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Sample records for cardiovascular heart protection

  1. Genetically Low Antioxidant Protection and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Heart Failure in Diabetic Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobylecki, Camilla J; Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress is one mechanism believed to underlie diabetic vascular disease. We tested the hypothesis that diabetic subjects heterozygous for extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3) R213G, which entails lower antioxidant capacity in tissues, have increased...... risk of cardiovascular disease and heart failure. METHODS: We used the prospective Copenhagen General Population Study and Copenhagen City Heart Study and genotyped 95,871 individuals for the rs1799895 R213G variation in the SOD3 gene, of which 4498 had diabetes. We used national hospitalization...... and death registers to assess cardiovascular disease and heart failure. FINDINGS: Out of 95,871 individuals, we identified 93,521 R213G non-carriers (213RR, 97.5%), 2336 heterozygotes (213RG, 2.4%) and 14 homozygotes (213GG, 0.01%). In diabetic subjects, the hazard ratio for cardiovascular disease in R213G...

  2. Cardiovascular diseases: oxidative damage and antioxidant protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, P-Y; Xu, X; Li, X-C

    2014-10-01

    Atherosclerosis, the hardening of arteries under oxidative stress is related to oxidative changes of low density lipoproteins (LDL). The antioxidants prevent the formation of oxidized LDL during atherogenesis. Perhaps more than one mechanism is involved in the atherosclerosis disease where LDL is oxidized in all the cells of arterial wall during the development of this disease. The oxidation of LDL produces lipid peroxidation products such as isoprostans from arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, oxysterols from cholesterol, hydroxyl fatty acids, lipid peroxides and aldehydes. The lipid peroxidation bioassay can serve as a marker for the risk of cardiovascular. An in vivo test of levels of oxidative lipid damage is an early prediction of development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Serum paraoxonase (PON) activity is correlated to severity of the coronary artery disease. The antioxidants level in the serum and serum paraoxonase activity provides information for the risk of CVD. The antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase is responsible for dismutation of superoxide, a free radical chain initiator. The subcellular changes in the equilibrium in favor of free radicals can cause increase in the oxidative stress which leads to cardiomyopathy, heart attack or cardiac dysfunction. The oxidative damage and defense of heart disease has been reported where dietary antioxidants protect the free radical damage to DNA, proteins and lipids. The ascorbic acid, vitamin C is an effective antioxidant and high vitamin E intake can reduce the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) by inhibition of atherogenic forms of oxidized LDL. The vitamin A and beta-carotene protect lipid peroxidation and provitamin-A activity. It has been recently suggested that the protection of oxidative damage and related CVD is best served by antioxidants found in the fruits and vegetables. The oxidative damage and antioxidant protection of CVD have been described here. PMID:25392110

  3. Protect Your Heart in the Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Seniors Cardiovascular Conditions • Conditions Home • Arrhythmia and Atrial Fibrillation • Cardiac Arrest • Cardiac Rehab • Cardiomyopathy • Cardiovascular Conditions of Childhood • Cholesterol • Congenital Heart Defects • Diabetes • Heart Attack • Heart Failure (HF) • Heart Valve Problems and Disease • High Blood ...

  4. Cost-effectiveness of Simvastatin plus Ezetimibe for Cardiovascular Prevention in CKD: Results of the Study of Heart and Renal Protection (SHARP)

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaylova, Borislava; Schlackow, Iryna; Herrington, William; Lozano-Kühne, Jingky; Kent, Seamus; Emberson, Jonathan; Reith, Christina; Haynes, Richard; Cass, Alan; Craig, Jonathan; Gray, Alastair; Collins, Rory; Landray, Martin J.; Baigent, Colin; ,

    2016-01-01

    Background Simvastatin, 20 mg, plus ezetimibe, 10 mg, daily (simvastatin plus ezetimibe) reduced major atherosclerotic events in patients with moderate to severe chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the Study of Heart and Renal Protection (SHARP), but its cost-effectiveness is unknown. Study Design Cost-effectiveness of simvastatin plus ezetimibe in SHARP, a randomized controlled trial. Setting & Population 9,270 patients with CKD randomly assigned to simvastatin plus ezetimibe versus placebo; par...

  5. A computational model of cardiovascular physiology and heart sound generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watrous, Raymond L

    2009-01-01

    A computational model of the cardiovascular system is described which provides a framework for implementing and testing quantitative physiological models of heart sound generation. The lumped-parameter cardiovascular model can be solved for the hemodynamic variables on which the heart sound generation process is built. Parameters of the cardiovascular model can be adjusted to represent various normal and pathological conditions, and the acoustic consequences of those adjustments can be explored. The combined model of the physiology of cardiovascular circulation and heart sound generation has promise for application in teaching, training and algorithm development in computer-aided auscultation of the heart.

  6. Applied Cardiovascular Physiology in Dogs with Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Álvarez Ramírez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Congestive heart failure is related to abnormal ventricular contraction and relaxation. Recent publications show that the alteration of systolic and diastolic function coexists in most patients with heart diseases. There are currently several ambiguities in the daily use of clinical and physiological terms regarding this topic. This paper aims to review certain physiological concepts of the cardiovascular system.

  7. Isolated heart models: cardiovascular system studies and technological advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejnickova, Veronika; Novakova, Marie; Provaznik, Ivo

    2015-07-01

    Isolated heart model is a relevant tool for cardiovascular system studies. It represents a highly reproducible model for studying broad spectrum of biochemical, physiological, morphological, and pharmaceutical parameters, including analysis of intrinsic heart mechanics, metabolism, and coronary vascular response. Results obtained in this model are under no influence of other organ systems, plasma concentration of hormones or ions and influence of autonomic nervous system. The review describes various isolated heart models, the modes of heart perfusion, and advantages and limitations of various experimental setups. It reports the improvements of perfusion setup according to Langendorff introduced by the authors.

  8. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance of the charcoal heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grill Howard

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report a case of malignant melanoma metastasis to the heart presenting as complete heart block. The highlight of the case is to demonstrate that silent cardiac metastasis is not uncommon and CMR has the potential to characterize these cardiac metastases and should be used routinely as a screening tool for those cancers with a high chance of cardiac involvement.

  9. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance of the charcoal heart

    OpenAIRE

    Grill Howard; Yamrozik June; Williams Ronald B; Rathi Vikas K; Biederman Robert WW

    2008-01-01

    Abstract We report a case of malignant melanoma metastasis to the heart presenting as complete heart block. The highlight of the case is to demonstrate that silent cardiac metastasis is not uncommon and CMR has the potential to characterize these cardiac metastases and should be used routinely as a screening tool for those cancers with a high chance of cardiac involvement.

  10. Heart and mind: (1) relationship between cardiovascular and psychiatric conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, S U; White, A; White, S; Littler, W A

    2004-12-01

    The relationship of our emotions and psyche to heart disease is intriguing. In this article we have reviewed the evidence linking cardiovascular and neuropsychiatric disorders and the possible mechanisms and pathophysiology of this association. This review is derived from Medline searches (1966-2002) using the relevant search terms (psychiatric disease, cardiovascular disease, depression, anxiety, and pathophysiology). Finally, the possible role of using mood enhancing therapies (mainly antidepressants) and their safety in patients with cardiovascular disorders is briefly discussed. In a companion paper, the therapeutic aspects of these two conditions is highlighted. PMID:15579605

  11. Does Drinking Tea Protect Against Cardiovascular Disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Natasha

    2003-01-01

    Recent evidence supports the hypothesis that tea does, in fact protect against cardiovascular disease. Some of the latest data by Hodgson et al, suggests that dietary flavonoids in tea significantly improves endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent flow-mediated vasodilation (2.3%; P=.008 & 4.2%; P=.03 respectively). Similar results were obtained in a study by Duffy et al, where it was found that short- and long-term tea consumption significantly improved endothelium dependent flow-m...

  12. Simplifying cardiovascular risk estimation using resting heart rate.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2010-09-01

    Elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is a known, independent cardiovascular (CV) risk factor, but is not included in risk estimation systems, including Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE). We aimed to derive risk estimation systems including RHR as an extra variable and assess the value of this addition.

  13. The protective role of curcumin in cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongcharoen, Wanwarang; Phrommintikul, Arintaya

    2009-04-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a polyphenol responsible for the yellow color of the curry spice turmeric. It has been used in a variety of diseases in traditional medicine. Modern scientific research has demonstrated its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-thrombotic, and cardiovascular protective effects. In this review, we focused mainly on the effects of curcumin on the cardiovascular system. The antioxidant effects of curcumin have been shown to attenuate adriamycin-induced cardiotoxicity and may prevent diabetic cardiovascular complications. The anti-thrombotic, anti-proliferative, and anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin and the effect of curcumin in decreasing the serum cholesterol level may protect against the pathological changes occurring with atherosclerosis. The p300-HAT inhibitory effects of curcumin have been demonstrated to ameliorate the development of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure in animal models. The inflammatory effects of curcumin may have the possibility of preventing atrial arrhythmias and the possible effect of curcumin for correcting the Ca(2+) homeostasis may play a role in the prevention of some ventricular arrhythmias. The preclinical studies from animal to clinical data in human are discussed.

  14. Heart valve disease: investigation by cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    OpenAIRE

    Myerson Saul G

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has become a valuable investigative tool in many areas of cardiac medicine. Its value in heart valve disease is less well appreciated however, particularly as echocardiography is a powerful and widely available technique in valve disease. This review highlights the added value that CMR can bring in valve disease, complementing echocardiography in many areas, but it has also become the first-line investigation in some, such as pulmonary valve di...

  15. Disparities in heart failure and other cardiovascular diseases among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, Jean; Pettey, Christina; Lefler, Leanne L; Heo, Seongkum

    2012-07-01

    This article reviews literature pertinent to cardiovascular disparities in women, focusing primarily on heart failure (HF). It provides an in-depth look at causes, biological influences, self-management and lack of adherence to HF-treatment guidelines in women. Disparities in treatment of causative factors of HF, such as myocardial infarction and hypertension, contribute to women having poorer HF outcomes than men. This article discusses major contributing reasons for nonadherence to medication regimes for HF in women, including advanced age at time of diagnosis, likelihood of multiple comorbidities, lack of social support and low socioeconomic status. Limited inclusion of women in clinical trials and the scarcity of gender analyses for HF and other cardiovascular diseases continues to limit the applicability of research findings to women.

  16. Rhizoma Coptidis: A Potential Cardiovascular Protective Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hui-Li; Chan, Kok-Gan; Pusparajah, Priyia; Duangjai, Acharaporn; Saokaew, Surasak; Mehmood Khan, Tahir; Lee, Learn-Han; Goh, Bey-Hing

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in both the developed and developing world. Rhizoma coptidis (RC), known as Huang Lian in China, is the dried rhizome of medicinal plants from the family Ranunculaceae, such as Coptis chinensis Franch, C. deltoidea C.Y. Cheng et Hsiao, and C. teeta Wall which has been used by Chinese medicinal physicians for more than 2000 years. In China, RC is a common component in traditional medicines used to treat CVD associated problems including obesity, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia and disorders of lipid metabolism. In recent years, numerous scientific studies have sought to investigate the biological properties of RC to provide scientific evidence for its traditional medical uses. RC has been found to exert significant beneficial effects on major risk factors for CVDs including anti-atherosclerotic effect, lipid-lowering effect, anti-obesity effect and anti-hepatic steatosis effect. It also has myocardioprotective effect as it provides protection from myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. These properties have been attributed to the presence of bioactive compounds contained in RC such as berberine, coptisine, palmatine, epiberberine, jatrorrhizine, and magnoflorine; all of which have been demonstrated to have cardioprotective effects on the various parameters contributing to the occurrence of CVD through a variety of pathways. The evidence available in the published literature indicates that RC is a herb with tremendous potential to reduce the risks of CVDs, and this review aims to summarize the cardioprotective properties of RC with reference to the published literature which overall indicates that RC is a herb with remarkable potential to reduce the risks and damage caused by CVDs. PMID:27774066

  17. Prognostic significance of cardiovascular biomarkers and renal dysfunction in outpatients with systolic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bosselmann, Helle; Egstrup, Michael; Rossing, Kasper;

    2013-01-01

    To assess whether the prognostic significance of cardiovascular (CV) biomarkers, is affected by renal dysfunction (RD) in systolic heart failure (HF).......To assess whether the prognostic significance of cardiovascular (CV) biomarkers, is affected by renal dysfunction (RD) in systolic heart failure (HF)....

  18. Myocardial protection during heart surgery in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bingyang Ji; Jinping Liu

    2007-01-01

    @@ Myocardial protection (MP) is the key for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) heart surgery. MP during cardiac surgery (CS) aims to preserve myocardial function while providing a bloodless and motionless operating field. Strategies on how to attenuate or prevent post-ischemic myocardial dysfunction that occurs intra-operatively during CS have been discussed for more than half a century. In 1950, Bigelow et al1 first reported to decrease myocardial oxygen demand by means of hypothermia.

  19. At the heart of the matter: the endocannabinoid system in cardiovascular function and dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montecucco, Fabrizio; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2012-06-01

    Starting from the well-documented effects of marijuana smoking on heart rate and blood pressure, the cardiovascular effects of Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, the main psychotropic ingredient of Cannabis) and endocannabinoids [THC endogenous counterparts that activate cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB₁) and 2 (CB₂)] have been thoroughly investigated. These studies were mostly aimed at establishing the molecular bases of the hypotensive actions of THC, endocannabinoids and related molecules, but also evaluated their therapeutic potential in cardiac injury protection, metabolic cardiovascular risk factors and atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability. The results of these investigations, reviewed here, also served to highlight some of the most peculiar aspects of endocannabinoid signaling, such as redundancy in endocannabinoid targets and the often dualistic role of CB₁ and CB₂ receptors during pathological conditions. PMID:22503477

  20. Freqüência cardíaca e risco cardiovascular Heart rate and cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Machado César

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A freqüência cardíaca (FC também está no centro das determinantes do tempo de vida dos seres vivos animais. Há quase uma constante quando se multiplica a FC pelo número de anos que, em média, vive um animal. O ser humano também tem correlações interessantes de tempo de vida e FC, com estudos epidemiológicos demonstrando maior sobrevivência naqueles com menor FC em repouso, hipertensos, com doença coronariana e na população geral. Neste artigo, revemos estes estudos epidemiológicos e a perspectiva de se, de fato reduzindo a FC, poderemos aumentar o tempo de vida, no caso dos pacientes com doença cardiovascular, de forma independente de outros fatores.Heart rate (HR is known to be one of the factors that in the animal world are related to mortality. When one multiplies resting HR by the average life time, for each animal species, the result is almost the same number, similar to a constant. Apparently, each class of living beings has its "maximal number of heart beats for a life". Herein considerations are made about the relationship between HR and survival in human beings. Some epidemiological studies are reviewed, especially those related to cardiovascular and coronary diseases correlated to deaths and discussions are directed towards the perspective of living longer by lowering the HR.

  1. Digitoxin improves cardiovascular autonomic control in rats with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardin, Núbia Mantovan; Antonio, Ednei Luiz; Montemor, Jairo Augusto Silva; da Veiga, Glaucia Luciano; Tucci, Paulo José Ferreira; Campos, Ruy R

    2016-06-01

    The effects of chronic treatment with digitoxin on arterial baroreceptor sensitivity for heart rate (HR) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (rSNA) control, cardiopulmonary reflex, and autonomic HR control in an animal model of heart failure (HF) were evaluated. Wistar rats were treated with digitoxin, which was administered in their daily feed (1 mg/kg per day) for 60 days. The following 3 experimental groups were evaluated: sham, HF, and HF treated with digitoxin (HF + DIG). We observed an increase in rSNA in the HF group (190 ± 29 pps, n = 5) compared with the sham group (98 ± 14 pps, n = 5). Digitoxin treatment prevented an increase in rSNA (98 ± 14 pps, n = 7). Therefore, arterial baroreceptor sensitivity was decreased in the HF group (-1.24 ± 0.07 bpm/mm Hg, n = 8) compared with the sham group (-2.27 ± 0.23 bpm/mm Hg, n = 6). Digitoxin did not alter arterial baroreceptor sensitivity in the HF + DIG group. Finally, the HF group showed an increased low frequency band (LFb: 23 ± 5 ms(2), n = 8) and a decreased high frequency band (HFb: 77 ± 5 ms(2), n = 8) compared with the sham group (LFb: 14 ± 3 ms(2); HFb: 86 ± 3 ms(2), n = 9); the HF+DIG group exhibited normalized parameters (LFb: 15 ± 3 ms(2); HFb: 85 ± 3 ms(2), n = 9). In conclusion, the benefits of decreasing rSNA are not directly related to improvements in peripheral cardiovascular reflexes; such occurrences are due in part to changes in the central nuclei of the brain responsible for autonomic cardiovascular control. PMID:27082032

  2. Canadian Cardiovascular Society Quality Indicators for Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvie, Robert S; Heckman, George A; Blais, Claudia; Cox, Jafna L; Ezekowitz, Justin A; Gong, Yanyan; Harkness, Karen; Moe, Gordon; Dai, Sulan; Dorian, Paul; Johnstone, David E; McGeachie, Erin C; Tu, Jack V; Lambert, Laurie J

    2016-08-01

    A working group was convened by the Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) in 2010 to identify quality indicators (QIs) for heart failure (HF). Using the CCS "Best Practices for Developing Cardiovascular Quality Indicators" methodology, a total of 49 "long-list" QIs was identified and rated. Subsequent ranking and discussion led to the selection of an initial "short-list" of 6 QIs to evaluate quality care, including daily assessment of blood chemistry indicators, chest radiography, patient education, in-hospital use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin-receptor blockers, assessment of left ventricular function, and 30-day hospital readmission. The short-list QIs were selected as being important for quality assurance and because the patient information, for the most part, can be captured during the inpatient setting, which would allow these QIs to be adopted more easily. These 6 QIs were subjected to a feasibility test that found that even within the inpatient setting, there is a significant gap between the existing knowledge infrastructure and the necessary information-tracking processes to measure QIs. Only 1 QI (30-day hospital readmission) can currently be measured comparatively across Canada, although the other 5 of 6 short-list QIs can be measured using other data collected by jurisdictions. Standardization and enhancements to knowledge infrastructure are essential to provide the comprehensive patient data necessary to evaluate the quality of HF care across Canada. PMID:26968392

  3. Valvular heart disease: what does cardiovascular MRI add?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masci, Pier G.; Dymarkowski, Steven; Bogaert, Jan [Gasthuisberg University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium)

    2008-02-15

    Although ischemic heart disease remains the leading cause of cardiac-related morbidity and mortality in the industrialized countries, a growing number of mainly elderly patients will experience a problem of valvular heart disease (VHD), often requiring surgical intervention at some stage. Doppler-echocardiography is the most popular imaging modality used in the evaluation of this disease entity. It encompasses, however, some non-negligible constraints which may hamper the quality and thus the interpretation of the exam. Cardiac catheterization has been considered for a long time the reference technique in this field, however, this technique is invasive and considered far from optimal. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is already considered an established diagnostic method for studying ventricular dimensions, function and mass. With improvement of MRI soft- and hardware, the assessment of cardiac valve function has also turned out to be fast, accurate and reproducible. This review focuses on the usefulness of MRI in the diagnosis and management of VHD, pointing out its added value in comparison with more conventional diagnostic means. (orig.)

  4. [Soya isoflavones and evidences on cardiovascular protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Cañete, Natalia; Durán Agüero, Samuel

    2014-06-01

    Soya isoflavones represent a group of non-nutritive, bioactive compounds, of non-steroidal phenolic nature that are present in soy bean and derived foods. They share with other compounds the capacity of binding to estrogenic receptors from different cells and tissues so that they may act as phytoestrogens. The current interest in these compounds comes from the knowledge that in Asian populations with high levels of their consumption the prevalence of cancer and cardiovascular disease is lower, as compared to the Western countries populations. This cardiovascular benefit would be the result not only of the modulation of plasma lipids, which is a widely studied mechanism. This paper reviews the published evidence about the beneficial effects of soya isoflavones and the different mechanisms of action that would benefit cardiovascular health and that surpass the mechanisms traditionally approached such as the modulation of plasma lipids, and that implicate the regulation of cellular and enzymatic functions in situations such as inflammation, thrombosis, and atherosclerotic progression.

  5. Heart failure as an endpoint in heart failure and non-heart failure cardiovascular clinical trials: the need for a consensus definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zannad, F.; Stough, W.G.; Pitt, B.;

    2008-01-01

    Specific criteria have been established to define the occurrence of myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke in cardiovascular clinical trials, but there is not a consistent definition for heart failure. Heart failure events appear to occur at a rate that is similar to stroke and MI in trials...... of hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, and coronary heart disease, yet a consistent approach to defining heart failure events has not yet been realized. The wide range of definitions used in clinical trials makes it difficult to interpret new data in the context of existing literature. This inconsistency has...... led to challenges in determining the incidence of heart failure in cardiovascular studies and the effects of interventions on these endpoints. This paper examines issues related to defining heart failure events in cardiovascular clinical trials and presents a definition to formally address this issue...

  6. Heart valve disease: investigation by cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myerson Saul G

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR has become a valuable investigative tool in many areas of cardiac medicine. Its value in heart valve disease is less well appreciated however, particularly as echocardiography is a powerful and widely available technique in valve disease. This review highlights the added value that CMR can bring in valve disease, complementing echocardiography in many areas, but it has also become the first-line investigation in some, such as pulmonary valve disease and assessing the right ventricle. CMR has many advantages, including the ability to image in any plane, which allows full visualisation of valves and their inflow/outflow tracts, direct measurement of valve area (particularly for stenotic valves, and characterisation of the associated great vessel anatomy (e.g. the aortic root and arch in aortic valve disease. A particular strength is the ability to quantify flow, which allows accurate measurement of regurgitation, cardiac shunt volumes/ratios and differential flow volumes (e.g. left and right pulmonary arteries. Quantification of ventricular volumes and mass is vital for determining the impact of valve disease on the heart, and CMR is the 'Gold standard' for this. Limitations of the technique include partial volume effects due to image slice thickness, and a low ability to identify small, highly mobile objects (such as vegetations due to the need to acquire images over several cardiac cycles. The review examines the advantages and disadvantages of each imaging aspect in detail, and considers how CMR can be used optimally for each valve lesion.

  7. Cardiovascular protection of magnolol: cell-type specificity and dose-related effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Jennifer

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Magnolia officinalis has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. Magnolol, an active component isolated from Magnolia officinalis, is known to be a cardiovascular protector since 1994. The multiplex mechanisms of magnolol on cardiovascular protection depends on cell types and dosages, and will be reviewed and discussed in this article. Magnolol under low and moderate dosage possesses the ability to protect heart from ischemic/reperfusion injury, reduces atherosclerotic change, protects endothelial cell against apoptosis and inhibits neutrophil-endothelial adhesion. The moderate to high concentration of magnolol mainly acts on smooth muscle cells and platelets. Magnolol induces apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells at moderate concentration and inhibits proliferation at moderate and high concentration. High concentration of magnolol also abrogates platelet activation, aggregation and thrombus formation. Magnolol also serves as an smooth muscle relaxant only upon the high concentration. Oral intake of magnolol to reach the therapeutic level for cardiovascular protection is applicable, thus makes magnolol an agent of great potential for preventing cardiovascular diseases in high-risk patients.

  8. Patients' knowledge of risk and protective factors for cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartak, Siddharth A; Friderici, Jennifer; Lotfi, Amir; Verma, Ashish; Kleppel, Reva; Naglieri-Prescod, Deborah; Rothberg, Michael B

    2011-05-15

    Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. The American Heart Association has proposed improving overall cardiovascular health by promoting 7 components of ideal cardiovascular health, including health behaviors (not smoking, regular exercise, and healthy diet) and health factors (ideal body mass index, cholesterol, blood pressure, and blood glucose). The patients' knowledge of these 7 components is unknown. We performed a cross-sectional survey of patients at 4 primary care and 1 cardiology clinic. The survey measured demographic data, personal behaviors/health factors, cardiovascular disease history, and knowledge about these 7 components. A multivariate model was developed to assess patient characteristics associated with high knowledge scores. Of the 2,200 surveys distributed, 1,702 (77%) were returned with sufficient responses for analysis. Of these, 49% correctly identified heart disease as the leading cause of death, and 37% (95% confidence interval [CI] 35% to 39%) correctly identified all 7 components. The average respondent identified 4.9 components (95% CI 4.7 to 5.0). The lowest recognition rates were for exercise (57%), fruit/vegetable consumption (58%), and diabetes (63%). In a multivariate model, knowledge of all 7 components was positively associated with high school education or greater (odds ratio 2.43, 95% CI 1.68 to 3.52) and white ethnicity (odds ratio 1.78, 95% CI 1.27 to 2.50), and negatively associated with attending an urban neighborhood clinic (odds ratio 0.60, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.82). In conclusion, just >1/3 of patients could identify all 7 components of ideal cardiovascular health. Educational efforts should target patients in low socioeconomic strata and focus on improving knowledge about healthy diet and regular exercise. Although patients with diabetes were more likely than those without diabetes to recognize their risk, 1 in 5 were not aware that diabetes is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

  9. Renal and cardiovascular role of the neuropeptide Y Y1 receptor in ischaemic heart failure rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Xin; Sun, X Y; Bergdahl, A;

    1999-01-01

    are still mainly involved in cardiovascular actions of exogenous neuropeptide Y and play a role in maintaining basal blood pressure and heart rate in ischaemic heart failure. However, our data do not imply any significant role of Y1 receptors on basal renal function in the ischaemic heart failure rat model.......The cardiovascular role of the neuropeptide Y Y1 receptors in-vivo and in-vitro in ischaemic heart failure was evaluated by using the novel neuropeptide Y Y1 selective antagonist BIBP 3226 (R-N2-(diphenylacetyl)-N-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]-D-arginine-amid e). In pithed rats, incremental doses...

  10. Differential Associations Between Specific Depressive Symptoms and Cardiovascular Prognosis in Patients With Stable Coronary Heart Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoen, Petra W.; Whooley, Mary A.; Martens, Elisabeth J.; Na, Beeya; van Melle, Joost P.; de Jonge, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this research was to evaluate the relationship between cognitive and somatic depressive symptoms and cardiovascular prognosis. Background Depression in patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD) is associated with poor cardiac prognosis. Whether certain depressive sy

  11. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging of hypoplastic left heart syndrome in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) plays an important complementary role to echocardiography and conventional angiography in the evaluation of hypoplastic left heart syndrome. This imaging modality is particularly useful for assessing cardiovascular postsurgical changes, extracardiac vascular anatomy, ventricular and valvular function, and a variety of complications. The purpose of this article is to provide a contemporary review of the role of CMR in the management of untreated and surgically palliated hypoplastic left heart syndrome in children. (orig.)

  12. Cardiovascular safety of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors: recent evidence on heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankanala, Saumya Reddy; Syed, Rafay; Gong, Quan; Ren, Boxu; Rao, Xiaoquan; Zhong, Jixin

    2016-01-01

    The cardiovascular safety of DPP4 inhibitors as a class, especially in regards to heart failure, has been questioned after the publication of first trials (SAVOR-TIMI 53 and EXAMINE) assessing the cardiovascular risks of DPP4 inhibitors alogliptin and sitagliptin in 2013. Although there were no increased risks in composite cardiovascular outcomes, the SAVOR-TIMI 53 trial reported a 27% increase in hospitalization for heart failure in diabetic patients who received the DPP4 inhibitor saxagliptin. There has been substantial increase in knowledge on the heart failure effect of DPP4 inhibition since 2013. This review will summarize the role of the DPP4/incretin axis in heart failure and discuss the findings from recent large scale clinical trials assessing the effects of DPP4 inhibitors on heart failure. PMID:27347354

  13. The Role of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance in Pediatric Congenital Heart Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor Andrew M; Hughes Marina L; Ntsinjana Hopewell N

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has expanded its role in the diagnosis and management of congenital heart disease (CHD) and acquired heart disease in pediatric patients. Ongoing technological advancements in both data acquisition and data presentation have enabled CMR to be integrated into clinical practice with increasing understanding of the advantages and limitations of the technique by pediatric cardiologists and congenital heart surgeons. Importantly, the combination of ...

  14. Clinical impact of evaluation of cardiovascular control by novel methods of heart rate dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huikuri, Heikki V; Perkiömäki, Juha S; Maestri, Roberto; Pinna, Gian Domenico

    2009-04-13

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has been conventionally analysed with time- and frequency-domain methods, which measure the overall magnitude of RR interval fluctuations around its mean value or the magnitude of fluctuations in some predetermined frequencies. Analysis of heart rate dynamics by novel methods, such as heart rate turbulence after ventricular premature beats, deceleration capacity of heart rate and methods based on chaos theory and nonlinear system theory, have gained recent interest. Recent observational studies have suggested that some indices describing nonlinear heart rate dynamics, such as fractal scaling exponents, heart rate turbulence and deceleration capacity, may provide useful prognostic information in various clinical settings and their reproducibility may be better than that of traditional indices. For example, the short-term fractal scaling exponent measured by the detrended fluctuation analysis method has been shown to predict fatal cardiovascular events in various populations. Similarly, heart rate turbulence and deceleration capacity have performed better than traditional HRV measures in predicting mortality in post-infarction patients. Approximate entropy, a nonlinear index of heart rate dynamics, which describes the complexity of RR interval behaviour, has provided information on the vulnerability to atrial fibrillation. There are many other nonlinear indices which also give information on the characteristics of heart rate dynamics, but their clinical usefulness is not as well established. Although the concepts of nonlinear dynamics, fractal mathematics and complexity measures of heart rate behaviour, heart rate turbulence, deceleration capacity in relation to cardiovascular physiology or various cardiovascular events are still far away from clinical medicine, they are a fruitful area for research to expand our knowledge concerning the behaviour of cardiovascular oscillations in normal healthy conditions as well as in disease states.

  15. Heart rate control with adrenergic blockade: Clinical outcomes in cardiovascular medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Feldman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available David Feldman1, Terry S Elton2, Doron M Menachemi3, Randy K Wexler41Heart Failure/Transplant and VAD Programs, Minneapolis Heart Institute, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA; 2Division of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA; 3Heart Failure Services, Edith Wolfson Medical Center, The Heart Institute, Sakler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Holon, Israel; 4Department of Clinical Family Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USAAbstract: The sympathetic nervous system is involved in regulating various cardiovascular parameters including heart rate (HR and HR variability. Aberrant sympathetic nervous system expression may result in elevated HR or decreased HR variability, and both are independent risk factors for development of cardiovascular disease, including heart failure, myocardial infarction, and hypertension. Epidemiologic studies have established that impaired HR control is linked to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. One successful way of decreasing HR and cardiovascular mortality has been by utilizing β-blockers, because their ability to alter cell signaling at the receptor level has been shown to mitigate the pathogenic effects of sympathetic nervous system hyperactivation. Numerous clinical studies have demonstrated that β-blocker-mediated HR control improvements are associated with decreased mortality in postinfarct and heart failure patients. Although improved HR control benefits have yet to be established in hypertension, both traditional and vasodilating β-blockers exert positive HR control effects in this patient population. However, differences exist between traditional and vasodilating β-blockers; the latter reduce peripheral vascular resistance and exert neutral or positive effects on important metabolic parameters. Clinical evidence suggests that attainment of HR control is an important treatment objective for patients with cardiovascular

  16. The Framingham Heart Study, on its way to becoming the gold standard for Cardiovascular Genetic Epidemiology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaquish Cashell E

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Framingham Heart Study, founded in 1948 to examine the epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in a small town outside of Boston, has become the worldwide standard for cardiovascular epidemiology. It is among the longest running, most comprehensively characterized multi-generational studies in the world. Such seminal findings as the effects of smoking and high cholesterol on heart disease came from the Framingham Heart Study. At the time of publication these were novel cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors, now they are the basis of treatment and prevention in the US. Is the Framingham study now on it's way to becoming the gold standard for genetic epidemiology of CVD? Will the novel genetic findings of today become the health care standards of tomorrow? The accompanying articles summarizing the results of genome-wide association studies (GWAS give the reader a first glimpse into the possibilities.

  17. Protective Role of the ACE2/Ang-(1–9 Axis in Cardiovascular Remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Paz Ocaranza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite reduction in cardiovascular (CV events and end-organ damage with the current pharmacologic strategies, CV disease remains the primary cause of death in the world. Pharmacological therapies based on the renin angiotensin system (RAS blockade are used extensively for the treatment of hypertension, heart failure, and CV remodeling but in spite of their success the prevalence of end-organ damage and residual risk remain still high. Novel approaches must be discovered for a more effective treatment of residual CV remodeling and risk. The ACE2/Ang-(1–9 axis is a new and important target to counterbalance the vasoconstrictive/proliferative RAS axis. Ang-(1–9 is hydrolyzed slower than Ang-(1–7 and is able to bind the Ang II type 2 receptor. We review here the current experimental evidence suggesting that activation of the ACE2/Ang-(1–9 axis protects the heart and vessels (and possibly the kidney from adverse cardiovascular remodeling in hypertension as well as in heart failure.

  18. Implementing a Graduate Certificate Program in Cardiovascular Epidemiology: The Jackson Heart Study

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell Jenkins, Brenda W.; Clifton Addison; Gregory Wilson; Lavon Young; Regina Fields; Clevette Woodberry; Marinelle Payton

    2015-01-01

    The Jackson Heart Study (JHS) is committed to providing opportunities for expanding the understanding of the epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The JHS Graduate Training and Education Center (GTEC) has initiated the Daniel Hale Williams Scholar (DHWS) program where students are afforded the opportunity to interact with epidemiologists and other biomedical scientists to learn to identify, predict, and prevent cardiovascular disease using the Jackson ...

  19. Cardiovascular complications in newly diagnosed rheumatic heart disease patients at Mulago Hospital, Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    OKELLO, Emmy; Wanzhu, Zhang; Musoke, Charles; Kakande, Barbara; Charles K. Mondo; Freers, Juergen; Twalib, Aliku; Lwabi, Peter; Wilson, Nyakoojo B; Odoi-Adome, R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Complications of rheumatic heart disease are associated with severe morbidity and mortality in developing countries where the disease prevalence remains high. Due to lack of screening services, many patients present late, with severe valve disease. In Uganda, the disease and its complications are still not well studied. Objective To profile and describe cardiovascular complications in newly diagnosed rheumatic heart disease patients attending the Mulago National Referral Hospital i...

  20. Functional ingredients and cardiovascular protective effect of pumpkin seed oils

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Okbi, S. Y.; Mohamed, D. A.; Kandil, E.; Ahmed, E. K.; Mohammed, S. E.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the cardiovascular protective effect of Egyptian and European umpkin seed oil (PSO) in hypercholesterolemic rats. Tocopherols, fatty acids (FAs) and unsaponifiable matter (UNSAP) were assessed in both oils. The results showed that α-tocopherol was 108 and 273, γ-tocopherol was 3.95 and 0 and d-tocopherol was 0 and 1.58 mg·100 g-1 oil of the Egyptian and European, respectively. GLC analysis of FAs revealed the presence of linoleic acid as the...

  1. Risk Prediction of Cardiovascular Complications in Pregnant Women With Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Carvalho Martins

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Heart disease in pregnancy is the leading cause of non- obstetric maternal death. Few Brazilian studies have assessed the impact of heart disease during pregnancy. Objective: To determine the risk factors associated with cardiovascular and neonatal complications. Methods: We evaluated 132 pregnant women with heart disease at a High-Risk Pregnancy outpatient clinic, from January 2005 to July 2010. Variables that could influence the maternal-fetal outcome were selected: age, parity, smoking, etiology and severity of the disease, previous cardiac complications, cyanosis, New York Heart Association (NYHA functional class > II, left ventricular dysfunction/obstruction, arrhythmia, drug treatment change, time of prenatal care beginning and number of prenatal visits. The maternal-fetal risk index, Cardiac Disease in Pregnancy (CARPREG, was retrospectively calculated at the beginning of prenatal care, and patients were stratified in its three risk categories. Results: Rheumatic heart disease was the most prevalent (62.12%. The most frequent complications were heart failure (11.36% and arrhythmias (6.82%. Factors associated with cardiovascular complications on multivariate analysis were: drug treatment change (p = 0.009, previous cardiac complications (p = 0.013 and NYHA class III on the first prenatal visit (p = 0.041. The cardiovascular complication rates were 15.22% in CARPREG 0, 16.42% in CARPREG 1, and 42.11% in CARPREG > 1, differing from those estimated by the original index: 5%, 27% and 75%, respectively. This sample had 26.36% of prematurity. Conclusion: The cardiovascular complication risk factors in this population were drug treatment change, previous cardiac complications and NYHA class III at the beginning of prenatal care. The CARPREG index used in this sample composed mainly of patients with rheumatic heart disease overestimated the number of events in pregnant women classified as CARPREG 1 and > 1, and underestimated

  2. Natriuretic Peptides as Cardiovascular Safety Biomarkers in Rats: Comparison With Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, and Heart Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Steven K; Watson, David E

    2016-02-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) toxicity is an important cause of failure during drug development. Blood-based biomarkers can be used to detect CV toxicity during preclinical development and prioritize compounds at lower risk of causing such toxicities. Evidence of myocardial degeneration can be detected by measuring concentrations of biomarkers such as cardiac troponin I and creatine kinase in blood; however, detection of functional changes in the CV system, such as blood pressure, generally requires studies in animals with surgically implanted pressure transducers. This is a significant limitation because sustained changes in blood pressure are often accompanied by changes in heart rate and together can lead to cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial degeneration in animals, and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in humans. Increased concentrations of NPs in blood correlate with higher risk of cardiac mortality, all-cause mortality, and MACE in humans. Their utility as biomarkers of CV function and toxicity in rodents was investigated by exploring the relationships between plasma concentrations of NTproANP and NTproBNP, blood pressure, heart rate, and heart weight in Sprague Dawley rats administered compounds that caused hypotension or hypertension, including nifedipine, fluprostenol, minoxidil, L-NAME, L-thyroxine, or sunitinib for 1-2 weeks. Changes in NTproANP and/or NTproBNP concentrations were inversely correlated with changes in blood pressure. NTproANP and NTproBNP concentrations were inconsistently correlated with relative heart weights. In addition, increased heart rate was associated with increased heart weights. These studies support the use of natriuretic peptides and heart rate to detect changes in blood pressure and cardiac hypertrophy in short-duration rat studies. PMID:26609138

  3. Is the Heart a Pressure or Flow Generator? Possible Implications and Suggestions for Cardiovascular Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jamie R.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, a physiology instructor with primarily a cardiovascular (CV) background has wondered what approach to take, with both novice and senior learners, when it comes to delivering material on the pressure or flow generation of the heart. A debate surrounds the pressure propulsion versus flow generation theories, where some understand…

  4. Erythropoietin in heart failure : pathology and protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westenbrink, Berend Daan

    2008-01-01

    Anemia is common in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients and related to impaired survival. The etiology of anemia in CHF-patients is often unknown. We hypothesized that dysregulation of erythropoietin (EPO) synthesis by the kidney or an altered sensitivity of the bone marrow to EPO might represent c

  5. Implementing a Graduate Certificate Program in Cardiovascular Epidemiology: The Jackson Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda W. Campbell Jenkins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Jackson Heart Study (JHS is committed to providing opportunities for expanding the understanding of the epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The JHS Graduate Training and Education Center (GTEC has initiated the Daniel Hale Williams Scholar (DHWS program where students are afforded the opportunity to interact with epidemiologists and other biomedical scientists to learn to identify, predict, and prevent cardiovascular disease using the Jackson Heart Study data. This study describes the structured programs developed by JHS GTEC seeking to alleviate the shortage of trained professionals in cardiovascular epidemiology by training graduate students while they complete their academic degrees. The DHWS program provides: (1 an enrichment curriculum; (2 a learning community; (3 quarterly seminars; and (4 a Summer Institute. Students attend enrichment activities comprising: (1 Applied Biostatistics; (2 Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiology; (3 Social Epidemiology; (4 Emerging Topics; and (5 Research Writing. Training focuses on developing proficiency in cardiovascular health knowledge. The DHWS program is a unique strategy for incorporating rigorous academic and career-focused training to graduate students and has enabled the acquisition of competencies needed to impact cardiovascular disease management programs.

  6. Implementing a Graduate Certificate Program in Cardiovascular Epidemiology: The Jackson Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell Jenkins, Brenda W; Addison, Clifton; Wilson, Gregory; Young, Lavon; Fields, Regina; Woodberry, Clevette; Payton, Marinelle

    2016-01-01

    The Jackson Heart Study (JHS) is committed to providing opportunities for expanding the understanding of the epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The JHS Graduate Training and Education Center (GTEC) has initiated the Daniel Hale Williams Scholar (DHWS) program where students are afforded the opportunity to interact with epidemiologists and other biomedical scientists to learn to identify, predict, and prevent cardiovascular disease using the Jackson Heart Study data. This study describes the structured programs developed by JHS GTEC seeking to alleviate the shortage of trained professionals in cardiovascular epidemiology by training graduate students while they complete their academic degrees. The DHWS program provides: (1) an enrichment curriculum; (2) a learning community; (3) quarterly seminars; and (4) a Summer Institute. Students attend enrichment activities comprising: (1) Applied Biostatistics; (2) Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiology; (3) Social Epidemiology; (4) Emerging Topics; and (5) Research Writing. Training focuses on developing proficiency in cardiovascular health knowledge. The DHWS program is a unique strategy for incorporating rigorous academic and career-focused training to graduate students and has enabled the acquisition of competencies needed to impact cardiovascular disease management programs. PMID:26703701

  7. ``THE UNVEILED HEART'' a teaching program in cardiovascular nuclear medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itti, Roland; Merabet, Yasmina; Roca, Ramona; Bontemps, Laurence; Itti, Emmanuel

    2004-07-01

    The functional investigation of cardiac diseases using nuclear techniques involves several variables, such as myocardial perfusion, cellular viability or mechanical contraction. The combined, topographical and quantitative assessment of these variables can characterize the functional state of the heart in terms of normal myocardium, ischemia, hibernation or necrosis. The teaching program, "The Unveiled Heart", has been designed in order to help nuclear physicians or cardiologists approaching these concepts and their implications for diagnosis of coronary artery disease, optimization of therapeutic strategies and prognosis evaluation. Anatomical correlations with coronary angiographic results obtained during balloon occlusion at the time of coronary angioplasty demonstrate the complementary role of imaging techniques and highlight the patient to patient variability of risk areas. A sectorial model derived from a polar projection of the myocardium presents for each sector the probability of involvement of a given coronary artery.

  8. Sedentary Behavior and Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality: A Science Advisory From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Deborah Rohm; Hivert, Marie-France; Alhassan, Sofiya; Camhi, Sarah M; Ferguson, Jane F; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Lewis, Cora E; Owen, Neville; Perry, Cynthia K; Siddique, Juned; Yong, Celina M

    2016-09-27

    Epidemiological evidence is accumulating that indicates greater time spent in sedentary behavior is associated with all-cause and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in adults such that some countries have disseminated broad guidelines that recommend minimizing sedentary behaviors. Research examining the possible deleterious consequences of excess sedentary behavior is rapidly evolving, with the epidemiology-based literature ahead of potential biological mechanisms that might explain the observed associations. This American Heart Association science advisory reviews the current evidence on sedentary behavior in terms of assessment methods, population prevalence, determinants, associations with cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality, potential underlying mechanisms, and interventions. Recommendations for future research on this emerging cardiovascular health topic are included. Further evidence is required to better inform public health interventions and future quantitative guidelines on sedentary behavior and cardiovascular health outcomes.

  9. Tribulosin protects rat hearts from ischemia/reperfusion injury

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shuang; Li, Hong; Yang, Shi-Jie

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the protective effect of tribulosin, a monomer of the gross saponins from Tribulus terrestris, against cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury and the underlying mechanism in rats. Methods: Isolated rat hearts were subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 120 min of reperfusion using Langendorff's technique. The hearts were assigned to seven groups: control, ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), treatment with gross saponins from Tribulus terrestris (GSTT) 100 mg/L, treatment with tr...

  10. Cardiomyocyte GTP Cyclohydrolase 1 Protects the Heart Against Diabetic Cardiomyopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiang-En Wu; Shelley L. Baumgardt; Juan Fang; Mark Paterson; Yanan Liu; Jianhai Du; Yang Shi; Shigang Qiao; Bosnjak, Zeljko J.; Warltier, David C.; Kersten, Judy R; Zhi-Dong Ge

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy increases the risk of heart failure and death. At present, there are no effective approaches to preventing its development in the clinic. Here we report that reduction of cardiac GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GCH1) degradation by genetic and pharmacological approaches protects the heart against diabetic cardiomyopathy. Diabetic cardiomyopathy was induced in C57BL/6 wild-type mice and transgenic mice with cardiomyocyte-specific overexpression of GCH1 with streptozotocin, and co...

  11. HEART RATE VARIABILITY AS THE ADAPTATION RESERVE INDICATOR OF CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksana Kotava

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The efectiveness of the vegetative regulation action might be controlled by the method of heart rate variability (HRV, which has been very popularly used over the last 10 years worldwide. The analysis of many clinical studies indicates that the severity of the disease might be controlled using the method of HRV. Material and methods: All the experimental and controlled group participants, which consisted of healthy students with none sports experience, underwent the examination according to the 5-minute standard protocol of HRV. In addition, all the examinees performed a bicycle stress test. After the bicycle stress test, some additional tests of HRV were also carried out. Results: It was found that some signifcant diferences, between the group of sportsmen and the group of patients, exist. The parasympathetic activity of LF is maximum in athletes and tends to decrease in patients with cardiovascular pathologies. The decreases of the activity of the vasomotor centre was noticed in both study groups. The sympathetic system activity was the lowest in athletes. Conclusions: At the high depression of the vegetative regulation, any signifcant load (physical or psycho-emotional indicates cardiovascular instability which remains beyond the capacity of adaptation. The higher the variability, the more stable the CVS is to the external loads. A sharp decrease of the variability, such as the heart vegetative innervations, causes deteriorating quality of the regulatory mechanisms and, as a result, the risk of cardiovascular diseases increases. Keywords: heart rate variability, deterministic and stochastic loads, cardiovascular system

  12. Differential protection against oxidative stress and nitric oxide overproduction in cardiovascular and pulmonary systems by propofol during endotoxemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yen-Chin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both overproduction of nitric oxide (NO and oxidative injury of cardiovascular and pulmonary systems contribute to fatal cardiovascular depression during endotoxemia. We investigated in the present study the relative contribution of oxidative stress and NO to cardiovascular depression during different stages of endotoxemia, and delineated their roles in cardiovascular protective effects of a commonly used anesthetic propofol during endotoxemia. Methods Experimental endotoxemia was induced by systemic injection of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 15 mg/kg to Sprague-Dawley rats that were maintained under propofol (15 or 30 mg/kg/h, i.v. anesthesia. Mean systemic arterial pressure (MSAP and heart rate (HR were monitored for 6 h after the endotoxin. Tissue level of NO was measured by chemical reduction-linked chemiluminescence and oxidative burst activity was determined using dihydroethidium method. Expression of NO synthase (NOS was determined by immunoblotting. The Scheffé multiple range test was used for post hoc statistical analysis. Results Systemic injection of LPS (15 mg/kg induced biphasic decreases in MSAP and HR. In the heart, lung and aorta, an abrupt increase in lipid peroxidation, our experimental index of oxidative tissue injury, was detected in early stage and sustained during late stage cardiovascular depression. LPS injection, on the other hand, induced a gradual increase in tissue nitrite and nitrate levels in the same organs that peaked during late stage endotoxemia. Propofol infusion (15 or 30 mg/kg/h, i.v. significantly attenuated lipid peroxidation in the heart, lung and aorta during early and late stage endotoxemia. High dose (30 mg/kg/h, i.v. propofol also reversed the LPS-induced inducible NO synthase (iNOS upregulation and NO production in the aorta, alongside a significant amelioration of late stage cardiovascular depression and increase in survival time during endotoxemia. Conclusion Together these

  13. Cardiovascular Health Promotion in Children: Challenges and Opportunities for 2020 and Beyond: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberger, Julia; Daniels, Stephen R; Hagberg, Nancy; Isasi, Carmen R; Kelly, Aaron S; Lloyd-Jones, Donald; Pate, Russell R; Pratt, Charlotte; Shay, Christina M; Towbin, Jeffrey A; Urbina, Elaine; Van Horn, Linda V; Zachariah, Justin P

    2016-09-20

    This document provides a pediatric-focused companion to "Defining and Setting National Goals for Cardiovascular Health Promotion and Disease Reduction: The American Heart Association's Strategic Impact Goal Through 2020 and Beyond," focused on cardiovascular health promotion and disease reduction in adults and children. The principles detailed in the document reflect the American Heart Association's new dynamic and proactive goal to promote cardiovascular health throughout the life course. The primary focus is on adult cardiovascular health and disease prevention, but critical to achievement of this goal is maintenance of ideal cardiovascular health from birth through childhood to young adulthood and beyond. Emphasis is placed on the fundamental principles and metrics that define cardiovascular health in children for the clinical or research setting, and a balanced and critical appraisal of the strengths and weaknesses of the cardiovascular health construct in children and adolescents is provided. Specifically, this document discusses 2 important factors: the promotion of ideal cardiovascular health in all children and the improvement of cardiovascular health metric scores in children currently classified as having poor or intermediate cardiovascular health. Other topics include the current status of cardiovascular health in US children, opportunities for the refinement of health metrics, improvement of health metric scores, and possibilities for promoting ideal cardiovascular health. Importantly, concerns about the suitability of using single thresholds to identify elevated cardiovascular risk throughout the childhood years and the limits of our current knowledge are noted, and suggestions for future directions and research are provided.

  14. Non Hodgkin lymphoma metastasis to the heart detected by cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary and secondary heart tumors are relatively rare occurrences but usually imply significant treatment decisions. The differential diagnosis among these tumors and other masses can sometimes be difficult and require the use of different imaging modalities to establish a confident verdict. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance CMR imaging is a very useful tool in these cases by allowing for the application of different strategies to better delineate masses, heart structures and adjacent tissues. In this case description, we present a woman with shortness of breath and a paracardiac mass showing how CMR can be applied. (author)

  15. MR evaluation of cardiovascular physiology in congenital heart disease: flow and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Oliver M; Higgins, Charles B

    2006-01-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has become the method of choice in the evaluation of a number of questions in congenital heart disease. In addition to morphology, modern CMR techniques allow the visualization of function and flow in a temporally resolved manner. Among the pathologies where these methods play a major role are shunts, septal defects, aortic coarctation, anomalies of the pulmonary arteries, and valvular regurgitation. This paper explains the basics of functional and flow encoded CMR and discusses their application in the assessment of several types of congenital heart disease.

  16. Ectopic fat storage in heart, blood vessels and kidneys in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Montani, Jean-Pierre; Carroll, Joan F; Dwyer, Terry M.; Antic, Vladan; Yang, Zhihong; Abdul G Dulloo

    2005-01-01

    In humans and most animal models, the development of obesity leads not only to increased fat depots in classical adipose tissue locations but also to significant lipid deposits within and around other tissues and organs, a phenomenon known as ectopic fat storage. The purpose of this review is to explore the possible locations of ectopic fat in key target-organs of cardiovascular control (heart, blood vessels and kidneys) and to propose how ectopic fat storage can play a role in the pathogenes...

  17. Assessment of Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease Using Heart Rate Variability in Postmenopausal Women: A Comparative Study between Urban and Rural Indian Women

    OpenAIRE

    Mirajkar, Amrit M.; Shailaja Moodithaya; Harsha Halahalli; Nikhil Narayanaswamy

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are important causes of morbidity and mortality in postmenopausal women. A major determinant of cardiovascular health is the status of autonomic nervous system and assessment of Heart Rate Variability (HRV). Heart Rate Variability is a noninvasive and sensitive technique to evaluate cardiovascular autonomic control. Reduced HRV is an independent risk factor for the development of heart disease. This study evaluated the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases using HRV...

  18. Left Ventricular Wall Stress-Mass-Heart Rate Product and Cardiovascular Events in Treated Hypertensive Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devereux, Richard B; Bang, Casper N; Roman, Mary J;

    2015-01-01

    In the Losartan Intervention for End Point Reduction in Hypertension (LIFE) study, 4.8 years' losartan- versus atenolol-based antihypertensive treatment reduced left ventricular hypertrophy and cardiovascular end points, including cardiovascular death and stroke. However, there was no difference...... randomized treatment, the triple product was reduced more by atenolol, with prevalences of elevated triple product of 39% versus 51% on losartan (both P≤0.001). In Cox regression analyses adjusting for age, smoking, diabetes mellitus, and prior stroke, MI, and heart failure, 1 SD lower triple product...... was associated with 23% (95% confidence interval 13%-32%) fewer composite end points, 31% (18%-41%) less cardiovascular mortality, 30% (15%-41%) lower MI, and 22% (11%-33%) lower all-cause mortality (all P≤0.001), without association with stroke (P=0.34). Although losartan-based therapy reduced ventricular mass...

  19. [Gliptins, cardiovascular safety and congestive heart failure: state of the art after TECOS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheen, A J

    2015-08-26

    The cardiovascular safety of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (gliptins) has been well studied. Favourable effects of these oral antidiabetic agents have been reported in meta-analyses of phase II-III randomised controlled trials. Three large prospective trials, which were specifically designed to investigate cardiovascular safety, showed non-inferiority of saxagliptin (SAVOR-TIMI 53), alogliptin (EXA-MINE) and sitagliptin (TECOS) versus placebo as far as major cardiovascular events are concerned, including mortality. The suspected increase in the rate of hospitalisation due to congestive heart failure reported in SAVOR-TIMI 53 was neither found in EXAMINE nor recently confirmed in TECOS. Direct comparative trials, evaluating not only safety but also efficacy, with other oral antidiabetic medications would be of major interest.

  20. Association of Central Sleep Apnea with Impaired Heart Structure and Cardiovascular Hemodynamics in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazimierczak, Anna; Krzesiński, Paweł; Gielerak, Grzegorz; Uziebło-Życzkowska, Beata; Smurzyński, Paweł; Ryczek, Robert; Cwetsch, Andrzej; Skrobowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Background Advanced heart failure (HF) is commonly accompanied by central sleep apnea (CSA) with Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR). The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between CSA/CSR and other clinical features of HF, with particular emphasis on cardiovascular hemodynamics. Material/Methods In 161 stable HF patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤45% (NYHA class I–III; mean LVEF 32.8%) the clinical evaluation included: LVEF; left and right ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVDd, RVDd); ratio of early transmitral flow velocity to early diastolic septal mitral annulus velocity (E/e’) assessed by echocardiography; stroke index (SI); heart rate (HR); cardiac index (CI); and systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI) assessed by impedance cardiography (ICG). The comparison was performed between 2 subgroups: one with moderate/severe CSA/CSR - CSR_ [+] (n=51), and one with mild or no CSA/CSR – CSR_ [−] (n=110). Results CSR_ [+] patients presented more advanced NYHA class (pCSR_ [+] were identified: NYHA class (OR=3.34 per class, pCSR in HF is associated with NYHA class, atrial fibrillation and more advanced impairment of cardiovascular structure and hemodynamics. Patient functional state remains the main determinant of CSR. PMID:27558771

  1. Association of Central Sleep Apnea with Impaired Heart Structure and Cardiovascular Hemodynamics in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazimierczak, Anna; Krzesiński, Paweł; Gielerak, Grzegorz; Uziębło-Życzkowska, Beata; Smurzyński, Paweł; Ryczek, Robert; Cwetsch, Andrzej; Skrobowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Advanced heart failure (HF) is commonly accompanied by central sleep apnea (CSA) with Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR). The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between CSA/CSR and other clinical features of HF, with particular emphasis on cardiovascular hemodynamics. MATERIAL AND METHODS In 161 stable HF patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤45% (NYHA class I-III; mean LVEF 32.8%) the clinical evaluation included: LVEF; left and right ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVDd, RVDd); ratio of early transmitral flow velocity to early diastolic septal mitral annulus velocity (E/e') assessed by echocardiography; stroke index (SI); heart rate (HR); cardiac index (CI); and systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI) assessed by impedance cardiography (ICG). The comparison was performed between 2 subgroups: one with moderate/severe CSA/CSR - CSR_ [+] (n=51), and one with mild or no CSA/CSR - CSR_ [-] (n=110). RESULTS CSR_ [+] patients presented more advanced NYHA class (pCSR_ [+] were identified: NYHA class (OR=3.34 per class, pCSR in HF is associated with NYHA class, atrial fibrillation and more advanced impairment of cardiovascular structure and hemodynamics. Patient functional state remains the main determinant of CSR. PMID:27558771

  2. The Role of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance in Pediatric Congenital Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Andrew M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR has expanded its role in the diagnosis and management of congenital heart disease (CHD and acquired heart disease in pediatric patients. Ongoing technological advancements in both data acquisition and data presentation have enabled CMR to be integrated into clinical practice with increasing understanding of the advantages and limitations of the technique by pediatric cardiologists and congenital heart surgeons. Importantly, the combination of exquisite 3D anatomy with physiological data enables CMR to provide a unique perspective for the management of many patients with CHD. Imaging small children with CHD is challenging, and in this article we will review the technical adjustments, imaging protocols and application of CMR in the pediatric population.

  3. Cohort Profile: The Framingham Heart Study (FHS): overview of milestones in cardiovascular epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Connie W; Vasan, Ramachandran S

    2015-12-01

    The Framingham Heart Study (FHS) has conducted seminal research defining cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and fundamentally shaping public health guidelines for CVD prevention over the past five decades. The success of the Original Cohort, initiated in 1948, paved the way for further epidemiological research in preventive cardiology. Due to the keen observations suggesting the role of shared familial factors in the development of CVD, in 1971 the FHS began enroling the second generation cohort, comprising the children of the Original Cohort and the spouses of the children. In 2002, the third generation cohort, comprising the grandchildren of the Original Cohort, was initiated to additionally explore genetic contributions to CVD in greater depth. Additionally, because of the predominance of White individuals of European descent in the three generations of FHS participants noted above, the Heart Study enrolled the OMNI1 and OMNI2 cohorts in 1994 and 2003, respectively, aimed to reflect the current greater racial and ethnic diversity of the town of Framingham. All FHS cohorts have been examined approximately every 2-4 years since the initiation of the study. At these periodic Heart Study examinations, we obtain a medical history and perform a cardiovascular-focused physical examination, 12-lead electrocardiography, blood and urine samples testing and other cardiovascular imaging studies reflecting subclinical disease burden.The FHS has continually evolved along the cutting edge of cardiovascular science and epidemiological research since its inception. Participant studies now additionally include study of cardiovascular imaging, serum and urine biomarkers, genetics/genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and social networks. Numerous ancillary studies have been established, expanding the phenotypes to encompass multiple organ systems including the lungs, brain, bone and fat depots, among others. Whereas the FHS was originally conceived and designed to study the

  4. Functional ingredients and cardiovascular protective effect of pumpkin seed oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Okbi, S. Y.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the cardiovascular protective effect of Egyptian and European umpkin seed oil (PSO in hypercholesterolemic rats. Tocopherols, fatty acids (FAs and unsaponifiable matter (UNSAP were assessed in both oils. The results showed that α-tocopherol was 108 and 273, γ-tocopherol was 3.95 and 0 and d-tocopherol was 0 and 1.58 mg·100 g-1 oil of the Egyptian and European, respectively. GLC analysis of FAs revealed the presence of linoleic acid as the major fatty acid in both oils. Feeding a hypercholesterolemic diet produced a significant increase in plasma total cholesterol (T-Ch, triglycerides (TGs, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, T-Ch/HDL-Ch, TGs/HDL-Ch and malondialdehyde and a significant reduction in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-Ch, vitamin E, and adiponectin. Rats fed on hypercholesterolemic diet with either oil showed a significant improvement in all biochemical parametersEl objetivo fue evaluar el efecto protector cardiovascular de aceites de semilla de calabaza (PSO de variedades egipcia y europea en ratas con hipercolesterolemia. Se evaluó tocoferoles, ácidos grasos (FAs y materia insaponificable (UNSAP en ambos aceites. Los resultados mostraron valores de α-tocoferol de 108 y 273, γ-tocoferol 3,95 y 0 y δ-tocoferol de 0 y 1,58 mg·100 g-1 en las variedades egipcia y europea, respectivamente. El análisis por GLC de los ácidos grasos (FAS mostró al linoleico como mayoritario en ambos aceites. La alimentación con una dieta hipercolesterolémica produjo en plasma un aumento significativo de colesterol total (T-Ch, triglicéridos (TG, colesterol en lipoproteínas de baja densidad, T-Ch/HDL-Ch, TGs/HDL- ch y malondialdehído y una reducción significativa en el colesterol de lipoproteínas de alta densidad (HDL-cH, vitamina E, y adiponectina. Las ratas alimentadas con una dieta hipercolesterolémica y con ambos aceites, mostraron mejoras significativas en todos los par

  5. Predictive Value of Cardiovascular Risk Factors for Risk Assessment in Cohort of Shiraz Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ ZibaeeNezhad

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Risk assessment for fast growing burden of cardiovascular diseases is very important and dif- ficult. As a response to this challenge, in particular, genetic risk factors which potentially modify risk, we conducted a survey of primary data registry of Shiraz Heart Study on integration and application of family history data in prevention of cardiovascular disorders.Method: This study is a longitudinal cohort project to be extended from subpopulations of different job groups to the community.Results: Parental family history of MI, diabetes mellitus (DM, hyperlipidemia (HPL, hypertension (HTN was reported more frequently among females than males. Histories of MI, DM, HPL, and HTN in both parents were respectively positive in 2.6%, 2%, 4.6%, and 7.9 % of the participants. Odd ratios (OR for risk of MI from family history of MI were 2.7; risk of DM from family history of DM 4.5; risk of HPL from family history of HPL 2.04; and risk of HTN from family history HTN 4.7. Also, family history of MI modifies risk of HPL (OR=1.7, P<0.0001; and family history of DM modifies risk of HPL (OR=2.04, P<0.0001.Conclusion: Our primary result shows potent application of family history data in risk assessment of cardiovascular outcome. In particular, HTN appears as a silent and leading risk modifier. In regard to the course of continuing Shiraz Heart Study integration of family history of risk factors crucial in public health we suggest to adopt a network of electronic health records from the “Health House” to the “Heart House”.

  6. Cardiovascular Diseases in HIV-infected Subjects (HIV-HEART Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    Detection of Frequency, Severity and Progression of Cardiovascular Diseases in Patients With HIV-infection.; Effect on Cardiovascular Risk and Life Quality by Age, Gender, Classic Cardiovascular Risk Factors,; HIV-specific Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Cardiovascular Medication, Antiretroviral Medication

  7. Cardiovascular Activity of Labdane Diterpenes from Andrographis paniculata in Isolated Rat Hearts

    OpenAIRE

    Khalijah Awang; Nor Hayati Abdullah; Hadi, A. Hamid A.; Yew Su Fong

    2012-01-01

    The dichloromethane (DCM) extract of Andrographis paniculata Nees was tested for cardiovascular activity. The extract significantly reduced coronary perfusion pressure by up to 24.5 ± 3.0 mm Hg at a 3 mg dose and also reduced heart rate by up to 49.5 ± 11.4 beats/minute at this dose. Five labdane diterpenes, 14-deoxy-12-hydroxyandrographolide (1), 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (2), 14-deoxyandrographolide (3), andrographolide (4), and neoandrographolide (5), were isolated from the a...

  8. Maximal heart rate does not limit cardiovascular capacity in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, G D W; Svendsen, J H; Damsgaard, R;

    2014-01-01

    In humans, maximal aerobic power (VO2 max ) is associated with a plateau in cardiac output (Q), but the mechanisms regulating the interplay between maximal heart rate (HRmax) and stroke volume (SV) are unclear. To evaluate the effect of tachycardia and elevations in HRmax on cardiovascular function...... and capacity during maximal exercise in healthy humans, 12 young male cyclists performed incremental cycling and one-legged knee-extensor exercise (KEE) to exhaustion with and without right atrial pacing to increase HR. During control cycling, Q and leg blood flow increased up to 85% of maximal workload (WLmax...... and RAP (P healthy...

  9. Heart failure outcomes with empagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk: results of the EMPA-REG OUTCOME® trial

    OpenAIRE

    Fitchett, David; Zinman, Bernard; Wanner, Christoph; Lachin, John M.; Hantel, Stefan; Salsali, Afshin; Johansen, Odd Erik; Woerle, Hans J.; Broedl, Uli C.; Inzucchi, Silvio E.

    2016-01-01

    Aims We previously reported that in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME® trial, empagliflozin added to standard of care reduced the risk of 3-point major adverse cardiovascular events, cardiovascular and all-cause death, and hospitalization for heart failure in patients with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk. We have now further investigated heart failure outcomes in all patients and in subgroups, including patients with or without baseline heart failure. Methods and results Patients were randomi...

  10. Cardiovascular Activity of Labdane Diterpenes from Andrographis paniculata in Isolated Rat Hearts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalijah Awang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The dichloromethane (DCM extract of Andrographis paniculata Nees was tested for cardiovascular activity. The extract significantly reduced coronary perfusion pressure by up to 24.5±3.0 mm Hg at a 3 mg dose and also reduced heart rate by up to 49.5±11.4 beats/minute at this dose. Five labdane diterpenes, 14-deoxy-12-hydroxyandrographolide (1, 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (2, 14-deoxyandrographolide (3, andrographolide (4, and neoandrographolide (5, were isolated from the aerial parts of this medicinal plant. Bioassay-guided studies using animal model showed that compounds, (2 and (3 were responsible for the coronary vasodilatation. This study also showed that andrographolide (4, the major labdane diterpene in this plant, has minimal effects on the heart.

  11. Cardiovascular activity of labdane diterpenes from Andrographis paniculata in isolated rat hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awang, Khalijah; Abdullah, Nor Hayati; Hadi, A Hamid A; Fong, Yew Su

    2012-01-01

    The dichloromethane (DCM) extract of Andrographis paniculata Nees was tested for cardiovascular activity. The extract significantly reduced coronary perfusion pressure by up to 24.5 ± 3.0 mm Hg at a 3 mg dose and also reduced heart rate by up to 49.5 ± 11.4 beats/minute at this dose. Five labdane diterpenes, 14-deoxy-12-hydroxyandrographolide (1), 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (2), 14-deoxyandrographolide (3), andrographolide (4), and neoandrographolide (5), were isolated from the aerial parts of this medicinal plant. Bioassay-guided studies using animal model showed that compounds, (2) and (3) were responsible for the coronary vasodilatation. This study also showed that andrographolide (4), the major labdane diterpene in this plant, has minimal effects on the heart. PMID:22536026

  12. Clinical Update: Cardiovascular Disease in Diabetes Mellitus: Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease and Heart Failure in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus - Mechanisms, Management, and Clinical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low Wang, Cecilia C; Hess, Connie N; Hiatt, William R; Goldfine, Allison B

    2016-06-14

    Cardiovascular disease remains the principal cause of death and disability among patients with diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus exacerbates mechanisms underlying atherosclerosis and heart failure. Unfortunately, these mechanisms are not adequately modulated by therapeutic strategies focusing solely on optimal glycemic control with currently available drugs or approaches. In the setting of multifactorial risk reduction with statins and other lipid-lowering agents, antihypertensive therapies, and antihyperglycemic treatment strategies, cardiovascular complication rates are falling, yet remain higher for patients with diabetes mellitus than for those without. This review considers the mechanisms, history, controversies, new pharmacological agents, and recent evidence for current guidelines for cardiovascular management in the patient with diabetes mellitus to support evidence-based care in the patient with diabetes mellitus and heart disease outside of the acute care setting.

  13. Automatic prediction of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events using heart rate variability analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Melillo

    Full Text Available There is consensus that Heart Rate Variability is associated with the risk of vascular events. However, Heart Rate Variability predictive value for vascular events is not completely clear. The aim of this study is to develop novel predictive models based on data-mining algorithms to provide an automatic risk stratification tool for hypertensive patients.A database of 139 Holter recordings with clinical data of hypertensive patients followed up for at least 12 months were collected ad hoc. Subjects who experienced a vascular event (i.e., myocardial infarction, stroke, syncopal event were considered as high-risk subjects. Several data-mining algorithms (such as support vector machine, tree-based classifier, artificial neural network were used to develop automatic classifiers and their accuracy was tested by assessing the receiver-operator characteristics curve. Moreover, we tested the echographic parameters, which have been showed as powerful predictors of future vascular events.The best predictive model was based on random forest and enabled to identify high-risk hypertensive patients with sensitivity and specificity rates of 71.4% and 87.8%, respectively. The Heart Rate Variability based classifier showed higher predictive values than the conventional echographic parameters, which are considered as significant cardiovascular risk factors.Combination of Heart Rate Variability measures, analyzed with data-mining algorithm, could be a reliable tool for identifying hypertensive patients at high risk to develop future vascular events.

  14. Million hearts: prevalence of leading cardiovascular disease risk factors--United States, 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, Matthew D; Wall, Hilary K; Gillespie, Cathleen; George, Mary G; Jamal, Ahmed

    2014-05-30

    Each year, approximately 1.5 million U.S. adults have a heart attack or stroke, resulting in approximately 30 deaths every hour and, for nonfatal events, often leading to long-term disability. Overall, an estimated 14 million survivors of heart attacks and strokes are living in the United States. In 2011, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, in collaboration with nonprofit and private organizations, launched Million Hearts (http://www.millionhearts.hhs.gov), an initiative focused on implementing clinical and community-level evidence-based strategies to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and prevent a total of 1 million heart attacks and strokes during the 5-year period 2012-2016. From 2005-2006 to the period with the most current data, analysis of the Million Hearts four "ABCS" clinical measures (for aspirin, blood pressure, cholesterol, and smoking) showed 1) no statistically significant change in the prevalence of aspirin use for secondary prevention (53.8% in 2009-2010), 2) an increase to 51.9% in the prevalence of blood pressure control (in 2011-2012), 3) an increase to 42.8% in the prevalence of cholesterol management (in 2011-2012), and 4) no statistically significant change in the prevalence of smoking assessment and treatment (22.2% in 2009-2010). In addition, analysis of two community-level indicators found 1) a decrease in current tobacco product smoking (including cigarette, cigar, or pipe use) prevalence to 25.1% in 2011-2012 and 2) minimal change in mean daily sodium intake (3,594 mg/day in 2009-2010). Although trends in some measures are encouraging, further reductions of CVD risk factors will be needed to meet Million Hearts goals by 2017.

  15. A rigid barrier between the heart and sternum protects the heart and lungs against rupture during negative pressure wound therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Malmsjö Malin; Ingemansson Richard; Lindstedt Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Right ventricular heart rupture is a devastating complication associated with negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) in cardiac surgery. The use of a rigid barrier has been suggested to offer protection against this lethal complication, by preventing the heart from being drawn up and damaged by the sharp edges of the sternum. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a rigid barrier protects the heart and lungs against injury during NPWT. Methods Sixteen pigs...

  16. Protective cardiovascular and renal actions of vitamin D and estrogen

    OpenAIRE

    Gangula, Pandu; Dong, Yuan–Lin; Al-Hendy, Ayman; Richard-Davis, Gloria; Valerie, Montgomery-Rice; Haddad, Georges; Millis, Richard; Nicholas, Susanne B.; Moseberry, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Both basic science and clinical studies support the concept that vitamin D deficiency is involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular and renal diseases through its association with diabetes, obesity, and hypertension. Understanding the underlying mechanisms may provide a rationale for advocating adequate intake of vitamin D and calcium in all populations, thereby preventing many chronic diseases. This review explores the effect of vitamin D deficiency in the development of cardiovascular a...

  17. Open Heart Surgery in a Newly Established Cardiovascular Department: The first 300 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Korkmaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Evaluation of the results of open heart surgery in a newly established cardiovascular clinic: Ankara Numune Education and Research Hospital. Material and Method: Between June 2012 and January 2014, 300 open heart surgeries were performed. Urgent operation was performed in 22 patients (7.3% because of ST-elevation myocardial infarction and in 1 patient because of left ventricular aneurysm rupture. Coronary artery bypass grafting was performed in 211 (70.3% patients. The other patients underwent various complex operations such as valve repair, Tirone-David procedure and repair of atrioventricular canal defect. Results: In 3 patients (1% hospital mortality was seen. Reoperation was performed in 8 patients (2.6% because of pericardial tamponade and in 9 patients (3% because of bleeding. Atrial fibrillation was developed in 28 patients (9.3% in the postoperative period and normal sinus rhythm was established with medical cardioversion. Intra-aortic balloon pump(IABP was used in 4 patients preoperatively and in 11 patients postoperatively, including 15 patients(%5. Discussion: In the current era, the patients who are consulted to cardiovascular surgery clinics become more chronic, high risk and patients with additional co-morbid diseases because of the developments in interventional cardiology. Our newly established center aims to be a nationally and internationally successful clinic which was proved by low mortality and morbidity rates with a team who follows the developments and constantly educate and trained.

  18. The Canadian Cardiovascular Society Heart Failure Companion: Bridging Guidelines to Your Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, Jonathan G; Chan, Michael; Ezekowitz, Justin A; Harkness, Karen; Heckman, George A; Kouz, Simon; Leblanc, Marie-Hélène; Moe, Gordon W; O'Meara, Eileen; Abrams, Howard; Ducharme, Anique; Grzeslo, Adam; Hamilton, Peter G; Koshman, Sheri L; Lepage, Serge; McDonald, Michael; McKelvie, Robert; Rajda, Miroslaw; Swiggum, Elizabeth; Virani, Sean; Zieroth, Shelley

    2016-03-01

    The Canadian Cardiovascular Society Heart Failure (HF) Guidelines Program has generated annual HF updates, including formal recommendations and supporting Practical Tips since 2006. Many clinicians indicate they routinely use the Canadian Cardiovascular Society HF Guidelines in their daily practice. However, many questions surrounding the actual implementation of the Guidelines into their daily practice remain. A consensus-based approach was used, including feedback from the Primary and Secondary HF Panels. This companion is intended to answer several key questions brought forth by HF practitioners such as appropriate timelines for initial assessments and subsequent reassessments of patients, the order in which medications should be added, how newer medications should be included in treatment algorithms, and when left ventricular function should be reassessed. A new treatment algorithm for HF with reduced ejection fraction is included. Several other practical issues are addressed such as an approach to management of hyperkalemia/hypokalemia, treatment of gout, when medications can be stopped, and whether a target blood pressure or heart rate is suggested. Finally, elements and teaching of self-care are described. This tool will hopefully function to allow better integration of the HF Guidelines into clinical practice.

  19. Melusin Promotes a Protective Signal Transduction Cascade in Stressed Hearts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorge, Matteo; Brancaccio, Mara

    2016-01-01

    Melusin is a chaperone protein selectively expressed in heart and skeletal muscles. Melusin expression levels correlate with cardiac function in pre-clinical models and in human patients with aortic stenosis. Indeed, previous studies in several animal models indicated that Melusin plays a broad cardioprotective role in different pathological conditions. Chaperone proteins, besides playing a role in protein folding, are also able to facilitate supramolecular complex formation and conformational changes due to activation/deactivation of signaling molecules. This role sets chaperone proteins as crucial regulators of intracellular signal transduction pathways. In particular Melusin activates AKT and ERK1/2 signaling, protects cardiomyocytes from apoptosis and induces a compensatory hypertrophic response in several pathological conditions. Therefore, selective delivery of the Melusin gene in heart via cardiotropic adenoviral associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9), may represent a new promising gene-therapy approach for different cardiac pathologies. PMID:27672636

  20. 二甲双胍的心血管保护作用%Cardiovascular protective effects of metformin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方丽娟; 刘乃丰

    2011-01-01

    二甲双胍(Metformin)属双胍类药物,作为口服降糖药应用于2型糖尿病(T2DM)已有50年的历程,其降糖作用已得到公认.近年越来越多的研究发现,二甲双胍具有降糖以外的心血管保护作用,能抑制动脉粥样硬化(Atherosclerosis,AS)、心衰、心肌梗死等心血管病的发生和发展.但二甲双胍确切的心血管保护机制仍不明确,本文综述了二甲双胍对心血管疾病的作用,并探讨其可能的作用机制.%Metformin belongs to biguanide drugs, used as oral hypoglycemic agents in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) for 50 years, and its anti-hyperglycemic effect has been recognized.Furthermore, in recent years more and more studies found that metformin has additional cardiovascular protective effects, including the inhibition of atherosclerosis (AS), heart failure and myocardial infarction.However, the specific effect of metformin on cardiovascular protection is still unclear.This article reviews the effect of metformin in cardiovascular disease and discusses its possible mechanisms.

  1. Peripheral chemoreceptor control of cardiovascular function at rest and during exercise in heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgell, Heather; McMurtry, M Sean; Haykowsky, Mark J; Paterson, Ian; Ezekowitz, Justin A; Dyck, Jason R B; Stickland, Michael K

    2015-04-01

    Peripheral chemoreceptor activity/sensitivity is enhanced in chronic heart failure (HF), and sensitivity is linked to greater mortality. This study aimed to determine the role of the peripheral chemoreceptor in cardiovascular control at rest and during exercise in HF patients and controls. Clinically stable HF patients (n = 11; ejection fraction: 39 ± 5%) and risk-matched controls (n = 10; ejection fraction: 65 ± 2%) performed randomized trials with or without dopamine infusion (2 μg·min(-1)·kg(-1)) at rest and during 40% maximal voluntary contraction handgrip (HG) exercise, and a resting trial of 2 min of inspired 100% oxygen. Both dopamine and hyperoxia were used to inhibit the peripheral chemoreceptor. At rest in HF patients, dopamine decreased ventilation (P = 0.02), decreased total peripheral resistance index (P = 0.003), and increased cardiac and stroke indexes (P ≤ 0.01), yet there was no effect of dopamine on these variables in controls (P ≥ 0.7). Hyperoxia lowered ventilation in HF (P = 0.01), but not in controls (P = 0.9), indicating suppression of the peripheral chemoreceptors in HF. However, no decrease of total peripheral resistance index was observed in HF. As expected, HG increased heart rate, ventilation, and brachial conductance of the nonexercising arm in controls and HF patients. During dopamine infusion, there were no changes in mean arterial pressure, heart rate, or ventilation responses to HG in either group (P ≥ 0.26); however, brachial conductance increased with dopamine in the control group (P = 0.004), but decreased in HF (P = 0.02). Our findings indicate that the peripheral chemoreceptor contributes to cardiovascular control at rest in HF patients and during exercise in risk-matched controls.

  2. Cardiovascular and metabolic effects of 48-h glucagon-like peptide-1 infusion in compensated chronic patients with heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halbirk, Mads; Nørrelund, Helene; Møller, Niels;

    2010-01-01

    The incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and its analogs are currently emerging as antidiabetic medications. GLP-1 improves left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in dogs with heart failure (HF) and in patients with acute myocardial infarction. We studied metabolic and cardiovascular...... patients. GLP-1 infusion increased circulating insulin levels and reduced plasma glucose concentration but had no major cardiovascular effects in patients without diabetes but with compensated HF. The impact of minor increases in heart rate and diastolic blood pressure during GLP-1 infusion requires...

  3. Scared to Death? Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Stable Coronary Heart Disease The Heart and Soul Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, Elisabeth J.; de Jonge, Peter; Na, Beeya; Cohen, Beth E.; Lett, Heather; Whooley, Mary A.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Anxiety is common in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), but studies examining the effect of anxiety on cardiovascular prognosis and the role of potential mediators have yielded inconsistent results. Objectives: To evaluate the effect of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) on subsequ

  4. Validity of coronary heart diseases and heart failure based on hospital discharge and mortality data in the Netherlands using the cardiovascular registry Maastricht cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merry, A.H.; Boer, J.M.; Schouten, L.J.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Verschuren, W.M.; Gorgels, A.P.; Brandt, van den P.A.

    2009-01-01

    Incidence rates of cardiovascular diseases are often estimated by linkage to hospital discharge and mortality registries. The validity depends on the quality of the registries and the linkage. Therefore, we validated incidence rates of coronary heart disease (CHD), acute myocardial infarction, unsta

  5. Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Heart Disease KidsHealth > For Kids > Heart Disease Print A A ... chest pain, heart attacks, and strokes . What Is Heart Disease? The heart is the center of the cardiovascular ...

  6. Cardiovascular and Neonatal Outcomes in Pregnant Women With High-Risk Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillutla, Priya; Nguyen, Tina; Markovic, Daniela; Canobbio, Mary; Koos, Brian J; Aboulhosn, Jamil A

    2016-05-15

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) increases the risk of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. However, previous studies have included mainly women with low-risk features. A single-center, retrospective analysis of pregnant women with CHD was performed. Inclusion criteria were the following high-risk congenital lesions and co-morbidities: maternal cyanosis; New York Heart Association (NHYA) functional class >II; severe ventricular dysfunction; maternal arrhythmia, single ventricle (SV) physiology, severe left-sided heart obstruction and severe pulmonary arterial hypertension. Multivariate analyses for predictors of adverse maternal cardiovascular and neonatal outcomes were performed. Forty-three women reported 61 pregnancies. There were no maternal or neonatal deaths. Maternal cardiac (31%) and neonatal (54%) complications were frequent. The most frequent cardiac events were pulmonary edema, arrhythmia, and reduced NYHA class. Previous arrhythmia conferred a 12-fold increase in the odds of experiencing at least one major cardiac complication. Maternal SV physiology was an independent risk factor for low birth weight, risk of neonatal intensive care unit admission and lower gestational age. Maternal cyanosis and severe pulmonary arterial hypertension also predicted adverse neonatal outcomes. In conclusion, mothers without antepartum arrhythmia or functional incapacity are unlikely to experience arrhythmias or a decrease in NYHA class during pregnancy. In addition, SV physiology is a robust predictor of neonatal complications. Antepartum counseling and assessment of maternal fitness are crucial for the woman with CHD. PMID:27055756

  7. Cardiovascular effects of black tea and nicotine alone or in combination against experimental induced heart injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joukar, Siyavash; Bashiri, Hamideh; Dabiri, Shahriar; Ghotbi, Payam; Sarveazad, Arash; Divsalar, Kouros; Joukar, Farzin; Abbaszadeh, Mahsa

    2012-06-01

    The present study was designed to elucidate the outcome of subchronic co-administration of black tea and nicotine on cardiovascular performance and whether these substances could modulate the isoproterenol-induced cardiac injury. Animal groups were control, black tea, nicotine and black tea plus nicotine. Test groups received nicotine (2 mg/kg s.c.) and black tea brewed (p.o.) each alone and in combination for 4 weeks. On the 28th day, myocardial damage was induced by isoproterenol (50 mg/kg i.p.), and blood samples were taken. On day 29, after hemodynamic parameters recording, hearts were removed for histopathological evaluation. Tea or nicotine consumption had no significant effects on hemodynamic indices of animals without heart damage. When the cardiac injury was induced, tea consumption maintained the maximum dp/dt, and nicotine significantly decreased the pressure-rate product. Moreover, severity of heart lesions was lower in the presence of nicotine or black tea. Concomitant use of these materials did not show extra effects on mentioned parameters more than the effect of each of them alone. The results suggest that subchronic administration of black tea or nicotine for a period of 4 weeks may have a mild cardioprotective effect, while concomitant use of these materials cannot intensify this beneficial effect.

  8. Resting heart rate is associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality after adjusting for inflammatory markers: The Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Magnus Thorsten; Marott, Jacob L; Allin, Kristine H;

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the association between resting heart rate (RHR) and markers of chronic low-grade inflammation. Also, to examine whether elevated resting heart rate is independently associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in the general population, or whether elevated RHR...... is merely a marker of chronic low-grade inflammation. Methods and results: A group of 6518 healthy subjects from the the Danish general population were followed for 18 years during which 1924 deaths occurred. Subjects underwent assessment of baseline RHR, conventional cardiovascular risk factors, high......-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and fibrinogen. RHR was associated with hsCRP and fibrinogen in uni- and multivariate models (p cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in univariate models - HR (95%CI) (1.21 (1.14-1.29) and 1...

  9. Non Hodgkin lymphoma metastasis to the heart detected by cardiovascular magnetic resonance; Metastasis cardiaca secundaria al linfoma de Hodgkin detectada por la resonancia magnetica cardiovascular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Florange; Morales, Marisela; Pedreanez, Norma, E-mail: martinez.florangel@gmail.com [Hospital Cardiologico Infantil Latinoamericano Dr Gilberto Rodriguez Ochoa, Carcacas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Pabon, Luz; Carrillo, Milton [Universidad Central de Venezuela (UCV/HUC), Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). Instituto de Hematoncologia. Hospital Universitario; Fernandes, Juliano Lara [Universidade de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2009-10-15

    Primary and secondary heart tumors are relatively rare occurrences but usually imply significant treatment decisions. The differential diagnosis among these tumors and other masses can sometimes be difficult and require the use of different imaging modalities to establish a confident verdict. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance CMR imaging is a very useful tool in these cases by allowing for the application of different strategies to better delineate masses, heart structures and adjacent tissues. In this case description, we present a woman with shortness of breath and a paracardiac mass showing how CMR can be applied. (author)

  10. Muscle strength in youth and cardiovascular risk in young adulthood (the European Youth Heart Study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Møller, Niels Christian;

    2015-01-01

    from the Danish European Youth Heart Study; a population-based prospective cohort study among boys and girls (n=332) followed for up to 12 years. In youth maximal voluntary contractions during isometric back extension and abdominal flexion were determined using a strain-gauge dynamometer...... strength in youth (0.17 N/kg) was inversely associated with body mass index (BMI; -0.60 kg/m(2), 95% CI -0.97 to -0.22), triglyceride (-0.09 mmol/l, 95% CI -0.16 to -0.02), diastolic blood pressure (BP) (-1.22 mm Hg, 95% CI -2.15 to -0.29) and a composite cardiovascular risk factor score (-0.61 SD, 95% CI...

  11. Protective effects of Nigella sativa against hypertension-induced oxidative stress and cardiovascular dysfunction in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Taşar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the protective effect of Nigella sativa against oxidative injury in the heart and kidney tissues of rats with renovascular hypertension (RVH. RVH model was induced by placing a renal artery clip (2-kidney-1-clip, 2K1C in Wistar albino rats (n= 8, while sham rats (n= 8 had no clip placement. Starting on the 3rd week after the operation, rats received Nigella sativa (0.2 ml/kg/day, intraperitoneally or vehicle for the following 6 weeks. Blood pressures (BP were recorded at the beginning of the study and at the end of the 3rd and 9th weeks. Cardiac functions were assessed using transthoracic echocardiography before the rats were decapitated. Plasma samples were obtained to assay asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, nitric oxide (NO, creatine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH levels. Production of reactive oxidants was monitored by chemiluminescence (CL assay in the cardiac and renal tissues. Moreover oxidative injury was examined through malondialdehyde (MDA and glutathione (GSH levels and Na+,K+-ATPase activity in these tissues. 2K1C caused increased BP and left ventricular (LV dysfunction, while plasma ADMA, CK, and LDH levels were increased (p<0.05-0.001. Moreover, hypertension caused significant decreases in plasma NO levels, as well as in tissue Na+,K+-ATPase activities and GSH contents, while MDA levels in both tissues were increased (p<0.05-0.001. On the other hand, Nigella sativa treatment significantly reduced BP, attenuated oxidative injury and improved LV function. Nigella sativa protected against hypertension-induced tissue damage and improved cardiovascular function via its antioxidant and antihypertensive actions, suggesting a therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa in renovascular hypertension.

  12. The Healthy Heart Race: A Short-Duration, Hands-on Activity in Cardiovascular Physiology for Museums and Science Festivals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressley, Thomas A.; Limson, Melvin; Byse, Miranda; Matyas, Marsha Lakes

    2011-01-01

    The "Healthy Heart Race" activity provides a hands-on demonstration of cardiovascular function suitable for lay audiences. It was field tested during the United States of America Science and Engineering Festival held in Washington, DC, in October 2010. The basic equipment for the activity consisted of lengths of plastic tubing, a hand pump,…

  13. Sudden cardiovascular death following myocardial infarction: the importance of left ventricular systolic dysfunction and congestive heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildstrøm, Steen Zabell; Ottesen, Michael M; Rask-Madsen, Christian;

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To study the prognostic information of congestive heart failure (CHF) and left ventricular systolic dysfunction regarding sudden and non-sudden cardiovascular death (SCD and non-SCD) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI), as this may indicate the potential benefit...

  14. Prospective validation and assessment of cardiovascular and offspring risk models for pregnant women with congenital heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balci, A.; Sollie-Szarynska, K.M.; Bijl, A.G. van der; Ruys, T.P.; Mulder, B.J.; Roos-Hesselink, J.W.; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Wajon, E.M.; Vliegen, H.W.; Drenthen, W.; Hillege, H.L.; Aarnoudse, J.G.; Veldhuisen, D.J. van; Pieper, P.G.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Adequate prepregnancy prediction of maternal cardiovascular and offspring risk is important for counselling and management of pregnancy in women with congenital heart disease (CHD). Therefore we performed a study to identify the optimal assessment strategy for estimating the risk of preg

  15. Prospective validation and assessment of cardiovascular and offspring risk models for pregnant women with congenital heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balci, Ali; Sollie-Szarynska, Krystyna M.; van der Bijl, Antoinette G. L.; Ruys, Titia P. E.; Mulder, Barbara J. M.; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.; van Dijk, Arie P. J.; Wajon, Elly M. C. J.; Vliegen, Hubert W.; Drenthen, Willem; Hillege, Hans L.; Aarnoudse, Jan G.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Pieper, Petronella G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Adequate prepregnancy prediction of maternal cardiovascular and offspring risk is important for counselling and management of pregnancy in women with congenital heart disease (CHD). Therefore we performed a study to identify the optimal assessment strategy for estimating the risk of pregn

  16. Association of Heart Rate Variability and Inflammatory Response in Patients with Cardiovascular Diseases: Current Strengths and Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilios Efthymios Papaioannou

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Many experimental and clinical studies have confirmed a continuous cross-talk between both sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of autonomic nervous system and inflammatory response, in different clinical scenarios. In cardiovascular diseases, inflammation has been proven to play a pivotal role in disease progression, pathogenesis and resolution. A few clinical studies have assessed the possible inter-relation between neuro-autonomic output, estimated with heart rate variability analysis, which is the variability of R-R in the electrocardiogram, and different inflammatory biomarkers, in patients suffering from stable or unstable coronary artery disease and heart failure. Moreover, different indices derived from heart rate signals’ processing, have been proven to correlate strongly with severity of heart disease and predict final outcome. In this review article we will summarize major findings from different investigators, evaluating neuro-immunological interactions through heart rate variability analysis, in different groups of cardiovascular patients. We suggest that markers originating from variability analysis of heart rate signals seem to be related to inflammatory biomarkers. However, a lot of open questions remain to be addressed, regarding the existence of a true association between heart rate variability and autonomic nervous system output or its adoption for risk stratification and therapeutic monitoring at the bedside. Finally, potential therapeutic implications will be discussed, leading to autonomic balance restoration in relation with inflammatory control.

  17. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance of primary tumors of the heart: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieno, David S; Saouaf, Rola; Thomson, Louise E J; Abidov, Aiden; Friedman, John D; Berman, Daniel S

    2006-01-01

    Overall, the prevalence of primary cardiac neoplasms is approximately 0.3% and these masses should be distinguished from the myriad of other primary and secondary processes that can occur in the heart. Tumors within, attached to, or near the heart can cause direct cardiac damage, can result in thrombus formation, can compromise blood flow and can embolize distally. Hence, proper diagnosis is clinically important. It has been suggested that cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is a useful tool for diagnosing and characterizing cardiac tumors. In this report, we present a case example of a patient with a large, mobile right atrial myxoma imaged by CMR with results of histopathologic analysis after excision. We also demonstrate the utilization of CMR for characterization of cardiac lesions, review the basic characteristics of primary cardiac neoplasms, provide an overview of published cases describing use of CMR, and give suggested guidelines for imaging of cardiac masses with emphasis on diagnosis of cardiac tumors. CMR is an important technique for diagnosing and characterizing cardiac tumors. PMID:17060107

  18. When and why do heart attacks occur? Cardiovascular triggers and their potential role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Bryan G; Mayeda, Guy S; Burstein, Steven; Economides, Christina; Kloner, Robert A

    2010-01-01

    Coronary heart disease affects 7.6% of the population in the United States, where > 900,000 myocardial infarctions (MIs) occur annually. Approximately half of all MIs have an identifiable clinical trigger. Myocardial ischemia, MI, sudden cardiac death, and thrombotic stroke each occur with circadian variation and peak after waking in the morning. In addition, physical exertion and mental stress are common precipitants of MI. Waking in the morning, physical exertion, and mental stress influence a number of physiologic parameters, including blood pressure, heart rate, plasma epinephrine levels, coronary blood flow, platelet aggregability, and endothelial function. Upregulation of sympathetic output and catecholamines increase myocardial oxygen demand and can decrease myocardial oxygen supply and promote thrombosis. Ischemia ensues when myocardial oxygen demand exceeds supply. Increases in blood pressure and ventricular contractility increase intravascular shear stress and may cause vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques to rupture, forming a nidus for thrombosis that can precipitate MI. Numerous clinical triggers of MI have been identified, including blizzards, the Christmas and New Year's holidays, experiencing an earthquake, the threat of violence, job strain, Mondays for the working population, sexual activity, overeating, smoking cigarettes, smoking marijuana, using cocaine, and particulate air pollution. Avoiding clinical triggers or participating in therapies that prevent clinical triggers from precipitating cardiac events could potentially postpone clinical events by several years and improve cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Direct or indirect evidence suggests that the risk of triggered MIs is reduced with β-blockers, aspirin, statins, stress management, and transcendental meditation. PMID:20890064

  19. When and why do heart attacks occur? Cardiovascular triggers and their potential role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Bryan G; Mayeda, Guy S; Burstein, Steven; Economides, Christina; Kloner, Robert A

    2010-01-01

    Coronary heart disease affects 7.6% of the population in the United States, where > 900,000 myocardial infarctions (MIs) occur annually. Approximately half of all MIs have an identifiable clinical trigger. Myocardial ischemia, MI, sudden cardiac death, and thrombotic stroke each occur with circadian variation and peak after waking in the morning. In addition, physical exertion and mental stress are common precipitants of MI. Waking in the morning, physical exertion, and mental stress influence a number of physiologic parameters, including blood pressure, heart rate, plasma epinephrine levels, coronary blood flow, platelet aggregability, and endothelial function. Upregulation of sympathetic output and catecholamines increase myocardial oxygen demand and can decrease myocardial oxygen supply and promote thrombosis. Ischemia ensues when myocardial oxygen demand exceeds supply. Increases in blood pressure and ventricular contractility increase intravascular shear stress and may cause vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques to rupture, forming a nidus for thrombosis that can precipitate MI. Numerous clinical triggers of MI have been identified, including blizzards, the Christmas and New Year's holidays, experiencing an earthquake, the threat of violence, job strain, Mondays for the working population, sexual activity, overeating, smoking cigarettes, smoking marijuana, using cocaine, and particulate air pollution. Avoiding clinical triggers or participating in therapies that prevent clinical triggers from precipitating cardiac events could potentially postpone clinical events by several years and improve cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Direct or indirect evidence suggests that the risk of triggered MIs is reduced with β-blockers, aspirin, statins, stress management, and transcendental meditation.

  20. A rigid barrier between the heart and sternum protects the heart and lungs against rupture during negative pressure wound therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malmsjö Malin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Right ventricular heart rupture is a devastating complication associated with negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT in cardiac surgery. The use of a rigid barrier has been suggested to offer protection against this lethal complication, by preventing the heart from being drawn up and damaged by the sharp edges of the sternum. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a rigid barrier protects the heart and lungs against injury during NPWT. Methods Sixteen pigs underwent median sternotomy followed by NPWT at -120 mmHg for 24 hours, in the absence (eight pigs or presence (eight pigs of a rigid plastic disc between the heart and the sternal edges. The macroscopic appearance of the heart and lungs was inspected after 12 and 24 hours of NPWT. Results After 24 hours of NPWT at -120 mmHg the area of epicardial petechial bleeding was 11.90 ± 1.10 cm2 when no protective disc was used, and 1.15 ± 0.19 cm2 when using the disc (p Conclusion Inserting a rigid barrier between the heart and the sternum edges offers protection against heart rupture and lung injury during NPWT.

  1. Resting, night-time, and 24 h heart rate as markers of cardiovascular risk in middle-aged and elderly men and women with no apparent heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Christine D; Olsen, Rasmus H; Pedersen, Lene R;

    2013-01-01

    a 15 min sequence between 2:00 and 2:15 a.m. The median follow-up time was 76 months, and an adverse outcome was defined as all-cause mortality and the combined endpoint of CV death, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and revascularization. All three measures of HR were significantly associated......AimsIncreased heart rate (HR) is a predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality. We tested which measure of HR had the strongest prognostic value in a population with no apparent heart disease.Methods and resultsSix hundred and fifty-three men and women between the age of 55 and 75...

  2. Can folic acid protect against congenital heart defects in Down syndrome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Willemijn M.; Werler, Martha M.; Louik, Carol; Hernandez-Diaz, Sonia; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T. W.; Mitchell, Allen A.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested a protective effect of folic acid (FA) on congenital heart anomalies. Down syndrome (DS) infants are known to have a high frequency of heart anomalies. Not all children with DS suffer from heart anomalies, which raises the question whether maternal factors

  3. Particulate matter air pollution and cardiovascular disease: An update to the scientific statement from the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Robert D; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Pope, C Arden; Brook, Jeffrey R; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Diez-Roux, Ana V; Holguin, Fernando; Hong, Yuling; Luepker, Russell V; Mittleman, Murray A; Peters, Annette; Siscovick, David; Smith, Sidney C; Whitsel, Laurie; Kaufman, Joel D

    2010-06-01

    In 2004, the first American Heart Association scientific statement on "Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Disease" concluded that exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution contributes to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In the interim, numerous studies have expanded our understanding of this association and further elucidated the physiological and molecular mechanisms involved. The main objective of this updated American Heart Association scientific statement is to provide a comprehensive review of the new evidence linking PM exposure with cardiovascular disease, with a specific focus on highlighting the clinical implications for researchers and healthcare providers. The writing group also sought to provide expert consensus opinions on many aspects of the current state of science and updated suggestions for areas of future research. On the basis of the findings of this review, several new conclusions were reached, including the following: Exposure to PM American Heart Association scientific statement was published. Finally, PM(2.5) exposure is deemed a modifiable factor that contributes to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  4. Copeptin and risk of incident stroke, coronary heart disease and cardiovascular mortality in older men with and without diabetes: The British Regional Heart Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wannamethee, S. Goya; Welsh, Paul; Lennon, Lucy; Papacosta, Olia; Whincup, Peter; Sattar, Naveed

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between copeptin (a surrogate marker of arginine vasopressin) and incident stroke, coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular mortality in older men with and without diabetes. Research design and methods: A prospective study of 3536 men aged 60-79 years followed up for an average 13 years during which there were 437 major CHD events [fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI)], 323 stroke events (fatal and non-fatal) and 497 CVD deaths. Pre...

  5. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in migrants participating in the PEP family heart study, Nuremberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda-Maria Haas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in adults and their children from the 3 major groups of migrants participating in the PEP Family Heart Study [11] and to compare the cardio-metabolic risk profiles between migrants and German participants. Methods: In this community-based cross-sectional study, anthropometric data, blood pressure and lipid profiles of migrants (480 children, 363 adults from Turkey (TUR, Eastern Europe (EEU and German immigrants from the former Soviet Union (GFSU were compared with age and gender adjusted German (GER resi-dents (3253 children, 2491 adults. Results: The profile of risk factors differed considerably regarding specificity and frequency. The prevalence of ≥3 risk factors was as follows: in GFSU men 62%, women 36%, boys 19% and girls 17%; in TUR men 57%, women 30%, 15% boys and 6% girls; in GER men 48%, women 19%, boys 4% and girls 6%; for EEU men 38%, women 25% and 0% in children. No risk factor was present in GFSU men 13%, women 25%, boys 38% and girls 42%; TUR men 13%, women 28%, boys 27% and girls 22 %; GER men16%, women 45%, boys 46% and girls 41%; EEU men 17%, women 42 %, boys 29% and girls 27%. About 50% of the adults from Turkey and Eastern Europe were current smokers and one third of women and half of men from these two countries were over-weight. Conclusions: The implementation of primary care measures for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in migrants is necessary, and it should consider the ethnic differences and the heterogene-ous risk profiles.

  6. Exosomes and exosomal miRNAs in cardiovascular protection and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanueli, Costanza; Shearn, Andrew I U; Angelini, Gianni D; Sahoo, Susmita

    2015-08-01

    Cell-cell communication between cardiac and vascular cells and from stem and progenitor cells to differentiated cardiovascular cells is both an important and complex process, achieved through a diversity of mechanisms that have an impact on cardiovascular biology, disease and therapeutics. In recent years, evidence has accumulated suggesting that extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a new system of intercellular communication. EVs of different sizes are produced via different biogenesis pathways and have been shown to be released and taken up by most of known cell types, including heart and vascular cells, and stem and progenitor cells. This review will focus on exosomes, the smallest EVs (up to 100nm in diameter) identified so far. Cells can package cargoes consisting of selective lipids, proteins and RNA in exosomes and such cargoes can be shipped to recipient cells, inducing expressional and functional changes. This review focuses on exosomes and microRNAs in the context of cardiovascular disease and repair. We will describe exosome biogenesis and cargo formation and discuss the available information on in vitro and in vivo exosomes-based cell-to-cell communication relevant to cardiovascular science. The methods used in exosome research will be also described. Finally, we will address the promise of exosomes as clinical biomarkers and their impact as a biomedical tool in stem cell-based cardiovascular therapeutics.

  7. Protective Effects of Panax Notoginseng Saponins on Cardiovascular Diseases: A Comprehensive Overview of Experimental Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochen Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS are one of the most important compounds derived from roots of the herb Panax notoginseng which are traditionally used as a hemostatic medicine to control internal and external bleeding in China for thousands of years. To date, at least twenty saponins were identified and some of them including notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rb1, and ginsenoside Rg1 were researched frequently in the area of cardiovascular protection. However, the protective effects of PNS on cardiovascular diseases based on experimental studies and its underlying mechanisms have not been reviewed systematically. This paper reviewed the pharmacology of PNS and its monomers Rb1, Rg1, and R1 in the treatment for cardiovascular diseases.

  8. Heart rate variability and arrhythmic patterns of 24-hour Holter electrocardiography among Nigerians with cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo RA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Rasaaq Ayodele Adebayo, Amanze Nkemjika Ikwu, Michael Olabode Balogun, Anthony Olubunmi Akintomide, Olufemi Eyitayo Ajayi, Victor Oladeji Adeyeye, Tuoyo Omasan Mene-Afejuku, Olaniyi James Bamikole, Suraj Adefabi Ogunyemi, Adeola Olubunmi Ajibare, Omolola Abiodun OketonaCardiology Unit, Department of Medicine, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex (OAUTHC, Ile-Ife, Osun State, NigeriaBackground: Facilities for Holter electrocardiography (ECG monitoring in many Nigerian hospitals are limited. There are few published works in Nigeria on the use of 24-hour Holter ECG in cardiac arrhythmic evaluation of patients with cardiovascular diseases.Objective: To study the clinical indications, arrhythmic pattern, and heart rate variability (HRV among subjects referred for 24-hour Holter ECG at our Cardiac Care Unit.Methods: Three-hundred and ten patients (134 males and 176 females were studied consecutively over a 48-month period using Schiller type (MT-101 Holter ECG machine.Results: Out of the 310 patients reviewed, 134 were males (43.2% and 176 were females (56.8%. The commonest indication for Holter ECG was palpitation followed by syncope in 71 (23% and 49 (15.8% of subjects, respectively. Premature ventricular complex and premature atrial complex were the commonest types of arrhythmia in 51.5% and 15% subjects, respectively. Ventricular arrhythmia was more prevalent in dilated cardiomyopathy patients (85.7%. The HRV of subjects with palpitation, stroke, and diabetes mellitus with autonomic neuropathy, using standard deviation of normal to normal intervals average (milliseconds, were 107.32±49.61, 79.15±49.15, and 66.50±15.54, respectively. The HRV, using standard deviation of averages of normal to normal intervals average (milliseconds, of patients with palpitation, stroke, and diabetes mellitus with autonomic neuropathy were 77.39±62.34, 57.82±37.05, and 55.50±12.71, respectively.Conclusion: Palpitation and syncope were the

  9. The 2013 Canadian Cardiovascular Society Heart Failure Management Guidelines Update: focus on rehabilitation and exercise and surgical coronary revascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Gordon W; Ezekowitz, Justin A; O'Meara, Eileen; Howlett, Jonathan G; Fremes, Steve E; Al-Hesayen, Abdul; Heckman, George A; Ducharme, Anique; Estrella-Holder, Estrellita; Grzeslo, Adam; Harkness, Karen; Lepage, Serge; McDonald, Michael; McKelvie, Robert S; Nigam, Anil; Rajda, Miroslaw; Rao, Vivek; Swiggum, Elizabeth; Virani, Sean; Van Le, Vy; Zieroth, Shelley; Arnold, J Malcolm O; Ashton, Tom; D'Astous, Michel; Dorian, Paul; Giannetti, Nadia; Haddad, Haissam; Isaac, Debra L; Kouz, Simon; Leblanc, Marie-Hélène; Liu, Peter; Ross, Heather J; Sussex, Bruce; White, Michel

    2014-03-01

    The 2013 Canadian Cardiovascular Society Heart Failure Management Guidelines Update provides focused discussions on the management recommendations on 2 topics: (1) exercise and rehabilitation; and (2) surgical coronary revascularization in patients with heart failure. First, all patients with stable New York Heart Association class I-III symptoms should be considered for enrollment in a tailored exercise training program, to improve exercise tolerance and quality of life. Second, selected patients with suitable coronary anatomy should be considered for bypass graft surgery. As in previous updates, the topics were chosen in response to stakeholder feedback. The 2013 Update also includes recommendations, values and preferences, and practical tips to assist the clinicians and health care workers manage their patients with heart failure.

  10. The role of autonomic cardiovascular neuropathy in pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease in patients with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Pejičić Snježana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Diabetes is strongly associated with macrovascular complications, among which ischemic heart disease is the major cause of mortality. Autonomic neuropathy increases the risk of complications, which calls for an early diagnosis. The aim of this study was to determine both presence and extent of cardiac autonomic neuropathy, in regard to the type of diabetes mellitus, as well as its correlation with coronary disease and major cardiovascular risk factors. Material and methods. We have examined 90 subjects, classified into three groups, with 30 patients each: those with type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes and control group of healthy subjects. All patients underwent cardiovascular tests (Valsalva maneuver, deep breathing test, response to standing, blood pressure response to standing sustained, handgrip test, electrocardiogram, treadmill exercise test and filled out a questionnaire referring to major cardiovascular risk factors: smoking, obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Results. Our results showed that cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy was more frequent in type 2 diabetes, manifesting as autonomic neuropathy. In patients with autonomic neuropathy, regardless of the type of diabetes, the treadmill test was positive, i.e. strongly correlating with coronary disease. In regard to coronary disease risk factors, the most frequent correlation was found for obesity and hypertension. Discussion Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy is considered to be the principal cause of arteriosclerosis and coronary disease. Our results showed that the occurrence of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy increases the risk of coronary disease due to dysfunction of autonomic nervous system. Conclusions. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes that significantly correlates with coronary disease. Early diagnosis of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy points to increased cardiovascular risk, providing a basis for preventive

  11. Protective Effects of Panax Notoginseng Saponins on Cardiovascular Diseases: A Comprehensive Overview of Experimental Studies

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) are one of the most important compounds derived from roots of the herb Panax notoginseng which are traditionally used as a hemostatic medicine to control internal and external bleeding in China for thousands of years. To date, at least twenty saponins were identified and some of them including notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rb1, and ginsenoside Rg1 were researched frequently in the area of cardiovascular protection. However, the protective effects of PNS on c...

  12. Meeting report from the 2nd International Symposium on New Frontiers in Cardiovascular Research. Protecting the cardiovascular system from ischemia: between bench and bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Fuentes, Hector A; Alba-Alba, Corina; Aragones, Julian; Bernhagen, Jürgen; Boisvert, William A; Bøtker, Hans E; Cesarman-Maus, Gabriela; Fleming, Ingrid; Garcia-Dorado, David; Lecour, Sandrine; Liehn, Elisa; Marber, Michael S; Marina, Nephtali; Mayr, Manuel; Perez-Mendez, Oscar; Miura, Tetsuji; Ruiz-Meana, Marisol; Salinas-Estefanon, Eduardo M; Ong, Sang-Bing; Schnittler, Hans J; Sanchez-Vega, Jose T; Sumoza-Toledo, Adriana; Vogel, Carl-Wilhelm; Yarullina, Dina; Yellon, Derek M; Preissner, Klaus T; Hausenloy, Derek J

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in basic cardiovascular research as well as their translation into the clinical situation were the focus at the last "New Frontiers in Cardiovascular Research meeting". Major topics included the characterization of new targets and procedures in cardioprotection, deciphering new players and inflammatory mechanisms in ischemic heart disease as well as uncovering microRNAs and other biomarkers as versatile and possibly causal factors in cardiovascular pathogenesis. Although a number of pathological situations such as ischemia-reperfusion injury or atherosclerosis can be simulated and manipulated in diverse animal models, also to challenge new drugs for intervention, patient studies are the ultimate litmus test to obtain unequivocal information about the validity of biomedical concepts and their application in the clinics. Thus, the open and bidirectional exchange between bench and bedside is crucial to advance the field of ischemic heart disease with a particular emphasis of understanding long-lasting approaches in cardioprotection. PMID:26667317

  13. German Heart Surgery Report 2015: The Annual Updated Registry of the German Society for Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Andreas; Funkat, Anne-Katrin; Lewandowski, Jana; Frie, Michael; Ernst, Markus; Hekmat, Khosro; Schiller, Wolfgang; Gummert, Jan F; Welz, Armin

    2016-09-01

    On the basis of a long-standing voluntary registry, which was founded by the German Society for Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery (GSTCVS), well-defined data of all heart, thoracic, and vascular surgery procedures performed in 78 German heart surgery departments during 2015 are analyzed. In 2015, a total of 103,967 heart surgery procedures (implantable cardioverter defibrillator, pacemaker, and extracardiac procedures without ECC excluded) were submitted to the database. Approximately 14.8% of the patients were at least 80 years old, resulting in an increase of 0.6% compared with the data of 2014. For 38,601 isolated coronary artery bypass grafting procedures (relationship on-/off-pump: 5:1), the unadjusted inhospital mortality was 2.7%. Concerning the 32,346 isolated heart valve procedures (including 10,606 catheter-based implantations) an unadjusted inhospital mortality of 4.4% was observed.This annual updated registry of the GSTCVS represents voluntary public reporting by accumulating actual information for nearly all heart surgical procedures in Germany, demonstrates advancements in heart medicine, and enables internal/external quality assurance for all participants. In addition, the registry demonstrates that the provision of heart surgery in Germany is appropriate and patients are treated nationwide in a round-the-clock service.

  14. Cardiovascular disease, risk factors and heart rate variability in the elderly general population: Design and objectives of the CARdiovascular disease, Living and Ageing in Halle (CARLA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuss Oliver

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD in the ageing population of industrialized nations requires an intensive search for means of reducing this epidemic. In order to improve prevention, detection, therapy and prognosis of cardiovascular diseases on the population level in Eastern Germany, it is necessary to examine reasons for the East-West gradient of CVD morbidity and mortality, potential causal mechanisms and prognostic factors in the elderly. Psychosocial and nutritional factors have previously been discussed as possible causes for the unexplained part of the East-West gradient. A reduced heart rate variability appears to be associated with cardiovascular disease as well as with psychosocial and other cardiovascular risk factors and decreases with age. Nevertheless, there is a lack of population-based data to examine the role of heart rate variability and its interaction with psychosocial and nutritional factors regarding the effect on cardiovascular disease in the ageing population. There also is a paucity of epidemiological data describing the health situation in Eastern Germany. Therefore, we conduct a population-based study to examine the distribution of CVD, heart rate variability and CVD risk factors and their associations in an elderly East German population. This paper describes the design and objectives of the CARLA Study. Methods/design For this study, a random sample of 45–80 year-old inhabitants of the city of Halle (Saale in Eastern Germany was drawn from the population registry. By the end of the baseline examination (2002–2005, 1750 study participants will have been examined. A multi-step recruitment strategy aims at achieving a 70 % response rate. Detailed information is collected on own and family medical history, socioeconomic, psychosocial, behavioural and biomedical factors. Medical examinations include anthropometric measures, blood pressure of arm and ankle, a 10-second and a 20

  15. Multi-organ protection during open heart surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万松; 严秉泉

    2001-01-01

    Purpose and Methods Open-heart surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is associated with an inflammatory cascade which contributes to the development of postoperative complications including multiple organ failure. To provide an update on the subject, we briefly review the recent English-language literature. Results During CPB, various factors have been recognized to induce a complex inflammatory response. Based on an enhanced understanding of the underlying mechanisms, therapeutic strategies have been developed to reduce this inflammatory reaction and its subsequent damaging effects. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting may result in less inflammatory injury as compared with the conventional maneuver, which can in turn, diminish the incidence of cardiac, renal, or neurological dysfunction. It is also clear that improving the biocompatibility of CPB materials can lead to a better patient recovery. Inasmuch as the pathophysiology involved appears to be multifactorial, it is unlikely that a single intervention could achieve the desired goal. Both pharmacologic strategies, such as steroid pretreatment, and modification of mechanical devices, such as the use of heparin-coated CPB circuits, could have important clinical implications. The balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory responses may be crucial in limiting the extent of inflammatory injury. Conclusions To date, the concept of organ protection should no longer be limited to the individual organ. Instead, investigations must be extended to focus on a systemic level.

  16. Left Ventricular Wall Stress-Mass-Heart Rate Product and Cardiovascular Events in Treated Hypertensive Patients: LIFE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devereux, Richard B; Bang, Casper N; Roman, Mary J; Palmieri, Vittorio; Boman, Kurt; Gerdts, Eva; Nieminen, Markku S; Papademetriou, Vasilios; Wachtell, Kristian; Hille, Darcy A; Dahlöf, Björn

    2015-11-01

    In the Losartan Intervention for End Point Reduction in Hypertension (LIFE) study, 4.8 years' losartan- versus atenolol-based antihypertensive treatment reduced left ventricular hypertrophy and cardiovascular end points, including cardiovascular death and stroke. However, there was no difference in myocardial infarction (MI), possibly related to greater reduction in myocardial oxygen demand by atenolol-based treatment. Myocardial oxygen demand was assessed indirectly by the left ventricular mass×wall stress×heart rate (triple product) in 905 LIFE participants. The triple product was included as time-varying covariate in Cox models assessing predictors of the LIFE primary composite end point (cardiovascular death, MI, or stroke), its individual components, and all-cause mortality. At baseline, the triple product in both treatment groups was, compared with normal adults, elevated in 70% of patients. During randomized treatment, the triple product was reduced more by atenolol, with prevalences of elevated triple product of 39% versus 51% on losartan (both P≤0.001). In Cox regression analyses adjusting for age, smoking, diabetes mellitus, and prior stroke, MI, and heart failure, 1 SD lower triple product was associated with 23% (95% confidence interval 13%-32%) fewer composite end points, 31% (18%-41%) less cardiovascular mortality, 30% (15%-41%) lower MI, and 22% (11%-33%) lower all-cause mortality (all P≤0.001), without association with stroke (P=0.34). Although losartan-based therapy reduced ventricular mass more, greater heart rate reduction with atenolol resulted in larger reduction of the triple product. Lower triple product during antihypertensive treatment was strongly, independently associated with lower rates of the LIFE primary composite end point, cardiovascular death, and MI, but not stroke.

  17. Diabetes treatments and risk of heart failure, cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality: cohort study in primary care

    OpenAIRE

    Hippisley-Cox, Julia; Coupland, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess associations between risks of cardiovascular disease, heart failure, and all cause mortality and different diabetes drugs in people with type 2 diabetes, particularly newer agents, including gliptins and thiazolidinediones (glitazones). Design: Open cohort study. Setting: 1243 general practices contributing data to the QResearch database in England. Participants: 469 688 people with type 2 diabetes aged 25-84 years between 1 April 2007 and 31 January 2015. ...

  18. A Data Mining Approach for Cardiovascular Disease Diagnosis Using Heart Rate Variability and Images of Carotid Arteries

    OpenAIRE

    Hyeongsoo Kim; Musa Ibrahim M. Ishag; Minghao Piao; Taeil Kwon; Keun Ho Ryu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we proposed not only an extraction methodology of multiple feature vectors from ultrasound images for carotid arteries (CAs) and heart rate variability (HRV) of electrocardiogram signal, but also a suitable and reliable prediction model useful in the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease (CVD). For inventing the multiple feature vectors, we extract a candidate feature vector through image processing and measurement of the thickness of carotid intima-media (IMT). As a complementar...

  19. The role of physicians in a community-wide program for prevention of cardiovascular disease: the Minnesota Heart Health Program.

    OpenAIRE

    Mittelmark, M B; Leupker, R V; Grimm, R; Kottke, T. E.; Blackburn, H

    1988-01-01

    The Minnesota Heart Health Program (MHHP) aims to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality by reducing risk factors among the mass of residents in three midwestern communities. A major aspect of the program is the involvement of community physicians because they have high credibility as citizen leaders, especially on health issues. In the MHHP, physicians contributed in a number of ways. The initial contacts with physicians resulted in their providing support and introducti...

  20. Demonstration of value of optimizing ECG triggering for cardiovascular magnetic resonance in patients with congenital heart disease

    OpenAIRE

    Knesewitsch Thomas; Meierhofer Christian; Rieger Henrike; Rößler Jürgen; Frank Michael; Martinoff Stefan; Hess John; Stern Heiko; Fratz Sohrab

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Optimal ECG triggering is of paramount importance for correct blood flow quantification during cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). However, optimal ECG triggering and therefore blood flow quantification is impaired in many patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) due to complex QRS patterns. Therefore, a new ECG-trigger algorithm was developed to address triggering problems due to complex QRS patterns. The aim of this study was to test this new ECG-trigger algorit...

  1. Simulated Microgravity Exerts an Age-Dependent Effect on the Differentiation of Cardiovascular Progenitors Isolated from the Human Heart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania I Fuentes

    Full Text Available Microgravity has a profound effect on cardiovascular function, however, little is known about the impact of microgravity on progenitors that reside within the heart. We investigated the effect of simulated microgravity exposure on progenitors isolated from the neonatal and adult human heart by quantifying changes in functional parameters, gene expression and protein levels after 6-7 days of 2D clinorotation. Utilization of neonatal and adult cardiovascular progenitors in ground-based studies has provided novel insight into how microgravity may affect cells differently depending on age. Simulated microgravity exposure did not impact AKT or ERK phosphorylation levels and did not influence cell migration, but elevated transcripts for paracrine factors were identified in neonatal and adult cardiovascular progenitors. Age-dependent responses surfaced when comparing the impact of microgravity on differentiation. Endothelial cell tube formation was unchanged or increased in progenitors from adults whereas neonatal cardiovascular progenitors showed a decline in tube formation (p<0.05. Von Willebrand Factor, an endothelial differentiation marker, and MLC2v and Troponin T, markers for cardiomyogenic differentiation, were elevated in expression in adult progenitors after simulated microgravity. DNA repair genes and telomerase reverse transcriptase which are highly expressed in early stem cells were increased in expression in neonatal but not adult cardiac progenitors after growth under simulated microgravity conditions. Neonatal cardiac progenitors demonstrated higher levels of MESP1, OCT4, and brachyury, markers for early stem cells. MicroRNA profiling was used to further investigate the impact of simulated microgravity on cardiovascular progenitors. Fifteen microRNAs were significantly altered in expression, including microRNAs-99a and 100 (which play a critical role in cell dedifferentiation. These microRNAs were unchanged in adult cardiac progenitors

  2. Update: Systemic Diseases and the Cardiovascular System (II). The endocrine system and the heart: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Soo S; Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2011-03-01

    Normal endocrine function is essential for cardiovascular health. Disorders of the endocrine system, consisting of hormone hyperfunction and hypofunction, have multiple effects on the cardiovascular system. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of disorders of the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal glands, with respect to the impact of endocrine dysfunction on the cardiovascular system. We also review the cardiovascular benefits of restoring normal endocrine function.

  3. Blueberry-enriched diet protects rat heart from ischemic damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismayil Ahmet

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to assess the cardioprotective properties of a blueberry enriched diet (BD. BACKGROUND: Reactive oxygen species (ROS play a major role in ischemia-related myocardial injury. The attempts to use synthetic antioxidants to block the detrimental effects of ROS have produced mixed or negative results precipitating the interest in natural products. Blueberries are readily available product with the highest antioxidant capacity among fruits and vegetables. METHODS AND RESULTS: Following 3-mo of BD or a regular control diet (CD, the threshold for mitochondrial permeability transition (t(MPT was measured in isolated cardiomyocytes obtained from young male Fischer-344 rats. Compared to CD, BD resulted in a 24% increase (p<0.001 of ROS indexed t(MPT. The remaining animals were subjected to a permanent ligation of the left descending coronary artery. 24 hrs later resulting myocardial infarction (MI in rats on BD was 22% less than in CD rats (p<0.01. Significantly less TUNEL(+ cardiomyocytes (2% vs 9% and 40% less inflammation cells were observed in the myocardial area at risk of BD compared to CD rats (p<0.01. In the subgroup of rats, after coronary ligation the original diet was either continued or switched to the opposite one, and cardiac remodeling and MI expansion were followed by serial echocardiography for 10 weeks. Measurements suggested that continuation of BD or its withdrawal after MI attenuated or accelerated rates of post MI cardiac remodeling and MI expansion. CONCLUSION: A blueberry-enriched diet protected the myocardium from induced ischemic damage and demonstrated the potential to attenuate the development of post MI chronic heart failure.

  4. Cardiovascular age of aviation personnel:based on the principal component analysis of heart rate and blood pressure variability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛有国; 王守岩; 张玉海; 王兴邦; 张立藩

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To introduce a method to calculate cardiovascular age, a new, accurate and much simpler index for assessing cardiovascular autonomic regulatory function, based on statistical analysis of heart rate and blood pressure variability (HRV and BPV) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) data. Methods: Firstly, HRV and BPV of 89 healthy aviation personnel were analyzed by the conventional autoregressive (AR) spectral analysis and their spontaneous BRS was obtained by the sequence method. Secondly, principal component analysis was conducted over original and derived indices of HRV, BPV and BRS data and the relevant principal components, Pciorig and Pcideri (I=1, 2, 3,...) were obtained. Finally, the equation for calculating cardiovascular age was obtained by multiple regression with the chronological age being assigned as the dependent variable and the principal components significantly related to age as the regressors. Results: The first four principal components of original indices accounted for over 90% of total variance of the indices, so did the first three principal components of derived indices. So, these seven principal components could reflect the information of cardiovascular autonomic regulation which was embodied in the 17 indices of HRV, BPV and BRS exactly with a minimal loss of information. Of the seven principal components, PC2orig, PC4orig and PC2deri were negatively correlated with the chronological age (P<0.05), whereas the PC3orig was positively correlated with the chronological age (P<0.01). The cardiovascular age thus calculated from the regression equation was significantly correlated with the chronological age among the 89 aviation personnel (r=0.73, P<0.01). Conclusion: The cardiovascular age calculated based on a multi-variate analysis of HRV, BPV and BRS could be regarded as a comprehensive indicator reflecting the age dependency of autonomic regulation of cardiovascular system in healthy aviation personnel.

  5. Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Migrants Participating in the PEP Family Heart Study, Nuremberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda-Maria Haas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of cardiovascularrisk factors in adults and their children from the 3 majorgroups of migrants participating in the PEP Family Heart Study 11 andto compare the cardio-metabolic risk profiles between migrants andGerman participants.Methods: In this community-based cross-sectional study, anthropometricdata, blood pressure and lipid profiles of migrants (480 children,363 adults from Turkey (TUR, Eastern Europe (EEU and Germanimmigrants from the former Soviet Union (GFSU were comparedwith age- and gender adjusted German (GER residents (3253 children,2491 adults.Results: The profile of risk factors differed considerably regardingspecificity and frequency. The prevalence of ≥3 risk factors was asfollows: in GFSU men 62%, women 36%, boys 19% and girls 17%; inTUR men 57%, women 30%, 15% boys and 6% girls; in GER men48%, women 19%, boys 4% and girls 6%; for EEU men 38%, women25% and 0% in children. No risk factor was present in GFSU men13%, women 25%, boys 38% and girls 42%; TUR men 13%, women28%, boys 27% and girls 22 %; GER men16%, women 45%, boys 46%and girls 41%; EEU men 17%, women 42 %, boys 29% and girls 27%.About 50% of the adults from Turkey and Eastern Europe were currentsmokers and one third of women and half of men from these twocountries were overweight.Conclusions: The implementation of primary care measures for theprevention of cardiovascular disease in migrants is necessary, and itshould consider the ethnic differences and the heterogeneous risk profiles

  6. The protective effect of lipoic acid on selected cardiovascular diseases caused by age-related oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skibska, Beata; Goraca, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is considered to be the primary cause of many cardiovascular diseases, including endothelial dysfunction in atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease, hypertension, and heart failure. Oxidative stress increases during the aging process, resulting in either increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production or decreased antioxidant defense. The increase in the incidence of cardiovascular disease is directly related to age. Aging is also associated with oxidative stress, which in turn leads to accelerated cellular senescence and organ dysfunction. Antioxidants may help lower the incidence of some pathologies of cardiovascular diseases and have antiaging properties. Lipoic acid (LA) is a natural antioxidant which is believed to have a beneficial effect on oxidative stress parameters in relation to diseases of the cardiovascular system.

  7. The Heart of 25 by 25: Achieving the Goal of Reducing Global and Regional Premature Deaths From Cardiovascular Diseases and Stroke: A Modeling Study From the American Heart Association and World Heart Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Ralph L; Roth, Gregory A; Reddy, K Srinath; Arnett, Donna K; Bonita, Ruth; Gaziano, Thomas A; Heidenreich, Paul A; Huffman, Mark D; Mayosi, Bongani M; Mendis, Shanthi; Murray, Christopher J L; Perel, Pablo; Piñeiro, Daniel J; Smith, Sidney C; Taubert, Kathryn A; Wood, David A; Zhao, Dong; Zoghbi, William A

    2016-06-01

    In 2011, the United Nations set key targets to reach by 2025 to reduce the risk of premature noncommunicable disease death by 25% by 2025. With cardiovascular disease being the largest contributor to global mortality, accounting for nearly half of the 36 million annual noncommunicable disease deaths, achieving the 2025 goal requires that cardiovascular disease and its risk factors be aggressively addressed. The Global Cardiovascular Disease Taskforce, comprising the World Heart Federation, American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology Foundation, European Heart Network, and European Society of Cardiology, with expanded representation from Asia, Africa, and Latin America, along with global cardiovascular disease experts, disseminates information and approaches to reach the United Nations 2025 targets. The writing committee, which reflects Global Cardiovascular Disease Taskforce membership, engaged the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, to develop region-specific estimates of premature cardiovascular mortality in 2025 based on various scenarios. Results show that >5 million premature CVD deaths among men and 2.8 million among women are projected worldwide by 2025, which can be reduced to 3.5 million and 2.2 million, respectively, if risk factor targets for blood pressure, tobacco use, diabetes mellitus, and obesity are achieved. However, global risk factor targets have various effects, depending on region. For most regions, United Nations targets for reducing systolic blood pressure and tobacco use have more substantial effects on future scenarios compared with maintaining current levels of body mass index and fasting plasma glucose. However, preventing increases in body mass index has the largest effect in some high-income countries. An approach achieving reductions in multiple risk factors has the largest impact for almost all regions. Achieving these goals can be accomplished only if countries set priorities

  8. The Heart of 25 by 25: Achieving the Goal of Reducing Global and Regional Premature Deaths From Cardiovascular Diseases and Stroke: A Modeling Study From the American Heart Association and World Heart Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Ralph L; Roth, Gregory A; Reddy, K Srinath; Arnett, Donna K; Bonita, Ruth; Gaziano, Thomas A; Heidenreich, Paul A; Huffman, Mark D; Mayosi, Bongani M; Mendis, Shanthi; Murray, Christopher J L; Perel, Pablo; Piñeiro, Daniel J; Smith, Sidney C; Taubert, Kathryn A; Wood, David A; Zhao, Dong; Zoghbi, William A

    2016-06-01

    In 2011, the United Nations set key targets to reach by 2025 to reduce the risk of premature noncommunicable disease death by 25% by 2025. With cardiovascular disease being the largest contributor to global mortality, accounting for nearly half of the 36 million annual noncommunicable disease deaths, achieving the 2025 goal requires that cardiovascular disease and its risk factors be aggressively addressed. The Global Cardiovascular Disease Taskforce, comprising the World Heart Federation, American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology Foundation, European Heart Network, and European Society of Cardiology, with expanded representation from Asia, Africa, and Latin America, along with global cardiovascular disease experts, disseminates information and approaches to reach the United Nations 2025 targets. The writing committee, which reflects Global Cardiovascular Disease Taskforce membership, engaged the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, to develop region-specific estimates of premature cardiovascular mortality in 2025 based on various scenarios. Results show that >5 million premature CVD deaths among men and 2.8 million among women are projected worldwide by 2025, which can be reduced to 3.5 million and 2.2 million, respectively, if risk factor targets for blood pressure, tobacco use, diabetes mellitus, and obesity are achieved. However, global risk factor targets have various effects, depending on region. For most regions, United Nations targets for reducing systolic blood pressure and tobacco use have more substantial effects on future scenarios compared with maintaining current levels of body mass index and fasting plasma glucose. However, preventing increases in body mass index has the largest effect in some high-income countries. An approach achieving reductions in multiple risk factors has the largest impact for almost all regions. Achieving these goals can be accomplished only if countries set priorities

  9. Mitochondrial KATP channel inhibition blunts arrhythmia protection in ischemic exercised hearts

    OpenAIRE

    Quindry, John C.; Schreiber, Lindsey; Hosick, Peter; Wrieden, Jenna; Irwin, J. Megan; Hoyt, Emily

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for anti-arrhythmic protection during ischemia-reperfusion (IR) in exercised hearts are not fully understood. The purpose of this investigation was to examine whether the ATP-sensitive potassium channels in the mitochondria (mito KATP) and sarcolemma (sarc KATP) provide anti-arrhythmic protection in exercised hearts during IR. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to cardioprotective treadmill exercise or sedentary conditions before IR (I = 20 min, R = 30 ...

  10. Molecular Analysis of Oral Bacteria in Heart Valve of Patients With Cardiovascular Disease by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Francisco Artur Forte; Forte, Clarissa Pessoa Fernandes; Silva, Paulo Goberlânio de Barros; Lopes, Camile B; Montenegro, Raquel Carvalho; Santos, Ândrea Kely Campos Ribeiro Dos; Sobrinho, Carlos Roberto Martins Rodrigues; Mota, Mário Rogério Lima; Sousa, Fabrício Bitu; Alves, Ana Paula Negreiros Nunes

    2015-11-01

    Structural deficiencies and functional abnormalities of heart valves represent an important cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and a number of diseases, such as aortic stenosis, have been recently associated with infectious agents. This study aimed to analyze oral bacteria in dental plaque, saliva, and cardiac valves of patients with cardiovascular disease. Samples of supragingival plaque, subgingival plaque, saliva, and cardiac valve tissue were collected from 42 patients with heart valve disease. Molecular analysis of Streptococcus mutans, Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Treponema denticola was performed through real-time PCR. The micro-organism most frequently detected in heart valve samples was the S. mutans (89.3%), followed by P. intermedia (19.1%), P. gingivalis (4.2%), and T. denticola (2.1%). The mean decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) was 26.4 ± 6.9 (mean ± SD), and according to the highest score of periodontal disease observed for each patient, periodontal pockets > 4 mm and dental calculus were detected in 43.4% and 34.7% of patients, respectively. In conclusion, oral bacteria, especially S. mutans, were found in the cardiac valve samples of patients with a high rate of caries and gingivitis/periodontitis. PMID:26632711

  11. Impact of the Heart WATCH Program on Patients at Risk of Developing Metabolic Syndrome, Prediabetes or Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Fink

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Metabolic syndrome is a set of metabolic risk factors associated with increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. We retrospectively evaluated the effectiveness of a lifestyle modification program (Heart WATCH geared toward reducing development of chronic disease in women deemed at risk for metabolic syndrome, prediabetes and/or cardiovascular disease. Methods: Our institution’s Heart WATCH program consists of screening sessions with a multidisciplinary team (physician/nurse, nutritionist and psychologist, a minimum of three visits with a nurse practitioner and weekly follow-up phone calls for a 14-week period. Sociodemographic variables were obtained at initial visit. Biometric testing indices and self-reported clinical and behavioral health measures were recorded pre- and postintervention, and compared using paired t-tests or McNemar’s test as appropriate. Results: Heart WATCH enrolled 242 women from November 2006 to April 2014, and 193 (80% completed all phases of the 14-week lifestyle intervention. Postintervention, participants demonstrated improved health status in all areas and improved significantly in the following areas: diet/nutrition (P=0.014, exercise (P<0.001, stress (P<0.0001, quality of life (P=0.003, weight (P<0.0001, waist circumference (P=0.01 and total cholesterol (P=0.019. Clinically meaningful improvements were realized by participants who moved to a healthier classification in a number of vital signs and blood panel indices. Conclusions: These findings suggest the “elevated risk profile” for women with components of metabolic syndrome can be reversed through a lifestyle program focused on reducing risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease and prediabetes. Future research is needed to determine mechanisms of risk reduction as well as optimal patient-centered and culturally appropriate approaches to weight management.

  12. Voluntary Exercise Protects Heart from Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Roya; Mohaddes, Gisou; Mohammadi, Mustafa; Ghaznavi, Rana; Ghyasi, Rafigheh; Vatankhah, Amir Mansour

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Oxidative stress plays a key role in the onset and development of diabetes complications. In this study, we evaluated whether voluntary exercise could alleviate oxidative stress in the heart and blood of streptozotocin - induced diabetic rats. Methods: 28 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=7): control, exercise, diabetes and exercise + diabetes. Diabetes was induced by injection of streptozotocin in male rats. Rats in the trained groups were subjected to voluntary running wheel exercise for 6 weeks. At the end of six weeks blood and heart tissue samples were collected and used for determination of antioxidant enzymes (including SOD, GPX and CAT activities) and MDA level. Results: Exercise significantly reduced MDA levels both in the heart tissue (pdiabetic rats. It also accentuates activities of SOD, GPX and CAT. Therefore, it may be considered a useful tool for the reduction of oxidative stress in diabetes. PMID:26236662

  13. Cardiovascular protection in type 2 diabetes: time to ADVANCE management ACCORDing to the evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajhosseiny R

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Reza Hajhosseiny,1 Kaivan Khavandi,1 Soudeh Mashayekhi,2 Adam S Greenstein,3 Rayaz A Malik31British Heart Foundation Centre of Cardiovascular Excellence, St Thomas' Hospital, London, UK; 2Department of Primary Care and Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK; 3Institute of Human Development, University of Manchester, Manchester, UKAbstract: Individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus are at very substantial risk of cardiovascular disease, and most will succumb to complications from premature coronary artery events. At the same time, the diabetic myocardium undergoes unique phenotypic alterations as a consequence of multiple structural and cellular injuries, which together form "diabetic cardiomyopathy." Attempts to curb risk through intensive modulation of glycemia and blood pressure have proven disappointing in preventing cardiovascular events, and potentially even dangerous. Conversely, prior to development of disease, there appears to be a linear relationship between risk parameters and events. These observations are likely the consequence of widespread vascular damage, which is present at the point that glycemic thresholds meet diagnostic criteria for diabetes. This is particularly true of the microcirculation. Interventions at the prediabetic stage have been consistent with this, where early intensive risk-factor modulation has been successful in preventing events and even regressing existing risk. Upstream, the force driving these pathologies is being overweight and obesity. High-risk individuals can be identified through simple body mass parameters, with confirmation of prediabetes/metabolic syndrome with further assessment of other metabolic parameters such as glucose and lipids. A number of novel pharmacotherapies may prove beneficial at this stage, and incretin-based therapies appear particularly promising in this respect. Similarly, bariatric procedures have shown remarkable improvements in metabolic and cardiovascular

  14. Risk and protection factors for cardiovascular diseases among adults of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solanyara Maria da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death and hospital expenses in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.OBJECTIVE: To describe the temporal variation on risk and protective factors for cardiovascular diseases in adults (≥18 years old.METHODS: Data were obtained from population-based telephone surveys carried out between 2006 and 2009 in Cuiabá, the capital of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The prevalence of smoking, alcohol abuse, markers of diet quality consumption, physical activities, leisure, domestic work, and commute was estimated. Statistical significance of temporal variations in these estimators was estimated by logistic regression models, whose dependent variables were the analyzed risk factors (absent = 0; present = 1 and independent variable was the year of the survey.RESULTS: There was an increase in the proportion of men who reported to never have smoked (from 53 to 61%, p = 0.04. The frequency of regular soft drink consumption was reduced by 23% (p CONCLUSION: Favorable changes in cardiovascular risk and protective factors were mostly observed among men, young adults, and those with more than eight schooling years.

  15. The healthy heart race: a short-duration, hands-on activity in cardiovascular physiology for museums and science festivals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressley, Thomas A; Limson, Melvin; Byse, Miranda; Matyas, Marsha Lakes

    2011-09-01

    The "Healthy Heart Race" activity provides a hands-on demonstration of cardiovascular function suitable for lay audiences. It was field tested during the United States of America Science and Engineering Festival held in Washington, DC, in October 2010. The basic equipment for the activity consisted of lengths of plastic tubing, a hand pump, collection containers, clamps, and simulated blood prepared by tinting water with red food coloring. Student participants were first asked to experience the effort required to pump through an unaltered tube. A presenter then applied a strong clamp that pinched each tube downstream from the pump, and students were asked to pump against the increased resistance. The students' observations were then used as the basis for discussions of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease with the presenters. Distribution of informative postcards during the 2 days of the festival indicated that at least 2,500 students completed the Healthy Heart Race activity. Our experiences to date suggest that the Healthy Heart Race activity can be accomplished effectively in the high-volume, high-distraction environment of a science fair or museum.

  16. Sample Entropy and Traditional Measures of Heart Rate Dynamics Reveal Different Modes of Cardiovascular Control During Low Intensity Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Weippert

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear parameters of heart rate variability (HRV have proven their prognostic value in clinical settings, but their physiological background is not very well established. We assessed the effects of low intensity isometric (ISO and dynamic (DYN exercise of the lower limbs on heart rate matched intensity on traditional and entropy measures of HRV. Due to changes of afferent feedback under DYN and ISO a distinct autonomic response, mirrored by HRV measures, was hypothesized. Five-minute inter-beat interval measurements of 43 healthy males (26.0 ± 3.1 years were performed during rest, DYN and ISO in a randomized order. Blood pressures and rate pressure product were higher during ISO vs. DYN (p < 0.001. HRV indicators SDNN as well as low and high frequency power were significantly higher during ISO (p < 0.001 for all measures. Compared to DYN, sample entropy (SampEn was lower during ISO (p < 0.001. Concluding, contraction mode itself is a significant modulator of the autonomic cardiovascular response to exercise. Compared to DYN, ISO evokes a stronger blood pressure response and an enhanced interplay between both autonomic branches. Non-linear HRV measures indicate a more regular behavior under ISO. Results support the view of the reciprocal antagonism being only one of many modes of autonomic heart rate control. Under different conditions; the identical “end product” heart rate might be achieved by other modes such as sympathovagal co-activation as well.

  17. Parathyroid hormone and vitamin D--markers for cardiovascular and all cause mortality in heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schierbeck, Louise Lind; Jensen, Torben Slott; Bang, Ulrich;

    2011-01-01

    To investigate levels of vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) in a population of heart failure (HF) patients, and to evaluate whether vitamin D and PTH are related to prognosis.......To investigate levels of vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) in a population of heart failure (HF) patients, and to evaluate whether vitamin D and PTH are related to prognosis....

  18. Voluntary Exercise Protects Heart from Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Roya Naderi; Gisou Mohaddes; Mustafa Mohammadi; Rana Ghaznavi; Rafigheh Ghyasi; Amir Mansour Vatankhah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Oxidative stress plays a key role in the onset and development of diabetes complications. In this study, we evaluated whether voluntary exercise could alleviate oxidative stress in the heart and blood of streptozotocin - induced diabetic rats. Methods: 28 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=7): control, exercise, diabetes and exercise + diabetes. Diabetes was induced by injection of streptozotocin in male rats. Rats in the trained groups were sub...

  19. Protective Mechanisms of Mitochondria and Heart Function in Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Aon, Miguel A.; Tocchetti, Carlo G.; Bhatt, Niraj; Paolocci, Nazareno; Cortassa, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Significance: The heart depends on continuous mitochondrial ATP supply and maintained redox balance to properly develop force, particularly under increased workload. During diabetes, however, myocardial energetic-redox balance is perturbed, contributing to the systolic and diastolic dysfunction known as diabetic cardiomyopathy (DC). Critical Issues: How these energetic and redox alterations intertwine to influence the DC progression is still poorly understood. Excessive bioavailability of bot...

  20. Cardiovascular and thermal consequences of protective clothing: a comparison of clothed and unclothed states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Alison; Armstrong, Karen; Gordon, Christopher; Groeller, Herbert; Woods, Brian; Stocks, Jodie; Taylor, Nigel

    2004-08-15

    We have undertaken a laboratory-based examination of the cardiovascular and thermal impact of wearing thermal (heat) protective clothing during fatiguing exercise in the heat. Seven males completed semi-recumbent, intermittent cycling (39.6 degrees C, 45% relative humidity) wearing either protective clothing or shorts (control). Mean core and skin temperatures, cardiac frequency (f(c)), stroke volume (Q), cardiac output (Q), arterial pressure, forearm blood flow (Q(f)), plasma volume change, and sweat rates were measured. In the clothed trials, subjects experienced significantly shorter times to fatigue (52.5 vs. 58.9 min), at lower peak work rates (204.3 vs. 277.4 W), and with higher core (37.9 degrees vs. 37.5 degrees C) and mean skin temperatures (37.3 degrees vs. 36.9 degrees C). There was a significant interaction between time and clothing on f(c), such that, over time, the clothing effect became more powerful. Clothing had a significant main affect on Q, but not Q, indicating the higher Q was chronotropically driven. Despite a greater sweat loss when clothed (923.0 vs. 547.1 g.m(-2) x h(-1); P<0.05), Q(f) and plasma volume change remained equivalent. Protective clothing reduced exercise tolerance, but did not affect overall cardiovascular function, at the point of volitional fatigue. It was concluded that, during moderately heavy, semi-recumbent exercise under hot, dry conditions, the strain on the unclothed body was already high, such that the additional stress imparted by the clothing ensemble represented a negligible, further impact upon cardiovascular stability. PMID:15370864

  1. Potential Cardiovascular Risk Protection of Bilirubin in End-Stage Renal Disease Patients under Hemodialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Maria do Sameiro-Faria; Michaela Kohlova; Sandra Ribeiro; Petronila Rocha-Pereira; Laetitia Teixeira; Henrique Nascimento; Flávio Reis; Vasco Miranda; Elsa Bronze-da-Rocha; Alexandre Quintanilha; Luís Belo; Elísio Costa; Alice Santos-Silva

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the potential cardiovascular risk protection of bilirubin in hemodialysis (HD) patients. An enlarged set of studies were evaluated in 191 HD patients, including hematological study, lipid profile, iron metabolism, nutritional, inflammatory markers, and dialysis adequacy. The TA duplication screening in the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1 A1 (UGT1A1) promoter region was also performed. The UGT1A1 genotype frequencies in HD patients were 49.2%, 42.4%, and 8.4% for 6/6, 6/7, and 7/7 g...

  2. The Genetic Response to Short-term Interventions Affecting Cardiovascular Function: Rationale and Design of the HAPI Heart Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Braxton D.; McArdle, Patrick F.; Shen, Haiqing; Rampersaud, Evadnie; Pollin, Toni I.; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Jaquish, Cashell; Douglas, Julie A.; Roy-Gagnon, Marie-Hélène; Sack, Paul; Naglieri, Rosalie; Hines, Scott; Horenstein, Richard B.; Chang, Yen-Pei C.; Post, Wendy; Ryan, Kathleen A.; Brereton, Nga Hong; Pakyz, Ruth E.; Sorkin, John; Damcott, Coleen M.; O’Connell, Jeffrey R.; Mangano, Charles; Corretti, Mary; Vogel, Robert; Herzog, William; Weir, Matthew R.; Peyser, Patricia A.; Shuldiner, Alan R.

    2008-01-01

    Background The etiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is multifactorial. Efforts to identify genes influencing CVD risk have met with limited success to date, likely due to the small effect sizes of common CVD risk alleles and the presence of gene by gene and gene by environment interactions. Methods The Heredity and Phenotype Intervention (HAPI) Heart Study was initiated in 2002 to measure the cardiovascular response to four short-term interventions affecting cardiovascular risk factors and to identify the genetic and environmental determinants of these responses. The measurements included blood pressure responses to the cold pressor stress test and to a high salt diet, triglyceride excursion in response to a high fat challenge, and response in platelet aggregation to aspirin therapy. Results The interventions were carried out in 868 relatively healthy Amish adults from large families. The heritabilities of selected response traits for each intervention ranged from 8–38%, suggesting that some of the variation associated with response to each intervention can be attributed to the additive effects of genes. Conclusions Identifying these response genes may identify new mechanisms influencing CVD and may lead to individualized preventive strategies and improved early detection of high-risk individuals. PMID:18440328

  3. Palliative Care and Cardiovascular Disease and Stroke: A Policy Statement From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Lynne T; Grady, Kathleen L; Kutner, Jean S; Adler, Eric; Berlinger, Nancy; Boss, Renee; Butler, Javed; Enguidanos, Susan; Friebert, Sarah; Gardner, Timothy J; Higgins, Phil; Holloway, Robert; Konig, Madeleine; Meier, Diane; Morrissey, Mary Beth; Quest, Tammie E; Wiegand, Debra L; Coombs-Lee, Barbara; Fitchett, George; Gupta, Charu; Roach, William H

    2016-09-13

    The mission of the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association includes increasing access to high-quality, evidence-based care that improves patient outcomes such as health-related quality of life and is consistent with the patients' values, preferences, and goals. Awareness of and access to palliative care interventions align with the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association mission. The purposes of this policy statement are to provide background on the importance of palliative care as it pertains to patients with advanced cardiovascular disease and stroke and their families and to make recommendations for policy decisions. Palliative care, defined as patient- and family-centered care that optimizes health-related quality of life by anticipating, preventing, and treating suffering, should be integrated into the care of all patients with advanced cardiovascular disease and stroke early in the disease trajectory. Palliative care focuses on communication, shared decision making about treatment options, advance care planning, and attention to physical, emotional, spiritual, and psychological distress with inclusion of the patient's family and care system. Our policy recommendations address the following: reimbursement for comprehensive delivery of palliative care services for patients with advanced cardiovascular disease and stroke; strong payer-provider relationships that involve data sharing to identify patients in need of palliative care, identification of better care and payment models, and establishment of quality standards and outcome measurements; healthcare system policies for the provision of comprehensive palliative care services during hospitalization, including goals of care, treatment decisions, needs of family caregivers, and transition to other care settings; and health professional education in palliative care as part of licensure requirements. PMID:27503067

  4. Palliative Care and Cardiovascular Disease and Stroke: A Policy Statement From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Lynne T; Grady, Kathleen L; Kutner, Jean S; Adler, Eric; Berlinger, Nancy; Boss, Renee; Butler, Javed; Enguidanos, Susan; Friebert, Sarah; Gardner, Timothy J; Higgins, Phil; Holloway, Robert; Konig, Madeleine; Meier, Diane; Morrissey, Mary Beth; Quest, Tammie E; Wiegand, Debra L; Coombs-Lee, Barbara; Fitchett, George; Gupta, Charu; Roach, William H

    2016-09-13

    The mission of the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association includes increasing access to high-quality, evidence-based care that improves patient outcomes such as health-related quality of life and is consistent with the patients' values, preferences, and goals. Awareness of and access to palliative care interventions align with the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association mission. The purposes of this policy statement are to provide background on the importance of palliative care as it pertains to patients with advanced cardiovascular disease and stroke and their families and to make recommendations for policy decisions. Palliative care, defined as patient- and family-centered care that optimizes health-related quality of life by anticipating, preventing, and treating suffering, should be integrated into the care of all patients with advanced cardiovascular disease and stroke early in the disease trajectory. Palliative care focuses on communication, shared decision making about treatment options, advance care planning, and attention to physical, emotional, spiritual, and psychological distress with inclusion of the patient's family and care system. Our policy recommendations address the following: reimbursement for comprehensive delivery of palliative care services for patients with advanced cardiovascular disease and stroke; strong payer-provider relationships that involve data sharing to identify patients in need of palliative care, identification of better care and payment models, and establishment of quality standards and outcome measurements; healthcare system policies for the provision of comprehensive palliative care services during hospitalization, including goals of care, treatment decisions, needs of family caregivers, and transition to other care settings; and health professional education in palliative care as part of licensure requirements.

  5. Pomegranate Supplementation Protects against Memory Dysfunction after Heart Surgery: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ropacki, Susan A.; Sapna M. Patel; Hartman, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    Memory dysfunction is a common complaint following heart surgery and may be related to a diffuse ischemic state induced by microemboli dislodged during the procedure. Ischemia can induce damage by a number of mechanisms, including oxidative stress. Because pomegranates contain a variety of polyphenols with antioxidant and other potentially beneficial effects, we tested whether supplementation with a pomegranate extract before and after heart surgery could protect against postoperative cogniti...

  6. Role of Changes in Ca and Mg Concentrations in the Development of Heart Rate Turbulence in People with Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Events According to the SCORE Charts

    OpenAIRE

    Vytryhovskyy, A. I.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the research was to determine the correlation between the occurrence and progression of ventricular arrhythmias as well as the increase in heart rate turbulence in patients at a high and very high cardiovascular risk according to the SCORE charts and serum levels of calcium and magnesium.            Materials and methods. 603 patients were examined to determine the role of heart rate variability in the cardiovascular continuum; 319 patients were examined to study the role of ...

  7. Assessment of cardiovascular reactivity by fractal and recurrence quantification analysis of heart rate and pulse transit time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naschitz, J E; Rosner, I; Shaviv, N; Khorshidi, I; Sundick, S; Isseroff, H; Fields, M; Priselac, R M; Yeshurun, D; Sabo, E; Itzhak, R

    2003-02-01

    Methods used for the assessment of cardiovascular reactivity are flawed by nonlinear dynamics of the cardiovascular responses to stimuli. In an attempt to address this issue, we utilized a short postural challenge, recorded beat-to-beat heart rate (HR) and pulse transit time (PTT), assessed the data by fractal and recurrence quantification analysis, and processed the obtained variables by multivariate statistics. A 10-min supine phase of the head-up tilt test was followed by recording 600 cardiac cycles on tilt, that is, 5-10 min. Three groups of patients were studied, each including 20 subjects matched for age and gender--healthy subjects, patients with essential hypertension (HT), and patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). The latter group was studied on account of the well-known dysautonomia of CFS patients, which served as contrast against the cardiovascular reactivity of the healthy population. A total of 52 variables of the HR and PTT were determined in each subject. The multivariate model identified the best predictors for the assessment of reactivity of healthy subjects vs CFS. Based on these predictors, the "Fractal & Recurrence Analysis-based Score" (FRAS) was calculated: FRAS=76.2+0.04*HR-supine-DET -12.9*HR-tilt-R/L -0.31*HR-tilt-s.d. -19.27*PTT-tilt-R/L -9.42*PTT-tilt-WAVE. The median values and IQR of FRAS in the groups were: healthy=-1.85 (IQR 1.89), hypertensives=+0.52 (IQR 5.78), and CFS=-24.2 (5.34) (HT vs healthy subjects: P=0.0036; HT vs CFS: P<0.0001). Since the FRAS differed significantly between the three groups, it appears likely that the FRAS may recognize phenotypes of cardiovascular reactivity. PMID:12574789

  8. Automatic Prediction of Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Events Using Heart Rate Variability Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Melillo, Paolo; Izzo, Raffaele; Orrico, Ada; Scala, Paolo; Attanasio, Marcella; Mirra, Marco; De Luca, Nicola; Pecchia, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    Background There is consensus that Heart Rate Variability is associated with the risk of vascular events. However, Heart Rate Variability predictive value for vascular events is not completely clear. The aim of this study is to develop novel predictive models based on data-mining algorithms to provide an automatic risk stratification tool for hypertensive patients. Methods A database of 139 Holter recordings with clinical data of hypertensive patients followed up for at least 12 months were c...

  9. Association of β-Blocker Therapy With Risks of Adverse Cardiovascular Events and Deaths in Patients With Ischemic Heart Disease Undergoing Noncardiac Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Charlotte; Mérie, Charlotte; Jørgensen, Mads Wissenberg;

    2014-01-01

    , ischemic stroke, cardiovascular death, and all-cause death). OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of β-blocker treatment with major cardiovascular adverse events (MACE) and all-cause mortality in patients with ischemic heart disease undergoing noncardiac surgery. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, AND EXPOSURE......: Individuals with ischemic heart disease with or without heart failure (HF) and with and without a history of myocardial infarction undergoing noncardiac surgery between October 24, 2004, and December 31, 2009, were identified from nationwide Danish registries. Adjusted Cox regression models were used...... myocardial infarction), but with no significant association in the remaining patients. Results were similar in propensity score-matched analyses. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Among patients with ischemic heart disease undergoing noncardiac surgery, use of β-blockers was associated with lower risk of 30-day...

  10. Potential Cardiovascular Risk Protection of Bilirubin in End-Stage Renal Disease Patients under Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Sameiro-Faria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the potential cardiovascular risk protection of bilirubin in hemodialysis (HD patients. An enlarged set of studies were evaluated in 191 HD patients, including hematological study, lipid profile, iron metabolism, nutritional, inflammatory markers, and dialysis adequacy. The TA duplication screening in the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1 A1 (UGT1A1 promoter region was also performed. The UGT1A1 genotype frequencies in HD patients were 49.2%, 42.4%, and 8.4% for 6/6, 6/7, and 7/7 genotypes, respectively. Although no difference was found in UGT1A1 genotype distribution between the three tertiles of bilirubin, significant differences were found with increasing bilirubin levels, namely, a decrease in platelet, leukocyte, and lymphocyte counts, transferrin, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL, ox-LDL/low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, apolipoprotein (Apo A, Apo B, and interleukin-6 serum levels and a significant increased concentration of hemoglobin, hematocrit, erythrocyte count, iron, transferrin saturation, Apo A/Apo B ratio, adiponectin, and paraoxonase 1 serum levels. After adjustment for age these results remained significant. Our data suggest that higher bilirubin levels are associated with beneficial effects in HD patients, by improving lipid profile and reducing the inflammatory grade, which might contribute to increase in iron availability. These results suggest a potential cardiovascular risk protection of bilirubin in HD patients.

  11. Anthocyanins and heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthocyanins are red, blue, and purple pigments distributed throughout nature, and in our diet. One potential health benefit of dietary anthocyanins is protection against cardiovascular disease (CVD). Evidence for beneficial effects of anthocyanins with respect to heart disease comes from epidemio...

  12. The Heart's Content : The Association between Positive Psychological Well-Being and Cardiovascular Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Julia K.; Kubzansky, Laura D.

    2012-01-01

    This review investigates the association between positive psychological well-being (PPWB) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We also consider the mechanisms by which PPWB may be linked with CVD, focusing on the health behaviors (e.g., smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, sleep quality and quantity, and food consumption) and biological…

  13. Carvedilol protected diabetic rat hearts via reducing oxidative stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG He; SHAN Jiang; PAN Xiao-hong; WANG Hui-ping; QIAN Ling-bo

    2006-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a dominant role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. Bcl-2 gene has close connection with antioxidant stress destruction in many diseases including diabetes. Carvedilol, an adrenoceptor blocker, also has antioxidant properties. To study the effect of carvedilol on the antioxidant status in diabetic hearts, we investigated carvedilol-administrated healthy and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. After small and large dosage carvedilol-administered for 5 weeks, hemodynamic parameters, the levels of malondialdehyde, activities of antioxidant enzymes and expression of Bcl-2 mRNA in the cardiac tissues were measured. The diabetic rats not only had cardiac disfunction, weaker activities of antioxidant enzymes, but also showed lower expression of Bcl-2. Carvedilol treatment increased activities of antioxidant enzymes and expression of Bcl-2 in healthy rats as well as diabetic rats. These results indicated that earvedilol partly improves cardiac function via its antioxidant properties in diabetic rats.

  14. Implementation of case management to reduce cardiovascular disease risk in the Stanford and San Mateo Heart to Heart randomized controlled trial: study protocol and baseline characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stafford Randall S

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Case management has emerged as a promising alternative approach to supplement traditional one-on-one sessions between patients and doctors for improving the quality of care in chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease (CHD. However, data are lacking in terms of its efficacy and cost-effectiveness when implemented in ethnic and low-income populations. Methods The Stanford and San Mateo Heart to Heart (HTH project is a randomized controlled clinical trial designed to rigorously evaluate the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a multi-risk cardiovascular case management program in low-income, primarily ethnic minority patients served by a local county health care system in California. Randomization occurred at the patient level. The primary outcome measure is the absolute CHD risk over 10 years. Secondary outcome measures include adherence to guidelines on CHD prevention practice. We documented the study design, methodology, and baseline sociodemographic, clinical and lifestyle characteristics of 419 participants. Results We achieved equal distributions of the sociodemographic, biophysical and lifestyle characteristics between the two randomization groups. HTH participants had a mean age of 56 years, 63% were Latinos/Hispanics, 65% female, 61% less educated, and 62% were not employed. Twenty percent of participants reported having a prior cardiovascular event. 10-year CHD risk averaged 18% in men and 13% in women despite a modest low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level and a high on-treatment percentage at baseline. Sixty-three percent of participants were diagnosed with diabetes and an additional 22% had metabolic syndrome. In addition, many participants had depressed high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol levels and elevated values of total cholesterol-to-HDL ratio, triglycerides, triglyceride-to-HDL ratio, and blood pressure. Furthermore, nearly 70% of participants were obese, 45% had a family history of CHD or

  15. CAN HIGHER WAGES PROTECT YOUR HEART? REGIONAL EVIDENCE FROM ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian INCALTARAU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a bilateral influence between health and economic development. On the one hand, population health influences economic performance, both at micro and macro levels. On the other, being reflected in higher wellbeing, economic performance also influences health of population. Therefore, according to the materialist view, health status is dependent on the standard of living, whereas low living standards can increase the probability of morbidity and mortality by feeding poverty, poor hygiene and restricting access to health care and education, which is truly important in preventing diseases. Being generally considered to be a representative indicator for the standards of living, we have assessed the impact of wage variations on cardiovascular diseases (CVD mortality, as CVD were proved to be more sensitive to socio-economic conditions, but also generally the main mortality cause in post-communist countries including Romania. Carrying out a panel data analysis over the 1995-2012 period on Romanian NUTSIII regions, the results showed a direct link between wage level and CVD mortality proving that the higher wages reach, the lower mortality is, thus confirming assumed materialist hypothesis.

  16. Protective effects of Nigella sativa against hypertension-induced oxidative stress and cardiovascular dysfunction in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Taşar; Ahmet Özer Şehirli; Ömer Yiğiner; Selami Süleymanoğlu; Meral Yüksel; Berrak Yeğen; Göksel Şener

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the protective effect of Nigella sativa against oxidative injury in the heart and kidney tissues of rats with renovascular hypertension (RVH). RVH model was induced by placing a renal artery clip (2-kidney-1-clip, 2K1C) in Wistar albino rats (n= 8), while sham rats (n= 8) had no clip placement. Starting on the 3rd week after the operation, rats received Nigella sativa (0.2 ml/kg/day, intraperitoneally) or vehicle for the following 6 weeks. Blood pressures (BP) were recorded at...

  17. Downregulation of adenosine and P2X receptor-mediated cardiovascular responses in heart failure rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Xin; Sun, X Y; Erlinge, D;

    2000-01-01

    Neurohormonal changes in congestive heart failure (CHF) include an enhanced peripheral sympathetic nerve activity which results in increased release of noradrenaline, neuropeptide Y and ATP. To examine if such changes in CHF would modulate peripheral pre- and postsynaptic receptors of ATP and its...... effects mediated by the endothelial P2Y receptors are unaffected in CHF. Moreover, the adenosine-mediated inhibitory effects on heart rate and blood pressure were also attenuated in the CHF rats. The most important changes in adenosine and P2-receptor function induced by ischaemic CHF were the reduced...... pressor effect mediated by the P2X receptor and the increased heart rate due to an attenuated inhibitory effect of adenosine....

  18. Cardiovascular oscillations at the bedside: early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis using heart rate characteristics monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have applied principles of statistical signal processing and nonlinear dynamics to analyze heart rate time series from premature newborn infants in order to assist in the early diagnosis of sepsis, a common and potentially deadly bacterial infection of the bloodstream. We began with the observation of reduced variability and transient decelerations in heart rate interval time series for hours up to days prior to clinical signs of illness. We find that measurements of standard deviation, sample asymmetry and sample entropy are highly related to imminent clinical illness. We developed multivariable statistical predictive models, and an interface to display the real-time results to clinicians. Using this approach, we have observed numerous cases in which incipient neonatal sepsis was diagnosed and treated without any clinical illness at all. This review focuses on the mathematical and statistical time series approaches used to detect these abnormal heart rate characteristics and present predictive monitoring information to the clinician

  19. DJ-1 protects the heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury by regulating mitochondrial fission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yuuki; Lambert, Jonathan P; Nicholson, Chad K; Kim, Joshua J; Wolfson, David W; Cho, Hee Cheol; Husain, Ahsan; Naqvi, Nawazish; Chin, Li-Shen; Li, Lian; Calvert, John W

    2016-08-01

    Recent data indicates that DJ-1 plays a role in the cellular response to stress. Here, we aimed to examine the underlying molecular mechanisms mediating the actions of DJ-1 in the heart following myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. In response to I/R injury, DJ-1 KO mice displayed increased areas of infarction and worsened left ventricular function when compared to WT mice, confirming a protective role for DJ-1 in the heart. In an effort to evaluate the potential mechanism(s) responsible for the increased injury in DJ-1 KO mice, we focused on SUMOylation, a post-translational modification process that regulates various aspects of protein function. DJ-1 KO hearts after I/R injury were found to display enhanced accumulation of SUMO-1 modified proteins and reduced SUMO-2/3 modified proteins. Further analysis, revealed that the protein expression of the de-SUMOylation enzyme SENP1 was reduced, whereas the expression of SENP5 was enhanced in DJ-1 KO hearts after I/R injury. Finally, DJ-1 KO hearts were found to display enhanced SUMO-1 modification of dynamin-related protein 1, excessive mitochondrial fission, and dysfunctional mitochondria. Our data demonstrates that the activation of DJ-1 in response to myocardial I/R injury protects the heart by regulating the SUMOylation status of Drp1 and attenuating excessive mitochondrial fission. PMID:27108530

  20. Sirtuin 6 protects the heart from hypoxic damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksin-Matveev, Anna; Kanfi, Yariv [The Mina and Everard Goodman, Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan 52900 (Israel); Hochhauser, Edith [The Laboratory of the Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Felsenstein Medical Research Center, Rabin Medical Center, Petach Tikva (Israel); Isak, Ahuva; Cohen, Haim Y. [The Mina and Everard Goodman, Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan 52900 (Israel); Shainberg, Asher, E-mail: asher.shainberg@gmail.com [The Mina and Everard Goodman, Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan 52900 (Israel)

    2015-01-01

    Sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) is a protein associated with prolonged life expectancy. We investigated whether life extension is associated with cardioprotection against hypoxia. The proposed study is to develop approaches to reduce hypoxic damage through the use of the sirtuin pathway and to elucidate the mechanism involved. For that purpose we subjected cardiomyocytes from transgenic mice (TG) with over-expression of SIRT6, to hypoxic stress in cell cultures. We hypothesized that cardiomyocytes from transgenic mice subjected to prolonged hypoxia may release survival factors or fewer damage markers to protect them from hypoxic stress compared with wild type (WT) mice. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) released to the medium and propidium iodide (PI) binding, were markedly decreased following hypoxia in TG cardiomyocytes. The protective mechanism of SIRT6 over-expression includes the activation of pAMPKα pathway, the increased protein level of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2), the inhibition of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB), the decrease of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the reduction in the protein level of phospho-protein kinase B (pAkt) during hypoxia. Together, all these processes impede the necrosis/apoptosis pathways leading to the improved survival of cardiomyocytes following hypoxia, which might explain life extension. - Highlights: • Sirtuin 6 is a protein associated with prolonged life expectancy. • Over-expression of sirtuin 6 protects cardiocytes from hypoxia and oxidative stress. • Over-expression of sirtuin 6 activates the pAMPKα pathway and the Bcl2 expression. • Over-expression of sirtuin 6 decreases ROS formation and pAkt level during hypoxia. • These pathways protect cardiocytes from hypoxia and might explain lifespan extension.

  1. An Update on the Utility of Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring for Coronary Heart Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kianoush, Sina; Al Rifai, Mahmoud; Cainzos-Achirica, Miguel; Umapathi, Priya; Graham, Garth; Blumenthal, Roger S; Nasir, Khurram; Blaha, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    Estimating cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is necessary for determining the potential net benefit of primary prevention pharmacotherapy. Risk estimation relying exclusively on traditional CVD risk factors may misclassify risk, resulting in both undertreatment and overtreatment. Coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring personalizes risk prediction through direct visualization of calcified coronary atherosclerotic plaques and provides improved accuracy for coronary heart disease (CHD) or CVD risk estimation. In this review, we discuss the most recent studies on CAC, which unlike historical studies, focus sharply on clinical application. We describe the MESA CHD risk calculator, a recently developed CAC-based 10-year CHD risk estimator, which can help guide preventive therapy allocation by better identifying both high- and low-risk individuals. In closing, we discuss calcium density, regional distribution of CAC, and extra-coronary calcification, which represent the future of CAC and CVD risk assessment research and may lead to further improvements in risk prediction.

  2. Resting heart rate and risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes in asymptomatic aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Anders M; Bang, Casper N; Berg, Ronan M G;

    2015-01-01

    ) study of asymptomatic mild-to-moderate AS patients. Primary endpoint in this substudy was major cardiovascular events (MCEs) and secondary outcomes its individual components. Multivariable Cox-models using serially-measured RHR were used to examine the prognostic impact of RHR per se. RESULTS: 1563...... mortality (HR 1.3 per 10min(-1) faster, 95% CI: 1.0-1.7, both p≤0.03). Updating RHR with annual in-study reexaminations, time-varying RHR was highly associated with excess MCEs (HR 1.1 per 10min(-1) faster, 95% CI: 1.1-1.3) and cardiovascular mortality (HR 1.4 per 10min(-1) faster, 95% CI: 1.2-1.7, both p≤0...

  3. Calmodulin kinase II inhibition protects against structural heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Khoo, Michelle S C; Wu, Yuejin; Yang, Yingbo; Grueter, Chad E; Ni, Gemin; Price, Edward E; Thiel, William; Guatimosim, Silvia; Song, Long-Sheng; Madu, Ernest C; Shah, Anisha N; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Atkinson, James B; Gurevich, Vsevolod V; Salama, Guy; Lederer, W J; Colbran, Roger J; Anderson, Mark E

    2005-04-01

    Beta-adrenergic receptor (betaAR) stimulation increases cytosolic Ca(2+) to physiologically augment cardiac contraction, whereas excessive betaAR activation causes adverse cardiac remodeling, including myocardial hypertrophy, dilation and dysfunction, in individuals with myocardial infarction. The Ca(2+)-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a recently identified downstream element of the betaAR-initiated signaling cascade that is linked to pathological myocardial remodeling and to regulation of key proteins involved in cardiac excitation-contraction coupling. We developed a genetic mouse model of cardiac CaMKII inhibition to test the role of CaMKII in betaAR signaling in vivo. Here we show CaMKII inhibition substantially prevented maladaptive remodeling from excessive betaAR stimulation and myocardial infarction, and induced balanced changes in excitation-contraction coupling that preserved baseline and betaAR-stimulated physiological increases in cardiac function. These findings mark CaMKII as a determinant of clinically important heart disease phenotypes, and suggest CaMKII inhibition can be a highly selective approach for targeting adverse myocardial remodeling linked to betaAR signaling.

  4. GH and the cardiovascular system: an update on a topic at heart

    OpenAIRE

    Isgaard, Jörgen; Arcopinto, Michele; Karason, Kristjan; Cittadini, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    In this review, the importance of growth hormone (GH) for the maintenance of normal cardiac function in adult life is discussed. Physiological effects of GH and underlying mechanisms for interactions between GH and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and the cardiovascular system are covered as well as the cardiac dysfunction caused both by GH excess (acromegaly) and by GH deficiency in adult hypopituitary patients. In both acromegaly and adult GH deficiency, there is also increased cardiova...

  5. The Lightning Heart: A Case Report and Brief Review of the Cardiovascular Complications of Lightning Injury

    OpenAIRE

    McIntyre, William F; Simpson, Christopher S.; Redfearn, Damian P; Abdollah, Hoshiar; Baranchuk, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Lightning strike is a rare natural phenomenon, which carries a risk of dramatic medical complications to multiple organ systems and a high risk of fatality. The known complications include but are not limited to: myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, cardiac contusion, stroke, cutaneous burns, respiratory disorders, neurological disorders, acute kidney injury and death. We report a case of a healthy young man who suffered a lightning injury and discuss the cardiovascular complications of lightni...

  6. A summary of the update on cardiovascular implantable electronic device infections and their management A scientific statement from the American Heart Association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baddour, Larry M.; Epstein, Andrew E.; Erickson, Christopher C.; Knight, Bradley P.; Levison, Matthew E.; Lockhart, Peter B.; Masoudi, Frederick A.; Okum, Eric J.; Wilson, Walter R.; Beerman, Lee B.; Bolger, Ann F.; Estes, N. A. Mark; Gewitz, Michael; Newburger, Jane W.; Schron, Eleanor B.; Taubert, Kathryn A.

    2011-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this statement is to update the recommendations by the American Heart Association (AHA) for cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) infections and their management, which were last published in 2003. Methods and Results. The AHA commissioned this scientific sta

  7. Vital exhaustion and cardiovascular prognosis in myocardial infarction and heart failure : predictive power of different trajectories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, O. R. F.; Kupper, N.; Denollet, J.; de Jonge, P.

    2011-01-01

    Background. We examined the different trajectories of vital exhaustion (VE) over a 12-month period and their impact on prognosis in a sample of myocardial infarction (MI) and chronic heart failure (CHF) patients. Method. Consecutive MI (n = 407) and CHF patients (n = 297) were assessed at baseline,

  8. Heart and Brain Tissue Banks for Research on Co-Occurring Cardiovascular and Neurological/Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milos D. Ikonomovic

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies point to a strong and possibly causal association of psychiatric and neurological disorders with cardiovascular disease (CVD. Mechanistic links between these co-occurring illnesses are not well understood. Better insight into their relationship could help identify novel diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets. For successful translation of basic biomedical research into clinical practice, analyses of postmortem human tissues are essential. However, current tissue banks dedicated to psychiatric and neurological research collect only brain tissue samples deemed most important to the institution's participating investigators. While this practice is often dictated by budget constraints, restricted tissue storage space and other practical reasons, it limits the ability of the biological research community to access and study multiple organ systems relevant to cardiovascular and neuronal systems dysfunction. This problem is worsened when clinical records pertaining to coexistent systemic pathology are not available. To promote further understanding of co-occurring CVD and psychiatric/neurological disorders, efforts should be made to support tissue banks that harvest heart, coronary arteries, and aorta samples as well as brain tissue, from the same subjects.

  9. Six-month changes in ideal cardiovascular health vs. Framingham 10-year coronary heart disease risk among young adults enrolled in a weight loss intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Bethany Barone; King, Wendy C; Belle, Steven H; Jakicic, John M

    2016-05-01

    The Framingham Risk equation uses sex, age, smoking, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and systolic blood pressure to predict 10-year risk of coronary heart disease (FR-10). The American Heart Association's Ideal Cardiovascular Health (IDEAL) score uses smoking, total cholesterol, fasting glucose, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), diet, and physical activity to encourage a healthy cardiovascular phenotype. This study aimed to compare 6-month changes in the FR-10 vs. IDEAL score among young adults with BMI ≥25 to smoking or diet (both p≥0.05). FR-10 was young adults with overweight or obesity enrolled in a weight loss intervention, IDEAL detected positive changes in a majority of participants while the FR-10 did not. These findings suggest that IDEAL score may be more sensitive to positive cardiovascular health changes resulting from a behavioral intervention in this population. PMID:26923555

  10. Development of a hospital-based cardiovascular risk factor reduction program for the community: Beyond Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipon, K R; Carlson, L R

    1994-01-01

    The current and future trend of the health care delivery system is prevention and health promotion. Long-term viability of hospitals depends on meeting community health education needs. With heart disease as the leading cause of death among adults nationwide, hospitals have an opportunity to offer appropriate lifestyle theory and guidance beyond conventional medical and interventional practices. Sequoia Hospital in Redwood City is one of the first hospitals in Northern California to develop a comprehensive outpatient program to complement its world renowned cardiovascular services. This paper details the Beyond Heart Disease (BHD) program designed by nurses. The goal of this program is to effectively help people reduce their risk of coronary events via successful long-term risk factor interventions. BHD, a unique medical and business venture, spans a six-week period. Group members meet in the evening for two hours, twice a week. The program includes lipid testing, a complete program syllabus, didactic lectures, small group discussion, support and goal-setting, nutritional analysis, and experiential stress reduction sessions.

  11. Trust Your Gut: Galvanizing Nutritional Interest in Intestinal Cholesterol Metabolism for Protection Against Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyoung Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated that the intestine is a key target organ for overall health and longevity. Complementing these studies is the discovery of the trans-intestinal cholesterol efflux pathway and the emerging role of the intestine in reverse cholesterol transport. The surfacing dynamics of the regulation of cholesterol metabolism in the intestine provides an attractive platform for intestine-specific nutritional intervention strategies to lower blood cholesterol levels for protection against cardiovascular diseases. Notably, there is mounting evidence that stimulation of pathways associated with calorie restriction may have a large effect on the regulation of cholesterol removal by the intestine. However, intestinal energy metabolism, specifically the idiosyncrasies surrounding intestinal responses to energy deprivation, is poorly understood. The goal of this paper is to review recent insights into cholesterol regulation by the intestine and to discuss the potential for positive regulation of intestine-driven cholesterol removal through the nutritional induction of pathways associated with calorie restriction.

  12. Eponymous cardiovascular surgeries for congenital heart diseases--imaging review and historical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buethe, Ji; Ashwath, Ravi C; Rajiah, Prabhakar

    2015-01-01

    Advances in pediatric cardiology and cardiac surgical techniques over the past few decades have revolutionized the management of the patients with congenital heart disease, and many now survive into adulthood. Several eponymous surgical procedures performed for congenital heart disease have been named after eminent surgeons. In this article, we provide a short biography of the surgeons associated with these eponymous surgical procedures along with their other important scientific contributions. This is followed by a review of these surgical procedures and their most common complications. Imaging appearances of these surgical procedures along with common complications are described and illustrated, with particular emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging. The surgical procedures described in this review include Blalock-Taussig, Potts, Waterston, Glenn, Fontan, Kawashima, Norwood, Sano, Damus-Kaye-Stansel, Mustard, Senning, Jatene, LeCompte, Rastelli, Rashkind, Ross, and Waldenhausen.

  13. Lifestyle, Cardiovascular Drugs and Risk Factors in Younger and Elder Adults: The PEP Family Heart Study

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Schwandt; Evelyn Liepold; Thomas Bertsch; Gerda-Maria Haas

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to compare cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, lifestyle habits and pharmacological treatment in two groups of elder adults with 20 years difference in their mean age. Methods: This study comprised 590 women including two groups with mean age of 42.4±5.5 vs. 66.5±4.0 years, and 486 men of two groups with mean age of 44.1±5.6 vs. 63.9±7.0 years. Data on physical examination, fasting blood analyses, 7-day dietary re-cords, physical activity, smoking and a...

  14. HEART RATE VARIABILITY AS THE ADAPTATION RESERVE INDICATOR OF CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Aksana Kotava; Vasily Senko; Ruslan Shishko; Wiesław Pilis; Michał Zych; Cezary Michalski; Jacek Buchta

    2014-01-01

    Background: The efectiveness of the vegetative regulation action might be controlled by the method of heart rate variability (HRV), which has been very popularly used over the last 10 years worldwide. The analysis of many clinical studies indicates that the severity of the disease might be controlled using the method of HRV. Material and methods: All the experimental and controlled group participants, which consisted of healthy students with none sports experience, underwent the examinatio...

  15. Role of neuregulin-1/ErbB signaling in cardiovascular physiology and disease: implications for therapy of heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, Katrien; Doggen, Kris; De Keulenaer, Gilles W

    2007-08-21

    Since the discovery that neuregulin-1 (NRG-1)/ErbB signaling is indispensable in cardiac development, evidence has shown that this system also plays a crucial role in the adult heart. In patients, an inhibitory ErbB2 antibody, trastuzumab, used in the treatment of mammary carcinomas, increases the risk for the development of cardiotoxic cardiomyopathy. Postnatal disruption of NRG-1/ErbB signaling by gene targeting in mice leads to dilated cardiomyopathy. Initially, the search for the mechanisms behind these observations focused mainly on the effects of NRG-1 on cardiomyocyte growth and survival and revealed that NRG-1 has Akt-dependent antiapoptotic effects in cultured cardiomyocytes. In vivo studies, however, did not uniformly reinforce a role for apoptosis in the development of cardiomyopathy induced by impaired NRG-1/ErbB signaling. More recent studies have revealed that NRG-1 is involved in the regulation of cardiac sympathovagal balances by counterbalancing adrenergic stimulation of the adult myocardium and through an obligatory interaction with the muscarinic cholinergic system. NRG-1 is synthesized and released by the endocardial and cardiac microvascular endothelium, dynamically controlled by neurohormonal and biomechanical stimuli. The physiology of the cardiac NRG-1/ErbB system has implications for the treatment of both cancer and heart failure. Clinical studies in breast cancer with novel ErbB inhibitors are currently underway. Novel oncological indications for ErbB inhibition are emerging; cardiovascular side effects need to be carefully monitored. On the other hand, pharmacological activation of ErbB signaling is likely an unrecognized and beneficial effect of currently used drugs in heart failure and a promising therapeutic approach to prevent or reverse myocardial dysfunction.

  16. Rationale and design of the Leipzig (LIFE Heart Study: phenotyping and cardiovascular characteristics of patients with coronary artery disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Beutner

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We established the Leipzig (LIFE Heart Study, a biobank and database of patients with different stages of coronary artery disease (CAD for studies of clinical, metabolic, cellular and genetic factors of cardiovascular diseases. DESIGN: The Leipzig (LIFE Heart Study (NCT00497887 is an ongoing observational angiographic study including subjects with different entities of CAD. Cohort 1, patients undergoing first-time diagnostic coronary angiography due to suspected stable CAD with previously untreated coronary arteries. Cohort 2, patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI requiring percutaneous revascularization. Cohort 3, patients with known left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD. RESULTS: We present preliminary results of demographics and phenotyping based on a 4-years analysis of a total of 3,165 subjects. Cohort 1 (n=2,274 shows the typical distribution of elective coronary angiography cohorts with 43% cases with obstructive CAD and 37% normal angiograms. Cohorts 2 and 3 consist of 590 and 301 subjects, respectively, adding patients with severe forms of CAD. The suitability of the database and biobank to perform association studies was confirmed by replication of the CAD susceptibility locus on chromosome 9p21 (OR per allele: 1.55 (any CAD, 1.54 (MI, 1.74 (LMCAD, p<10(-6, respectively. A novel finding was that patients with LMCAD had a stronger association with 9p21 than patients with obstructive CAD without LMCAD (OR 1.22, p=0.042. In contrast, 9p21 did not associate with myocardial infarction in excess of stable CAD. CONCLUSION: The Leipzig (LIFE Heart Study provides a basis to identify molecular targets related to atherogenesis and associated metabolic disorders. The study may contribute to an improvement of individual prediction, prevention, and treatment of CAD.

  17. Multi-constituent cardiovascular pills (MCCP)--challenges and promises of population-based prophylactic drug therapy for prevention of heart attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Michael J; Naghavi, Morteza

    2007-01-01

    Risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) are highly co-prevalent but poorly identified and treated. The Screening for Heart Attack Prevention and Education (SHAPE) Task Force from the Association for Eradication of Heart Attack (AEHA) has recently proposed a new strategy that recommends screening for subclinical atherosclerosis and implementing aggressive treatment of "vulnerable patients". The Task Force has also envisioned future developments that may shift mass screening strategies to mass prophylactic therapy. The "Polypill" concept, introduced by Wald and Law suggests a combination of statin, low-dose antihypertensives, aspirin and folic acid, in a single pill, taken prophylactically by high risk population can cut CVD event rates by as much as 80%. In this communication, we review the challenges and promises of such a strategy. "Polypill" is but one of an astronomical number of possible multiconstituent pills (MCCP). Attractive as the MCCP concept is, it lacks evidence from randomized controlled trials, and begs numerous questions about the credibility of the concept, the design and synthesis of such complex pills, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, bioequivalence, "class" vs. unique properties, interactions, evidence of clinical efficacy and safety, regulatory approval, post-marketing surveillance, prescription vs. over-the-counter use, responsibility for initiating and monitoring therapy, patient education, counterfeiting and importation, reimbursement, advertisement, patent protection, commercial viability, etc. If these issues are favorably addressed, MCCP stand to dramatically change the manner in which CVD is prevented particularly in developing societies. Notwithstanding, assuming low commercial interests, realizing the promises of MCCP will demand serious attention from national public health policymakers. The clinical and regulatory implications of population-based secondary prevention (which rely on a different evidence base

  18. Protective role of Kalpaamruthaa in type II diabetes mellitus-induced cardiovascular disease through the modulation of protease-activated receptor-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Latha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kalpaamruthaa (KA is a formulatory herbal preparation has beneficial antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties against cardiovascular damage (CVD. Objective: The present study was undertaken to investigate the protective role of KA in type II diabetes mellitus-induced CVD through the modulation of protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1. Materials and Methods: CVD was developed in 8 weeks after type II diabetes mellitus induction with high fat diet (2 weeks and low dose of streptozotocin (2 × 35 mg/kg b.w. i.p. in 24 h interval. CVD-induced rats treated with KA (200 mg/kg b.w. in 0.5 ml of olive oil orally for 4 weeks. Results: KA increased the activities of enzymatic antioxidants and the levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants in pancreas of CVD-induced rats. KA effectively reduced the lipid peroxides and carbonyl content in the pancreas of CVD-induced rats. KA reduced cellular damage by ameliorating the activities of marker enzymes in plasma, heart and liver. The protective nature of KA was further evidenced by histological observation in pancreas. Further, KA reduced CVD by decreasing the expression of PAR1 in heart. Conclusion: This study exhibits the defending role of KA in type II diabetes mellitus-induced CVD through altering PAR1.

  19. Mechanisms of oxidative stress and myocardial protection during open-heart surgery

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    Nikolaos G Baikoussis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cold heart protection via cardioplegia administration, limits the amount of oxygen demand. Systemic normothermia with warm cardioplegia was introduced due to the abundance of detrimental effects of hypothermia. A temperature of 32-33°C in combination with tepid blood cardioplegia of the same temperature appears to be protective enough for both; heart and brain. Reduction of nitric oxide (NO concentration is in part responsible for myocardial injury after the cardioplegic cardiac arrest. Restoration of NO balance with exogenous NO supplementation has been shown useful to prevent inflammation and apoptosis. In this article, we discuss the "deleterious" effects of the oxidative stress of the extracorporeal circulation and the up-to-date theories of "ideal′′ myocardial protection.

  20. The male heart and the female mind: a study in the gendering of antidepressants and cardiovascular drugs in advertisements in Irish medical publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Phillip; O'Brien, Marita

    2006-04-01

    Stereotypes which suggest that cardiovascular disease and depression are related to gender can have consequences for the mental and physical health outcomes of both men and women. This study examines how these stereotypes may be reinforced by medical publications advertising for cardiovascular and antidepressant medication. A random sample of 61 (with no repeats) advertisements which appeared in Irish medical publications between July 2001 and December 2002 were analysed using both content and semiotic analysis. Results indicate that the meanings created by advertisers for cardiovascular drugs and antidepressants did in fact gender these products. Women were depicted as the predominant users of antidepressants and men as the main users of cardiovascular drugs. The images used identified two stereotyped patients: the 'male' heart patient and the depressed 'female' patient. Furthermore, the imagery and language used to promote the two categories of medication tended to strengthen gendered associations. PMID:16214280

  1. Origin of heart rate variability and turbulence: an appraisal of autonomic modulation of cardiovascular function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico eLombardi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of autonomic modulation of sinus node by non-invasive techniques has provided relevant clinical information in patients with several cardiac and non-cardiac diseases and has facilitated the appraisal of neural regulatory mechanisms in normal and diseased subjects. The finding that even during resting conditions the heart period changes on a beat to beat basis and that after a premature ventricular beat there are small variations in RR interval whose measurements may be utilised to evaluate the autonomic modulation of sinus node, has provided unprecedented clinical and pathophysiological information. Heart rate variability (HRV and Heart Rate Turbulence (HRT have been extensively utilised in the clinical setting. To explain the negative predictive value of a reduced HRV it was determined that overall HRV was largely dependent on vagal mechanisms and that a reduction in HRV could reflect an increased sympathetic and a reduced vagal modulation of sinus node; i.e. an autonomic alteration favouring cardiac electrical instability. This initial interpretation was challenged by several findings indicating a greater complexity of the relationship between neural input and sinus node responsiveness as well as the possible interference with non-neural mechanisms.Under controlled conditions, however, the computation of low and high frequency components and of their ratio seems capable of providing adequate information on sympatho-vagal balance in normal subjects as well as in most patients with a preserved left ventricular function, thus providing a unique tool to investigate neural control mechanisms. Analysis on non-linear dynamics of HRV has also been utilised to describe the fractal like characteristic of the variability signal and proven effective to identify patients at risk for sudden cardiac death. A reduction on HRT parameters reflecting reduced baroreflex sensitivity as a likely result of a reduced vagal and of an increased sympathetic

  2. Needle Migration to the Heart: An Unusual Association of Hemodialysis and Cardiovascular Morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honikman, Rafael; Chikwe, Joanna; Tokita, Joji Erik; Mittnacht, Alexander J C

    2015-10-15

    In this report, we present a unique complication of hemodialysis: the hemodialysis access needle was lost into an arteriovenous fistula. The event went unnoticed for several months. The needle eventually migrated into the right ventricle, requiring an operative retrieval. Loss of the needle was likely unrecognized because of the use of a retracting safety cannula that conceals the needle within a sheath after removal. This case highlights a rare and potentially serious complication of hemodialysis access, demonstrates a possible hazard of retracting safety needles, and reviews the management of foreign bodies that have migrated into the heart.

  3. Cardiovascular Aspects of Space Shuttle Flights: At the Heart of Three Decades of American Spaceflight Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John B.; Platts, S. H.

    2011-01-01

    The advent of the Space Shuttle era elevated cardiovascular deconditioning from a research topic in gravitational physiology to a concern with operational consequences during critical space mission phases. NASA has identified three primary cardiovascular risks associate with short-duration (less than 18 d) spaceflight: orthostatic intolerance; decreased maximal oxygen uptake; and cardiac arrhythmias. Orthostatic hypotension (OH) was observed postflight in Mercury astronauts, studied in Gemini and Apollo astronauts, and tracked as it developed in-flight during Skylab missions. A putative hypotensive episode in the pilot during an early shuttle landing, and well documented postflight hypotension in a quarter of crewmembers, catalyzed NASA's research effort to understand its mechanisms and develop countermeasures. Shuttle investigations documented the onset of OH, tested mechanistic hypotheses, and demonstrated countermeasures both simple and complex. Similarly, decreased aerobic capacity in-flight threatened both extravehicular activity and post-landing emergency egress. In one study, peak oxygen uptake and peak power were significantly decreased following flights. Other studies tested hardware and protocols for aerobic conditioning that undergird both current practice on long-duration International Space Station (ISS) missions and plans for interplanetary expeditions. Finally, several studies suggest that cardiac arrhythmias are of less concern during short-duration spaceflight than during long-duration spaceflight. Duration of the QT interval was unchanged and the frequency of premature atrial and ventricular contractions was actually shown to decrease during extravehicular activity. These investigations on short-duration Shuttle flights have paved the way for research aboard long-duration ISS missions and beyond. Efforts are already underway to study the effects of exploration class missions to asteroids and Mars.

  4. Improved cardiac protection with Sabax cardioplegia in Langendorff isolated rat hearts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perian M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cardioplegia is an important step to facilitate cardiac surgery while limiting intraoperative myocardial injury. Although recent advances in cardioplegic arrest methods have significantly contributed to better postoperative outcomes, there is still controversy regarding the optimal composition and temperature of the cardioplegic solution. Accordingly, we aimed to assess whether cold or lukewarm Sabax cardioplegia offer improved myocardial protection compared with the classical Krebs-Henseleit solution. Methods: The hearts of 40 male Wistar rats were isolated and submitted to constant-flow retrograde perfusion using a Langendorff perfusion apparatus. The hearts were randomly assigned to cold Krebs-Henseleit (K-H, cold Sabax, or lukewarm Sabax cardioplegia. The ECG, heart rates, and left ventricular systolic pressures (LVSP were recorded pre- and post-cardioplegia. The time needed for cardioplegia induction and post-cardioplegia recovery were also noted. Results: Both cold and lukewarm Sabax cardioplegia insured faster induction and faster recovery following isothermic reperfusion compared to the standard K-H solution (both p< 0.01. With K-H cardioplegia, the hearts presented a 21.7% force loss after reperfusion (p< 0.001, whilst Sabax cardioplegia was associated with a slight increase in ventricular mechanical activity (3% LVSP increase with lukewarm Sabax cardioplegia, p< 0.001 and 2% LVSP increase with cold Sabax cardioplegia, p = 0.02. With Sabax cardioplegia the hearts displayed considerably less major arrhythmic events and presented less significant bradycardia. Conclusions: The present data suggest that Sabax cardioplegia may be superior to the classical cold crystalloid K-H solution in preserving mechanical activity of the heart and may provide superior protection against major arrhythmias.

  5. Depression, comorbid anxiety disorders, and heart rate variability in physically healthy, unmedicated patients: implications for cardiovascular risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew H Kemp

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: There is evidence that heart rate variability (HRV is reduced in major depressive disorder (MDD, although there is debate about whether this effect is caused by medication or the disorder per se. MDD is associated with a two to fourfold increase in the risk of cardiac mortality, and HRV is a robust predictor of cardiac mortality; determining a direct link between HRV and not only MDD, but common comorbid anxiety disorders, will point to psychiatric indicators for cardiovascular risk reduction. OBJECTIVE: To determine in physically healthy, unmedicated patients whether (1 HRV is reduced in MDD relative to controls, and (2 HRV reductions are driven by MDD alone, comorbid generalized anxiety disorder (GAD, characterized by anxious anticipation, or comorbid panic and posttraumatic stress disorders (PD/PTSD, characterized by anxious arousal. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: A case-control study in 2006 and 2007 on 73 MDD patients, including 24 without anxiety comorbidity, 24 with GAD, and 14 with PD/PTSD. Seventy-three MDD and 94 healthy age- and sex-matched control participants were recruited from the general community. Participants had no history of drug addiction, alcoholism, brain injury, loss of consciousness, stroke, neurological disorder, or serious medical conditions. There were no significant differences between the four groups in age, gender, BMI, or alcohol use. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: HRV was calculated from electrocardiography under a standardized short-term resting state condition. RESULTS: HRV was reduced in MDD relative to controls, an effect associated with a medium effect size. MDD participants with comorbid generalized anxiety disorder displayed the greatest reductions in HRV relative to controls, an effect associated with a large effect size. CONCLUSIONS: Unmedicated, physically healthy MDD patients with and without comorbid anxiety had reduced HRV. Those with comorbid GAD showed the greatest reductions. Implications for

  6. Evolution of cardiovascular risk factors and ischemic heart disease in an elderly urban Romanian population over the course of 1 year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop D

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Dana Pop, Alexandra Dădârlat, Mihnea Zdrenghea, Dumitru Tudor Zdrenghea, Adela Viviana Sitar-Taăut Faculty of Medicine, Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania Background: Romania has some of the highest mortality figures in the world attributable to ischemic heart disease and stroke among both men and women. Objectives: To assess the changes in cardiovascular risk factors and ischemic heart disease in a group of subjects over 65 years of age during 1 year in an urban community of Romania. Materials and methods: We studied 515 subjects (264 women and 251 men with a mean age of 73.41±6.44 years, followed up over the course of 1 year in order to determine the changes that occurred in cardiovascular risk factors and in the evolution of ischemic heart disease. At the beginning and after 1 year, we determined the following parameters: anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, smoking status, lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipid cholesterol, low-density lipid cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose, and the presence of ischemic heart disease. Results: There were no differences between the first and second assessments concerning the incidence of smoking (12.3% versus (vs 12.5%, obesity (25% vs 26%, diabetes mellitus (19% vs 22.9%, or hypertension (88.2% vs 92.2%. Statistically significant differences were recorded regarding dyslipidemia (40.6% vs 30.3%, P<0.001. Cholesterol median values decreased (204 mg/dL vs 194 mg/dL, P=0.003, while median concentrations of plasma glucose increased (101 mg/dL vs 105 mg/dL, P<0.05. At the same time, we noted a higher incidence of ischemic heart disease (51.65% vs 63%. Conclusion: Our data show that in subjects over 65 years of age, cardiovascular disease occurs more often in women, but with certain features that should be taken into account. In addition, we point out the importance of reducing cardiovascular risk factors. However, we should not

  7. Central and peripheral testosterone effects in men with heart failure: An approach for cardiovascular research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ?eljko; Bu?i?; Viktor; ?uli?

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure(HF) is a syndrome recognized as a health problem worldwide. Despite advances in treatment, patients with HF still have increased morbidity and mortality. Testosterone is one of the most researched hormones in the course of HF. Growing interest regarding the effect of testosterone, on a variety of body systems, has increased the knowledge about its mechanisms of action. The terms central and peripheral effects are used to distinguish the effects of testosterone on cardiac and extracardiac structures. Central effects include influences on cardiomyocytes and electrophysiology. Peripheral effects include influences on blood vessels, baroreceptor reactivity, skeletal muscles and erythropoesis. Current knowledge about peripheral effects of testosterone may explain much about beneficiary effects in the pathophysiology of HF syndrome. However, central, i.e., cardiac effects of testosterone are to be further explored.

  8. Urotensin II in cardiovascular regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser D Russell

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Fraser D RussellSchool of Health and Sport Sciences, Faculty of Science, Health and Education, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, Queensland, AustraliaAbstract: Cardiovascular function is modulated by neuronal transmitters, circulating hormones, and factors that are released locally from tissues. Urotensin II (UII is an 11 amino acid peptide that stimulates its’ obligatory G protein coupled urotensin II receptors (UT to modulate cardiovascular function in humans and in other animal species, and has been implicated in both vasculoprotective and vasculopathic effects. For example, tissue and circulating concentrations of UII have been reported to increase in some studies involving patients with atherosclerosis, heart failure, hypertension, preeclampsia, diabetes, renal disease and liver disease, raising the possibility that the UT receptor system is involved in the development and/or progression of these conditions. Consistent with this hypothesis, administration of UT receptor antagonists to animal models of cardiovascular disease have revealed improvements in cardiovascular remodelling and hemodynamics. However, recent studies have questioned this contributory role of UII in disease, and have instead postulated a protective effect on the cardiovascular system. For example, high concentrations of circulating UII correlated with improved clinical outcomes in patients with renal disease or myocardial infarction. The purpose of this review is to consider the regulation of the cardiovascular system by UII, giving consideration to methodologies for measurement of plasma concentrations, sites of synthesis and triggers for release.Keywords: urotensin II, cardiovascular disease, heart failure, hypertension

  9. Urotensin II in cardiovascular regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser D Russell

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Fraser D RussellSchool of Health and Sport Sciences, Faculty of Science, Health and Education, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, Queensland, AustraliaAbstract: Cardiovascular function is modulated by neuronal transmitters, circulating hormones, and factors that are released locally from tissues. Urotensin II (UII is an 11 amino acid peptide that stimulates its’ obligatory G protein coupled urotensin II receptors (UT to modulate cardiovascular function in humans and in other animal species, and has been implicated in both vasculoprotective and vasculopathic effects. For example, tissue and circulating concentrations of UII have been reported to increase in some studies involving patients with atherosclerosis, heart failure, hypertension, preeclampsia, diabetes, renal disease and liver disease, raising the possibility that the UT receptor system is involved in the development and/or progression of these conditions. Consistent with this hypothesis, administration of UT receptor antagonists to animal models of cardiovascular disease have revealed improvements in cardiovascular remodelling and hemodynamics. However, recent studies have questioned this contributory role of UII in disease, and have instead postulated a protective effect on the cardiovascular system. For example, high concentrations of circulating UII correlated with improved clinical outcomes in patients with renal disease or myocardial infarction. The purpose of this review is to consider the regulation of the cardiovascular system by UII, giving consideration to methodologies for measurement of plasma concentrations, sites of synthesis and triggers for release.Keywords: urotensin II, cardiovascular disease, heart failure, hypertension

  10. APPLICATION OF WESTERN BLOTTING TECHNIQUE FOR EVALUATING THE EXPRESSION OF VASOPRESSIN RECEPTORS IN THE HEART CELLS; IMPORTANCE IN THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj G Tyagi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Vasopressin, a posterior pituitary hormone is responsible for water reabsorption by the kidneys and maintenance of cardio-vascular homeostasis. Vasopressin receptors are characterized as VR 1 (V1a, VR2 (V2, and VR3 (V1b. VR1, which is abundant in vascular smooth muscles, causes vasoconstriction by increasing intracellular calcium via the phosphatidylinositol bisphosphonate pathway and a positive inotropic effect in cardiac muscle. VR2 has also been shown to be expressed in the heart. There is emerging role for vasopressin receptors in health and disease. This study describes the application of Western blotting to elucidate the importance of vasopressin receptors in the heart cells.

  11. Lifestyle, Cardiovascular Drugs and Risk Factors in Younger and Elder Adults: The PEP Family Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schwandt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to compare cardiovascular disease(CVD risk factors, lifestyle habits and pharmacological treatmentin two groups of elder adults with 20 years difference in theirmean age.Methods: This study comprised 590 women including two groupswith mean age of 42.4±5.5 vs. 66.5±4.0 years, and 486 men of twogroups with mean age of 44.1±5.6 vs. 63.9±7.0 years. Data onphysical examination, fasting blood analyses, 7-day dietary records,physical activity, smoking and actual medication use wererecorded.Results: Compared with younger individuals, seniors had a moreadverse risk factor profile in terms of abdominal obesity, overweight,hyperglycemia, hypertension, dyslipoproteinemia withoutdifferences in HDL-C. But this is not reflected by lifestyle behavior.Less than 2% of the elderly and 17% of the younger adultswere current smoker. Furthermore, the pattern of physical activitywas different in terms of more continuous sports in seniorscontrasting with extremes between no sports and more than twicea week in the younger group. Seniors consumed significantly lesscarbohydrates including more monosaccharide and less polysaccharides,more alcohol and water. The intake of fat and proteinwas higher in elder women than in all other groups. One third ofseniors took antihypertensive medications and 12% used lipidmodifying drugs.Conclusions: Different levels of prevention against CVDs andtheir risk factors shall be considered for various age groups ofpopulation. The findings of this study emphasize on the necessityof preventive measures against smoking and physical inactivity inyounger adults and dietary habits in seniors.

  12. Lifestyle, cardiovascular drugs and risk factors in younger and elder adults: The PEP family heart study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schwandt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to compare cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors, lifestyle habits and pharmacological treatment in two groups of elder adults with 20 years difference in their mean age. Methods: This study comprised 590 women including two groups with mean age of 42.4±5.5 vs. 66.5±4.0 years, and 486 men of two groups with mean age of 44.1±5.6 vs. 63.9±7.0 years. Data on physical examination, fasting blood analyses, 7-day dietary re-cords, physical activity, smoking and actual medication use were recorded. Results: Compared with younger individuals, seniors had a more adverse risk factor profile in terms of abdominal obesity, over-weight, hyperglycemia, hypertension, dyslipoproteinemia without differences in HDL-C. But this is not reflected by lifestyle behav-ior. Less than 2% of the elderly and 17% of the younger adults were current smoker. Furthermore, the pattern of physical activ-ity was different in terms of more continuous sports in seniors contrasting with extremes between no sports and more than twice a week in the younger group. Seniors consumed significantly less carbohydrates including more monosaccharide and less polysaccharides, more alcohol and water. The intake of fat and protein was higher in elder women than in all other groups. One third of seniors took antihypertensive medications and 12% used lipid modifying drugs. Conclusions: Different levels of prevention against CVDs and their risk factors shall be considered for various age groups of population. The findings of this study emphasize on the necessity of preventive measures against smoking and physical inactivity in younger adults and dietary habits in seniors.

  13. Nutrition and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Four Age Groups of Female Individuals: The PEP Family Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schwandt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Assessment of nutritional habits and associations with cardio-metabolic risk factors in four age groups of women partici-pating in the Prevention Education Program, Family Heart Study.Methods: Anthropometric variables, systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP, DBP, lipoproteins, glucose and insulin were measured in 141 children, 211 adolescents, 151 women 3 times more common in adolescents. Thirty six percent of junior women were overweight (BMI ≥25 kg/m² and 21% had central adiposity obese. Sixty eight year-old women had a far more adverse risk profile than 35 year-old women. In terms of energy consumption, 14 year-old women had the lowest fat intake and the highest consumption of carbohydrates whereas intake of protein was lowest in 10 year-old girls. Intake of unsaturated fat was lower in youths than in adults amounting to 37 g unsaturated fat respectively 53.4% of total fat consumption. The asso-ciation between energy consumption and overweight was significant and calorie intake was associated with clustering of ≥3 cardiovascular risk factors (OR :4.72; 95% CI 1.22-18.33.Conclusions: The prevalence of CVD risk factors increased continuously from girls and adolescents to junior and senior women. However, dietary intake was different in the four age groups. Caloric intake was associated with overweight and clustering of risk factors in adult women.

  14. DETERMINANTS OF PREVENTIVE BEHAVIOR REGARDING CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES AND RISK FACTORS IN PATIENTS WITH ESSENTIAL HYPERTENSION AND CHRONIC ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yu. Platonov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To analyze potential determinants of preventive behavior (PB in patients with essential hypertension (HT and chronic ischemic heart disease (CIHD, and to establish their significance and hierarchy. Material and methods. Patients with HT (n=285 and CIHD (n=223 were studied. Questioning of all patients was performed to assess the characteristics of their PB. Differentiated multivariate analysis of activity and efficacy of PB determinants was performed in HT and CIHD patients by the method of step-by-step backward logistic regression. Results. Awareness of the cardiovascular diseases (CVD and its prevention (odds ratio [OR] 6.08 as well as high level of general education (OR=2.29 were the most significant determinants of active PB in HT patients. Sufficient social support (OR=3.77, awareness of CVD and its prevention (OR=3.16 were the most significant determinants of active PB in patients with CIHD. Efficacy of PB in patients with HT and CIHD mostly depends on satisfaction of medical service (OR=10.2 and 6.63, respectively, social support (OR=6.25 and 10.5, respectively, adequate awareness of CVD and its prevention (OR, 6.92 and 6.64, respectively. Conclusion. PB activity and efficacy in patients with HT and CIHD depends on many contributing and impeding factors. Disregarding these factors can result in failure in preventive efforts at both individual and population levels.

  15. A Novel Closed-Chest Porcine Model of Chronic Ischemic Heart Failure Suitable for Experimental Research in Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac pathologies are among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in industrialized countries, with myocardial infarction (MI representing one of the major conditions leading to heart failure (HF. Hitherto, the development of consistent, stable, and reproducible models of closed-chest MI in large animals, meeting the clinical realism of a patient with HF subsequent to chronic ischemic necrosis, has not been successful. We hereby report the design and ensuing application of a novel porcine experimental model of closed-chest chronic ischemia suitable for biomedical research, mimicking post-MI HF. We also emphasize the key procedural steps involved in replicating this unprecedented model, from femoral artery and vein catheterization to MI induction by permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery through superselective deployment of platinum-nylon coils, as well as endomyocardial biopsy sampling for histologic analysis and cell harvesting. Our model could indeed represent a valuable contribution and tool for translational research, providing precious insights to understand and overcome the many hurdles concerning, and currently quenching, the preclinical steps mandatory for the clinical translation of new cardiovascular technologies for personalized HF treatments.

  16. A Data Mining Approach for Cardiovascular Disease Diagnosis Using Heart Rate Variability and Images of Carotid Arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeongsoo Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we proposed not only an extraction methodology of multiple feature vectors from ultrasound images for carotid arteries (CAs and heart rate variability (HRV of electrocardiogram signal, but also a suitable and reliable prediction model useful in the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease (CVD. For inventing the multiple feature vectors, we extract a candidate feature vector through image processing and measurement of the thickness of carotid intima-media (IMT. As a complementary way, the linear and/or nonlinear feature vectors are also extracted from HRV, a main index for cardiac disorder. The significance of the multiple feature vectors is tested with several machine learning methods, namely Neural Networks, Support Vector Machine (SVM, Classification based on Multiple Association Rule (CMAR, Decision tree induction and Bayesian classifier. As a result, multiple feature vectors extracted from both CAs and HRV (CA+HRV showed higher accuracy than the separative feature vectors of CAs and HRV. Furthermore, the SVM and CMAR showed about 89.51% and 89.46%, respectively, in terms of diagnosing accuracy rate after evaluating the diagnosis or prediction methods using the finally chosen multiple feature vectors. Therefore, the multiple feature vectors devised in this paper can be effective diagnostic indicators of CVD. In addition, the feature vector analysis and prediction techniques are expected to be helpful tools in the decisions of cardiologists.

  17. "Beauty is a light in the heart": the transformative potential of optogenetics for clinical applications in cardiovascular medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Patrick M; Karathanos, Thomas V; Trayanova, Natalia A

    2015-02-01

    Optogenetics is an exciting new technology in which viral gene or cell delivery is used to inscribe light sensitivity in excitable tissue to enable optical control of bioelectric behavior. Initial progress in the fledgling domain of cardiac optogenetics has included in vitro expression of various light-sensitive proteins in cell monolayers and transgenic animals to demonstrate an array of potentially useful applications, including light-based pacing, silencing of spontaneous activity, and spiral wave termination. In parallel to these developments, the cardiac modeling community has developed a versatile computational framework capable of realistically simulating optogenetics in biophysically detailed, patient-specific representations of the human heart, enabling the exploration of potential clinical applications in a predictive virtual platform. Toward the ultimate goal of assessing the feasibility and potential impact of optogenetics-based therapies in cardiovascular medicine, this review provides (1) a detailed synopsis of in vivo, in vitro, and in silico developments in the field and (2) a critical assessment of how existing clinical technology for gene/cell delivery and intra-cardiac illumination could be harnessed to achieve such lofty goals as light-based arrhythmia termination.

  18. HDL-related mechanisms of olive oil protection in cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou-Bonafonte, José M; Fitó, Montse; Covas, María-Isabel; Farràs, Marta; Osada, Jesús

    2012-07-01

    The low incidence of cardiovascular disease in countries bordering the Mediterranean basin, where olive oil is the main source of dietary fat, and the negative association between this disease with high density lipoproteins has stimulated interest. This review summarizes the current knowledge gathered from human and animal studies regarding olive oil and high density lipoproteins. Cumulative evidence suggests that high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and its main apolipoprotein A1, may be increased by consuming olive oil when compared with carbohydrate and low fat diets in humans. Conflicting results have been found in many studies when olive oil diets were compared with other sources of fat. The role of virgin olive oil minor components on its protective effect has been demonstrated by a growing number of studies although its exact mechanism remains to be elucidated. Dietary amount of olive oil, use of virgin olive oil, cholesterol intake, and physiopathological states such as genetic background, sex, age, obesity or fatty liver are variables that may offset those effects. Further studies in this field in humans and in animal models are warranted due to the complexity of HDL particles.

  19. PL 01-1 CARDIOVASCULAR PROTECTION IN HYPERTENSION. WHICH TARGETS FOR TREATMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancia, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    A huge amount of evidence is available that antihypertensive treatment is accompanied by a reduction in the risk of cardiovascular (CV) and renal outcomes as well as that a major portion of the beneficial effect is due to blood pressure (BP) lowering per se, regardless how it is obtained. Despite decades of research, however, information is still not conclusive on which might be the BP values to achieve with treatment in order to maximize CV and renal protection. This presentation will address this issue by reviewing the current target BP values recommended by guidelines in the general and elderly hypertensive population with a description of the related evidence. It will then show the modifications that may be supported by recent meta-analyses of randomized trials as well as by post-hoc analysis of some large scale trials. It will finally focus on the results of the SPRINT trial that much lower BP target may increase the benefits at all ages., thereby challenging the conservative attitude of current guidelines. The point will be made that, although potentially very important the SPRINT trials presents with several aspects that are difficult to interpret, as well as with inconveniences (marked increases of serious side effects in the intensively treated patients) that in real life may favour discontinuation and low adherence to treatment with a resulting increase of CV risk that may attenuate, if not offset, any theoretical benefit. The conclusion will be drawn that further evidence on this issue is needed and that future trials should explore, in particular, possible differences in optimal BP target according to demographic characteristics (including ethnicity) and clinical phenotypes (presence or absence of organ damage, duration of disease, type of event protected, etc). Attention will be directed also on the need to establish optimal target also for out-of-office BP and other BP effects of treatment, such as long-term BP variability. PMID:27642873

  20. Testing the use of practice facilitation in a cluster randomized stepped-wedge design trial to improve adherence to cardiovascular disease prevention guidelines: HealthyHearts NYC

    OpenAIRE

    Shelley, Donna R.; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Anane, Sheila; Wu, Winfred Y.; Goldfeld, Keith; Gold, Heather T; Kaplan, Sue; Berry, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Background HealthyHearts NYC (HHNYC) will evaluate the effectiveness of practice facilitation as a quality improvement strategy for implementing the Million Hearts’ ABCS treatment guidelines for reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) among high-risk patients who receive care in primary care practices in New York City. ABCS refers to (A) aspirin in high-risk individuals; (B) blood pressure control; (C) cholesterol management; and (S) smoking cessation. The long-term goal is to create a robust i...

  1. Prehypertension and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Children and Adolescents Participating in the Community-Based Prevention Education Program Family Heart Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gerda-Maria Haas; Thomas Bertsch; Peter Schwandt

    2014-01-01

    Background: Because prehypertension identifies children most at risk for the development of future hypertensive disease, the purpose of this study was, to examine the association of prehypertension with risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a large sample of youths participating in the community-based prevention education program family heart study. Methods: We estimated blood pressure and body mass index (BMI) for age and the lipid profile in terms of total cholesterol (TC), l...

  2. A novel cardiovascular risk stratification model incorporating ECG and heart rate variability for patients presenting to the emergency department with chest pain

    OpenAIRE

    Heldeweg, Micah Liam Arthur; Liu, Nan; Koh, Zhi Xiong; Fook-Chong, Stephanie; Lye, Weng Kit; Harms, Mark; Ong, Marcus Eng Hock

    2016-01-01

    Background Risk stratification models can be employed at the emergency department (ED) to evaluate patient prognosis and guide choice of treatment. We derived and validated a new cardiovascular risk stratification model comprising vital signs, heart rate variability (HRV) parameters, and demographic and electrocardiogram (ECG) variables. Methods We conducted a single-center, observational cohort study of patients presenting to the ED with chest pain. All patients above 21 years of age and in ...

  3. Segmentation of the heart and major vascular structures in cardiovascular CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, J.; Ecabert, O.; Lorenz, C.; von Berg, J.; Walker, M. J.; Ivanc, T. B.; Vembar, M.; Olszewski, M. E.; Weese, J.

    2008-03-01

    Segmentation of organs in medical images can be successfully performed with shape-constrained deformable models. A surface mesh is attracted to detected image boundaries by an external energy, while an internal energy keeps the mesh similar to expected shapes. Complex organs like the heart with its four chambers can be automatically segmented using a suitable shape variablility model based on piecewise affine degrees of freedom. In this paper, we extend the approach to also segment highly variable vascular structures. We introduce a dedicated framework to adapt an extended mesh model to freely bending vessels. This is achieved by subdividing each vessel into (short) tube-shaped segments ("tubelets"). These are assigned to individual similarity transformations for local orientation and scaling. Proper adaptation is achieved by progressively adapting distal vessel parts to the image only after proximal neighbor tubelets have already converged. In addition, each newly activated tubelet inherits the local orientation and scale of the preceeding one. To arrive at a joint segmentation of chambers and vasculature, we extended a previous model comprising endocardial surfaces of the four chambers, the left ventricular epicardium, and a pulmonary artery trunk. Newly added are the aorta (ascending and descending plus arch), superior and inferior vena cava, coronary sinus, and four pulmonary veins. These vessels are organized as stacks of triangulated rings. This mesh configuration is most suitable to define tubelet segments. On 36 CT data sets reconstructed at several cardiac phases from 17 patients, segmentation accuracies of 0.61-0.80mm are obtained for the cardiac chambers. For the visible parts of the newly added great vessels, surface accuracies of 0.47-1.17mm are obtained (larger errors are asscociated with faintly contrasted venous structures).

  4. Relationship between Medication Use and Cardiovascular Disease Health Outcomes in the Jackson Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique S. White

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Even though some medications have the potential to slow the progress of atherosclerosis and development of CVD, there are many at-risk individuals who continue to resist the benefits that are available by not following the advice of medical professionals. Non-adherence to prescribed drug regimens is a pervasive medical problem that negatively affects treatment outcomes. Information from standardized interviews of 5301 African Americans participating in the Jackson Heart Study was examined to determine the association between demographic parameters, behavior including adherence to prescribed medical regimens, and health outcomes. Data were also collected at Annual Follow-Up and Surveillance visits. During the two weeks prior to the examination visit, almost 52% of the participants reported taking blood pressure medication, 14% took cholesterol medication, 16% took medication for diabetes, and 19% took blood thinning medication. Of those who did not take the prescribed medications, the reasons given were the following: 47% were in a hurry, too busy, or forgot to take medications; 23% were trying to do without medications; 18% had no money to purchase medications; 19% indicated that the medications made them feel bad; 17% felt that they could not carry out daily functions when taking medications. The African American population can benefit from heightened awareness of the risk factors that are associated with CVD and the benefits of following a prescribed treatment regimen. Unacceptable secondary effects of prescribed medication comprised an important cause of non-compliance. Encouragement of this population to communicate with their healthcare providers to ensure that medication regimens are better tolerated could increase compliance and improve health outcomes.

  5. Associations between cardiovascular parameters and uteroplacental Doppler (blood) flow patterns during pregnancy in women with congenital heart disease: Rationale and design of the Zwangerschap bij Aangeboren Hartafwijking (ZAHARA) II study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balci, A.; Sollie, K.M.; Mulder, B.J.; Laat, M.W. de; Roos-Hesselink, J.W.; Dijk, A.P. van; Wajon, E.M.; Vliegen, H.W.; Drenthen, W.; Hillege, H.L.; Aarnoudse, J.G.; Veldhuisen, D.J. van; Pieper, P.G.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous research has shown that women with congenital heart disease (CHD) are more susceptible to cardiovascular, obstetric, and offspring events. The causative pathophysiologic mechanisms are incompletely understood. Inadequate uteroplacental circulation is an important denominator in

  6. Associations between cardiovascular parameters and uteroplacental Doppler (blood) flow patterns during pregnancy in women with congenital heart disease: Rationale and design of the Zwangerschap bij Aangeboren Hartafwijking (ZAHARA) II study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Balci; K.M. Sollie; B.J.M. Mulder; M.W.M. de Laat; J.W. Roos-Hesselink; A.P.J. van Dijk; E.M.C.J. Wajon; H.W. Vliegen; W. Drenthen; H.L. Hillege; J.G. Aarnoudse; D.J. van Veldhuisen; P.G. Pieper

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous research has shown that women with congenital heart disease (CHD) are more susceptible to cardiovascular, obstetric, and offspring events. The causative pathophysiologic mechanisms are incompletely understood. Inadequate uteroplacental circulation is an important denominator in a

  7. Cardiovascular group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, Gunnar

    1989-01-01

    As a starting point, the group defined a primary goal of maintaining in flight a level of systemic oxygen transport capacity comparable to each individual's preflight upright baseline. The goal of maintaining capacity at preflight levels would seem to be a reasonable objective for several different reasons, including the maintenance of good health in general and the preservation of sufficient cardiovascular reserve capacity to meet operational demands. It is also important not to introduce confounding variables in whatever other physiological studies are being performed. A change in the level of fitness is likely to be a significant confounding variable in the study of many organ systems. The principal component of the in-flight cardiovascular exercise program should be large-muscle activity such as treadmill exercise. It is desirable that at least one session per week be monitored to assure maintenance of proper functional levels and to provide guidance for any adjustments of the exercise prescription. Appropriate measurements include evaluation of the heart-rate/workload or the heart-rate/oxygen-uptake relationship. Respiratory gas analysis is helpful by providing better opportunities to document relative workload levels from analysis of the interrelationships among VO2, VCO2, and ventilation. The committee felt that there is no clear evidence that any particular in-flight exercise regimen is protective against orthostatic hypotension during the early readaptation phase. Some group members suggested that maintenance of the lower body muscle mass and muscle tone may be helpful. There is also evidence that late in-flight interventions to reexpand blood volume to preflight levels are helpful in preventing or minimizing postflight orthostatic hypotension.

  8. Optimal time duration for low-pressure controlled reperfusion to efficiently protect ischemic rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopassa, J C; Nemlin, C; Sebbag, L; Rodriguez, C; Ovize, M; Ferrera, R

    2007-10-01

    Previous studies have shown the capacity of low-pressure (LP) reperfusion to protect the ischemic heart. The present study sought to determine the optimal time for the application of LP reperfusion. Isolated rat hearts (n = 30) were exposed to 40 minutes of global warm ischemia followed by 70 minutes of reperfusion. Reperfusion was performed under LP (LP = 70 cm H(2)O) for 0 (control group), 5 (group LP-5), 10 (group LP-10), 30 (group LP-30), or 60 (group LP-60) minutes. Following the LP period the hearts were reperfused with normal pressure (100 cm H(2)O) until the end of reperfusion. Cardiac function was assessed during reperfusion using the Langendorff model. Myocardial necrosis was assessed by measuring LDH leakage in the coronary effluents. Functional recovery was reduced among the control and LP-5 groups with rate-pressure products (RPP) averaging 3788 +/- 499 and 5333 +/- 892 mm Hg/min, respectively. RPP was significantly improved in other groups with RPP averaging 7363 +/- 1159, 7441 +/- 863, and 7269 +/- 692 mm Hg/min in LP-10, LP-30, and LP-60 (P < .01). Similarly, necrosis measured by LDH leakage was significantly reduced in LP-10, LP-30, and LP-60 hearts (P < .01). This study demonstrated that LP reperfusion improves postischemic contractile dysfunction and attenuates necrosis when applied for at least 10 minutes. PMID:17954191

  9. A "second window of protection" occurs 24 h after ischemic preconditioning in the rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, N; Hoshida, S; Taniguchi, N; Kuzuya, T; Hori, M

    1998-06-01

    We and others found that cardioprotection is acquired not only soon after, but also 24 h after ischemic preconditioning in canine and rabbit myocardial infarction models (second window of protection). However, a second window phenomenon against myocardial infarction was dependent on species limitations and has not been observed in porcine hearts. In this study, we examined whether the "second window of protection" against myocardial infarction is observed in the rat heart. In the ischemic preconditioning (IP) group, the left main coronary artery (LCA) of rats was occluded four times for 3 min. each separated by reperfusion for 10 min. After 0, 3, and 24 h, the rats were subjected to a 20-min LCA occlusion followed by 48-h reperfusion. At 0 and 24 h after IP, infarct size and the incidence of ventricular fibrillation (VF) during ischemia were significantly reduced compared with corresponding sham-operated groups without preconditioning. After 3 h of IP, there were no differences either in the incidence of VF during ischemia or in infarct size. Manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) content in ischemic (LCA) region of myocardium significantly increased as compared with that of sham-operated rats 24 h after IP. Treatment with N-2-mercaptopropionyl glycine, an antioxidant and a hydroxyl radical scavenger, during IP abolished the early-phase (0 h after IP) and late-phase (24 h after IP) cardioprotection and the corresponding late increase in Mn-SOD content. These results indicate that a "second window of protection" against myocardial infarction also exists in rat hearts and the induction of an intrinsic scavenger, Mn-SOD, via free radical production during IP may be important in the second window of protection. PMID:9689592

  10. Novel Protective Role of Endogenous Cardiac Myocyte P2X4 Receptors in Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tiehong; Shen, Jian-bing; Yang, Ronghua; Redden, John; Dodge-Kafka, Kimberly; Grady, James; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Liang, Bruce T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Heart failure (HF), despite continuing progress, remains a leading cause of mortality and morbidity. P2X4 receptors (P2X4R) have emerged as potentially important molecules in regulating cardiac function and as potential targets for HF therapy. Transgenic P2X4R overexpression can protect against HF, but this does not explain the role of native cardiac P2X4R. Our goal is to define the physiological role of endogenous cardiac myocyte P2X4R under basal conditions and during HF induced by myocardial infarction or pressure overload. Methods and Results Mice established with conditional cardiac-specific P2X4R knockout were subjected to left anterior descending coronary artery ligation–induced postinfarct or transverse aorta constriction–induced pressure overload HF. Knockout cardiac myocytes did not show P2X4R by immunoblotting or by any response to the P2X4R-specific allosteric enhancer ivermectin. Knockout hearts showed normal basal cardiac function but depressed contractile performance in postinfarct and pressure overload models of HF by in vivo echocardiography and ex vivo isolated working heart parameters. P2X4R coimmunoprecipitated and colocalized with nitric oxide synthase 3 (eNOS) in wild-type cardiac myocytes. Mice with cardiac-specific P2X4R overexpression had increased S-nitrosylation, cyclic GMP, NO formation, and were protected from postinfarct and pressure overload HF. Inhibitor of eNOS, L-N5-(1-iminoethyl)ornithine hydrochloride, blocked the salutary effect of cardiac P2X4R overexpression in postinfarct and pressure overload HF as did eNOS knockout. Conclusions This study establishes a new protective role for endogenous cardiac myocyte P2X4R in HF and is the first to demonstrate a physical interaction between the myocyte receptor and eNOS, a mediator of HF protection. PMID:24622244

  11. CORRELATION OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION WITH DEVELOPMENT OF CARDIOVASCULAR RISK IN PATIENTS WITH CORONARY HEART DISEASE IN ASSOCIATION WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrieva, T; Kolesnikova, E; Shut, I

    2016-07-01

    Recent years have demonstrated the possible existence of association between infection Helicobacter pylori (HP), coronary heart disease (CHD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM-2). The refinement of traditional and non-traditional factors of cardiovascular risk in patients with CHD in association with DM-2 of HP-seropositiveis currently important. In this regard, we have studied the influence of HP infection on cardiovascular risk in patients with CHD and DM-2. 60 persons with CHD in association with DM-2with/without HP have been examined. The results of own studies have shown that HP-seropositive patients with CHD in association with DM-2have pro-atherogenic lipid pattern, significantly higher rates of glucose in fasting state, level of C-reactive protein against the background of hyperinsulinemia, hypoadiponectinemia compared with HP-seronegative patients. HP infection association with increasing cardiovascular risk, depending on the genotype of the polymorphic marker rs1044471 of ADIPOR2 gene have not been found. At the same time, HP-seropositive patients with TT genotype of the polymorphic gene ADIPOR2 rs1044471constitutethe risk group of cardiovascular events formation by main metabolic indicators. The received data suggest that HP infection is important in development of cardiovascular risk in patients with CHD in association withDM-2, the presence of which aggravates cardio metabolic status of the patient. PMID:27661271

  12. Increasing Area Deprivation and Socioeconomic Inequalities in Heart Disease, Stroke, and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Among Working Age Populations, United States, 1969-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal K. Singh, PhD

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We examined the extent to which area- and individual-level socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular-disease (CVD, heart disease, and stroke mortality among United States men and women aged 25-64 years changed between 1969 and 2011. Methods: National vital statistics data and the National Longitudinal Mortality Study were used to estimate area- and individual-level socioeconomic gradients in mortality over time. Rate ratios and log-linear and Cox regression were used to model mortality trends and differentials. Results: Area socioeconomic gradients in mortality from CVD, heart disease, and stroke increased substantially during the study period. Compared to those in the most affluent group, individuals in the most deprived area group had, respectively 35%, 29%, and 73% higher CVD, heart disease, and stroke mortality in 1969, but 120-121% higher mortality in 2007-2011. Gradients were steeper for women than for men. Education, income, and occupation were inversely associated with CVD, heart disease, and stroke mortality, with individual-level socioeconomic gradients being steeper during 1990-2002 than in 1979-1989. Individuals with low education and incomes had 2.7 to 3.7 times higher CVD, heart disease, and stroke mortality risks than their counterparts with high education and income levels. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Although mortality declined for all US groups during 1969-2011, socioeconomic disparities in mortality from CVD, heart disease and stroke remained marked and increased over time because of faster declines in mortality among higher socioeconomic groups. Widening disparities in mortality may reflect increasing temporal areal inequalities in living conditions, behavioral risk factors such as smoking, obesity and physical inactivity, and access to and use of health services. With social inequalities and prevalence of smoking, obesity, and physical inactivity on the rise, most segments of the working

  13. The South Asian Heart Lifestyle Intervention (SAHELI) study to improve cardiovascular risk factors in a community setting: design and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandula, Namratha R; Patel, Yasin; Dave, Swapna; Seguil, Paola; Kumar, Santosh; Baker, David W; Spring, Bonnie; Siddique, Juned

    2013-11-01

    Disseminating and implementing evidence-based, cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention lifestyle interventions in community settings and in ethnic minority populations is a challenge. We describe the design and methods for the South Asian Heart Lifestyle Intervention (SAHELI) study, a pilot study designed to determine the feasibility and initial efficacy of a culturally-targeted, community-based lifestyle intervention to improve physical activity and diet behaviors among medically underserved South Asians (SAs). Participants with at least one CVD risk factor will be randomized to either a lifestyle intervention or a control group. Participants in both groups will be screened in a community setting and receive a primary care referral after randomization. Intervention participants will receive 6weeks of group classes, followed by 12weeks of individual telephone support where they will be encouraged to initiate and maintain a healthy lifestyle goal. Control participants will receive their screening results and monthly mailings on CVD prevention. Primary outcomes will be changes in moderate/vigorous physical activity and saturated fat intake between baseline, 3-, and 6-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes will be changes in weight, clinical risk factors, primary care visits, self-efficacy, and social support. This study will be one of the first to pilot-test a lifestyle intervention for SAs, one of the fastest growing racial/ethnic groups in the U.S. and one with disparate CVD risk. Results of this pilot study will provide preliminary data about the efficacy of a lifestyle intervention on CVD risk in SAs and inform community-engaged CVD prevention efforts in an increasingly diverse U.S. population.

  14. Relation of Serum Adiponectin Levels to Number of Traditional Atherosclerotic Risk Factors and All-Cause Mortality and Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events (from the Copenhagen City Heart Study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Soren; Mogelvang, Rasmus; Pedersen, Sune H;

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin exerts anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic effects and appears to protect against arteriosclerosis. Accordingly, an association between low concentrations of plasma adiponectin and cardiovascular (CV) disease has been demonstrated in several studies. In contrast, elevated plasma...... or nonfatal myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke (n = 502). High adiponectin was inversely associated with an increasing number of traditional CV risk factors (p...

  15. Relation between preoperative renal dysfunction and cardiovascular events (stroke, myocardial infarction, or heart failure or death) within three months of isolated coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzmann, Martin J; Sartipy, Ulrik

    2013-11-01

    Renal dysfunction is related to long-term mortality and myocardial infarction after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We aimed to investigate the association between preoperative renal dysfunction and early risk of stroke, myocardial infarction, or heart failure after CABG. From the Swedish Web-system for Enhancement and Development of Evidence-based care in Heart disease Evaluated According to Recommended Therapies registry, we included all 36,284 patients who underwent primary isolated CABG from 2000 to 2008 in Sweden. The Swedish National Inpatient Registry was used to obtain the primary end point, which was rehospitalization for stroke, myocardial infarction, or heart failure ≤90 days after CABG. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the risk for the primary outcome and the secondary outcome of death from any cause, while adjusting for confounders. During 90 days of follow-up, there were 2,462 cardiovascular events and 617 deaths. In total, 17% of patients developed acute kidney injury postoperatively. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for cardiovascular events after adjustment for age, gender, atrial fibrillation, left ventricular ejection fraction, diabetes mellitus, peripheral vascular disease, and history of myocardial infarction, heart failure, or stroke was 1.24 (1.06 to 1.45) in patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 15 to 45 ml/min/1.73 m(2) but became nonsignificant after acute kidney injury was introduced into the statistical model. The risk of death was significantly increased in patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate of 15 to 45 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (odds ratio 1.76, 95% confidence interval 1.38 to 2.25) even after adjustment for all confounders. Renal dysfunction was associated with all-cause mortality but not with cardiovascular events during the first 3 postoperative months after primary isolated CABG.

  16. Effect of esmolol on myocardial protection in pediatrics congenital heart defects

    OpenAIRE

    Fazelifar, Saeed; Bigdelian, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although it is accepted that inducing cardioplegia is the gold standard in myocardial protection, there is still no consensus on the exact type of the cardioplegia. There are fewer studies on the type of the cardioplegia in hearts of the children than adults and they are contradictory. The effects of esmolol have been reviewed (a type of ultrashort-acting beta-adrenergic antagonist, i.e., ß-blockers) in conjunction with the cardioplegia due to the effect of the β-blockers in reduc...

  17. Healthy Heart Quizzes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 24,2016 Cardiovascular Conditions • Conditions Home • Arrhythmia and Atrial Fibrillation • Cardiac Arrest • Cardiac Rehab • Cardiomyopathy • Cardiovascular Conditions of Childhood • Cholesterol • Congenital Heart Defects • Diabetes • Heart Attack • Heart Failure (HF) • Heart Valve Problems and Disease • High Blood ...

  18. Travel and Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Privacy Policy Cardiovascular Conditions • Conditions Home • Arrhythmia and Atrial Fibrillation • Cardiac Arrest • Cardiac Rehab • Cardiomyopathy • Cardiovascular Conditions of Childhood • Cholesterol • Congenital Heart Defects • Diabetes • Heart Attack • Heart Failure (HF) • Heart Valve Problems and Disease • High Blood ...

  19. Hyperleptinemia May Protect From Cardio-Vascular Complications: A Small Georgian Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Zerekidze

    2014-12-01

    CONCLUSION: Leptin might act as a preventive measure for cardiovascular complications only in the presence of sufficient amount of fat mass. Further studies are warranted in order to support these results.

  20. Multicentre, prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded end point trial of the efficacy of allopurinol therapy in improving cardiovascular outcomes in patients with ischaemic heart disease: protocol of the ALL-HEART study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Ian; Walker, Andrew; Hawkey, Chris; Begg, Alan; Avery, Anthony; Taggar, Jaspal; Wei, Li; Struthers, Allan D; MacDonald, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is one of the most common causes of death in the UK and treatment of patients with IHD costs the National Health System (NHS) billions of pounds each year. Allopurinol is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor used to prevent gout that also has several positive effects on the cardiovascular system. The ALL-HEART study aims to determine whether allopurinol improves cardiovascular outcomes in patients with IHD. Methods and analysis The ALL-HEART study is a multicentre, controlled, prospective, randomised, open-label blinded end point (PROBE) trial of allopurinol (up to 600 mg daily) versus no treatment in a 1:1 ratio, added to usual care, in 5215 patients aged 60 years and over with IHD. Patients are followed up by electronic record linkage and annual questionnaires for an average of 4 years. The primary outcome is the composite of non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke or cardiovascular death. Secondary outcomes include all-cause mortality, quality of life and cost-effectiveness of allopurinol. The study will end when 631 adjudicated primary outcomes have occurred. The study is powered at 80% to detect a 20% reduction in the primary end point for the intervention. Patient recruitment to the ALL-HEART study started in February 2014. Ethics and dissemination The study received ethical approval from the East of Scotland Research Ethics Service (EoSRES) REC 2 (13/ES/0104). The study is event-driven and results are expected after 2019. Results will be reported in peer-reviewed journals and at scientific meetings. Results will also be disseminated to guideline committees, NHS organisations and patient groups. Trial registration number 32017426, pre-results. PMID:27609859

  1. Safe Oral Triiodo-L-Thyronine Therapy Protects from Post-Infarct Cardiac Dysfunction and Arrhythmias without Cardiovascular Adverse Effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viswanathan Rajagopalan

    Full Text Available A large body of evidence suggests that thyroid hormones (THs are beneficial for the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. We have shown that 3 days of triiodo-L-thyronine (T3 treatment in myocardial infarction (MI rats increased left ventricular (LV contractility and decreased myocyte apoptosis. However, no clinically translatable protocol is established for T3 treatment of ischemic heart disease. We hypothesized that low-dose oral T3 will offer safe therapeutic benefits in MI.Adult female rats underwent left coronary artery ligation or sham surgeries. T3 (~6 μg/kg/day was available in drinking water ad libitum immediately following MI and continuing for 2 month(s (mo. Compared to vehicle-treated MI, the oral T3-treated MI group at 2 mo had markedly improved anesthetized Magnetic Resonance Imaging-based LV ejection fraction and volumes without significant negative changes in heart rate, serum TH levels or heart weight, indicating safe therapy. Remarkably, T3 decreased the incidence of inducible atrial tachyarrhythmias by 88% and improved remodeling. These were accompanied by restoration of gene expression involving several key pathways including thyroid, ion channels, fibrosis, sympathetic, mitochondria and autophagy.Low-dose oral T3 dramatically improved post-MI cardiac performance, decreased atrial arrhythmias and cardiac remodeling, and reversed many adverse changes in gene expression with no observable negative effects. This study also provides a safe and effective treatment/monitoring protocol that should readily translate to humans.

  2. The Green Heart Initiative: Using Air Quality Information to Reduce Adverse Health Effects in Patients with Heart and Vascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Green Heart Initiatives designed to raise public awareness about the role outdoor air pollution plays in cardiovascular health. Developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to complement the national Million Hearts” initiative1, Green Heart seeks to teach healt...

  3. Cardiovascular hypertensive emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, D P; Sanidas, E A; Viniou, N A; Gennimata, V; Chantziara, V; Barbetseas, I; Makris, T K

    2015-02-01

    Inevitably, a small proportion of patients with systematic hypertension will develop hypertensive crisis at some point. Hypertensive crises can be divided into hypertensive emergency or hypertensive urgency according to the presence or lack of acute target organ damage. In this review, we discuss cardiovascular hypertensive emergencies, including acute coronary syndrome, aortic dissection, congestive heart failure, and sympathomimetic hypertensive crises, including those caused by cocaine use. Each presents in a unique fashion, although some hypertensive emergency patients report nonspecific symptoms. Treatment includes several effective and rapid-acting medications to safely reduce the blood pressure, protect remaining end-organ function, relieve symptoms, minimize the risk of complications, and thereby improve patient outcomes.

  4. Protective Effect of Wenxin Granula on Heart from Myocardial Infarction through Regulating Intracellular Ca2+

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-xue; YANG Bao-feng; LI Xue-lian; CHU Wen-feng; CAI Rui-jun; SHI Yong-fang; XU Chao-qian; SHAN Hong-li; WANG Xing-yang; LU Yan-jie

    2011-01-01

    reduced ICa-L density in rat ventricular myocytes in MI rats. The results of LSCM showed that Wenxin Granula could recover the amplitude of [Ca2+]j decreased by heart failure during long term. Conclusion Wenxin Granula could not only inhibit the incidence of arrhythmia but also decrease the mortality, which was accompanied by recovering the amplitude of [Ca2+]j. This protective effect of Wenxin Granula may partially be mediated through changing ICa-L.as well as increasing [Ca2+]j.

  5. Pomegranate Supplementation Protects against Memory Dysfunction after Heart Surgery: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan A. Ropacki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Memory dysfunction is a common complaint following heart surgery and may be related to a diffuse ischemic state induced by microemboli dislodged during the procedure. Ischemia can induce damage by a number of mechanisms, including oxidative stress. Because pomegranates contain a variety of polyphenols with antioxidant and other potentially beneficial effects, we tested whether supplementation with a pomegranate extract before and after heart surgery could protect against postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass graft and/or valve surgery were given either 2 g of pomegranate extract (in 2 POMx pills or placebo (pills containing no pomegranate ingredients per day from one week before surgery to 6 weeks after surgery. The patients were also administered a battery of neuropsychological tests to assess memory function at 1 week before surgery (baseline, 2 weeks after surgery, and 6 weeks after surgery. The placebo group had significant deficits in postsurgery memory retention, and the pomegranate treatment not only protected against this effect, but also actually improved memory retention performance for up to 6 weeks after surgery as compared to presurgery baseline performance.

  6. Congenital heart defect corrective surgeries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... open Arrhythmias Atrial septal defect (ASD) Breathing difficulty Cardiac catheterization Cardiovascular Coarctation of the aorta Congenital heart disease Heart failure - overview Heart transplant Hypoplastic left heart syndrome Patent ductus arteriosus Pediatric ...

  7. Nrf2 and cardiovascular defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden, Reuben

    2013-01-01

    The cardiovascular system is susceptible to a group of diseases that are responsible for a larger proportion of morbidity and mortality than any other disease. Many cardiovascular diseases are associated with a failure of defenses against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage and/or death, leading to organ dysfunction. The pleiotropic transcription factor, nuclear factor-erythroid (NF-E) 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), regulates the expression of antioxidant enzymes and proteins through the antioxidant response element. Nrf2 is an important component in antioxidant defenses in cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and heart failure. Nrf2 is also involved in protection against oxidant stress during the processes of ischemia-reperfusion injury and aging. However, evidence suggests that Nrf2 activity does not always lead to a positive outcome and may accelerate the pathogenesis of some cardiovascular diseases (e.g., atherosclerosis). The precise conditions under which Nrf2 acts to attenuate or stimulate cardiovascular disease processes are unclear. Further studies on the cellular environments related to cardiovascular diseases that influence Nrf2 pathways are required before Nrf2 can be considered a therapeutic target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  8. Nrf2 and Cardiovascular Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuben Howden

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular system is susceptible to a group of diseases that are responsible for a larger proportion of morbidity and mortality than any other disease. Many cardiovascular diseases are associated with a failure of defenses against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage and/or death, leading to organ dysfunction. The pleiotropic transcription factor, nuclear factor-erythroid (NF-E 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, regulates the expression of antioxidant enzymes and proteins through the antioxidant response element. Nrf2 is an important component in antioxidant defenses in cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and heart failure. Nrf2 is also involved in protection against oxidant stress during the processes of ischemia-reperfusion injury and aging. However, evidence suggests that Nrf2 activity does not always lead to a positive outcome and may accelerate the pathogenesis of some cardiovascular diseases (e.g., atherosclerosis. The precise conditions under which Nrf2 acts to attenuate or stimulate cardiovascular disease processes are unclear. Further studies on the cellular environments related to cardiovascular diseases that influence Nrf2 pathways are required before Nrf2 can be considered a therapeutic target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  9. A review of Perindopril in the reduction of cardiovascular events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan J Campbell

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Duncan J CampbellSt. Vincent’s Institute of Medical Research and the Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, St. Vincent’s Hospital, Fitzroy, Victoria, AustraliaBackground: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI have a well-established role in the prevention of cardiovascular events in hypertension, left ventricular dysfunction, and heart failure. More recently, ACEI have been shown to prevent cardiovascular events in individuals with increased cardiovascular risk, where hypertension, left ventricular dysfunction, or heart failure was not the primary indication for ACEI therapy.Objective: To review studies of the effects of the ACEI perindopril on cardiovascular events.Method: The EUROPA (European Trial on Reduction of Cardiac Events with Perindopril in Patients with Stable Coronary Artery Disease Study, PROGRESS (Perindopril Protection Against Recurrent Stroke Study, and ASCOT-BPLA (Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial – Blood Pressure Lowering Arm trials are reviewed.Results: Perindopril alone reduced cardiovascular events in subjects with stable coronary heart disease. Perindopril in combination with indapamide reduced cardiovascular events in subjects with cerebrovascular disease. Perindopril in combination with amlodipine reduced cardiovascular events in subjects with hypertension.Conclusion: Perindopril reduced cardiovascular events. The reduction of cardiovascular events by perindopril was in large part associated with reduction of blood pressure, and greater reduction in cardiovascular events was associated with greater reduction of blood pressure. Perindopril may need to be combined with other antihypertensive agents to maximize reduction of cardiovascular events.Keywords: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure

  10. Cardiovascular manifestations in hyperthyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Vairamani Kandan; Sathyamurthy P; Rajkumar M; Lavanya Narayanan

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is well known that thyroid hormone directly affects the heart and peripheral vascular system. In hyperthyroidism, cardiovascular manifestations are frequent findings. Atrial arrhythmias, limitations in exercise tolerance, and congestive heart failure were reported to occur more common in older patients as a result of hyperthyroidism. Cardiovascular signs of hyperthyroidism include tachycardia, widened pulse pressure, marked increase in cardiac output with impaired cardiovascula...

  11. Moderation of dietary sodium potentiates the renal and cardiovascular protective effects of angiotensin receptor blockers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J; Holtkamp, Frank A; Parving, Hans-Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    intake during treatment, measured as the 24-h urinary sodium/creatinine ratio of 1177 patients with available 24-h urinary sodium measurements. ARB compared to non-RAASi-based therapy produced the greatest long-term effects on renal and cardiovascular events in the lowest tertile of sodium intake....... Compared to non-RAASi, the trend in risk for renal events was significantly reduced by 43%, not changed, or increased by 37% for each tertile of increased sodium intake, respectively. The trend for cardiovascular events was significantly reduced by 37%, increased by 2% and 25%, respectively. Thus...

  12. Pathways for salvage and protection of the heart under stress: novel routes for cardiac rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannatà, Antonio; Camparini, Luca; Sinagra, Gianfranco; Giacca, Mauro; Loffredo, Francesco S

    2016-07-15

    The world population is aging, and by 2017, there will be more people over the age of 65 than under age 5, and by 2050, two billion of the estimated nine billion people on Earth will be older than 60. Aging itself is a major cardiovascular risk factor, affecting morbidity and mortality of the aging population. At the same time, aging increases the likelihood of the presence of other risk factors. The aged myocardium is characterized by several structural and functional progressive changes that impair its ability to respond appropriately to stressful conditions. Although some progress to understand the complex mechanisms that underlie these phenotypic changes, the molecular pathways that determine the balance between aging and rejuvenation in the aged myocardium still remain elusive. In this article, we review molecular mechanisms responsible for the phenotypic changes observed with aging in the heart, providing insight into molecular pathways and pharmacological interventions that may rejuvenate the aged myocardium. A better understanding of these pathways is essential for determining their therapeutic potential in humans, improving the possibility that the increase in life expectancy that we are observing will be accompanied by a parallel increase in healthspan. PMID:27371745

  13. The anti-cancer components of Ganoderma lucidum possesses cardiovascular protective effect by regulating circular RNA expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Weijiang; Li, Xiangmin; Jiao, Chunwei; Huang, Ren; Yang, Burton B.

    2016-01-01

    To examine the role of oral Ganoderma spore oil in cardiovascular disease, we used transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in mice to model pressure overload-induced cardiomyopathy. Our preliminary results demonstrated a potential cardioprotective role for spore oil extracted from Ganoderma. We found that Ganoderma treatment normalized ejection fraction and corrected the fractional shortening generated by TAC. We also found evidence of reduced left ventricular hypertrophy as assessed by left ventricular end diastolic diameter. Analysis of total RNA expression using cardiac tissue samples from these mice corroborated our findings. We found reduced expression of genes associated with heart failure, including a novel circular RNA circ-Foxo3. Thus our data provides evidence for Ganoderma lucidum as a potential cardioprotective agent, warranting further preclinical exploration. PMID:27713910

  14. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism (C677T), hyperhomocysteinemia, and risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease and venous thromboembolism: prospective and case-control studies from the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jeppe; Juul, Klaus; Grande, Peer;

    2004-01-01

    for sex, age, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, lipoprotein(a), fibrinogen, triglycerides, body mass index, smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and factor V Leiden genotype. Finally, in case-control studies odds ratios for ischemic heart disease and ischemic cerebrovascular disease...... from the general population were followed for 23 years. Second, 2125 whites with ischemic heart disease and 836 whites with ischemic cerebrovascular disease were compared with 7568 controls from the general population. Plasma homocysteine was elevated 25% in homozygotes versus noncarriers (P ...Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with ischemic cardiovascular disease (ICD) and venous thromboembolism (VTE). We tested the hypothesis that methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T homozygosity with hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with ICD and VTE. First, 9238 randomly selected whites...

  15. Clinical relationship of myocardial sympathetic nervous activity to cardiovascular functions in chronic heart failure: assessment by myocardial scintigraphy with 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yukoh; Miura, Masaetsu; Fujiwara, Satomi; Mori, Shunpei; Seiji, Kazumasa; Kimura, Tokihisa

    2003-12-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between cardiac sympathetic nervous activity (SNA) assessed by radioiodinated metaiodobenzylguanidine (123I-MIBG), an analogue of norepinephrine and cardiovascular functions in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Subjects were 17 patients with CHF. A dose of 111 MBq of 123I-MIBG was administered intravenously, and 5-minute anterior planar images were obtained 15 minutes (early image) and 3 hours (delayed image) after the injection. The heart/mediastinum (H/M) count ratio was defined to quantify cardiac 123I-MIBG uptake. The washout ratio (WR) of 123I-MIBG from the heart was calculated as follows: (early counts-delayed counts)/early counts x 100 (%). Echocardiography was performed on all patients within 1 week of 123I-MIBG scintigraphy to measure stroke volume index (SVI). Blood pressure and heart rate (HR) in the resting state were also recorded to calculate cardiovascular functions including cardiac output, pulse pressure (PP), and mean blood pressure. Significant linear correlations were found between the early H/M ratio of 123I-MIBG and SVI, and between the delayed H/M ratio of 123I-MIBG and SVI, respectively. WR of 123I-MIBG was correlated with HR, and was inversely correlated with SVI and with PP, respectively. It is likely that a decrease in SVI is associated with enhanced cardiac SNA in severe CHF. 123I-MIBG scintigraphy is effective in assessing the cardiac functional status and SNA in patients with CHF in vivo. Moreover, changes in PP and HR indicate well alteration in SNA. PMID:14690018

  16. “You have the right to protect your health”: Perceptions of Secondhand Smoke and Exposure Mitigation Strategies in Low-Income Patients With Heart Disease, San Francisco, 2011–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Johnson, Cati G.; Oppezzo, Marily; Benowitz, Neal L.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the understanding of the harms of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among low-income, hospitalized adults with cardiovascular disease. Participants were 15 nonsmokers reporting daily SHS exposure and 15 light or nondaily cigarette smokers. We coded responses from audiotaped semistructured interviews for themes. No participant spontaneously identified heart risks related to SHS exposure. Strategies to avoid SHS included verbal requests to not smoke and physically avoiding smoke; both smokers and nonsmokers prioritized politeness over urgency. Most participants thought a blood test quantifying SHS exposure would be clinically useful. Health education, assertiveness communication training, and protective policies (eg, smoke-free multiunit housing) also were supported. PMID:27560724

  17. "You have the right to protect your health": Perceptions of Secondhand Smoke and Exposure Mitigation Strategies in Low-Income Patients With Heart Disease, San Francisco, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Johnson, Cati G; Oppezzo, Marily; Benowitz, Neal L; Prochaska, Judith J

    2016-01-01

    We examined the understanding of the harms of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among low-income, hospitalized adults with cardiovascular disease. Participants were 15 nonsmokers reporting daily SHS exposure and 15 light or nondaily cigarette smokers. We coded responses from audiotaped semistructured interviews for themes. No participant spontaneously identified heart risks related to SHS exposure. Strategies to avoid SHS included verbal requests to not smoke and physically avoiding smoke; both smokers and nonsmokers prioritized politeness over urgency. Most participants thought a blood test quantifying SHS exposure would be clinically useful. Health education, assertiveness communication training, and protective policies (eg, smoke-free multiunit housing) also were supported. PMID:27560724

  18. Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Added Sugar Intake and Cardiovascular Diseases Mortality Among US Adults, examines the relationship between consuming too much added sugar and the risk of heart disease death. When it Comes to Blood Pressure, Make Control ...

  19. The Protective Role of Positive Well-Being in Cardiovascular Disease: Review of Current Evidence, Mechanisms, and Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Nancy L

    2016-11-01

    Positive psychological aspects of well-being-including positive emotions, optimism, and life satisfaction-are increasingly considered to have protective roles for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and longevity. A rapidly-growing body of literature has linked positive well-being with better cardiovascular health, lower incidence of CVD in healthy populations, and reduced risk of adverse outcomes in patients with existing CVD. This review first examines evidence on the associations of positive well-being with CVD and mortality, focusing on recent epidemiological research as well as inconsistent findings. Next, an overview is provided of putative biological, behavioral, and stress-buffering mechanisms that may underlie the relationship between positive well-being and cardiovascular health. Key areas for future inquiry are discussed, in addition to emerging developments that capitalize on technological and methodological advancements. Promising initial results from randomized controlled trials suggest that efforts to target positive well-being may serve as valuable components of broader CVD management programs. PMID:27612475

  20. Severe Calorie Restriction Reduces Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and Protects Rat Hearts from Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Dirceu S.; Costa-Pereira, Liliane V.; Santos, Carina S.; Mendes, Bruno F.; Costa, Karine B.; Santos, Cynthia Fernandes F.; Rocha-Vieira, Etel; Magalhães, Flávio C.; Esteves, Elizabethe A.; Ferreira, Anderson J.; Guatimosim, Sílvia; Dias-Peixoto, Marco F.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Recent studies have proposed that if a severe caloric restriction (SCR) is initiated at the earliest period of postnatal life, it can lead to beneficial cardiac adaptations later on. We investigated the effects of SCR in Wistar rats from birth to adult age on risk factors for cardiac diseases (CD), as well as cardiac function, redox status, and HSP72 content in response to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Methods and Results: From birth to the age of 3 months, CR50 rats were fed 50% of the food that the ad libitum group (AL) was fed. Food intake was assessed daily and body weight were assessed weekly. In the last week of the SCR protocol, systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured and the double product index was calculated. Also, oral glucose and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance tests were performed. Thereafter, rats were decapitated, visceral fat was weighed, and blood and hearts were harvested for biochemical, functional, tissue redox status, and western blot analyzes. Compared to AL, CR50 rats had reduced the main risk factors for CD. Moreover, the FR50 rats showed increased cardiac function both at baseline conditions (45% > AL rats) and during the post-ischemic period (60% > AL rats) which may be explained by a decreased cardiac oxidative stress and increased HSP72 content. Conclusion: SCR from birth to adult age reduced risk factors for CD, increased basal cardiac function and protected hearts from the I/R, possibly by a mechanism involving ROS. PMID:27092082

  1. Low birth weight as a predictor of cardiovascular risk factors in childhood and adolescence? The pep family heart study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda-Maria Haas

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Overall we did not find significant associations between birth weight and nine traditional cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents. However, the 2 nd quintile of birth weight might suggest clustering of risk factors.

  2. The heart of the matter: the effects of humor on well-being during recovery from cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Nicholas L; Yoshimura, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the uses of humor among cardiovascular patients to test the associations between humor use, satisfaction with companion relationships, and health during recovery. Self-report data were collected from members of two national support groups for patients recovering from cardiovascular disease. As expected, general humorousness associated with social and psychological well-being. Several specific functions of humor in cardiovascular recovery were identified and linked with health perceptions. Antidote humor increased social and psychological health perceptions, whereas conversation regulation humor and distancing humor were negatively related to perceived social and psychological health. Relationship satisfaction mediated most effects. The findings offer new insight into the variability of humor effects, particularly following cardiovascular treatment. PMID:23829386

  3. (SPartners for Heart Health: a school-based program for enhancing physical activity and nutrition to promote cardiovascular health in 5th grade students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehnert Scott T

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The American Heart Association Position Statement on Cardiovascular Health Promotion in Public Schools encourages school-based interventions for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD through risk factor prevention or reduction in children with an emphasis on creating an environment that promotes healthy food choices and physical activity (PA. In an effort to address issues related to CVD risk factors including obesity in Michigan children, a multi-disciplinary team of Michigan State University (MSU faculty, clinicians, and health profession students was formed to "(Spartner" with elementary school physical education (PE teachers and MSU Extension staff to develop and implement a cost-effective, sustainable program aimed at CVD risk factor prevention and management for 5th grade students. This (Spartnership is intended to augment and improve the existing 5th grade PE, health and nutrition curriculum by achieving the following aims: 1 improve the students' knowledge, attitudes and confidence about nutrition, PA and heart health; 2 increase the number of students achieving national recommendations for PA and nutrition; and 3 increase the number of students with a desirable CVD risk factor status based on national pediatric guidelines. Secondary aims include promoting school staff and parental support for heart health to help children achieve their goals and to provide experiential learning and service for MSU health profession students for academic credit. Methods/Design This pilot effectiveness study was approved by the MSU IRB. At the beginning and the end of the school year students undergo a CVD risk factor assessment conducted by MSU medical students and graduate students. Key intervention components include eight lesson plans (conducted bi-monthly designed to promote heart healthy nutrition and PA behaviors conducted by PE teachers with assistance from MSU undergraduate dietetic and kinesiology students

  4. Diet and Lifestyle Protection Against the Heart Aging%预防心脏老龄化的饮食和生活方式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐艳; 龙良; 苏晓君

    2012-01-01

    Coronary heart disease is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity increases substantially with age. It is estimated that more than 1 in 3 men and 1 in 4 women aged over 75 are currently living with coronary heart disease. Evidence from epidemiologic studies indicate that the increased risks of coronary heart disease in middle-aged people are relevant to the morbidity of coronary heart disease in the elderly people. Clinical trials have shown that changing these risk factors in middle-aged adults and the elderly can reduce risk of coronary heart disease. A diet that is low in fat,rich in carbohydrate, contains plenty of fruits, vegetables and fish and is low in salt, can protect against heart disease. Such diets, together with regular physical activity, avoidance of smoking,reasonable drinking habits and maintenance of a healthy body weight,may prevent the majority of cardiovascular diseases.%冠心病是随着年龄的增长而引起患者病死率和发病率大幅增加的首要原因.据估计,75岁以上老年人当中超过1/3的男性和1/4的女性患有冠心病.流行病学研究的证据表明,中年人冠心病危险因素的增加与老年人冠心病的发病率是有关的.临床试验表明,改变这些危险因素可以在中年人及老年人中有效地减少冠心病的危险.饮食上低脂肪、富含碳水化合物、多食水果和蔬菜和鱼类及低盐可以有效预防心脏病.这样的饮食习惯,加上经常参加体育活动、避免吸烟、合理饮酒和保持健康的体质量,可阻止大多数心血管疾病的发生.

  5. D25V apolipoprotein C-III variant causes dominant hereditary systemic amyloidosis and confers cardiovascular protective lipoprotein profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valleix, Sophie; Verona, Guglielmo; Jourde-Chiche, Noémie; Nédelec, Brigitte; Mangione, P. Patrizia; Bridoux, Frank; Mangé, Alain; Dogan, Ahmet; Goujon, Jean-Michel; Lhomme, Marie; Dauteuille, Carolane; Chabert, Michèle; Porcari, Riccardo; Waudby, Christopher A.; Relini, Annalisa; Talmud, Philippa J.; Kovrov, Oleg; Olivecrona, Gunilla; Stoppini, Monica; Christodoulou, John; Hawkins, Philip N.; Grateau, Gilles; Delpech, Marc; Kontush, Anatol; Gillmore, Julian D.; Kalopissis, Athina D.; Bellotti, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein C-III deficiency provides cardiovascular protection, but apolipoprotein C-III is not known to be associated with human amyloidosis. Here we report a form of amyloidosis characterized by renal insufficiency caused by a new apolipoprotein C-III variant, D25V. Despite their uremic state, the D25V-carriers exhibit low triglyceride (TG) and apolipoprotein C-III levels, and low very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)/high high-density lipoprotein (HDL) profile. Amyloid fibrils comprise the D25V-variant only, showing that wild-type apolipoprotein C-III does not contribute to amyloid deposition in vivo. The mutation profoundly impacts helical structure stability of D25V-variant, which is remarkably fibrillogenic under physiological conditions in vitro producing typical amyloid fibrils in its lipid-free form. D25V apolipoprotein C-III is a new human amyloidogenic protein and the first conferring cardioprotection even in the unfavourable context of renal failure, extending the evidence for an important cardiovascular protective role of apolipoprotein C-III deficiency. Thus, fibrate therapy, which reduces hepatic APOC3 transcription, may delay amyloid deposition in affected patients. PMID:26790392

  6. D25V apolipoprotein C-III variant causes dominant hereditary systemic amyloidosis and confers cardiovascular protective lipoprotein profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valleix, Sophie; Verona, Guglielmo; Jourde-Chiche, Noémie; Nédelec, Brigitte; Mangione, P Patrizia; Bridoux, Frank; Mangé, Alain; Dogan, Ahmet; Goujon, Jean-Michel; Lhomme, Marie; Dauteuille, Carolane; Chabert, Michèle; Porcari, Riccardo; Waudby, Christopher A; Relini, Annalisa; Talmud, Philippa J; Kovrov, Oleg; Olivecrona, Gunilla; Stoppini, Monica; Christodoulou, John; Hawkins, Philip N; Grateau, Gilles; Delpech, Marc; Kontush, Anatol; Gillmore, Julian D; Kalopissis, Athina D; Bellotti, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein C-III deficiency provides cardiovascular protection, but apolipoprotein C-III is not known to be associated with human amyloidosis. Here we report a form of amyloidosis characterized by renal insufficiency caused by a new apolipoprotein C-III variant, D25V. Despite their uremic state, the D25V-carriers exhibit low triglyceride (TG) and apolipoprotein C-III levels, and low very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)/high high-density lipoprotein (HDL) profile. Amyloid fibrils comprise the D25V-variant only, showing that wild-type apolipoprotein C-III does not contribute to amyloid deposition in vivo. The mutation profoundly impacts helical structure stability of D25V-variant, which is remarkably fibrillogenic under physiological conditions in vitro producing typical amyloid fibrils in its lipid-free form. D25V apolipoprotein C-III is a new human amyloidogenic protein and the first conferring cardioprotection even in the unfavourable context of renal failure, extending the evidence for an important cardiovascular protective role of apolipoprotein C-III deficiency. Thus, fibrate therapy, which reduces hepatic APOC3 transcription, may delay amyloid deposition in affected patients. PMID:26790392

  7. Phytochemical Compounds and Protection from Cardiovascular Diseases: A State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beniamino Pagliaro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases represent a worldwide relevant socioeconomical problem. Cardiovascular disease prevention relies also on lifestyle changes, including dietary habits. The cardioprotective effects of several foods and dietary supplements in both animal models and in humans have been explored. It was found that beneficial effects are mainly dependent on antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, also involving modulation of mitochondrial function. Resveratrol is one of the most studied phytochemical compounds and it is provided with several benefits in cardiovascular diseases as well as in other pathological conditions (such as cancer. Other relevant compounds are Brassica oleracea, curcumin, and berberine, and they all exert beneficial effects in several diseases. In the attempt to provide a comprehensive reference tool for both researchers and clinicians, we summarized in the present paper the existing literature on both preclinical and clinical cardioprotective effects of each mentioned phytochemical. We structured the discussion of each compound by analyzing, first, its cellular molecular targets of action, subsequently focusing on results from applications in both ex vivo and in vivo models, finally discussing the relevance of the compound in the context of human diseases.

  8. Cardiovascular diseases mortality following cancer during childhood: long term risk, role of chemotherapy and of radiation dose to heart and brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Background: A multi-centric French-UK cohort study was performed to evaluate the role of treatment in the long-term overall and cause-specific mortality among childhood cancer survivors. Methods: This study cohort included 4,120 patients treated for a solid tumours before the age of 17 between 1942-1986, in 8 centres in France and UK and who survived at least 5 years from diagnosis. Detailed clinical and therapeutic data were extracted for each patients from medical records. For 2868 of the 2868 patients who received radiotherapy, radiation doses were estimated using DOSEG software at 188 anatomical sites, including heart (7 sites) and lungs (10 sites). We obtained the death causes of 95 % of dead patients. Overall and cause-specific mortality standardized ratios (SMR), absolute excess risk (AER) of death were studied using Poisson regression. Results: 603 patients died during the follow-up, i.e. 8.5-fold (95 % CI: 7.7-9.1) more than that expected in the general population. A total of 32 patients died of cardiovascular diseases, i.e. 4.8-fold (95 % CI, 3.3 to 6.7) more than expected, 21 of which were cardiac diseases, i.e. 6.0-fold more (95% CI, 3.8 to 9.0). Overall, patients who had received radiotherapy had a 5.4-fold (95% CI, 1.5 to 32.1) higher risk of mortality due to cardiovascular disease than those who had not. Mortality due to cardiac disease was related to the administration of alkylating agents and / or vinca alkaloids, and to that of anthracyclines. Each additional 100 mg of anthracyclines per m2 of body surface area increased the mortality rate due to heart diseases by 92% (95% CI, 16% to 318%). Patients who had received between 5 to 14.9 Gy to the heart during radiotherapy had a 14.5-fold (95% CI, 2.0 to 291) higher risk of mortality from cardiac diseases than patients who had not received radiotherapy, this ratio being 32.6 (95% CI, 5.6 to 622) in those who had received more than 15 Gy. Conclusion: Childhood cancer survivors are at high

  9. European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging/Cardiovascular Imaging Department of the Brazilian Society of Cardiology recommendations for the use of cardiac imaging to assess and follow patients after heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badano, Luigi P; Miglioranza, Marcelo H; Edvardsen, Thor; Colafranceschi, Alexandre Siciliano; Muraru, Denisa; Bacal, Fernando; Nieman, Koen; Zoppellaro, Giacomo; Marcondes Braga, Fabiana G; Binder, Thomas; Habib, Gilbert; Lancellotti, Patrizio

    2015-09-01

    The cohort of long-term survivors of heart transplant is expanding, and the assessment of these patients requires specific knowledge of the surgical techniques employed to implant the donor heart, the physiology of the transplanted heart, complications of invasive tests routinely performed to detect graft rejection (GR), and the specific pathologies that may affect the transplanted heart. A joint EACVI/Brazilian cardiovascular imaging writing group committee has prepared these recommendations to provide a practical guide to echocardiographers involved in the follow-up of heart transplant patients and a framework for standardized and efficient use of cardiovascular imaging after heart transplant. Since the transplanted heart is smaller than the recipient's dilated heart, the former is usually located more medially in the mediastinum and tends to be rotated clockwise. Therefore, standard views with conventional two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography are often difficult to obtain generating a large variability from patient to patient. Therefore, in echocardiography laboratories equipped with three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) scanners and specific expertise with the technique, 3DE may be a suitable alternative to conventional 2D echocardiography to assess the size and the function of cardiac chambers. 3DE measurement of left (LV) and right ventricular (RV) size and function are more accurate and reproducible than conventional 2D calculations. However, clinicians should be aware that cardiac chamber volumes obtained with 3DE cannot be compared with those obtained with 2D echocardiography. To assess cardiac chamber morphology and function during follow-up studies, it is recommended to obtain a comprehensive echocardiographic study at 6 months from the cardiac transplantation as a baseline and make a careful quantitation of cardiac chamber size, RV systolic function, both systolic and diastolic parameters of LV function, and pulmonary artery pressure. Subsequent

  10. Increased mortality and cardiovascular morbidity associated with use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislason, Gunnar H; Rasmussen, Jeppe N; Abildstrøm, Steen;

    2009-01-01

    of myocardial infarction and HF. Propensity-based risk-stratified analysis and case-crossover models yielded similar results. CONCLUSIONS: NSAIDs are frequently used in patients with HF and are associated with increased risk of death and cardiovascular morbidity. Inasmuch as even commonly used NSAIDs exerted......BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence indicates increased cardiovascular risk associated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use, in particular in patients with established cardiovascular disease. We studied the risk of death and hospitalization because of acute myocardial infarction......-crossover models. RESULTS: A total of 36,354 patients (33.9%) claimed at least 1 prescription of an NSAID after discharge; 60,974 (56.9%) died, and 8970 (8.4%) and 39,984 (37.5%) were hospitalized with myocardial infarction or HF, respectively. The hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for death was 1.70 (1...

  11. [Cheyne-Stokes respiration in patients with chronic heart failure: only a diagnostic marker or also a cardiovascular risk factor?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, U; Hildebrandt, O; Nell, C; Thiem, K; Sibai, E; Gross, V; Grimm, W

    2014-05-01

    Sleep disordered breathing with predominant obstructive or central apnea is an under-recognized but highly prevalent comorbidity in patients with chronic heart failure. As the severity of heart failure increases the prevalence of central sleep apnea (CSA) and Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) is also much more frequent. Cheyne-Stokes respiration is characterized by alternating periods of crescendo and decrescendo respiration followed by central apnea. Present data indicate that CSA-CSR is not only a compensatory response to severe heart failure but also a predictor of worse prognosis. However the results on long-term mortality are not consistent. The prognostic importance of night- and daytime CSR has to be further elucidated. Increased sympathetic nervous activity has been proposed to play a mayor role concerning progression and outcome of chronic heart failure by CSA-CSR. PMID:24782155

  12. Rheumatic heart disease: pilot study for a population-based evaluation of prevalence and cardiovascular outcomes among schoolchildren in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Nikesh Raj; Kalesan, Bindu; Karki, Prahlad; Sherpa, Kunjang; Basnet, Anil; Urban, Philip; Pilgrim, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate a protocol for a population-based programme targeting the prevention of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) progression by early echocardiographic diagnosis of valvular lesions and timely implementation of secondary prevention.

  13. Knowledge Gaps in Cardiovascular Care of the Older Adult Population: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology, and American Geriatrics Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Michael W; Chyun, Deborah A; Skolnick, Adam H; Alexander, Karen P; Forman, Daniel E; Kitzman, Dalane W; Maurer, Mathew S; McClurken, James B; Resnick, Barbara M; Shen, Win K; Tirschwell, David L

    2016-05-24

    The incidence and prevalence of most cardiovascular disorders increase with age, and cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and major disability in adults ≥75 years of age; however, despite the large impact of cardiovascular disease on quality of life, morbidity, and mortality in older adults, patients aged ≥75 years have been markedly underrepresented in most major cardiovascular trials, and virtually all trials have excluded older patients with complex comorbidities, significant physical or cognitive disabilities, frailty, or residence in a nursing home or assisted living facility. As a result, current guidelines are unable to provide evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of older patients typical of those encountered in routine clinical practice. The objectives of this scientific statement are to summarize current guideline recommendations as they apply to older adults, identify critical gaps in knowledge that preclude informed evidence-based decision making, and recommend future research to close existing knowledge gaps. To achieve these objectives, we conducted a detailed review of current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and American Stroke Association guidelines to identify content and recommendations that explicitly targeted older patients. We found that there is a pervasive lack of evidence to guide clinical decision making in older patients with cardiovascular disease, as well as a paucity of data on the impact of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions on key outcomes that are particularly important to older patients, such as quality of life, physical function, and maintenance of independence. Accordingly, there is a critical need for a multitude of large population-based studies and clinical trials that include a broad spectrum of older patients representative of those seen in clinical practice and that incorporate relevant outcomes important to older patients in the study design. The

  14. Annexin 1 and Melanocortin Peptide Therapy for Protection Against Ischaemic-Reperfusion Damage in the Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.N.E. Gavins

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of mortality within the western world affecting 2.7 million British people. This review highlights the beneficial effects of naturally occurring hormones and their peptides, in myocardial ischaemic-injury (MI models, a disease pathology in which cytokines and neutrophils play a causal role. Here we discuss two distinct classes of endogenous peptides: the steroid inducible annexin 1 and the melanocortin peptides. Annexin 1 and the melanocortins counteract the most important part of the host inflammatory response, namely, the process of leukocyte extravasation, as well as release of proinflammatory mediators. Their biological effects are mediated via the seven transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors, the fMLP receptor family (or FPR, and the melanocortin receptors, respectively. Pharmacological analysis has demonstrated that the first 24 amino acids of the N-terminus (termed Ac2-26 are the most active region. Both exogenous annexin 1 and its peptides demonstrate cardioprotectiveness and continuing work is required to understand this annexin 1/FPR relationship fully. The melanocortin peptides are derived from a precursor molecule called the POMC protein. These peptides display potent anti-inflammatory effects in human and animal models of disease. In MI, the MC3R has been demonstrated to play an important role in mediating the protective effects of these peptides. The potential anti-inflammatory role for endogenous peptides in cardiac disease is in its infancy. The inhibition of cell migration and release of cytokines and other soluble mediators appears to play an important role in affording protection in ischaemic injury and thus may lead to potential therapeutic targets.

  15. Sexual counselling for individuals with cardiovascular disease and their partners: a consensus document from the American Heart Association and the ESC Council on Cardiovascular Nursing and Allied Professions (CCNAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, Elaine E; Jaarsma, Tiny; Barnason, Susan A; Byrne, Molly; Doherty, Sally; Dougherty, Cynthia M; Fridlund, Bengt; Kautz, Donald D; Mårtensson, Jan; Mosack, Victoria; Moser, Debra K

    2013-11-01

    After a cardiovascular event, patients and their families often cope with numerous changes in their lives, including dealing with consequences of the disease or its treatment on their daily lives and functioning. Coping poorly with both physical and psychological challenges may lead to impaired quality of life. Sexuality is one aspect of quality of life that is important for many patients and partners that may be adversely affected by a cardiac event. The World Health Organization defines sexual health as '… a state of physical, emotional, mental and social well-being in relation to sexuality; it is not merely the absence of disease, dysfunction or infirmity. Sexual health requires a positive and respectful approach to sexuality and sexual relationships, as well as the possibility of having pleasurable and safe sexual experiences ….'(1(p4)) The safety and timing of return to sexual activity after a cardiac event have been well addressed in an American Heart Association scientific statement, and decreased sexual activity among cardiac patients is frequently reported.(2) Rates of erectile dysfunction (ED) among men with cardiovascular disease (CVD) are twice as high as those in the general population, with similar rates of sexual dysfunction in females with CVD.(3) ED and vaginal dryness may also be presenting signs of heart disease and may appear 1-3 years before the onset of angina pectoris. Estimates reflect that only a small percentage of those with sexual dysfunction seek medical care;(4) therefore, routine assessment of sexual problems and sexual counselling may be of benefit as part of effective management by physicians, nurses, and other healthcare providers. PMID:23900695

  16. [Burnout syndrome: a "true" cardiovascular risk factor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cursoux, Pauline; Lehucher-Michel, Marie-Pascale; Marchetti, Hélène; Chaumet, Guillaume; Delliaux, Stéphane

    2012-11-01

    The burnout syndrome is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment in individuals professionally involved with others. The burnout syndrome is poorly recognized, particularly in France, as a distinct nosology from adaptation troubles, stress, depression, or anxiety. Several tools quantifying burnout and emotional exhaustion exist, the most spread is the questionnaire called Maslach Burnout Inventory. The burnout syndrome alters cardiovascular function and its neuroregulation by autonomic nervous system and is associated with: increased sympathetic tone to heart and vessels after mental stress, lowered physiological post-stress vagal rebound to heart, and lowered arterial baroreflex sensitivity. Job strain as burnout syndrome seems to be a real independent cardiovascular risk factor. Oppositely, training to manage emotions could increase vagal tone to heart and should be cardio-protective.

  17. Prevalence of cardiovascular risks factors and 10 year predictions of coronary heart disease in seafarers of Pertamina shipping (Indonesia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purnawarma, Irwin GNI; Jensen, Olaf Chresten; Canals, ML;

    2011-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease is (CVD) is becoming a major health problem in the world and they have to be taken into account in shipping companies. Employees and Company management should be aware of the dangers and implications, CVD can bring. Objectives To obtain the prevalence of cardiova...

  18. 环氧二十碳三烯酸心血管保护作用研究进展%Research Progress of Protective Effects of Epoxyeicosatrienoic Acid on Cardiovascular Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    海春霞; 夏妍

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is not only a serious disease that risks to human health, but also one of the main causes of death. Numerous studies show that the main mechanism that lead to cardiovascular disease is the load of heart before and after increases, coronary artery blood perfusion is not enough, cardiac muscle tissues oxygen and energy supply barriers. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) is an endogenous cardiovascular active substances, it can act on the various pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, such as myocardial ischemia, inflammatory response, improving endothelial function, anti-platelet adhesion and aggregation and so on, and it plays an important role in the treatment of various cardiovascular diseases. In this paper, protective effects and mechanisms of EET on the cardiovascular was to do a review, so as to provide theoretical basis for developing new drugs of curing cardiovascular disease.%心血管疾病是危害人类健康的严重疾病,也是造成人类死亡的主要原因之一.大量研究表明心脏前后负荷增大、冠状动脉血液灌流不足、心肌组织氧气和能量供应障碍是导致心血管疾病发生的主要机制.环氧二十碳三烯酸(EET)是一种内源性 心血管活性物质,它可作用于心血管疾病的多种发病机制,如抗心肌缺血、抗炎症反应、改善内皮功能、抗血小板黏附与聚集等作用,在治疗各种心血管疾病中发挥了重要作用.本文就EET对心血管的保护作用及其机制做一综述,为研究开发新的治疗心血管疾病的药物提供理论依据.

  19. 术中给予艾塞那肽对心脑血管的保护作用研究%Protective effects of Exenatide on cardiovascular function of patients underwent cardiac surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯丽娜

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the protective effect of exenatide on cardiovascular function of patients underwent cardiac surgery. Methods From March 2012 to August 2013,168 patients enrolled in our hospital were randomly divided into 2 groups including 80 cases of control group and 88 cases of exenatide group. Results Compared with the control group,exenatide group has lower blood sugar after surgery (P0. 05).Conclusion For cardiac surgery patients,exenatide could reduce cardiovascular disease complications caused by surgery by protecting effect on heart and brain.%目的:探讨术中给予艾塞那肽对心脑血管的保护作用。方法收集2012年3月-2013年8月我院择期心脏外科手术患者168例,随机分为对照组80例和艾塞那肽组88例。结果2组手术后血糖比较差异有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论艾塞那肽对心脏外科手术患者具有保护心脑血管的作用,可以减少手术引起的心脑血管疾病并发症,值得推广。

  20. All about Heart Rate (Pulse)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... July 2015. Cardiovascular Conditions • Conditions Home • Arrhythmia and Atrial Fibrillation • Cardiac Arrest • Cardiac Rehab • Cardiomyopathy • Cardiovascular Conditions of Childhood • Cholesterol • Congenital Heart Defects • Diabetes • Heart Attack • Heart Failure (HF) • Heart Valve Problems and Disease • High Blood ...

  1. Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, Stefan; Verheyen, Nicolas; Grübler, Martin R; Tomaschitz, Andreas; März, Winfried

    2016-07-01

    Vitamin D is a precursor of the steroid hormone calcitriol that is crucial for bone and mineral metabolism. Both the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the general population and the identification of the vitamin D receptor in the heart and blood vessels raised interest in the potential cardiovascular effects of vitamin D. Experimental studies have demonstrated various cardiovascular protective actions of vitamin D, but vitamin D intoxication in animals is known to induce vascular calcification. In meta-analyses of epidemiological studies, vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. Findings from Mendelian randomization studies and randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) do not indicate significant effects of a general vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes. Previous RCTs, however, were not adequately designed to address extraskeletal events, and did not focus on vitamin D-deficient individuals. Therefore, currently available evidence does not support cardiovascular benefits or harms of vitamin D supplementation with the commonly used doses, and whether vitamin D has cardiovascular effects in individuals with overt vitamin D deficiency remains to be evaluated. Here, we provide an update on clinical studies on vitamin D and cardiovascular risk, discuss ongoing vitamin D research, and consider the management of vitamin D deficiency from a cardiovascular health perspective. PMID:27150190

  2. Relative protection from ischaemic heart disease in beta-thalassaemia carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the frequency of beta thalassaemia trait in individuals with Ischaemic Heart Disease (IHD) and a control population without IHD. Study Design: Case control study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Haematology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi, from September 2007 to May 2009. Methodology: Using non-probability consecutive sampling, a total of 544 subjects were selected, including 272 IHD patients and an equal number of age and gender matched normal controls. The subjects were tested for the presence of b-thalassaemia trait by performing their blood counts, haemoglobin electrophoresis and Haemoglobin A2 (HbA2) estimation. Proportions were compared using chi-square test. Odds ratio was also calculated. Results: The frequency of b-thalassaemia trait was determined in IHD patients and was compared to the frequency in normal Pakistani population. Six out of the 272 control subjects (2.2%) had b-thalassaemia trait and one of the control subject had Haemoglobin D trait. In contrast, none of the 272 IHD patients had b-thalassaemia trait. The calculated odds ratio was less than 1, which shows a significant negative association of b-thalassaemia trait with IHD. The difference in the frequency of b-thalassaemia trait in the two groups was statistically significant (p=0.033). Conclusion: The results suggest that b-thalassaemia carriers have some protection against IHD, though it is not an absolute cardio protection due to the role of other risk factors in IHD. This beneficial information may be communicated to the concerned individuals in their counselling sessions and as part of general awareness on thalassaemia. (author)

  3. Fitness, work, and leisure-time physical activity and ischaemic heart disease and all-cause mortality among men with pre-existing cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Burr, Hermann;

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to study the relative impact of physical fitness, physical demands at work, and physical activity during leisure time on ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and all-cause mortality among employed men with pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHOD: We carried out a 30-year...... interval (95% CI) CI 0.32-0.93] and highly fit (VO (2)Max range 37-50; HR 0.28, 95% CI 0.12-0.66). We found a positive, but statistically non-significant association between physical demands at work and all-cause mortality. CONCLUSION: Among gainfully employed men with pre-existing CVD, a high physical...... follow-up of the Copenhagen Male Study of 274 gainfully employed men, aged 40-59 years who had a history of CVD (ie, myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, and intermittent claudication). We estimated physical fitness [maximal oxygen consumption (VO (2)Max)] using the Astrand cycling test and determined...

  4. Identificação de fatores de risco cardiovascular em pais/cuidadores de crianças cardiopatas Identification of cardiovascular risk factors in parents/caregivers of children with heart diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Feijó Borges

    2012-10-01

    morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Brazil, they are the major cause of death. OBJECTIVE: To identify cardiovascular risk factors in parents/caregivers of children with heart diseases by assessing their nutritional status, health conditions, and life style. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 150 parents or caregivers of children with heart diseases who attended a cardiology outpatient clinic. Data on identification, lifestyle and health conditions were collected by means of a structured questionnaire. For the assessment of the eating habits, a questionnaire on eating frequency was used; for the assessment of the nutritional status, weight, height, and waist circumference were measured, and the body mass index (BMI was calculated and classified. RESULTS: A total of 155 parents of children with heart diseases, predominantly of the female gender (91.6%, were evaluated; their mean age was 35.0 ± 10.6 years. The most prevalent risk factors were sedentary lifestyle (85.2%, obesity (28% and hypertension (22.6%. As regards the eating habits, a high frequency of intake of red meat, margarine, vegetable oil, and sugar and low intake of fish were observed. Comparison between genders showed a significant difference in relation to obesity, as detected by BMI, and hypertension, both more frequent among women. Waist circumference measurement also showed a higher cardiovascular risk in women. CONCLUSION: Cardiovascular risk factors such as excess weight, sedentary lifestyle, and hypertension as well as inadequate eating habits such as a high frequency of intake of saturated fat and cholesterol and low intake of unsaturated fat were identified in the parents/caregivers assessed.

  5. Glycated haemoglobin and the risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and all-cause mortality in the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskesen, K; Jensen, M T; Galatius, S;

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM) have a considerably elevated risk of developing serious health problems including cardiovascular disease (CVD). Long-term elevated levels of blood glucose in nondiabetic individuals may also be associated with increased risk of CVD. The aim of this study...... was to investigate the relationships between glycated haemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c) ) and CVD, DM and all-cause mortality....

  6. The role of apelin in central cardiovascular regulation in rats with post-infarct heart failure maintained on a normal fat or high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarzasta, Katarzyna; Cudnoch-Jedrzejewska, Agnieszka; Szczepanska-Sadowska, Ewa; Fus, Lukasz; Puchalska, Liana; Gondek, Agata; Dobruch, Jakub; Gomolka, Ryszard; Wrzesien, Robert; Zera, Tymoteusz; Gornicka, Barbara; Kuch, Marek

    2016-10-01

    Based on the available literature, it can be assumed that in cases of post-infarct heart failure (HF) and obesity, a significant change in the central regulation of the cardiovascular system takes place with, among others, the involvement of the apelinergic system. The main objective of the present study was to clarify the role of apelin-13 in the central regulation of the cardiovascular system in Sprague Dawley rats with HF or sham operated (SO) and fed on a normal fat (NFD) or a high fat diet (HFD). The study was divided into two parts: Part I, hemodynamic studies; and Part II, biochemical and molecular studies. The animals were subjected to the following research procedures. Part I and II: feeding NFD or HFD; experimental induction of HF or SO; Part I: intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of the examined substances, monitoring of mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) and heart rate (HR); Part II: venous blood and tissue samples collected. ICV infusion of apelin-13 caused significantly higher changes in ΔMABP in the SO NFD group. No changes were noted in ΔHR in any of the studied groups. Apelin and apelin receptor (APJ) mRNA expression in the brain and adipose tissues was higher in the HF rats. HFD causes significant increase in expression of apelin and APJ mRNA in the left ventricle. In conclusion, HF and HFD appear to play an important role in modifying the activity of the central apelinergic system and significant changes in mRNA expression of apelin and APJ receptor. PMID:27378063

  7. 2013 AHA/ACC guideline on lifestyle management to reduce cardiovascular risk: A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force on practice guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goals of the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and the American Heart Association (AHA) are to prevent cardiovascular (CV) diseases, improve the management of people who have these diseases through professional education and research, and develop guidelines, standards and policies that promot...

  8. Elevated resting heart rate is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease in healthy men and women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2010-04-01

    Elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is known to be associated with reduced survival but inconsistencies remain, including lack of significance in most studies of healthy women, lack of independence from systolic blood pressure (SBP) in some, and the suggestion that RHR is merely functioning as a marker of physical inactivity or other comorbidities. We aimed to clarify these inconsistencies.

  9. Heart disease and women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007188.htm Heart disease and women To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. People often do not consider heart disease a woman's disease. Yet cardiovascular disease is the ...

  10. Depressive symptoms and cardiovascular health by the American Heart Association's definition in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M Kronish

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Depressive symptoms are associated with increased incident and recurrent cardiovascular events. In 2010, the American Heart Association published the Life's Simple 7, a metric for assessing cardiovascular health as measured by 4 health behaviors (smoking, physical activity, body mass index, diet and 3 biological measures (cholesterol, blood pressure, glucose. The association between depressive symptoms and the Life's Simple 7 has not yet been explored. METHODS: Data from 20,093 participants ≥45 years of age who enrolled in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS study between 2003 and 2007 and who had complete data available on Life's Simple 7 components were used for these analyses. The prevalence of ideal, intermediate, and poor health on each Life's Simple 7 component and total Life's Simple 7 scores were compared between participants with and without depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were measured using the 4-item Centers for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression scale. RESULTS: Participants with depressive symptoms were more likely to have poor levels on each of the Life's Simple 7 components other than cholesterol [adjusted prevalence ratios (95% CI: smoking 1.41 (1.29-1.55; physical activity 1.38 (1.31-1.46; body mass index 1.09 (1.04-1.15; diet 1.08 (1.06-1.10; blood pressure 1.11 (1.02-1.21; glucose 1.24 (1.09-1.41]. There was a graded association between increasing depressive symptoms and lower total Life's Simple 7 score. CONCLUSION: Depressive symptoms are associated with worse cardiovascular health on the overall Life's Simple 7 and on individual components representing both health behaviors and biological factors.

  11. Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training versus Continuous Training on Physical Fitness, Cardiovascular Function and Quality of Life in Heart Failure Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie M M Benda

    Full Text Available Physical fitness is an important prognostic factor in heart failure (HF. To improve fitness, different types of exercise have been explored, with recent focus on high-intensity interval training (HIT. We comprehensively compared effects of HIT versus continuous training (CT in HF patients NYHA II-III on physical fitness, cardiovascular function and structure, and quality of life, and hypothesize that HIT leads to superior improvements compared to CT.Twenty HF patients (male:female 19:1, 64±8 yrs, ejection fraction 38±6% were allocated to 12-weeks of HIT (10*1-minute at 90% maximal workload-alternated by 2.5 minutes at 30% maximal workload or CT (30 minutes at 60-75% of maximal workload. Before and after intervention, we examined physical fitness (incremental cycling test, cardiac function and structure (echocardiography, vascular function and structure (ultrasound and quality of life (SF-36, Minnesota living with HF questionnaire (MLHFQ.Training improved maximal workload, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak related to the predicted VO2peak, oxygen uptake at the anaerobic threshold, and maximal oxygen pulse (all P<0.05, whilst no differences were present between HIT and CT (N.S.. We found no major changes in resting cardiovascular function and structure. SF-36 physical function score improved after training (P<0.05, whilst SF-36 total score and MLHFQ did not change after training (N.S..Training induced significant improvements in parameters of physical fitness, although no evidence for superiority of HIT over CT was demonstrated. No major effect of training was found on cardiovascular structure and function or quality of life in HF patients NYHA II-III.Nederlands Trial Register NTR3671.

  12. Dietary proanthocyanidins: Occurrence, dietary intake, bioavailability, and protection against cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, S. E.; Frederiksen, H.; Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz;

    2005-01-01

    of red wine in France. Red wine is rich in the complex polyphenols, the proanthocyanidins, and these compounds have recently attracted attention as potential cardiac-protective compounds. The present review summarizes the literature on proanthocyanidins with focus on their chemical structure...

  13. Apparent protective effect of high density lipoprotein against coronary heart disease in the elderly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李健斋; 陈曼丽; 王抒; 董军; 曾平; 侯鲁维

    2004-01-01

    Background This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and coronary heart disease (CHD)death and to explore the protective effect of HDL against CHD in the elderly Chinese.Methods Started from 1986, 1211 retirees (92% males) were enrolled consecutively and studied prospectively. The average starting age was 70 ±9 years, and that at the end of the study was 80 ±9years. During the follow-up study, all the participants received yearly physical examination and blood chemistry survey from 1986 -2000. The average duration of the follow up study was 11.2 years. The end point of this study was either attacks of AMI or death due to CHD and other causes. CHD risk factors were screened by logistic regression analysis. According to their HDL-C levels, cases were divided into Iow (<1.03 mmol/L), medium (or normal, 1.03 - 1.56 mmol/L) and high(>1.56mmol/L) level groups, the differences in incidence of AMI and CHD death in each group were analyzed.Results The cumulative attacks of acute coronary syndrome (mostly AMI) were 214 cases,including 89 cases of coronary death and 308 death caused by other diseases during the follow up study. AMI occurrence and CHD death in normal HDL-C group were lower than those in the low HDLC group by 40% and 53%; and those in the high HDL-C group were lower than in the normal group by 56% and 50%, respectively. Statistical analysis on normal lipid cases (411 cases, total cholesterol<5. 17mmol/L, triglyceride<1.69 mmol/L) revealed that the cases at low HDL-C level had similar rates of AMI events and CHD mortality as those of the entire group (including hyperlipidemia);however, AMI attacks and CHD deaths decreased significantly at the normal and high HDL-C levels.The results demonstrated that the protective effect of HDL against coronary artery disease is more prominent in people with low lipid level.Conclusion Low HDL is an important

  14. Thermal and cardiovascular strain imposed by motorcycle protective clothing under Australian summer conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rome, Liz; Taylor, Elizabeth A; Croft, Rodney J; Brown, Julie; Fitzharris, Michael; Taylor, Nigel A S

    2016-04-01

    Motorcycle protective clothing can be uncomfortably hot during summer, and this experiment was designed to evaluate the physiological significance of that burden. Twelve males participated in four, 90-min trials (cycling 30 W) across three environments (25, 30, 35 °C [all 40% relative humidity]). Clothing was modified between full and minimal injury protection. Both ensembles were tested at 25 °C, with only the more protective ensemble investigated at 30 and 35 °C. At 35 °C, auditory canal temperature rose at 0.02 °C min(-1) (SD 0.005), deviating from all other trials (p 38.5 °C) and profound hyperthermia (>40.0 °C) were predicted to occur within 105 min (SD 20.6) and 180 min (SD 33.0), respectively. Profound hyperthermia might eventuate in ~10 h at 30 °C, but should not occur at 25 °C. These outcomes demonstrate a need to enhance the heat dissipation capabilities of motorcycle clothing designed for summer use in hot climates, but without compromising impact protection. Practitioner's Summary: Motorcycle protective clothing can be uncomfortably hot during summer. This experiment was designed to evaluate the physiological significance of this burden across climatic states. In the heat, moderate (>38.5 °C) and profound hyperthermia (>40.0 °C) were predicted to occur within 105 and 180 min, respectively. PMID:26280297

  15. Study of time reversibility/irreversibility of cardiovascular data: theoretical results and application to laser Doppler flowmetry and heart rate variability signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humeau-Heurtier, Anne; Mahé, Guillaume; Chapeau-Blondeau, François; Rousseau, David; Abraham, Pierre

    2012-07-01

    Time irreversibility can be qualitatively defined as the degree of a signal for temporal asymmetry. Recently, a time irreversibility characterization method based on entropies of positive and negative increments has been proposed for experimental signals and applied to heart rate variability (HRV) data (central cardiovascular system (CVS)). The results led to interesting information as a time asymmetry index was found different for young subjects and elderly people or heart disease patients. Nevertheless, similar analyses have not yet been conducted on laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) signals (peripheral CVS). We first propose to further investigate the above-mentioned characterization method. Then, LDF signals, LDF signals reduced to samples acquired during ECG R peaks (LDF_RECG signals) and HRV recorded simultaneously in healthy subjects are processed. Entropies of positive and negative increments for LDF signals show a nonmonotonic pattern: oscillations—more or less pronounced, depending on subjects—are found with a period matching the one of cardiac activity. However, such oscillations are not found with LDF_RECG nor with HRV. Moreover, the asymmetry index for LDF is markedly different from the ones of LDF_RECG and HRV. The cardiac activity may therefore play a dominant role in the time irreversibility properties of LDF signals.

  16. Glutamate protects against Ca(2+) paradox-induced injury and inhibits calpain activity in isolated rat hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Ying; Kong, Ling-Heng; Lai, Dong; Jin, Zhen-Xiao; Gu, Xiao-Ming; Zhou, Jing-Jun

    2016-10-01

    This study determined the effects of glutamate on the Ca(2+) paradoxical heart, which is a model for Ca(2+) overload-induced injury during myocardial ischaemia and reperfusion, and evaluated its effect on a known mediator of injury, calpain. An isolated rat heart was retrogradely perfused in a Langendorff apparatus. Ca(2+) paradox was elicited via perfusion with a Ca(2+) -free Krebs-Henseleit (KH) solution for 3 minutes followed by Ca(2+) -containing normal KH solution for 30 minutes. The Ca(2+) paradoxical heart exhibited almost no viable tissue on triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining and markedly increased LDH release, caspase-3 activity, cytosolic cytochrome c content, and apoptotic index. These hearts also displayed significantly increased LVEDP and a disappearance of LVDP. Glutamate (5 and 20 mmol/L) significantly alleviated Ca(2+) paradox-induced injury. In contrast, 20 mmol/L mannitol had no effect on Ca(2+) paradox. Ca(2+) paradox significantly increased the extent of the translocation of μ-calpain to the sarcolemmal membrane and the proteolysis of α-fodrin, which suggests calpain activation. Glutamate also blocked these effects. A non-selective inhibitor of glutamate transporters, dl-TBOA (10 μmol/L), had no effect on control hearts, but it reversed glutamate-induced cardioprotection and reduction in calpain activity. Glutamate treatment significantly increased intracellular glutamate content in the Ca(2+) paradoxical heart, which was also blocked by dl-TBOA. We conclude that glutamate protects the heart against Ca(2+) overload-induced injury via glutamate transporters, and the inhibition of calpain activity is involved in this process.

  17. Hypertension and Cardiovascular Remodelling in Rats Exposed to Continuous Light: Protection by ACE-Inhibition and Melatonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedor Simko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure of rats to continuous light attenuates melatonin production and results in hypertension development. This study investigated whether hypertension induced by continuous light (24 hours/day exposure induces heart and aorta remodelling and if these alterations are prevented by melatonin or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor captopril. Four groups of 3-month-old male Wistar rats (10 per group were treated as follows for six weeks: untreated controls, exposed to continuous light, light-exposed, and treated with either captopril (100 mg/kg/day or melatonin (10 mg/kg/day. Exposure to continuous light led to hypertension, left ventricular (LV hypertrophy and fibrosis, and enhancement of the oxidative load in the LV and aorta. Increase in systolic blood pressure by continuous light exposure was prevented completely by captopril and partially by melatonin. Both captopril and melatonin reduced the wall thickness and cross-sectional area of the aorta and reduced the level of oxidative stress. However, only captopril reduced LV hypertrophy development and only melatonin reduced LV hydroxyproline concentration in insoluble and total collagen in rats exposed to continuous light. In conclusion, captopril prevented LV hypertrophy development in the continuous light-induced hypertension model, while only melatonin significantly reduced fibrosis. This antifibrotic action of melatonin may be protective in hypertensive heart disease.

  18. Fetal circulation in left-sided congenital heart disease measured by cardiovascular magnetic resonance: a case–control study

    OpenAIRE

    Al Nafisi, Bahiyah; van Amerom, Joshua FP; Forsey, Jonathan; Jaeggi, Edgar; Grosse-Wortmann, Lars; Yoo, Shi-Joon; Macgowan, Christopher K; Seed, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Background The distribution of blood flow in fetuses with congenital heart disease (CHD) is likely to influence fetal growth, organ development, and postnatal outcome, but has previously been difficult to study. We present the first measurements of the distribution of the fetal circulation in left-sided CHD made using phase contrast cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Methods Twenty-two fetuses with suspected left-sided CHD and twelve normal controls underwent fetal CMR and echocardiography at ...

  19. Rheumatic heart disease: pilot study for a population-based evaluation of prevalence and cardiovascular outcomes among schoolchildren in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Nikesh Raj; Kalesan, Bindu; Karki, Prahlad; Sherpa, Kunjang; Basnet, Anil; Urban, Philip; Pilgrim, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate a protocol for a population-based programme targeting the prevention of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) progression by early echocardiographic diagnosis of valvular lesions and timely implementation of secondary prevention. Design Observational survey with a subsequent prospective cohort study. Setting Private boarding school in the urban area of the Sunsari district situated on the foothills of the Lower Himalayan Range in Eastern Nepal. Participants Fifty-four unselecte...

  20. EFFECT OF THERAPEUTIC TRAINING AND ACTIVE OUTPATIENT MANAGEMENT ON CLINICAL STATE AND CARDIOVASCULAR COMPLICATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEART FAILURE (THREE YEAR FOLLOW-UP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Rebrov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim.  To  evaluate  effect  of  therapeutic  training  and  active  outpatient management  on  clinical  state  and  cardiovascular  complications  (CVC  in  patients with  chronic  heart  failure  (CHF  during  three year follow-up. Material and methods. A total of 211 patients with CHF experienced Q-wave myocardial infarction were enrolled in the study. At admission to the hospital all patients were randomized into two groups. Patients of the first group (group 1; n=106 were managed actively after discharge from the hospital, patients of the second group (group 2; n=105 - managed conventionally after discharge from the hospital. In the hospital patients of the both groups were therapeutically trained and treated according to contemporary guidelines. Patients were observed for three years.  Results. Over three year follow-up actively managed patients demonstrated significant (p<0.05 decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, blood serum levels of total cholesterol and N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP, augmentation of 6-minute walk-test distance, deceleration of heart remodeling and left ventricle ejection fraction reduction as compared to those who were conventionally managed. Kaplan-Meier curves revealed that risk of CHF decompensation (р=0.001, mortality (р=0.04, and total number of CVC (р=0.04 was significantly lower in the first group than this in the second one. Conclusion. Therapeutic training and active outpatient management in patients with CHF improves patient compliance to pharmacotherapy , their clinical state and outcomes.

  1. The Role of Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species in Cardiovascular Injury and Protective Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danina M. Muntean

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R injury of the heart represents a major health burden mainly associated with acute coronary syndromes. While timely coronary reperfusion has become the established routine therapy in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction, the restoration of blood flow into the previously ischaemic area is always accompanied by myocardial injury. The central mechanism involved in this phenomenon is represented by the excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Besides their harmful role when highly generated during early reperfusion, minimal ROS formation during ischaemia and/or at reperfusion is critical for the redox signaling of cardioprotection. In the past decades, mitochondria have emerged as the major source of ROS as well as a critical target for cardioprotective strategies at reperfusion. Mitochondria dysfunction associated with I/R myocardial injury is further described and ultimately analyzed with respect to its role as source of both deleterious and beneficial ROS. Furthermore, the contribution of ROS in the highly investigated field of conditioning strategies is analyzed. In the end, the vascular sources of mitochondria-derived ROS are briefly reviewed.

  2. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging assessment of diastolic dysfunction in a population without heart disease: a gender-based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asymptomatic left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction is increasingly recognised as an important diagnosis. Our goal was to study the prevalence and gender differences in subclinical LV diastolic dysfunction, using cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) at 3 T. We prospectively studied 48 volunteers (19 male and 29 female, mean age 49 ± 7 years) with no evidence of cardiovascular disease. We used CMR to measure left atrium (LA) and LV volumes, LV peak filling rate and transmitral flow. The overall prevalence of LV diastolic dysfunction in our cohort varied between 20 % (based on evaluation of LV filing profiles) and 24 % (based on the evaluation of the transmitral flow). The prevalence of diastolic dysfunction was higher in men than in women, independently of the criteria used (P between 0.004 and 0.022). Indexed LV end-diastolic volume, indexed LV stroke volume, indexed LV mass, indexed LA minimum volume and indexed LA maximum volume were significantly greater in men than in women (P < 0.05). All the subjects had LV ejection fractions within the normal range. It is clinically feasible to study diastolic flow and LV filling with CMR. CMR detected diastolic dysfunction in asymptomatic men and women. (orig.)

  3. Transformative Impact of Proteomics on Cardiovascular Health and Disease: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Merry L; Mayr, Manuel; Gomes, Aldrin V; Delles, Christian; Arrell, D Kent; Murphy, Anne M; Lange, Richard A; Costello, Catherine E; Jin, Yu-Fang; Laskowitz, Daniel T; Sam, Flora; Terzic, Andre; Van Eyk, Jennifer; Srinivas, Pothur R

    2015-09-01

    The year 2014 marked the 20th anniversary of the coining of the term proteomics. The purpose of this scientific statement is to summarize advances over this period that have catalyzed our capacity to address the experimental, translational, and clinical implications of proteomics as applied to cardiovascular health and disease and to evaluate the current status of the field. Key successes that have energized the field are delineated; opportunities for proteomics to drive basic science research, facilitate clinical translation, and establish diagnostic and therapeutic healthcare algorithms are discussed; and challenges that remain to be solved before proteomic technologies can be readily translated from scientific discoveries to meaningful advances in cardiovascular care are addressed. Proteomics is the result of disruptive technologies, namely, mass spectrometry and database searching, which drove protein analysis from 1 protein at a time to protein mixture analyses that enable large-scale analysis of proteins and facilitate paradigm shifts in biological concepts that address important clinical questions. Over the past 20 years, the field of proteomics has matured, yet it is still developing rapidly. The scope of this statement will extend beyond the reaches of a typical review article and offer guidance on the use of next-generation proteomics for future scientific discovery in the basic research laboratory and clinical settings.

  4. Heart and Lungs Protection Technique for Cardiac Surgery with Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Pichugin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardioplegic cardiac arrest with subsequent ischemic-reperfusion injuries can lead to the development of inflammation of the myocardium, leucocyte activation, and release of cardiac enzymes. Flow reduction to the bronchial arteries, causing low-flow lung ischemia, leads to the development of a pulmonary regional inflammatory response. Hypoventilation during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB is responsible for development of microatelectasis, hydrostatic pulmonary edema, poor compliance, and a higher incidence of infection. Based on these facts, prevention methods of these complications were developed. The aim of this study was to evaluate constant coronary perfusion (CCP and the “beating heart” in combination with pulmonary artery perfusion (PAP and “ventilated lungs” technique for heart and lung protection in cardiac surgery with CPB.Methods. After ethical approval and written informed consent, 80 patients undergoing cardiac surgery with normothermic CPB were randomized in three groups. In the first group (22 patients, the crystalloid cardioplegia without lung ventilation/perfusion techniques were used. In the second group (30 patients, the CCP and “beating heart” without lung ventilation/perfusion techniques were used. In the third group (28 patients, the CCP with PAP and lung ventilation techniques were used. Clinical, functional parameters, myocardial damage markers (CK MB level, oxygenation index, and lung compliance were investigated.Results. There were higher rates of spontaneous cardiac recovery and lower doses of inotrops in the second and third groups. Myocardial contractility function was better preserved in the second and third groups. The post-operative levels of CK-MB were lower than in control group.  Three hours after surgery CK-MB levels in the second and third  groups were lower by 38.1% and 33.3%, respectively. Eight hours after surgery, CK-MB levels were lower in the second and third groups by 45.9% and

  5. Plasma amino acid profiling identifies specific amino acid associations with cardiovascular function in patients with systolic heart failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daihiko Hakuno

    Full Text Available The heart has close interactions with other organs' functions and concomitant systemic factors such as oxidative stress, nitric oxide (NO, inflammation, and nutrition in systolic heart failure (HF. Recently, plasma amino acid (AA profiling as a systemic metabolic indicator has attracted considerable attention in predicting the future risk of human cardiometabolic diseases, but it has been scarcely studied in HF.Thirty-eight stable but greater than New York Heart Association class II symptomatic patients with left ventricular (LV ejection fraction <45% and 33 asymptomatic individuals with normal B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP value were registered as the HF and control groups, respectively. We analyzed fasting plasma concentrations of 41 AAs using high-performance liquid chromatography, serum NO metabolite concentration, hydroperoxide and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein measurements, echocardiography, and flow-mediated dilatation.We found that 17 AAs and two ratios significantly changed in the HF group compared with those in the control group (p < 0.05. In the HF group, subsequent univariate and stepwise multivariate analyses with clinical variables revealed that Fischer ratio and five specific AAs, ie, monoethanolamine, methionine, tyrosine, 1-methylhistidine, and histidine have significant correlation with BNP, LV ejection fraction, LV end-diastolic volume index, inferior vena cava diameter, the ratio of early diastolic velocity of the mitral inflow to mitral annulus, and BNP, respectively (p < 0.05. Interestingly, further exploratory factor analysis categorized these AAs into hepatic-related (monoethanolamine, tyrosine, and Fischer ratio and skeletal muscle-related (histidine, methionine, and 1-methylhistidine components. Some categorized AAs showed unique correlations with concomitant factors: monoethanolamine, tyrosine, and Fischer ratio with serum NO concentration; histidine with serum albumin; and 1-methylhistidine with flow

  6. Autophagy in cardiovascular biology

    OpenAIRE

    Lavandero, Sergio; Chiong, Mario; Rothermel, Beverly A.; Hill, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. As such, there is great interest in identifying novel mechanisms that govern the cardiovascular response to disease-related stress. First described in failing hearts, autophagy within the cardiovascular system has been widely characterized in cardiomyocytes, cardiac fibroblasts, endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, and macrophages. In all cases, a window of optimal autophagic activity appears to be critical to the mai...

  7. Cardiovascular Protective Effects of Adjunctive Alternative Medicine (Salvia miltiorrhiza and Pueraria lobata in High-Risk Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Woo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hypertension in association with diabetes (DM, renal impairment (RI, and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH increases the risk of future cardiovascular events. We hypothesize, traditional herbal medicines Danshen and Gegen (D&G have beneficial effects on atherogenesis in these high-risk hypertensive subjects. Subjects and Methods. 90 asymptomatic hypertensive subjects associated with LVH (63.3%, DM (62.2%, or RI (30% were randomized to receive D&G herbal capsules 1 gm/day, 2 gm/day, or identical placebo capsules in double-blind and parallel fashion for 12 months. Brachial flow-mediated dilation (endothelium-dependent dilation, FMD and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT were measured by ultrasound. All data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences in Windows 16.0. Results. Their mean age was 55±8 years, and 74.4% were male. After 12 months of adjunctive therapies and compared with baseline, there were no significant changes in blood pressure, heart rate, hematological, glucose, and creatinine profiles in both placebo and D&G groups. FMD improved significantly during D&G (P=0.0001 and less so after placebo treatment (P=0.001. There was a mild but significant decrease in carotid IMT after D&G (P<0.001 but no significant changes after placebo. A trend of better improvement in FMD after higher versus lower D&G dosages was seen. D&G were well tolerated, with no significant adverse events or blood biochemistry changes. Conclusion. D&G adjunctive treatment was well tolerated and significantly improved atherogenesis in high-risk hypertensive patients, with potential in primary atherosclerosis prevention.

  8. Pivotal importance of STAT3 in protecting the heart from acute and chronic stress: new advancement and unresolved issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foaud A. Zouein

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The transcription factor Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3 has been implicated in protecting the heart from acute ischemic injury under both basal conditions and as a crucial component of pre- and post-conditioning protocols. A number of anti-oxidant and antiapoptotic genes are upregulated by STAT3 via canonical means involving phosphorylation on Y705 and S727, although other incompletely defined posttranslational modifications are involved. In addition, STAT3 is now known to be present in cardiac mitochondria and to exert actions that regulate the electron transport chain, reactive oxygen species (ROS production, and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP opening. These non-canonical actions of STAT3 are enhanced by S727 phosphorylation. The molecular basis for the mitochondrial actions of STAT3 are poorly understood, but STAT3 is known to interact with a critical subunit of complex I and to regulate complex I function. Dysfunctional complex I has been implicated in ischemic injury, heart failure, and the aging process. Evidence also indicates that STAT3 is protective to the heart under chronic stress conditions, including hypertension, pregnancy, and advanced age. Paradoxically, the accumulation of unphosphorylated STAT3 (U-STAT3 in the nucleus has been suggested to drive pathological cardiac hypertrophy and inflammation via noncanonical gene expression, perhaps involving a distinct acetylation profile. U-STAT3 may also regulate chromatin stability. Our understanding of how the noncanonical genomic and mitochondrial actions of STAT3 in the heart are regulated and coordinated with the canonical actions of STAT3 is rudimentary. Here we present an overview of what is currently known about the pleotropic actions of STAT3 in the heart in order to highlight controversies and unresolved issues.

  9. Gene transfer of heat-shock protein 20 protects against ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat hearts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-hui ZHU; Tie-min MA; Xian WANG

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To explore whether overexpression of HSP20 in the myocardium could protect against ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Methods: Rat hearts were injected with vector, recombinant adenovirus encoding green fluorescent protein (Ad. GFP) or recombinant adenovirus encoding wild-type HSP20 (Ad. HSP20) in the left ventricle. Four days later, hearts were removed and expression of HSP20was measured in the left ventricle. Subsets of animals in the vector-, Ad. GFP-, and Ad. HSP20-treated groups were subjected to 20-min ischemia and 120-min reperfusion. Myocardial injury was evaluated by infarct size and level of serum cardiac troponin T and creatine phosphokinase. Apoptosis of cardiomyocytes was determined by TUNEL staining. Cardiac function was evaluated by hemodynamic indexes. Results: Infarct size and serum cardiac troponin T and creatine phosphokinase levels were significantly reduced in Ad. HSP20-treated hearts compared with vector- and Ad. GFP-treated hearts. The ratio of TUNEL-positive cardiomyocytes to total number of cardiomyocytes in the Ad. HSP20 group was significantly reduced as compared with the vector and Ad. GFP groups. Left ventricular end systolic pressure, and maximal rate of pressure increase (+dp/dtmax)and decrease (-dp/dtmin) values were increased significantly, while left ventricular end diastolic pressure was decreased significantly in Ad.HSP20-treated hearts compared with vector- and Ad. GFP-treated hearts. Conclusion: These data indicate that the cardioprotective effects of HSP20 may contribute to the reduction of myocardial necrosis and apoptosis in ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

  10. Cardiovascular and neurohumoral postural responses and baroreceptor abnormalities during a course of adjunctive vasodilator therapy with felodipine for congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassis, E; Amtorp, O

    1987-06-01

    Studies in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) have demonstrated an abnormal beta-adrenergic reflex vasodilation during orthostatic tilt. Baroreflex modulation of vascular resistance in patients with CHF was investigated during therapy with a vasoselective calcium antagonist, felodipine. Eight patients on conventional therapy for severe CHF were studied after a 3 week course of additional felodipine or placebo treatment under randomized, double-blind, and crossover conditions. Forearm subcutaneous vascular resistance (FSVR) was estimated with use of the local 133Xe washout. Aortic pulsatile stretch, expressed as the systolic distension in percent of diastolic diameter, was calculated from echocardiographic measurements of aortic root diameters. At 3 weeks, felodipine reduced the arterial pressure, systemic vascular resistance, and FSVR, preserved cardiac filling pressures and heart rate, and increased cardiac output, stroke volume, and aortic pulsatile stretch. Upright tilt (45 degrees) was used to study baroreflex-mediated cardiovascular responses. The unloading of cardiopulmonary baroreceptors during upright tilt was substantial and about equal during both treatment courses, but the pulse pressure was maintained during the placebo and decreased during the felodipine period. During tilt, the patients on placebo failed to increase heart rate and their FSVR, systemic vascular resistance, and arterial mean pressure were decreased, whereas during tilt after felodipine, heart rate and systemic vascular resistance increased to maintain arterial mean pressure and FSVR also tended to increase. Both the stroke volume and aortic pulsatile stretch increased during tilt in patients on placebo but they decreased in those on felodipine. The tilt caused increments in circulating norepinephrine and epinephrine levels during both treatment regimens. Regulation of FSVR during the sympathetic stimulation of orthostatic stress was further elucidated. Proximal neural blockade

  11. Pregnancy as a Window to Future Cardiovascular Health: Design and Implementation of the nuMoM2b Heart Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, David M; Ehrenthal, Deborah B; Koch, Matthew A; Catov, Janet M; Barnes, Shannon E; Facco, Francesca; Parker, Corette B; Mercer, Brian M; Bairey-Merz, C Noel; Silver, Robert M; Wapner, Ronald J; Simhan, Hyagriv N; Hoffman, Matthew K; Grobman, William A; Greenland, Philip; Wing, Deborah A; Saade, George R; Parry, Samuel; Zee, Phyllis C; Reddy, Uma M; Pemberton, Victoria L; Burwen, Dale R

    2016-03-15

    The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Nulliparous Pregnancy Outcomes Study-Monitoring Mothers-to-Be (nuMoM2b) Heart Health Study (HHS) was designed to investigate the relationships between adverse pregnancy outcomes and modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The ongoing nuMoM2b-HHS, which started in 2013, is a prospective follow-up of the nuMoM2b cohort, which included 10,038 women recruited between 2010 and 2013 from 8 centers across the United States who were initially observed over the course of their first pregnancies. In this report, we detail the design and study procedures of the nuMoM2b-HHS. Women in the pregnancy cohort who consented to be contacted for participation in future studies were approached at 6-month intervals to ascertain health information and to maintain ongoing contact. Two to 5 years after completion of the pregnancy documented in the nuMoM2b, women in the nuMoM2b-HHS were invited to an in-person study visit. During this visit, they completed psychosocial and medical history questionnaires and had clinical measurements and biological specimens obtained. A subcohort of participants who had objective assessments of sleep-disordered breathing during pregnancy were asked to repeat this investigation. This unique prospective observational study includes a large, geographically and ethnically diverse cohort, rich depth of phenotypic information about adverse pregnancy outcomes, and clinical data and biospecimens from early in the index pregnancy onward. Data obtained from this cohort will provide mechanistic and clinical insights into how data on a first pregnancy can provide information about the potential development of subsequent risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

  12. Genetic Evaluation and Use of Chromosome Microarray in Patients with Isolated Heart Defects: Benefits and Challenges of a New Model in Cardiovascular Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, Benjamin M; Freeze, Samantha L

    2016-01-01

    Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are common birth defects and result in significant morbidity and global economic impact. Genetic factors play a role in most CHDs; however, identification of these factors has been historically slow due to technological limitations and incomplete understanding of the impact of human genomic variation on normal and abnormal cardiovascular development. The advent of chromosome microarray (CMA) brought tremendous gains in identifying chromosome abnormalities in a variety of human disorders and is now considered part of a standard evaluation for individuals with multiple congenital anomalies and/or neurodevelopmental disorders. Several studies investigating use of CMA found that this technology can identify pathogenic copy-number variations (CNVs) in up to 15-20% of patients with CHDs with other congenital anomalies. However, there have been fewer studies exploring the use of CMA for patients with isolated CHDs. Recent studies have shown that the diagnostic yield of CMA in individuals with seemingly isolated CHD is lower than in individuals with CHDs and additional anomalies. Nevertheless, positive CMA testing in this group supports chromosome variation as one mechanism underlying the development of isolated, non-syndromic CHD - either as a causative or risk-influencing genetic factor. CMA has also identified novel genomic variation in CHDs, shedding light on candidate genes and pathways involved in cardiac development and malformations. Additional studies are needed to further address this issue. Early genetic diagnosis can enhance the medical management of patients and potentially provide crucial information about recurrence. This information is critical for genetic counseling of patients and family members. In this review, we review CMA for the non-genetics cardiology provider, offer a summary of CNV in isolated CHDs, and advocate for the use of CMA as part of the cardiovascular genetics evaluation of patients with isolated CHDs. We

  13. New cholesterol guidelines for the management of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk: a comparison of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association cholesterol guidelines with the 2014 National Lipid Association recommendations for patient-centered management of dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhyaru, Bhavin B; Jacobson, Terry A

    2015-05-01

    This review discusses the 2013 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) Guideline on the Treatment of Blood Cholesterol to Reduce Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Risk in Adults and compares it with the 2014 National Lipid Association (NLA) Recommendations for Patient-Centered Management of Dyslipidemia. The review discusses some of the distinctions between the guidelines, including how to determine a patient's atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk, the role of lipoprotein treatment targets, the importance of moderate- and high-intensity statin therapy, and the use of nonstatin therapy in light of the IMProved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial (IMPROVE-IT) trial.

  14. Can pure fruit and vegetable juices protect against cancer and cardiovascular disease too? A review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruxton, Carrie H S; Gardner, Elaine J; Walker, Drew

    2006-01-01

    While it is widely accepted that fruit and vegetables (F&V) lower the risk of cancer, and cardiovascular disease (CVD), the role of pure fruit and vegetable (PFV) juices is often downplayed. This review poses two questions: Are the protective benefits of F&V dependent upon constituents lacking in PFV juices (e.g. fibre)? Do PFV juices impact on disease risk when considered separately from F&V? Studies comparing the effects of fibre and antioxidants were reviewed, yielding the finding that the impact of F&V may relate more strongly to antioxidants, than to fibre. For the second question, high-quality published studies that considered PFV juices were reviewed. The impact of PFV juices on cancer risk was weakly positive, although a lack of human data and contradictory findings hampered conclusions. For CVD, there was convincing evidence from epidemiological and clinical studies that PFV juices reduced risk via a number of probable mechanisms. It was concluded that the view that PFV juices are nutritionally inferior to F&V, in relation to chronic disease risk reduction, is unjustified.

  15. Protective effect of curcumin on pulmonary and cardiovascular effects induced by repeated exposure to diesel exhaust particles in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrahim Nemmar

    Full Text Available Particulate air pollution has been associated with increased risk of cardiopulmonary diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We have previously demonstrated that single dose exposure to diesel exhaust particle (DEP causes lung inflammation and peripheral thrombotic events. Here, we exposed mice with repeated doses of DEP (15 µg/animal every 2(nd day for 6 days (a total of 4 exposures, and measured several cardiopulmonary endpoints 48 h after the end of the treatments. Moreover, the potential protective effect of curcumin (the yellow pigment isolated from turmeric on DEP-induced cardiopulmonary toxicity was assessed. DEP exposure increased macrophage and neutrophil numbers, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF α in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid, and enhanced airway resistance to methacoline measured invasively using Flexivent. DEP also significantly increased plasma C-reactive protein (CRP and TNF α concentrations, systolic blood pressure (SBP as well as the pial arteriolar thrombosis. It also significantly enhanced the plasma D-dimer and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1. Pretreatment with curcumin by oral gavage (45 mg/kg 1 h before exposure to DEP significantly prevented the influx of inflammatory cells and the increase of TNF α in BAL, and the increased airway resistance caused by DEP. Likewise, curcumin prevented the increase of SBP, CRP, TNF α, D-dimer and PAI-1. The thrombosis was partially but significantly mitigated. In conclusion, repeated exposure to DEP induced lung and systemic inflammation characterized by TNFα release, increased SBP, and accelerated coagulation. Our findings indicate that curcumin is a potent anti-inflammatory agent that prevents the release of TNFα and protects against the pulmonary and cardiovascular effects of DEP.

  16. Usefulness of Doppler echocardiographic left ventricular diastolic function and peak exercise oxygen consumption to predict cardiovascular outcomes in patients with systolic heart failure (from HF-ACTION).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardin, Julius M; Leifer, Eric S; Kitzman, Dalane W; Cohen, Gerald; Landzberg, Joel S; Cotts, William; Wolfel, Eugene E; Safford, Robert E; Bess, Renee L; Fleg, Jerome L

    2012-09-15

    Heart Failure: A Controlled Trial Investigating Outcomes of Exercise Training (HF-ACTION) was a multicenter, randomized controlled trial designed to examine the safety and efficacy of aerobic exercise training versus usual care in 2,331 patients with systolic heart failure (HF). In HF-ACTION patients with rest transthoracic echocardiographic measurements, the predictive value of 8 Doppler echocardiographic measurements-left ventricular (LV) diastolic dimension, mass, systolic (ejection fraction) and diastolic (mitral valve peak early diastolic/peak late diastolic [E/A] ratio, peak mitral valve early diastolic velocity/tissue Doppler peak early diastolic myocardial velocity [E/E'] ratio, and deceleration time) function, left atrial dimension, and mitral regurgitation severity-was examined for a primary end point of all-cause death or hospitalization and a secondary end point of cardiovascular disease death or HF hospitalization. Also compared was the prognostic value of echocardiographic variables versus peak oxygen consumption (Vo(2)). Mitral valve E/A and E/E' ratios were more powerful independent predictors of clinical end points than the LV ejection fraction but less powerful than peak Vo(2). In multivariate analyses for predicting the primary end point, adding E/A ratio to a basic demographic and clinical model increased the C-index from 0.61 to 0.62, compared with 0.64 after adding peak Vo(2). For the secondary end point, 6 echocardiographic variables, but not the LV ejection fraction or left atrial dimension, provided independent predictive power over the basic model. The addition of E/E' or E/A to the basic model increased the C-index from 0.70 to 0.72 and 0.73, respectively (all p values <0.0001). Simultaneously adding E/A ratio and peak Vo(2) to the basic model increased the C-index to 0.75 (p <0.0005). No echocardiographic variable was significantly related to the change from baseline to 3 months in exercise peak Vo(2). In conclusion, the addition of

  17. Cardiovascular prevention and rehabilitation in the elderly: evidence for cardiac rehabilitation after myocardial infarction or chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattirolli, Francesco; Pratesi, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation in the elderly today often represents a utopia. The international scientific literature takes little into account this type of prescription for old people, although they represent a large and growing proportion of cardiac patients, with acute coronary syndrome or heart failure, which we have to manage in everyday life. Furthermore, interventions of health education, clinical follow up, rehospitalisation prevention and prescription of tailored exercise, are sometimes more necessary in this kind of patients, given the presence of multimorbidity, functional dependence, frailty, sarcopenia, social neglect. Most of the data on the feasibility, safety and efficacy of cardiac rehabilitation are favourable, but they are few and apparently not strong enough to convince the medical community. Therefore is necessary to join efforts to identify the geriatric patient's peculiarities and plan a suitable program of cardiac rehabilitation, which takes into account the multi-dimensionality and complexity of typical problems of the elderly, for which the classical cardiac outcomes can be limited. PMID:27374045

  18. Adult family members and their resemblance of coronary heart disease risk factors: The Cardiovascular Disease Study in Finnmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coronary heart disease tends to run in families, and the familial resemblance of major risk factors for the disease was examined among various types of adult family members. Family units were assembled from a total of 4,738 men and women who took part in a cross sectional health survey in four Norwegian municipalities where all inhabitants between 20 and 52 years of age were invited. After adjusting for age and other confounders, correlation coefficients were derived as a measure of the degree of resemblance. Viewed across all types of investigated familial relationships, similarity was found to be stronger for total cholesterol than for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides, and also stronger for systolic than for diastolic blood pressure. Between husbands and wives (3,060 subjects), correlations were small (between 0.02 and 0.06), except for 0.11 for total cholesterol. Lipid and blood pressure correlations ranged from 0.13 to 0.27 for parents and their offspring (471 subjects, p < 0.05) and from 0.11 to 0.22 among siblings (2,166 subjects, p < 0.01). Sibling correlations were consistent across age groups. Furthermore, reports from each individual on daily smoking (yes or no) revealed that husbands and wives had similar habits in 63.5% of all marriages as compared with the expected 49.4% had no smoking similarity at all been present. Smoking concordance was also demonstrated among siblings (p < 0.01). The persistent pattern of lipid and blood pressure aggregation among genetically related individuals from 20 to 52 years of age and the much weaker such similarity between husbands and wives, point towards genes or commonly shared environment at early ages as a major reason why coronary heart disease runs in families

  19. Health Factors and Risk of All-Cause, Cardiovascular, and Coronary Heart Disease Mortality: Findings from the MONICA and HAPIEE Studies in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Luksiene, Dalia; Baceviciene, Migle; Bernotiene, Gailute; Radisauskas, Ricardas; Malinauskiene, Vilija; Kranciukaite-Butylkiniene, Daina; Virviciute, Dalia; Peasey, Anne; Bobak, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Aims This study investigated the trends and levels of the prevalence of health factors, and the association of all-cause and cardiovascular (CVD) mortality with healthy levels of combined risk factors among Lithuanian urban population. Methods Data from five general population surveys in Kaunas, Lithuania, conducted between 1983 and 2008 were used. Healthy factors measured at baseline include non-smoking, normal weight, normal arterial blood pressure, normal level of total serum cholesterol, normal physical activity and normal level of fasting glucose. Among 9,209 men and women aged 45–64 (7,648 were free from coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke at baseline), 1,219 death cases from any cause, 589 deaths from CVD, and 342 deaths from CHD occurred during follow up. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the association between health factors and mortality from all causes, CVD and CHD. Results Between 1983 and 2008, the proportion of subjects with 6 healthy levels of risk factors was higher in 2006–2008 than in 1983–1984 (0.6% vs. 0.2%; p = 0.09), although there was a significant increase in fasting glucose and a decline in intermediate physical activity. Men and women with normal or intermediate levels of risk factors had significantly lower all-cause, CVD and CHD mortality risk than persons with high levels of risk factors. Subjects with 5–6 healthy factors had hazard ratio (HR) of CVD mortality 0.35 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15–0.83) compared to average risk in the whole population. The hazard ratio for CVD mortality risk was significant in men (HR 0.34, 95% CI 0.12–0.97) but not in women (HR 0.38, 95% CI 0.09–1.67). Conclusions An inverse association of most healthy levels of cardiovascular risk factors with risk of all-cause and CVD mortality was observed in this urban population-based cohort. A greater number of cardiovascular health factors were related with significantly lower risk of CVD mortality, particularly

  20. Health factors and risk of all-cause, cardiovascular, and coronary heart disease mortality: findings from the MONICA and HAPIEE studies in Lithuania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdonas Tamosiunas

    Full Text Available AIMS: This study investigated the trends and levels of the prevalence of health factors, and the association of all-cause and cardiovascular (CVD mortality with healthy levels of combined risk factors among Lithuanian urban population. METHODS: Data from five general population surveys in Kaunas, Lithuania, conducted between 1983 and 2008 were used. Healthy factors measured at baseline include non-smoking, normal weight, normal arterial blood pressure, normal level of total serum cholesterol, normal physical activity and normal level of fasting glucose. Among 9,209 men and women aged 45-64 (7,648 were free from coronary heart disease (CHD and stroke at baseline, 1,219 death cases from any cause, 589 deaths from CVD, and 342 deaths from CHD occurred during follow up. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the association between health factors and mortality from all causes, CVD and CHD. RESULTS: Between 1983 and 2008, the proportion of subjects with 6 healthy levels of risk factors was higher in 2006-2008 than in 1983-1984 (0.6% vs. 0.2%; p = 0.09, although there was a significant increase in fasting glucose and a decline in intermediate physical activity. Men and women with normal or intermediate levels of risk factors had significantly lower all-cause, CVD and CHD mortality risk than persons with high levels of risk factors. Subjects with 5-6 healthy factors had hazard ratio (HR of CVD mortality 0.35 (95% confidence interval (CI 0.15-0.83 compared to average risk in the whole population. The hazard ratio for CVD mortality risk was significant in men (HR 0.34, 95% CI 0.12-0.97 but not in women (HR 0.38, 95% CI 0.09-1.67. CONCLUSIONS: An inverse association of most healthy levels of cardiovascular risk factors with risk of all-cause and CVD mortality was observed in this urban population-based cohort. A greater number of cardiovascular health factors were related with significantly lower risk of CVD mortality, particularly among

  1. Protective effects of drag-reducing polymers on ischemic reperfusion injury of isolated rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Feng; Wang, Yali; Gong, Kaizheng; Ge, Gaoyuan; Cao, Mingqiang; Zhao, Pei; Sun, Xiaoning; Zhang, Zhengang

    2016-01-01

    Drag-reducing polymers (DRPs) are blood-soluble macromolecules that can increase blood flow and reduce vascular resistance. The purpose of the present study was to observe the effect of DRPs on ischemic reperfusion (I/R) injury of isolated rat hearts. Experiments were performed on isolated rat hearts subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 90 min of reperfusion in Langendorff preparations. Adult Wistar rats were divided into the following five groups: control group, I/R group, group III (I/R and 2×10(-7)  g/ml PEO reperfusion), group IV (I/R and 1×10(-6)  g/ml PEO reperfusion), and group V (I/R and 5×10(-6)  g/ml PEO reperfusion). Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), maximum rate of ventricular pressure increase and decrease ( ± dp/dtmax), heart rate (HR) and coronary flow were measured. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) activity and coronary flow, myocardial infarction size and cardiomyocytes apoptosis were also assayed. Our results showed that PEO decreased LVEDP and increased LVSP, ± dP/dtmax in group IV and group V compared with the I/R group (all P rat hearts and it may offer a new potential approach for the treatment of acute ischemic heart diseases. PMID:25633566

  2. Widening access to cardiovascular healthcare: community screening among ethnic minorities in inner-city Britain – the Healthy Hearts Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey Inessa

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD in Britain is concentrated in inner-city areas such as Sandwell, which is home to a diverse multi-ethnic population. Current guidance for CVD risk screening is not established, nor are there specific details for ethnic minorities. Given the disparity in equitable healthcare for these groups, we developed a 'tailored' and systematic approach to CVD risk screening within communities of the Sandwell locality. The key anticipated outcomes were the numbers of participants from various ethnic backgrounds attending the health screening events and the prevalence of known and undiagnosed CVD risk within ethnic groups. Methods Data was collected during 10 health screening events (September 2005 and July 2006, which included an assessment of raised blood pressure, overweight, hyperlipidaemia, impaired fasting glucose, smoking habit and the 10 year CVD risk score. Specific features of our approach included (i community involvement, (ii a clinician who could deliver immediate attention to adverse findings, and (iii the use of an interpreter. Results A total of 824 people from the Sandwell were included in this study (47% men, mean age 47.7 years from community groups such as the Gujarati Indian, Punjabi Indian, European Caucasian, Yemeni, Pakistani and Bangladeshi. A total of 470 (57% individuals were referred to their General Practitioner with a report of an increased CVD score – undetected high blood pressure in 120 (15%, undetected abnormal blood glucose in 70 (8%, undetected raised total cholesterol in 149 (18%, and CVD risk management review in 131 (16%. Conclusion Using this systematic and targeted approach, there was a clear demand for this service from people of various ethnic backgrounds, of whom, one in two needed review from primary or secondary healthcare. Further work is required to assess the accuracy and clinical benefits of this community health screening approach.

  3. Primary Low Level of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Risks of Coronary Heart Disease, Cardiovascular Disease, and Death: Results From the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Haitham M; Miller, Michael; Nasir, Khurram; McEvoy, John W; Herrington, David; Blumenthal, Roger S; Blaha, Michael J

    2016-05-15

    Prior studies observing associations between low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and cardiovascular disease (CVD) have often been conducted among persons with metabolic or other lipid abnormalities. In this study, we investigated the association between primary low HDL cholesterol and coronary heart disease (CHD), CVD, and all-cause death after adjustment for confounders in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Participants who were free of clinical CVD were recruited from 6 US research centers from 2000 to 2002 and followed for a median duration of 10.2 years. We defined "primary low HDL cholesterol" as HDL cholesterol level death were 2.25 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20, 4.21; P = 0.011), 1.93 (95% CI: 1.11, 3.34; P = 0.020), and 1.11 (95% CI: 0.67, 1.84; P = 0.69), respectively. Participants with primary low HDL cholesterol had higher risks of CHD and CVD than participants with optimal lipid profiles but no difference in survival after a median 10.2 years of follow-up. PMID:27189327

  4. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: prevalence and estimated risk of coronary heart disease in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, O; Arildsen, H; Damsgaard, E M;

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in Type 1 diabetes mellitus in the general population and to assess the relationship between CAN and risk of future coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: The Type 1 diabetes mellitus...... population in the municipality of Horsens, Denmark, was delineated by the prescription method and a random sample of 120 diabetics aged 40-75 years was recruited. Type 1 diabetes mellitus was registered if fasting C-peptide was below 0.30 nmol L(-1). The E/I ratio was calculated as the mean of the longest R......, was computed. Additionally, the 10-year risk of CHD was calculated using the Framingham model. RESULTS: A total of 84 people responded, of whom 71 had Type 1 diabetes mellitus. The E/I ratio was measured in 69 people. The prevalence of CAN expressed as an E/I ratio below the normal 5th percentile was 38...

  5. Role of risk stratification by SPECT, PET, and hybrid imaging in guiding management of stable patients with ischaemic heart disease: expert panel of the EANM cardiovascular committee and EACVI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acampa, Wanda; Gaemperli, Oliver; Gimelli, Alessia; Knaapen, Paul; Schindler, Thomas H; Verberne, Hein J; Zellweger, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Risk stratification has become increasingly important in the management of patients with suspected or known ischaemic heart disease (IHD). Recent guidelines recommend that these patients have their care driven by risk assessment. The purpose of this position statement is to summarize current evidence on the value of cardiac single-photon emission computed tomography, positron emission tomography, and hybrid imaging in risk stratifying asymptomatic or symptomatic patients with suspected IHD, patients with stable disease, patients after coronary revascularization, heart failure patients, and specific patient population. In addition, this position statement evaluates the impact of imaging results on clinical decision-making and thereby its role in patient management. The document represents the opinion of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) Cardiovascular Committee and of the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) and intends to stimulate future research in this field. PMID:25902767

  6. Chlamydia pneumoniae, heat shock proteins 60 and risk of secondary cardiovascular events in patients with coronary heart disease under special consideration of diabetes: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Twardella Dorothee

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been suggestions of an association between Chlamydia pneumoniae, chlamydial heat shock protein (Ch-hsp 60 and human heat shock protein (h-hsp 60 infection sero-status and development of secondary cardiovascular events. Patients with diabetes might be at higher risk since they are prone to infections. The objective of this study was to investigate prospectively the role of Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP, chlamydial heat shock protein (Ch-hsp 60 and a possible intermediate role of human heat shock protein (h-hsp 60 sero-status in the development of secondary cardiovascular disease (CVD events in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD under special consideration of diabetes mellitus. Methods Patients aged 30–70 undergoing an in-patient rehabilitation program after acute manifestation of coronary heart disease (International Classification of Disease, 9th Rev. pos. 410–414 between January 1999 and May 2000 in one of two participating rehabilitation clinics in Germany were included in this analysis. Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP, chlamydial heat shock protein (Ch-hsp 60 and human heat shock protein (h-hsp 60 status at baseline were measured by serum immunoglobulin G and A antibodies. Secondary CVD events (myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular death were recorded during a mean follow-up period of 33.5 months (response = 87%. Results Among the 1052 subjects 37.4% and 39.3% were sero-positive to CP IgA and IgG respectively, 22.2% were sero-positive to Ch-hsp 60 IgG and 8.4% were positive to h-hsp 60 IgG at baseline. During follow-up, secondary CVD events occurred among 71 (6.8% participants. Occurrence of a secondary CVD event was more common among CP (IgA and CP (IgG sero-positive than among sero-negative patients (p-values 0.04 and 0.1, respectively. The risk of secondary CVD events was increased among patients with both a positive CP sero-status and diabetes compared to infection negative, non-diabetic patients

  7. Commonly Used Antioxidant Botanicals: Active Constituents and their Potential Role in Cardiovascular Illness

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; MEHENDALE, SANGEETA R.; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2007-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease continues to be the leading cause of death in the US. Recent studies found that reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been incriminated in the pathogenesis of both acute and chronic heart disease. Many botanicals possess antioxidant properties, and these herbal antioxidants may protect against cardiovascular diseases by contributing to the total antioxidant defense system of the human body. In this article, we reviewed the antioxidant components and properties of four puta...

  8. Protective role of Kalpaamruthaa in type II diabetes mellitus-induced cardiovascular disease through the modulation of protease-activated receptor-1

    OpenAIRE

    Raja Latha; Palanivelu Shanthi; Panchanadham Sachdanandam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Kalpaamruthaa (KA) is a formulatory herbal preparation has beneficial antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties against cardiovascular damage (CVD). Objective: The present study was undertaken to investigate the protective role of KA in type II diabetes mellitus-induced CVD through the modulation of protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1). Materials and Methods: CVD was developed in 8 weeks after type II diabetes mellitus induction with high fat diet (2 weeks) and ...

  9. ATP-loaded Liposomes Effectively Protect Mechanical Functions of the Myocardium from Global Ischemia in an Isolated Rat Heart Model

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, D.D.; Levchenko, T.S.; Bernstein, E.A.; Torchilin, V.P

    2005-01-01

    ATP-loaded liposomes (ATP-L) infused into Langendorff-instrumented isolated rat hearts protect the mechanical functions of the myocardium during ischemia/reperfusion. The left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) at the end of the reperfusion in the ATP-L group recovered to 72% of the baseline (preservation of the systolic function) compared to 26%, 40%, and 51% in the groups treated with Krebs-Henseleit (KH) buffer, empty liposomes (EL), and free ATP (F-ATP), respectively. The ATP-L-treated...

  10. Protective effects of calmodulin antagonists (trifluoperazine and W-7 on hypothermic ischemic rat hearts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugawara,Eiji

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available The cardioprotective effect of calmodulin antagonists, trifluoperazine (TFP and N-(6-aminohexyl-5-chloro-1-naphthalene sulfonamide (W-7 was examined on the isolated rat heart exposed to hypothermic and ischemic conditions by measuring distribution of lysosomal enzymes in myocardial cells, and leakage of creatine kinase (CK during reperfusion and postischemic recovery in myocardial systolic function. Experimental hearts were infused with 20 degrees C Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate buffer (KHB or KHB containing TFP or W-7 for 2min every 30min during hypothermic ischemia. After ischemia for 120min at 20 degrees C, rat hearts were reperfused at 37 degrees C for 30min. TFP and W-7 improved functional recovery and prevented CK release. In TFP treated hearts, leakage of lysosomal enzymes was reduced significantly, whereas stabilization of lysosomes by W-7 did not occur. These results suggest that calcium-calmodulin dependent enzymes may play an important role in the development of cellular damage of the myocardium during hypothermic ischemia, although levels of leakage of lysosomal enzymes may be unreliable predictors of functional recovery after hypothermic ischemia.

  11. 5-HT2B Receptor Antagonists Inhibit Fibrosis and Protect from RV Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebke Janssen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The serotonin (5-HT pathway was shown to play a role in pulmonary hypertension (PH, but its functions in right ventricular failure (RVF remain poorly understood. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of Terguride (5-HT2A and 2B receptor antagonist or SB204741 (5-HT2B receptor antagonist on right heart function and structure upon pulmonary artery banding (PAB in mice. Methods. Seven days after PAB, mice were treated for 14 days with Terguride (0.2 mg/kg bid or SB204741 (5 mg/kg day. Right heart function and remodeling were assessed by right heart catheterization, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and histomorphometric methods. Total secreted collagen content was determined in mouse cardiac fibroblasts isolated from RV tissues. Results. Chronic treatment with Terguride or SB204741 reduced right ventricular fibrosis and showed improved heart function in mice after PAB. Moreover, 5-HT2B receptor antagonists diminished TGF-beta1 induced collagen synthesis of RV cardiac fibroblasts in vitro. Conclusion. 5-HT2B receptor antagonists reduce collagen deposition, thereby inhibiting right ventricular fibrosis. Chronic treatment prevented the development and progression of pressure overload-induced RVF in mice. Thus, 5-HT2B receptor antagonists represent a valuable novel therapeutic approach for RVF.

  12. Effect of myocardial protection during beating heart surgery with right sub-axiliary approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jie; LI Xin-hua; YAN Zi-xing; LIU Ai-jun; ZHANG Wen-kai; YANG Li-na

    2009-01-01

    Background Cardiac troponin-I (cTnl) is one of the three regulatory subunits of the cardiac troponin which has the high sensibility and specificity of responding to myocardial injury. Studies have demonstrated that cTnl is released into the blood stream within hours following acute myocardial reperfusion injury. The clinical utility of cTnl for the assessment of myocardial damage is that it is more specific than creatine kinase MB (CKMB). This study investigated cTnl as a sensitive marker of myocardial reperfusion injury and its clinical value on beating heart surgery with right sub-axiliary incision. Methods From December 2002 threugh December 2004,100 patients with atrial septal defect (ASD), ventricular septal defect (VSD), atrial septal defect and ventricular septal defect (ASD+VSD), and tetralogy of Fallot were randomly divided into two groups: the treatment group (n=50) was operated on with a beating heart under extracorporeal circulation (ECC), and the control group (n=50) on an conventional arresting heart under ECC. The two groups both used a right sub-axillary incision. Blood samples from a central venous catheter (CVC) were collected before, at the end of aortic clamping, immediately after discontinue cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), 3, 6, 24, and 48 hours after operation. The Abbott Axsym system with hol-automation fluorescent immunity analyzer was used for the quantitative determination of cTnl. cTnl was detected to investigate the effect of myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury and the clinical value of beating heart surgery with right sub-axillary incision. Results There were no significant differences between the two groups before operation. At the end of aortic clamping and thereafter, cTnl significantly increased in both groups, and reached the peak point at 6 hours after operation. At all the tested points, cTnl was significantly higher in the control group than the beating heart group (P <0.05), especially at 6 hours post operation (P <0.01). The

  13. [Metabolic therapy for heart failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiacono, Ferdinando; Alberti, Luca; Lauretta, Ludovica; Puccetti, Patrizia; Silipigni, Carmen; Margonato, Alberto; Fragasso, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    Heart failure may promote metabolic changes such as insulin resistance, in part through neurohumoral activation, and determining an increased utilization of non-carbohydrate substrates for energy production. In fact, fasting blood ketone bodies as well as fat oxidation have been shown to be increased in patients with heart failure. The result is depletion of myocardial ATP, phosphocreatine and creatine kinase with decreased efficiency of mechanical work. A direct approach to manipulate cardiac energy metabolism consists in modifying substrate utilization by the failing heart. To date, the most effective metabolic treatments include several pharmacological agents that directly inhibit fatty acid oxidation. The results of current research are supporting the concept that shifting the energy substrate preference away from fatty acid metabolism and toward glucose metabolism could be an effective adjunctive treatment in patients with heart failure. Trimetazidine is the most studied drug in this context. Several small studies have evidenced the usefulness of such additional therapeutic tools for heart failure. More specifically, recent meta-analyses and a multicenter retrospective study have shown that additional use of trimetazidine in patients with heart failure, along with symptoms and cardiac function improvement, also provides a significant protective effect on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular events and hospitalization due to cardiac causes. Nevertheless, the exact role of metabolic therapy in heart failure is yet to be established, and a large multicenter randomized trial is necessary. PMID:25072544

  14. Factors influencing the relation between alcohol and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbaek, Morten

    2006-01-01

    to a binge - intake of alcohol have benefits with regard to cardiovascular disease. Prospective studies from the UK, Sweden and Denmark have further suggested that wine drinkers have a lower mortality than beer and spirits drinkers. SUMMARY: The J-shaped relation between alcohol intake and cardiovascular......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Light-to-moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties in some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relation between alcohol and cardiovascular disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Several large American studies have shown...... that the J-shaped relation is influenced by age and coronary heart disease risk-factor status since only middle-aged and elderly and those already at risk of developing coronary heart disease seem protected by drinking alcohol. It has also been suggested that only those who have a steady - in contrast...

  15. Triggering role of nitric oxide in the delayed protective effect of monophosphoryl lipid A in rat heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    György, Katalin; Muller, Bernard; Végh, Agnes; Kleschyov, Andrei L; Stoclet, Jean-Claud

    1999-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to further evaluate the role of nitric oxide (NO) in delayed cardiac protection against ischaemia-reperfusion injury induced by monophosphoryl lipid A (MLA).For this purpose, rats were administered with either 0.5 or 2.5 mg kg−1 MLA (i.p.). Eight or 24 h later, in vivo NO production in the heart was analysed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping technique. In parallel experiments, hearts were removed and perfused according to Langendorff. Functional ventricular parameters and incidence of ventricular fibrillation (VF) were determined after 30 min global ischaemic insult (37°C) followed by 30 min reperfusion. Vascular reactivity of aortic rings was also assessed.Hearts from rats pretreated with 2.5 mg kg−1 MLA for 24 h (but not those from rats treated with 0.5 mg kg−1 MLA for 8 and 24 h, or with 2.5 mg kg−1 MLA for 8 h) exhibited preservation of ventricular function (LVDP, ±dP/dtmax) and a reduced incidence of VF (25% vs 87.5% in vehicle control) during reperfusion. At the cardioprotective dose of 2.5 mg kg−1 (for 8 or 24 h), MLA did not produce alterations of the contractile response of aortic rings to noradrenaline.An increased formation of NO was detected in hearts removed from rats pretreated with 2.5 mg kg−1 MLA for 8 h, but not in those from rats treated for 24 h (or with 0.5 mg kg−1 MLA).Pretreatment of the animals with the inhibitors of inducible NO-synthase, aminoguanidine (2×300 mg kg−1) or L-N6-(1-Iminoethyl)-lysine (L-NIL, 10 mg kg−1) abolished both MLA (2.5 mg kg−1)-induced rise of NO production (observed 8 h after MLA) and cardioprotection (observed 24 h after MLA). However MLA-induced cardioprotection was not attenuated when the hearts were perfused with aminoguanidine (150 μM) for 30 min before the ischaemic insult.Altogether, the present data suggest that NO acts as a trigger rather then a direct

  16. Women and Heart Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹国如

    2005-01-01

    Heart disease is the leading killer of Americans. But it kills more women than men. The American Heart Association says heart disease and other cardiovascular (心血管的) disorders kill about five hundred thousand women a year. That is more than the next seven causes of death combined.

  17. Inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin protects against reperfusion injury in diabetic heart through STAT3 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anindita; Salloum, Fadi N; Filippone, Scott M; Durrant, David E; Rokosh, Gregg; Bolli, Roberto; Kukreja, Rakesh C

    2015-05-01

    Diabetic patients suffer augmented severity of myocardial infarction. Excessive activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and decreased activation of STAT3 are implicated in diabetic complications. Considering the potent cardioprotective effect of mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, we hypothesized that reperfusion therapy with rapamycin would reduce infarct size in the diabetic hearts through STAT3 signaling. Hearts from adult male db/db or wild type (WT) C57 mice were isolated and subjected to 30 min of normothermic global ischemia and 60 min of reperfusion in Langendorff mode. Rapamycin (100 nM) was infused at the onset of reperfusion. Myocardial infarct size (IS) was significantly reduced in rapamycin-treated mice (13.3 ± 2.4 %) compared to DMSO vehicle control (35.9 ± 0.9 %) or WT mice (27.7 ± 1.1 %). Rapamycin treatment restored phosphorylation of STAT3 and enhanced AKT phosphorylation (target of mTORC2), but significantly reduced ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation (target of mTORC1) in the diabetic heart. To determine the cause and effect relationship of STAT3 in cardioprotection, inducible cardiac-specific STAT3-deficient (MCM TG:STAT3(flox/flox)) and WT mice (MCM TG:STAT3(flox/flox)) were made diabetic by feeding high fat diet (HFD). Rapamycin given at reperfusion reduced IS in WT mice but not in STAT3-deficient mice following I/R. Moreover, cardiomyocytes isolated from HFD-fed WT mice showed resistance against necrosis (trypan blue staining) and apoptosis (TUNEL assay) when treated with rapamycin during reoxygenation following simulated ischemia. Such protection was absent in cardiomyocytes from HFD-fed STAT3-deficient mice. STAT3 signaling plays critical role in reducing IS and attenuates cardiomyocyte death following reperfusion therapy with rapamycin in diabetic heart.

  18. Protective Effect of Qiliqiangxin Capsule on Energy Metabolism and Myocardial Mitochondria in Pressure Overload Heart Failure Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Qiliqiangxin capsule (QL was developed under the guidance of TCM theory of collateral disease and had been shown to be effective and safe for the treatment of heart failure. The present study explored the role of and mechanism by which the herbal compounds QL act on energy metabolism, in vivo, in pressure overload heart failure. SD rats received ascending aorta constriction (TAC to establish a model of myocardial hypertrophy. The animals were treated orally for a period of six weeks. QL significantly inhibited cardiac hypertrophy due to ascending aortic constriction and improved hemodynamics. This effect was linked to the expression levels of the signaling factors in connection with upregulated energy and the regulation of glucose and lipid substrate metabolism and with a decrease in metabolic intermediate products and the protection of mitochondrial function. It is concluded that QL may regulate the glycolipid substrate metabolism by activating AMPK/PGC-1α axis and reduce the accumulation of free fatty acids and lactic acid, to protect cardiac myocytes and mitochondrial function.

  19. Accelerated cardiovascular magnetic resonance of the mouse heart using self-gated parallel imaging strategies does not compromise accuracy of structural and functional measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörries Carola

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-gated dynamic cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR enables non-invasive visualization of the heart and accurate assessment of cardiac function in mouse models of human disease. However, self-gated CMR requires the acquisition of large datasets to ensure accurate and artifact-free reconstruction of cardiac cines and is therefore hampered by long acquisition times putting high demands on the physiological stability of the animal. For this reason, we evaluated the feasibility of accelerating the data collection using the parallel imaging technique SENSE with respect to both anatomical definition and cardiac function quantification. Results Findings obtained from accelerated data sets were compared to fully sampled reference data. Our results revealed only minor differences in image quality of short- and long-axis cardiac cines: small anatomical structures (papillary muscles and the aortic valve and left-ventricular (LV remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI were accurately detected even for 3-fold accelerated data acquisition using a four-element phased array coil. Quantitative analysis of LV cardiac function (end-diastolic volume (EDV, end-systolic volume (ESV, stroke volume (SV, ejection fraction (EF and LV mass in healthy and infarcted animals revealed no substantial deviations from reference (fully sampled data for all investigated acceleration factors with deviations ranging from 2% to 6% in healthy animals and from 2% to 8% in infarcted mice for the highest acceleration factor of 3.0. CNR calculations performed between LV myocardial wall and LV cavity revealed a maximum CNR decrease of 50% for the 3-fold accelerated data acquisition when compared to the fully-sampled acquisition. Conclusions We have demonstrated the feasibility of accelerated self-gated retrospective CMR in mice using the parallel imaging technique SENSE. The proposed method led to considerably reduced acquisition times, while preserving high

  20. Is Sex Good for Your Health? A National Study on Partnered Sexuality and Cardiovascular Risk Among Older Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Waite, Linda; Shen, Shannon; Wang, Donna

    2016-01-01

    Working from a social relationship and life course perspective, we provide generalizable population-based evidence on partnered sexuality linked to cardiovascular risk in later life using national longitudinal data from the NSHAP (N=2204). We consider characteristics of partnered sexuality of older men and women, particularly sexual activity and sexual quality, as they affect cardiovascular risk. Cardiovascular risk is defined as hypertension, rapid heart rate, elevated CRP, and general cardiovascular events. We find that older men are more likely to report being sexually active, report having sex more often and more enjoyably than are older women. Results from cross-lagged models suggest that high frequency of sex is positively related to later risk of cardiovascular events for men but not women, whereas good sexual quality seems to protect women but not men from cardiovascular risk in later life. We find no evidence that poor cardiovascular health interferes with later sexuality for either gender. PMID:27601406

  1. Tribulus Terrestris (l Protects Heart and Liver from Beta Adrenergic-Stimulated Cardiotoxicity: Biochemical and Histological study in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B Mahammad Rahmathulla

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute myocardial infarction is a wearisome risk inherent in all major surgeries. Preoperative evaluation has been directed mainly to assess its risk because it carries with it a very high mortality. Living donor liver transplantation has been subject to inquiry not only because of the morbidity risk but also because of the mortality risk it carries to the live donor. The present study investigates the protective effects of Tribulus terrestris Fruit aqueous Extract (TTFAEt in myocardially infarcted rats. The oral administration of TTFAEt to rats for 40 days afforded good protection against isoproterenol-induced alterations in cardiac levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO as well as the activities of antioxidant enzymes like Superoxide dismutase (SOD, Catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, Glutathione-S-transferase (GST. Antioxidants can prevent reactive oxygen species-mediated damage and thus may have potential application in the prevention and cure of chronic diseases. Myocardial infarction produces a significant abnormal liver functioning. Liver tissue marker enzymes injury like alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH. The protective effect of TTFAEt was further supported by the reversal of isoproterenol-induced histological changes in the liver. The results suggest that TTFAEt protect the heart and circulatory system and also hepatoprotective and thereby maintain the near normal architecture of liver tissues.

  2. Women at cardiac risk: is HRT the route to maintaining cardiovascular health?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, B; Sørensen, M B

    1997-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women of postmenopausal age. Data from observational studies suggest that the risk of coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women can be reduced by 30-50% by estrogen replacement therapy. The protective effect of estrogen is multifactorial...

  3. Cardiovascular risk management in patients with coronary heart disease in primary care: variation across countries and practices. An observational study based on quality indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Lieshout Jan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary care has an important role in cardiovascular risk management (CVRM and a minimum size of scale of primary care practices may be needed for efficient delivery of CVRM . We examined CVRM in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD in primary care and explored the impact of practice size. Methods In an observational study in 8 countries we sampled CHD patients in primary care practices and collected data from electronic patient records. Practice samples were stratified according to practice size and urbanisation; patients were selected using coded diagnoses when available. CVRM was measured on the basis of internationally validated quality indicators. In the analyses practice size was defined in terms of number of patients registered of visiting the practice. We performed multilevel regression analyses controlling for patient age and sex. Results We included 181 practices (63% of the number targeted. Two countries included a convenience sample of practices. Data from 2960 CHD patients were available. Some countries used methods supplemental to coded diagnoses or other inclusion methods introducing potential inclusion bias. We found substantial variation on all CVRM indicators across practices and countries. We computed aggregated practice scores as percentage of patients with a positive outcome. Rates of risk factor recording varied from 55% for physical activity as the mean practice score across all practices (sd 32% to 94% (sd 10% for blood pressure. Rates for reaching treatment targets for systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and LDL cholesterol were 46% (sd 21%, 86% (sd 12% and 48% (sd 22% respectively. Rates for providing recommended cholesterol lowering and antiplatelet drugs were around 80%, and 70% received influenza vaccination. Practice size was not associated to indicator scores with one exception: in Slovenia larger practices performed better. Variation was more related to differences between

  4. A cross-sectional study of the relationship between job demand-control, effort-reward imbalance and cardiovascular heart disease risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Söderberg Mia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This cross-sectional study explored relationships between psychosocial work environment, captured by job demand-control (JDC and effort-reward imbalance (ERI, and seven cardiovascular heart disease (CHD risk factors in a general population. Method The sampled consists of randomly-selected men and women from Gothenburg, Sweden and the city’s surrounding metropolitan areas. Associations between psychosocial variables and biomarkers were analysed with multiple linear regression adjusted for age, smoking, education and occupational status. Results The study included 638 men and 668 women aged 24–71. Analysis between JDC and CHD risk factors illustrated that, for men, JDC was associated with impaired scores in several biomarkers, especially among those in high strain jobs. For women, there were no relationships between JDC and biomarkers. In the analysis of links between ERI and CHD risk factors, most associations tested null. The only findings were raised triglycerides and BMI among men in the fourth quartile of the ERI-ratio distribution, and lowered LDL-cholesterol for women. An complementary ERI analysis, combining high/low effort and reward into categories, illustrated lowered triglycerides and elevated HDL-cholesterol values among women reporting high efforts and high rewards, compared to women experiencing low effort and high reward. Conclusions There were some associations between psychosocial stressors and CHD risk factors. The cross-sectional design did not allow conclusions about causality but some results indicated gender differences regarding sensitivity to work stressors and also how the models might capture different psychosocial dimensions.

  5. Prehypertension and cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents participating in the community-based prevention education program family heart study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda-Maria Haas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Because prehypertension identifies children most at risk for the development of future hypertensive disease, the purpose of this study was, to examine the association of prehypertension with risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD in a large sample of youths participating in the community-based prevention education program family heart study. Methods: We estimated blood pressure and body mass index (BMI for age and the lipid profile in terms of total cholesterol (TC, low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C, non-HDL-C, triglycerides (TG and the LDL-C to HDL-C ratio. Results: Among 10,841 (5,628 males children and adolescents 1,587 (14.6% had prehypertension (85 th to 95 th percentile youth. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was similar in prehypertensive boys and girls in terms of LDL-C 11.2% versus 11.8%, non HDL-C 11.9% versus 14.3%, TG 2.4% versus 2.7% and for low HDL-C 2.1% versus 2.3%. The prevalence of low HDL-C increased from 2.1% in non-overweight, through 3.9% in overweight to 5.2% in obese youth and of elevated TG from 1.2% via 4.5% to 6.5% respectively. The number of risk factors is affected by BMI. Significant associations between prehypertension and CVD risk factors were observed in boys and girls for overweight/obesity odds ratios (OR 2.0/2.4, for hypertriglyceridemia (OR 1.9/2.0, for high non HDL-C (OR 1.4/1.4 and for elevated LDL-C (OR 1.3/1.1. Conclusions: Prehypertension was significantly associated with overweight, obesity and dyslipidemia in 10,841 children and adolescents.

  6. Effects of polymorphisms in beta1-adrenoceptor and alpha-subunit of G protein on heart rate and blood pressure during exercise test. The Finnish Cardiovascular Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Tuomo; Lehtimäki, Terho; Laiho, Jarno; Rontu, Riikka; Niemelä, Kari; Kööbi, Tiit; Lehtinen, Rami; Viik, Jari; Turjanmaa, Väinö; Kähönen, Mika

    2006-02-01

    We tested whether the Arg389Gly and Ser49Gly polymorphisms of the beta1-adrenergic receptor gene ADRB1 and the T393C polymorphism of the G protein alpha-subunit gene GNAS1 modulate heart rate (HR) and blood pressure responses during an exercise stress test. The study population comprised 890 participants (563 men and 327 women, mean age 58.1 +/- 12.6 yr) of the Finnish Cardiovascular Study. Their HR, systolic (SAP), and diastolic arterial pressures (DAP) at rest, during exercise, and 4 min after the test were measured and analyzed by repeated-measurement ANOVA (RANOVA). Genotypes were detected by TaqMan 5' nuclease assay. In all subjects, and in men and women separately, the T393C of GNAS1 was the only polymorphism with genotype x time interaction in HR over the three study phases (P = 0.04, RANOVA). None of the polymorphisms presented genotype x time interaction in SAP or DAP responses (P > 0.10, RANOVA). In all subjects at rest, the Ser49Gly polymorphism of ADRB1 tended (P = 0.06, ANOVA) to differentiate HR. Arg389Gly polymorphism of ADRB1 affected maximal SAP during exercise (P = 0.04, ANOVA) and the change in SAP from rest to maximal (P = 0.03, ANOVA). Arg389 homozygotes, particularly men, were less likely to have ventricular extrasystoles during the exercise (odds ratio = 0.68, 95% confidence interval = 0.51-0.91, P = 0.009, and odds ratio = 0.60, 95% confidence interval = 0.42-0.86, P = 0.006, respectively) than did Gly389 carriers. In conclusion, polymorphisms examined appear to have modulatory effects on hemodynamics in a clinical exercise test setting. However, the effects in absolute numbers were minor and clinically possibly insignificant. PMID:16210433

  7. Inflammation, Infection, and Future Cardiovascular Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Myocardial Infarction; Venous Thromboembolism; Heart Diseases; Infection; Chlamydia Infections; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Helicobacter Infections; Herpesviridae Infections; Inflammation

  8. 胰升糖素样肽1药物对2型糖尿病患者的心血管保护效应%Cardiovascular protective effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 agents in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯静; 魏蕊; 洪天配

    2015-01-01

    [Summary] Glucagon-like peptide-1 ( GLP-1 ) agents play important roles in glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. Moreover, these agents also show various protective effects on cardiovascular system. GLP-1 agents improve vascular endothelial function, ameliorate the risk factors of cardiovascular disease including obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and hypertension, delay the occurrence and progression of atherosclerosis, and protect against cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury and heart failure. Therefore, GLP-1 agents may have beneficial effects on cardiovascular diseases at different stages and in multiple aspects.%胰升糖素样肽1(GLP-1)药物在2型糖尿病患者的血糖控制中具有重要作用。此外,GLP-1药物还具有一定的心血管保护效应,其可改善血管内皮功能,缓解肥胖、高血糖、血脂异常、高血压等心血管危险因素,延缓动脉粥样硬化的发生和发展,改善心肌缺血-再灌注损伤和心力衰竭。因此,GLP-1药物在心血管疾病发生发展的不同阶段和环节中可能具有保护作用。

  9. [Cardiovascular disease in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilfiker-Kleiner, Denise; Bauersachs, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are among the most frequent complications in pregnancies. Among them preexisting heart diseases including congenital heart disease, genetic cardiomyopathies, myocardial infarction and chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathies display a special challenge for the mother and her physicians. Moreover, the incidence of cardiovascular disease induced by or associated with pregnancy, i.e. hypertensive disorders and peripartum cardiomyopathies, has increased over the past decades. In the present overview we explain why pregnancy is a stress model for the maternal heart and summarize the current knowledge on the influence of pregnancy on preexisting cardiomyopathies. We highlight recent advances in research with regard to hypertensive complications in pregnancy and peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM). Moreover, we summarize etiologies, risk factors, pathomechanisms, diagnosis, treatment, management and prognosis. Finally, interdisciplinarity between different clinical fields and basic science is a key requirement to avoid longterm damage to the cardiovascular system induced by pregnancy associated impacts and with this improve women's health in general. PMID:26800071

  10. Monocyte-derived extracellular Nampt-dependent biosynthesis of NAD(+) protects the heart against pressure overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Masamichi; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Oka, Toru; Yabumoto, Chizuru; Kudo-Sakamoto, Yoko; Kamo, Takehiro; Shimizu, Yu; Yagi, Hiroki; Naito, Atsuhiko T; Lee, Jong-Kook; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Sakata, Yasushi; Komuro, Issei

    2015-01-01

    Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the salvage pathway for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) biosynthesis, and thereby regulates the deacetylase activity of sirtuins. Here we show accommodative regulation of myocardial NAD(+) by monocyte-derived extracellular Nampt (eNampt), which is essential for hemodynamic compensation to pressure overload. Although intracellular Nampt (iNampt) expression was decreased in pressure-overloaded hearts, myocardial NAD(+) concentration and Sirt1 activity were preserved. In contrast, iNampt was up-regulated in spleen and monocytes, and circulating eNampt protein and nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), a key precursor of NAD(+), were significantly increased. Pharmacological inhibition of Nampt by FK866 or depletion of monocytes/macrophages by clodronate liposomes disrupted the homeostatic mechanism of myocardial NAD(+) levels and NAD(+)-dependent Sirt1 activity, leading to susceptibility to cardiomyocyte apoptosis and cardiac decompensation in pressure-overloaded mice. These biochemical and hemodynamic defects were prevented by systemic administration of NMN. Our studies uncover a crucial role of monocyte-derived eNampt in myocardial adaptation to pressure overload, and highlight a potential intervention controlling myocardial NAD(+) against heart failure. PMID:26522369

  11. Disruption of Epac1 protects the heart from adenylyl cyclase type 5-mediated cardiac dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wenqian; Fujita, Takayuki; Hidaka, Yuko; Jin, Huiling; Suita, Kenji; Prajapati, Rajesh; Liang, Chen; Umemura, Masanari; Yokoyama, Utako; Sato, Motohiko; Okumura, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro

    2016-06-17

    Type 5 adenylyl cyclase (AC5) plays an important role in the development of chronic catecholamine stress-induced heart failure and arrhythmia in mice. Epac (exchange protein activated by cAMP), which is directly activated by cAMP independent of protein kinase A, has been recently identified as a novel mediator of cAMP signaling in the heart. However, the role of Epac in AC5-mediated cardiac dysfunction and arrhythmias remains poorly understood. We therefore generated AC5 transgenic mice (AC5TG) with selective disruption of the Epac1 gene (AC5TG-Epac1KO), and compared their phenotypes with those of AC5TG after chronic isoproterenol (ISO) infusion. Decreased cardiac function as well as increased susceptibility to pacing-induced atrial fibrillation (AF) in response to ISO were significantly attenuated in AC5TG-Epac1KO mice, compared to AC5TG mice. Increased cardiac apoptosis and cardiac fibrosis were also concomitantly attenuated in AC5TG-Epac1KO mice compared to AC5TG mice. These findings indicate that Epac1 plays an important role in AC5-mediated cardiac dysfunction and AF susceptibility. PMID:27117748

  12. The protective effects of Schisandra chinensis fruit extract and its lignans against cardiovascular disease: a review of the molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Jung Nyeo; Cho, Minsoo; So, Insuk; Jeon, Ju-Hong

    2014-09-01

    Schisandra chinensis fruit extract (SCE) has traditionally been used as an oriental medicine for the treatment of various human diseases, including cardiovascular disease. Advances in scientific knowledge and analytical technologies provide opportunities for translational research involving S. chinensis; such research may contribute to future drug discovery. To date, emerging experimental evidence supports the therapeutic effects of the SCE or its bioactive lignan ingredients in cardiovascular disease, unraveling the mechanistic basis for their pharmacological actions. In the present review, we highlight SCE and its lignans as promising resources for the development of safe, effective, and multi-targeted agents against cardiovascular disease. Moreover, we offer novel insight into future challenges and perspective on S. chinensis research to future clinical investigations and healthcare strategies.

  13. Vegan Diet, Subnormal Vitamin B-12 Status and Cardiovascular Health

    OpenAIRE

    Kam S. Woo; Timothy C.Y. Kwok; Celermajer, David S

    2014-01-01

    Vegetarian diets have been associated with atherosclerosis protection, with healthier atherosclerosis risk profiles, as well as lower prevalence of, and mortality from, ischemic heart disease and stroke. However, there are few data concerning the possible cardiovascular effects of a vegan diet (with no meat, dairy or egg products). Vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians; this can be partially alleviated by taking dairy/egg products in lact-ovo-vegetarians. However, metabo...

  14. Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, A P; Aggarwal, K K; Zhang, P-Y

    2015-01-01

    Cardioceuticals are nutritional supplements that contain all the essential nutrients including vitamins, minerals, omega-3-fatty acids and other antioxidants like a-lipoic acid and coenzyme Q10 in the right proportion that provide all round protection to the heart by reducing the most common risks associated with the cardiovascular disease including high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels and factors that contribute to coagulation of blood. Omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to significantly reduce the risk for sudden death caused by cardiac arrhythmias and all-cause mortality in patients with known coronary heart disease. Omega-3 fatty acids are also used to treat hyperlipidemia and hypertension. There are no significant drug interactions with omega-3 fatty acids. The American Heart Association recommends consumption of two servings of fish per week for persons with no history of coronary heart disease and at least one serving of fish daily for those with known coronary heart disease. Approximately 1 g/day of eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid is recommended for cardio protection. Higher dosages of omega-3 fatty acids are required to reduce elevated triglyceride levels (2-4 g/day). Modest decreases in blood pressure occur with significantly higher dosages of omega-3 fatty acids.

  15. Protection by the NO-Donor SNAP and BNP against Hypoxia/Reoxygenation in Rat Engineered Heart Tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Görbe

    Full Text Available In vitro assays could replace animal experiments in drug screening and disease modeling, but have shortcomings in terms of functional readout. Force-generating engineered heart tissues (EHT provide simple automated measurements of contractile function. Here we evaluated the response of EHTs to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R and the effect of known cardiocytoprotective molecules. EHTs from neonatal rat heart cells were incubated for 24 h in EHT medium. Then they were subjected to 180 min hypoxia (93% N2, 7% CO2 and 120 min reoxygenation (40% O2, 53% N2, 7% CO2, change of medium and additional follow-up of 48 h. Time-matched controls (40% O2, 53% N2, 7% CO2 were run for comparison. The following conditions were applied during H/R: fresh EHT medium (positive control, the NO-donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D,L-penicillamine (SNAP, 10(-7, 10(-6, 10(-5 M or the guanylate cyclase activator brain type natriuretic peptide (BNP, 10(-9, 10(-8, 10(-7 M. Frequency and force of contraction were repeatedly monitored over the entire experiment, pH, troponin I (cTnI, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and glucose concentrations measured in EHT medium. Beating activity of EHTs in 24 h-medium ceased during hypoxia, partially recovered during reoxygenation and reached time-control values during follow-up. H/R was accompanied by a small increase in LDH and non-significant increase in cTnI. In fresh medium, some EHTs continued beating during hypoxia and all EHTs recovered faster during reoxygenation. SNAP and BNP showed small but significant protective effects during reoxygenation. EHTs are applicable to test potential cardioprotective compounds in vitro, monitoring functional and biochemical endpoints, which otherwise could be only measured by using in vivo or ex vivo heart preparations. The sensitivity of the model needs improvement.

  16. Cardiovascular prevention: lifestyle and statins--competitors or companions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opie, L H; Dalby, A J

    2014-03-01

    Favourable lifestyles promote cardiovascular protection. Exercise can induce beneficial changes in the genome that decrease low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and increase anti-inflammatory markers. The Mediterranean dietary pattern, fortified by nuts, while not reducing weight, reduces mortality. Lifestyle changes combined with statin therapy provide potent protection against coronary heart disease, especially when used for secondary prevention after cardiovascular events. Decisions regarding the initiation of statin therapy for primary prevention are more difficult, requiring consideration of both the LDL-C level and the degree of cardiovascular risk for dyslipidaemic patients. Combining intensive exercise and statin therapy substantially reduces the mortality risk, and thus is potentially the ideal risk-reducing combination.

  17. Quantitative Mitochondrial Proteomics Study on Protective Mechanism of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extracts Against Ischemia/Reperfusion Heart Injury in Rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Wei-da; QIU Jie; ZHAO Gai-xia; QIE Liang-yi; WEI Xin-bing; GAO Hai-qing

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac ischemia/reperfusion(I/R) injury is a critical condition,often associated with high morbidity and mortality.The cardioprotective effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts(GSPE) against oxidant injury during I/R has been described in previous studies.However,the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been fully elucidated.This study investigated the effect of GSPE on reperfusion arrhythmias especially ventricular tachycardia(VT)and ventricular fibrillation(VF),the lactic acid accumulation and the ultrastructure of ischemic cardiomyocytes as well as the global changes of mitochondria proteins in in vivo rat heart model against I/R injury.GSPE significantly reduced the incidence of VF and VT,lessened the lactic acid accumulation and attenuated the ultrastructure damage.Twenty differential proteins related to cardiac protection were revealed by isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation(iTRAQ) profiling.These proteins were mainly involved in energy metabolism.Besides,monoamine oxidase A(MAOA) was also identified.The differential expression of several proteins was validated by Western blot.Our study offered important information on the mechanism of GSPE treatment in ischemic heart disease.

  18. Inhibition of KV7 Channels Protects the Rat Heart against Myocardial Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedegaard, Elise R; Johnsen, Jacob; Povlsen, Jonas A; Jespersen, Nichlas R; Shanmuganathan, Jeffrey A; Laursen, Mia R; Kristiansen, Steen B; Simonsen, Ulf; Bøtker, Hans Erik

    2016-04-01

    The voltage-gated KV7 (KCNQ) potassium channels are activated by ischemia and involved in hypoxic vasodilatation. We investigated the effect of KV7 channel modulation on cardiac ischemia and reperfusion injury and its interaction with cardioprotection by ischemic preconditioning (IPC). Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed expression of KV7.1, KV7.4, and KV7.5 in the left anterior descending rat coronary artery and all KV7 subtypes (KV7.1-KV7.5) in the left and right ventricles of the heart. Isolated hearts were subjected to no-flow global ischemia and reperfusion with and without IPC. Infarct size was quantified by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Two blockers of KV7 channels, XE991 [10,10-bis(4-pyridinylmethyl)-9(10H)-anthracenone] (10 µM) and linopirdine (10 µM), reduced infarct size and exerted additive infarct reduction to IPC. An opener of KV7 channels, flupirtine (10 µM) abolished infarct size reduction by IPC. Hemodynamics were measured using a catheter inserted in the left ventricle and postischemic left ventricular recovery improved in accordance with reduction of infarct size and deteriorated with increased infarct size. XE991 (10 µM) reduced coronary flow in the reperfusion phase and inhibited vasodilatation in isolated small branches of the left anterior descending coronary artery during both simulated ischemia and reoxygenation. KV7 channels are expressed in rat coronary arteries and myocardium. Inhibition of KV7 channels exerts cardioprotection and opening of KV7 channels abrogates cardioprotection by IPC. Although safety issues should be further addressed, our findings suggest a potential role for KV7 blockers in the treatment of ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:26869667

  19. Role of Opioid Receptors Signaling in Remote Electrostimulation--Induced Protection against Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rat Hearts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Ju Tsai

    Full Text Available Our previous studies demonstrated that remote electro-stimulation (RES increased myocardial GSK3 phosphorylation and attenuated ischemia/ reperfusion (I/R injury in rat hearts. However, the role of various opioid receptors (OR subtypes in preconditioned RES-induced myocardial protection remains unknown. We investigated the role of OR subtype signaling in RES-induced cardioprotection against I/R injury of the rat heart.Male Spraque-Dawley rats were used. RES was performed on median nerves area with/without pretreatment with various receptors antagonists such as opioid receptor (OR subtype receptors (KOR, DOR, and MOR. The expressions of Akt, GSK3, and PKCε expression were analyzed by Western blotting. When RES was preconditioned before the I/R model, the rat's hemodynamic index, infarction size, mortality and serum CK-MB were evaluated. Our results showed that Akt, GSK3 and PKCε expression levels were significantly increased in the RES group compared to the sham group, which were blocked by pretreatment with specific antagonists targeting KOR and DOR, but not MOR subtype. Using the I/R model, the duration of arrhythmia and infarct size were both significantly attenuated in RES group. The mortality rates of the sham RES group, the RES group, RES group + KOR antagonist, RES group + DOR/MOR antagonists (KOR left, RES group + DOR antagonist, and RES group + KOR/MOR antagonists (DOR left were 50%, 20%, 67%, 13%, 50% and 55%, respectively.The mechanism of RES-induced myocardial protection against I/R injury seems to involve multiple target pathways such as Akt, KOR and/or DOR signaling.

  20. Treatment-resistant hypertension and the incidence of cardiovascular disease and end-stage renal disease: results from the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntner, Paul; Davis, Barry R; Cushman, William C; Bangalore, Sripal; Calhoun, David A; Pressel, Sara L; Black, Henry R; Kostis, John B; Probstfield, Jeffrey L; Whelton, Paul K; Rahman, Mahboob

    2014-11-01

    Apparent treatment-resistant hypertension (aTRH) is defined as uncontrolled hypertension despite the use of ≥3 antihypertensive medication classes or controlled hypertension while treated with ≥4 antihypertensive medication classes. Although a high prevalence of aTRH has been reported, few data are available on its association with cardiovascular and renal outcomes. We analyzed data on 14 684 Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT) participants to determine the association between aTRH (n=1870) with coronary heart disease, stroke, all-cause mortality, heart failure, peripheral artery disease, and end-stage renal disease. We defined aTRH as blood pressure not at goal (systolic/diastolic blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg) while taking ≥3 classes of antihypertensive medication or taking ≥4 classes of antihypertensive medication with blood pressure at goal during the year 2 ALLHAT study visit (1996-2000). Use of a diuretic was not required to meet the definition of aTRH. Follow-up occurred through 2002. The multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) comparing participants with versus without aTRH were as follows: coronary heart disease (1.44 [1.18-1.76]), stroke (1.57 [1.18-2.08]), all-cause mortality (1.30 [1.11-1.52]), heart failure (1.88 [1.52-2.34]), peripheral artery disease (1.23 [0.85-1.79]), and end-stage renal disease (1.95 [1.11-3.41]). aTRH was also associated with the pooled outcomes of combined coronary heart disease (hazard ratio, 1.47; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-1.71) and combined cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio, 1.46; 95% confidence interval, 1.29-1.64). These results demonstrate that aTRH increases the risk for cardiovascular disease and end-stage renal disease. Studies are needed to identify approaches to prevent aTRH and reduce risk for adverse outcomes among individuals with aTRH.

  1. Endocannabinoids and the cardiovascular response to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Saoirse E; Kendall, Patrick J; Kendall, David A

    2012-01-01

    Stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS), resulting in cardiovascular responses. The endocannabinoid system (ECS), a ubiquitously expressed lipid signalling system, modulates both HPA and SNS activity. The purpose of this review is to explore the possible involvement/role of the ECS in the cardiovascular response to stress. The ECS has numerous cardiovascular effects including modulation of blood pressure, heart rate, the baroreflex, and direct vascular actions. It is also involved in a protective manner in response to stressors in cardiac preconditioning, and various stressors (for example, pain, orthostasis and social stress) increase plasma levels of endocannabinoids. Given the multitude of vascular effects of endocannabinoids, this is bound to have consequences. Beneficial effects of ECS upregulation could include cardioprotection, vasodilatation, CB(2)-mediated anti-inflammatory effects and activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. Negative effects of endocannabinoids could include mediation of the effects of glucocorticoids, CB(1)-mediated metabolic changes, and metabolism to vasoconstrictor products. It is also likely that there is a central role for the ECS in modulating cardiovascular activity via the HPA and SNS. However, much more work is required to fully integrate the role of the ECS in mediating many of the physiological responses to stress, including cardiovascular responses.

  2. Cold Weather and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Cold Weather and Cardiovascular Disease Updated:Sep 16,2015 ... Your Heart Health • Watch, Learn & Live Animations Library Cold Weather Fitness Guide Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood ...

  3. Smoking decreases the duration of life lived with and without cardiovascular disease : a life course analysis of the Framingham Heart Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Mamun, A; Peeters, A; Barendregt, J; Willekens, F; Nusselder, W; Bonneux, L

    2004-01-01

    Aims To compare the burden of cardiovascular disease in terms of lifetime risk and life years lived with disease between smokers and non-smokers. Methods and results We constructed multi-state life tables describing transitions through various cardiovascular diseases for 4723 smokers and non-smokers

  4. Metabolic Syndrome and Short-Term and Long-Term Heart Rate Variability in Elderly Free of Clinical Cardiovascular Disease : The PROOF Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assoumou, H. G. Ntougou; Pichot, V.; Barthelemy, J. C.; Dauphinot, V.; Celle, S.; Gosse, P.; Kossovsky, M.; Gaspoz, J. M.; Roche, F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity decrease has been associated with a higher risk of sudden cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. Thus, we explored the relationship between ANS control of the cardiovascular system and metabolic syndrome. Methods: We analyzed the relationship w

  5. Heart Attack or Sudden Cardiac Arrest: How Are They Different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Heart360 Cardiovascular Conditions • Conditions Home • Arrhythmia and Atrial Fibrillation • Cardiac Arrest • Cardiac Rehab • Cardiomyopathy • Cardiovascular Conditions of Childhood • Cholesterol • Congenital Heart Defects • Diabetes • Heart Attack • Heart Failure (HF) • Heart Valve Problems and Disease • High Blood ...

  6. Reinforced chitosan-based heart valve scaffold and utility of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for cardiovascular tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanna, Mohammad Zaki

    Recent research has demonstrated a strong correlation between the differentiation profile of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and scaffold stiffness. Chitosan is being widely studied for tissue engineering applications due to its biocompatibility and biodegradability. However, its use in load-bearing applications is limited due to moderate to low mechanical properties. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of a fiber reinforcement method for enhancing the mechanical properties of chitosan scaffolds. Chitosan fibers were fabricated using a solution extrusion and neutralization method and incorporated into porous chitosan scaffolds. The effects of different fiber/scaffold mass ratios, fiber mechanical properties and fiber lengths on scaffold mechanical properties were studied. The results showed that incorporating fibers improved scaffold strength and stiffness in proportion to the fiber/scaffold mass ratio. A fiber-reinforced heart valve leaflet scaffold achieved strength values comparable to the radial values of human pulmonary and aortic valves. Additionally, the effects of shorter fibers (2 mm) were found to be up to 3-fold greater than longer fibers (10 mm). Despite this reduction in fiber mechanical properties caused by heparin crosslinking, the heparin-modified fibers still improved the mechanical properties of the reinforced scaffolds, but to a lesser extent than the unmodified fibers. The results demonstrate that chitosan fiber-reinforcement can be used to generate tissue-matching mechanical properties in porous chitosan scaffolds and that fiber length and mechanical properties are important parameters in defining the degree of mechanical improvement. We further studied various chemical and physical treatments to improve the mechanical properties of chitosan fibers. With combination of chemical and physical treatments, fiber stiffness improved 40fold compared to unmodified fibers. We also isolated ovine bone marrow-derived MSCs and evaluated their

  7. Determination of Anti-Adeno-Associated Viral Vector Neutralizing Antibodies in Patients With Heart Failure in the Cardiovascular Foundation of Colombia (ANVIAS): Study Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, Carlos E; Lopez, Marcos; Castillo, Victor; Echeverria, Luis Eduardo; Serrano, Norma

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent progress in the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF) has led to the development of new therapeutic options such as gene therapy and the use of adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors. Despite the promising results in early clinical trials of gene therapy for HF, various obstacles have been faced, such as the presence of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against the capsid vectors. NAb activity limits vector transduction levels and therefore diminishes the final therapeutic response. Recent studies evaluating the prevalence of NAbs in various populations found considerable geographic variability for each AAV serotype. However, the levels of NAbs in Latin American populations are unknown, becoming a limiting factor to conducting AAV vector therapeutic trials in this population. Objective The goal of this study is to determine for the first time, the prevalence of anti-AAV NAbs for the serotypes 1, 2, and 9 in HF patients from the city of Bucaramanga, Colombia, using the in vitro transduction inhibition assay. Methods We will conduct a cross-sectional study with patients who periodically attend the HF clinic of the Cardiovascular Foundation of Colombia and healthy volunteers matched for age and sex. For all participants, we will evaluate the NAb levels against serotypes AAV1, AAV2, and AAV9. We will determine NAb levels using the in vitro transduction inhibition assay. In addition, participants will answer a survey to evaluate their epidemiological and socioeconomic variables. Participation in the study will be voluntary and all participants will sign an informed consent document before any intervention. Results The project is in the first phase: elaboration of case report forms and the informed consent form, and design of the recruitment strategy. Patient recruitment is expected to begin in the spring of 2016. We expect to have preliminary results, including the titer of the viral vectors, multiplicity of infections that we will use for each serotype

  8. Protecting the delivery of heart failure: Regenerative Medicine/Stem Cell Therapeutics: Potential protections afforded by the Department of Health and Human Services and Health Resources Service Administration's Bureau of Special Programs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gary S Friedman; John S. Tomicki; Neil Cohen; Robert Marshall; Philip Lowry; Jeffrey Warsh

    2006-01-01

    , providing an umbrella of liability protection to other participants in the stem cell unit "chain of custody" under the FTCA-similar to the protection from product liability seen in organ and stem cell transplantation for the past 40-50 years.Efficacious development of regenerative medicine capabilities will mandate controlled access must first be provided for individuals with life-threatening diseases without therapeutic options or unable to benefit from or receive proven therapeutic options (ALS, cardiomyopathy and deemed not a candidate for heart transplantation, IDDM with hypoglyce mic unawareness and no allogeneic source of traditional islet cell replacement available via HRSA) and mandates the prompt adoption of business and legal principles to ensure that the fate of the vaccine manufacturing industry does not become the fate of the stem cell therapeutics industry.If legal and regulatory concerns consume an increasing percentage of health care dollars that could be focused upon innovation, the Regenerative Medicine model will have not realized its full potential.The Diabetes Transplantation/Regenerative Medicine Model is the first organ to cell transplant model outside of oncology to demonstrate the regenerative medicine paradigm. Since all human tissues can be already recapitulated by human stem cells and key patent holders already exist, outlet or distribution of "more-than-minimally-manipulated stem cell units" as an IND approved under FDA/CBER guidelines can be accomplished via the current HHS/HRSA/Dept of Transplant methodology. As cardiovascular stem cell researchers develop human therapeutics utilizing more-than-minimallymanipulated stem cell products, they could be afforded protections from product liability historically enjoyed by the transplant community. Extending the Diabetes Transplant/Regenerative Medicine Model to the more than 5 million Americans with chronic heart failure, cell-based therapies to regenerate myocardial contractility could fill an

  9. Androgen therapy and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    K-CY McGrath; LS McRobb; AK Heather

    2008-01-01

    K-CY McGrath1, LS McRobb1,2, AK Heather1,21Heart Research Institute, Camperdown, NSW, Australia; 2Discipline of Medicine, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death in Western society today. There is a striking gender difference in CVD with men predisposed to earlier onset and more severe disease. Following the recent reevaluation and ongoing debate regarding the estrogen protection hypothesis, and given that androgen ...

  10. Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheung Angela

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health Issue Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death in Canadian women and men. In general, women present with a wider range of symptoms, are more likely to delay seeking medial care and are less likely to be investigated and treated with evidence-based medications, angioplasty or coronary artery bypass graft than men. Key Findings In 1998, 78,964 Canadians died from CVD, almost half (39,197 were women. Acute myocardial infarction, which increases significantly after menopause, was the leading cause of death among women. Cardiovascular disease accounted for 21% of all hospital admissions for Canadian women over age 50 in 1999. Admissions to hospital for ischemic heart disease were more frequent for men, but the mean length of hospital stay was longer for women. Mean blood pressure increases with age in both men and women. After age 65, however, high blood pressure is more common among Canadian women. More than one-third of postmenopausal Canadian women have hypertension. Diabetes increases the mortality and morbidity associated with CVD in women more than it does in men. Depression also contributes to the incidence and recovery from CVD, particularly for women who experience twice the rate of depression as men. Data Gaps and Recommendations CVD needs to be recognized as a woman's health issue given Canadian mortality projections (particularly heart failure. Health professionals should be trained to screen, track, and address CVD risk factors among women, including hypertension, elevated lipid levels, smoking, physical inactivity, depression, diabetes and low socio-economic status.

  11. Follistatin-like 1 promotes cardiac fibroblast activation and protects the heart from rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Sonomi; Nakamura, Kazuto; Papanicolaou, Kyriakos N; Sano, Soichi; Shimizu, Ippei; Asaumi, Yasuhide; van den Hoff, Maurice J; Ouchi, Noriyuki; Recchia, Fabio A; Walsh, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Follistatin-like 1 (Fstl1) is a secreted protein that is acutely induced in heart following myocardial infarction (MI). In this study, we investigated cell type-specific regulation of Fstl1 and its function in a murine model of MI Fstl1 was robustly expressed in fibroblasts and myofibroblasts in the infarcted area compared to cardiac myocytes. The conditional ablation of Fstl1 in S100a4-expressing fibroblast lineage cells (Fstl1-cfKO mice) led to a reduction in injury-induced Fstl1 expression and increased mortality due to cardiac rupture during the acute phase. Cardiac rupture was associated with a diminished number of myofibroblasts and decreased expression of extracellular matrix proteins. The infarcts of Fstl1-cfKO mice displayed weaker birefringence, indicative of thin and loosely packed collagen. Mechanistically, the migratory and proliferative capabilities of cardiac fibroblasts were attenuated by endogenous Fstl1 ablation. The activation of cardiac fibroblasts by Fstl1 was mediated by ERK1/2 but not Smad2/3 signaling. This study reveals that Fstl1 is essential for the acute repair of the infarcted myocardium and that stimulation of early fibroblast activation is a novel function of Fstl1. PMID:27234440

  12. Paeonol Protects Rat Heart by Improving Regional Blood Perfusion during No-Reflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lina; Chuang, Chia-Chen; Weng, Weiliang; Zhao, Le; Zheng, Yongqiu; Zhang, Jinyan; Zuo, Li

    2016-01-01

    No-reflow phenomenon, defined as inadequate perfusion of myocardium without evident artery obstruction, occurs at a high incidence after coronary revascularization. The mechanisms underlying no-reflow is only partially understood. It is commonly caused by the swelling of endothelial cells, neutrophil accumulation, and vasoconstriction, which are all related to acute inflammation. Persistent no-reflow can lead to hospitalization and mortality. However, an effective preventive intervention has not yet been established. We have previously found that paeonol, an active extraction from the root of Paeonia suffruticosa, can benefit the heart function by inhibiting tissue damage after ischemia, reducing inflammation, and inducing vasodilatation. To further investigate the potential cardioprotective action of paeonol on no-reflow, healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham, ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury (left anterior descending coronary artery was ligated for 4 h followed by reperfusion for 8 h), and I/R injury pretreated with paeonol at two different doses. Real-time myocardial contrast echocardiography was used to monitor regional blood perfusion and cardiac functions. Our data indicated that paeonol treatment significantly reduces myocardial infarct area and no-reflow area (n = 8; p lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, cardiac troponin T, and C-reactive protein, as indices of myocardial injury. Paeonol exerts beneficial effects on attenuating I/R-associated no-reflow injuries, and may be considered as a potential preventive treatment for cardiac diseases or post-coronary revascularization in which no-reflow often occurs. PMID:27493631

  13. Fruits, vegetables and coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauchet, Luc; Amouyel, Philippe; Dallongeville, Jean

    2009-09-01

    Diet plays an important part in the maintenance of optimal cardiovascular health. This Review summarizes the evidence for a relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and the occurrence of coronary heart disease. This evidence is based on observational cohort studies, nutrition prevention trials with fruit and vegetables, and investigations of the effects of fruit and vegetables on cardiovascular risk factors. Most of the evidence supporting a cardioprotective effect comes from observational epidemiological studies; these studies have reported either weak or nonsignificant associations. Controlled nutritional prevention trials are scarce and the existing data do not show any clear protective effects of fruit and vegetables on coronary heart disease. Under rigorously controlled experimental conditions, fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with a decrease in blood pressure, which is an important cardiovascular risk factor. However, the effects of fruit and vegetable consumption on plasma lipid levels, diabetes, and body weight have not yet been thoroughly explored. Finally, the hypothesis that nutrients in fruit and vegetables have a protective role in reducing the formation of atherosclerotic plaques and preventing complications of atherosclerosis has not been tested in prevention trials. Evidence that fruit and vegetable consumption reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease remains scarce thus far.

  14. Pre-historic eating patterns in Latin America and protective effects of plant-based diets on cardiovascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio C. Acosta Navarro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we present the contributions to nutrition science from Latin American native peoples and scientists, appreciated from a historic point of view since pre-historic times to the modern age. Additionally, we present epidemiological and clinical studies on the area of plant-based diets and their relation with the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases conducted in recent decades, and we discuss challenges and perspectives regarding aspects of nutrition in the region

  15. Protective effect of periconceptional folic acid supplements on the risk of congenital heart defects: a registry-based case-control study in the northern Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijnum, I.M. van; Kapusta, L.; Bakker, M.K.; Heijer, M. den; Blom, H.J.; Walle, H.E. de

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the potentially protective of periconceptional folic acid use on the risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs) relative to other non-folate related malformations. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analysed data from a large regional register of birth defects (EUROCAT-Northern Netherlands),

  16. Protective effect of periconceptional folic acid supplements on the risk of congenital heart defects : a registry-based case-control study in the northern Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beynum, Ingrid M.; Kapusta, Livia; Bakker, Marian K.; den Heijer, Martin; Blom, Henk J.; de Walle, Hermien E. K.

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the potentially protective of periconceptional folic acid use on the risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs) relative to other non-folate related malformations. We analysed data from a large regional register of birth defects (EUROCAT-Northern Netherlands), over a 10 year period (1996

  17. Overexpression of Hypo-Phosphorylated IκBβ at Ser313 Protects the Heart against Sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying-Ying; Wang, Li; Luo, Peng-Fei; Xia, Zhao-Fan

    2016-01-01

    IκBβis an inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B(NF-κB) and participates in the cardiac response to sepsis. However, the role of the hypo-phosphorylated form of IκBβ at Ser313, which can be detected during sepsis, is unknown. Here, we examined the effects of IκBβ with a mutation at Ser313→Ala313 on cardiac damage induced by sepsis. Transgenic (Tg) mice were generated to overexpress IκBβ, in which Ser-313 is replaced with alanine ubiquitously, in order to mimic the hypo-phosphorylated form of IκBβ. Survival analysis showed that Tg mice exhibited decreased inflammatory cytokine levels and decreased rates of mortality in comparison to wild type (WT) mice, after sepsis in a cecal-ligation and puncture model (CLP). Compared to WT septic mice, sepsis in Tg mice resulted in improved cardiac functions, lower levels of troponin I and decreased rates of cardiomyocyte apoptosis, compared to WT mice. The increased formation of autophagicvacuoles detected with electron microscopy demonstrated the enhancement of cardiac autophagy. This phenomenon was further confirmed by the differential expression of genes related to autophagy, such as LC3, Atg5, Beclin-1, and p62. The increased expression of Cathepsin L(Ctsl), a specific marker for mitochondrial stress response, may be associated with the beneficial effects of the hypo-phosphorylated form of IκBβ. Our observations suggest that the hypo-phosphorylated form of IκBβ at Ser313 is beneficial to the heart in sepsis through inhibition of apoptosisand enhancement of autophagy in mutated IκBβ transgenic mice. PMID:27508931

  18. Paeonol Protects Rat Heart by Improving Regional Blood Perfusion during No-Reflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lina; Chuang, Chia-Chen; Weng, Weiliang; Zhao, Le; Zheng, Yongqiu; Zhang, Jinyan; Zuo, Li

    2016-01-01

    No-reflow phenomenon, defined as inadequate perfusion of myocardium without evident artery obstruction, occurs at a high incidence after coronary revascularization. The mechanisms underlying no-reflow is only partially understood. It is commonly caused by the swelling of endothelial cells, neutrophil accumulation, and vasoconstriction, which are all related to acute inflammation. Persistent no-reflow can lead to hospitalization and mortality. However, an effective preventive intervention has not yet been established. We have previously found that paeonol, an active extraction from the root of Paeonia suffruticosa, can benefit the heart function by inhibiting tissue damage after ischemia, reducing inflammation, and inducing vasodilatation. To further investigate the potential cardioprotective action of paeonol on no-reflow, healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham, ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury (left anterior descending coronary artery was ligated for 4 h followed by reperfusion for 8 h), and I/R injury pretreated with paeonol at two different doses. Real-time myocardial contrast echocardiography was used to monitor regional blood perfusion and cardiac functions. Our data indicated that paeonol treatment significantly reduces myocardial infarct area and no-reflow area (n = 8; p < 0.05). Regional myocardial perfusion (A·β) and cardiac functions such as ejection fraction, stroke volume, and fractional shortening were elevated by paeonol (n = 8; p < 0.05). Paeonol also lowered the serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, cardiac troponin T, and C-reactive protein, as indices of myocardial injury. Paeonol exerts beneficial effects on attenuating I/R-associated no-reflow injuries, and may be considered as a potential preventive treatment for cardiac diseases or post-coronary revascularization in which no-reflow often occurs. PMID:27493631

  19. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Assessment of Myocardial Blood Flow, Viability, and Diffuse Fibrosis in Congenital and Acquired Heart Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Hoang Minh

    2014-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia may occur after surgical correction of congenital heart defects involving the coronary arteries, in patients with congenital coronary artery anomalies, or in acquired heart disease. To assess myocardial ischemia disease in children, we used cardiac MRI as a non-invasive and radiation-free method to evaluate myocardial perfusion, viability, diffuse myocardial fibrosis, and heart function, to guide further therapy and for a better understanding of the pathophysiology of the ...

  20. Cardiovascular effects of gliptins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheen, André J

    2013-02-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors (commonly referred to as gliptins) are a novel class of oral antihyperglycaemic agents with demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Preclinical data and mechanistic studies have indicated a possible beneficial action on blood vessels and the heart, via both glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1)-dependent and GLP-1-independent effects. DPP-4 inhibition increases the concentration of many peptides with potential vasoactive and cardioprotective effects. Clinically, DPP-4 inhibitors improve several risk factors in patients with T2DM. They improve blood glucose control (mainly by reducing postprandial glycaemia), are weight neutral (or even induce modest weight loss), lower blood pressure, improve postprandial lipaemia, reduce inflammatory markers, diminish oxidative stress, and improve endothelial function. Some positive effects on the heart have also been described in patients with ischaemic heart disease or congestive heart failure, although their clinical relevance requires further investigation. Post-hoc analyses of phase II-III, controlled trials suggest a possible cardioprotective effect with a trend for a lower incidence of major cardiovascular events with gliptins than with placebo or active agents. However, the actual relationship between DPP-4 inhibition and cardiovascular outcomes remains to be proven. Major prospective clinical trials with predefined cardiovascular outcomes and involving various DPP-4 inhibitors are now underway in patients with T2DM and a high-risk cardiovascular profile.

  1. [Cardiovascular complications of hypertensive crisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Peralta, Martín; Borrayo-Sánchez, Gabriela; Madrid-Miller, Alejandra; Ramírez-Arias, Erick; Pérez-Rodríguez, Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    It is inexorable that a proportion of patients with systemic arterial hypertension will develop a hypertensive crisis at some point in their lives. The hypertensive crises can be divided in hypertensive patients with emergency or hypertensive emergency, according to the presence or absence of acute end-organ damage. In this review, we discuss the cardiovascular hypertensive emergencies, including acute coronary syndrome, congestive heart failure, aortic dissection and sympathomimetic hypertensive crises (those caused by cocaine use included). Each is presented in a unique way, although some patients with hypertensive emergency report non-specific symptoms. Treatment includes multiple medications for quick and effective action with security to reduce blood pressure, protect the function of organs remaining, relieve symptoms, minimize the risk of complications and improve patient outcomes.

  2. Is Heart Rate a Norepiphenomenon in Heart Failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensey, Mark; O'Neill, James

    2016-09-01

    There has been an increased focus on heart rate as a target in the management of cardiovascular disease and more specifically in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in recent years with several studies showing the benefit of a lower resting heart rate on outcomes. This review paper examines the pathophysiology behind the benefits of lowering heart rate in heart failure and also the evidence for and against the pharmacological agents available to achieve this. PMID:27457085

  3. Antioxidant activity and protective effects of cocoa and kola nut mistletoe (Globimetula cupulata against ischemia/reperfusion injury in Langendorff-perfused rat hearts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afolabi Clement Akinmoladun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Protection against cardiomyocyte damage following ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury is highly desirable in patients with ischemic heart disease. Hydromethanol extracts of Globimetula cupulata (mistletoe growing on cocoa (CGCE and kola nut (KGCE trees were assessed for antioxidant content and cardioprotective potential against I/R. Graded concentrations (1–50 μg/mL of CGCE or KGCE were tested on Langendorff-perfused rat hearts to evaluate the effects on the flow rate, heart rate, and force of cardiac contraction, while another set of hearts were subjected to biochemical analyses. Both extracts showed good antioxidant content and activity, but KGCE (EC50: 24.8±1.8 μg/mL showed higher hydroxyl radical scavenging activity than CGCE (70.2±4.5 μg/mL. Both extracts at 3 μg/mL reversed (p < 0.001 membrane peroxidation and the significant decrease in nitrite level, coronary flow rate, and superoxide dismutase and catalase activity caused by the I/R cycle. It is concluded that G. cupulata protects against ischemia–reperfusion injury in rat hearts via augmenting endogenous antioxidants and significant restoration of altered hemodynamic parameters.

  4. C1q/TNF-Related Protein 9 Protects Diabetic Rat Heart against Ischemia Reperfusion Injury: Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Sanxing; Cheng, Liang; Yang, Yang; Fan, Chongxi; Zhao, Dajun; Qin, Zhigang; Feng, Xiao; Zhao, Lin; Ma, Jipeng; Wang, Xiaowu; Yang, Jian; Xu, Xuezeng

    2016-01-01

    As a newly identified adiponectin paralog, C1q/TNF-related protein 9 (CTRP9) reduces myocardial ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury through partially understood mechanisms. In the present study, we sought to identify the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) in CTRP9 induced cardioprotection in diabetic heart. Isolated hearts from high-fat-diet (HFD) induced type 2 diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to ex vivo IR protocol via a Langendorff apparatus at the presence of globular CTRP9. CTRP9 significantly improved post-IR heart function and reduced cardiac infarction, cardiomyocytes apoptosis, Caspase-3, Caspase-9, Caspase-12, TNF-α expression, and lactate dehydrogenase activity. The cardioprotective effect of CTRP9 was associated with reduced ERS and increased expression of disulfide-bond A oxidoreductase-like protein (DsbA-L) in diabetic heart. CTRP9 reduced ERS in thapsigargin (TG) treated cardiomyocytes and protected endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stressed H9c2 cells against simulated ischemia reperfusion (SIR) injury, concurrent with increased expression of DsbA-L. Knockdown of DsbA-L increased ERS and attenuated CTRP9 induced protection against SIR injury in H9c2 cells. Our findings demonstrated for the first time that CTRP9 exerts cardioprotection by reducing ERS in diabetic heart through increasing DsbA-L.

  5. Down Syndrome: A Cardiovascular Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vis, J. C.; Duffels, M. G. J.; Winter, M. M.; Weijerman, M. E.; Cobben, J. M.; Huisman, S. A.; Mulder, B. J. M.

    2009-01-01

    This review focuses on the heart and vascular system in patients with Down syndrome. A clear knowledge on the wide spectrum of various abnormalities associated with this syndrome is essential for skillful management of cardiac problems in patients with Down syndrome. Epidemiology of congenital heart defects, cardiovascular aspects and…

  6. ACCF/AHA/ASE/ASNC/HFSA/HRS/SCAI/SCCT/SCMR/STS 2013 multimodality appropriate use criteria for the detection and risk assessment of stable ischemic heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, American Heart Association, American Society of Echocardiography, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Heart Failure Society of America, Heart Rhythm Society, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronan, Grace; Wolk, Michael J; Bailey, Steven R; Doherty, John U; Douglas, Pamela S; Hendel, Robert C; Kramer, Christopher M; Min, James K; Patel, Manesh R; Rosenbaum, Lisa; Shaw, Leslee J; Stainback, Raymond F; Allen, Joseph M; Brindis, Ralph G; Kramer, Christopher M; Shaw, Leslee J; Cerqueira, Manuel D; Chen, Jersey; Dean, Larry S; Fazel, Reza; Hundley, W Gregory; Itchhaporia, Dipti; Kligfield, Paul; Lockwood, Richard; Marine, Joseph Edward; McCully, Robert Benjamin; Messer, Joseph V; O'Gara, Patrick T; Shemin, Richard J; Wann, L Samuel; Wong, John B; Patel, Manesh R; Kramer, Christopher M; Bailey, Steven R; Brown, Alan S; Doherty, John U; Douglas, Pamela S; Hendel, Robert C; Lindsay, Bruce D; Min, James K; Shaw, Leslee J; Stainback, Raymond F; Wann, L Samuel; Wolk, Michael J; Allen, Joseph M

    2014-02-01

    The American College of Cardiology Foundation along with key specialty and subspecialty societies, conducted an appropriate use review of common clinical presentations for stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) to consider use of stress testing and anatomic diagnostic procedures. This document reflects an updating of the prior Appropriate Use Criteria (AUC) published for radionuclide imaging (RNI), stress echocardiography (Echo), calcium scoring, coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA), stress cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), and invasive coronary angiography for SIHD. This is in keeping with the commitment to revise and refine the AUC on a frequent basis. A major innovation in this document is the rating of tests side by side for the same indication. The side-by-side rating removes any concerns about differences in indication or interpretation stemming from prior use of separate documents for each test. However, the ratings were explicitly not competitive rankings due to the limited availability of comparative evidence, patient variability, and range of capabilities available in any given local setting. The indications for this review are limited to the detection and risk assessment of SIHD and were drawn from common applications or anticipated uses, as well as from current clinical practice guidelines. Eighty clinical scenarios were developed by a writing committee and scored by a separate rating panel on a scale of 1-9, to designate Appropriate, May Be Appropriate, or Rarely Appropriate use following a modified Delphi process following the recently updated AUC development methodology. The use of some modalities of testing in the initial evaluation of patients with symptoms representing ischemic equivalents, newly diagnosed heart failure, arrhythmias, and syncope was generally found to be Appropriate or May Be Appropriate, except in cases where low pre-test probability or low risk limited the benefit of most testing except exercise electrocardiogram (ECG

  7. A comparison of the protective effect of a modified StTH solution and HTK-B on the energy and functional status of the isolated rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernikov, V S; Tutterová, M; Bakuleva, N P; Vavrínková, H; Kostava, V T; Vrána, M

    1992-01-01

    Using a model of the isolated beating rat heart, the authors compared the protective effect of St. Thomas Hospital cardioplegic solution enriched with glucose and mannitol (StTH-M) and Bretschneider solution (HTK-B). Results showed that, during 120-minute global ischaemia in cardioplegia, StTH-M was able to maintain levels of high-energy phosphates comparable with those found in a group of hearts perfused with HTK-B at 20 degrees C only when the temperature had been decreased to 12-15 degrees C. Under these conditions, repair of metabolic and functional parameters during post-ischaemic perfusion was also similar in both groups. PMID:1308722

  8. Systemic-to-pulmonary collateral flow in patients with palliated univentricular heart physiology: measurement using cardiovascular magnetic resonance 4D velocity acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valverde Israel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic-to-pulmonary collateral flow (SPCF may constitute a risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality in patients with single-ventricle physiology (SV. However, clinical research is limited by the complexity of multi-vessel two-dimensional (2D cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR flow measurements. We sought to validate four-dimensional (4D velocity acquisition sequence for concise quantification of SPCF and flow distribution in patients with SV. Methods 29 patients with SV physiology prospectively underwent CMR (1.5 T (n = 14 bidirectional cavopulmonary connection [BCPC], age 2.9 ± 1.3 years; and n = 15 Fontan, 14.4 ± 5.9 years and 20 healthy volunteers (age, 28.7 ± 13.1 years served as controls. A single whole-heart 4D velocity acquisition and five 2D flow acquisitions were performed in the aorta, superior/inferior caval veins, right/left pulmonary arteries to serve as gold-standard. The five 2D velocity acquisition measurements were compared with 4D velocity acquisition for validation of individual vessel flow quantification and time efficiency. The SPCF was calculated by evaluating the disparity between systemic (aortic minus caval vein flows and pulmonary flows (arterial and venour return. The pulmonary right to left and the systemic lower to upper body flow distribution were also calculated. Results The comparison between 4D velocity and 2D flow acquisitions showed good Bland-Altman agreement for all individual vessels (mean bias, 0.05±0.24 l/min/m2, calculated SPCF (−0.02±0.18 l/min/m2 and significantly shorter 4D velocity acquisition-time (12:34 min/17:28 min,p 2; Fontan 0.62±0.82 l/min/m2 and not in controls (0.01 + 0.16 l/min/m2, (3 inverse relation of right/left pulmonary artery perfusion and right/left SPCF (Pearson = −0.47,p = 0.01 and (4 upper to lower body flow distribution trend related to the weight (r = 0.742, p  Conclusions 4D

  9. Coincident linkage of type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and measures of cardiovascular disease in a genome scan of the diabetes heart study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Donald W; Rudock, Megan; Ziegler, Julie; Lehtinen, Allison B; Xu, Jianzhao; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Herrington, David; Rich, Stephen S; Freedman, Barry I; Carr, J Jeffrey; Langefeld, Carl D

    2006-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in type 2 diabetes, but the relationship between CVD and type 2 diabetes is not well understood. The Diabetes Heart Study is a study of type 2 diabetes-enriched families extensively phenotyped for measures of CVD, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. A total of 977 Caucasian subjects from 358 pedigrees (575 type 2 diabetic relative pairs) with at least two individuals with type 2 diabetes and, where possible, unaffected siblings were included in a genome scan. Qualitative traits evaluated in this analysis are with or without the presence of coronary calcified plaque (CCP) and with or without carotid calcified plaque (CarCP) measured by electrocardiogram-gated helical computed tomography. In addition, prevalent CVD was measured using two definitions: CVD1, based on self-reported history of clinical CVD (393 subjects), and CVD2, defined as CVD1 and/or CCP >400 (606 subjects). These discrete traits (type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, CVD1, CVD2, CCP, and CarCP) frequently coincide in the same individuals with concordance ranging from 42.9 to 99%. Multipoint nonparametric linkage analysis revealed evidence for coincident mapping of each trait (type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, CVD1, CVD2, CCP, and CarCP) to three different genomic regions: a broad region on chromosome 3 (70-160 cM; logarithm of odds [LOD] scores ranging between 1.15 and 2.71), chromosome 4q31 (peak LOD 146 cM; LOD scores ranging between 0.90 and 2.41), and on chromosome 14p (peak LOD 23 cM; LOD scores ranging between 1.43 and 2.31). Ordered subset analysis (OSA) suggests that the linked chromosome 3 region consists of at least two separate loci on 3p and 3q. In addition, OSA based on lipid measures and other traits identify family subsets with significantly stronger evidence of linkage (e.g., CVD2 on chromosome 3 at 87 cM subsetting on low HDL with an initial LOD of 2.19 is maximized to an LOD of 7.04 in a subset of

  10. Clinical Effect of Statins Combined With Cardiovascular Drugs for Coronary Heart Disease%他汀类联合心血管药物治疗冠心病的临床效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晶

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate clinical effect of statins combined cardiovascular drugs for coronary heart disease. Methods 60 patients with cardiovascular diseases from 2010 to 2013 in our hospital were selected into control group and observation group. The control group patients received cardiovascular medications,the observation group received cardiovascular drugs and statins treatment,the clinical effects between the two groups were compared. Results The clinical effective rate of observation group was higher than control group significantly(P<0.05). The lever of total cholesterol,HDL cholesterol,LDL cholesterol and triglycerides in the observation group were better than control group significantly(P< 0.05). Conclusion The clinical treatment effect of statins combined cardiovascular drugs for coronary heart disease is good,the patient's blood lipids is improved.%目的:探讨他汀类药物和心血管药物联合使用治疗冠心病的临床效果。方法对2010~2013年我院接收的60例心血管患者进行研究分析,将这些患者分为对照组和观察组,对照组患者使用心血管药物治疗,观察组患者使用心血管药物和他汀类药物治疗,对两组的临床治疗效果进行对比分析。结果临床治疗后,观察组患者的临床治疗有效率比对照组高,两组结果存在统计学差异性,P<0.05。两组患者的总胆固醇、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇、甘油三酯等指标结果为观察组较好,两组具有统计学差异性,P<0.05。结论他汀类药物和心血管药物对冠心病患者的临床治疗效果好,患者的血脂得到了改善。

  11. Testosterone and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloner, Robert A; Carson, Culley; Dobs, Adrian; Kopecky, Stephen; Mohler, Emile R

    2016-02-01

    Testosterone (T) is the principal male sex hormone. As men age, T levels typically fall. Symptoms of low T include decreased libido, vasomotor instability, and decreased bone mineral density. Other symptoms may include depression, fatigue, erectile dysfunction, and reduced muscle strength/mass. Epidemiology studies show that low levels of T are associated with more atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, and cardiovascular events. However, treating hypogonadism in the aging male has resulted in discrepant results in regard to its effect on cardiovascular events. Emerging studies suggest that T may have a future role in treating heart failure, angina, and myocardial ischemia. A large, prospective, long-term study of T replacement, with a primary endpoint of a composite of adverse cardiovascular events including myocardial infarction, stroke, and/or cardiovascular death, is needed. The Food and Drug Administration recently put additional restrictions on T replacement therapy labeling and called for additional studies to determine its cardiac safety. PMID:26846952

  12. Esomeprazole for prevention and resolution of upper gastrointestinal symptoms in patients treated with low-dose acetylsalicylic acid for cardiovascular protection: the OBERON trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiman, James M; Herlitz, Johan; Veldhuyzen van Zanten, Sander J; Lanas, Angel; Agewall, Stefan; Nauclér, Emma C; Svedberg, Lars-Erik; Nagy, Péter

    2013-03-01

    Although low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is recommended for prevention of cardiovascular events in at-risk patients, its long-term use can be associated with the risk of peptic ulcer and upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms that may impact treatment compliance. This prespecified secondary analysis of the OBERON study (NCT00441727) determined the efficacy of esomeprazole for prevention/resolution of low-dose ASA-associated upper GI symptoms. A post hoc analysis of predictors of symptom prevention/resolution was also conducted. Helicobacter pylori-negative patients taking low-dose ASA (75-325 mg) for cardiovascular protection who had ≥1 upper GI risk factor were eligible. The patients were randomized to once-daily esomeprazole 40 mg, 20 mg, or placebo, for 26 weeks; 2303 patients (mean age 67.6 years; 36% aged >70 years) were evaluable for upper GI symptoms. The proportion of patients with dyspeptic or reflux symptoms (self-reported Reflux Disease Questionnaire) was significantly lower (P 70 years (P symptoms at baseline (P prevention/resolution of upper GI symptoms. Together, these analyses demonstrate that esomeprazole is effective in preventing and resolving patient-reported upper GI symptoms in low-dose ASA users at increased GI risk.

  13. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan C. Vesa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents some general facts about omega-3 fatty acids and their role in the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for the human body. Their beneficial effects in the prevention of cardiovascular disease have been known for decades. Since then, several epidemiological and interventional trials showed the value of omega-3 acids in the treatment of certain diseases. Most of them revealed the protective role of omega-3 fatty acids on heart and cardiac functions. However, some of these studies couldn?t demonstrate a positive association between fish oils and preventing cardiac events. The major cardiologic societies from European Union and United States of America recommend omega-3 fatty acids as supplements for primary and secondary prophylaxis of cardiovascular diseases.

  14. Comparison of the impact of atrial fibrillation on the risk of stroke and cardiovascular death in women versus men (The Copenhagen City Heart Study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Jens; Scharling, Henrik; Gadsbøll, Niels;

    2004-01-01

    -morbidity, the effect of AF on the risk of stroke was 4.6-fold greater in women (hazard ratio 7.8, 95% confidence interval 5.8 to 14.3) than in men (hazard ratio 1.7, 95% confidence interval 1.0 to 3.0). Cardiovascular death occurred in 1,122 subjects, 63 of whom had AF (28 in women and 35 in men). The independent...... effect of AF on cardiovascular mortality rate was 2.5-fold greater in women (hazard ratio 4.4, 95% confidence interval 2.9 to 6.5) than in men (hazard ratio 2.2, 95% confidence interval 1.6 to 3.1). Our results indicate that AF is a much more pronounced risk factor for stroke and cardiovascular death...

  15. Trends in Cardiovascular Risk Factor Levels in the Minnesota Heart Survey (1980–2002) as Compared With the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1976–2002): A Partial Explanation for Minnesota's Low Cardiovascular Disease Mortality?

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Huifen; Steffen, Lyn M.; Jacobs, David R.; Zhou, Xia; Blackburn, Henry; Berger, Alan K.; Filion, Kristian B.; Luepker, Russell V

    2011-01-01

    The authors compared trends in and levels of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors between the Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, metropolitan area (Twin Cities) and the entire US population to help explain the ongoing decline in US CHD mortality rates. The study populations for risk factors were adults aged 25–74 years enrolled in 2 population-based surveillance studies: the Minnesota Heart Survey (MHS) in 1980–1982, 1985–1987, 1990–1992, 1995–1997, and 2000–2002 and the National Health an...

  16. Association of copeptin and N-terminal proBNP concentrations with risk of cardiovascular death in older patients with symptoms of heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alehagen, Urban; Dahlström, Ulf; Rehfeld, Jens Frederik;

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of plasma concentrations of the biomarker copeptin may help identify patients with heart failure at high and low risk of mortality, although the value of copeptin measurement in elderly patients is not fully known.......Measurement of plasma concentrations of the biomarker copeptin may help identify patients with heart failure at high and low risk of mortality, although the value of copeptin measurement in elderly patients is not fully known....

  17. Nitric oxide protects the heart from ischemia-induced apoptosis and mitochondrial damage via protein kinase G mediated blockage of permeability transition and cytochrome c release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jekabsone Aiste

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heart ischemia can rapidly induce apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction via mitochondrial permeability transition-induced cytochrome c release. We tested whether nitric oxide (NO can block this damage in isolated rat heart, and, if so, by what mechanisms. Methods Hearts were perfused with 50 μM DETA/NO (NO donor, then subjected to 30 min stop-flow ischemia or ischemia/reperfusion. Isolated heart mitochondria were used to measure the rate of mitochondrial oxygen consumption and membrane potential using oxygen and tetraphenylphosphonium-selective electrodes. Mitochondrial and cytosolic cytochrome c levels were measured spectrophotometrically and by ELISA. The calcium retention capacity of isolated mitochondria was measured using the fluorescent dye Calcium Green-5N. Apoptosis and necrosis were evaluated by measuring the activity of caspase-3 in cytosolic extracts and the activity of lactate dehydrogenase in perfusate, respectively. Results 30 min ischemia caused release of mitochondrial cytochrome c to the cytoplasm, inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, and stimulation of mitochondrial proton permeability. 3 min perfusion with 50 μM DETA/NO of hearts prior to ischemia decreased this mitochondrial damage. The DETA/NO-induced blockage of mitochondrial cytochrome c release was reversed by a protein kinase G (PKG inhibitor KT5823, or soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor ODQ or protein kinase C inhibitors (Ro 32-0432 and Ro 31-8220. Ischemia also stimulated caspase-3-like activity, and this was substantially reduced by pre-perfusion with DETA/NO. Reperfusion after 30 min of ischemia caused no further caspase activation, but was accompanied by necrosis, which was completely prevented by DETA/NO, and this protection was blocked by the PKG inhibitor. Incubation of isolated heart mitochondria with activated PKG blocked calcium-induced mitochondrial permeability transition and cytochrome c release. Perfusion of non

  18. Chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia protects the heart against ischemia/reperfusion injury through upregulation of antioxidant enzymes in adult guinea pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-cai GUO; Zhe ZHANG; Li-nan ZHANG; Chen XIONG; Chen FENG; Qian LIU; Xu LIU; Xiao-lu SHI; Yong-li WANG

    2009-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the protection and the anti-oxidative mechanism afforded by chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (CIHH) against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in guinea pig hearts.Methods:Adult male guinea pigs were exposed to CIHH by mimicking a 5000 m high altitude (pB=404 mmHg,p02=84 mmHg) in a hypobaric chamber for 6 h/day for 28 days.Langendorff-perfused isolated guinea pig hearts were used to measure variables of left ventricular function during baseline perfusion,ischemia and the reperfusion period.The activity and protein expression of antioxidant enzymes in the left myocardium were evaluated using biochemical methods and Western blotting.respectively.Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were assessed using ROS-sensitive fluorescence.Results:After 30 min of global no-flow ischemia followed by 60 min of reperfusion,myocardial function had better recovery rates in CIHH guinea pig hearts than in control hearts.The activity and protein expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were significantly increased in the myocardium of CIHH guinea pigs.Pretreatment of control hearts with an antioxidant mixture containing SOD and CAT exerted cardioprotective effects similar to CIHH.The irreversible CAT inhibitor aminotriazole (ATZ) abolished the cardioprotection of CIHH.Cardiac contractile dysfunction and oxidative stress induced by exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were attenuated by CIHH and CAT.Conclusions:These data suggest that CIHH protects the heart against I/R injury through upregulation of antioxidant enzymes in guinea pig.

  19. Nonylphenol disrupts the cardio-protective effects of 17β-estradiol on ischemia/reperfusion injury in isolated hearts of guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Hu, Huiyuan; Zhao, Meimi; Zhao, Jinsheng; Yin, Dandan; Sun, Xuefei; Liu, Shuyuan; Gao, Qinghua; Yu, Lifeng; Hao, Liying

    2013-01-01

    Nonylphenol (NP), a widely distributed, toxic, endocrine-disrupting chemical, has estrogenic properties. However, its cardiac effects remain unclear. In this study, the effects of NP on isolated guinea pig hearts were studied in three separate experiments. First, hearts were perfused with 10⁻⁷ M NP or 10⁻⁵ M NP to determine whether NP was toxic to isolated healthy hearts. Next, hearts were subjected to 50 min of ischemia and 60 min of reperfusion (I50R60) with 10⁻⁷ M NP or 10⁻⁵ M NP to determine whether NP could aggravate ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Finally, the interaction of the cardio-protective agent 17β-estradiol (E₂) with NP was studied using 10⁻⁷ M E₂, 10⁻⁷ M E₂ plus 10⁻⁷ M NP, and 10⁻⁷ M E₂ plus 10⁻⁵ M NP. Heart rate (HR) and coronary flow (CF) were significantly decreased and the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in effluent was increased in the 10⁻⁵ M NP group. However, there were no obvious changes in HR, CF, the leakage of LDH or creatine kinase (CK), or the activity of superoxide dismutase in either of the NP treatments in the I50R60 model. Treatment with 10⁻⁷ M E₂ attenuated I/R injury by increasing HR, decreasing the leakage of LDH and CK, and decreasing infarct size. However, these effects were reversed by both concentrations of NP. These data demonstrate that NP had direct toxic effects on normal hearts and NP might disrupt the cardio-protective effects of E₂ on I/R injury. PMID:24067721

  20. Binding of elastin peptides to S-Gal protects the heart against ischemia/reperfusion injury by triggering the RISK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinet, Arnaud; Millart, Hervé; Oszust, Floriane; Hornebeck, William; Bellon, Georges

    2007-07-01

    Elastin peptides (EPs) generated by hydrolysis of elastic fibers by elastinolytic enzymes display a wide spectrum of biological activities. Here, we investigated their influence on rat heart ischemia-mediated injury using the Langendorff ex vivo model. EPs, i.e., kappa elastin, at 1.32- and 660-nM concentrations, when administered before the ischemia period, elicited a beneficial influence against ischemia by accelerating the recovery rate of heart contractile parameters and by decreasing significantly creatine kinase release and heart necrosis area when measured at the onset of the reperfusion. All effects were S-Gal-dependent, as being reproduced by (VGVAPG)3 and as being inhibited by receptor antagonists, such as lactose and V14 peptide (VVGSPSAQDEASPL). EPs interaction with S-Gal triggered NO release and activation of PI3-kinase/Akt and ERK1/2 in human coronary endothelial cells (HCAECs) and rat neonatal cardiomyocytes (RCs). This signaling pathway, as designated as RISK, for reperfusion injury salvage kinase pathway, was shown to be responsible for the beneficial influence of EPs on ischemia/reperfusion injury on the basis of its inhibition by specific pharmacological inhibitors. EPs survival activity was attained at a concentration averaging that present into the blood circulation, supporting the contention that these matrikines might offer a natural protection against cardiac injury in young and adult individuals. Such protective effect might be lost with aging, since we found that hearts from 24-month-old rats did not respond to EPs. PMID:17341689

  1. Cardiovascular protective effects of soy isoflavone%大豆异黄酮对心血管保护作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀荣; 刘耀春

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Estrogen has cardiovascular protective effects while its adverse effects restrain its application in the therapy and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. To find a more effective and safer estrogen replacement becomes a hotspot in cardiovascular pharmaceutical researches. This paper summarized the current research situation on the cardiovascular protective effects of phytoestrogen, soy isoflavone.DATA SOURCES: Relative articles between January 1993 and December 2001 were searched by computer on Medline with the searching words of "isoflavones, atherosclerosis, vasodilation" in English, the language limitation of the articles. Simultaneously, articles between January 1994 and February 2002 were searched by computer on Wangfang Database and Chinese Journal Full Text Database with the searching words of "isoflavones,artherosclerosis, vasodilation(Chinese charcters)" in Chinese, the language limitation of the articles.DATA SELECTION: Literatures with experiments including study group and control group were selected from the data through preliminary screening to eliminate obvious non-randomized experimental studies. The full texts of the residual literatures were searched afterwards for the further judgment of ranincluded in the study. Exclusive criteria: repetitive experimental studies.DATA EXTRACTION: A total of 31 randomized or non-randomized experimental articles regarding the cardiovascular protective effects of soy isoflavone were collected, of which 26 experiments were in accordance with the inclusive criteria and the rest 5 articles were exclude due to repetition of same study.DATA SYNTHESIS: Twenty-six experiments including clinical experiments and animal experiments, which employed in vivo or in vitro two experimental methods after the application of soy isoflavone to observe and evaluate its cardiovascular protective effects. The above two methods had its own merits and shortcomings, of which in vitro experiment was a more common method for the

  2. Disturbance effects of PM₁₀ on iNOS and eNOS mRNA expression levels and antioxidant activity induced by ischemia-reperfusion injury in isolated rat heart: protective role of vanillic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianat, Mahin; Radmanesh, Esmat; Badavi, Mohammad; Mard, Seyed Ali; Goudarzi, Gholamraza

    2016-03-01

    Myocardial infarction is the acute condition of myocardial necrosis that occurs as a result of imbalance between coronary blood supply and myocardial demand. Air pollution increases the risk of death from cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of particulate matter (PM) on oxidative stress, the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) messenger RNA (mRNA) level induced by ischemia-reperfusion injury, and the protective effects of vanillic acid (VA) in the isolated rat heart. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into eight groups (n = 10), namely control, VAc, sham, VA, PMa (0.5 mg/kg), PMb (2.5 mg/kg), PMc (5 mg/kg), and PMc + VA groups. Particles with an aerodynamic diameter chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to determine levels of iNOS and eNOS mRNA. An increase in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), S-T elevation, and oxidative stress in PM10 groups was observed. Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) induction showed a significant augment in the expression of iNOS mRNA level and a significant decrease in the expression eNOS mRNA level. This effect was more pronounced in the PM groups than in the control and sham groups. Vanillic acid caused a significant decrease in LVEDP, S-T elevation, and also a significant difference in eNOS mRNA expression level, antioxidant enzymes, iNOS mRNA expression level, and oxidative stress occurred on myocardial dysfunction after I/R in isolated rat hearts. This study showed that PM10 exposure had devastating effects on the myocardial heart, oxidative stress, and eNOS and iNOS mRNA expression levels. Vanillic acid was able to improve these parameters. Vanillic acid as a potent antioxidant could also provide protection against particulate matter-induced toxicity. PMID:26552794

  3. Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    2008-01-01

    and electrophysiological abnormalities, an entity that is different from alcoholic heart muscle disease. Being clinically latent, cirrhotic cardiomyopathy can be unmasked by physical or pharmacological strain. Consequently, caution should be exercised in the case of stressful procedures, such as large volume paracentesis......Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis include cardiac dysfunction and abnormalities in the central, splanchnic and peripheral circulation, and haemodynamic changes caused by humoral and nervous dysregulation. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy implies systolic and diastolic dysfunction....... The clinical significance of cardiovascular complications and cirrhotic cardiomyopathy is an important topic for future research, and the initiation of new randomised studies of potential treatments for these complications is needed.  ...

  4. Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    2008-01-01

    and electrophysiological abnormalities, an entity that is different from alcoholic heart muscle disease. Being clinically latent, cirrhotic cardiomyopathy can be unmasked by physical or pharmacological strain. Consequently, caution should be exercised in the case of stressful procedures, such as large volume paracentesis......Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis include cardiac dysfunction and abnormalities in the central, splanchnic and peripheral circulation, and haemodynamic changes caused by humoral and nervous dysregulation. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy implies systolic and diastolic dysfunction....... The clinical significance of cardiovascular complications and cirrhotic cardiomyopathy is an important topic for future research, and the initiation of new randomised studies of potential treatments for these complications is needed....

  5. Is the association between optimistic cardiovascular risk perceptions and lower rates of cardiovascular disease mortality explained by biomarkers of systemic inflammation or endothelial function? A case-cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gramling Robert

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More optimistic perceptions of cardiovascular disease risk are associated with substantively lower rates of cardiovascular death among men. It remains unknown whether this association represents causality (i.e. perception leads to actions/conditions that influence cardiovascular disease occurrence or residual confounding by unmeasured factors that associate with risk perceptions and with physiological processes that promote cardiovascular disease (i.e. inflammation or endothelial dysfunction. Purpose To evaluate whether previously unmeasured biological markers of inflammation or endothelial dysregulation confound the observed association between cardiovascular disease risk perceptions and cardiovascular disease outcomes; Methods We conducted a nested case-cohort study among community-dwelling men from Southeastern New England (USA who were interviewed between 1989 and 1990 as part of the Pawtucket Heart Health Program. We measured C-reactive protein (CRP and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF levels from stored sera for a random sample of the parent cohort (control sample, n = 127 and all cases of cardiovascular death observed through 2005 (case sample, n = 44. We evaluated potential confounding using stratified analyses and logistic regression modeling. Results Optimistic ratings of risk associated with lower odds of dying from cardiovascular causes among men (OR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.17, 0.91. Neither CRP nor VEGF confounded these findings. Conclusions The strong cardio-protective association between optimistic ratings of cardiovascular disease risk and lower rates of cardiovascular mortality among men is not confounded by baseline biomarkers of systemic inflammation or endothelial dysfunction.

  6. The cardiovascular effects of metformin: lost in translation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riksen, N.P.; Tack, C.J.J.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In overweight patients with diabetes, treatment with metformin improves cardiovascular outcomes. This observation has fuelled the hypothesis that metformin has direct cardiovascular protective properties over and above glucose lowering. Here, we discuss the various cardiovascular

  7. CD38 Deficiency Protects the Heart from Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury through Activating SIRT1/FOXOs-Mediated Antioxidative Stress Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Xiao-Hong; Hong, Xuan; Zhao, Ning; Xiao, Yun-Fei; Wang, Ling-Fang; Qian, Yi-Song; Deng, Ke-Yu; Ji, Guangju; Fu, Mingui

    2016-01-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury induces irreversible oxidative stress damage to the cardiac muscle. We previously observed that CD38 deficiency remarkably protects mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from oxidative stress-induced injury. However, whether CD38 deficiency protects from I/R injury in the heart is not explored. Here, we showed that the hearts of CD38 deficient mice or wild type mice supplied with exogenous NAD were significantly protected from ischemia/reperfusion injury, seen as reduction of the myocardial infarct sizes when the mice were subjected to 30 min ischemia followed by 24 hours of reperfusion. Consistently, the protection of CD38 deficiency on hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury was confirmed with a CD38 knockdown H9c2 stable cell line. Furthermore, we observed that knockdown of CD38 remarkably inhibited ROS generation and intracellular Ca2+ overloading induced by H/R in H9c2 cells. The FOXO1 and FOXO3 expressions were significantly elevated by H/R injury in CD38 knockdown cells compared with normal H9c2 cells. The cell immunofluorescence assay showed that FOXO1 nuclear translocation was significantly increased in CD38 knockdown H9c2 cells. In addition, we demonstrated that the increase of FOXO1 nuclear translocation was associated with the increased expressions of antioxidant catalase and SOD2 and the attenuated expression of the ROS generation enzyme NOX4. In conclusion, our results provide new evidence that CD38 deficiency protects the heart from I/R injury through activating SIRT1/FOXOs-mediated antioxidative stress pathway. PMID:27547294

  8. Exploring the link between nocturnal heart rate, sleep apnea and cardiovascular function in African and Caucasian men : the SABPA study / Y. van Rooyen.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Rooyen, Yolandi

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: There is a rapid escalation in urbanization amongst South Africans and it is known that urbanized South Africans are subjected to lifestyle factors conducive to an increase in the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been described as an independent risk factor for CVD, especially hypertension. OSA has also been associated with insomnia, and plays a contributory role in the co-morbidity of this disorder. The mechanisms employed by OSA, which pro...

  9. What is the impact of chronic kidney disease stage and cardiovascular disease on the annual cost of hospital care in moderate-to-severe kidney disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kent, Seamus; Schlackow, Iryna; Lozano-Kühne, Jingky; Reith, Christina; Emberson, Jonathan; Haynes, Richard; Gray, Alastair; Cass, Alan; Baigent, Colin; Landray, Martin J; Herrington, William; Mihaylova, Borislava; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reliable estimates of the impacts of chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage, with and without cardiovascular disease, on hospital costs are needed to inform health policy. METHODS: The Study of Heart and Renal Protection (SHARP) randomized trial prospectively collected information on kidney

  10. Green tea catechins: defensive role in cardiovascular disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pooja Bhardwaj; Deepa Khanna

    2013-01-01

    Green tea,Camellia sinensis (Theaeeae),a major source of flavonoids such as catechins,has recently shown multiple cardiovascular health benefits through various experimental and clinical studies.These studies suggest that green tea catechins prevent the incidence of detrimental cardiovascular events,and also lower the cardiovascular mortality rate.Catechins present in green tea have the ability to prevent atherosclerosis,hypertension,endothelial dysfunction,ischemic heart diseases,cardiomyopathy,cardiac hypertrophy and congestive heart failure by decreasing oxidative stress,preventing inflammatory events,reducing platelet aggregation and halting the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells.Catechins afford an anti-oxidant effect by inducing anti-oxidant enzymes,inhibiting pro-oxidant enzymes and scavenging free radicals.Catechins present anti-inflammatory activity through the inhibition of transcriptional factor NF-κB-mediated production of cytokines and adhesion molecules.Green tea catechins interfere with vascular growth factors and thus inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation,and also inhibit thrombogenesis by suppressing platelet adhesion.Additionally,catechins could protect vascular endothelial cells and enhance vascular integrity and regulate blood pressure.In this review various experimental and clinical studies suggesting the role of green tea catechins against the markers of cardiovascular disorders and the underlying mechanisms for these actions are discussed.

  11. Incidence of Atrial Fibrillation and Relationship With Cardiovascular Events, Heart Failure, and Mortality A Community-Based Study From the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermond, Rob A.; Geelhoed, Bastiaan; Verweij, Niek; Tieleman, Robert G.; Van der Harst, Pim; Hillege, Hans L.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Van Gelder, Isabelle C.; Rienstra, Michiel

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Important improvements have been made in treatment of diseases associated with atrial fibrillation (AF), such as hypertension, myocardial infarction, and heart failure. Incidence rates and risk factors may have changed with the aging of the population and changing lifestyles. Currently, t

  12. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism (C677T), hyperhomocysteinemia, and risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease and venous thromboembolism: prospective and case-control studies from the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jeppe; Juul, Klaus; Grande, Peer;

    2004-01-01

    for sex, age, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, lipoprotein(a), fibrinogen, triglycerides, body mass index, smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and factor V Leiden genotype. Finally, in case-control studies odds ratios for ischemic heart disease and ischemic cerebrovascular disease...

  13. Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training versus Continuous Training on Physical Fitness, Cardiovascular Function and Quality of Life in Heart Failure Patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benda, N.M.M.; Seeger, J.P.; Stevens, G.G.; Hijmans-Kersten, B.T.P.; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Bellersen, L.; Lamfers, E.J.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Physical fitness is an important prognostic factor in heart failure (HF). To improve fitness, different types of exercise have been explored, with recent focus on high-intensity interval training (HIT). We comprehensively compared effects of HIT versus continuous training (CT) in HF pa

  14. Hydrogen sulfide postconditioning protects isolated rat hearts against ischemia and reperfusion injury mediated by the JAK2/STAT3 survival pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng-Fei Luan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The JAK2/STAT3 signal pathway is an important component of survivor activating factor enhancement (SAFE pathway. The objective of the present study was to determine whether the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway participates in hydrogen sulfide (H2S postconditioning, protecting isolated rat hearts from ischemic-reperfusion injury. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (230-270 g were divided into 6 groups (N = 14 per group: time-matched perfusion (Sham group, ischemia/reperfusion (I/R group, NaHS postconditioning group, NaHS with AG-490 group, AG-490 (5 µM group, and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO; <0.2% group. Langendorff-perfused rat hearts, with the exception of the Sham group, were subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 90 min of reperfusion after 20 min of equilibrium. Heart rate, left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP, and the maximum rate of increase or decrease of left ventricular pressure (± dp/dt max were recorded. Infarct size was determined using triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC staining. Myocardial TUNEL staining was used as the in situ cell death detection method and the percentage of TUNEL-positive nuclei to all nuclei counted was used as the apoptotic index. The expression of STAT3, bcl-2 and bax was determined by Western blotting. After reperfusion, compared to the I/R group, H2S significantly improved functional recovery and decreased infarct size (23.3 ± 3.8 vs 41.2 ± 4.7%, P < 0.05 and apoptotic index (22.1 ± 3.6 vs 43.0 ± 4.8%, P < 0.05. However, H2S-mediated protection was abolished by AG-490, the JAK2 inhibitor. In conclusion, H2S postconditioning effectively protects isolated I/R rat hearts via activation of the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway.

  15. Incidence of Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease in Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-07

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Heart Diseases; Myocardial Infarction; Angina Pectoris; Death, Sudden, Cardiac; Cerebrovascular Disorders; Peripheral Vascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Diabetes Mellitus, Non-insulin Dependent; Diabetes Mellitus

  16. Heart Health - Brave Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health Brave Heart Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... you can have a good life after a heart attack." Lifestyle Changes Surviving—and thriving—after such ...

  17. Cocoa and cardiovascular health

    OpenAIRE

    R. Corti; Flammer, A J; Hollenberg, N K; Lüscher, T F

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological data demonstrate that regular dietary intake of plant-derived foods and beverages reduces the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Among many ingredients, cocoa might be an important mediator. Indeed, recent research demonstrates a beneficial effect of cocoa on blood pressure, insulin resistance, and vascular and platelet function. Although still debated, a range of potential mechanisms through which cocoa might exert its benefits on cardiovascular health have been propo...

  18. Discrepancy in calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and intracellular acidic stores for the protection of the heart against ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf, Aseel; Babiker, Fawzi

    2016-09-01

    We and others have demonstrated a protective effect of pacing postconditioning (PPC) against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the mechanisms underlying this protection are not completely clear. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and the novel intracellular acidic stores (AS). Isolated rat hearts (n = 6 per group) were subjected to coronary occlusion followed by reperfusion using a modified Langendorff system. Cardiac hemodynamics and contractility were assessed using a data acquisition program, and cardiac injury was evaluated by creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. Hearts were subjected to 30 min of regional ischemia, produced by ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery, followed by 30 min of reperfusion. The hearts were also subjected to PPC (3 cycles of 30 s of left ventricle (LV) pacing alternated with 30 s of right atrium (RA) pacing) and/or were treated during reperfusion with agonists or antagonists of release of calcium from SR or AS. PPC significantly (P < 0.05) normalized LV, contractility, and coronary vascular dynamics and significantly (P < 0.001) decreased heart enzyme levels compared to the control treatments. The blockade of SR calcium release resulted in a significant (P < 0.01) recovery in LV function and contractility and a significant reduction in CK and LDH levels (P < 0.01) when applied alone or in combination with PPC. Interestingly, the release of calcium from AS alone or in combination with PPC significantly improved LV function and contractility (P < 0.05) and significantly decreased the CK and LDH levels (P < 0.01) compared to the control treatments. An additive effect was produced when agonism of calcium release from AS or blockade of calcium release from the SR was combined with PPC. Calcium release from AS and blockade of calcium release from the SR protect the heart against I

  19. Physical demands at work, physical fitness, and 30-year ischaemic heart disease and all-cause mortality in the Copenhagen male study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Burr, Hermann;

    2010-01-01

    work demands with two self-reported questions. Results: In the Copenhagen Male Study, 587 men (11.9%) died due to ischaemic heart disease (IHD). Using men with low physical work demands as the reference group, Cox analyses - adjusted for age, blood pressure, smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass...... risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality if exposed to high physical work demands. Ours observations suggest that, among men with high physical work demands, being physically fit protects against adverse cardiovascular effects....

  20. Salud Para Su Corazon (health for your heart) community health worker model: community and clinical approaches for addressing cardiovascular disease risk reduction in Hispanics/Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcazar, H; Alvarado, M; Ortiz, G

    2011-01-01

    This article describes 6 Salud Para Su Corazon (SPSC) family of programs that have addressed cardiovascular disease risk reduction in Hispanic communities facilitated by community health workers (CHWs) or Promotores de Salud (PS). A synopsis of the programs illustrates the designs and methodological approaches that combine community-based participatory research for 2 types of settings: community and clinical. Examples are provided as to how CHWs can serve as agents of change in these settings. A description is presented of a sustainability framework for the SPSC family of programs. Finally, implications are summarized for utilizing the SPSC CHW/PS model to inform ambulatory care management and policy.

  1. Usefulness of Doppler Echocardiographic Left Ventricular Diastolic Function and Peak Exercise Oxygen Consumption to Predict Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients with Systolic Heart Failure (From HF-ACTION)

    OpenAIRE

    Gardin, Julius M; Leifer, Eric S.; Kitzman, Dalane W.; Cohen, Gerald; Landzberg, Joel S.; Cotts, William; Wolfel, Eugene E.; Safford, Robert E.; Bess, Renee L; Fleg, Jerome L.

    2012-01-01

    HF-ACTION was a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial designed to examine the safety and efficacy of aerobic exercise training versus usual care in 2,331 patients with systolic heart failure (HF). In HF-ACTION patients with resting transthoracic echocardiographic (echo) measurements, we examined predictive value of 8 echo-Doppler measurements—left ventricular (LV) diastolic dimension, mass, systolic (ejection fraction) and diastolic function (mitral valve [MV] peak early diastolic-to-peak...

  2. Positive affect and health-related neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and inflammatory processes

    OpenAIRE

    Steptoe, A; Wardle, J; Marmot, M.

    2005-01-01

    Negative affective states such as depression are associated with premature mortality and increased risk of coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and disability. It has been suggested that positive affective states are protective, but the pathways through which such effects might be mediated are poorly understood. Here we show that positive affect in middle-aged men and women is associated with reduced neuroendocrine, inflammatory, and cardiovascular activity. Positive affect was assessed b...

  3. Cardiovascular Disease in Women: Primary and Secondary Cardiovascular Disease Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghavi, Monika; Gulati, Martha

    2016-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death in the United States. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease requires involvement of an extended health care team. Obstetricians and gynecologists are uniquely positioned within the health care system because they are often the primary or only contact women have with the system. This review article discusses initial assessment, treatment recommendations, and practical tips regarding primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease in women with a focus on coronary heart disease; discussion includes peripheral and cerebrovascular disease. PMID:27212092

  4. Cardiovascular Disease and Thyroid Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Jens; Selmer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid function has a profound effect on the heart, and both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates are increased in hyperthyroidism. New-onset atrial fibrillation carries a prolonged risk for the development of hyperthyroidism, suggesting altered availability of thyroid hormones at the ce......Thyroid function has a profound effect on the heart, and both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates are increased in hyperthyroidism. New-onset atrial fibrillation carries a prolonged risk for the development of hyperthyroidism, suggesting altered availability of thyroid hormones......, a progressively increased risk in people with different levels of reduced TSH to a physiologically 'dose-dependent' effect of thyroid hormones on the heart in overt hyperthyroidism. Heart failure represents an intriguing clinical situation in which triiodothyronine treatment might be beneficial. In conclusion...

  5. Physiological and Pharmacological Roles of FGF21 in Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is one of the most severe diseases in clinics. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 is regarded as an important metabolic regulator playing a therapeutic role in diabetes and its complications. The heart is a key target as well as a source of FGF21 which is involved in heart development and also induces beneficial effects in CVDs. Our review is to clarify the roles of FGF21 in CVDs. Strong evidence showed that the development of CVDs including atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, myocardial ischemia, cardiac hypertrophy, and diabetic cardiomyopathy is associated with serum FGF21 levels increase which was regarded as a compensatory response to induced cardiac protection. Furthermore, administration of FGF21 suppressed the above CVDs. Mechanistic studies revealed that FGF21 induced cardiac protection likely by preventing cardiac lipotoxicity and the associated oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. Normally, FGF21 induced therapeutic effects against CVDs via activation of the above kinases-mediated pathways by directly binding to the FGF receptors of the heart in the presence of β-klotho. However, recently, growing evidence showed that FGF21 induced beneficial effects on peripheral organs through an indirect way mediated by adiponectin. Therefore whether adiponectin is also involved in FGF21-induced cardiac protection still needs further investigation.

  6. Oral delivery of insulin withDesmodium gangeticum root aqueous extract protects rat hearts against ischemia reperfusion injury in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gino A Kurian; Jose Paddikkala

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effect of insulin administered via oral route with the help of aqueous extract ofDesmodium gangeticum (DG) root in rendering cardio protection against ischemia reperfusion injury in diabetic rats.Methods: Diabetes mellitus was induced in rats by theβ-cell toxin, streptozotocin (STZ, 60 mg/kg). Isolated rat (IR) heart was used to investigate the effect of insulin mixed DG pretreatment on ischemia reperfusion injury. Mitochondrial respiratory enzymes and microsomal enzymes were used to assess the metabolic recovery of myocardium. Cardiac marker enzymes were used to find the functional recovery, which were compared with that of the STZ treated IR rats.Results: Compared with IR control group, rat treated with insulin mixed DG showed a significant functional and metabolic recovery of myocardium from the insult of ischemia reperfusion. Even though orally administered insulin mixed DG displayed a slow but prolonged hypoglycemic effect, the cardio protection it provided was more significant than when it was given intra peritoneal. Furthermore the above result indicates that insulin mixed DG can overcome the barriers in the gastrointestinal tract and be absorbed.Conclusions: The above results indicate the efficacy of insulin mixed DG in protecting the heart from ischemia reperfusion induced injury in diabetic rats. Furthermore the study gives additional information that herbal extracts can be used to transport insulin across the membrane and found to be a feasible approach for developing the oral delivery of insulin, as well as other peptide drugs.

  7. Top 10 Myths about Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Top 10 Myths about Cardiovascular Disease Updated:May 20,2016 How ... Let’s set the record straight on some common myths. “I’m too young to worry about heart ...

  8. Heart MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnetic resonance imaging - cardiac; Magnetic resonance imaging - heart; Nuclear magnetic resonance - cardiac; NMR - cardiac; MRI of the heart; Cardiomyopathy - MRI; Heart failure - MRI; Congenital heart disease - MRI

  9. [Obesity and the prognosis of heart failure: the obesity paradox, myth or reality?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounhoure, Jean-Paul; Galinier, Michel; Roncalli, Jerôme; Massabuau, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has now reached epidemic proportions worldwide. Obesity is associated with numerous comorbidities, including hypertension, lipid disorders and type II diabetes, and is also a major cause of cardiovascular disease, coronary disease, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and sudden death. Obesity is the main cause of heart failure in respectively 11% and 14% of cases in men and women. The Framingham study showed that, after correction for other risk factors, each point increase in the body mass index raises the risk of heart failure by 5% in men and 7% in women. Obesity increases the heart workload, causes left ventricular hypertrophy, and impairs both diastolic and systolic function. The most common form of heart failure is diastolic dysfunction, and heart failure in obese individuals is associated with preserved systolic function. Despite these comorbidities and the severity of heart failure, numerous studies have revealed an "obesity paradox" in which overweight and obese individuals with heart failure appear to have a better prognosis than non overweight subjects. This review summarizes the adverse cardiac effects of this nutritional disease, the results of some studies supporting the obesity paradox, the better survival rate of obese patients with heart failure. Potential explanations for these surprising data include the possibility that a number of obese patients may simply not have heart failure, as well as methodological bias, and protective effects of adipose tissue. Further studies of large populations are needed to determine how obesity may improve the prognosis of heart failure.

  10. Elevated resting heart rate is associated with greater risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in current and former smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Magnus T; Marott, Jacob L; Jensen, Gorm B

    2010-01-01

    . Current and former smokers had, irrespective of tobacco consumption, greater relative risk of elevated RHR compared to never smokers. The relative risk of all-cause mortality per 10bpm increase in RHR was (95% CI): 1.06 (1.01-1.10) in never smokers, 1.11 (1.07-1.15) in former smokers, 1.13 (1.......09-1.16) in moderate smokers, and 1.13 (1.10-1.16) in heavy smokers. There was no gender difference. The risk estimates for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality were essentially similar. In univariate analyses, the difference in survival between a RHR in the highest (>80bpm) vs lowest quartile (...

  11. Measurement of Reactive Oxygen Species, Reactive Nitrogen Species, and Redox-Dependent Signaling in the Cardiovascular System: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griendling, Kathy K; Touyz, Rhian M; Zweier, Jay L; Dikalov, Sergey; Chilian, William; Chen, Yeong-Renn; Harrison, David G; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2016-08-19

    Reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species are biological molecules that play important roles in cardiovascular physiology and contribute to disease initiation, progression, and severity. Because of their ephemeral nature and rapid reactivity, these species are difficult to measure directly with high accuracy and precision. In this statement, we review current methods for measuring these species and the secondary products they generate and suggest approaches for measuring redox status, oxidative stress, and the production of individual reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. We discuss the strengths and limitations of different methods and the relative specificity and suitability of these methods for measuring the concentrations of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species in cells, tissues, and biological fluids. We provide specific guidelines, through expert opinion, for choosing reliable and reproducible assays for different experimental and clinical situations. These guidelines are intended to help investigators and clinical researchers avoid experimental error and ensure high-quality measurements of these important biological species.

  12. Stem cells for the heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suzanne Kadereit

    2004-01-01

    @@ Cardiovascular disease is one of the major health concerns of modern societies. In the United States in the year 2001 alone, an estimated 64 million people had had one or more forms of cardiovascular disease, claiming almost one million liyes, 38.5 percent of all deaths (American Heart Association).

  13. Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Disorder Predispose Youth to Accelerated Atherosclerosis and Early Cardiovascular Disease: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Benjamin I; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Matthews, Karen A; McIntyre, Roger S; Miller, Gregory E; Raghuveer, Geetha; Stoney, Catherine M; Wasiak, Hank; McCrindle, Brian W

    2015-09-01

    In the 2011 "Expert Panel on Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents," several medical conditions among youth were identified that predispose to accelerated atherosclerosis and early cardiovascular disease (CVD), and risk stratification and management strategies for youth with these conditions were elaborated. Major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) among youth satisfy the criteria set for, and therefore merit inclusion among, Expert Panel tier II moderate-risk conditions. The combined prevalence of MDD and BD among adolescents in the United States is ≈10%, at least 10 times greater than the prevalence of the existing moderate-risk conditions combined. The high prevalence of MDD and BD underscores the importance of positioning these diseases alongside other pediatric diseases previously identified as moderate risk for CVD. The overall objective of this statement is to increase awareness and recognition of MDD and BD among youth as moderate-risk conditions for early CVD. To achieve this objective, the primary specific aims of this statement are to (1) summarize evidence that MDD and BD are tier II moderate-risk conditions associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and early CVD and (2) position MDD and BD as tier II moderate-risk conditions that require the application of risk stratification and management strategies in accordance with Expert Panel recommendations. In this scientific statement, there is an integration of the various factors that putatively underlie the association of MDD and BD with CVD, including pathophysiological mechanisms, traditional CVD risk factors, behavioral and environmental factors, and psychiatric medications.

  14. Prevalence of coronary heart disease or stroke among workers aged <55 years--United States, 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckhaupt, Sara E; Calvert, Geoffrey M

    2014-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease accounts for one in three deaths in the United States each year, and coronary heart disease and stroke account for most of those deaths. To try to prevent 1 million heart attacks and strokes by 2017, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services launched the Million Hearts initiative, promoting proven and effective interventions in communities and clinical settings. In workplace settings, cardiovascular disease can be addressed through a Total Worker Health program, which integrates occupational safety and health protection with health promotion. To identify workers likely to benefit from such a program, CDC analyzed data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) for the period 2008-2012 to estimate the prevalence of a history of coronary heart disease or stroke (CHD/stroke) among adults aged Health approach to reducing the risk for CHD/stroke. PMID:25078653

  15. Acute heart failure in elderly patients : worse outcomes and differential utility of standard prognostic variables. Insights from the PROTECT trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metra, Marco; Mentz, Robert J.; Chiswell, Karen; Bloomfield, Daniel M.; Cleland, John G. F.; Cotter, Gad; Davison, Beth A.; Dittrich, Howard C.; Fiuzat, Mona; Givertz, Michael M.; Lazzarini, Valentina; Mansoor, George A.; Massie, Barry M.; Ponikowski, Piotr; Teerlink, John R.; Voors, Adriaan A.; O'Connor, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    AimsPrevious heart failure (HF) trials suggested that age influences patient characteristics and outcome; however, under-representation of elderly patients has limited characterization of this cohort. Whether standard prognostic variables have differential utility in various age groups is unclear. M

  16. Impact of Serial Troponin Release on Outcomes in Patients With Acute Heart Failure Analysis From the PROTECT Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Connor, Christopher M.; Fiuzat, Mona; Lombardi, Carlo; Fujita, Kenji; Jia, Gang; Davison, Beth A.; Cleland, John; Bloomfield, Daniel; Dittrich, Howard C.; DeLucca, Paul; Givertz, Michael M.; Mansoor, George; Ponikowski, Piotr; Teerlink, John R.; Voors, Adriaan A.; Massie, Barry M.; Cotter, Gad; Metra, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Background-Cardiac troponin T (cTnT) elevation is common and is a predictor of outcomes in patients with acute heart failure (AHF). The degree and progression of cTnT release during hospitalization of patients with AHF is unclear. We evaluated the incidence of cTnT release during AHF hospitalization

  17. Protective effects of the Cornus officinalis compatibility of components on cardiovascular lesion in diabetic rats%山茱萸配伍组分对糖尿病大鼠心血管病变的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴佳蕾; 许惠琴; 沈存思; 刘斌; 陶玉菡; 李伟

    2013-01-01

    Aim To study the mechanism of the Cornus officinalis compatibility component' s protective effect on the cardiovascular lesion in diabetic rats, by observing blood fat, factors involved in vascular injury and pathological change. Methods Diabetic model was set up in rats by the intake of STZ combined high fat diet. The rats were randomized to model, GLMN (0. 4mg · kg-1 ), PC-L(60mg · kg-1 ), PC-H ( 120 mg · kg-1 ) groups by the level of fasting blood glucose and i. g. for 12 weeks. Normal group was set as control. The model and normal group rats were administered with water. The level of TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C, NO, T-NOS in serum was examined by kit. TXB2 , 6-keto-PGF1 a in serum and ET in plasma were assayed by radioimmunoassay. Rat heart was taken the organ index was calculated. The change of histopathology in rat heart and thoracic aorta was observed. Results The level of TC, TG, LDL-C, TXB2, and the ratio of LDL-C/HDL-C, TXB2/6-keto-PGF1 a in serum of PC-L, PC-H group significantly decreased ( P < 0. 05, P < 0. 01 ) compared to those of model group. The level of NO, T-NOS of PC-L group had an increasing trend, while ET decreased and NO/ET increased, which had a significant difference ( P < 0. 05 ) compared to model group. In PC-H group, the level of NO, T-NOS and the ratio of NO/ET increased; ET decreased. However, there was no significant difference compared to model group. Conclusion The Cornus officinalis compatibility components have a protective effect on cardiovascular lesion in diabetic rats, by regulating blood fat, recovering blood vessel' s dynamic balance of constriction and relaxation, improving blood rheolog-ical characteristic, and relieving pathological changes in heart and thoracic aorta.%目的 通过观察糖尿病大鼠血脂、血管损伤相关因子及病理变化,分析山茱萸配伍组分保护糖尿病心血管病变的作用机制.方法 链脲佐菌素(STZ)复合高脂饲料造成糖尿病大鼠模型,取造模成功大鼠按血糖

  18. Cardiovascular risk reduction in high-risk pediatric patients: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Expert Panel on Population and Prevention Science; the Councils on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, Epidemiology and Prevention, Nutrition, Physical Activity and Metabolism, High Blood Pressure Research, Cardiovascular Nursing, and the Kidney in Heart Disease; and the Interdisciplinary Working Group on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research: endorsed by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavey, Rae-Ellen W; Allada, Vivek; Daniels, Stephen R; Hayman, Laura L; McCrindle, Brian W; Newburger, Jane W; Parekh, Rulan S; Steinberger, Julia

    2006-12-12

    Although for most children the process of atherosclerosis is subclinical, dramatically accelerated atherosclerosis occurs in some pediatric disease states, with clinical coronary events occurring in childhood and very early adult life. As with most scientific statements about children and the future risk for cardiovascular disease, there are no randomized trials documenting the effects of risk reduction on hard clinical outcomes. A growing body of literature, however, identifies the importance of premature cardiovascular disease in the course of certain pediatric diagnoses and addresses the response to risk factor reduction. For this scientific statement, a panel of experts reviewed what is known about very premature cardiovascular disease in 8 high-risk pediatric diagnoses and, from the science base, developed practical recommendations for management of cardiovascular risk.

  19. Subclinical organ damage and cardiovascular risk prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehestedt, Thomas; Olsen, Michael H

    2010-01-01

    by measuring subclinical organ damage. We have (i) reviewed recent studies linking markers of subclinical organ damage in the heart, blood vessels and kidney to cardiovascular risk; (ii) discussed the evidence for improvement in cardiovascular risk prediction using markers of subclinical organ damage; (iii...

  20. B-type natriuretic peptide measurement in primary care; magnitude of associations with cardiovascular risk factors and their therapies. Observations from the STOP-HF (St. Vincent's Screening TO Prevent Heart Failure) study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Conlon, Carmel M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: An effective prevention strategy for heart failure in primary care requires a reliable screening tool for asymptomatic ventricular dysfunction. Preliminary data indicate that B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) may be suitable for this task. However, for the most effective use of this peptide, the interrelationships between associated risk factors and their therapies on BNP, and in particular their magnitude of effect, needs to be established in a large primary care population. Therefore, the objective of the study was to establish the extent of the association between BNP, cardiovascular risk factors and their therapies. METHODS: BNP measurement and clinical review was preformed on 1122 primary care patients with cardiovascular risk factors. Multivariate analyses identified significant associates of BNP concentrations which were further explored to establish the magnitude of their association. RESULTS: Associates of BNP were age (1.36-fold increase in BNP\\/decade), female (1.28), beta-blockers (1.90), myocardial infarction (1.36), arrhythmia (1.98), diastolic blood pressure; all p<0.01. A novel method was devised that plotted median BNP per sliding decade of age for the various combinations of these principal associates. CONCLUSIONS: The data presented underline the importance of considering several clinical and therapeutic factors when interpreting BNP concentrations. Most of these variables were associated with increased concentrations, which may in part explain the observed false-positive rates for detecting ventricular dysfunction using this peptide. Furthermore, the design of studies or protocols using BNP as an endpoint or a clinical tool should take particular account of these associations. This analysis provides the foundation for age, risk factor and therapy adjusted reference ranges for BNP in this setting.

  1. Reactive Oxygen Species in Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sugamura, Koichi; Keaney, John F.

    2011-01-01

    Based on the ‘free-radical theory’ of disease, researchers have been trying to elucidate the role of oxidative stress from free radicals in cardiovascular disease. Considerable data indicate that ROS and oxidative stress are important features of cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis, hypertension, and congestive heart failure. However, blanket strategies with antioxidants to ameliorate cardiovascular disease have not generally yielded favorable results. However, our understanding...

  2. Blood pressure level and relation to other cardiovascular risk factors in male hypertensive patients without clinical evidence of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C T; Sørum, C; Hansen, J F;

    2000-01-01

    , duration of hypertension, cholesterol and triglyceride level, smoking status, information of regular exercise, a family history of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and drug treatment, in 220 men treated for arterial hypertension. In the univariate analyses we found a higher systolic blood pressure (SBP...... and the blood pressure (BP), and to evaluate the percentage of patients who had achieved a BP level as recommended by the sixth report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC VI). BP was evaluated in relation to age, body mass index...... was independently associated with DBP. Office SBP was above 140 mmHg in 83% and above 160 mmHg in 44% of patients. During ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (AMBP), SBP was above 135 mmHg in 40% and above 155 mmHg in 15% of patients. In addition to male sex and hypertension there was a high percentage of other...

  3. Association of the waist-to-height ratio with cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents: The three cities heart study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robespierre C Ribeiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the best anthropometric index in rela-tion to cardiovascular disease risk factors among children and adolescents. Methods: This cross-sectional school-based study was conducted among a random sample of 3179 students, aged 6 to 18 years, in three large cities in Brazil. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 10% and 5%, respectively. In relation to the students in the lower quartile (Q1 of the distribution of subscapular skinfold, the students in the upper quartile (Q4 presented a 2.0 times higher risk (odds ratio of having elevated total cholesterol levels. Overweight and obese students had a 3.3 times higher risk of having elevated sys-tolic blood pressure, and a 1.9 times higher risk of elevated diastolic blood pressure than other students. The less active students presented a 1.58 times higher risk of having waist-to-height ratio (WHtR above the upper tertile (Q3. WHtR mean values was 0.46 (SE 0.00 presented the largest area under the curve (AUC [0.613 (CI995%:0.578-0.647] for high total cholesterol levels, [0.546 (CI995%: 0.515-0.578] for low HDL-C levels, and [0.614 (CI95%: 0.577-0.651] for high LDL-C levels, while body mass index presented the largest AUC [0.669 (CI95%: 0.64-0.699] for increased diastolic blood pressure followed by the waist circum-ference for increased systolic blood pressure [0.761 (CI95%: 0.735-0.787]. Conclusions: WHtR is considered as a simple and accurate anthropometric parameter that identifies youth with cardiovascular risk factors. In this study, WHtR above 0.44 was indicative of risk factors in children and adolescents. These findings can be applied in future preventive strategies against CVDs, and screening pro-grams.

  4. [Cardiovascular effects of GLP-1 receptor agonist treatment: focus on liraglutide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluzík, Martin; Trachta, Pavel; Mráz, Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk reduction is the major aim of type 2 diabetes mellitus treatment. The effects of various antidiabetics on the cardiovascular complications are currently under careful scrutiny. Incretin-based therapy that utilizes the effects of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) or stimulation of its receptor by GLP-1 receptor agonists represents one of the most promising approaches from the potential cardiovascular risk reduction point of view. Experimental studies have shown that the GLP-1 and GLP-1 agonists treatment improves endothelial function, decrease blood pressure and protects myocardium during experimentally-induced ischemia. Clinical studies with GLP-1 receptor agonists consistently show that, in addition to good antidiabetic efficacy, its long-term administration decreases blood pressure, body weight and improves circulating lipid levels while slightly increasing heart rate. In this paper, we focus on the cardiovascular effects of GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide. Preliminary analyses of cardiovascular complications in phase III trials with liraglutide indicate its good cardiovascular safety. A possibility of cardioprotective effects of liraglutide remains still open and is currently studied within a prospective cardiovascular trial LEADER.

  5. The role of oxytocin in cardiovascular regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutkowska, J.; Jankowski, M. [University of Montreal, CHUM Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Laboratory of Cardiovascular Biochemistry, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Laboratory of Cardiovascular Biochemistry, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, CHUM Research Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Antunes-Rodrigues, J. [Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Departamento de Fisiologia, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Fisiologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2014-03-03

    Studies of body volume expansion have indicated that lesions of the anteroventral third ventricle and median eminence block the release of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) into the circulation. Detailed analysis of the lesions showed that activation of oxytocin (OT)-ergic neurons is responsible for ANP release, and it has become clear that activation of neuronal circuitry elicits OT secretion into the circulation, activating atrial OT receptors and ANP release from the heart. Subsequently, we have uncovered the entire functional OT system in the rat and the human heart. An abundance of OT has been observed in the early development of the fetal heart, and the capacity of OT to generate cardiomyocytes (CMs) has been demonstrated in various types of stem cells. OT treatment of mesenchymal stem cells stimulates paracrine factors beneficial for cardioprotection. Cardiovascular actions of OT include: i) lowering blood pressure, ii) negative inotropic and chronotropic effects, iii) parasympathetic neuromodulation, iv) vasodilatation, v) anti-inflammatory activity, vi) antioxidant activity, and vii) metabolic effects. OT actions are mediated by nitric oxide and ANP. The beneficial actions of OT may include the increase in glucose uptake by CMs and stem cells, reduction in CM hypertrophy, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial protection of several cell types. In experimentally induced myocardial infarction in rats, continuous in vivo OT delivery improves cardiac healing and cardiac work, reduces inflammation, and stimulates angiogenesis. Because OT plays anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective roles and improves vascular and metabolic functions, it demonstrates potential for therapeutic use in various pathologic conditions.

  6. The role of oxytocin in cardiovascular regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gutkowska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies of body volume expansion have indicated that lesions of the anteroventral third ventricle and median eminence block the release of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP into the circulation. Detailed analysis of the lesions showed that activation of oxytocin (OT-ergic neurons is responsible for ANP release, and it has become clear that activation of neuronal circuitry elicits OT secretion into the circulation, activating atrial OT receptors and ANP release from the heart. Subsequently, we have uncovered the entire functional OT system in the rat and the human heart. An abundance of OT has been observed in the early development of the fetal heart, and the capacity of OT to generate cardiomyocytes (CMs has been demonstrated in various types of stem cells. OT treatment of mesenchymal stem cells stimulates paracrine factors beneficial for cardioprotection. Cardiovascular actions of OT include: i lowering blood pressure, ii negative inotropic and chronotropic effects, iii parasympathetic neuromodulation, iv vasodilatation, v anti-inflammatory activity, vi antioxidant activity, and vii metabolic effects. OT actions are mediated by nitric oxide and ANP. The beneficial actions of OT may include the increase in glucose uptake by CMs and stem cells, reduction in CM hypertrophy, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial protection of several cell types. In experimentally induced myocardial infarction in rats, continuous in vivo OT delivery improves cardiac healing and cardiac work, reduces inflammation, and stimulates angiogenesis. Because OT plays anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective roles and improves vascular and metabolic functions, it demonstrates potential for therapeutic use in various pathologic conditions.

  7. The role of oxytocin in cardiovascular regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of body volume expansion have indicated that lesions of the anteroventral third ventricle and median eminence block the release of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) into the circulation. Detailed analysis of the lesions showed that activation of oxytocin (OT)-ergic neurons is responsible for ANP release, and it has become clear that activation of neuronal circuitry elicits OT secretion into the circulation, activating atrial OT receptors and ANP release from the heart. Subsequently, we have uncovered the entire functional OT system in the rat and the human heart. An abundance of OT has been observed in the early development of the fetal heart, and the capacity of OT to generate cardiomyocytes (CMs) has been demonstrated in various types of stem cells. OT treatment of mesenchymal stem cells stimulates paracrine factors beneficial for cardioprotection. Cardiovascular actions of OT include: i) lowering blood pressure, ii) negative inotropic and chronotropic effects, iii) parasympathetic neuromodulation, iv) vasodilatation, v) anti-inflammatory activity, vi) antioxidant activity, and vii) metabolic effects. OT actions are mediated by nitric oxide and ANP. The beneficial actions of OT may include the increase in glucose uptake by CMs and stem cells, reduction in CM hypertrophy, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial protection of several cell types. In experimentally induced myocardial infarction in rats, continuous in vivo OT delivery improves cardiac healing and cardiac work, reduces inflammation, and stimulates angiogenesis. Because OT plays anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective roles and improves vascular and metabolic functions, it demonstrates potential for therapeutic use in various pathologic conditions

  8. Role of Pleiotropic Properties of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors in the Heart: Focus on the Nonmetabolic Effects in Cardiac Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlaka, Eleftheria; Galatou, Eleftheria; Mellidis, Kyriakos; Ravingerova, Tanya; Lazou, Antigone

    2016-02-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, PPARα, PPARβ/δ, and PPARγ, are a group of nuclear receptors that function as transcriptional regulators of lipid metabolism, energy homeostasis, and inflammation. Given the role of metabolism imbalance under pathological states of the heart, PPARs have emerged as important therapeutic targets, and accumulating evidence highlights their protective role in the improvement of cardiac function under diverse pathological settings. Although the role of PPARs in the regulation of cardiac substrate utilization preference and energy homeostasis is well documented, their effects related to the regulation of cellular inflammatory and redox responses in the heart are less studied. In this review, we provide an overview on recent progress with respect to understanding the role of the nonmetabolic effects of PPARs in cardiac dysfunction, namely during ischemia/reperfusion injury, hypertrophy, and cardiac failure, and highlight the mechanisms underlying the protective effects against inflammation, oxidative stress, and cell death. The role of receptor-independent, nongenomic effects of PPAR agonists is also discussed.

  9. [The role of nitric oxide and superoxide synthesis in protective mechanism of ecdysterone in the heart mitochondria of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkach, Iu P; Rudyk, O V; Kotsiuruba, A V; Prysiazhna, O D; Sahach, V F

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated generation of O2*- and NO in heart mitochondria isolated from 9-week old streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats and the effect of ecdysterone treatment on these parameters. Mitochondria isolated from 9-week old placebo-treated rats were used as control. Several parameters were evaluated: O2*- production, the levels of stable NO metabolites nitrate, nitrite and total nitrosothiols, the level of bilirubine (as marker of CO generation), inducible (iNOS) and constitutive (nNOS) mtNOS, NADH- dependent nitrate reductase (NR) and inducible arginase II (AII) activity. We observed that diabetes was accompanied by a significant decrease in nNOS activity, nitrite, total nitrosothiols and bilirubine content while iNOS, NR and AII activity, as well as O2*- generation was increased in heart mitochondria. Ecdysterone treatment normalized the levels of stable NO metabolites, ability to generate superoxide, iNOS and nNOS activity, but not bilirubine level, NR and AII activity. These results suggest that ecdysterone treatment attenuates diabetes-induced mitochondrial alterations protecting against oxidative and nitrosative stresses. Thus, ecdysterone therapy, besides its well known importance in the maintenance of glycemic control, may help to protect against mitochondrial dysfunction associated to several age-related disorders.

  10. [Cognitive dysfunction in cardiovascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladwig, Karl-Heinz

    2016-08-01

    A multitude of modifiable risk factors during the median phase of life are often causative for cognitive dysfunction (CD) in old age. High evidence exists for cigarette smoking, diabetes, physical inactivity and sleeping disorders. Single large scale population based studies proof it for hypertension, hypercholesterinemia and depression, conflicting evidence exists for obesity and work stress. Little attention is paid to the close association between cardiovascular disease conditions and CD, particularly for atrial fibrillation, heart failure and for older patients with coronary heart disease. Undetected CD may be responsible for non-adherence and failure of self-care programs in chronic heart patients. PMID:27557067

  11. Ischemic postconditioning protects the heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury via neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the sarcoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, L; Wang, J; Zhu, H; Wu, X; Zhou, L; Song, Y; Zhu, S; Hao, M; Liu, C; Fan, Y; Wang, Y; Li, Q

    2016-01-01

    As a result of its spatial confinement in cardiomyocytes, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is thought to regulate mitochondrial and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function by maintaining nitroso-redox balance and Ca(2+) cycling. Thus, we hypothesize that ischemic postconditioning (IPostC) protects hearts against ischemic/reperfusion (I/R) injury through an nNOS-mediated pathway. Isolated mouse hearts were subjected to I/R injury in a Langendorff apparatus, H9C2 cells and primary neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) in vitro. IPostC, compared with I/R, decreased infarct size and improved cardiac function, and the selective nNOS inhibitors abolished these effects. IPostC recovered nNOS activity and arginase expression. IPostC also increased AMP kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and alleviated oxidative stress, and nNOS and AMPK inhibition abolished these effects. IPostC increased nitrotyrosine production in the cytosol but decreased it in mitochondria. Enhanced phospholamban (PLB) phosphorylation, normalized SR function and decreased Ca(2+) overload were observed following the recovery of nNOS activity, and nNOS inhibition abolished these effects. Similar effects of IPostC were demonstrated in cardiomyocytes in vitro. IPostC decreased oxidative stress partially by regulating uncoupled nNOS and the nNOS/AMPK/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha/superoxide dismutase axis, and improved SR function through increasing SR Ca(2+) load. These results suggest that IPostC protected hearts against I/R injury via an nNOS-mediated pathway. PMID:27171264

  12. Association between CRP and TNF-α genes Variants and Cardiovascular Heart Disease in a Mexican Population: Protocol for a Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazmín Hernández-Díaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The C-reactive protein (CRP and the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α are considered markers of inflammation and have been shown to predict the risk of incident cardiovascular events. However, few studies have undertaken a comprehensive examination of SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms of the CRP and TNF-α genes; due to this, we will present a protocol study to evaluate the role of the CRP and TNF-α genes in Mexican individuals. Methods/design: we will perform a case-control study to explore the CRP and TNF-α genotype distribution as well as the serum influence of rs1800947, rs1130864, rs2794521 and rs1205 (polymorphisms of the CRP gene and rs361525, rs1800629, rs1799724, rs1800630, rs1799964 (of the TNF-α gene in Mexican individuals who present coronary artery disease. Ethics and dissemination: a written informed consent will be obtained from all the participating subjects. An article detailing the results of the study will be submitted for publication in an international peer-reviewed journal, in accordance with STROBE criteria.

  13. The Personality and Psychological Stress Predict Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Five Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jinling; Zhang, Danyang; Yin, Yue; Zhang, Xiaofei; Li, Jifu; Liu, Dexiang; Pan, Fang; Chen, Wenqiang

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the effects of personality type and psychological stress on the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) at 5 years in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Two hundred twenty patients with stable angina (SA) or non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) treated with PCI completed type A behavioral questionnaire, type D personality questionnaire, Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Trait Coping Style Questionnaire (TCSQ), and Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) at 3 days after PCI operation. Meanwhile, biomedical markers (cTnI, CK-MB, LDH, LDH1) were assayed. MACEs were monitored over a 5-year follow-up. NSTE-ACS group had higher ratio of type A behavior, type A/D behavior, and higher single factor scores of type A personality and type D personality than control group and SAP group. NSTE-ACS patients had more anxiety, depression, lower level of mental health (P depression, and lower level of mental health. Type D patients were at a cumulative increased risk of adverse outcome compared with non-type D patients (P obvious anxiety, depression emotion, and lower level of mental health, which were related to personality and coping style. Type D personality was an independent predictor of adverse events. PMID:27082597

  14. Women's cardiovascular health in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocumbi, Ana Olga; Sliwa, Karen

    2012-03-01

    The predominant pattern of cardiovascular diseases in sub-Saharan Africa is that of poverty-related conditions (rheumatic heart valve disease, untreated congenital heart disease, tuberculous pericarditis) and diseases of unclear aetiology with a higher prevalence in this part of the world (peripartum cardiomyopathy, endomyocardial fibrosis). However, the prevalence of the traditional risk factors for cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and marked obesity is high in a number of sub-Saharan settings, although they vary considerably among countries, urban/rural locations and specific subpopulations. In urban settings, hypertensive heart disease with systolic and diastolic function contributes substantially to morbidity. Awareness of the general public and health workers about the burden of cardiovascular diseases in women must be increased, and risk factor control programmes must be included in the health research agenda on the African continent. Improvement in health services with coordination of maternal health services and non-communicable diseases is also needed. This review focuses on the current knowledge of cardiovascular healthcare of women in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly their propensity for various forms of heart disease, access to healthcare, treatment received within the respective healthcare system, response to therapy and mortality. It highlights the gaps in knowledge and the paucity of data in most of these aspects. PMID:22350029

  15. Poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase inhibitor has a heart protective effect in a rat model of experimental sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Lianshuang; Yao, Jinpeng; Wang, Xifeng; Li, Hongxing; Liu, Tongshen; Zhao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether PARP inhibitor could reduce cell apoptosis and injury in the heart during sepsis. Materials and methods: 60 healthy male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 4 groups---sham group, modal group, 3-AB pretreatment group and 3-AB treatment group, 15 rats per group. The cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of sepsis was used. The following were determined--levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), ATP and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (...

  16. The Rancho Bernardo Study: 40 years studying why women have less heart disease than men and how diabetes modifies women's usual cardiac protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2013-06-01

    Forty years ago, few cohort studies of cardiovascular disease (CVD) included women and fewer still included diabetes or glycemia as a risk factor. I describe here the Rancho Bernardo Study (RBS), a single-site, >40-year cohort study of sex differences in heart disease and how diabetes modifies women's natural cardioprotection. More than 6000 participants were followed for morbidity and mortality, with nearly 3000 survivors (and death certificates for >85% of decedents). In RBS more than half of diabetes was undiagnosed without an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT); more women than men had isolated post-challenge hyperglycemia (IPH) as their only glucose evidence of diabetes; men had more diabetes than women, with higher fasting but lower post-challenge glucose levels than women; women with diabetes had more classical CVD risk factors than men; excess risk-factor clustering partially explained how diabetes eradicates female cardioprotection. Post-challenge glucose was a stronger CVD risk factor than fasting glucose. Endogenous insulin was not an independent CVD risk factor in women or men. Men with higher testosterone levels developed less diabetes and had fewer metabolic syndrome components. In men higher total testosterone levels predicted a reduced risk of all-cause and CVD but not cancer mortality. In women both extremes of bioavailable testosterone predicted fatal coronary heart disease but not all-cause mortality. Summary point estimates from large systematic reviews of individual data have replicated most RBS findings. Ongoing research can further clarify how diabetes modifies women's cardioprotection from mid-life to old age. PMID:24187655

  17. Long-term frequent use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs might protect patients with ankylosing spondylitis from cardiovascular diseases: a nationwide case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chan Tsai

    Full Text Available The objective of this case-control study was to investigate the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD following non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID use in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS. A total of 10,763 new AS patients were identified from the National Taiwan Health Insurance claims database during the period from 1997 to 2008. In all, 421 AS patients with CVD were recruited as cases, and up to 2-fold as many sex- and age-matched controls were selected. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR between NSAID use and CVD incidence. The medication possession rate (MPR was used to evaluate NSAID exposure during the study period. AS patients had increased risk of CVD (OR, 1.68; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.57 to 1.80. Among frequent (MPR≥80% COX II users, the risks for all types of CVD were ten times lower than those among non-users at 24 months (OR, 0.08; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.92. Among frequent NSAID users, the risks of major adverse cardiac event (MACE were significantly lower at 12 months (OR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.76--a trend showing that longer exposure correlated with lower risk. Regarding non-frequent NSAID users (MPR<80%, short-term exposure did carry higher risk (for 6 months: OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.86, but after 12 months, the risk no longer existed. We conclude that long-term frequent use of NSAIDs might protect AS patients from CVD; however, NSAIDs still carried higher short-term risk in the non-frequent users.

  18. Intracellular Regulation of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Activity: New Strategies in Treatment and Protection of Heart Subjected to Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Sawicki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Much is known regarding cardiac energy metabolism in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury. Under aerobic conditions, the heart prefers to metabolize fatty acids, which contribute to 60–80% of the required ATP. During ischemia, anaerobic glycolysis increases and becomes an important source of ATP for preservation of ion gradients. With reperfusion, fatty acid oxidation quickly recovers and again predominates as the major source of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. Although a number of molecular mechanisms have been implicated in the development of I/R injury, their relative contributions remain to be determined. One such mechanism involves the proteolytic degradation of contractile proteins, such as troponin I (TnI, myosin heavy chain, titin, and the myosin light chains (MLC1 and MLC2 by matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2. However, very little is known about intracellular regulation of MMP-2 activity under physiological and pathological conditions. Greater understanding of the mechanisms that govern MMP-2 activity may lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies aimed at preservation of the contractile function of the heart subjected to myocardial infarction (MI or I/R. This review discusses the intracellular mechanisms controlling MMP-2 activity and highlights a new intracellular therapeutic direction for the prevention and treatment of heart injury.

  19. Effects of Liraglutide on Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumarathurai, Preman; Anholm, Christian; Larsen, Bjørn S;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Reduced heart rate variability (HRV) and increased heart rate (HR) have been associated with cardiovascular mortality. Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) increase HR, and studies have suggested that they may reduce HRV. We examined the effect of the GLP-1 RA...... and reduced HRV despite significant weight loss and improvement in metabolic parameters. The increase in nightly heart rate in conjunction with a decrease in parameters of parasympathetic activity suggests that liraglutide may affect sympathovagal balance....

  20. Heart murmurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chest sounds - murmurs; Heart sounds - abnormal; Murmur - innocent; Innocent murmur; Systolic heart murmur; Diastolic heart murmur ... The heart has 4 chambers: Two upper chambers (atria) Two lower chambers (ventricles) The heart has valves that close ...

  1. Cardiovascular effects of hemoglobin response in patients receiving epoetin alfa and oral iron in heart failure with a preserved ejection fraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sirish Vullaganti; Jeff Goldsmith; Sergio Teruya; Julissa Alvarez; Stephen Helmke; Mathew S.Maurer

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous data from a recently conducted prospective, single blind randomized clinical trial among community dwelling older patients with heart failure with a preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) and anemia randomized to treatment with epoetin alfa (erythro-poiesis-stimulating agents, ESA) vs. placebo did not demonstrate significant benefits of therapy regarding left ventricular (LV) structure, functional capacity, or quality of life (QOL). However, several patients randomized to the treatment arm were non-responders with a subop-timal increase in hemoglobin. All patients in the trial also received oral ferrous gluconate, which could have contributed to increases in he-moglobin observed in those receiving placebo. Accordingly, we performed an analysis separating patients into responders vs. non-responders in order to determine if measured improvement in anemia would have any effect on clinical endpoints. Methods A total of 56 patients (age 77 ± 11 years, 68%female) were recruited who had anemia defined as a hemoglobin of≤12 g/dL (average, 10.4 ± 1 g/dL) with HFPEF defined as having NHANES-CHF (National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey:Congestive Heart Failure) criteria score of≥3 and an ejection fraction of>40%(average EF=63%±15%). Patients were randomly allocated to receive either ESA and ferrous gluconate or ferrous gluconate only. In this analysis, a responder was defined as a patient with an increase of 1 g/dL in the first 4 weeks of the trial. Re-sults Nineteen subjects were classified as responders compared to 33 non-responders. While the average hemoglobin increased signifi-cantly at the end of 6 months for responders (1.8 ± 0.3 vs. 0.8 ± 0.2 g/dL, P = 0.004), 50% of the subjects assigned to ESA were non-responders. Left ventricular function including ejection fraction (P=0.32) and end diastolic volume (P=0.59) was unchanged in res-ponders compared to non-responders. Responders also showed no significant improvements in New York

  2. Hypertensive Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wachtell, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Hypertensive heart disease is prevalent and during the last decade it has been determined that patients with left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy have increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, many have doubted the effectiveness of LV mass assessment because it is difficult...

  3. Pomegranate Protection against Cardiovascular Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Aviram; Mira Rosenblat

    2012-01-01

    The current paper summarizes the antioxidative and antiatherogenic effects of pomegranate polyphenols on serum lipoproteins and on arterial macrophages (two major components of the atherosclerotic lesion), using both in vitro and in vivo humans and mice models. Pomegranate juice and its by-products substantially reduced macrophage cholesterol and oxidized lipids accumulation, and foam cell formation (the hallmark of early atherogenesis), leading to attenuation of atherosclerosis development, ...

  4. LV reverse remodeling imparted by aortic valve replacement for severe aortic stenosis; is it durable? A cardiovascular MRI study sponsored by the American Heart Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caruppannan Ketheswaram

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS, long-term data tracking surgically induced effects of afterload reduction on reverse LV remodeling are not available. Echocardiographic data is available short term, but in limited fashion beyond one year. Cardiovascular MRI (CMR offers the ability to serially track changes in LV metrics with small numbers due to its inherent high spatial resolution and low variability. Hypothesis We hypothesize that changes in LV structure and function following aortic valve replacement (AVR are detectable by CMR and once triggered by AVR, continue for an extended period. Methods Tweny-four patients of which ten (67 ± 12 years, 6 female with severe, but compensated AS underwent CMR pre-AVR, 6 months, 1 year and up to 4 years post-AVR. 3D LV mass index, volumetrics, LV geometry, and EF were measured. Results All patients survived AVR and underwent CMR 4 serial CMR's. LVMI markedly decreased by 6 months (157 ± 42 to 134 ± 32 g/m2, p 2. Similarly, EF increased pre to post-AVR (55 ± 22 to 65 ± 11%,(p 2. LV stroke volume increased rapidly from pre to post-AVR (40 ± 11 to 44 ± 7 ml, p Conclusion After initial beneficial effects imparted by AVR in severe AS patients, there are, as expected, marked improvements in LV reverse remodeling. Via CMR, surgically induced benefits to LV structure and function are durable and, unexpectedly express continued, albeit markedly incomplete improvement through 4 years post-AVR concordant with sustained improved clinical status. This supports down-regulation of both mRNA and MMP activity acutely with robust suppression long term.

  5. Tracking and prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors across socio-economic classes: A longitudinal substudy of the European Youth Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai Charlotte N

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The highest prevalence of several cardiovascular disease risk factors including obesity, smoking and low physical activity level is observed in adults of low socioeconomic status. This study investigates whether tracking of body mass index and physical fitness from childhood to adolescence differs between groups of socioeconomic status. Furthermore the study investigates whether social class differences in the prevalence of overweight and low physical fitness exist or develop within the age range from childhood to adolescence. Methods In all, 384 school children were followed for a period of six years (from third to ninth grade. Physical fitness was determined by a progressive maximal cycle ergometer test and the classification of overweight was based on body mass index cut-points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. Socioeconomic status was defined according to The International Standard Classification of Occupation scheme. Results Moderate and moderately high tracking was observed for physical fitness and body mass index, respectively. No significant difference in tracking was observed between groups of socioeconomic status. A significant social gradient was observed in both the prevalence of overweight and low physical fitness in the 14–16-year-old adolescents, whereas at the age of 8–10 years, only the prevalence of low physical fitness showed a significant inverse relation to socioeconomic status. The odds of both developing and maintaining risk during the measurement period were estimated as bigger in the group of low socioeconomic status than in the group of high socioeconomic status, although differences were significant only with respect to the odds of developing overweight. Conclusion The results indicate that the fundamental possibilities of predicting overweight and low physical fitness at an early point in time are the same for different groups of socio-economic status. Furthermore, the observed

  6. Mitochondria in the diabetic heart

    OpenAIRE

    Bugger, Heiko; Abel, E. Dale

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus increases the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases such as coronary artery disease and heart failure. Studies have shown that the heart failure risk is increased in diabetic patients even after adjusting for coronary artery disease and hypertension. Although the cause of this increased heart failure risk is multifactorial, increasing evidence suggests that derangements in cardiac energy metabolism play an important role. In particular, abnormalities in cardiomyocyte mi...

  7. Stress-induced growth-differentiation factor 15 plays an intriguing role in cardiovascular diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hai-tao; WANG Hai-chang; TAO Ling; LI Cheng-xiang; LI Fei; ZHANG Yu-yang; LIU Bo-wu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To provide an overview of the current knowledge of growth-differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) in heart disease.Data sources To identify relevant publications,we searched PubMED database combining the textual terms of heart,cardiac,cardiovascular disease with GDF-15.Study selection Well-controlled,relatively large-scale,retrospective studies as well as meaningful individual cases were all selected as materials.Results GDF-15 is a distant member of the transforming growth factor-β cytokine superfamily.In myocardium,GDF-15 is weakly expressed under physiological conditions.However,its expression level is increased in response to pathological stress.Growing evidence indicate that elevated levels of GDF-15 is a promising prognostic biomarker in cardiovascular diseases.Moreover,GDF-15 exhibits the properties of endogenous anti-hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes and protecting the heart suffering from ischemia and reperfusion insult.Conclusion Ve GDF-15 may be a promising biomarker for evaluation and management of patient with cardiovascular diseases,and have potential protective properties on myocardium.

  8. A Review of Perindopril in the Reduction of Cardiovascular Events

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Duncan J.

    2006-01-01

    Background Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) have a well-established role in the prevention of cardiovascular events in hypertension, left ventricular dysfunction, and heart failure. More recently, ACEI have been shown to prevent cardiovascular events in individuals with increased cardiovascular risk, where hypertension, left ventricular dysfunction, or heart failure was not the primary indication for ACEI therapy. Objective To review studies of the effects of the ACEI perindopr...

  9. Endostatin is protective against monocrotaline-induced right heart disease through the inhibition of T-type Ca(2+) channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imoto, Keisuke; Kumatani, Sayaka; Okada, Muneyoshi; Yamawaki, Hideyuki

    2016-07-01

    Endostatin (ES), a C-terminal fragment of collagen XVIIIα1, has a potent anti-angiogenic effect. ES prevents tumor proliferation through inhibiting T-type Ca(2+) channel. T-type Ca(2+) channel is re-expressed during heart diseases including monocrotaline (MCT)-induced right heart failure. The present study aimed to clarify the effects of ES on T-type Ca(2+) channel and pathogenesis of MCT-induced right ventricular disease. MCT or saline was injected intraperitoneally to rats. After cardiomyocytes were isolated from right ventricles (RVs), T-type Ca(2+) channel current (I CaT) was measured by a patch-clamp method. After ES small interfering RNA (siRNA) or control siRNA (20 μg) was administrated for 1 week via the right jugular vein 1 week after MCT injection, echocardiography and histological analysis were done. I CaT was significantly increased in RV from MCT-injected rats, and ES significantly inhibited it. The survival rate of ES siRNA-administrated MCT rats (MCT ES si group) was decreased. In echocardiography, although ES siRNA did not affect pulmonary arterial pressure, RV systolic function was impaired in MCT ES si group compared with control siRNA-administrated MCT rats (MCT cont si group). In the histological analysis of RV, ES expression was increased in MCT cont si group, and ES siRNA inhibited it. Furthermore, although MCT cont si group showed only cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, MCT ES si group showed notable enlargement of intercellular spaces. The present study for the first time revealed that ES inhibits T-type Ca(2+) channel activity in RV from MCT-injected rats. ES gene knockdown deteriorates MCT-induced right heart disease. ES is thus cardioprotective possibly through inhibiting T-type Ca(2+) channel activity.

  10. Tongue as the Window to the Heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsung O.Cheng

    2011-01-01

    @@ To the Editor: I read with great interest your masterful article on study of the tongue in patients with coronary heart disease. Tongue is, indeed, the window to the heart. Many cardiovascular diseases including coronary heart disease can be accurately diagnosed by the Chinese traditional physicians by careful inspection of the tongue (Figure 1).

  11. Tongue as the Window to the Heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsung O. Cheng

    2011-01-01

    To the Editor: I read with great interest your masterful article on study of the tongue in patients with coronary heart disease.Tongue is,indeed,the window to the heart.Many cardiovascular diseases including coronary heart disease can be accurately diagnosed by the Chinese traditional physicians by careful inspection of the tongue(Figure 1).

  12. Cardiovascular and interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This year's cardiovascular section demonstrates a continued growth in the number of digests on cardivascular and general interventional topics and continued progress in MRI studies. The reader will also notice fewer digests on DSA and percutaneous stone removal compared with the 1985 and 1986 Year Books. While newer technology, such as extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, has significantly reduced the number of percutaneous procedures for renal calculi, other interventional procedures, such as those involving fibrinolysis, are increasing by leaps and bounds. A number of digests on benign and malignant bile duct strictures continue to shed light on the management of these difficult cases. While abscess drainage is growing and well accepted by most surgeons, articles on esophageal dilatations seem to be declining in the radiology literature, probably on the basis of fewer operations being performed by us and more being performed by endoscopists. Digests on MRI in the cardiovascular system continue to report excellent images of the aorta and of congenital heart disease

  13. The research of myocardial damage in children with congenital heart diseases before and after paediatric cardiovascular intervention%儿童先天性心脏病介入治疗前、后心肌损伤的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫国超; 邵云; 武艳; 戚国庆

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the myocardial damage in congenital heart diseases after paediatric cardiovascular intervention by the made-in-China occluder through monitoring the changes of heart fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP)and cardiac troponin I (cTnl)dynamically. Methods A total of 24 patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)patients, 20 atrial septal defect (ASD)patients and 16 ventricular septal defect (VSD)patients were enrolled, and their serum levels of cTnl and H-FABP were monitored dynamically. Results The results of serum H-FABP and cTnl concentrations were 1. 28 ± 0. 57 μg/L and 0. 02 ± 0. 01 μg /L at preoperative time, respectively. After the operation, they were 8.51 ±5.47 μg/L and 0.46 ±0.49 μg/L after (10±5)min, and 2.31 ±1.73 μg/L and 0.66 ± 0.45 μg/L after 4 h, respectively, and then they were decreased obviously after 24 h with statistical significance (P < 0.01). Conclusions After paediatric cardiovascular intervention, it exists myocardial damage which is related to the kinds of congenital heart diseases. Compared with cTnl, the serum H-FABP is an early and sensitive marker for predicting myocardial damage. It is useful to prevent postoperative complications by monitoring H-FABP and cTnl.%目的 通过动态监测血清心肌型脂肪酸结合蛋白(H-FABP)和心肌肌钙蛋白Ⅰ(cTnI),观察使用国产封堵器介入治疗先天性心脏病时心肌损伤的情况.方法 随机选取动脉导管未闭(PDA) 24例、房间隔缺损( ASD) 20例、室间隔缺损(VSD) 16例,动态监测cTnI、H-FABP的变化.结果 60例先天性心脏病患儿血清H-FABP、cTnI术前浓度平均分别为1.28±0.57 μg/L、0.02±0.01 μg/L;术后(10±5)min分别为8.51±5.47 μg/L、0.46±0.49 μg/L,术后4h分别为2.31±1.73 μg/L、0.66±0.45 μg/L,24 h明显下降,各时间点差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 先天性心脏病介入治疗存在心肌损伤,并与先天性心脏病类型有一定关系.H-FABP较cTnI更早出现峰值浓度,是

  14. Heart rate reduction in coronary artery disease and heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Roberto; Fox, Kim

    2016-08-01

    Elevated heart rate is known to induce myocardial ischaemia in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), and heart rate reduction is a recognized strategy to prevent ischaemic episodes. In addition, clinical evidence shows that slowing the heart rate reduces the symptoms of angina by improving microcirculation and coronary flow. Elevated heart rate is an established risk factor for cardiovascular events in patients with CAD and in those with chronic heart failure (HF). Accordingly, reducing heart rate improves prognosis in patients with HF, as demonstrated in SHIFT. By contrast, data from SIGNIFY indicate that heart rate is not a modifiable risk factor in patients with CAD who do not also have HF. Heart rate is also an important determinant of cardiac arrhythmias; low heart rate can be associated with atrial fibrillation, and high heart rate after exercise can be associated with sudden cardiac death. In this Review, we critically assess these clinical findings, and propose hypotheses for the variable effect of heart rate reduction in cardiovascular disease. PMID:27226153

  15. Heart rate reduction in coronary artery disease and heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Roberto; Fox, Kim

    2016-08-01

    Elevated heart rate is known to induce myocardial ischaemia in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), and heart rate reduction is a recognized strategy to prevent ischaemic episodes. In addition, clinical evidence shows that slowing the heart rate reduces the symptoms of angina by improving microcirculation and coronary flow. Elevated heart rate is an established risk factor for cardiovascular events in patients with CAD and in those with chronic heart failure (HF). Accordingly, reducing heart rate improves prognosis in patients with HF, as demonstrated in SHIFT. By contrast, data from SIGNIFY indicate that heart rate is not a modifiable risk factor in patients with CAD who do not also have HF. Heart rate is also an important determinant of cardiac arrhythmias; low heart rate can be associated with atrial fibrillation, and high heart rate after exercise can be associated with sudden cardiac death. In this Review, we critically assess these clinical findings, and propose hypotheses for the variable effect of heart rate reduction in cardiovascular disease.

  16. YOGA IMPROVES CARDIOVASCULAR PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod P. Kadu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Yoga in ancient technique practices by sage for a desirable and healthy life. Yogic exercise and Pranayam may modulate cardiovascular function. To assess the cardiovascular parameter in control and study group. We selected 90 healthy volunteers between age group 35 – 50 years and divided into two groups. i Study group – 45 ii Control group – 45. Control group was not doing any type of exercise or yoga during 1 yr of period whereas yoga group did yogic exercise for 1 yr under supervision of yoga expert. In both the group heart rate SBP and DBP evaluate at 0, 6 and 12 month period. In control group heart rate, SBP, and DBP showed no significant change at 0, 6, and 12 month reading, whereas study group (yoga 81.96±5.65 showed significant decreased heart rate From 81.96 ±5.65 to 75.60 ± 3.44 at 6 month and 73.75 ± 11.36 at 12 month (p<0.001 SBP decreased from 128 ± 7.66 to 120.97 ± 4.21 at 6 month and 120.48± 3.86 at 12 months (p<0.001. DBP showed significant decreased from 88.44 ± 5.25 to 80.53 ± 3.44 at 6 months and 80.53 ± 2.53 at 12months (p<0.001. Yogic exercise and Pranayam done regularly at long term improve cardiovascular efficiency.

  17. Evaluation of radiation protection and technical procedures in Wad Madani Heart Diseases and Surgery Center (WHDSC) (cardiac catheterization laboratory)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is conducted in order to evaluate the application of radiation protection program, evaluate the design of cardiac catheterization laboratory, evaluate the effectiveness of radiation protection devices, evaluate personal monitoring, usage of G-Arm x-ray machine, to evaluate the responsibilities of radiation protection officer (RPO), to assess monitoring devices if available, and to assess patient patient dose in Wad Madani hear disease and surgery center in a period from march 2013 to june 2013. The most data in this study was obtained from the results of the team of quality assurance and control of radiation safety institute when they visited hospital on 14/2/2011 for inspection and calibration for issue of registration and licenses, except the data of patients dose which obtained from exposure parameters and dosimetric information's in the archive of G-arm x-ray fluoroscopic machine (which were 110 of cardiac catheterization diagnostic and therapeutic cases, 60 of adult patients and 50 of children. The patient data included age, weight, kv, mAs, DAP, air kerma, and fluoro time. The results of this study show that there is radiation protection program need correction and partially applied, the design of cardiac catheterization laboratory is accepted according to radiation safety institute team of quality control. Also the study shows that the radiation protection program devices are available and good condition and enough in number. The study shows that there are no personal monitoring devices and services and the radiological technologist are well trained to dial with the G-arm x-ray machine and to apply the radiation protection program effectively. Also the study states that the radiation protection officer could apply his responsibilities partially. Finally the study shows that there is a direct linear relationship between the patient's weight and (DAP, air kerma, kv, and mAs) concludes that there is excessive radiation dose in cardiac

  18. Dietary Phenolic Acids of Macrotyloma uniflorum (Horse Gram) Protect the Rat Heart Against Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Vandana; Laddha, Ankit; Nandave, Mukesh; Srinath, Sudhamani

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigates the cardioprotective activity of the Macrotyloma uniflorum seed extract (MUSE) and its phenolic acids (p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid) in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction in rats. The previously mentioned phenolic acids were isolated and quantified from MUSE by HPLC. Pretreatment of gemfibrozil (reference standard), MUSE (250 and 500 mg/kg) and the phenolic acids for 30 days to rats treated with ISO (85 mg/kg) on the last 2 days resulted in a significant attenuation of the ISO-elevated levels of serum marker enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine phosphokinase MB), total cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid, C-reactive protein and malondialdehyde and a restoration of the levels of the ISO-depleted marker enzymes, reduced glutathione and the antioxidant enzymes-superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in heart. Restoration of the ISO-altered electrocardiogram pattern and haemodynamic parameters (left ventricular end diastolic pressure, heart rate, systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure) was also brought about by treatment with MUSE and the phenolic acids. It may be concluded that MUSE treatment to ISO-challenged rats exhibits a significant cardioprotective effect probably because of the potent antioxidant activity of its phenolic acids that salvage the myocardium from the deleterious effects of ISO. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27091200

  19. Palm oil and the heart: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odia, Osaretin J; Ofori, Sandra; Maduka, Omosivie

    2015-03-26

    Palm oil consumption and its effects on serum lipid levels and cardiovascular disease in humans is still a subject of debate. Advocacy groups with varying agenda fuel the controversy. This update intends to identify evidence-based evaluations of the influence of palm oil on serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, it suggests a direction for future research. The sources of information were based on a PubMed, Google Scholar, African Journal online and Medline search using key words including: palm oil, palmitic acid, saturated fatty acids and heart disease. Published animal and human experiments on the association of palm oil and its constituents on the serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease were also explored for relevant information. These papers are reviewed and the available evidence is discussed. Most of the information in mainstream literature is targeted at consumers and food companies with a view to discourage the consumption of palm oil. The main argument against the use of palm oil as an edible oil is the fact that it contains palmitic acid, which is a saturated fatty acid and by extrapolation should give rise to elevated total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. However, there are many scientific studies, both in animals and humans that clearly show that palm oil consumption does not give rise to elevated serum cholesterol levels and that palm oil is not atherogenic. Apart from palmitic acid, palm oil consists of oleic and linoleic acids which are monounsaturated and polyunsaturated respectively. Palm oil also consists of vitamins A and E, which are powerful antioxidants. Palm oil has been scientifically shown to protect the heart and blood vessels from plaques and ischemic injuries. Palm oil consumed as a dietary fat as a part of a healthy balanced diet does not have incremental risk for cardiovascular disease. Little or no additional benefit will be obtained by replacing it with other oils rich in mono

  20. Cardiovascular complications in acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, G; Pivonello, R; Lombardi, G; Colao, A

    2004-09-01

    Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are increased in acromegaly. In fact, GH and IGF-I excess induces a specific cardiomyopathy. The early stage of acromegaly is characterized by the hyperkinetic syndrome (high heart rate and increased systolic output). Frequently, concentric biventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction occur in acromegaly, leading to an impaired systolic function ending in heart failure if the disease is untreated or unsuccessfully untreated. Besides, abnormalities of cardiac rhythm and of valves have been also described in acromegaly. The coexistence of other complications, such as arterial hypertension and diabetes, aggravates the acromegalic cardiomyopathy. The suppression of GH/IGF-I following an efficacious therapy could decrease left ventricular mass and improve cardiac function. In conclusion, a careful evaluation of cardiac function, morphology and activity seems to be mandatory in acromegaly.

  1. Risk of cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, Michael; Starup-Linde, Jakob; Thomsen, Jan Lykke Scheel;

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Type 2 diabetes (DM) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effects of antidiabetic drugs on the composite endpoint (CE) of ischemic heart disease, heart failure or stroke in DM patients. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study. Cases were DM patients who......% CI: 16.88-24.12), neuropathy (OR=1.39, 95% CI: 1.05-1.85) and peripheral artery disease (OR=1.31, 95% CI: 1.02-1.69) increased the risk of CE. Biguanides (OR=0.62 95% CI; 0.54-0.71) and liraglutide (OR=0.48 95% CI; 0.38-0.62) significantly decreased the risk of CE as did statin treatment (OR=0.63, 95...

  2. CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    6.1 Heart failure2003409 The diagnostic value of plasma Nt-proANP and Nt-proBNP in patients with congestive heart failure. HUANG Chenjun(黄陈军), et al. Dept Cardiol, PUMC Hosp, CAMS, Beijing 100730. Chin J Cardiol 2003; 31 (6) :405-407.

  3. Cardiovascular System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    6.1.Heart failure2005329 Early impairment of renal function inchronic heart failure and its clinical significance.JINZhengming(金争鸣),et al.Dept Cardiol,The 1st AffiliHosp,Med Coll,Zhejiang Univ,Hangzhou 310003.Chin J Intern Med 2005;44(4):262-264

  4. CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    8.1 Heart failure2003191 Carvedilol in chronic heart failure:a single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. ZHU Wen-ling(朱文玲).Dept Cardiol, PUMC Hosp, PUMC & CAMS, Beijing 100730. Chin J Cardiol 2003;31(1):7 -10.

  5. Chocolate and Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Xin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of chocolate has been often hypothesized to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD due to chocolate's high levels of stearic acid and antioxidant flavonoids. However, debate still lingers regarding the true long term beneficial cardiovascular effects of chocolate overall. Methods We reviewed English-language MEDLINE publications from 1966 through January 2005 for experimental, observational, and clinical studies of relations between cocoa, cacao, chocolate, stearic acid, flavonoids (including flavonols, flavanols, catechins, epicatechins, and procynadins and the risk of cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease (CHD, stroke. A total of 136 publications were selected based on relevance, and quality of design and methods. An updated meta-analysis of flavonoid intake and CHD mortality was also conducted. Results The body of short-term randomized feeding trials suggests cocoa and chocolate may exert beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk via effects on lowering blood pressure, anti-inflammation, anti-platelet function, higher HDL, decreased LDL oxidation. Additionally, a large body of trials of stearic acid suggests it is indeed cholesterol-neutral. However, epidemiologic studies of serum and dietary stearic acid are inconclusive due to many methodologic limitations. Meanwhile, the large body of prospective studies of flavonoids suggests the flavonoid content of chocolate may reduce risk of cardiovascular mortality. Our updated meta-analysis indicates that intake of flavonoids may lower risk of CHD mortality, RR = 0.81 (95% CI: 0.71–0.92 comparing highest and lowest tertiles. Conclusion Multiple lines of evidence from laboratory experiments and randomized trials suggest stearic acid may be neutral, while flavonoids are likely protective against CHD mortality. The highest priority now is to conduct larger randomized trials to definitively investigate the impact of chocolate consumption on long

  6. Melatonin ameliorates metabolic risk factors, modulates apoptotic proteins, and protects the rat heart against diabetes-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Ali H; El-Missiry, Mohamed A; Othman, Azza I

    2015-01-15

    The present study investigated the ability of melatonin in reducing metabolic risk factors and cardiac apoptosis induced by diabetes. Streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected into male rats, and after diabetic induction melatonin (10mg/kg i.g.) was administered orally for 21 days. Diabetic hearts showed increased number of apoptotic cells with downregulation of Bcl-2 and activation of p53 and CD95 as well as the caspases 9, 8 and 3. In addition, there was a significant decrease in insulin level, hyperglycemia, elevated HOMA-IR, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low and very low-density lipoprotein and decreased high-density lipoprotein. These changes were coupled with a significant increase in the activities of creatin kinase-MB (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the serum of the diabetic rats indicating myocardium injury. Oral administration of melatonin for 3 weeks after diabetes induction ameliorated the levels of hyperglycemia, insulin, HbA1c, lipids profile and HOMA-IR. The oral melatonin treatment of diabetic rats significantly decreased the number of apoptotic cells in the heart compared to diabetic rats. It enhanced Bcl-2 expression and blocked the activation of CD95 as well as caspases 9, 8 and 3. These changes were accompanied with significant improvement of CK-MB and LDH in the serum indicating the ameliorative effect of melatonin on myocardium injury. Melatonin effectively ameliorated diabetic myocardium injury, apoptosis, reduced the metabolic risk factors and modulated important steps in both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis. Thus, melatonin may be a promising pharmacological agent for ameliorating potential cardiomyopathy associated with diabetes. PMID:25510232

  7. 5-HT2 receptor blocker sarpogrelate prevents downregulation of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and protects the heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, Katare Gopalrao; Suzuki, Ryoko; Maeda, Hironori; Murio, Yamamoto; Sasaguri, Shiro

    2006-09-27

    Even though reperfusion is the treatment of choice in patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction, reperfusion itself has been demonstrated to activate various pathological factors especially following procedures of cardiac revascularization. 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) is one such factor activated during reperfusion and is known to trigger the post ischemic contractile dysfunction and pathological apoptosis. Here we demonstrate the potential effects of the 5-HT(2)A antagonist sarpogrelate in protecting the myocardium against reperfusion injury of heart. Male Wistar rats weighing between 220 and 240 g were subjected to 30 min left coronary artery (LCA) occlusion and 120 min reperfusion. Sarpogrelate (4 mg/kg) was infused intravenously for 30 min either before LCA occlusion or at reperfusion. Following reperfusion the samples were collected for infarction area, immunohistochemistry, western blotting and myocardial metabolite analysis. Sarpogrelate infusion before ischemia resulted in (a) significant recovery of post ischemic cardiac functions (LVDP, EDP), (b) significant reduction in the infarct size among the risk area after triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining (p<0.001), (c) decreased tissue water content (p<0.05), (d) well preserved myocardial ATP (p<0.05), (e) reduction in Bcl-2 downregulation and caspase 3 activation and (g) less prevalence of apoptotic cells (3.1+/-0.4% to 15.2+/-0.6%, drug versus control). Treating the rats with sarpogrelate during reperfusion also showed similar results. This study thus demonstrates the protective effects of sarpogrelate and supports the role for 5-HT2A inhibition in preventing the reperfusion injury of the heart. PMID:16876202

  8. Protective Effects of Selenium, Vitamin E, and Purple Carrot Anthocyanins on D-Galactose-Induced Oxidative Damage in Blood, Liver, Heart and Kidney Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Zhang, Yunlong; Yuan, Yuan; Sun, Yong; Qin, Yan; Deng, Zeyuan; Li, Hongyan

    2016-10-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the protective effects of selenium (Se), vitamin E (Vit E) and anthocyanins from purple carrots and their combination against the oxidative stress induced by D-galactose in rats. A total of 80 male rats were equally divided into 11 groups, one of which acted as control (I) just receiving intraperitoneal injections of physiological saline. The remaining ten groups (II-XI) were intraperitoneally injected with D-galactose at a dose of 400 mg kg(-1) body weight (BW) per day for 42 consecutive days. Rats in groups III-XI were treated with antioxidants via gavage per day as follows: group III: Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMSC), IV: Se as sodium selenite (Na2SeO3), V: Se-enriched yeast (SeY), VI: Vit E as α-tocopherol acetate, VII: anthocyanin from purple carrots (APC), VIII: APC + Vit E, IX: SeMSC + APC+ Vit E, X: Na2SeO3 + APC + Vit E, XI: SeY + Ant + Vit E. The results showed that the rats treated with antioxidants (III-XI) showed significant decreases in the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and carbonyl protein (PCO) compared with the D-galactose-treated group (II) in the heart, liver, kidneys, and blood. Moreover, there were significant increases in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione (GSH) concentration, and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in the heart, liver, kidneys, and blood of antioxidant-treated animals (III-XI) than those in control group (I). In addition, the combined treatments of two or three antioxidants showed greater antioxidant activities than those of individual treatments, suggesting the synergistic antioxidant effects of Se, Vit E, and APC. In conclusion, all the antioxidants exhibited protective effects against D-galactose-induced oxidative damage in rats, and these antioxidants showed a synergistic effect. PMID:27025718

  9. Protective Effects of Selenium, Vitamin E, and Purple Carrot Anthocyanins on D-Galactose-Induced Oxidative Damage in Blood, Liver, Heart and Kidney Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Zhang, Yunlong; Yuan, Yuan; Sun, Yong; Qin, Yan; Deng, Zeyuan; Li, Hongyan

    2016-10-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the protective effects of selenium (Se), vitamin E (Vit E) and anthocyanins from purple carrots and their combination against the oxidative stress induced by D-galactose in rats. A total of 80 male rats were equally divided into 11 groups, one of which acted as control (I) just receiving intraperitoneal injections of physiological saline. The remaining ten groups (II-XI) were intraperitoneally injected with D-galactose at a dose of 400 mg kg(-1) body weight (BW) per day for 42 consecutive days. Rats in groups III-XI were treated with antioxidants via gavage per day as follows: group III: Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMSC), IV: Se as sodium selenite (Na2SeO3), V: Se-enriched yeast (SeY), VI: Vit E as α-tocopherol acetate, VII: anthocyanin from purple carrots (APC), VIII: APC + Vit E, IX: SeMSC + APC+ Vit E, X: Na2SeO3 + APC + Vit E, XI: SeY + Ant + Vit E. The results showed that the rats treated with antioxidants (III-XI) showed significant decreases in the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and carbonyl protein (PCO) compared with the D-galactose-treated group (II) in the heart, liver, kidneys, and blood. Moreover, there were significant increases in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione (GSH) concentration, and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in the heart, liver, kidneys, and blood of antioxidant-treated animals (III-XI) than those in control group (I). In addition, the combined treatments of two or three antioxidants showed greater antioxidant activities than those of individual treatments, suggesting the synergistic antioxidant effects of Se, Vit E, and APC. In conclusion, all the antioxidants exhibited protective effects against D-galactose-induced oxidative damage in rats, and these antioxidants showed a synergistic effect.

  10. [Iodine deficiency in cardiovascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, I; Magyari, M; Stief, L

    1998-08-30

    The thyroid hormone deficiency on cardiovascular function can be characterized with decreased myocardial contractility and increased peripheral vascular resistance as well as with the changes in lipid metabolism. 42 patients with cardiovascular disease (mean age 65 +/- 13 yr, 16 males) were investigated if iodine insufficiency can play a role as a risk factor for the cardiovascular diseases. The patients were divided in 5 subgroups on the ground of the presence of hypertension, congestive heart failure, cardiomyopathy, coronary disfunction and arrhythmia. Urine iodine concentration (5.29 +/- 4.52 micrograms/dl) was detected with Sandell-Kolthoff colorimetric reaction. The most decreased urine iodine concentration was detected in the subgroups with arrhythmia and congestive heart failure (4.7 +/- 4.94 micrograms/dl and 4.9 +/- 4.81 micrograms/dl, respectively). An elevated TSH level was found by 3 patients (5.3 +/- 1.4 mlU/l). An elevation in lipid metabolism (cholesterol, triglyceride) associated with all subgroups without arrhythmia. In conclusion, the occurrence of iodine deficiency in cardiovascular disease is frequent. Iodine supplementation might prevent the worsing effect of iodine deficiency on cardiovascular disease.

  11. Heart Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2015 A heart transplant gives a patient with congenital heart disease the opportunity to have a normal heart with ... pulmonary artery and left atrium. In patients with congenital heart disease, the surgeon may simultaneous transplant the lungs and ...

  12. Heart Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the signal causes the heart to contract and pump blood. Heart block occurs if the electrical signal is ... degree heart block limits the heart's ability to pump blood to the rest of the body. This type ...

  13. Androgen therapy and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K-CY McGrath

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available K-CY McGrath1, LS McRobb1,2, AK Heather1,21Heart Research Institute, Camperdown, NSW, Australia; 2Discipline of Medicine, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD remains the leading cause of death in Western society today. There is a striking gender difference in CVD with men predisposed to earlier onset and more severe disease. Following the recent reevaluation and ongoing debate regarding the estrogen protection hypothesis, and given that androgen use and abuse is increasing in our society, the alternate view that androgens may promote CVD in men is assuming increasing importance. Whether androgens adversely affect CVD in either men or women remains a contentious issue within both the cardiovascular and endocrinological fraternities. This review draws from basic science, animal and clinical studies to outline our current understanding regarding androgen effects on atherosclerosis, the major CVD, and asks where future directions of atherosclerosis-related androgen research may lie.

  14. Tribulus Terrestris (l) Protects Heart and Liver from Beta Adrenergic-Stimulated Cardiotoxicity: Biochemical and Histological study in Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    S. B Mahammad Rahmathulla; K. V Sailaja; Kodidhela Lakshmi Devi

    2013-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is a wearisome risk inherent in all major surgeries. Preoperative evaluation has been directed mainly to assess its risk because it carries with it a very high mortality. Living donor liver transplantation has been subject to inquiry not only because of the morbidity risk but also because of the mortality risk it carries to the live donor. The present study investigates the protective effects of Tribulus terrestris Fruit aqueous Extract (TTFAEt) in myocardially inf...

  15. Overexpression of heat-shock protein 20 in rat heart myogenic cells confers protection against simulated ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-hui ZHU; Xian WANG

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To explore whether overexpression of the small heat shock protein HSP20 in rat cardiomyocytes protects against simulated ischemia/reperfusion (SI/R) injury.Methods: Recombinant adenovirus expressing HSP20 was used to infect rat H9c2cardiomyocytes at high efficiency, as assessed by green fluorescent protein. H9c2cells were subjected to SI/R stress; survival was estimated through assessment of lactate dehydrogenase and cell apoptosis through caspase-3 activity. Results:Overexpression of HSP20 decreased lactate dehydrogenase release by 21.5% and caspase-3 activity by 58.8%. Pretreatment with the protein kinase C inhibitor Ro31-8220 (0.1 μmol/L) for 30 min before SI/R canceled the protective effect of HSP20.The selective mitochondrial K+ATP channel inhibitor 5-hydroxydecanoate ( 100 μmol/L)had a similar effect. However, the non-selective K+ATP channel inhibitor glibenclamide (100 μmol/L) had no significant effect. Conclusion: These data indicate that the protective effect of HSP20 in vitro is primarily due to reduced necrotic and apoptotic death of cardiomyocytes, possibly via the protein kinase C/mitochondrial K+ATP pathway.

  16. The heart rate variability when conducting anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khmel'nitskiy I.V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was performed on the base of 10 years of using different methods of analysis of heart rate variability as an indicator of direct and reverse connection of the sympatho-adrenal system in the preoperative diagnosis and anesthetic monitoring. The possibility of predicting the depth of anaesthesia was analyzed, for depending on significant amounts of external and internal conditions, the level of anesthesia changes significantly. In this regard the influence of drugs and technological means of influencing the condition of all life-supporting systems, and the autonomic nervous system in particular, before, during and after anesthesia is of great practical interest. The balance of the pharmacological protection of the vegetative balance in the surgical aggression is studied, as well as the use of heart rate variability as a non-specific method in relation to nosological forms of pathology, both under internal and external influences. A review of a number of sources confirms that heart rate is virtually the only high-speed method to present the sympatho-vagal regulation, the most accessible somatic parameter for estimation of the cardiovascular system functioning in anesthesiology. The heart rate variability serves as an indicator of functional condition of autonomous (vegetative nervous system. It is proposed to perform the continuous monitoring of the autonomic indices of the heart rhythm, which allows to register sympaho-vagal imbalance. Dynamic monitoring, timely interpretation of heart rate variability are constantly in the spotlight, but the approach and methodology of the domestic and foreign authors distinctly differ on the following points: heart rythmography as a visual method of assessing information about the dynamics of slow-wave processes, spectral analysis of the heart sinus rhythm as the best method of analysis of large and small wave activity, tests of functional diagnostics for subsequent measurement of the autonomic nervous

  17. Modelling heart rate kinetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S Zakynthinaki

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to formulate a simple and at the same time effective mathematical model of heart rate kinetics in response to movement (exercise. Based on an existing model, a system of two coupled differential equations which give the rate of change of heart rate and the rate of change of exercise intensity is used. The modifications introduced to the existing model are justified and discussed in detail, while models of blood lactate accumulation in respect to time and exercise intensity are also presented. The main modification is that the proposed model has now only one parameter which reflects the overall cardiovascular condition of the individual. The time elapsed after the beginning of the exercise, the intensity of the exercise, as well as blood lactate are also taken into account. Application of the model provides information regarding the individual's cardiovascular condition and is able to detect possible changes in it, across the data recording periods. To demonstrate examples of successful numerical fit of the model, constant intensity experimental heart rate data sets of two individuals have been selected and numerical optimization was implemented. In addition, numerical simulations provided predictions for various exercise intensities and various cardiovascular condition levels. The proposed model can serve as a powerful tool for a complete means of heart rate analysis, not only in exercise physiology (for efficiently designing training sessions for healthy subjects but also in the areas of cardiovascular health and rehabilitation (including application in population groups for which direct heart rate recordings at intense exercises are not possible or not allowed, such as elderly or pregnant women.

  18. The importance of short-term off-target effects in estimating the long-term renal and cardiovascular protection of angiotensin receptor blockers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smink, P A; Miao, Y; Eijkemans, M J C;

    2014-01-01

    . The score was used to predict renal/cardiovascular risk at baseline and at month 6 in the ARB treatment arm of the Reduction of Endpoints in NIDDM (noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) with the Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan (RENAAL) trial. The net risk difference at these time points indicated...

  19. An initial reduction in serum uric acid during angiotensin receptor blocker treatment is associated with cardiovascular protection : a post-hoc analysis of the RENAAL and IDNT trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, Paul A.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Laverman, Gozewijn D.; Berl, Tomas; Cooper, Mark E.; de Zeeuw, Dick; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Increased levels of serum uric acid (SUA) are thought to be an independent risk marker for cardiovascular complications. Treatment with the angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) losartan lowers SUA in contrast to other ARBs. Whether reductions in SUA during ARB therapy are associated with ca

  20. Sodium metabisulphite, a preservative agent, decreases the heart capillary volume and length, and curcumin, the main component of Curcuma longa, cannot protect it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorafshan, A; Asadi-Golshan, R; Monjezi, S; Karbalay-Doust, S

    2014-01-01

    Sodium metabisulphite is used as an antioxidant agent in many pharmaceutical formulations. It is extensively used as a food preservative and disinfectant. It has been demonstrated that sulphite exposure can affect some organs. Curcumin, the main element of Curcuma longa, has been identified to have multiple protective properties. The present study extends the earlier works to quantitative evaluation of the effects of sulphite and curcumin on the heart structure using stereological methods. In this study, 28 rats were randomly divided into four experimental groups. The rats in groups I to IV received distilled water (group I), sodium metabisulphite (25 mg/ kg/day) (group II), curcumin (100 mg/kg/day) (group III), and sodium metabisulphite+curcumin (group IV), respectively, for 8 weeks. The left ventricle was subjected to stereological methods to estimate the quantitative parameters of the myocardium. A 20 % decrease was observed in the total volume of ventricular tissue in the sulphite-treated animals compared to the distilled water treatment (P preservative food agent, reduced the length and volume of the ventricular capillaries and curcumin could not protect them.

  1. 雌孕激素替代治疗对大鼠心血管功能的保护作用%Protective effect of estrogen and progesterone replacement therapy on rat cardiovascular function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮云军; 董凤英; 邱建; 吴赛珠

    2002-01-01

    Objective To observe the change of the cardiovascular effect of estrogen replacement therapy in rat after treated with progesterone. Method Thirty female rates were randomly divided into three groups: group A: ovarietcomy; group B: ovariectomy with estrogen replacement therapy and group C: ovariectomy with estrogen and progesterone replacement therapy. The estrogen receptors (ER) in the artery of the rat were measured and the serum level of nitric oxide (NO), endothelin 1 (ET 1), prostacyclin (PGF1a) and thromboxane (TXB2) were detected 2 months later. Results (1) There was no apparent difference in ER expression, serum NO and PGF1a level between group C and group B; these index of group B and C were higher than those of group A; (2) there was no significant difference in blood viscosity, the congregate index of red blood cell and platelet adhesiveness rate between group B and C; these index of group B and C were lower than those of group A. Conclusion Estrogen replacement therapy adding progesterone makes no influence on arterial ER expression, hemorheology index and regulation of estrogen to cardiovascular cytokines generation. It suggested that estrogen combined with progesterone replacement therapy could be a safe and effective method to prevent coronary heart disease.

  2. 多民族静息心率与心血管危险因素的关系%Association of resting heart rate with cardiovascular risk factors in several ethnical populations in XinJiang BOERTALA region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭艳英; 罗雄; 赵蕾; 王坤; 何秉贤

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between resting heart rate and cardiovascular dis-ease(CVD)risk factors in Uygur,Kazak,Mongolian,Han multiethnic populations.Methods The study sample comprised 4335 subjects(20-79years)(Uygur 1248,Kazak 1054,Mongolian 818,Han 1215) from the Xinjiang BOERTALA region by random cluster sampling.Association of resting heart rate with CVD risk factors was assessed by ANOVA and regression model.Results The prevalence of hypertension,obesity,high fasting blood glucose,dyslipidemia,≥3 components together and the average levels of systol-ic blood pressure(SBP),diastolic blood pressure(DBP),body mass index(BMI),waist circumference (WC),fasting blood glucose(FBG),triglyceride(TG),total cholesterol(TC),high density lipoprotein-cholesterol(HDL-c)increased as resting heart rate increased(all of P85/min respectively.Conclusions Cardiovascular disease risk factors,such as obesity,hypertension,high fasting blood Glucose,and dyslipidemia,increased as resting heart rate increased among Uygur.Kaz-ak,Mongolian multiethnic populations.%目的 了解新疆博尔塔拉州(博州)维吾尔族(维)、哈萨克族(哈)、蒙古族(蒙)、汉族人静息心率(HR)与心血管病(CVD)危险因素肥胖、高血压、高血糖、血脂紊乱的关系.方法 利用2004年新疆博州维、哈、蒙、汉族代谢综合征的流行病学调查资料4335人(维、哈、蒙、汉各1248、1054、818、1215例),通过回归分析寻找静息HR和CVD危险因素的关系.结果 随着静息HR增加,收缩压(SBP)、舒张压(DBP)、体重指数(BMI)、腹围(WC)、空腹血糖(FBG)、甘油三酯、总胆固醇、高密度脂蛋白水平及肥胖、高血压、高空腹血糖、血脂紊乱、≥3项CVD危险因素聚集检出率均有逐渐增高趋势(均P85次/min者SBP、DBP分别增加8.9 mmHg、4.1 mmHg(P=0.000),高血压发生风险是1.82倍(95%CI 1.45~2.28);WC、BMl分别增加2.2 cm、0.8 kg/m~2(P=0.000),肥胖风险是1.37倍(95%CI 1.08~1.73);FBG

  3. Rice Germosprout Extract Protects Erythrocytes from Hemolysis and the Aorta, Brain, Heart, and Liver Tissues from Oxidative Stress In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahdat Hossain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying dietary alternatives for artificial antioxidants capable of boosting antihemolytic and antioxidative defense has been an important endeavor in improving human health. In the present study, we studied antihemolytic and antioxidative effects of germosprout (i.e., the germ part along with sprouted stems plus roots extract prepared from the pregerminated rice. The extract contained considerable amounts of antioxidant β-carotene (414±12 ng/g of extract and phytochemicals such as total polyphenols (12.0±1.1 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of extract and flavonoids (11.0±1.4 mg catechin equivalent/g of extract. The antioxidant potential of the extract was assessed by its DPPH- (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl- free radical scavenging activity where we observed that germosprout extract had considerable antioxidative potentials. To evaluate antihemolytic effect of the extract, freshly prepared erythrocytes were incubated with either peroxynitrite or Fenton’s reagent in the absence or presence of the extract. We observed that erythrocytes pretreated with the extract exhibited reduced degree of in vitro hemolysis. To support the proposition that germosprout extract could act as a good antioxidative agent, we also induced in vitro oxidative stress in erythrocyte membranes and in the aorta, brain, heart, and liver tissue homogenates in the presence of the extract. As expected, germosprout extract decreased oxidative stress almost to the same extent as that of vitamin E, as measured by lipid peroxide levels, in all the mentioned tissues. We conclude that rice germosprout extract could be a good natural source of antioxidants to reduce oxidative stress-induced hemolysis and damage of blood vessels and other tissues.

  4. [The Paris cell for collecting preoccupying information (la CRIP 75): an organization at the heart of child protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magny, J; Reveillère, C

    2011-09-01

    Within the objective of coordinating actions of the different partners whose mission involves childhood protection measures, and to allow convergence of preoccupying information toward a centralized unit, law n(o) 2007-293 of 5 March 2007 reforming child protection requires the creation of a departmental cell for the collection, processing, and assessment of preoccupying information (cellule départementale, de recueil, de traitement, et d'évaluation des informations préoccupantes, CRIP) on the circumstances of a minor in danger or at risk of being so. The CRIP 75 is a multidisciplinary cell comprising an administrative pole, a socio-educational pole, and a medical health officer. Its mission is to participate in assessing preoccupying information and directing it appropriately, with a preference toward treating situations within an administrative framework and in accordance with the parents. The public prosecutor is only called in when the recommended measures have not provided an adequate response to the danger. Situations that are a matter for prosecution as a criminal offence are transmitted directly to the public prosecutor's office, as are situations for which the social or medico social services are unable to make an assessment. PMID:21816589

  5. The transplantation of Akt-overexpressing amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells protects the heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury in rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, YAN; LI, YIGANG; SONG, LEI; LI, YANYAN; JIANG, SHAN; ZHANG, SONG

    2016-01-01

    Amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AFMSCs) are an attractive cell source for applications in regenerative medicine, due to characteristics such as proliferative capacity and multipotency. In addition, Akt, a serine-threonine kinase, maintains stem cells by promoting viability and proliferation. Whether the transplantation of Akt-overexpressing AFMSCs protects the heart against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury has yet to be elucidated. Accordingly, the Akt gene was overexpressed in AFMSCs using lentiviral transduction, and Akt-AFMSCs were transplanted into the ischemic myocardium of rabbits prior to reperfusion. Any protective effects resulting from this procedure were subsequently sought after three weeks later. A histological examination revealed that there was a decrease in intramyocardial inflammation and ultrastructural damage, and an increase in capillary density and in the levels of GATA binding protein 4, connexin 43 and cardiac troponin T in the Akt-AFMSC group compared with the control group. A significant decrease in cardiomyocyte apoptosis, accompanying an increase in phosphorylated Akt and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and a decrease in caspase-3, was also observed. Furthermore, the left ventricular function was markedly augmented in the Akt-AFMSC group compared with the control group. These observations suggested that the protective effect of AFMSCs may be due to the delivery of secreted cytokines, promotion of neoangiogenesis, prevention of cardiomyocyte apoptosis, transdifferentiation into cardiomyocytes and promotion of the viability of AFMSCs, which are assisted by Akt gene modification. Taken together, the results of the present study have indicated that transplantation of Akt-AFMSCs is able to alleviate myocardial I/R injury and improve cardiac function. PMID:27151366

  6. Clinical Analysis on Cardiovascular Risk Factor Control of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)%2型糖尿病合并冠心病患者心血管危险因素控制的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴海军

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo study cardiovascular risk factor control among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods Screening of 140 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease (CHD), questionnaire, comparative good cardiovascular risk factor control, memory, control blood sugar levels, nearly two years of cardiovascular events.Results 93 people had good cardiovascular risk factor control level, memory, 47 had poor control, fluent speaking and written cardiovascular risk factor control 59.14%, average 34.41%, 6.45% of poor blood sugar control is better than that of cardiovascular risk factors to control memory, 10.64%, 53.19%, 36.1%, 8.60% 8.60%, outpatient emergency, medical resources acquisition cases rate is 24.73% lower than memory, 19.15%, 104.26%, 19.15%, 4.30%, heart failure, myocardial infarction, angina, 37.63%, 3.23% rate of cardiovascular events in total cases times lower than memory, 14.89%, 23.40%, 93.62%, 45.16% and 14.89%, the difference was statistically signiifcant (P<0.05). Conclusion For patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease (CHD), active control of risk factors for cardiovascular disease, can help to improve the level of blood glucose control, reduce the risk of cardiovascular events and improve the prognosis..%目的:探讨心血管危险因素控制在2型糖尿病合并冠心病患者中的意义。方法筛选2型糖尿病合并冠心病患者140例,行问卷调查,对比心血管危险因素控制良好、差者血糖控制水平、近2年心血管事件发生情况。结果心血管危险因素控制水平良好93人、差者47人,心血管危险因素控制良好者血糖控制59.14%、一般34.41%、不佳6.45%,优于心血管危险因素控制者10.64%、53.19%、36.1%,急诊8.60%、门诊16.13%、医疗资源获取例次率24.73%,低于差者19.15%、104.26%、123.40%,心肌梗死4.30%、心衰3.23%、心绞痛37.63%、心血

  7. Protective effects of GLP-1 analogues exendin-4 and GLP-1(9-36) amide against ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, David P; Engstrøm, Thomas; Treiman, Marek

    2007-01-01

    .2% of the ischemic area, psize-limiting effect of Exe-4 was abolished by exendin(9-39) (Exe(9-39)), a GLP-1 receptor antagonist. In contrast, both Exe-4 and GLP-1(9-36) amide were able to augment left ventricular performance (left ventricular developed pressure and rate-pressure product) during...... to exert cardiovascular effects in a number of experimental models. Here we tested exendin-4 (Exe-4), a peptide agonist at GLP-1 receptors, and GLP-1(9-36) amide, the primary endogenous metabolite of GLP-1 (both in the concentration range 0.03-3.0 nM), for their protective effects against ischemia......Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin peptide secreted from intestinal L-cells, whose potent plasma glucose-lowering action has prompted intense efforts to develop GLP-1 receptor-targeting drugs for treatment of diabetic hyperglycemia. More recently, GLP-1 and its analogues have been shown...

  8. [Cholinergic system of the heart].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kučera, Matej; Hrabovská, Anna

    2015-12-01

    The cholinergic system of the heart can be either of neuronal or non-neuronal origin. The neuronal cholinergic system in the heart is represented by preganglionic parasympathetic pathways, intracardiac parasympathetic ganglia and postganglionic parasympathetic neurons projecting to the atria, SA node and AV node. The non-neuronal cholinergic system consists of cardiomyocytes that have complete equipment for synthesis and secretion of acetylcholine. Current knowledge suggests that the non-neuronal cholinergic system in the heart affects the regulation of the heart during sympathetic activation. The non-neuronal cholinergic system of the heart plays also a role in the energy metabolism of cardimyocites. Acetylcholine of both neuronal and non-neuronal origin acts in the heart through muscarinic and nicotinic receptors. The effect of acetylcholine in the heart is terminated by cholinesterases acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase. Recently, papers suggest that the increased cholinergic tone in the heart by cholinesterase inhibitors has a positive effect on some cardiovascular disorders such as heart failure. For this reason, the cholinesterase inhibitors might be used in the treatment of certain cardiovascular disorders in the future.

  9. Cardiovascular stress of photochemotherapy (PUVA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciafone, R.A.; Rhodes, A.R.; Audley, M.; Freedberg, I.M.; Abelmann, W.H.

    1980-11-01

    The recently devised therapy for psoriasis and related skin diseases, consisting of long-wave ultraviolet light and oral 8-methoxypsoralen (PUVA), was investigated for its cardiovascular effects. In seventeen patients, long-wave ultraviolet light therapy in a treatment enclosure (mean duration, 19.3 minutes) resulted in ambient temperatures of 39.2 degrees C +/- 2.1 degrees C (SD) and skin temperatures of 38.2 degrees C +/- 1.4 degrees C. In upright subjects, heart rate rose 30.8% to 114.4 +/- 25.2 beats per minute (bpm). Intensive room air conditioning, outside of the treatment enclosure, although significantly lowering skin and ambient temperatures, did not affect the heart rates significantly. PUVA therapy is associated with a definite cardiovascular stress when the box type of therapeutic unit is used. Possible modifications are discussed.

  10. Single Working Moms Carry a Heart Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Single Working Moms Carry a Heart Burden Stress, finances may boost cardiovascular risks for U.S. mothers, study ... the June 16 online edition of the American Journal of Public Health . SOURCES: Frank van Lenthe, Ph. ...

  11. Intermezzo: the MyHeart project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MyHeart project is aimed at developing systems and associated services that empower the users to take control of their own health status. The project is especially focused on the prevention and early diagnosis of cardiovascular disease. (orig.)

  12. Addition of a novel, protective family history category allows better profiling of cardiovascular risk and atherosclerotic burden in the general population. The Asklepios Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M Van daele

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Whereas the importance of family history (FH is widely recognized in cardiovascular risk assessment, its full potential could be underutilized, when applied with its current simple guidelines-based definition (cFH: presence of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD in a first-degree relative. We tested the added value of a new, extended family history definition (eFH, also taking into account later onset of disease, second-degree relatives and number of affected relatives, on profiling cardiovascular risk and atherosclerotic burden in the general population. DESIGN: Longitudinal population study. SETTING: Random, representative population sample from Erpe-Mere and Nieuwerkerken (Belgium, primary care. SUBJECTS: 2524 male/female volunteers, aged 35-55 years, free from overt CVD. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Subjects were extensively phenotyped including presence of atherosclerosis (ultrasound and a newly developed FH questionnaire (4 generations. RESULTS: Compared to cFH, eFH was superior in predicting an adverse risk profile (glycemic state, elevated blood pressure, lipid abnormalities, presence of metabolic syndrome components and presence of atherosclerosis (all age & sex-adjusted p<0.05. Unlike cFH, eFH remained a significant predictor of subclinical atherosclerosis after adjusting for confounders. Most relations with eFH were not graded but showed clear informational breakpoints, with absence of CVD (including late onset in any first-degree relative being a negative predictor of atherosclerosis, and a particularly interesting phenotype for further study. CONCLUSIONS: A novel, extended FH definition is superior to the conventional definition in profiling cardiovascular risk and atherosclerotic burden in the general population. There remain clear opportunities to refine and increase the performance and informational content of this simple, readily-available inexpensive tool.

  13. Significance of Cardiac Rehabilitation on Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krutika Gajjar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the high mortality and morbidity rate associated with cardiovascular diseases, Cardiacrehabilitation (CR is regarded for prevention and management of cardiovascular diseases. CR servicesare generally provided in an outpatient as comprehensive, long-term programs involving medicalevaluation, prescribed exercise, cardiac risk factor modification, education and counseling. This includesnutritional therapies, weight loss program management of lipid abnormalities with diet and medication,blood pressure control, diabetes management and stress management. The exercise component of a totalapproach to rehabilitation helps to overcome the fears and anxieties that so many people experience aftera heart attack. Aerobic exercise training program improves cardiovascular fitness in both healthyindividual and cardiac patients. Cardiac rehabilitation prevents and treat cardiovascular disease, reducescardiac risk factors, improving patient’s exercise capacity and enhancing quality of life. Aerobicexercise with intensity of approximately 60 to 70% of the maximal heart rate for 30 to 60 minutes, 3 to 4times a week, for 4 to 6 weeks enhances exercise capacity.

  14. Cell Therapy for Cardiovascular Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Takehara, Naofumi

    2013-01-01

    A great numbers of cardiovascular disease patients all over the world are suffering in the poor outcomes. Under this situation, cardiac regeneration therapy to reorganize the postnatal heart that is defined as a terminal differentiated-organ is a very important theme and mission for human beings. However, the temporary success of several clinical trials using usual cell types with uncertain cell numbers has provided the transient effect of cell therapy to these patients. We therefore should r...

  15. Perindopril for improving cardiovascular events

    OpenAIRE

    DiNicolantonio, James; O'Keefe, James

    2014-01-01

    James J DiNicolantonio, James H O'Keefe Department of Preventive Cardiology, Saint Luke's Mid America Heart Institute, Kansas City, MO, USAIn a recent review in Vascular Health and Risk Management Wang et al state that “In mainly placebo-controlled cardiovascular (CV)-outcome studies in patients with hypertension, CV benefits with perindopril were associated with large reductions in BP.”1 However, perindopril in the European Trial on Reduction of Cardiac Ev...

  16. Cardiovascular Function in Pulmonary Emphysema

    OpenAIRE

    Dina Visca; Marina Aiello; Alfredo Chetta

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic cardiovascular disease, such as coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, and cardiac arrhythmias, have a strong influence on each other, and systemic inflammation has been considered as the main linkage between them. On the other hand, airflow limitation may markedly affect lung mechanics in terms of static and dynamic hyperinflation, especially in pulmonary emphysema, and they can in turn influence cardiac performance as well...

  17. Perindopril for improving cardiovascular events

    OpenAIRE

    DiNicolantonio JJ; O’Keefe JH

    2014-01-01

    James J DiNicolantonio, James H O'Keefe Department of Preventive Cardiology, Saint Luke's Mid America Heart Institute, Kansas City, MO, USAIn a recent review in Vascular Health and Risk Management Wang et al state that “In mainly placebo-controlled cardiovascular (CV)-outcome studies in patients with hypertension, CV benefits with perindopril were associated with large reductions in BP.”1 However, perindopril in the European Trial on Reduction of Cardiac Events With Perind...

  18. Genetic risks for cardiovascular diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Zafarmand, M. H.

    2008-01-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), which involves the heart, brain, and peripheral circulation, is a major health problem world-wide. The development of atherosclerosis is a complex process, and several established risk factors are involved. Nevertheless, these established risk factors do not fully explain the occurrence of CVD and further insight is required in factors such as genetic determinants that may identify individuals at risk. In this thesis we worked on the genetic basis...

  19. Copeptin in heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasota B

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bartosz Lasota,1 Katarzyna Mizia-Stec212nd Department of Cardiology, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland; 21st Department of Cardiology, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, PolandAbstract: Copeptin is a novel indicator of arginine–vasopressin activation in the body. Its value has primarily been documented in acute life-threatening conditions mediated by the stress response system. Recently, some studies have revealed copeptin's promising role as a marker in cardiovascular diseases. In our review, we summarize the current knowledge on copeptin in pathophysiology, as well as in risk assessment in different clinical settings involving the cardiovascular system with a special focus on heart failure.Keywords: copeptin, heart failure, arginine–vasopressin

  20. Risk Factors in the Initial Presentation of Specific Cardiovascular Disease Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-03

    Heart Diseases; Cardiovascular Diseases; Acute Myocardial Infarction; Unstable Angina; Chronic Stable Angina; Ischemic Stroke; Cerebrovascular Accident; Subarachnoid Hemorrhage; Transient Ischemic Attack; Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm; Peripheral Arterial Disease; Sudden Coronary Death; Ventricular Arrhythmia; Sudden Death; Cardiac Arrest; Heart Failure