, Traci L; Gongol, Brendan; Xiao, Han; Zhang, You-Yi; Chen, Zhen; Shyy, John Y-J; Lei, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Hyperglycemia and hypertension impair endothelial function in part through oxidative stress-activated poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1). Biguanides and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) such as metformin and telmisartan have a vascular protective effect. We used cultured vascular endothelial cells (ECs), diabetic and hypertensive rodent models, and AMPKα2-knockout mice to investigate whether metformin and telmisartan have a beneficial effect on the endothelium via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation of PARP1 and thus inhibition of PARP1 activity. The results showed that metformin and telmisartan, but not glipizide and metoprolol, activated AMPK, which phosphorylated PARP1 Ser-177 in cultured ECs and the vascular wall of rodent models. Experiments using phosphorylated/de-phosphorylated PARP1 mutants show that AMPK phosphorylation of PARP1 leads to decreased PARP1 activity and attenuated protein poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation), but increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1) expression. Taken together, the data presented here suggest biguanides and ARBs have a beneficial effect on the vasculature by the cascade of AMPK phosphorylation of PARP1 to inhibit PARP1 activity and protein PARylation in ECs, thereby mitigating endothelial dysfunction.

  18. The emerging role of flavonoid-rich cocoa and chocolate in cardiovascular health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, Mary B; Engler, Marguerite M

    2006-03-01

    Cocoa and chocolate have recently been found to be rich plant-derived sources of antioxidant flavonoids with beneficial cardiovascular properties. These favorable physiological effects include: antioxidant activity, vasodilation and blood pressure reduction, inhibition of platelet activity, and decreased inflammation. Increasing evidence from experimental and clinical studies using cocoa-derived products and chocolate suggest an important role for these high-flavanol-containing foods in heart and vascular protection.

  19. Comparison of cardiovascular protective effects of tropical seaweeds, Kappaphycus alvarezii, Caulerpa lentillifera, and Sargassum polycystum, on high-cholesterol/high-fat diet in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matanjun, Patricia; Mohamed, Suhaila; Muhammad, Kharidah; Mustapha, Noordin Mohamed

    2010-08-01

    This study was designed to investigate the comparative in vivo cardiovascular protective effects of red, green, and brown tropical seaweeds, namely, Kappaphycus alvarezii (or Eucheuma cottonii), Caulerpa lentillifera, and Sargassum polycystum, in rats fed on high-cholesterol/high-fat (HCF) diets. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (weighing 260-300 g) on the HCF diet had significantly increased body weight, plasma total cholesterol (TC), plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), plasma triglycerides (TG), lipid peroxidation, and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase levels after 16 weeks. Supplementing 5% seaweeds to HCF diet significantly reduced plasma TC (-11.4% to -18.5%), LDL-C (-22% to -49.3%), and TG (-33.7% to -36.1%) levels and significantly increased HDL-C levels (16.3-55%). Among the seaweeds, S. polycystum showed the best anti-obesity and blood GSH-Px properties, K. alvarezii showed the best antihyperlipemic and in vivo antioxidation effects, and C. lentillifera was most effective at reducing plasma TC. All seaweeds significantly reduced body weight gain, erythrocyte GSH-Px, and plasma lipid peroxidation of HCF diet rats towards the values of normal rats.

  20. Correlation of left ventricular wall thickness, heart mass, serological parameters and late gadolinium enhancement in cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging of myocardial inflammation in an experimental animal model of autoimmune myocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kromen, Wolfgang; Korkusuz, Huedayi; Korkusuz, Yuecel; Esters, Philip; Bauer, Ralf W; Huebner, Frank; Lindemayr, Sebastian; Vogl, Thomas J

    2012-12-01

    For a definitive diagnosis of myocarditis, different strategies like analysis of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) in cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) up to invasive endomyocardial biopsy have been applied. The objective of the study was to investigate inflammatory changes like left ventricular wall thickening and increase of ventricular mass and to quantitatively analyse their correlation with extent and localisation of myocardial damage in CMR and with subsequent changes of serological markers in an animal model of an experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM). In the current study, an EAM was induced in 10 male Lewis rats, 10 rats served as control. On day 21, animals were examined with four CMR protocols to assess the extent of LGE in a 12 segment model of the rat heart. Left myocardial wall thickness and mass and histological grade of inflammation were measured to determine localisation and severity of the induced myocarditis. Depending on the CMR sequence, LGE was mostly found in the left anterior (9.6%) and left lateral (8.7%) myocardial wall segments. Wall thickness correlated with the LGE area in CMR imaging and the histopathological severity of myocarditis for the left lateral myocardial wall segment. In a similar way, the heart mass correlated to the extent of LGE for the left lateral segment. We conclude that in our animal model left ventricular wall thickness and mass reflect the severity of myocardial changes in myocarditis and that the EAM rat model is well suited for further investigations of myocarditis.

  1. "Having the heart to be evaluated": The differential effects of fears of positive and negative evaluation on emotional and cardiovascular responses to social threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Justin W; Zoccola, Peggy M

    2015-12-01

    Accumulating evidence supports fear of evaluation in general as important in social anxiety, including fear of positive evaluation (FPE) and fear of negative evaluation (FNE). The present study examined state responses to an impromptu speech task with a sample of 81 undergraduates. This study is the first to compare and contrast physiological responses associated with FPE and FNE, and to examine both FPE- and FNE-related changes in state anxiety/affect in response to perceived social evaluation during a speech. FPE uniquely predicted (relative to FNE/depression) increases in mean heart rate during the speech; in contrast, neither FNE nor depression related to changes in heart rate. Both FPE and FNE related uniquely to increases in negative affect and state anxiety during the speech. Furthermore, pre-speech state anxiety mediated the relationship between trait FPE and diminished positive affect during the speech. Implications for the theoretical conceptualization and treatment of social anxiety are discussed.

  2. Salud Para Su Corazon (health for your heart) community health worker model: community and clinical approaches for addressing cardiovascular disease risk reduction in Hispanics/Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcazar, H; Alvarado, M; Ortiz, G

    2011-01-01

    This article describes 6 Salud Para Su Corazon (SPSC) family of programs that have addressed cardiovascular disease risk reduction in Hispanic communities facilitated by community health workers (CHWs) or Promotores de Salud (PS). A synopsis of the programs illustrates the designs and methodological approaches that combine community-based participatory research for 2 types of settings: community and clinical. Examples are provided as to how CHWs can serve as agents of change in these settings. A description is presented of a sustainability framework for the SPSC family of programs. Finally, implications are summarized for utilizing the SPSC CHW/PS model to inform ambulatory care management and policy.

  3. Association between CRP and TNF-α genes Variants and Cardiovascular Heart Disease in a Mexican Population: Protocol for a Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background: The C-reactive protein (CRP) and the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) are considered markers of inflammation and have been shown to predict the risk of incident cardiovascular events. However, few studies have undertaken a comprehensive examination of SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) of the CRP and TNF-α genes; due to this, we will present a protocol study to evaluate the role of the CRP and TNF-α genes in Mexican individuals. Methods/design: we will perform a case-contro...

  4. Oral delivery of insulin withDesmodium gangeticum root aqueous extract protects rat hearts against ischemia reperfusion injury in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gino A Kurian; Jose Paddikkala

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effect of insulin administered via oral route with the help of aqueous extract ofDesmodium gangeticum (DG) root in rendering cardio protection against ischemia reperfusion injury in diabetic rats.Methods: Diabetes mellitus was induced in rats by theβ-cell toxin, streptozotocin (STZ, 60 mg/kg). Isolated rat (IR) heart was used to investigate the effect of insulin mixed DG pretreatment on ischemia reperfusion injury. Mitochondrial respiratory enzymes and microsomal enzymes were used to assess the metabolic recovery of myocardium. Cardiac marker enzymes were used to find the functional recovery, which were compared with that of the STZ treated IR rats.Results: Compared with IR control group, rat treated with insulin mixed DG showed a significant functional and metabolic recovery of myocardium from the insult of ischemia reperfusion. Even though orally administered insulin mixed DG displayed a slow but prolonged hypoglycemic effect, the cardio protection it provided was more significant than when it was given intra peritoneal. Furthermore the above result indicates that insulin mixed DG can overcome the barriers in the gastrointestinal tract and be absorbed.Conclusions: The above results indicate the efficacy of insulin mixed DG in protecting the heart from ischemia reperfusion induced injury in diabetic rats. Furthermore the study gives additional information that herbal extracts can be used to transport insulin across the membrane and found to be a feasible approach for developing the oral delivery of insulin, as well as other peptide drugs.

  5. Cardiovascular disease risk prediction by the American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease (ASCVD) risk score among HIV-infected patients in sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Linda C.; Palai, Tommy; Nkele, Isaac; Bennett, Kara; Lockman, Shahin; Triant, Virginia A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives HIV-infected patients are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, general population CVD risk prediction equations that identify HIV-infected patients at elevated risk have not been widely assessed in sub-Saharan African (SSA). Methods HIV-infected adults from 30–50 years of age with documented viral suppression were enrolled into a cross-sectional study in Gaborone, Botswana. Participants were screened for CVD risk factors. Bilateral carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) was measured and 10-year predicted risk of cardiovascular disease was calculated using the Pooled Cohorts Equation for atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) and the 2008 Framingham Risk Score (FRS) (National Cholesterol Education Program III–NCEP III). ASCVD ≥7.5%, FRS ≥10%, and cIMT≥75th percentile were considered elevated risk for CVD. Agreement in classification of participants as high-risk for CVD by cIMT and FRS or ASCVD risk score was assessed using McNemar`s Test. The optimal cIMT cut off-point that matched ASCVD predicted risk of ≥7.5% was assessed using Youden’s J index. Results Among 208 HIV-infected patients (female: 55%, mean age 38 years), 78 (38%) met criteria for ASCVD calculation versus 130 (62%) who did not meet the criteria. ASCVD classified more participants as having elevated CVD risk than FRS (14.1% versus 2.6%, McNemar’s exact test p = 0.01), while also classifying similar proportion of participants as having elevated CVD like cIMT (14.1% versus 19.2%, McNemar’s exact test p = 0.34). Youden’s J calculated the optimal cut point at the 81st percentile for cIMT to correspond to an ASCVD score ≥7.5% (sensitivity = 72.7% and specificity = 88.1% with area under the curve for the receiver operating characteristic [AUC] of 0.82, 95% Mann-Whitney CI: 0.66–0.99). Conclusion While the ASCVD risk score classified more patients at elevated CVD risk than FRS, ASCVD score classified similar proportion of patients as high risk when compared with

  6. Propranolol (Cardiovascular)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propranolol is used to treat high blood pressure, irregular heart rhythms, pheochromocytoma (tumor on a small gland ... and to improve survival after a heart attack. Propranolol is in a class of medications called beta ...

  7. Protective effect of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate on cardiovascular health%表没食子儿茶素没食子酸酯对心血管疾病防治作用的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩永生; 褚俊; 葛志明

    2012-01-01

    ( — ) — Epigallocalechin gallale (EGCG) is ihe most abundanl calechin in green Lea and has been regarded Lo possess anticancer, anti — obesily, and — alherosclerotic, anlidiabetic, anlibaclerial and anliviral effects. The characteristics related to the antioxidant properties of EGCG may be also responsible for the improvement in cardiac health. This review focuses on recent advances in the protective effect of EGCG on cardiovascular health.

  8. Cardiovascular Deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John B.; Fritsch-Yelle, Janice M.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Wood, Margie L.; Brown, Troy E.; Fortner, G. William

    1999-01-01

    Spaceflight causes adaptive changes in cardiovascular function that may deleteriously affect crew health and safety. Over the last three decades, symptoms of cardiovascular changes have ranged from postflight orthostatic tachycardia and decreased exercise capacity to serious cardiac rhythm disturbances during extravehicular activities (EVA). The most documented symptom of cardiovascular dysfunction, postflight orthostatic intolerance, has affected a significant percentage of U.S. Space Shuttle astronauts. Problems of cardiovascular dysfunction associated with spaceflight are a concern to NASA. This has been particularly true during Shuttle flights where the primary concern is the crew's physical health, including the pilot's ability to land the Orbiter, and the crew's ability to quickly egress and move to safety should a dangerous condition arise. The study of astronauts during Shuttle activities is inherently more difficult than most human research. Consequently, sample sizes have been small and results have lacked consistency. Before the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP), there was a lack of normative data on changes in cardiovascular parameters during and after spaceflight. The EDOMP for the first time allowed studies on a large enough number of subjects to overcome some of these problems. There were three primary goals of the Cardiovascular EDOMP studies. The first was to establish, through descriptive studies, a normative data base of cardiovascular changes attributable to spaceflight. The second goal was to determine mechanisms of cardiovascular changes resulting from spaceflight (particularly orthostatic hypotension and cardiac rhythm disturbances). The third was to evaluate possible countermeasures. The Cardiovascular EDOMP studies involved parallel descriptive, mechanistic, and countermeasure evaluations.

  9. [Obesity and the prognosis of heart failure: the obesity paradox, myth or reality?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounhoure, Jean-Paul; Galinier, Michel; Roncalli, Jerôme; Massabuau, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has now reached epidemic proportions worldwide. Obesity is associated with numerous comorbidities, including hypertension, lipid disorders and type II diabetes, and is also a major cause of cardiovascular disease, coronary disease, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and sudden death. Obesity is the main cause of heart failure in respectively 11% and 14% of cases in men and women. The Framingham study showed that, after correction for other risk factors, each point increase in the body mass index raises the risk of heart failure by 5% in men and 7% in women. Obesity increases the heart workload, causes left ventricular hypertrophy, and impairs both diastolic and systolic function. The most common form of heart failure is diastolic dysfunction, and heart failure in obese individuals is associated with preserved systolic function. Despite these comorbidities and the severity of heart failure, numerous studies have revealed an "obesity paradox" in which overweight and obese individuals with heart failure appear to have a better prognosis than non overweight subjects. This review summarizes the adverse cardiac effects of this nutritional disease, the results of some studies supporting the obesity paradox, the better survival rate of obese patients with heart failure. Potential explanations for these surprising data include the possibility that a number of obese patients may simply not have heart failure, as well as methodological bias, and protective effects of adipose tissue. Further studies of large populations are needed to determine how obesity may improve the prognosis of heart failure.

  10. Cordyceps sinensis protects against liver and heart injuries in a rat model of chronic kidney disease: a metabolomic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xia; Zhong, Fang; Tang, Xu-long; Lian, Fu-lin; Zhou, Qiao; Guo, Shan-mai; Liu, Jia-fu; Sun, Peng; Hao, Xu; Lu, Ying; Wang, Wei-ming; Chen, Nan; Zhang, Nai-xia

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To test the hypothesis that the traditional Chinese medicine Cordyceps sinensis could improve the metabolic function of extrarenal organs to achieve its anti-chronic kidney disease (CKD) effects. Methods: Male SD rats were divided into CKD rats (with 5/6-nephrectomy), CKD rats treated with Cordyceps sinensis (4 mg•kg-1•d-1, po), and sham-operated rats. After an 8-week treatment, metabolites were extracted from the hearts and livers of the rats, and then subjected to 1H-NMR-based metabolomic analysis. Results: Oxidative stress, energy metabolism, amino acid and protein metabolism and choline metabolism were considered as links between CKD and extrarenal organ dysfunction. Within the experimental period of 8 weeks, the metabolic disorders in the liver were more pronounced than in the heart, suggesting that CKD-related extrarenal organ dysfunctions occurred sequentially rather than simultaneously. Oral administration of Cordyceps sinensis exerted statistically significant rescue effects on the liver and heart by reversely regulating levels of those metabolites that are typically perturbed in CKD. Conclusion: Oral administration of Cordyceps sinensis significantly attenuates the liver and heart injuries in CKD rats. The 1H NMR-based metabolomic approach has provided a systematic view for understanding of CKD and the drug treatment, which can also be used to elucidate the mechanisms of action of other traditional Chinese medicines. PMID:24632844

  11. Acute heart failure in elderly patients : worse outcomes and differential utility of standard prognostic variables. Insights from the PROTECT trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metra, Marco; Mentz, Robert J.; Chiswell, Karen; Bloomfield, Daniel M.; Cleland, John G. F.; Cotter, Gad; Davison, Beth A.; Dittrich, Howard C.; Fiuzat, Mona; Givertz, Michael M.; Lazzarini, Valentina; Mansoor, George A.; Massie, Barry M.; Ponikowski, Piotr; Teerlink, John R.; Voors, Adriaan A.; O'Connor, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    AimsPrevious heart failure (HF) trials suggested that age influences patient characteristics and outcome; however, under-representation of elderly patients has limited characterization of this cohort. Whether standard prognostic variables have differential utility in various age groups is unclear. M

  12. Protective effects of protocatechuic acid on TCDD-induced oxidative and histopathological damage in the heart tissue of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftci, Osman; Disli, Olcay Murat; Timurkaan, Necati

    2013-10-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetracholorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a highly toxic environmental contaminant that causes severe toxic effects in animal and human. In this study, we investigated the toxic effects of TCDD and the preventive effects of protocatechuic acid (PCA), a widespread phenolic compound, in the heart tissue of rats. For this purpose, 3-4 months old 28 rats with 280-310 g body weights were equally divided into 4 groups (control, TCDD, PCA, TCDD + PCA group). A 2 μg/kg dose of 2,3,7,8-TCDD and 100 mg/kg dose of PCA were dissolved in corn oil and given orally to the rats for 45 days. The results indicated that TCDD induced oxidative stress by increasing the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance and by decreasing the levels of glutathione, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in the heart tissue of rats. In contrast, PCA treatment prevents the toxic effects of TCDD on oxidative stress. In addition, histopathological alterations such as necrosis and hemorrhage occurred in TCDD group, and PCA treatment partially prevents these alterations in heart tissue. In this study, it was concluded that TCDD exposure led to toxic effects in heart tissue and PCA treatment could prevent the toxicity of TCDD.

  13. Elevated resting heart rate is associated with greater risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in current and former smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Magnus T; Marott, Jacob L; Jensen, Gorm B

    2010-01-01

    . Current and former smokers had, irrespective of tobacco consumption, greater relative risk of elevated RHR compared to never smokers. The relative risk of all-cause mortality per 10bpm increase in RHR was (95% CI): 1.06 (1.01-1.10) in never smokers, 1.11 (1.07-1.15) in former smokers, 1.13 (1.......09-1.16) in moderate smokers, and 1.13 (1.10-1.16) in heavy smokers. There was no gender difference. The risk estimates for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality were essentially similar. In univariate analyses, the difference in survival between a RHR in the highest (>80bpm) vs lowest quartile (...

  14. Measurement of Reactive Oxygen Species, Reactive Nitrogen Species, and Redox-Dependent Signaling in the Cardiovascular System: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griendling, Kathy K; Touyz, Rhian M; Zweier, Jay L; Dikalov, Sergey; Chilian, William; Chen, Yeong-Renn; Harrison, David G; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2016-08-19

    Reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species are biological molecules that play important roles in cardiovascular physiology and contribute to disease initiation, progression, and severity. Because of their ephemeral nature and rapid reactivity, these species are difficult to measure directly with high accuracy and precision. In this statement, we review current methods for measuring these species and the secondary products they generate and suggest approaches for measuring redox status, oxidative stress, and the production of individual reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. We discuss the strengths and limitations of different methods and the relative specificity and suitability of these methods for measuring the concentrations of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species in cells, tissues, and biological fluids. We provide specific guidelines, through expert opinion, for choosing reliable and reproducible assays for different experimental and clinical situations. These guidelines are intended to help investigators and clinical researchers avoid experimental error and ensure high-quality measurements of these important biological species.

  15. Long-Term Overexpression of Hsp70 Does Not Protect against Cardiac Dysfunction and Adverse Remodeling in a MURC Transgenic Mouse Model with Chronic Heart Failure and Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Bianca C; Sapra, Geeta; Patterson, Natalie L; Cemerlang, Nelly; Kiriazis, Helen; Ueyama, Tomomi; Febbraio, Mark A; McMullen, Julie R

    2015-01-01

    Previous animal studies had shown that increasing heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) using a transgenic, gene therapy or pharmacological approach provided cardiac protection in models of acute cardiac stress. Furthermore, clinical studies had reported associations between Hsp70 levels and protection against atrial fibrillation (AF). AF is the most common cardiac arrhythmia presenting in cardiology clinics and is associated with increased rates of heart failure and stroke. Improved therapies for AF and heart failure are urgently required. Despite promising observations in animal studies which targeted Hsp70, we recently reported that increasing Hsp70 was unable to attenuate cardiac dysfunction and pathology in a mouse model which develops heart failure and intermittent AF. Given our somewhat unexpected finding and the extensive literature suggesting Hsp70 provides cardiac protection, it was considered important to assess whether Hsp70 could provide protection in another mouse model of heart failure and AF. The aim of the current study was to determine whether increasing Hsp70 could attenuate adverse cardiac remodeling, cardiac dysfunction and episodes of arrhythmia in a mouse model of heart failure and AF due to overexpression of Muscle-Restricted Coiled-Coil (MURC). Cardiac function and pathology were assessed in mice at approximately 12 months of age. We report here, that chronic overexpression of Hsp70 was unable to provide protection against cardiac dysfunction, conduction abnormalities, fibrosis or characteristic molecular markers of the failing heart. In summary, elevated Hsp70 may provide protection in acute cardiac stress settings, but appears insufficient to protect the heart under chronic cardiac disease conditions.

  16. Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Disorder Predispose Youth to Accelerated Atherosclerosis and Early Cardiovascular Disease: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Benjamin I; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Matthews, Karen A; McIntyre, Roger S; Miller, Gregory E; Raghuveer, Geetha; Stoney, Catherine M; Wasiak, Hank; McCrindle, Brian W

    2015-09-08

    In the 2011 "Expert Panel on Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents," several medical conditions among youth were identified that predispose to accelerated atherosclerosis and early cardiovascular disease (CVD), and risk stratification and management strategies for youth with these conditions were elaborated. Major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) among youth satisfy the criteria set for, and therefore merit inclusion among, Expert Panel tier II moderate-risk conditions. The combined prevalence of MDD and BD among adolescents in the United States is ≈10%, at least 10 times greater than the prevalence of the existing moderate-risk conditions combined. The high prevalence of MDD and BD underscores the importance of positioning these diseases alongside other pediatric diseases previously identified as moderate risk for CVD. The overall objective of this statement is to increase awareness and recognition of MDD and BD among youth as moderate-risk conditions for early CVD. To achieve this objective, the primary specific aims of this statement are to (1) summarize evidence that MDD and BD are tier II moderate-risk conditions associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and early CVD and (2) position MDD and BD as tier II moderate-risk conditions that require the application of risk stratification and management strategies in accordance with Expert Panel recommendations. In this scientific statement, there is an integration of the various factors that putatively underlie the association of MDD and BD with CVD, including pathophysiological mechanisms, traditional CVD risk factors, behavioral and environmental factors, and psychiatric medications.

  17. Cardiovascular risk reduction in high-risk pediatric patients: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Expert Panel on Population and Prevention Science; the Councils on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, Epidemiology and Prevention, Nutrition, Physical Activity and Metabolism, High Blood Pressure Research, Cardiovascular Nursing, and the Kidney in Heart Disease; and the Interdisciplinary Working Group on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research: endorsed by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavey, Rae-Ellen W; Allada, Vivek; Daniels, Stephen R; Hayman, Laura L; McCrindle, Brian W; Newburger, Jane W; Parekh, Rulan S; Steinberger, Julia

    2006-12-12

    Although for most children the process of atherosclerosis is subclinical, dramatically accelerated atherosclerosis occurs in some pediatric disease states, with clinical coronary events occurring in childhood and very early adult life. As with most scientific statements about children and the future risk for cardiovascular disease, there are no randomized trials documenting the effects of risk reduction on hard clinical outcomes. A growing body of literature, however, identifies the importance of premature cardiovascular disease in the course of certain pediatric diagnoses and addresses the response to risk factor reduction. For this scientific statement, a panel of experts reviewed what is known about very premature cardiovascular disease in 8 high-risk pediatric diagnoses and, from the science base, developed practical recommendations for management of cardiovascular risk.

  18. Long-term frequent use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs might protect patients with ankylosing spondylitis from cardiovascular diseases: a nationwide case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chan Tsai

    Full Text Available The objective of this case-control study was to investigate the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD following non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID use in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS. A total of 10,763 new AS patients were identified from the National Taiwan Health Insurance claims database during the period from 1997 to 2008. In all, 421 AS patients with CVD were recruited as cases, and up to 2-fold as many sex- and age-matched controls were selected. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR between NSAID use and CVD incidence. The medication possession rate (MPR was used to evaluate NSAID exposure during the study period. AS patients had increased risk of CVD (OR, 1.68; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.57 to 1.80. Among frequent (MPR≥80% COX II users, the risks for all types of CVD were ten times lower than those among non-users at 24 months (OR, 0.08; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.92. Among frequent NSAID users, the risks of major adverse cardiac event (MACE were significantly lower at 12 months (OR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.76--a trend showing that longer exposure correlated with lower risk. Regarding non-frequent NSAID users (MPR<80%, short-term exposure did carry higher risk (for 6 months: OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.86, but after 12 months, the risk no longer existed. We conclude that long-term frequent use of NSAIDs might protect AS patients from CVD; however, NSAIDs still carried higher short-term risk in the non-frequent users.

  19. Subclinical organ damage and cardiovascular risk prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehestedt, Thomas; Olsen, Michael H

    2010-01-01

    by measuring subclinical organ damage. We have (i) reviewed recent studies linking markers of subclinical organ damage in the heart, blood vessels and kidney to cardiovascular risk; (ii) discussed the evidence for improvement in cardiovascular risk prediction using markers of subclinical organ damage; (iii...

  20. The role of oxytocin in cardiovascular regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gutkowska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies of body volume expansion have indicated that lesions of the anteroventral third ventricle and median eminence block the release of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP into the circulation. Detailed analysis of the lesions showed that activation of oxytocin (OT-ergic neurons is responsible for ANP release, and it has become clear that activation of neuronal circuitry elicits OT secretion into the circulation, activating atrial OT receptors and ANP release from the heart. Subsequently, we have uncovered the entire functional OT system in the rat and the human heart. An abundance of OT has been observed in the early development of the fetal heart, and the capacity of OT to generate cardiomyocytes (CMs has been demonstrated in various types of stem cells. OT treatment of mesenchymal stem cells stimulates paracrine factors beneficial for cardioprotection. Cardiovascular actions of OT include: i lowering blood pressure, ii negative inotropic and chronotropic effects, iii parasympathetic neuromodulation, iv vasodilatation, v anti-inflammatory activity, vi antioxidant activity, and vii metabolic effects. OT actions are mediated by nitric oxide and ANP. The beneficial actions of OT may include the increase in glucose uptake by CMs and stem cells, reduction in CM hypertrophy, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial protection of several cell types. In experimentally induced myocardial infarction in rats, continuous in vivo OT delivery improves cardiac healing and cardiac work, reduces inflammation, and stimulates angiogenesis. Because OT plays anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective roles and improves vascular and metabolic functions, it demonstrates potential for therapeutic use in various pathologic conditions.

  1. The role of oxytocin in cardiovascular regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutkowska, J.; Jankowski, M. [University of Montreal, CHUM Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Laboratory of Cardiovascular Biochemistry, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Laboratory of Cardiovascular Biochemistry, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, CHUM Research Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Antunes-Rodrigues, J. [Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Departamento de Fisiologia, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Fisiologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2014-03-03

    Studies of body volume expansion have indicated that lesions of the anteroventral third ventricle and median eminence block the release of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) into the circulation. Detailed analysis of the lesions showed that activation of oxytocin (OT)-ergic neurons is responsible for ANP release, and it has become clear that activation of neuronal circuitry elicits OT secretion into the circulation, activating atrial OT receptors and ANP release from the heart. Subsequently, we have uncovered the entire functional OT system in the rat and the human heart. An abundance of OT has been observed in the early development of the fetal heart, and the capacity of OT to generate cardiomyocytes (CMs) has been demonstrated in various types of stem cells. OT treatment of mesenchymal stem cells stimulates paracrine factors beneficial for cardioprotection. Cardiovascular actions of OT include: i) lowering blood pressure, ii) negative inotropic and chronotropic effects, iii) parasympathetic neuromodulation, iv) vasodilatation, v) anti-inflammatory activity, vi) antioxidant activity, and vii) metabolic effects. OT actions are mediated by nitric oxide and ANP. The beneficial actions of OT may include the increase in glucose uptake by CMs and stem cells, reduction in CM hypertrophy, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial protection of several cell types. In experimentally induced myocardial infarction in rats, continuous in vivo OT delivery improves cardiac healing and cardiac work, reduces inflammation, and stimulates angiogenesis. Because OT plays anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective roles and improves vascular and metabolic functions, it demonstrates potential for therapeutic use in various pathologic conditions.

  2. 心率变异性生物反馈对高血压前期患者应激反应的干预效果%Effects of heart rate variability biofeedback on cardiovascular stress response of prehypertensives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈思娟; 汪胜; 林桂平; 孙鹏; 李平; 赵妍; 王庭槐

    2012-01-01

    Objective The present study aims to evaluate the effects of heart rate variability biofeedback on the cardiovascular stress response in prehypertension patients. Methods Cardiovascular response to stressors was compared between subjects with prehypertension and normotension. 36 subjects with prehypertension (blood pressure ranging 120-80-139/89 mmHg) were randomized to heart rate variability biofeedback group (HRV BF), slow abdominal breathing group (SAB) and Blank control (Blank). Subjects in the intervention groups received 15 sessions of training for 2 months with each session lasting for 30 min. Subjects in the control group received no intervention, with BP measurement only in the first and last session. All subjects received two different laboratory stressors at the same time point at two different days for both the pre-and post-intervention. Results Prehypertension subjects had a greater BP change during MAT compared to normotension subjects. Both HRV BF and SAB could significantly reduce systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) by 15.4/10.2 mmHg and 11.6/7.4 mmHg, respectively. SBP response to MAT was also significantly reduced after both HRVBF, with a significant difference in HRV BF as compared with SAB. Conclusion Prehypertensive patients have an abnormal cardiovascular response. HRV BF training can effectively reduce BP and cardiovascular response elicited by mental activity.%目的 探讨心率变异性生物反馈( HRV BF)干预高血压前期患者心血管应激反应的效果.方法 比较高血压前期者与正常血压者应激反应上血压变化的差异;将36位高血压前期受试者随机分为心率变异性生物反馈(HRV BF)组、慢腹式呼吸(SAB)组和空白对照组.干预组受试者接受每次30 min,每周2次,持续2个月共15次的训练;空白对照组不予干预.实验间隔期嘱受试者每天进行不少于20 min的家庭训练.所有受试者在实验开始前及

  3. [Cardiovascular effects of GLP-1 receptor agonist treatment: focus on liraglutide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluzík, Martin; Trachta, Pavel; Mráz, Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk reduction is the major aim of type 2 diabetes mellitus treatment. The effects of various antidiabetics on the cardiovascular complications are currently under careful scrutiny. Incretin-based therapy that utilizes the effects of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) or stimulation of its receptor by GLP-1 receptor agonists represents one of the most promising approaches from the potential cardiovascular risk reduction point of view. Experimental studies have shown that the GLP-1 and GLP-1 agonists treatment improves endothelial function, decrease blood pressure and protects myocardium during experimentally-induced ischemia. Clinical studies with GLP-1 receptor agonists consistently show that, in addition to good antidiabetic efficacy, its long-term administration decreases blood pressure, body weight and improves circulating lipid levels while slightly increasing heart rate. In this paper, we focus on the cardiovascular effects of GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide. Preliminary analyses of cardiovascular complications in phase III trials with liraglutide indicate its good cardiovascular safety. A possibility of cardioprotective effects of liraglutide remains still open and is currently studied within a prospective cardiovascular trial LEADER.

  4. Stem cells for the heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suzanne Kadereit

    2004-01-01

    @@ Cardiovascular disease is one of the major health concerns of modern societies. In the United States in the year 2001 alone, an estimated 64 million people had had one or more forms of cardiovascular disease, claiming almost one million liyes, 38.5 percent of all deaths (American Heart Association).

  5. Clinical trials in acute heart failure: simpler solutions to complex problems. Consensus document arising from a European Society of Cardiology cardiovascular round-table think tank on acute heart failure, 12 May 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonagh, Theresa A; Komajda, Michel; Maggioni, Aldo P; Zannad, Faiez; Gheorghiade, Mihai; Metra, Marco; Dargie, Henry J

    2011-12-01

    This European consensus document aims to identify the main reasons for the apparent lack of progress in the introduction of new medicines for acute heart failure. Relevant issues include not only the heterogeneity of the patient group but also the pharmacology of the medicines themselves and the design of the trials. Above all, this document attempts to provide some pragmatic solutions to this complex syndrome to simplify the execution of meaningful therapeutic endeavours in this area of undoubted unmet clinical need in the future.

  6. B-type natriuretic peptide measurement in primary care; magnitude of associations with cardiovascular risk factors and their therapies. Observations from the STOP-HF (St. Vincent's Screening TO Prevent Heart Failure) study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Conlon, Carmel M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: An effective prevention strategy for heart failure in primary care requires a reliable screening tool for asymptomatic ventricular dysfunction. Preliminary data indicate that B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) may be suitable for this task. However, for the most effective use of this peptide, the interrelationships between associated risk factors and their therapies on BNP, and in particular their magnitude of effect, needs to be established in a large primary care population. Therefore, the objective of the study was to establish the extent of the association between BNP, cardiovascular risk factors and their therapies. METHODS: BNP measurement and clinical review was preformed on 1122 primary care patients with cardiovascular risk factors. Multivariate analyses identified significant associates of BNP concentrations which were further explored to establish the magnitude of their association. RESULTS: Associates of BNP were age (1.36-fold increase in BNP\\/decade), female (1.28), beta-blockers (1.90), myocardial infarction (1.36), arrhythmia (1.98), diastolic blood pressure; all p<0.01. A novel method was devised that plotted median BNP per sliding decade of age for the various combinations of these principal associates. CONCLUSIONS: The data presented underline the importance of considering several clinical and therapeutic factors when interpreting BNP concentrations. Most of these variables were associated with increased concentrations, which may in part explain the observed false-positive rates for detecting ventricular dysfunction using this peptide. Furthermore, the design of studies or protocols using BNP as an endpoint or a clinical tool should take particular account of these associations. This analysis provides the foundation for age, risk factor and therapy adjusted reference ranges for BNP in this setting.

  7. Role of Pleiotropic Properties of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors in the Heart: Focus on the Nonmetabolic Effects in Cardiac Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlaka, Eleftheria; Galatou, Eleftheria; Mellidis, Kyriakos; Ravingerova, Tanya; Lazou, Antigone

    2016-02-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, PPARα, PPARβ/δ, and PPARγ, are a group of nuclear receptors that function as transcriptional regulators of lipid metabolism, energy homeostasis, and inflammation. Given the role of metabolism imbalance under pathological states of the heart, PPARs have emerged as important therapeutic targets, and accumulating evidence highlights their protective role in the improvement of cardiac function under diverse pathological settings. Although the role of PPARs in the regulation of cardiac substrate utilization preference and energy homeostasis is well documented, their effects related to the regulation of cellular inflammatory and redox responses in the heart are less studied. In this review, we provide an overview on recent progress with respect to understanding the role of the nonmetabolic effects of PPARs in cardiac dysfunction, namely during ischemia/reperfusion injury, hypertrophy, and cardiac failure, and highlight the mechanisms underlying the protective effects against inflammation, oxidative stress, and cell death. The role of receptor-independent, nongenomic effects of PPAR agonists is also discussed.

  8. [The role of nitric oxide and superoxide synthesis in protective mechanism of ecdysterone in the heart mitochondria of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkach, Iu P; Rudyk, O V; Kotsiuruba, A V; Prysiazhna, O D; Sahach, V F

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated generation of O2*- and NO in heart mitochondria isolated from 9-week old streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats and the effect of ecdysterone treatment on these parameters. Mitochondria isolated from 9-week old placebo-treated rats were used as control. Several parameters were evaluated: O2*- production, the levels of stable NO metabolites nitrate, nitrite and total nitrosothiols, the level of bilirubine (as marker of CO generation), inducible (iNOS) and constitutive (nNOS) mtNOS, NADH- dependent nitrate reductase (NR) and inducible arginase II (AII) activity. We observed that diabetes was accompanied by a significant decrease in nNOS activity, nitrite, total nitrosothiols and bilirubine content while iNOS, NR and AII activity, as well as O2*- generation was increased in heart mitochondria. Ecdysterone treatment normalized the levels of stable NO metabolites, ability to generate superoxide, iNOS and nNOS activity, but not bilirubine level, NR and AII activity. These results suggest that ecdysterone treatment attenuates diabetes-induced mitochondrial alterations protecting against oxidative and nitrosative stresses. Thus, ecdysterone therapy, besides its well known importance in the maintenance of glycemic control, may help to protect against mitochondrial dysfunction associated to several age-related disorders.

  9. Blood pressure level and relation to other cardiovascular risk factors in male hypertensive patients without clinical evidence of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C T; Sørum, C; Hansen, J F

    2000-01-01

    was independently associated with DBP. Office SBP was above 140 mmHg in 83% and above 160 mmHg in 44% of patients. During ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (AMBP), SBP was above 135 mmHg in 40% and above 155 mmHg in 15% of patients. In addition to male sex and hypertension there was a high percentage of other...... and the blood pressure (BP), and to evaluate the percentage of patients who had achieved a BP level as recommended by the sixth report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC VI). BP was evaluated in relation to age, body mass index......, duration of hypertension, cholesterol and triglyceride level, smoking status, information of regular exercise, a family history of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and drug treatment, in 220 men treated for arterial hypertension. In the univariate analyses we found a higher systolic blood pressure (SBP...

  10. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism (C677T), hyperhomocysteinemia, and risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease and venous thromboembolism: prospective and case-control studies from the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jeppe; Juul, Klaus; Grande, Peer

    2004-01-01

    ) and 19% in ICD/VTE cases versus controls (P 1.0. Furthermore, MTHFR C677T homozygosity was not associated with increased risk of ICD or VTE in subgroups after stratification...... for sex, age, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, lipoprotein(a), fibrinogen, triglycerides, body mass index, smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and factor V Leiden genotype. Finally, in case-control studies odds ratios for ischemic heart disease and ischemic cerebrovascular disease...... in homozygotes versus noncarriers did not differ from 1.0. In conclusion, MTHFR C677T homozygosity with hyperhomocysteinemia is not associated with ICD or VTE; however, ICD/VTE is associated with hyperhomocysteinemia. Therefore, ICD and VTE may cause hyperhomocysteinemia, rather than vice versa....

  11. Association of the waist-to-height ratio with cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents: The three cities heart study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robespierre C Ribeiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the best anthropometric index in rela-tion to cardiovascular disease risk factors among children and adolescents. Methods: This cross-sectional school-based study was conducted among a random sample of 3179 students, aged 6 to 18 years, in three large cities in Brazil. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 10% and 5%, respectively. In relation to the students in the lower quartile (Q1 of the distribution of subscapular skinfold, the students in the upper quartile (Q4 presented a 2.0 times higher risk (odds ratio of having elevated total cholesterol levels. Overweight and obese students had a 3.3 times higher risk of having elevated sys-tolic blood pressure, and a 1.9 times higher risk of elevated diastolic blood pressure than other students. The less active students presented a 1.58 times higher risk of having waist-to-height ratio (WHtR above the upper tertile (Q3. WHtR mean values was 0.46 (SE 0.00 presented the largest area under the curve (AUC [0.613 (CI995%:0.578-0.647] for high total cholesterol levels, [0.546 (CI995%: 0.515-0.578] for low HDL-C levels, and [0.614 (CI95%: 0.577-0.651] for high LDL-C levels, while body mass index presented the largest AUC [0.669 (CI95%: 0.64-0.699] for increased diastolic blood pressure followed by the waist circum-ference for increased systolic blood pressure [0.761 (CI95%: 0.735-0.787]. Conclusions: WHtR is considered as a simple and accurate anthropometric parameter that identifies youth with cardiovascular risk factors. In this study, WHtR above 0.44 was indicative of risk factors in children and adolescents. These findings can be applied in future preventive strategies against CVDs, and screening pro-grams.

  12. Iron overload in polytransfused patients without heart failure is associated with subclinical alterations of systolic left ventricular function using cardiovascular magnetic resonance tagging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanoverschelde Jean-Louis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It remains incompletely understood whether patients with transfusion related cardiac iron overload without signs of heart failure exhibit already subclinical alterations of systolic left ventricular (LV dysfunction. Therefore we performed a comprehensive evaluation of systolic and diastolic cardiac function in such patients using tagged and phase-contrast CMR. Methods 19 patients requiring regular blood transfusions for chronic anemia and 8 healthy volunteers were investigated using cine, tagged, and phase-contrast and T2* CMR. LV ejection fraction, peak filling rate, end-systolic global midventricular systolic Eulerian radial thickening and shortening strains as well as left ventricular rotation and twist, mitral E and A wave velocity, and tissue e' wave and E/e' wave velocity ratio, as well as isovolumic relaxation time and E wave deceleration time were computed and compared to cardiac T2*. Results Patients without significant iron overload (T2* > 20 ms, n = 9 had similar parameters of systolic and diastolic function as normal controls, whereas patients with severe iron overload (T2* 20 ms or normal controls. Patients with moderate iron overload (T2* 10-20 ms, n = 5, had preserved ejection fraction (59 ± 6%, p = NS vs. pts. with T2* > 20 ms and controls, but showed reduced maximal LV rotational twist (1.8 ± 0.4 degrees. The magnitude of reduction of LV twist (r = 0.64, p Conclusion Multiple transfused patients with normal ejection fraction and without heart failure have subclinical alterations of systolic and diastolic LV function in direct relation to the severity of cardiac iron overload. Among all parameters, left ventricular twist is affected earliest, and has the highest correlation to log (T2*, suggesting that this parameter might be used to follow systolic left ventricular function in patients with iron overload.

  13. Fish consumption measured during pregnancy and risk of cardiovascular diseases later in life: an observational prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strøm, Marin; Mortensen, Erik L; Henriksen, Tine B; Olsen, Sjurdur F

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated a protective effect of long chain n-3 PUFAs against cardiovascular disease; however, the overall evidence remains uncertain, and there is a general lack of knowledge in the field of cardiovascular epidemiology in women. Therefore, the objective of this study was to explore the association between fish intake and cardiovascular disease among 7429 women from a prospective pregnancy cohort in Aarhus, Denmark, who were followed for 12-17 years. Exposure information derived from a questionnaire sent to the women in gestation week 16, and daily fish consumption was quantified based on assumptions of standard portion sizes and food tables. Information on admissions to hospital was obtained from the Danish National Patient Registry and diagnoses of hypertensive, cerebrovascular and ischaemic heart disease were used to define the outcome: cardiovascular disease. During the follow-up period 263 events of cardiovascular disease were identified. Overall, there was no association between cardiovascular disease and fish intake, confidence intervals for effect estimates in the different fish intake groups were wide, overlapped and for all but one they encompassed unity. Restricting the analysis to women who had reported the same fish intake in a questionnaire in gestation week 30 did not alter these findings. In conclusion, our data from a prospective cohort of relatively young and initially healthy women from Aarhus linked with information from registries could not substantiate a protective effect of fish intake against cardiovascular disease.

  14. Mitochondrial cytopathies and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominic, Elizabeth A; Ramezani, Ali; Anker, Stefan D; Verma, Mukesh; Mehta, Nehal; Rao, Madhumathi

    2014-04-01

    The global epidemic of cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death in the USA and across the world. Functional and structural integrity of mitochondria are essential for the physiological function of the cardiovascular system. The metabolic adaptation observed in normal heart is lost in the failing myocardium, which becomes progressively energy depleted leading to impaired myocardial contraction and relaxation. Uncoupling of electron transfer from ATP synthesis leads to excess generation of reactive species, leading to widespread cellular injury and cardiovascular disease. Accumulation of mitochondrial DNA mutation has been linked to ischaemic heart disease, cardiomyopathy and atherosclerotic vascular disease. Mitochondria are known to regulate apoptotic and autophagic pathways that have been shown to play an important role in the development of cardiomyopathy and atherosclerosis. A number of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options have been explored in the management of mitochondrial diseases with variable success.

  15. Association between CRP and TNF-α genes Variants and Cardiovascular Heart Disease in a Mexican Population: Protocol for a Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazmín Hernández-Díaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The C-reactive protein (CRP and the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α are considered markers of inflammation and have been shown to predict the risk of incident cardiovascular events. However, few studies have undertaken a comprehensive examination of SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms of the CRP and TNF-α genes; due to this, we will present a protocol study to evaluate the role of the CRP and TNF-α genes in Mexican individuals. Methods/design: we will perform a case-control study to explore the CRP and TNF-α genotype distribution as well as the serum influence of rs1800947, rs1130864, rs2794521 and rs1205 (polymorphisms of the CRP gene and rs361525, rs1800629, rs1799724, rs1800630, rs1799964 (of the TNF-α gene in Mexican individuals who present coronary artery disease. Ethics and dissemination: a written informed consent will be obtained from all the participating subjects. An article detailing the results of the study will be submitted for publication in an international peer-reviewed journal, in accordance with STROBE criteria.

  16. The Personality and Psychological Stress Predict Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Five Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jinling; Zhang, Danyang; Yin, Yue; Zhang, Xiaofei; Li, Jifu; Liu, Dexiang; Pan, Fang; Chen, Wenqiang

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the effects of personality type and psychological stress on the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) at 5 years in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Two hundred twenty patients with stable angina (SA) or non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) treated with PCI completed type A behavioral questionnaire, type D personality questionnaire, Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Trait Coping Style Questionnaire (TCSQ), and Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) at 3 days after PCI operation. Meanwhile, biomedical markers (cTnI, CK-MB, LDH, LDH1) were assayed. MACEs were monitored over a 5-year follow-up. NSTE-ACS group had higher ratio of type A behavior, type A/D behavior, and higher single factor scores of type A personality and type D personality than control group and SAP group. NSTE-ACS patients had more anxiety, depression, lower level of mental health (P Type D patients were at a cumulative increased risk of adverse outcome compared with non-type D patients (P type A and type D personality and this tendency was associated with myocardial injury. They also had obvious anxiety, depression emotion, and lower level of mental health, which were related to personality and coping style. Type D personality was an independent predictor of adverse events.

  17. Food Consumption and its Impact on Cardiovascular Disease: Importance of Solutions Focused on the Globalized Food System: A Report From the Workshop Convened by the World Heart Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Sonia S; Hawkes, Corinna; de Souza, Russell J; Mente, Andrew; Dehghan, Mahshid; Nugent, Rachel; Zulyniak, Michael A; Weis, Tony; Bernstein, Adam M; Krauss, Ronald M; Kromhout, Daan; Jenkins, David J A; Malik, Vasanti; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Yusuf, Salim; Willett, Walter C; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-10-06

    Major scholars in the field, on the basis of a 3-day consensus, created an in-depth review of current knowledge on the role of diet in cardiovascular disease (CVD), the changing global food system and global dietary patterns, and potential policy solutions. Evidence from different countries and age/race/ethnicity/socioeconomic groups suggesting the health effects studies of foods, macronutrients, and dietary patterns on CVD appear to be far more consistent though regional knowledge gaps is highlighted. Large gaps in knowledge about the association of macronutrients to CVD in low- and middle-income countries particularly linked with dietary patterns are reviewed. Our understanding of foods and macronutrients in relationship to CVD is broadly clear; however, major gaps exist both in dietary pattern research and ways to change diets and food systems. On the basis of the current evidence, the traditional Mediterranean-type diet, including plant foods and emphasis on plant protein sources provides a well-tested healthy dietary pattern to reduce CVD.

  18. Vitamin E in oxidant stress-related cardiovascular pathologies: focus on experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Belma; Vassort, Guy

    2011-01-01

    The scope of this review is to summarize the important roles of vitamin E family members as protective agents in cardiovascular pathologies of different types of disease states and particularly in diabetes, including some of our research results, to illustrate how this recent knowledge is helping to better understand the roles of the vitamin E family in biology, in animals and humans specifically. Cardiovascular disease, a general name for a wide variety of diseases, disorders and conditions, is caused by disorders of the heart and blood vessels. Cardiovascular disease is the world's largest killer, claiming 17.1 million lives a year. Cardiovascular complications result from multiple parameters including glucotoxicity, lipotoxicity, fibrosis. Obesity and diabetes mellitus are also often linked to cardiovascular disease. In fact, cardiovascular disease is the most life-threatening of the diabetic complications and diabetics are 2- to 4-fold more likely to die of cardiovascular-related causes than non-diabetics. In order to prevent the tendency of cardiovascular disease, primary prevention is needed by modifying risk factors. Several recent studies, besides earlier ones, have reported beneficial effects of therapy with antioxidant agents, including trace elements, vitamins (E and/or C), other antioxidants, against the cardiovascular dysfunction. Hence, the use of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α (PPARα) agonists to reduce fatty acid oxidation, of trace elements such as selenium as antioxidant and other antioxidants such as vitamins E and C, contributes to the prevention of these dysfunctions. Moreover, therapy with antioxidants and the above vitamins to prevent or delay the onset and development of cardiovascular complications in diabetic patients and animal models has been investigated although these studies showed inconsistent results.

  19. Stress-induced growth-differentiation factor 15 plays an intriguing role in cardiovascular diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hai-tao; WANG Hai-chang; TAO Ling; LI Cheng-xiang; LI Fei; ZHANG Yu-yang; LIU Bo-wu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To provide an overview of the current knowledge of growth-differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) in heart disease.Data sources To identify relevant publications,we searched PubMED database combining the textual terms of heart,cardiac,cardiovascular disease with GDF-15.Study selection Well-controlled,relatively large-scale,retrospective studies as well as meaningful individual cases were all selected as materials.Results GDF-15 is a distant member of the transforming growth factor-β cytokine superfamily.In myocardium,GDF-15 is weakly expressed under physiological conditions.However,its expression level is increased in response to pathological stress.Growing evidence indicate that elevated levels of GDF-15 is a promising prognostic biomarker in cardiovascular diseases.Moreover,GDF-15 exhibits the properties of endogenous anti-hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes and protecting the heart suffering from ischemia and reperfusion insult.Conclusion Ve GDF-15 may be a promising biomarker for evaluation and management of patient with cardiovascular diseases,and have potential protective properties on myocardium.

  20. Cardiovascular effects of hemoglobin response in patients receiving epoetin alfa and oral iron in heart failure with a preserved ejection fraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sirish Vullaganti; Jeff Goldsmith; Sergio Teruya; Julissa Alvarez; Stephen Helmke; Mathew S.Maurer

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous data from a recently conducted prospective, single blind randomized clinical trial among community dwelling older patients with heart failure with a preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) and anemia randomized to treatment with epoetin alfa (erythro-poiesis-stimulating agents, ESA) vs. placebo did not demonstrate significant benefits of therapy regarding left ventricular (LV) structure, functional capacity, or quality of life (QOL). However, several patients randomized to the treatment arm were non-responders with a subop-timal increase in hemoglobin. All patients in the trial also received oral ferrous gluconate, which could have contributed to increases in he-moglobin observed in those receiving placebo. Accordingly, we performed an analysis separating patients into responders vs. non-responders in order to determine if measured improvement in anemia would have any effect on clinical endpoints. Methods A total of 56 patients (age 77 ± 11 years, 68%female) were recruited who had anemia defined as a hemoglobin of≤12 g/dL (average, 10.4 ± 1 g/dL) with HFPEF defined as having NHANES-CHF (National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey:Congestive Heart Failure) criteria score of≥3 and an ejection fraction of>40%(average EF=63%±15%). Patients were randomly allocated to receive either ESA and ferrous gluconate or ferrous gluconate only. In this analysis, a responder was defined as a patient with an increase of 1 g/dL in the first 4 weeks of the trial. Re-sults Nineteen subjects were classified as responders compared to 33 non-responders. While the average hemoglobin increased signifi-cantly at the end of 6 months for responders (1.8 ± 0.3 vs. 0.8 ± 0.2 g/dL, P = 0.004), 50% of the subjects assigned to ESA were non-responders. Left ventricular function including ejection fraction (P=0.32) and end diastolic volume (P=0.59) was unchanged in res-ponders compared to non-responders. Responders also showed no significant improvements in New York

  1. LV reverse remodeling imparted by aortic valve replacement for severe aortic stenosis; is it durable? A cardiovascular MRI study sponsored by the American Heart Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caruppannan Ketheswaram

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS, long-term data tracking surgically induced effects of afterload reduction on reverse LV remodeling are not available. Echocardiographic data is available short term, but in limited fashion beyond one year. Cardiovascular MRI (CMR offers the ability to serially track changes in LV metrics with small numbers due to its inherent high spatial resolution and low variability. Hypothesis We hypothesize that changes in LV structure and function following aortic valve replacement (AVR are detectable by CMR and once triggered by AVR, continue for an extended period. Methods Tweny-four patients of which ten (67 ± 12 years, 6 female with severe, but compensated AS underwent CMR pre-AVR, 6 months, 1 year and up to 4 years post-AVR. 3D LV mass index, volumetrics, LV geometry, and EF were measured. Results All patients survived AVR and underwent CMR 4 serial CMR's. LVMI markedly decreased by 6 months (157 ± 42 to 134 ± 32 g/m2, p 2. Similarly, EF increased pre to post-AVR (55 ± 22 to 65 ± 11%,(p 2. LV stroke volume increased rapidly from pre to post-AVR (40 ± 11 to 44 ± 7 ml, p Conclusion After initial beneficial effects imparted by AVR in severe AS patients, there are, as expected, marked improvements in LV reverse remodeling. Via CMR, surgically induced benefits to LV structure and function are durable and, unexpectedly express continued, albeit markedly incomplete improvement through 4 years post-AVR concordant with sustained improved clinical status. This supports down-regulation of both mRNA and MMP activity acutely with robust suppression long term.

  2. Tracking and prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors across socio-economic classes: A longitudinal substudy of the European Youth Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai Charlotte N

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The highest prevalence of several cardiovascular disease risk factors including obesity, smoking and low physical activity level is observed in adults of low socioeconomic status. This study investigates whether tracking of body mass index and physical fitness from childhood to adolescence differs between groups of socioeconomic status. Furthermore the study investigates whether social class differences in the prevalence of overweight and low physical fitness exist or develop within the age range from childhood to adolescence. Methods In all, 384 school children were followed for a period of six years (from third to ninth grade. Physical fitness was determined by a progressive maximal cycle ergometer test and the classification of overweight was based on body mass index cut-points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. Socioeconomic status was defined according to The International Standard Classification of Occupation scheme. Results Moderate and moderately high tracking was observed for physical fitness and body mass index, respectively. No significant difference in tracking was observed between groups of socioeconomic status. A significant social gradient was observed in both the prevalence of overweight and low physical fitness in the 14–16-year-old adolescents, whereas at the age of 8–10 years, only the prevalence of low physical fitness showed a significant inverse relation to socioeconomic status. The odds of both developing and maintaining risk during the measurement period were estimated as bigger in the group of low socioeconomic status than in the group of high socioeconomic status, although differences were significant only with respect to the odds of developing overweight. Conclusion The results indicate that the fundamental possibilities of predicting overweight and low physical fitness at an early point in time are the same for different groups of socio-economic status. Furthermore, the observed

  3. Acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease--priorities in prevention, diagnosis and management. A report of the CSANZ Indigenous Cardiovascular Health Conference, Alice Springs 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rémond, M G W; Wheaton, G R; Walsh, W F; Prior, D L; Maguire, G P

    2012-10-01

    Three priority areas in the prevention, diagnosis and management of acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) were identified and discussed in detail: 1. Echocardiography and screening/diagnosis of RHD – Given the existing uncertainty it remains premature to advocate for or to incorporate echocardiographic screening for RHD into Australian clinical practice. Further research is currently being undertaken to evaluate the potential for echocardiography screening. 2. Secondary prophylaxis – Secondary prophylaxis (long acting benzathine penicillin injections) must be seen as a priority. Systems-based approaches are necessary with a focus on the development and evaluation of primary health care-based or led strategies incorporating effective health information management systems. Better/novel systems of delivery of prophylactic medications should be investigated. 3. Management of advanced RHD – National centres of excellence for the diagnosis, assessment and surgical management of RHD are required. Early referral for surgical input is necessary with multidisciplinary care and team-based decision making that includes patient, family, and local health providers. There is a need for a national RHD surgical register and research strategy for the assessment, intervention and long-term outcome of surgery and other interventions for RHD.

  4. Endostatin is protective against monocrotaline-induced right heart disease through the inhibition of T-type Ca(2+) channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imoto, Keisuke; Kumatani, Sayaka; Okada, Muneyoshi; Yamawaki, Hideyuki

    2016-07-01

    Endostatin (ES), a C-terminal fragment of collagen XVIIIα1, has a potent anti-angiogenic effect. ES prevents tumor proliferation through inhibiting T-type Ca(2+) channel. T-type Ca(2+) channel is re-expressed during heart diseases including monocrotaline (MCT)-induced right heart failure. The present study aimed to clarify the effects of ES on T-type Ca(2+) channel and pathogenesis of MCT-induced right ventricular disease. MCT or saline was injected intraperitoneally to rats. After cardiomyocytes were isolated from right ventricles (RVs), T-type Ca(2+) channel current (I CaT) was measured by a patch-clamp method. After ES small interfering RNA (siRNA) or control siRNA (20 μg) was administrated for 1 week via the right jugular vein 1 week after MCT injection, echocardiography and histological analysis were done. I CaT was significantly increased in RV from MCT-injected rats, and ES significantly inhibited it. The survival rate of ES siRNA-administrated MCT rats (MCT ES si group) was decreased. In echocardiography, although ES siRNA did not affect pulmonary arterial pressure, RV systolic function was impaired in MCT ES si group compared with control siRNA-administrated MCT rats (MCT cont si group). In the histological analysis of RV, ES expression was increased in MCT cont si group, and ES siRNA inhibited it. Furthermore, although MCT cont si group showed only cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, MCT ES si group showed notable enlargement of intercellular spaces. The present study for the first time revealed that ES inhibits T-type Ca(2+) channel activity in RV from MCT-injected rats. ES gene knockdown deteriorates MCT-induced right heart disease. ES is thus cardioprotective possibly through inhibiting T-type Ca(2+) channel activity.

  5. Ideal cardiovascular health in young adult populations from the United States, Finland, and Australia and its association with cIMT: The International Childhood Cardiovascular Cohort Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goals for cardiovascular disease prevention were set by the American Heart Association in 2010 for the concept of cardiovascular health. Ideal cardiovascular health is defined by senen cardiovascular health metrics: blood pressure, glucose, cholesterol, body mass index, and physical activity on ...

  6. Notch-1 mediated cardiac protection following embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cell transplantation in doxorubicin-induced heart failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Merino

    Full Text Available Doxorubicin (DOX, an effective chemotherapeutic drug used in the treatment of various cancers, is limited in its clinical applications due to cardiotoxicity. Recent studies suggest that transplanted adult stem cells inhibit DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. However, the effects of transplanted embryonic stem (ES and induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells are completely unknown in DOX-induced left ventricular dysfunction following myocardial infarction (MI. In brief, C57BL/6 mice were divided into five groups: Sham, DOX-MI, DOX-MI+cell culture (CC media, DOX-MI+ES cells, and DOX-MI+iPS cells. Mice were injected with cumulative dose of 12 mg/kg of DOX and 2 weeks later, MI was induced by coronary artery ligation. Following ligation, 5×10(4 ES or iPS cells were delivered into the peri-infarct region. At day 14 post-MI, echocardiography was performed, mice were sacrificed, and hearts were harvested for further analyses. Our data reveal apoptosis was significantly inhibited in ES and iPS cell transplanted hearts compared with respective controls (DOX-MI+ES: 0.48±0.06% and DOX-MI+iPS: 0.33±0.05% vs.1.04±0.07% and DOX-MI+CC: 0.96±0.21%; p<0.05. Furthermore, a significant increase in levels of Notch-1 (p<0.05, Hes1 (p<0.05, and pAkt (p<0.05 were observed whereas a decrease in the levels of PTEN (p<0.05, a negative regulator of Akt, was evident following stem cell transplantation. Moreover, hearts transplanted with stem cells demonstrated decreased vascular and interstitial fibrosis (p<0.05 as well as MMP-9 expression (p<0.01 compared with controls. Additionally, heart function was significantly improved (p<0.05 in both cell-transplanted groups. In conclusion, our data show that transplantation of ES and iPS cells blunt DOX-induced adverse cardiac remodeling, which is associated with improved cardiac function, and these effects are mediated by the Notch pathway.

  7. Hypertensive Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wachtell, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Hypertensive heart disease is prevalent and during the last decade it has been determined that patients with left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy have increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, many have doubted the effectiveness of LV mass assessment because it is difficult...

  8. Heart Health - Brave Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Robert's (left) three heart attacks, he and his wife Sue began volunteering for The Mended Hearts, a ... arrest. "It scared the heck out of my wife," Robert remembers. He was operated on and doctors ...

  9. The research of myocardial damage in children with congenital heart diseases before and after paediatric cardiovascular intervention%儿童先天性心脏病介入治疗前、后心肌损伤的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫国超; 邵云; 武艳; 戚国庆

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the myocardial damage in congenital heart diseases after paediatric cardiovascular intervention by the made-in-China occluder through monitoring the changes of heart fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP)and cardiac troponin I (cTnl)dynamically. Methods A total of 24 patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)patients, 20 atrial septal defect (ASD)patients and 16 ventricular septal defect (VSD)patients were enrolled, and their serum levels of cTnl and H-FABP were monitored dynamically. Results The results of serum H-FABP and cTnl concentrations were 1. 28 ± 0. 57 μg/L and 0. 02 ± 0. 01 μg /L at preoperative time, respectively. After the operation, they were 8.51 ±5.47 μg/L and 0.46 ±0.49 μg/L after (10±5)min, and 2.31 ±1.73 μg/L and 0.66 ± 0.45 μg/L after 4 h, respectively, and then they were decreased obviously after 24 h with statistical significance (P < 0.01). Conclusions After paediatric cardiovascular intervention, it exists myocardial damage which is related to the kinds of congenital heart diseases. Compared with cTnl, the serum H-FABP is an early and sensitive marker for predicting myocardial damage. It is useful to prevent postoperative complications by monitoring H-FABP and cTnl.%目的 通过动态监测血清心肌型脂肪酸结合蛋白(H-FABP)和心肌肌钙蛋白Ⅰ(cTnI),观察使用国产封堵器介入治疗先天性心脏病时心肌损伤的情况.方法 随机选取动脉导管未闭(PDA) 24例、房间隔缺损( ASD) 20例、室间隔缺损(VSD) 16例,动态监测cTnI、H-FABP的变化.结果 60例先天性心脏病患儿血清H-FABP、cTnI术前浓度平均分别为1.28±0.57 μg/L、0.02±0.01 μg/L;术后(10±5)min分别为8.51±5.47 μg/L、0.46±0.49 μg/L,术后4h分别为2.31±1.73 μg/L、0.66±0.45 μg/L,24 h明显下降,各时间点差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 先天性心脏病介入治疗存在心肌损伤,并与先天性心脏病类型有一定关系.H-FABP较cTnI更早出现峰值浓度,是

  10. 'The way to a man's heart is through his gut microbiota'--dietary pro- and prebiotics for the management of cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuohy, Kieran M; Fava, Francesca; Viola, Roberto

    2014-05-01

    The human gut microbiota has been identified as a possible novel CVD risk factor. This review aims to summarise recent insights connecting human gut microbiome activities with CVD and how such activities may be modulated by diet. Aberrant gut microbiota profiles have been associated with obesity, type 1 and type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Transfer of microbiota from obese animals induces metabolic disease and obesity in germ-free animals. Conversely, transfer of pathogen-free microbiota from lean healthy human donors to patients with metabolic disease can increase insulin sensitivity. Not only are aberrant microbiota profiles associated with metabolic disease, but the flux of metabolites derived from gut microbial metabolism of choline, phosphatidylcholine and l-carnitine has been shown to contribute directly to CVD pathology, providing one explanation for increased disease risk of eating too much red meat. Diet, especially high intake of fermentable fibres and plant polyphenols, appears to regulate microbial activities within the gut, supporting regulatory guidelines encouraging increased consumption of whole-plant foods (fruit, vegetables and whole-grain cereals), and providing the scientific rationale for the design of efficacious prebiotics. Similarly, recent human studies with carefully selected probiotic strains show that ingestion of viable microorganisms with the ability to hydrolyse bile salts can lower blood cholesterol, a recognised risk factor in CVD. Taken together such observations raise the intriguing possibility that gut microbiome modulation by whole-plant foods, probiotics and prebiotics may be at the base of healthy eating pyramids advised by regulatory agencies across the globe. In conclusion, dietary strategies which modulate the gut microbiota or their metabolic activities are emerging as efficacious tools for reducing CVD risk and indicate that indeed, the way to a healthy heart may be through a healthy gut microbiota.

  11. Implicit Partitioned Cardiovascular Fluid-Structure Interaction of the Heart Cycle Using Non-newtonian Fluid Properties and Orthotropic Material Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlhausen, M-P; Janoske, U; Oertel, H

    2015-03-01

    Although image-based methods like MRI are well-developed, numerical simulation can help to understand human heart function. This function results from a complex interplay of biochemistry, structural mechanics, and blood flow. The complexity of the entire system often causes one of the three parts to be neglected, which limits the truth to reality of the reduced model. This paper focuses on the interaction of myocardial stress distribution and ventricular blood flow during diastole and systole in comparison to a simulation of the same patient-specific geometry with a given wall movement (Spiegel, Strömungsmechanischer Beitrag zur Planung von Herzoperationen, 2009). The orthotropic constitutive law proposed by Holzapfel et al. (Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. A, 367:3445-3475, 2009) was implemented in a finite element package to model the passive behavior of the myocardium. Then, this law was modified for contraction. Via the ALE method, the structural model was coupled to a flow model which incorporates blood rheology and the circulatory system (Oertel, Prandtl-Essentials of Fluid Mechanics, 3rd edn, Springer Science + Business Media, 2010; Oertel et al., Modelling the Human Cardiac Fluid Mechanics, 3rd edn, Universitätsverlag Karlsruhe, 2009). Comparison reveals a good quantitative and qualitative agreement with respect to fluid flow. The motion of the myocardium is consistent with physiological observations. The calculated stresses and the distribution are within the physiological range and appear to be reasonable. The coupled model presented contains many features essential to cardiac function. It is possible to calculate wall stresses as well as the characteristic ventricular fluid flow. Based on the simulations we derive two characteristics to assess the health state quantitatively including solid and fluid mechanical aspects.

  12. Ischemic Postconditioning-Regulated miR-499 Protects the Rat Heart Against Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury by Inhibiting Apoptosis through PDCD4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbing Zhu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Here, we determined miR-499 involvement in the protective effect of ischemic postconditioning (IPC against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury and identified the underlying mechanisms. Methods: To investigate the cardioprotective effect of IPC-induced miR-499, rats were divided into the following five groups: sham, I/R, IPC, IPC + scramble, and IPC + antagomiR-499. Hemodynamic indexes were measured by carotid-artery intubation to assess left ventricular function . Ischemia and infarction areas of rat hearts were determined by Evans blue and triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining, and cardiomyocyte apoptosis was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end-labeling assay. Results: IPC attenuated I/R-induced infarct size of the left ventricle (45.28 ± 5.40% vs. 23.56 ± 6.20%, P vs. 990.21 ± 172.39%, P vs. 1289.11 ± 347.28%, P vs. 4.85 ± 1.52%, P in vivo and in vitro by knockdown of cardiac miR-499, suggesting that miR-499 may participate in the protective function of IPC against I/R injury through targeting programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4. Conclusion: Our data revealed that IPC-regulated miR-499 plays an important role in IPC-mediated cardiac protection against I/R injury by targeting PDCD4.

  13. Percutaneous Hemodynamic Support (Impella) in Patients with Advanced Heart Failure and/or Cardiogenic Shock Not Eligible to PROTECT II Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Mukku, Venkata Kishore; Gilani, Syed; Fujise, Ken; Barbagelata, Alejandro

    2013-12-01

    PROTECT I and II trials have tested the efficacy of Impella in patents with high-risk percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, patients with severe hemodynamic instability such as cardiac arrest, ST-segment elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI), or cardiogenic shock were excluded. The objective was to investigate the efficacy of Impella in sicker patient population who were not included in PROTECT trials. These patients merit high-risk PCI who had cardiogenic shock and unstable or decompensated heart failure (HF). From December 2010 to March 2012, 10 consecutive patients with extremely high surgical risk and hemodynamic instability underwent urgent PCI with Impella 2.5 support (Abiomed Inc., Danvers, MA). These patients were presented with advance HF and/or cardiogenic shock. Among the 10 included patients, 3 patients were with cardiac arrest and 1 patient was with acute myocardial infarction. All patients had successful Impella implantation and remained hemodynamically stable during high-risk PCI. Among the 10 patients 2 patients (20%) died within 1 month and 1 patient developed limb ischemia. In high-risk population nonrandomizable to PROTECT trials with advance HF/cardiogenic shock, Impella could be an important tool for hemodynamic support to PCI or could be a bridge to left ventricle assist device to achieve good recovery. Larger studies need to be conducted on this high-risk population.

  14. Cardiovascular complications in acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, G; Pivonello, R; Lombardi, G; Colao, A

    2004-09-01

    Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are increased in acromegaly. In fact, GH and IGF-I excess induces a specific cardiomyopathy. The early stage of acromegal