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Sample records for cardiovascular experimental pharmacology

  1. The rat - Cardiovascular pharmacology

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    Sotomayor-Herazo Aristides

    2012-06-01

    locura inducida porlas sustancias, donde la culpa proyectada y la negación campean a la par dela visión del mundo degradado y alucinante como construcción alterna de larealidad del drogadicto.A falta de una vida plena llena de realizaciones, el vacío interno, los sentimientosde soledad, la futilidad mediatizada, la ausencia de un verdadero sentido de lavida, el existir solo por el principio del placer, constituyen modos de vida sinsignificado, donde comanda el cerebro del reptil que llevamos dentro, no digoque el de mamífero porque sería ofender a tan nobles animales.En el desarrollo de esta obra, y en la realidad, vemos como se encuentratrastocado, cuando no ausente, el sentido de lo espiritual. La incapacidad paraexperimentar el dolor del prójimo, posiblemente se deba a una falla del hazde neuronas conocidas como “neuronas espejo” descubiertas por el equipoinvestigador de la Universidad de Parma, liderado por Giacomo Rizzolatti en1996. El sistema de “neuronas espejo” permite hacer propias las acciones, sensaciones y emociones de los demás; sirve paraexplicar las bases neurobiológicas de la empatíay, su ausencia o daño, ayudaría a comprender lasbases del trastorno antisocial de la personalidado psicopatía. Grave patología caracterizadapor la imposibilidad del sujeto para vivenciarlos sentimientos de sus iguales, por lo mismo,son incapaces para sentir culpa o ansiedad, losque los lleva a una ausencia de moralidad y decapacidad para experimentar compasión por elotro, eso los convierte en depredadores de los herdemás.La droga prospera en estos individuosy daña las conexiones lógicas de sus funciones,socio-patizándolos aún más; así nos impresionaArístides, con unos personajes desalmados,afectados por este destructor flagelo. Esta esla saga en la que nos introduce con magistralhabilidad el autor.CHISTIAN AYOLA GÓMEZMédico Especialista en PsiquiatriaFARMACOLOGIA CARDIOVASCULAR:El conocimiento de la farmacología, ciencia vitalen la formaci

  2. Pharmacology of human experimental anxiety

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    F.G. Graeff

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available This review covers the effect of drugs affecting anxiety using four psychological procedures for inducing experimental anxiety applied to healthy volunteers and patients with anxiety disorders. The first is aversive conditioning of the skin conductance responses to tones. The second is simulated public speaking, which consists of speaking in front of a video camera, with anxiety being measured with psychometric scales. The third is the Stroop Color-Word test, in which words naming colors are painted in the same or in a different shade, the incongruence generating a cognitive conflict. The last test is a human version of a thoroughly studied animal model of anxiety, fear-potentiated startle, in which the eye-blink reflex to a loud noise is recorded. The evidence reviewed led to the conclusion that the aversive conditioning and potentiated startle tests are based on classical conditioning of anticipatory anxiety. Their sensitivity to benzodiazepine anxiolytics suggests that these models generate an emotional state related to generalized anxiety disorder. On the other hand, the increase in anxiety determined by simulated public speaking is resistant to benzodiazepines and sensitive to drugs affecting serotonergic neurotransmission. This pharmacological profile, together with epidemiological evidence indicating its widespread prevalence, suggests that the emotional state generated by public speaking represents a species-specific response that may be related to social phobia and panic disorder. Because of scant pharmacological data, the status of the Stroop Color-Word test remains uncertain. In spite of ethical and economic constraints, human experimental anxiety constitutes a valuable tool for the study of the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders.

  3. Modelos experimentales de enfermedad cardiovascular Experimental models of cardiovascular disease

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    A. Gil Hernández

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo describe los modelos experimentales de utilidad clínica en el estudio de las enfermedades cardiovasculares y hace énfasis en los modelos usados para determinar los mecanismos fisiopatológicos de la aterosclerosis, así como para evaluar los efectos de productos nutricionales y farmacológicos sobre el desarrollo de este proceso inflamatorio complejo común a muchas enfermedades cardiovasculares. Se revisan los modelos animales en los que se puede inducir aterosclerosis por cambios en la composición de la dieta y los modelos animales en los que la alteración de uno o más genes (animales knock-out y knock-in, o la incorporación de genes foráneos de otras especies, da lugar a la aparición de hiperlipidemia con riesgo asociado de aparición de enfermedad cardiovascular temprana. Por otra parte, se consideran algunas de las líneas celulares más utilizadas en el estudio de los mecanismos moleculares de la aterogénesis y de evaluación de sustancias con interés nutricional o farmacológico.The present work describes clinically useful experimental models for the study of cardiovascular disease and emphasites the models used to determine the pathophysiologic mechanisms of atherosclerosis, as well as to evaluate the effects of nutritional and pharmacological products on the development of this complex inflammatory process present in many cardiovascular diseases. Animal models in which ahterosclerosis may be induced by dietary changes are reviewed, as well as those in which modification in one or more genes (knock-out and knock-in animals, or the incorporation of foreign genes from other species lead to early cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, some of the cell lines most frequently used in studying molecular mechanisms of atherosclerosis and assessment of substances with nutritional or pharmacological interest are considered.

  4. Pharmacological prevention of cardiovascular aging – targeting the Maillard reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Aronson, Doron

    2004-01-01

    The development of myocardial and large vessel stiffness with aging underlies the development of diastolic heart failure and isolated systolic hypertension. Nonenzymatic reaction between glucose and proteins (Maillard reaction) leading to collagen crosslinking in the myocardium and arterial wall has been implicated in age-related increase in cardiovascular stiffness. In the present issue, Chang et al. show that aminoguanidine, an inhibitor of protein crosslinking, retards age-related decline ...

  5. Physiological and Pharmacological Roles of FGF21 in Cardiovascular Diseases

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    Peng Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is one of the most severe diseases in clinics. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 is regarded as an important metabolic regulator playing a therapeutic role in diabetes and its complications. The heart is a key target as well as a source of FGF21 which is involved in heart development and also induces beneficial effects in CVDs. Our review is to clarify the roles of FGF21 in CVDs. Strong evidence showed that the development of CVDs including atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, myocardial ischemia, cardiac hypertrophy, and diabetic cardiomyopathy is associated with serum FGF21 levels increase which was regarded as a compensatory response to induced cardiac protection. Furthermore, administration of FGF21 suppressed the above CVDs. Mechanistic studies revealed that FGF21 induced cardiac protection likely by preventing cardiac lipotoxicity and the associated oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. Normally, FGF21 induced therapeutic effects against CVDs via activation of the above kinases-mediated pathways by directly binding to the FGF receptors of the heart in the presence of β-klotho. However, recently, growing evidence showed that FGF21 induced beneficial effects on peripheral organs through an indirect way mediated by adiponectin. Therefore whether adiponectin is also involved in FGF21-induced cardiac protection still needs further investigation.

  6. Consequences of cardiovascular adaptation to spaceflight: implications for the use of pharmacological countermeasures

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    Convertino, Victor A.

    2005-01-01

    There is little evidence obtained from space flight to support the notion that occurrence of cardiac dysrhythmias, impaired cardiac and vascular function, and manifestation of asymptomatic cardiovascular disease represent serious risks during space flight. Therefore, the development of orthostatic hypotension and instability immediately after return from spaceflight probably reflect the most significant operational risks associated with the cardiovascular system of astronauts. Significant reductions in stroke volume and lower reserve for increasing peripheral vascular resistance contribute to ineffective maintenance of systemic arterial blood pressure during standing after spaceflight despite compensatory elevations in heart rate. The primary mechanism underlying reduced stroke volume appears to be a reduction in preload associated with less circulating blood volume while inadequate peripheral vasoconstriction may be caused partly by hyporeactivity of receptors that control arterial smooth muscle function. A focus for development of future countermeasures for hemodynamic responses to central hypovolemia includes the potential application of pharmacological agents that specifically target and restore blood volume (e.g., fludrocortisone, electrolyte-containing beverages) and reserve for vasoconstriction (e.g., midodrine, vasopressin). Based on systematic evaluations, acute physical exercise designed to elicit maximal effort or inspiratory resistance have shown promise as successful countermeasures that provide protection against development of orthostatic hypotension and intolerance without potential risks and side effects associated with specific pharmacological interventions.

  7. Recent Clinical Trials of Pharmacologic Cardiovascular Interventions in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nataatmadja, Melissa; Cho, Yeoungjee; Fahim, Magid; Johnson, David W

    2016-01-01

    As a consequence of both traditional and non-traditional risk factors, cardiovascular disease is over-represented, and the leading cause of mortality, among patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). Whilst recommendations for reducing cardiovascular risk in the general population exist, their applicability to the CKD population is questionable due to the exclusion of CKD patients from the majority of contemporary cardiovascular interventional studies. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate the literature regarding pharmacologic cardiovascular interventions in patients with CKD, with an emphasis on studies published since our 2008 review. Interventions discussed include erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (TREAT, U.S. Normal Hematocrit, CHOIR, CREATE, Palmer meta-analysis); statins (SHARP, AURORA, PPP, 4D, ALERT); Fibrates (VA-HIT); Folic Acid (ASFAST, US FOLIC acid trial, HOST); Antihypertensive Agents, Including Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, Beta-blockers and Combination therapy (Cice et al, FOSDIAL, Agarwal et al, ONTARGET); sevelamer (DCOR); Cinacalcet (ADVANCE, EVOLVE, Cunningham meta-analysis); Anti-oxidants (SPACE, HOPE, ATIC); Aspirin (HOT study re-analysis); vitamin D analogues (PRIMO); and multidisciplinary intervention (LANDMARK). Unfortunately, there remains a paucity of evidence in this area and a large number of methodologically poor quality studies with negative results. It is possible that these interventions do not have the same positive effect in CKD patients due to differences in the pathogenesis driving cardiovascular disease burden, such as altered bone metabolism and calcific vascular disease. Further well-designed studies with appropriately selected study populations and patient level outcomes are required. Until such time, physicians must consider on an individual patient basis the appropriateness of these interventions. PMID:26497837

  8. Systems-Pharmacology Dissection of Traditional Chinese Medicine Compound Saffron Formula Reveals Multi-scale Treatment Strategy for Cardiovascular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianling; Mu, Jiexin; Zheng, Chunli; Chen, Xuetong; Guo, Zihu; Huang, Chao; Fu, Yingxue; Tian, Guihua; Shang, Hongcai; Wang, Yonghua

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have been regarding as "the world's first killer" of human beings in recent years owing to the striking morbidity and mortality, the involved molecular mechanisms are extremely complex and remain unclear. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) adheres to the aim of combating complex diseases from an integrative and holistic point of view, which has shown effectiveness in CVDs therapy. However, system-level understanding of such a mechanism of multi-scale treatment strategy for CVDs is still difficult. Here, we developed a system pharmacology approach with the purpose of revealing the underlying molecular mechanisms exemplified by a famous compound saffron formula (CSF) in treating CVDs. First, by systems ADME analysis combined with drug targeting process, 103 potential active components and their corresponding 219 direct targets were retrieved and some key interactions were further experimentally validated. Based on this, the network relationships among active components, targets and diseases were further built to uncover the pharmacological actions of the drug. Finally, a "CVDs pathway" consisted of several regulatory modules was incorporated to dissect the therapeutic effects of CSF in different pathological features-relevant biological processes. All this demonstrates CSF has multi-scale curative activity in regulating CVD-related biological processes, which provides a new potential way for modern medicine in the treatment of complex diseases. PMID:26813334

  9. Protective Effects of Panax Notoginseng Saponins on Cardiovascular Diseases: A Comprehensive Overview of Experimental Studies

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    Xiaochen Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS are one of the most important compounds derived from roots of the herb Panax notoginseng which are traditionally used as a hemostatic medicine to control internal and external bleeding in China for thousands of years. To date, at least twenty saponins were identified and some of them including notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rb1, and ginsenoside Rg1 were researched frequently in the area of cardiovascular protection. However, the protective effects of PNS on cardiovascular diseases based on experimental studies and its underlying mechanisms have not been reviewed systematically. This paper reviewed the pharmacology of PNS and its monomers Rb1, Rg1, and R1 in the treatment for cardiovascular diseases.

  10. Dyslipidemia Management for Secondary Prevention in Women with Cardiovascular Disease: What Can We Expect From Non-pharmacologic Strategies?

    OpenAIRE

    Whelton, Seamus; Chow, Grant V.; Ashen, Dominique; Blumenthal, Roger S.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women and the treatment of dyslipidemia is a cornerstone of secondary prevention. Pharmacologic therapy with statins can lower LDL-C by 30–50% and reduce the risk of recurrent coronary heart disease in both men and women. While significant reductions in LDL-C can be achieved with statin therapy, diet and lifestyle modification remain an essential part of the treatment regimen for cardiovascular disease. Moreover, a large proportion of th...

  11. The impact of obesity on the pharmacology of medications used for cardiovascular risk factor control.

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    Sankaralingam, Sowndramalingam; Kim, Richard B; Padwal, Raj S

    2015-02-01

    Most drugs are currently dosed empirically (fixed-dose) or based on total body weight. In obese patients, these dosing strategies might, in theory, lead to inadequate clinical effect (empiric dosing) or toxicity (weight-based dosing). Our objective was to first review body size descriptors used for drug dosing and then to examine the effect of obesity on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs used for cardiovascular risk reduction (antihypertensive agents, statins, aspirin, antidiabetic agents). We found a limited number of published studies for most drug classes. For β-blockers, volume of distribution was increased in the obese and this appears to be primarily due to greater distribution into lean tissue. In contrast, clearance was decreased, unchanged or increased, depending on the agent. This suggests that loading doses should be based on lean body weight and maintenance doses adjusted in a drug-specific fashion according to clearance alterations. For antidiabetic agents, glucose-lowering effects were slightly diminished in most studies in obese patients. Outside of these findings, in the studies reported to date, obesity did not exert a consistent, clinically important effect on drug pharmacology. Because obesity can cause drug-specific pharmacological changes for some drug classes (e.g., β-blockers), there is a need to conduct further studies. To avoid detecting pharmacokinetic changes that are ultimately deemed clinically inconsequential, we suggest a "top down" approach in which clinically important outcomes are compared between obese and nonobese subjects. If important differences are found, further studies should be then performed to delineate underlying pharmacological mechanisms and inform the need for dose adjustment. PMID:25661551

  12. Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology of Andrographis paniculata and Its Major Bioactive Phytoconstituent Andrographolide

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    Thanasekaran Jayakumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F Nees, generally known as “king of bitters,” is an herbaceous plant in the family Acanthaceae. In China, India, Thailand, and Malaysia, this plant has been widely used for treating sore throat, flu, and upper respiratory tract infections. Andrographolide, a major bioactive chemical constituent of the plant, has shown anticancer potential in various investigations. Andrographolide and its derivatives have anti-inflammatory effects in experimental models asthma, stroke, and arthritis. In recent years, pharmaceutical chemists have synthesized numerous andrographolide derivatives, which exhibit essential pharmacological activities such as those that are anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antitumor, antidiabetic, anti-HIV, antifeedant, and antiviral. However, what is noteworthy about this paper is summarizing the effects of andrographolide against cardiovascular disease, platelet activation, infertility, and NF-κB activation. Therefore, this paper is intended to provide evidence reported in relevant literature on qualitative research to assist scientists in isolating and characterizing bioactive compounds.

  13. Argentinean Society of Experimental Pharmacology: Brief history and main scientific contributions to the discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Bruni, Sergio F; Acosta, Gabriela B

    2016-07-01

    Argentina Biomedical Science has been historically strong. The development of Human and Veterinary Pharmacology in our country as a pivotal discipline has been acknowledged worldwide because of the quality of its contributions. Argentinean Society of Experimental Pharmacology (SAFE) is a non- profit association whose research fields include Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology. SAFE main goals are described as follow (a) To meet active researchers for studying concerns regarding Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology (b) To launch an initiative for development of the discipline in mainly our country and other collaborative countries worldwide (c) To spread the pharmacological know-how obtained from different research teams (d) To strengthen relations between pharmacologists (e) To facilitate the presentation and discussion of scientific papers. This current article shows the SAFE's more important scientific contribution to pharmacology through its former research scientists to the present. PMID:26816088

  14. Human pharmacology of ayahuasca: subjective and cardiovascular effects, monoamine metabolite excretion, and pharmacokinetics.

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    Riba, Jordi; Valle, Marta; Urbano, Gloria; Yritia, Mercedes; Morte, Adelaida; Barbanoj, Manel J

    2003-07-01

    The effects of the South American psychotropic beverage ayahuasca on subjective and cardiovascular variables and urine monoamine metabolite excretion were evaluated, together with the drug's pharmacokinetic profile, in a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. This pharmacologically complex tea, commonly obtained from Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis, combines N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), an orally labile psychedelic agent showing 5-hydroxytryptamine2A agonist activity, with monoamine oxidase (MAO)-inhibiting beta-carboline alkaloids (harmine, harmaline, and tetrahydroharmine). Eighteen volunteers with prior experience in the use of psychedelics received single oral doses of encapsulated freeze-dried ayahuasca (0.6 and 0.85 mg of DMT/kg of body weight) and placebo. Ayahuasca produced significant subjective effects, peaking between 1.5 and 2 h, involving perceptual modifications and increases in ratings of positive mood and activation. Diastolic blood pressure showed a significant increase at the high dose (9 mm Hg at 75 min), whereas systolic blood pressure and heart rate were moderately and nonsignificantly increased. Cmax values for DMT after the low and high ayahuasca doses were 12.14 ng/ml and 17.44 ng/ml, respectively. Tmax (median) was observed at 1.5 h after both doses. The Tmax for DMT coincided with the peak of subjective effects. Drug administration increased urinary normetanephrine excretion, but, contrary to the typical MAO-inhibitor effect profile, deaminated monoamine metabolite levels were not decreased. This and the negligible harmine plasma levels found suggest a predominantly peripheral (gastrointestinal and liver) site of action for harmine. MAO inhibition at this level would suffice to prevent first-pass metabolism of DMT and allow its access to systemic circulation and the central nervous system. PMID:12660312

  15. Stem cell therapy for cardiovascular disease: the demise of alchemy and rise of pharmacology.

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    Jadczyk, T; Faulkner, A; Madeddu, P

    2013-05-01

    Regenerative medicine holds great promise as a way of addressing the limitations of current treatments of ischaemic disease. In preclinical models, transplantation of different types of stem cells or progenitor cells results in improved recovery from ischaemia. Furthermore, experimental studies indicate that cell therapy influences a spectrum of processes, including neovascularization and cardiomyogenesis as well as inflammation, apoptosis and interstitial fibrosis. Thus, distinct strategies might be required for specific regenerative needs. Nonetheless, clinical studies have so far investigated a relatively small number of options, focusing mainly on the use of bone marrow-derived cells. Rapid clinical translation resulted in a number of small clinical trials that do not have sufficient power to address the therapeutic potential of the new approach. Moreover, full exploitation has been hindered so far by the absence of a solid theoretical framework and inadequate development plans. This article reviews the current knowledge on cell therapy and proposes a model theory for interpretation of experimental and clinical outcomes from a pharmacological perspective. Eventually, with an increased association between cell therapy and traditional pharmacotherapy, we will soon need to adopt a unified theory for understanding how the two practices additively interact for a patient's benefit. PMID:22712727

  16. Experimental Models of Renal Disease and the Cardiovascular System

    OpenAIRE

    Grossman, Rebecca C.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death among patients with end stage renal failure. Animal models have played a crucial role in teasing apart the complex pathological processes involved. This review discusses the principles of using animal models, the history of their use in the study of renal hypertension, the controversies arising from experimental models of non-hypertensive uraemic cardiomyopathy and the lessons learned from these models, and highlights important areas of futur...

  17. The ventral surface of the medulla in the rat: pharmacologic and autoradiographic localization of GABA-induced cardiovascular effects.

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    Keeler, J R; Shults, C W; Chase, T N; Helke, C J

    1984-04-16

    Experiments were done to evaluate a rat model for studying the cardiovascular effects of pharmacological manipulations of the ventral surface of the medulla. GABAergic drugs were used because of their well-characterized actions at the ventral surface of the medulla in the cat. GABA and muscimol, applied to the exposed ventral surface with filter paper pledgets, produced dose-dependent decreases in heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) which were reversed with bicuculline but not with strychnine. Bicuculline alone raised HR and MAP. The GABA- or bicuculline-induced cardiovascular effects were mediated primarily by inhibition of sympathetic outflow. The most sensitive site was localized to an intermediate area on the ventral surface of the medulla, between the trapezoid body and exits of the hypoglossal nerves and just lateral to the pyramids. Topical application of [3H]GABA to the intermediate area resulted in labeling that was concentrated at the site of application, and which penetrated the parenchyma 1 mm dorsally. The heaviest labeling was found primarily in the ventral halves of the lateral paragigantocellular nuclei. No tritium was detected in peripheral blood. These data provide evidence for a neuronal system at the ventral medullary surface of the rat which influences sympathetic outflow and is modulated by GABA. PMID:6326937

  18. Prevention of cardiovascular disease guided by total risk estimations - challenges and opportunities for practical implementation: highlights of a CardioVascular Clinical Trialists (CVCT) Workshop of the ESC Working Group on CardioVascular Pharmacology and Drug Therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zannad, Faiez

    2011-11-03

    This paper presents a summary of the potential practical and economic barriers to implementation of primary prevention of cardiovascular disease guided by total cardiovascular risk estimations in the general population. It also reviews various possible solutions to overcome these barriers. The report is based on discussion among experts in the area at a special CardioVascular Clinical Trialists workshop organized by the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Drug Therapy that took place in September 2009. It includes a review of the evidence in favour of the \\'treat-to-target\\' paradigm, as well as potential difficulties with this approach, including the multiple pathological processes present in high-risk patients that may not be adequately addressed by this strategy. The risk-guided therapy approach requires careful definitions of cardiovascular risk and consideration of clinical endpoints as well as the differences between trial and \\'real-world\\' populations. Cost-effectiveness presents another issue in scenarios of finite healthcare resources, as does the difficulty of documenting guideline uptake and effectiveness in the primary care setting, where early modification of risk factors may be more beneficial than later attempts to manage established disease. The key to guideline implementation is to improve the quality of risk assessment and demonstrate the association between risk factors, intervention, and reduced event rates. In the future, this may be made possible by means of automated data entry and various other measures. In conclusion, opportunities exist to increase guideline implementation in the primary care setting, with potential benefits for both the general population and healthcare resources.

  19. Student's perception and experience of computer assisted learning as a teaching method in experimental pharmacology

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    Deepika Tikoo

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: The study demonstrates the effectiveness of CAL in teaching experimental pharmacology concepts and the students felt that this method helped them in a better understanding of the topic as the effects were clearly visualized on the screen and that such simulations need to be a part of the standard curriculum. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(6.000: 1168-1174

  20. Impact of Diabetes and its pharmacological treatment on cardiovascular function: studies on ischaemia-reperfusion models

    OpenAIRE

    Paiva, Marta Sofia Abreu

    2011-01-01

    As doenças cardiovasculares são a principal causa de morte em todo o mundo, das quais a doença cardíaca isquémica assume um papel principal. Um fornecimento reduzido de oxigénio e nutrientes é deveras deletério para o tecido cardíaco, o qual possui um elevado consumo energético. Após isquémia-reperfusão (IR), a morte celular ocorre de forma extensa. O tecido morto é substituído por tecido fibroso, levando à disfunção e insuficiência cardíacas. Estudos clínicos demonstraram que os diabéticos s...

  1. Intervention, causal reasoning, and the neurobiology of mental disorders: Pharmacological drugs as experimental instruments.

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    Tsou, Jonathan Y

    2012-06-01

    In psychiatry, pharmacological drugs play an important experimental role in attempts to identify the neurobiological causes of mental disorders. Besides being developed in applied contexts as potential treatments for patients with mental disorders, pharmacological drugs play a crucial role in research contexts as experimental instruments that facilitate the formulation and revision of neurobiological theories of psychopathology. This paper examines the various epistemic functions that pharmacological drugs serve in the discovery, refinement, testing, and elaboration of neurobiological theories of mental disorders. I articulate this thesis with reference to the history of antipsychotic drugs and the evolution of the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia in the second half of the twentieth century. I argue that interventions with psychiatric patients through the medium of antipsychotic drugs provide researchers with information and evidence about the neurobiological causes of schizophrenia. This analysis highlights the importance of pharmacological drugs as research tools in the generation of psychiatric knowledge and the dynamic relationship between practical and theoretical contexts in psychiatry. PMID:22520203

  2. PUNISHING AND CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS OF INTRAVENOUS HISTAMINE IN RATS: PHARMACOLOGICAL SELECTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Podlesnik, Christopher A.; Jimenez-Gomez, Corina

    2013-01-01

    Although drugs may serve as reinforcers or punishers of operant behavior, the punishing function has received much less experimental attention than the reinforcing function. A sensitive method for studying drug-induced punishment is to assess choice for a punished response over an unpunished response. In these experiments, rats chose between pressing one lever and receiving a sucrose pellet or pressing another lever and receiving a sucrose pellet plus an intravenous injection of histamine. Wh...

  3. Standard of reporting animal-based experimental research in Indian Journal of Pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Umme Aiman; Syed Ziaur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of present study was to survey and determine the reporting standards of animal studies published during three years from 2012 to 2014 in the Indian Journal of Pharmacology (IJP). Material and Methods: All issues of IJP published in the year 2012, 2013 and 2014 were reviewed to identify animal studies. Each animal study was searched for 15 parameters specifically designed to review standards of animal experimentation and research methodology. Observation: All pub...

  4. Long Pentraxin 3: Experimental and Clinical Relevance in Cardiovascular Diseases

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    Fabrizia Bonacina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pentraxin 3 (PTX3 is an essential component of the humoral arm of innate immunity and belongs, together with the C-reactive protein (CRP and other acute phase proteins, to the pentraxins' superfamily: soluble, multifunctional, pattern recognition proteins. Pentraxins share a common C-terminal pentraxin domain, which in the case of PTX3 is coupled to an unrelated long N-terminal domain. PTX3 in humans, like CRP, correlates with surrogate markers of atherosclerosis and is independently associated with the risk of developing vascular events. Studies addressing the potential physiopathological role of CRP in the cardiovascular system were so far inconclusive and have been limited by the fact that the sequence and regulation have not been conserved during evolution between mouse and man. On the contrary, the conservation of sequence, gene organization, and regulation of PTX3 supports the translation of animal model findings in humans. While PTX3 deficiency is associated with increased inflammation, cardiac damage, and atherosclerosis, the overexpression limits carotid restenosis after angioplasty. These observations point to a cardiovascular protective effect of PTX3 potentially associated with the ability of tuning inflammation and favor the hypothesis that the increased levels of PTX3 in subjects with cardiovascular diseases may reflect a protective physiological mechanism, which correlates with the immunoinflammatory response observed in several cardiovascular disorders.

  5. The rat - Cardiovascular pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Sotomayor-Herazo Aristides; Mendoza-Goez Luis

    2012-01-01

    LA RATA:El Doctor Arístides Sotomayor Herazo, insigneespecialista en Medicina Interna y Cardiólogo, mehizo recordar en muchos de los episodios de estanovela, el signo trágico del que no pudo escaparEdipo. Si hoy existiese Sófocles, seguramente sehubiese impresionado, y tal vez le hubiese gustadocompartir la ocurrencia de la fecunda imaginaciónrealista de Arístides, no del hijo de Lisímaco,estratega militar de la batalla de Maratón de laantigua Grecia en el 409 a. C, sino del “Ari” de hoy,así ...

  6. Role of the dysfunctional ryanodine receptor - Na(+)-Ca(2+)exchanger axis in progression of cardiovascular diseases: What we can learn from pharmacological studies?

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    Acsai, Károly; Ördög, Balázs; Varró, András; Nánási, Péter P

    2016-05-15

    Abnormal Ca(2+)homeostasis is often associated with chronic cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, heart failure or cardiac arrhythmias, and typically contributes to the basic ethiology of the disease. Pharmacological targeting of cardiac Ca(2+)handling has great therapeutic potential offering invaluable options for the prevention, slowing down the progression or suppression of the harmful outcomes like life threatening cardiac arrhythmias. In this review we outline the existing knowledge on the involvement of malfunction of the ryanodine receptor and the Na(+)-Ca(2+)exchanger in disturbances of Ca(2+)homeostasis and discuss important proof of concept pharmacological studies targeting these mechanisms in context of hypertension, heart failure, atrial fibrillation and ventricular arrhythmias. We emphasize the promising results of preclinical studies underpinning the potential benefits of the therapeutic strategies based on ryanodine receptor or Na(+)-Ca(2+)exchanger inhibition. PMID:26970182

  7. An Experimental Clinical Science Fellowship in Cardiovascular-Renal

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    Chasis, Herbert; Campbell, Charles I.

    1974-01-01

    Describes the New York Heart Association's experimental program aimed at evaluating a method of developing physicians disciplined by research and competent both as teachers and in the care of patients (clinical scientists). (Author)

  8. The effect of a comprehensive lifestyle intervention on cardiovascular risk factors in pharmacologically treated patients with stable cardiovascular disease compared to usual care: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJzelenberg Wilhelmina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The additional benefit of lifestyle interventions in patients receiving cardioprotective drug treatment to improve cardiovascular risk profile is not fully established. The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of a target-driven multidisciplinary structured lifestyle intervention programme of 6 months duration aimed at maximum reduction of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD compared with usual care. Methods A single centre, two arm, parallel group randomised controlled trial was performed. Patients with stable established CVD and at least one lifestyle-related risk factor were recruited from the vascular and cardiology outpatient departments of the university hospital. Blocked randomisation was used to allocate patients to the intervention (n = 71 or control group (n = 75 using an on-site computer system combined with allocations in computer-generated tables of random numbers kept in a locked computer file. The intervention group received the comprehensive lifestyle intervention offered in a specialised outpatient clinic in addition to usual care. The control group continued to receive usual care. Outcome measures were the lifestyle-related cardiovascular risk factors: smoking, physical activity, physical fitness, diet, blood pressure, plasma total/HDL/LDL cholesterol concentrations, BMI, waist circumference, and changes in medication. Results The intervention led to increased physical activity/fitness levels and an improved cardiovascular risk factor profile (reduced BMI and waist circumference. In this setting, cardiovascular risk management for blood pressure and lipid levels by prophylactic treatment for CVD in usual care was already close to optimal as reflected in baseline levels. There was no significant improvement in any other risk factor. Conclusions Even in CVD patients receiving good clinical care and using cardioprotective drug treatment, a comprehensive

  9. UNANI DRUGS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES: A REVIEW ON PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES ON ARJUN AND ZAFRAN

    OpenAIRE

    Rabbani Syed Arman; Ali Syed Mahtab

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death and disability in the world. They have emerged as a major health threat in develop¬ing countries contrary to the prior belief that they were confined primarily to industrialized nations. The global burden of disease due to cardiovascular diseases is escalating, principally due to a sharp rise in the developing countries which are experiencing rapid health transition. An estimated 17.3 million people died from CVDs in 2008 and over ...

  10. Effects of some pharmacological agents on the survival of unipedicled venous flaps: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askar, I; Saray, A; Gurlek, A; Sevin, K; Sabuncuoglu, B T

    2001-01-01

    -Wallis ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U-test (P 0.05). We concluded that all pharmacological agents used in the experimental groups succeeded in increasing the survival of unipedicled venous flaps. Survival of the unipedicled venous flap was higher in venous flaps than that of composite graft, clearly showing the importance of the venous pedicle. PMID:11757060

  11. Does rosmarinic acid underestimate as an experimental cardiovascular drug? Seria o ácido rosmarínico subestimado como droga cardiovascular experimental?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Garros Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The rationale of the present review is to analize the activity of Rosmarinus officinalis in the the cardiovascular system METHODS: A MEDLINE database search (from January 1970 to December 2011 using only rosmarinic acid as searched term. RESULTS: The references search revealed 509 references about rosmarinic acid in 40 years (the first reference is from 1970. There is a powerful prevalence of antioxidant and cancer studies. Other diseases are few cited, as inflammation, brain (Alzheimer and Parkinson disease and, memory; allergy; diabetes; atherosclerosis, and; hypertension. It is necessary to consider the complete absence of studies on coronary artery disease, myocardial ischemia, heart failure or ischemia/reperfusion injury. CONCLUSION: Rosmarinic acid is underestimated as an experimental cardiovascular drug and deserves more attention.OBJETIVO: A justificativa da revisão é analisar a atividade de Rosmarinus officinalis no sistema cardiovascular MÉTODOS: Uma busca de banco de dados MEDLINE (de janeiro de 1970 a dezembro de 2011, utilizando apenas o ácido rosmarínico como termo pesquisado. RESULTADOS: A busca referências revelou 509 referências sobre o ácido rosmarínico em 40 anos (a primeira referência é de 1970. Há uma prevalência poderoso antioxidante e estudos do câncer. Outras doenças são citados alguns, como o cérebro, inflamação (de Alzheimer e doença de Parkinson e, a memória, hipertensão, alergia, diabetes, aterosclerose, e. É necessário ter em conta a ausência completa de estudos sobre a doença de artéria coronária, isquemia do miocárdio, insuficiência cardíaca ou isquemia / lesão de reperfusão. CONCLUSÃO: O ácido rosmarínico é subestimado como uma droga experimental cardiovascular e merece mais atenção.

  12. Tissue Pharmacology of Da-Cheng-Qi Decoction in Experimental Acute Pancreatitis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianlin Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The Chinese herbal medicine Da-Cheng-Qi Decoction (DCQD can ameliorate the severity of acute pancreatitis (AP. However, the potential pharmacological mechanism remains unclear. This study explored the potential effective components and the pharmacokinetic characteristics of DCQD in target tissue in experimental acute pancreatitis in rats. Methods. Acute pancreatitis-like symptoms were first induced in rats and then they were given different doses of DCQD (6 g/kg, 12 g/kg, and 24 g/kg body weight orally. Tissue drug concentration, tissue pathological score, and inflammatory mediators in pancreas, intestine, and lung tissues of rats were examined after 24 hours, respectively. Results. Major components of DCQD could be found in target tissues and their concentrations increased in conjunction with the intake dose of DCQD. The high-dose compounds showed maximal effect on altering levels of anti-inflammatory (interleukin-4 and interleukin-10 and proinflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-6 and ameliorating the pathological damage in target tissues P<0.05. Conclusions. DCQD could alleviate pancreatic, intestinal, and lung injury by altering levels of inflammatory cytokines in AP rats with tissue distribution of its components.

  13. UNANI DRUGS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES: A REVIEW ON PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES ON ARJUN AND ZAFRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabbani Syed Arman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are the leading cause of death and disability in the world. They have emerged as a major health threat in develop¬ing countries contrary to the prior belief that they were confined primarily to industrialized nations. The global burden of disease due to cardiovascular diseases is escalating, principally due to a sharp rise in the developing countries which are experiencing rapid health transition. An estimated 17.3 million people died from CVDs in 2008 and over 80% of CVD deaths take place in low and middle income countries. By 2030, almost 23.6 million people will die from CVDs. Therefore, finding ways to reduce the mortality of cardiovascular disease remains an important public health goal. Traditional Medicines have been an integral part of the healthcare system since time immemorial. WHO reports indicate that around eighty percent of the global population still relies on botanical drugs and several herbal medicines have advanced to clinical use in modern times. Unani occupies an important place in the rich traditional heritage of indigenous systems of medicine in India and contributes significantly to the health care. The core of treatment in Unani System of Medicine is based on drugs of herbal, mineral and animal origin. The ancient classical literature of Unani has mention of numerous drugs possessing cardioprotective and cardiotonic activity, Arjun (Terminalia arjuna and Zafran (Crocus sativus are two of them. The Unani physicians have been using these drugs successfully since ages and this is possible only by inherent quality and safety standards specified in the system.With the advent of new techniques and recent upsurge towards scientific exploration of traditional medicines, empirical data substantiating their safety and efficacy has been generated and had led to better understanding of their role to prevent and cure diseases. The aim of this paper is to review and highlight the work done on Arjun

  14. Incompatibility of water soluble contrast media and intravascular pharmacologic agents: experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the development of low osmolar and nonionic contrast media in clinical practice, radiologists have enjoyed increased clinical application along with other advantages such as improvement of patient comfort and safety. Recently, radiologists have introduced many intravascular pharmacologic agents to improve diagnostic quality and patient safety. Shortly after the introduction of these agents, however, it was observed that a precipitate results when a certain pharmacologic agent is mixed with a low osmolar contrast media. These observations have prompted testing of several other drugs used for incompatibility with contrast media. To verify these reports and to investigate other medications not previously tested, the authors analyzed mixtures of contrast agents and medications in vitro and observed them for visible precipitates after operating the high-speed centrifuge. The results were as fallows: The contrast media that produced incompatibilities with some pharmacologic agents were ioxaglate, diatrizote, and iothalamate in the order of frequency. The contrast media that produced no precipitate were iopromide and ioxithalamate. The pharmacologic agents that produced precipitate with some contrast media were Papaverine, Benadryl, Protamine, Cimetidine, Regitin, and Gentamicin. Therefore, we recommend that caution should be taken to recognize incompatibilities and avoid them when intravascular pharmacologic agents of any kind may be incompatible

  15. Abstracts of the 9. Brazilian Congress of Biophysics, 2. Brazilian Congress of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics and 19. Brazilian Congress of Physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abstracts about biophysics, pharmacology, experimental therapeutics and physiology are presented. The use of radioisotopes in radioassays involve topics like biophysics and renal physiology; central nervous system; endocrinology; animal and comparative physiology; general physiology, digestion and nutrition; general pharmacology. (M.A.C.)

  16. A novel advanced glycation endproducts breaker restores cardiovascular dysfunctions in experimental diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GangCHENG; Li-liWANG; Hong-yingLIU; HaoCUI; Ying-linCAO; SongLI

    2005-01-01

    AIM The formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) on connective tissue and matrix components leads to increases in collagen crosslinkingthat contributes to aortic and myocardial stiffness in normal aging and which occurs at an accelerated rate in diabetes. In this study, we examined the effects of a novel AGEs breaker, C36, on cardiovascular dysfunctions in experimental diabetic rats. METHODS and RESULTS Male Wiatar rats were made diabetic by i.p. injection of 70mg/kg streptozotocin. After 12 weeks of diabetes, the animals were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=8-11),

  17. An experimental ovine Theileriosis: The effect of Theileria lestoquardi infection on cardiovascular system in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghfoori, Saeed; Razmi, Gholam Reza; Mohri, Mehrdad; Razavizadeh, Ali Reza Taghavi; Movassaghi, Ahmad Reza

    2016-09-01

    The malignant ovine theileriosis is caused by Theileria lestoquardi, which is highly pathogenic in sheep. Theileriosis involves different organs in ruminants, but the effect of the disease on the cardiovascular system is unclear. To understand the pathogenesis of T. lestoquardi on the cardiovascular system, Baluchi breed sheep were infected with the mentioned parasite by releasing unfed adults of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, which were infected with T. lestoquardi. The infected sheep were clinically examined on days 0, 2, 5, 7, 10, 12, 14, 17, and 21, and the blood samples were collected for biochemical parameters measurement. At termination of the experiment, the infected sheep were euthanized and pathological examinations of heart tissue were conducted. During experimental infection of sheep with T. lestoquardi, activities of cardiac troponin I (cTnI), lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase, were significantly increased (P˂0.05), while a conspicuous decrease (P˂0.05) was observed in creatine phosphokinase activities. Alterations made in biochemical factors almost coincided with the presence of piroplasm in the blood and schizont in lymph nodes. Maximum and minimum of parasitemia in the sheep stood between 3.3% and 0.28%, respectively. In addition, electrocardiography revealed sinus tachycardia, sinus arrhythmia, sino-atrial block and ST-elevation, atrial premature beat, and alteration in QRS and in T waves' amplitude. Heart histopathological examination showed hyperemia, infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells into interstitial tissue, endocarditis, and focal necrosis of cardiac muscle cells. In addition, in one of the sheep, definite occurrence of infarction was observed. The results indicate that T. lestoquardi infection has devastating pathological impacts on the cardiovascular system of sheep. Furthermore, measurement of the cTnI amount is a useful biochemical factor for diagnosis and for better understanding of the severity and

  18. Overview of experimental and conventional pharmacological approaches in the treatment of sleep and wake disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renger, John J

    2008-01-01

    The fundamental purpose of sleep remains one of the most compelling questions yet to be answered in the area of neuroscience, if not all of biology. A pervasive behavior among members of the animal kingdom, the functional necessity of engaging regularly in sleep is best demonstrated by showing that failing to do so leads to a broad repertoire of pathological outcomes including cognitive, immunological, hormonal, and metabolic outcomes, among others. Indeed, an absolute requirement for sleep has been shown in studies that have demonstrated that continuous total deprivation of sleep for as short a period as 15 days is generally lethal in some species. The most common clinical sleep disorder, insomnia, is both a principal disease (primary insomnia) as well as a co-morbidity of a large number of other ostensibly unrelated diseases including chronic pain, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and depression. From a treatment perspective, restoring normal healthy sleep delivers subsequent benefits in waking cognitive function and mood with the potential for beneficial therapeutic impact on daily functioning across multiple diseases for which restorative healthy sleep is compromised. Our remarkable escalation in understanding the anatomy and physiology of sleep/wake control mechanisms provides new opportunities to modify the neurobiology of sleep and wake-related behaviors in novel and exciting ways. In parallel, expansion of sleep research into novel interfaces between sleep-wake biology and disease states is revealing additional extensive implications of lost sleep. Current investigational and conventional pharmacological approaches for the treatment of sleep and wake disorders are discussed based on their mechanism of action within the CNS and their effect on sleep and wake. This review of recent sleep biology and sleep pharmacology peers into the future of sleep therapeutics to highlight both mechanistic safety and functional outcomes as key for differentiating

  19. Does rosmarinic acid underestimate as an experimental cardiovascular drug? Seria o ácido rosmarínico subestimado como droga cardiovascular experimental?

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Garros Ferreira; Andrea Carla Celotto; Verena Kise Capellini; Agnes Afrodite Sumarelli Albuquerque; Tales Rubens de Nadai; Marco Tulio Menezes de Carvalho; Paulo Roberto Barbosa Evora

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: The rationale of the present review is to analize the activity of Rosmarinus officinalis in the the cardiovascular system METHODS: A MEDLINE database search (from January 1970 to December 2011) using only rosmarinic acid as searched term. RESULTS: The references search revealed 509 references about rosmarinic acid in 40 years (the first reference is from 1970). There is a powerful prevalence of antioxidant and cancer studies. Other diseases are few cited, as inflammation, brain (Alzh...

  20. The matching quality of experimental and control interventions in blinded pharmacological randomised clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bello, Segun; Wei, Maoling; Hilden, Jørgen;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blinding is a pivotal method to avoid bias in randomised clinical trials. In blinded drug trials, experimental and control interventions are often designed to be matched, i.e. to appear indistinguishable. It is unknown how often matching procedures are inadequate, so we decided to sys...

  1. Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology of Andrographis paniculata and Its Major Bioactive Phytoconstituent Andrographolide

    OpenAIRE

    Thanasekaran Jayakumar; Cheng-Ying Hsieh; Jie-Jen Lee; Joen-Rong Sheu

    2013-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F) Nees, generally known as “king of bitters,” is an herbaceous plant in the family Acanthaceae. In China, India, Thailand, and Malaysia, this plant has been widely used for treating sore throat, flu, and upper respiratory tract infections. Andrographolide, a major bioactive chemical constituent of the plant, has shown anticancer potential in various investigations. Andrographolide and its derivatives have anti-inflammatory effects in experimental models asthma,...

  2. Possibilities of pharmacologic correction of cognitive disorders in conditions of experimental equivalent of multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nefyodov A.A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of the impact of citicoline, ±-lipoic acid, nicergoline, donepezil and colloidal solution of nano-silver (CSNS on the processes of learning and consolidation of memorable track in the test of the conditional reaction of passive avoidance (CRPA in conditions of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE was conducted. Testing of passive defensive skill was performed on days 12 and 20 after the induction of EAE. To assess the impact of drugs on the inputted information processes the investigated substances were administered intragastrically (CSNS - intraperitoneally once daily in the definite dose from the second to the day 10 after the induction of EAE (latent phase of the disease, and assessing processes of conditional skill preserving, further administration of drugs by the day 20 of the experiment (average duration of EAE was used. A positive effect of citicoline, ±-lipoic acid, nicergoline and donepezil on the input information processes and the ability to prevent accelerated extinction of acquired contingent skill in the conditions of experimental pathology was established. Drugs statistically significantly increased duration of the latent period of CRPA in comparison with a group of active control by 49%, 43%, 39% and 34%, respectively. Here with preparations were characterized by a high coefficient of antiamnesic activity, by the end of the experiment it was recorded at the level of 95% (citicoline, 81% (±-lipoic acid, 76% (nicergoline and 53% (donepezil. It is shown that the ability to prevent development of cognitive impairment in conditions of experimental equivalent of multiple sclerosis decreases in the number of citicoline (500 mg/kg > ±-lipoic acid (50 mg/kg H nicergoline (10 mg/kg > donepezil (10 mg/kg.

  3. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor ameliorates brain stem cardiovascular dysregulation during experimental temporal lobe status epilepticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Yi Tsai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Status epilepticus (SE is an acute, prolonged epileptic crisis with a mortality rate of 20-30%; the underlying mechanism is not completely understood. We assessed the hypothesis that brain stem cardiovascular dysregulation occurs during SE because of oxidative stress in rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM, a key nucleus of the baroreflex loop; to be ameliorated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF via an antioxidant action. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a clinically relevant experimental model of temporal lobe SE (TLSE using Sprague-Dawley rats, sustained hippocampal seizure activity was accompanied by progressive hypotension that was preceded by a reduction in baroreflex-mediated sympathetic vasomotor tone; heart rate and baroreflex-mediated cardiac responses remained unaltered. Biochemical experiments further showed concurrent augmentation of superoxide anion, phosphorylated p47(phox subunit of NADPH oxidase and mRNA or protein levels of BDNF, tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB, angiotensin AT1 receptor subtype (AT1R, nitric oxide synthase II (NOS II or peroxynitrite in RVLM. Whereas pretreatment by microinjection bilaterally into RVLM of a superoxide dismutase mimetic (tempol, a specific antagonist of NADPH oxidase (apocynin or an AT1R antagonist (losartan blunted significantly the augmented superoxide anion or phosphorylated p47(phox subunit in RVLM, hypotension and the reduced baroreflex-mediated sympathetic vasomotor tone during experimental TLSE, pretreatment with a recombinant human TrkB-Fc fusion protein or an antisense bdnf oligonucleotide significantly potentiated all those events, alongside peroxynitrite. However, none of the pretreatments affected the insignificant changes in heart rate and baroreflex-mediated cardiac responses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that formation of peroxynitrite by a reaction between superoxide anion generated by NADPH oxidase in RVLM on activation by AT1R and NOS II

  4. Pharmacological benefits of selective modulation of cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) in experimental Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayant, Shalini; Sharma, Brij Mohan; Bansal, Rani; Sharma, Bhupesh

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that pervasively affects the population across the world. Currently, there is no effective treatment available for this and existing drugs merely slow the progression of cognitive function decline. Thus, massive effort is required to find an intended therapeutic target to overcome this condition. The present study has been framed to investigate the ameliorative role of selective modulator of cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2), 1-phenylisatin in experimental AD condition. We have induced experimental AD in mice by using two induction models viz., intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of streptozotocin (STZ) and aluminum trichloride (AlCl3)+d-galactose. Morris water maze (MWM) and attentional set shifting test (ASST) were used to assess learning and memory. Hematoxylin-eosin and Congo red staining were used to examine the structural variation in brain. Brain oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substance and glutathione), nitric oxide levels (nitrites/nitrates), acetyl cholinesterase activity, myeloperoxidase and calcium levels were also estimated. i.c.v. STZ as well as AlCl3+d-galactose have impaired spatial and reversal learning with executive functioning, increased brain oxidative and nitrosative stress, cholinergic activity, inflammation and calcium levels. Furthermore, these agents have also enhanced the burden of Aβ plaque in the brain. Treatment with 1-phenylisatin and donepezil attenuated i.c.v. STZ as well as AlCl3+d-galactose induced impairment of learning-memory, brain biochemistry and brain damage. Hence, this study concludes that CB2 receptor modulation can be a potential therapeutic target for the management of AD. PMID:26577751

  5. Space radiation and cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerma, Marjan; Nelson, Gregory A; Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Mao, Xiao-Wen; Koturbash, Igor; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2015-12-26

    Future long-distance space missions will be associated with significant exposures to ionizing radiation, and the health risks of these radiation exposures during manned missions need to be assessed. Recent Earth-based epidemiological studies in survivors of atomic bombs and after occupational and medical low dose radiation exposures have indicated that the cardiovascular system may be more sensitive to ionizing radiation than was previously thought. This has raised the concern of a cardiovascular disease risk from exposure to space radiation during long-distance space travel. Ground-based studies with animal and cell culture models play an important role in estimating health risks from space radiation exposure. Charged particle space radiation has dense ionization characteristics and may induce unique biological responses, appropriate simulation of the space radiation environment and careful consideration of the choice of the experimental model are critical. Recent studies have addressed cardiovascular effects of space radiation using such models and provided first results that aid in estimating cardiovascular disease risk, and several other studies are ongoing. Moreover, astronauts could potentially be administered pharmacological countermeasures against adverse effects of space radiation, and research is focused on the development of such compounds. Because the cardiovascular response to space radiation has not yet been clearly defined, the identification of potential pharmacological countermeasures against cardiovascular effects is still in its infancy. PMID:26730293

  6. Nephroprotective potentials of Citrus aurantium: a prospective pharmacological study on experimental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Naveed; Khan, Mir Azam; Khan, Taous; Ahmad, Waqar

    2014-05-01

    Citrus aurantium is traditionally used in various kidney problems like burning of urine, urinary hesitancy and renal colic. The main objective of the present work was to evaluate the protective role of Citrus aurantium against gentamicin induced renal damage, due to its free radical scavenging properties to present experimental facts for their traditional use. 200 mg/kg/day of ethanolic extract of the plant employed in combination with the toxic doses of gentamicin for twenty-one days. The group GC-au (animals treated with co-administration of Citrus aurantium and gentamicin) protected renal damage expected with gentamicin, assessed by known functional and morphological parameters, significantly different from group G (animals treated with gentamicin). All the renal functioning parameters including; Blood urea nitrogen, Serum creatinine, Serum uric acid, Creatinine clearance, Serum electrolytes, Body weight, Urinary volume, Enzyme excretions, Urinary protein excretions and histological examination was performed for each and every group animals. The plant extract proved to have nephroprotective potentials may because of its known flavonoid contents and antioxidant properties. PMID:24811809

  7. Experimental pharmacological investigation of the antiarthrotic effects of the cartilage and bone marrow extract Rumalon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalbhen, D.A.

    1981-08-05

    On the basis of animal experiments, the authors have developed a model of arthrosis which is compatible in its radiological, macroscopic, biochemical, and histological aspects with the pathophysiology of human arthrosis and has been tried in the testing of the antiarthrotic properties of pharmaceuticals. Biochemically induced gonarthroses of experimental animals were used for studies of the effects of a cartilage and bone marrow extract (Rumalon) and a cartilage extract and its high-molecular component DAK-16 on the frequency and progression of degenerative joint diseases. As test parameters, measurements of the articular space, X-ray findings, and macroscopic findings were quantitatively evaluated. The animal experiments show that the inhibitive effects of steroidal and nonsteroidal antirheumatics on the synthesis of the cartilage matrix can be prevented or reduced by simultaneous administration of chondroprotective pharmaceuticals; this may be important on the clinical sector. This antagonism between antiphlogistic agents and Rumalon, which has been observed also in fibroblast cultures and wound healing experiments, is of interest especially for the treatment of activated arthroses.

  8. Experimental pharmacological investigation of the antiarthrotic effects of the cartilage and bone marrow extract Rumalon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of animal experiments, the authors have developed a model of arthrosis which is compatible in its radiological, macroscopic, biochemical, and histological aspects with the pathophysiology of human arthrosis and has been tried in the testing of the antiarthrotic properties of pharmaceuticals. Biochemically induced gonarthroses of experimental animals were used for studies of the effects of a cartilage and bone marrow extract (Rumalon) and a cartilage extract and its high-molecular component DAK-16 on the frequency and progression of degenerative joint diseases. As test parameters, measurements of the articular space, X-ray findings, and macroscopic findings were quantitatively evaluated. The animal experiments show that the inhibitive effects of steroidal and nonsteroidal antirheumatics on the synthesis of the cartilage matrix can be prevented or reduced by simultaneous administration of chondroprotective pharmaceuticals; this may be important on the clinical sector. This antagonism between antiphlogistic agents and Rumalon, which has been observed also in fibroblast cultures and wound healing experiments, is of interest especially for the treatment of activated arthroses. (orig./MG)

  9. C16, a novel advanced glycation endproduct breaker, restores cardiovascular dysfunction in experimental diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang CHENG; Li-li WANG; Wen-sheng QU; Long LONG; Hao CUI; Hong-ying LIU; Ying-lin CAO; Song LI

    2005-01-01

    Aim: Advanced glycation endproducts (AGE) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications, including diabetic cardiovascular dysfunction.3-[2-(4-Bromo-phenyl)- 1-methyl-2-oxo-ethyl]-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-benzothiazol-3-ium bromide (C16), a novel AGE breaker, was investigated for its effects on the development of cardiovascular disease in diabetic rats. Methods: Rats that had streptozotocin-induced diabetes for 12 weeks were divided into groups receiving C16 or vehicle by gavage. Results: In hemodynamic studies of the left ventricle,C16 treatment (25 or 50 mg/kg) for 4 weeks resulted in a significant increase in left ventricular systolic pressure, +dp/dtmax, and -dp/dtmax as compared with vehicletreated diabetic rats. Furthermore, in hemodynamic studies of the cardiovascular system, C16 (12.5, 25, or 50 mg/kg) treatment for 4 weeks resulted in a dosedependent and significant increase in cardiac output, a reduction of total peripheral resistance, and an increase in systemic arterial compliance when compared with vehicle-treated diabetic rats. Biochemical studies showed that C16 treatment also resulted in a significant decrease in immunoglobulin G-red blood cell surface crosslink content and an increase in collagen solubility. Morphological and immunohistochemical examinations indicated that C 16 was able to prevent increases of the collagen type Ⅲ/Ⅰ ratio in the aorta and decrease the accumulation of AGE in the aorta. Conclusion: C16 has the ability to reduce AGE accumulation in tissues in vivo, and can restore diabetes-associated cardiovascular disorders in rats. This provides a potential therapeutic approach for cardiovascular disease associated with diabetes and aging in humans.

  10. Protective Effects of Panax Notoginseng Saponins on Cardiovascular Diseases: A Comprehensive Overview of Experimental Studies

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) are one of the most important compounds derived from roots of the herb Panax notoginseng which are traditionally used as a hemostatic medicine to control internal and external bleeding in China for thousands of years. To date, at least twenty saponins were identified and some of them including notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rb1, and ginsenoside Rg1 were researched frequently in the area of cardiovascular protection. However, the protective effects of PNS on c...

  11. Pitavastatin – a new inhibitor of the HMG-CoA reductase: peculiarities of clinical pharmacology and perspectives of its usage in treatment of cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzyak G.V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular mortality makes up 66.3 % of the total mortality in Ukraine. Myocardial infarction, stroke, atherosclerosis of peripheral arteries are the diseases caused by atherosclerosis and are prevalent in the mortality structure. One of the most effective means of successful prevention of cardiovascular disease are drugs that reduce the content of atherogenic lipids in the blood. Statins are the first line drugs for the treatment of patients with dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis in accordance with national and international guidelines. The article presents the features of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, results of clinical trials and data on the efficacy and safety of a new inhibitor of the HMG-CoA reductase – pitavastatin (Livazo © (Recordati, Italy. Data from several multicenter randomized studies indicate that pitavastatin significantly reduces the level of cholesterol low-density lipoproteins and triglycerides, significantly increases the level of cholesterol high-density lipoproteins after 12 weeks of observation, and contributes to a significant regression of atherosclerotic plaques. It was shown that pitavastatin has a high level of safety and is well tolerated regardless of patients' age and racial origin. Pitavastatin is a new effective inhibitor of HMG -CoA reductase, which has been successfully used in many countries for the dyslipidemia treatment in patients with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, kidney diseases and other comorbid conditions.

  12. Efeitos cardiovasculares de duas doses de dexmedetomidina: estudo experimental em cães

    OpenAIRE

    Villela Nivaldo Ribeiro; Nascimento Júnior Paulo do; Carvalho Lídia Raquel de

    2003-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A dexmedetomidina é um novo agonista alfa2-adrenérgico, havendo, atualmente, crescente interesse no seu uso em Anestesiologia, por reduzir o consumo de anestésicos e promover estabilidade hemodinâmica. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi estudar os efeitos cardiovasculares da dexmedetomidina no cão anestesiado, empregando-se duas doses distintas e semelhantes àquelas utilizadas em Anestesiologia. MÉTODO: 36 cães adultos anestesiados com propofol, fentanil e isoflurano for...

  13. A new experimental approach in endothelium-dependent pharmacological investigations on isolated porcine coronary arteries mounted for impedance planimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankó, László B; Mikkelsen, Erich O; Simonsen, Ulf

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the balloon-based impedance planimetry technique could be a useful tool in endothelium-dependent investigations. Porcine large coronary arteries contracted with prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α, 10 μM) did not relax to bradykinin (0.1 nM–0.1 μM), but did relax to sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 10 μM). However, after eversion of the segments, bradykinin induced relaxations with pD2 values and maximal responses of 8.78±0.09 and 75±2% (n=6), respectively. Incubation with captopril (1 μM) did not reveal a relaxation to bradykinin in the normal vessel configuration and had no influence on the concentration-relaxation relationship in everted segments. Lowering the luminal pressure in contracted segments from 131±5 mmHg (isometric, n=5) to 60 mmHg (isobaric, n=5) did not facilitate the action of bradykinin. Eversion of segments did not influence the concentration-response relationship for K+ (4.7–125 mM), PGF2α (0.3–30 μM), and SNP (30 nM–30 μM), although the time-courses of responses were faster when the agents were added from the intimal compared to the adventitial side of the preparation. In the same everted segment contracted with PGF2α, the concentration-response relationship for bradykinin was not different under isometric and isobaric conditions. These results indicate that, (1) reduced endothelium-dependent relaxations to adventitially administered substances can be ascribed to a diffusion barrier in the vessel wall, while enzymatic degradation, luminal pressure and precontractile responses seem not to play a role, (2) impedance planimetry applied to everted cylindrical segments could be a useful experimental approach in pharmacological studies of endothelium-dependent responses under isobaric and isometric conditions. PMID:10498848

  14. Experimenter Effects on Cardiovascular Reactivity and Task Performance during Mental Stress Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegwarth, Nicole; Larkin, Kevin T.; Kemmner, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Experimenter effects have long been hypothesized to influence participants' responses to mental stress testing. To explore the influence of experimenter warmth on responses to two mental stress tasks (mental arithmetic, mirror tracing), 32 young women participated in a single 45-min experimental session. Participants were randomized into warm…

  15. Experimental Studies of the Ability of Pharmacopoeial Excipients to Release Pharmacologically Active Substances when Developing Dental Dressing

    OpenAIRE

    Haioshko, O. B.

    2016-01-01

    The biopharmaceutical studies have undoubtedly proven that pharmacopoeial excipients based on polyethylene oxide, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and apple pectin can release pharmacologically active substances and produce pharmacopoeial excipients in the form of ointments and pastes. The dynamics of diffusion of biologically active substances in agar gel within 6 hours of the experiment was practically the same in all samples. The least significant changes in samples consistency and preservat...

  16. Statistics in Pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Spina, D.

    2007-01-01

    Statistics is an important tool in pharmacological research that is used to summarize (descriptive statistics) experimental data in terms of central tendency (mean or median) and variance (standard deviation, standard error of the mean, confidence interval or range) but more importantly it enables us to conduct hypothesis testing. This is of particular importance when attempting to determine whether the pharmacological effect of one drug is superior to another which clearly has implications f...

  17. Pharmacology of Marihuana (Cannabis sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maickel, Roger P.

    1973-01-01

    A detailed discussion of marihuana (Cannabis sativa) providing the modes of use, history, chemistry, and physiologic properties of the drug. Cites research results relating to the pharmacologic effects of marihuana. These effects are categorized into five areas: behavioral, cardiovascular-respiratory, central nervous system, toxicity-toxicology,…

  18. Efeitos cardiovasculares de duas doses de dexmedetomidina: estudo experimental em cães

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villela Nivaldo Ribeiro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A dexmedetomidina é um novo agonista alfa2-adrenérgico, havendo, atualmente, crescente interesse no seu uso em Anestesiologia, por reduzir o consumo de anestésicos e promover estabilidade hemodinâmica. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi estudar os efeitos cardiovasculares da dexmedetomidina no cão anestesiado, empregando-se duas doses distintas e semelhantes àquelas utilizadas em Anestesiologia. MÉTODO: 36 cães adultos anestesiados com propofol, fentanil e isoflurano foram divididos em três grupos: G1, injeção de 20 ml de solução de cloreto de sódio a 0,9%, em 10 minutos, seguida de injeção de 20 ml da mesma solução, em 1 hora; G2, injeção de 20 ml de solução de cloreto de sódio a 0,9% contendo dexmedetomidina (1 µg.kg-1, em 10 minutos, seguida de injeção de 20 ml da mesma solução, em 1 hora e G3, injeção de 20 ml de solução de cloreto de sódio a 0,9% contendo dexmedetomidina (2 µg.kg-1 em 10 minutos, seguida de injeção de 20 ml da mesma solução, em 1 hora. Estudaram-se os atributos cardiovasculares em quatro momentos: M1, controle; M2, após a injeção inicial de 20 ml da solução em estudo, em 10 minutos, coincidindo com o início da injeção da mesma solução, em 1 hora; M3, 60 minutos após M2 e M4, 60 minutos após M3. RESULTADOS: A freqüência cardíaca (FC diminuiu no G2, no M2, retornando aos valores basais no M3, enquanto no G3 diminuiu no M2, mantendo-se baixa durante todo o experimento. No G1 houve aumento progressivo da FC. Em nenhum grupo houve alteração da pressão arterial. A resistência vascular sistêmica (RVS manteve-se estável no G2 e G3, enquanto no G1 apresentou redução em M2, mantendo-se baixa ao longo do experimento. O índice cardíaco (IC não apresentou alterações significativas no G2 e G3, mas aumentou progressivamente no G1. CONCLUSÕES: Conclui-se que no cão, nas condições experimentais empregadas, a dexmedetomidina diminui a FC de forma dose

  19. Test of the usefulness of a paradigm to identify potential cardiovascular liabilities of four test articles with varying pharmacological properties in anesthetized guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijtawornrat, Anusak; Ueyama, Yukie; del Rio, Carlos; Sawangkoon, Suwanakiet; Buranakarl, Chollada; Chaiyabutr, Narongsak; Hamlin, Robert L

    2014-02-01

    The evaluation of proarrhythmic and hemodynamic liabilities for new compounds remains a major concern of preclinical safety assessment paradigms. Contrastingly, albeit functional liabilities can also translate to clinical morbidity and mortality, lesser preclinical efforts are focused on the evaluation of drug-induced changes in inotrope and lusitrope, particularly in the setting of concomitant hemodynamic/arrhythmic liabilities. This study aimed to establish the feasibility of an anesthetized guinea pig preparation to assess functional liabilities in the setting of simultaneous drug-induced electrocardiographic/hemodynamic changes, by evaluating the effects of various compounds with known cardiovascular properties on direct and indirect indices of left ventricular function. In short, twenty nine male guinea pigs were instrumented to measure electrocardiograms, systemic arterial pressure, and left ventricular pressure-volume relationships. After baseline measurement, all animals were given intravenous infusions of vehicle and two escalating concentrations of either chromanol 293B (n = 8), milrinone (n = 6), metoprolol (n = 7), or nicorandil (n = 8) for 10 minutes each. In all cases, these compounds produced the expected changes. The slope of preload-recruitable stroke work (PRSW), a pressure-volume derived load independent index, was the most sensitive marker of drug-induced changes in inotropy. Among the indirect functional indices studied, only the "contractility index" (dP/dtmax normalized by the pressure at its occurrence) and the static myocardial compliance (ratio of end diastolic volume and pressure) appeared to be adequate predictors of drug-induced changes in inotropy/lusitropy. Overall, the data confirms that both electrophysiological and mechanical liabilities can be accurately assessed in an anesthetized guinea pig preparation. PMID:24189130

  20. [Some characteristics of metabolism in osteoarticular, cardiovascular, and liver tissues in "experimental osteochondrosis"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniazieva, M V; Kaliman, P A; Tymoshenko, O P

    1995-01-01

    Considerable changes of collagen, glycosaminoglycans and calcium were observed both in vertebral tissues, bone, and in the heart, vessels, liver during development of "experimental osteochondrosis". The results have shown, that desintegration of biochemical processes in different tissues may be one of the factors affecting several diseases in one organism. PMID:8867314

  1. Experimental testing of the system resistance bloodstream component for the simulation line of the cardiovascular system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chlup, Hynek; Pražák, Josef; Kovičková, S.

    Nečtiny : Computational Mechanics 2004, 2004, s. 169-174. ISBN 80-7043-314-0. [Computational mechanics 2004 /20./. Nečtiny (CZ), 08.11.2004-10.11.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/04/1181 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2076919 Keywords : simulation lines * systemresistance bloodstream component * experimental testing Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  2. Remote ischemic conditioning: from experimental observation to clinical application: report from the 8th Biennial Hatter Cardiovascular Institute Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Jack M J; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Crimi, Gabriele; Davidson, Brian; Davidson, Sean M; Dutka, David; Ferdinandy, Peter; Ganske, Rocky; Garcia-Dorado, David; Giricz, Zoltan; Gourine, Alexander V; Heusch, Gerd; Kharbanda, Rajesh; Kleinbongard, Petra; MacAllister, Raymond; McIntyre, Christopher; Meybohm, Patrick; Prunier, Fabrice; Redington, Andrew; Robertson, Nicola J; Suleiman, M Saadeh; Vanezis, Andrew; Walsh, Stewart; Yellon, Derek M; Hausenloy, Derek J

    2015-01-01

    In 1993, Przyklenk and colleagues made the intriguing experimental observation that 'brief ischemia in one vascular bed also protects remote, virgin myocardium from subsequent sustained coronary artery occlusion' and that this effect'... may be mediated by factor(s) activated, produced, or transported throughout the heart during brief ischemia/reperfusion'. This seminal study laid the foundation for the discovery of 'remote ischemic conditioning' (RIC), a phenomenon in which the heart is protected from the detrimental effects of acute ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI), by applying cycles of brief ischemia and reperfusion to an organ or tissue remote from the heart. The concept of RIC quickly evolved to extend beyond the heart, encompassing inter-organ protection against acute IRI. The crucial discovery that the protective RIC stimulus could be applied non-invasively, by simply inflating and deflating a blood pressure cuff placed on the upper arm to induce cycles of brief ischemia and reperfusion, has facilitated the translation of RIC into the clinical setting. Despite intensive investigation over the last 20 years, the underlying mechanisms continue to elude researchers. In the 8th Biennial Hatter Cardiovascular Institute Workshop, recent developments in the field of RIC were discussed with a focus on new insights into the underlying mechanisms, the diversity of non-cardiac protection, new clinical applications, and large outcome studies. The scientific advances made in this field of research highlight the journey that RIC has made from being an intriguing experimental observation to a clinical application with patient benefit. PMID:25449895

  3. A Novel Closed-Chest Porcine Model of Chronic Ischemic Heart Failure Suitable for Experimental Research in Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac pathologies are among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in industrialized countries, with myocardial infarction (MI representing one of the major conditions leading to heart failure (HF. Hitherto, the development of consistent, stable, and reproducible models of closed-chest MI in large animals, meeting the clinical realism of a patient with HF subsequent to chronic ischemic necrosis, has not been successful. We hereby report the design and ensuing application of a novel porcine experimental model of closed-chest chronic ischemia suitable for biomedical research, mimicking post-MI HF. We also emphasize the key procedural steps involved in replicating this unprecedented model, from femoral artery and vein catheterization to MI induction by permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery through superselective deployment of platinum-nylon coils, as well as endomyocardial biopsy sampling for histologic analysis and cell harvesting. Our model could indeed represent a valuable contribution and tool for translational research, providing precious insights to understand and overcome the many hurdles concerning, and currently quenching, the preclinical steps mandatory for the clinical translation of new cardiovascular technologies for personalized HF treatments.

  4. Comparative Evaluation of Enalapril and Losartan in Pharmacological Correction of Experimental Osteoporosis and Fractures of Its Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. R. Rajkumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the experiment on the white Wistar female rats (222 animals, the osteoprotective effect of enalapril and losartan was studied on experimental models of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. It was revealed that in rats after ovariectomy, the endothelial dysfunction of microcirculation vessels of osteal tissue develops, resulting in occurrence of osteoporosis and delay of consolidation of experimental fractures. Enalapril and losartan prevented the reduction of microcirculation in bone, which was reflected in slowing the thinning of bone trabeculae and in preventing the occurrence of these microfractures, as well as increasing quality of experimental fractures healing.

  5. Pharmacological approach to acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Ulrich-Christian; Semb, Synne; Nojgaard, Camilla;

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to summarize the current knowledge regarding pharmacological prevention and treatment of acute pancreatitis (AP) based on experimental animal models and clinical trials. Somatostatin (SS) and octreotide inhibit the exocrine production of pancreatic enzymes and may....... Evidence based pharmacological treatment of AP is limited and studies on the effect of potent anti-inflammatory drugs are warranted....

  6. Comparative Evaluation of Enalapril and Losartan in Pharmacological Correction of Experimental Osteoporosis and Fractures of Its Background

    OpenAIRE

    Rajkumar, D. S. R.; A. V. Faitelson; Gudyrev, O. S.; Dubrovin, G. M.; Pokrovski, M. V.; Ivanov, A. V.

    2013-01-01

    In the experiment on the white Wistar female rats (222 animals), the osteoprotective effect of enalapril and losartan was studied on experimental models of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. It was revealed that in rats after ovariectomy, the endothelial dysfunction of microcirculation vessels of osteal tissue develops, resulting in occurrence of osteoporosis and delay of consolidation of experimental fractures. Enalapril and losartan prevented the reduction of microcirculation in bone,...

  7. Pharmacological attenuation of blood pressure variability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Claude JULIEN

    2005-01-01

    @@ Over the past few years, the research team of Professor Ding-feng SU has reported an impressive quantity of experimental data about the relationships between blood pressure variability (BPV) and end-organ damage, a topic of obvious clinical interest. This research work has been summarized in a paper that appeared in the August issue of the renowned journal Trends in Pharmacological Sciences[1]. The studies by Su et al provide convincing evidence that BPV is an independent cardiovascular risk factor that should be considered as such and, therefore, might become an important target for therapeutic interventions. Besides these exciting perspectives in the prevention and treatment of cardiovasculardiseases, the work by Su et al raises a series of physiological questions.

  8. Overview of safety pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goineau, Sonia; Lemaire, Martine; Froget, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    Safety pharmacology entails the assessment of the potential risks of novel pharmaceuticals for human use. As detailed in the ICH S7A guidelines, safety pharmacology for drug discovery involves a core battery of studies on three vital systems: central nervous (CNS), cardiovascular (CV), and respiratory. Primary CNS studies are aimed at defining compound effects on general behavior, locomotion, neuromuscular coordination, seizure threshold, and vigilance. The primary CV test battery includes an evaluation of proarrhythmic risk using in vitro tests (hERG channel and Purkinje fiber assays) and in vivo measurements in conscious animals via telemetry. Comprehensive cardiac risk assessment also includes full hemodynamic evaluation in a large, anesthetized animal. Basic respiratory function can be examined in conscious animals using whole-body plethysmography. This allows for an assessment of whether the sensitivity to respiratory-depressant effects can be enhanced by exposure to increased CO2 . Other safety pharmacology topics detailed in this unit are the timing of such studies, ethical and animal welfare issues, and statistical evaluation. PMID:24510755

  9. Cardiovascular Actions and Therapeutic Potential of Tetramethylpyrazine (Active Component Isolated from Rhizoma Chuanxiong): Roles and Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ming; Liu, Yue; Shi, Dazhuo

    2016-01-01

    Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), a pharmacologically active component isolated from the rhizome of the Chinese herb Rhizoma Chuanxiong (Chuanxiong), has been clinically used in China and Southeast Asian countries for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) for about fifty years. The pharmacological effects of TMP on the cardiovascular system have attracted great interest. Emerging experimental studies and clinical trials have demonstrated that TMP prevents atherosclerosis as well as ischemia-reperfusion injury. The cardioprotective effects of TMP are mainly related to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, or calcium-homeostasis effects. This review focuses on the roles and mechanisms of action of TMP in the cardiovascular system and provides a novel perspective on TMP's clinical use. PMID:27314011

  10. Efeitos da clonidina nas respostas cardiovasculares ao pinçamento aórtico infra-renal: estudo experimental no cão Efectos de la clonidina en las respuestas cardiovasculares al pinzamiento aórtico infra-renal: estudio experimental en el can Effects of clonidine on cardiovascular responses to infrarenal aortic cross-clamping: experimental study in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Viccário Achôa

    2003-09-01

    dogs were submitted to infrarenal aortic cross-clamping during 45 minutes. Hemodynamic parameters were measured at control (C, 10 (Ao10 and 25 (Ao25 minutes after aortic cross-clamping, and 10 (DAo10 and 25 (DAo25 minutes after aortic unclamping. RESULTS: There were significant differences between groups in heart rate, mean blood pressure and cardiac index (G control > G Clon during aortic cross-clamping. After aortic unclamping there were significant differences between groups in heart rate (G Control > G Clon, and right atrium and pulmonary capillary wedge pressures (G Clon > G Control. During aortic cross-clamping both groups have shown significant increase in right atrium pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, stroke volume index and left ventricular systolic work index, and significant decrease in pulmonary vascular resistance index. There has been significant increase in mean blood pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, cardiac index and right ventricular systolic work index in the G Control. The clonidine group has shown significant heart rate decrease. After aortic unclamping, both groups have shown significant heart rate and mean blood pressure decrease, while right atrium pressure and stroke volume index remained high. Right ventricular systolic work index remained high in the control group, while cardiac index values returned to close to baseline values. In the clonidine group, right atrium pressure, pulmonary wedge pressure and systolic index remained significantly high. CONCLUSIONS: In dogs under our experimental conditions, continuous intravenous clonidine has attenuated cardiovascular responses to infrarenal aortic cross-clamping.

  11. Cardiovascular comorbidity in rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmohamed, Michael T; Heslinga, Maaike; Kitas, George D

    2015-12-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other inflammatory joint diseases (IJDs) have an increased risk of premature death compared with the general population, mainly because of the risk of cardiovascular disease, which is similar in patients with RA and in those with diabetes mellitus. Pathogenic mechanisms and clinical expression of cardiovascular comorbidities vary greatly between different rheumatic diseases, but atherosclerosis seems to be associated with all IJDs. Traditional risk factors such as age, gender, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, smoking, obesity and diabetes mellitus, together with inflammation, are the main contributors to the increased cardiovascular risk in patients with IJDs. Although cardiovascular risk assessment should be part of routine care in such patients, no disease-specific models are currently available for this purpose. The main pillars of cardiovascular risk reduction are pharmacological and nonpharmacological management of cardiovascular risk factors, as well as tight control of disease activity. PMID:26282082

  12. Evaluation of pharmacological activities and assessment of intraocular penetration of an ayurvedic polyherbal eye drop (Itone™ in experimental models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velpandian Thirumurthy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The polyherbal eye drop (Itone™ is a mixture of aqueous distillates of nineteen traditionally used ingredients that sum up to impart potency to the formulation and make it a useful adjunct in various ocular pathologies. However, as there have been no controlled experimental studies accounting to the above claim, therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the polyherbal formulation (PHF for antiangiogenic, anti-inflammatory, anticataract, antioxidant and cytotoxicity in addition to the evaluation of intraocular penetration of PHF in rabbit eyes using LC-MS/MS. Materials and methods Antiangiogenic activity of the PHF was evaluated using in ovo chick chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM assay and in vivo cautery induced corneal neovascularization assay in rats. Anticataract potential was evaluated using steroid induced cataract in developing chick embryos, sodium selenite induced cataract in rat pups and galactose induced cataract in rats. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using di-phenyl picryl hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assay. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated in vitro using inhibition of LTB4 formation in human WBCs and in vivo using carrageenan induced paw edema assay in rats. The cytotoxicity was evaluated against HeLa cancer cell lines using (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Furthermore evaluation of the intraocular penetration of the PHF was carried out in rabbit eyes via aqueous humor paracentesis and further analysis using LC-MS/MS. Results PHF significantly inhibited VEGF induced proliferation of new blood vessels in CAM assay and inhibited the cautery induced corneal neovascularization in rats. Additionally, PHF showed noticeable delay in the progression of cataract in the selenite and galactose induced cataract models whereby the PHF treated lenses were graded for stages II and III respectively. However, the PHF did not show any anticataract activity in

  13. Hypertriglyceridemia and Cardiovascular Diseases: Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Seung Hwan; Nicholls, Stephen J.; Sakuma, Ichiro; Zhao, Dong; Koh, Kwang Kon

    2016-01-01

    Residual cardiovascular risk and failure of high density lipoprotein cholesterol raising treatment have refocused interest on targeting hypertriglyceridemia. Hypertriglyceridemia, triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and remnant cholesterol have demonstrated to be important risk factors for cardiovascular disease; this has been demonstrated in experimental, genetic, and epidemiological studies. Fibrates can reduce cardiovascular event rates with or without statins. High dose omega-3 fatty acids co...

  14. Marine pharmacology in 2003-4: Marine Compounds with Anthelminthic, Antibacterial, Anticoagulant, Antifungal, Anti-inflammatory, Antimalarial, Antiplatelet, Antiprotozoal, Antituberculosis, and Antiviral Activities; affecting the Cardiovascular, Immune and Nervous Systems, and other Miscellaneous Mechanisms of Action

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer, Alejandro M. S.; Rodriguez, Abimael D.; Berlinck, Roberto G. S.; Hamann, Mark T.

    2007-01-01

    The current marine pharmacology review that covers the peer-reviewed literature during 2003 and 2004 is a sequel to the authors' 1998-2002 reviews, and highlights the preclinical pharmacology of 166 marine chemicals derived from a diverse group of marine animals, algae, fungi and bacteria. Anthelminthic, antibacterial, anticoagulant, antifungal, antimalarial, antiplatelet, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis or antiviral activities were reported for 67 marine chemicals. Additionally 45 marine com...

  15. Ocular pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novack, Gary D; Robin, Alan L

    2016-05-01

    Ophthalmic diseases include both those analogous to systemic diseases (eg, inflammation, infection, neuronal degeneration) and not analogous (eg, cataract, myopia). Many anterior segment diseases are treated pharmacologically through eye drops, which have an implied therapeutic index of local therapy. Unlike oral dosage forms administered for systemic diseases, eyedrops require patients not only to adhere to treatment, but to be able to accurately perform-ie, instill drops correctly. Anatomical and physiological barriers make topical delivery to the anterior chamber challenging-in some cases more challenging than absorption through the skin, nasal passages, or gut. Treatment of the posterior segment (eg, vitreous, retina, choroid, and optic nerve) is more challenging due to additional barriers. Recently, intravitreal injections have become a standard of care with biologics for the treatment of macular degeneration and other diseases. Although the eye has esterases, hydroxylases, and transporters, it has relatively little CYP450 enzymes. Because it is challenging to obtain drug concentrations at the target site, ocular clinical pharmacokinetics, and thus pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic interactions, are rarely available. Ophthalmic pharmaceuticals require consideration of solubility, physiological pH, and osmolarity, as well as sterility and stability, which in turn requires optimal pharmaceutics. Although applied locally, ocular medications may be absorbed systemically, which results in morbidity and mortality (eg, systemic hypotension, bronchospasm, and bradycardia). PMID:26360129

  16. Significance of antioxidants in experimental hypertension

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pecháňová, Olga; Zicha, Josef; Kojšová, S.; Jendeková, L.; Sládková, M.; Paulis, L.; Janega, P.; Csizmadiová, Z.; Bernátová, I.; Dobešová, Zdenka; Šimko, F.; Babál, P.; Andriantsitohaina, R.; Kuneš, Jaroslav

    Fyziologický ústav AV ČR, v. v. i.. Roč. 55, č. 3 (2006), 3P-4P ISSN 0862-8408. [Nitric Oxide: Basic Regulations and Pharmacological Interventions. 21.09.2005-24.09.2005, Tucepi] Grant ostatní: VEGA(SK) 2/6148/26; VEGA(SK) 1/3429/06; APVT(SK) 51-027404 Keywords : antioxidants * experimental hypertension Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery

  17. Conditional pharmacology/toxicology V: ambivalent effects of thiocyanate upon the development and the inhibition of experimental arthritis in rats by aurothiomalate (Myocrysin®) and metallic silver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Michael; Butters, Desley; Vernon-Roberts, Barrie

    2013-08-01

    This article discusses the bizarre and contrary effects of thiocyanate, the major detoxication product of hydrogen cyanide inhaled from tobacco smoke or liberated from cyanogenic foods, e.g. cassava. Thiocyanate both (1) promotes inflammatory disease in rats and (2) facilitates the anti-inflammatory action of historic metal therapies based on gold (Au) or silver (Ag) in three models of chronic polyarthritis in rats. Low doses of nanoparticulate metallic silver (NMS) preparations, i.e. zerovalent silver (Ag°) administered orally, suppressed the mycobacterial ('adjuvant')-induced arthritis (MIA) in rats. Similar doses of cationic silver, Ag(I), administered orally as silver oxide or soluble silver salts were inactive. By contrast, NMS only inhibited the development of the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and pristane-induced arthritis (PIA) in rats when thiocyanate was also co-administered in drinking water. These (a) arthritis-selective and (b) thiocyanate-inducible effects of Ag° were also observed in some previous, and now extended, studies with the classic anti-arthritic drug, sodium aurothiomalate (ATM, Myocrisin(®)) and its silver analogue (STM), administered subcutaneously to rats developing the same three forms of polyarthritis. In the absence of either Ag° or ATM, thiocyanate considerably increased the severity of the MIA, CIA and PIA, i.e. acting as a pro-pathogen. Hitherto, thiocyanate was considered relatively harmless. This may not be true in rats/people with immuno-inflammatory stress and concomitant leukocyte activation. Collectively, these findings show how the drug action of a xenobiotic might be determined by the nature (and severity) of the experimental inflammation, as an example of conditional pharmacology. They also suggest that an incipient toxicity, even of normobiotics such as thiocyanate, might likewise be modulated beneficially by well-chosen xenobiotics (drugs, nutritional supplements, etc.), i.e. conditional toxicology (Powanda 1995

  18. 人参皂苷 Rg1对心血管系统和神经系统药理作用的研究进展%Advances in pharmacological effects ofGensenoside Rg1 on The cardiovascular system and The nervous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董艳红; 胡婷婷; 代良萍; 谢晓芳; 彭成

    2016-01-01

    Gensenoside Rg1 is one of the main active principles in ginseng.Modern pharmacological studies show that Gensenoside Rgh1 as many biological activities on many systems of the body,especially for the influence of the cardiovascular system and nervous system widely.Thisarticle through to retrieve nearly 10 years pharmacological research literature of gensenoside Rg1 ,in the two aspects, Results show that gensenoside Rg1 with protecting the myocardial,anti -myocardial ischemia and promoting the regeneration of blood vessel and anti -myocardial hypoxia injury in the cardiovascular system;Against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in the nervous system,nootropic,antioxidant and anti -aging effects in the nervous system.%人参皂苷 Rg1是人参中的重要成分之一。现代药理学研究显示人参皂苷 Rg1在对人体的很多方面具有很强的药理活性,特别是在心血管系统和神经系统。本文通过检索近10年来人参皂苷 Rg1心血管系统和神经系统药理研究文献,综述人参皂苷 Rg1在此两个方面的药理作用,结果表明人参皂苷 Rg1在心血管系统有保护心肌细胞、抗心肌缺血和促血管再生作用;对神经系统有抗脑缺血再灌注损伤、益智、抗神经细胞氧化损伤的作用,为其药物开发提供依据。

  19. Flavonoids and mitochondrial pharmacology: A new paradigm for cardioprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testai, Lara

    2015-08-15

    Acute myocardial ischemia is one of the major causes of illness and of deaths in Western society; therefore the definition of the signaling pathways involved in the cardioprotection represents a challenging goal in order to discover novel pharmacological approaches. In this regard, a number of epidemiologic studies demonstrate a relationship between intake of flavonoid-rich foods and reduction of cardiovascular risk factors and mortality. Moreover, numerous experimental studies have examined flavonoid-induced cardioprotective effects on several animal models of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion. As concerns the mechanisms of action, although the antioxidant effect of flavonoids has been long thought to be a crucial factor accounting for cardioprotection, mitochondrial pathways (ion channels, protein kinases, etc.) are presently emerging as specific pharmacological targets more relevantly involved in the anti-ischemic effects of some flavonoids. Since these pharmacodynamic features seem to be poorly considered, this review examines the mitochondrial role in the cardioprotective mechanisms of some members of this phytochemical class, by describing the biological pathways and reporting an overview of the most important experimental evidence in this field. PMID:26006042

  20. Remote ischemic conditioning: from experimental observation to clinical application: report from the 8th Biennial Hatter Cardiovascular Institute Workshop

    OpenAIRE

    Pickard, J. M.; Bøtker, H. E.; Crimi, G.; Davidson, B; Davidson, S. M.; Dutka, D.; Ferdinandy, P; Ganske, R.; Garcia-Dorado, D.; Giricz, Z; Gourine, A V; Heusch, G; Kharbanda, R.; Kleinbongard, P.; MacAllister, R

    2014-01-01

    In 1993, Przyklenk and colleagues made the intriguing experimental observation that 'brief ischemia in one vascular bed also protects remote, virgin myocardium from subsequent sustained coronary artery occlusion' and that this effect'... may be mediated by factor(s) activated, produced, or transported throughout the heart during brief ischemia/reperfusion'. This seminal study laid the foundation for the discovery of 'remote ischemic conditioning' (RIC), a phenomenon in which the heart is prot...

  1. The Effect of Music on Anxiety and Cardiovascular Indices in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft: A Randomized Controlled Trial

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    Heidari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background The instability of cardiovascular indices and anxiety disorders are common among patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG and could interfere with their recovery. Therefore, improving the cardiovascular indices and anxiety is essential. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the effect of music therapy on anxiety and cardiovascular indices in patients undergoing CABG. Patients and Methods In this randomized controlled trial, 60 patients hospitalized in the cardiovascular surgical intensive care unit of Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Qom city, Iran, in 2013 were selected using a consecutive sampling method and randomly allocated into the experimental and control groups. In the experimental group, patients received 30 minutes of light music, whereas in the control group, patients had 30 minutes of rest in bed. The cardiovascular indices and anxiety were measured immediately before, immediately after and half an hour after the study. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test and repeated measures analysis of variance. Results Compared to the immediately before intervention, the mean anxiety scores immediately after and 30 minutes after the intervention were significantly lower in the experimental group (P 0.05. Conclusions Music therapy is effective in decreasing anxiety among patients undergoing CABG. However, the intervention was not effective on cardiovascular indices. Music can effectively be used as a non-pharmacological method to manage anxiety after CABG.

  2. Principles of Safety Pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Pugsley, M. K.; Authier, S; Curtis, M J

    2008-01-01

    Safety Pharmacology is a rapidly developing discipline that uses the basic principles of pharmacology in a regulatory-driven process to generate data to inform risk/benefit assessment. The aim of Safety Pharmacology is to characterize the pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic (PK/PD) relationship of a drug's adverse effects using continuously evolving methodology. Unlike toxicology, Safety Pharmacology includes within its remit a regulatory requirement to predict the risk of rare lethal events. Thi...

  3. Cardiovascular System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    2011189 Vulnerable plaque burden post pharmaco-logical and interventional treatments in patients with acute coronary syndrome and borderline lesion: intravascular ultrasound follow up results. YU Danqing (余丹青)

  4. Methodological innovations expand the safety pharmacology horizon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugsley, M K; Curtis, M J

    2012-09-01

    Almost uniquely in pharmacology, drug safety assessment is driven by the need for elaboration and validation of methods for detecting drug actions. This is the 9th consecutive year that the Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods (JPTM) has published themed issues arising from the annual meeting of the Safety Pharmacology Society (SPS). The SPS is now past its 10th year as a distinct (from pharmacology to toxicology) discipline that integrates safety pharmacologists from industry with those in academia and the various global regulatory authorities. The themes of the 2011 meeting were (i) the bridging of safety assessment of a new chemical entity (NCE) between all the parties involved, (ii) applied technologies and (iii) translation. This issue of JPTM reflects these themes. The content is informed by the regulatory guidance documents (S7A and S7B) that apply prior to first in human (FIH) studies, which emphasize the importance of seeking model validation. The manuscripts encompass a broad spectrum of safety pharmacology topics including application of state-of-the-art techniques for study conduct and data processing and evaluation. This includes some exciting novel integrated core battery study designs, refinements in hemodynamic assessment, arrhythmia analysis algorithms, and additionally an overview of safety immunopharmacology, and a brief survey discussing similarities and differences in business models that pharmaceutical companies employ in safety pharmacology, together with SPS recommendations on 'best practice' for the conduct of a non-clinical cardiovascular assessment of a NCE. PMID:22617368

  5. Efeitos do halotano, isoflurano e sevoflurano nas respostas cardiovasculares ao pinçamento aórtico infra-renal: estudo experimental em cães Efectos del halotano, isoflurano y sevoflurano en las respuestas cardiovasculares al pinzamiento aórtico infra-renal: estudio experimental en perros Effects of halothane, isoflurane and sevoflurane on cardiovascular responses to infrarenal aortic cross-clamping: experimental study in dogs

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    Flora Margarida Barra Bisinotto

    2003-08-01

    OBJECTIVES: Infrarenal aortic cross-clamping is associated to cardiovascular effects. This study aimed at analyzing the effects of halothane, isoflurane and sevoflurane on cardiovascular function of dogs following infrarenal aortic cross-clamping. METHODS: Thirty mongrel dogs were randomly divided in three groups, according to equipotent (0.75 MAC inhaled anesthetic doses: GH (n = 10 - 0.67% halothane; GI (n = 10 - 0.96% isoflurane; and GS (n = 10 - 1.8% sevoflurane. All dogs were submitted to infrarenal aortic cross-clamping for 30 minutes. Hemodynamic parameters were measured at control (C, at 15 (Ao15 and 30 (Ao30 minutes of aortic cross-clamping, and immediately (DAo and 15 (DAo15 minutes after aortic unclamping. RESULTS: In all groups, infrarenal aortic cross-clamping significantly increased mean blood pressure, right atrial pressure, cardiac index, stroke volume index, left ventricular work index and right ventricular work index. Pulmonary artery pressure significantly increased during cross-clamping in GI and GS groups while pulmonary capillary wedge pressure significantly increased in GH and GI groups. After aortic unclamping all hemodynamic parameters have returned to control levels with the exception of cardiac and stroke volume indices which remained high, followed by systemic vascular resistance index decrease. There have been no significant differences among groups in studied attributes, except for heart rate which was always lower in GH group as compared to other groups during and after infrarenal aortic cross-clamping. CONCLUSIONS: In dogs under our experimental conditions, equipotent concentrations (0.75 MAC of inhalational halothane, isoflurane and sevoflurane have not attenuated cardiovascular responses to infrarenal aortic cross-clamping.

  6. Ozone and cardiovascular injury

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    Rainaldi Giuseppe

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Air pollution is increasingly recognized as an important and modifiable determinant of cardiovascular diseases in urban communities. The potential detrimental effects are both acute and chronic having a strong impact on morbidity and mortality. The acute exposure to pollutants has been linked to adverse cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction, heart failure and life-threatening arrhythmias. The long-terms effects are related to the lifetime risk of death from cardiac causes. The WHO estimates that air pollution is responsible for 3 million premature deaths each year. The evidence supporting these data is very strong nonetheless, epidemiologic and observational data have the main limitation of imprecise measurements. Moreover, the lack of clinical experimental models makes it difficult to demonstrate the individual risk. The other limitation is related to the lack of a clear mechanism explaining the effects of pollution on cardiovascular mortality. In the present review we will explore the epidemiological, clinical and experimental evidence of the effects of ozone on cardiovascular diseases. The pathophysiologic consequences of air pollutant exposures have been extensively investigated in pulmonary systems, and it is clear that some of the major components of air pollution (e.g. ozone and particulate matter can initiate and exacerbate lung disease in humans 1. It is possible that pulmonary oxidant stress mediated by particulate matter and/or ozone (O3 exposure can result in downstream perturbations in the cardiovasculature, as the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems are intricately associated, and it is well documented that specific environmental toxins (such as tobacco smoke 2 introduced through the lungs can initiate and/or accelerate cardiovascular disease development. Indeed, several epidemiologic studies have proved that there is an association between PM and O3 and the increased incidence of cardiovascular morbidity

  7. Eugenol: a natural compound with versatile pharmacological actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramod, Kannissery; Ansari, Shahid H; Ali, Javed

    2010-12-01

    Eugenol, the major constituent of clove oil, has been widely used for its anesthetic and analgesic action in dentistry. Eugenol exhibits pharmacological effects on almost all systems and our aim is to review the research work that has identified these pharmacological actions. Eugenol possesses significant antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cardiovascular properties, in addition to analgesic and local anesthetic activity. The metabolism and pharmacokinetics of the compound in humans have been studied. Eugenol has also been used as a penetration enhancer. The compound is a very promising candidate for versatile applications, and the design of new drugs based on the pharmacological effects of eugenol could be beneficial. PMID:21299140

  8. Studies in neuroendocrine pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maickel, R. P.

    1976-01-01

    The expertise and facilities available within the Medical Sciences Program section on Pharmacology were used along with informational input from various NASA sources to study areas relevant to the manned space effort. Topics discussed include effects of drugs on deprivation-induced fluid consumption, brain biogenic amines, biochemical responses to stressful stimuli, biochemical and behavioral pharmacology of amphetamines, biochemical and pharmacological studies of analogues to biologically active indole compounds, chemical pharmacology: drug metabolism and disposition, toxicology, and chemical methodology. Appendices include a bibliography, and papers submitted for publication or already published.

  9. Clinical pharmacology and vascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestrelli, G; Corea, F; Micheli, S; Lanari, A

    2010-01-01

    Pharmacological treatment and several drugs of abuse have been associated with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and cerebrovascular diseases (CVD). However, there is a paucity of data on the independent risk of vascular disease (VD) associated with pharmacological treatment and no controlled trials demonstrating a reduction in risk with abstinence. Information about IHD and CVD-related drug abuse is mainly limited to epidemiological studies focused on urban populations. The potential link between some pharmacological treatments (estrogen, some oncologic drugs and some atypical antipsychotics) and cerebrovascular adverse events was analyzed, but disagreement about an association persists. Drugs of abuse, including cocaine, amphetamines and heroin, have been associated with an increased vascular risk. These drugs can cause abrupt changes in blood pressure, vasculitic-type changes, lead to embolization caused by infective endocarditis, and hemostatic and hematologic abnormalities that can result in increased blood viscosity and platelet aggregation. Long-term treatment strategies based on medication, psychological support, and outreach programs play an important role in treatment of drug dependency. In these last years public interest in risk factors for VD has been constantly increasing and the successful identification and management of pharmacological treatment and drug abuse can be challenging. One of the major public health issues for the future will be to focus more on new vascular risk factor recognition and management. The objective of this chapter is to review the relevance of IHD and CVD associated with various pharmacological treatments and drug abuse with focusing on ischemic disease. This chapter reports the clinical evidence of this association and analyzes the experimental role of new drugs as a growing risk factor of VD with the hypothetical new association. In conclusion, in this chapter great attention is paid to evaluating the scientific and real

  10. Phytotherapy in Cardiovascular Diseases: From Ethnomedicine to Evidence Based Medicine

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    Ovidiu Burta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are now considered to be one of the major causes of mortality in the developed and developing world. With the advent of better diagnostic procedures and therapeutic strategies their management has become more efficient, yet the role of herbal and plant remedies is paramount in the developing and remote areas of the world. Phytotherapy or therapeutics using plants and herb based compounds or crude drugs are an indispensable part of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM. The benefits of most of these plants are controversial as their toxicology and pharmacological activities are not well studied and documented. However certain plants species like Ginko biloba and Crataegus have shown promise in experimental and clinical trials. In the present review, some anthropo-geographical and historical perspectives of phytotherapy are mentioned. Some important manifestations of cardiovascular pathology and their phytotherapy are reviewed. The holistic approach of phytotherapy and folkloric ethno medical practices indeed have opened new horizons for quality care in cardiovascular diseases. Phytotherapy and traditional medicine have proven their potential place in the modern and more skeptical evidence based medicine.

  11. Pharmacology Information System Ready

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the development and future of Prophet,'' a specialized information handling system for pharmacology research. It is designed to facilitate the acquisition and dissemination of knowledge about mechanisms of drug action, and it is hoped that it will aid in converting pharmacology research from an empirical to a predictive science. (JR)

  12. Curriculum Guidelines for Pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Pharmacology embraces the physical and chemical properties of drugs; the preparation of pharmaceutical agents; the absorption, fate, and excretion of drugs; and the effects of drugs on living systems. These guidelines represent a consensus on what would constitute a minimally acceptable pharmacology course for predoctoral dental students. (MLW)

  13. Protocol for an experimental investigation of the roles of oxytocin and social support in neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and subjective responses to stress across age and gender

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    Block Jason

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substantial empirical evidence has demonstrated that individuals who are socially isolated or have few positive social connections seem to age at a faster rate and have more chronic diseases. Oxytocin is a neurohypophyseal hormone hypothesized to coordinate both the causes and effects of positive social interactions, and may be involved in positive physiological adaptations such as buffering the deleterious effects of stress and promoting resilience. The proposed research will examine whether and how oxytocin influences responses to stress in humans and will consider effects in relation to those of social support. Methods/Design Experimental research will be used to determine whether exogenously administered oxytocin (intranasal influences psychological and physiological outcomes under conditions of stress across gender and age in adulthood. Hypotheses to be tested are: 1 Oxytocin ameliorates the deleterious neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and subjective effects of stress; 2 Oxytocin and social support have similar and additive stress-buffering effects; 3 Oxytocin effects are stronger in women versus men; and 4 Oxytocin effects are similar across a range of adult ages. Hypotheses will be tested with a placebo-controlled, double-blind study using a sample of healthy men and women recruited from the community. Participants are randomly assigned to receive either oxytocin or placebo. They undergo a social stress manipulation with and without social support (randomly assigned, and outcome measures are obtained at multiple times during the procedure. Discussion Understanding the determinants of healthy aging is a major public health priority and identifying effective measures to prevent or delay the onset of chronic diseases is an important goal. Experimental research on oxytocin, social relationships, and health in adulthood will contribute to the scientific knowledge base for maximizing active life and health expectancy. At

  14. 高职药学生药理学实验报告的常见问题分析及对策%Analysis and strategies of problems in students’ experimental reports on Pharmacology from the advanced vocationl school

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈根林

    2013-01-01

    The experimental report on pharmacology is essential for the mesurement of the teaching quality of the course through the demonstration of many problems coming up in the teaching of Pharmocology. This paper is aimed to analyze the problems and causes in the students’experimental reports in the hope of coming up with some strategies to cope with these problems and thus improve the qualities of the experimental reports turned in by students.%药理学实验报告是检验药理学教学质量的重要依据,其可反映出师生在药理学教学过程中的诸多问题。本文针对高职药学专业学生提交的药理学实验报告进行研究,分析其中存在的问题及成因,并提出一些解决问题的对策,以期提高学生药理学实验报告的质量。

  15. Pharmacological modification of the perioperative stress response in noncardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priebe, Hans-Joachim

    2016-06-01

    The perioperative period is associated with alterations in the neuroendocrine, metabolic, and immune systems, referred to as "stress response." The resultant increased sympathetic activity and elevated serum concentrations of catecholamines may adversely affect the cardiovascular system, resulting in cardiovascular instability (hypertension, tachycardia, and arrhythmia), morbidity (myocardial ischemia, myocardial infarction, and stroke), and mortality (cardiac death and fatal stroke), particularly in patients at an elevated cardiovascular risk and with reduced cardiovascular reserve. Various strategies have been used to ameliorate the adverse perioperative cardiovascular sequelae of the perioperative stress response. Effective pharmacologic blunting of the stress response plays a crucial role in perioperative cardiac risk reduction strategies. In this context, the role of beta-adrenoceptor blockers, alpha2-adrenoceptor agonists, and statins has been extensively examined. This chapter evaluates the available evidence with respect to treatment efficacy of these commonly prescribed drugs in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery. PMID:27396805

  16. Effectiveness of community-based comprehensive healthy lifestyle promotion on cardiovascular disease risk factors in a rural Vietnamese population: a quasi-experimental study

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    Nguyen Quang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health promotion is a key component for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD. This study evaluated the impact of healthy lifestyle promotion campaigns on CVD risk factors (CVDRF in the general population in the context of a community-based programme on hypertension management. Methods A quasi-experimental intervention study was carried out in two rural communes of Vietnam from 2006 to 2009. In the intervention commune, a hypertensive-targeted management programme integrated with a community-targeted health promotion was initiated, while no new programme, apart from conventional healthcare services, was provided in the reference commune. Health promotion campaigns focused on smoking cessation, reducing alcohol consumption, encouraging physical activity and reducing salty diets. Repeated cross-sectional surveys in local adult population aged 25 years and over were undertaken to assess changes in blood pressure (BP and behavioural CVDRFs (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and salty diet in both communes before and after the 3-year intervention. Results Overall 4,650 adults above 25 years old were surveyed, in four randomly independent samples covering both communes at baseline and after the 3-year intervention. Although physical inactivity and obesity increased over time in the intervention commune, there was a significant reduction in systolic and diastolic BP (3.3 and 4.7 mmHg in women versus 3.0 and 4.6 mmHg in men respectively in the general population at the intervention commune. Health promotion reduced levels of salty diets but had insignificant impact on the prevalence of daily smoking or heavy alcohol consumption. Conclusion Community-targeted healthy lifestyle promotion can significantly improve some CVDRFs in the general population in a rural area over a relatively short time span. Limited effects on a context-bound CVDRF like smoking suggested that higher intensity of intervention

  17. Pharmacological foundations of cardio-oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minotti, Giorgio; Salvatorelli, Emanuela; Menna, Pierantonio

    2010-07-01

    Anthracyclines and many other antitumor drugs induce cardiotoxicity that occurs "on treatment" or long after completing chemotherapy. Dose reductions limit the incidence of early cardiac events but not that of delayed sequelae, possibly indicating that any dose level of antitumor drugs would prime the heart to damage from sequential stressors. Drugs targeted at tumor-specific moieties raised hope for improving the cardiovascular safety of antitumor therapies; unfortunately, however, many such drugs proved unable to spare the heart, aggravated cardiotoxicity induced by anthracyclines, or were safe in selected patients of clinical trials but not in the general population. Cardio-oncology is the discipline aimed at monitoring the cardiovascular safety of antitumor therapies. Although popularly perceived as a clinical discipline that brings oncologists and cardiologists working together, cardio-oncology is in fact a pharmacology-oriented translational discipline. The cardiovascular performance of survivors of cancer will only improve if clinicians joined pharmacologists in the search for new predictive models of cardiotoxicity or mechanistic approaches to explain how a given drug might switch from causing systolic failure to inducing ischemia. The lifetime risk of cardiotoxicity from antitumor drugs needs to be reconciled with the identification of long-lasting pharmacological signatures that overlap with comorbidities. Research on targeted drugs should be reshaped to appreciate that the terminal ballistics of new "magic bullets" might involve cardiomyocytes as innocent bystanders. Finally, the concepts of prevention and treatment need to be tailored to the notion that late-onset cardiotoxicity builds on early asymptomatic cardiotoxicity. The heart of cardio-oncology rests with such pharmacological foundations. PMID:20335321

  18. Cardiovascular effects of basal insulins

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    Mannucci E

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Edoardo Mannucci,1 Stefano Giannini,2 Ilaria Dicembrini1 1Diabetes Agency, Careggi Teaching Hospital, Florence, 2Section of Endocrinology, Department of Biomedical Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Florence and Careggi University Hospital, Florence, Italy Abstract: Basal insulin is an important component of treatment for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. One of the principal aims of treatment in patients with diabetes is the prevention of diabetic complications, including cardiovascular disease. There is some evidence, although controversial, that attainment of good glycemic control reduces long-term cardiovascular risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the potential cardiovascular safety of the different available preparations of basal insulin. Current basal insulin (neutral protamine Hagedorn [NPH], or isophane and basal insulin analogs (glargine, detemir, and the more recent degludec differ essentially by various measures of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects in the bloodstream, presence and persistence of peak action, and within-subject variability in the glucose-lowering response. The currently available data show that basal insulin analogs have a lower risk of hypoglycemia than NPH human insulin, in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, then excluding additional harmful effects on the cardiovascular system mediated by activation of the adrenergic system. Given that no biological rationale for a possible difference in cardiovascular effect of basal insulins has been proposed so far, available meta-analyses of publicly disclosed randomized controlled trials do not show any signal of increased risk of major cardiovascular events between the different basal insulin analogs. However, the number of available cardiovascular events in these trials is very small, preventing any clear-cut conclusion. The results of an ongoing clinical trial comparing glargine and degludec with

  19. Who needs pharmacologic therapy?

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    Christopher Porterfield; Rohit Malhotra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of atrial fibrillation has evolved significantly in the last ten years, with ablation becoming a far more common form of treatment for this most common of arrhythmias. However, while ablation has become more common, certain populations derive continued benefit from the use of pharmacologic therapy for treatment. We review the use of pharmacologic therapy and novel considerations for treatment of atrial fibrillation.

  20. Tratamento farmacológico da hiperalgesia experimentalmente induzida pelo núcleo pulposo Pharmacologic treatment of hyperalgesia experimentally induced by nucleus pulposus

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    André Luiz de Souza Grava

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito de drogas anti-inflamatórias (dexametasona, indometacina, atenolol, indometacina e atenolol e analgésica (morfina sobre a hiperalgesia experimentalmente induzida pelo núcleo pulposo em contato com o gânglio da raiz dorsal de L5. MÉTODOS: Trinta ratos Wistar machos com peso de 220 a 250g foram utilizados no estudo. A indução da hiperalgesia foi realizada por meio do contato de fragmento de núcleo pulposo retirado da região sacrococcígea e colocado sobre o gânglio da raiz dorsal de L5. Os 30 animais foram divididos em grupos experimentais de acordo com a droga utilizada. As drogas foram administradas durante duas semanas a partir da realização do procedimento cirúrgico para a indução da hiperalgesia. A hiperalgesia mecânica e térmica foram avaliadas por meio do teste da pressão constante da pata, von Frey eletrônico e Hargraves por um período de sete semanas. RESULTADOS: A maior redução da hiperalgesia foi observada no grupo de animais tratados pela morfina, seguido pela dexametasona, indometacina e atenolol. A redução da hiperalgesia foi observada após a interrupção da administração das drogas, com exceção do grupo de animais tratados com morfina, nos quais ocorreu aumento da hiperalgesia após a interrupção do tratamento. CONCLUSÕES: A hiperalgesia induzida pelo contato do núcleo pulposo com o gânglio da raiz dorsal pode ser reduzida com a administração de anti-inflamatórios e analgésicos, tendo sido observado a maior redução da hiperalgesia com a administração da morfina e dexametasona.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of antiinflammatory (dexamethasone, indomethacin, atenolol, indomethacin and atenolol and analgesic drugs (morphine on hyperalgesia experimentally induced by nucleus pulposus (NP contact with the L5- dorsal root ganglion (DRG. METHODS: Thirty male Wistar rats with weights ranging from 220 to 250 g were used in the study. The hyperalgesia was induced by

  1. Low prevalence of hypertension with pharmacological treatments and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Gama

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the determinants of the lack of pharmacological treatment for hypertension. METHODS: In 2005, 3,323 Mozambicans aged 25-64 years old were evaluated. Blood pressure, weight, height and smoking status were assessed following the Stepwise Approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance. Hypertensives (systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg and/or antihypertensive drug therapy were evaluated for awareness of their condition, pharmacological and non-pharmacological management, as well as use of herbal or traditional remedies. Prevalence ratios (PR were calculated, adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors and non-pharmacological treatment. RESULTS: Most of the hypertensive subjects (92.3%, and nearly half of those aware of their condition were not treated pharmacologically. Among the aware, the prevalence of untreated hypertension was higher in men {PR = 1.61; 95% confidence interval (95%CI 1.10;2.36} and was lower in subjects under non-pharmacological treatment (PR = 0.58; 95%CI 0.42;0.79; there was no significant association with traditional treatments (PR = 0.75; 95%CI 0.44;1.26. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of pharmacological treatment for hypertension was more frequent in men, and was not influenced by the presence of other cardiovascular risk factors; it could not be explained by the use of alternative treatments as herbal/traditional medicines or non-pharmacological management. It is important to understand the reasons behind the lack of management of diagnosed hypertension and to implement appropriate corrective actions to reduce the gap in the access to healthcare between developed and developing countries.

  2. Recent advancements in the cardiovascular drug carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Baljeet; Garg, Tarun; Goyal, Amit K; Rath, Goutam

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the disease that affects the cardiovascular system, vascular diseases of the brain and kidney, and peripheral arterial disease. Despite of all advances in pharmacological and clinical treatment, heart failure is a leading cause of morbidness and mortality worldwide. Many new therapeutic advance strategies, including cell transplantation, gene delivery or therapy, and cytokines or other small molecules, have been research to treat heart failure. The main aim of this review article is to focus on nano carriers advancement and addressing the problems associated with old and modern therapeutics such as nonspecific effects and poor stability. PMID:25046615

  3. Thyroid hormone receptor expression in cardiovascular disease and pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Shahrara, Shiva

    1999-01-01

    The heart is a major target organ for thyroid hormone actions. Thyroid hormone exerts effects on the myocardium, which are mediated by specific nuclear receptors. The thyroid hormone receptors (TR) are members of the steroid hormone receptor superfamily. These receptors regulate gene expression by binding to the promotor region of target genes as monomers, homodimers or heterodimers depending on the thyroid hormone response element (TRE) and the presence or absence of th...

  4. Cardiovascular group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, Gunnar

    1989-01-01

    As a starting point, the group defined a primary goal of maintaining in flight a level of systemic oxygen transport capacity comparable to each individual's preflight upright baseline. The goal of maintaining capacity at preflight levels would seem to be a reasonable objective for several different reasons, including the maintenance of good health in general and the preservation of sufficient cardiovascular reserve capacity to meet operational demands. It is also important not to introduce confounding variables in whatever other physiological studies are being performed. A change in the level of fitness is likely to be a significant confounding variable in the study of many organ systems. The principal component of the in-flight cardiovascular exercise program should be large-muscle activity such as treadmill exercise. It is desirable that at least one session per week be monitored to assure maintenance of proper functional levels and to provide guidance for any adjustments of the exercise prescription. Appropriate measurements include evaluation of the heart-rate/workload or the heart-rate/oxygen-uptake relationship. Respiratory gas analysis is helpful by providing better opportunities to document relative workload levels from analysis of the interrelationships among VO2, VCO2, and ventilation. The committee felt that there is no clear evidence that any particular in-flight exercise regimen is protective against orthostatic hypotension during the early readaptation phase. Some group members suggested that maintenance of the lower body muscle mass and muscle tone may be helpful. There is also evidence that late in-flight interventions to reexpand blood volume to preflight levels are helpful in preventing or minimizing postflight orthostatic hypotension.

  5. Pharmacologic Therapies in Anticoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Joana Lima; Wipf, Joyce E

    2016-07-01

    Anticoagulants are beneficial for prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism and stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. The development of target-specific oral anticoagulants is changing the landscape of anticoagulation therapy and created growing interest on this subject. Understanding the pharmacology of different anticoagulants is the first step to adequately treat patients with best available therapy while avoiding serious bleeding complications. This article reviews the pharmacology of the main anticoagulant classes (vitamin K antagonists, direct oral anticoagulants, and heparins) and their clinical indications based on evidence-based data currently available in the literature. PMID:27235611

  6. Mitochondrial biogenesis: pharmacological approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    diseases do not have exclusively a mitochondrial origin but they might have an important mitochondrial component both on their onset and on their development. This is the case of type 2 diabetes or neurodegenerative diseases. Type 2 diabetes is characterized by a peripheral insulin resistance accompanied by an increased secretion of insulin as a compensatory system. Among the explanations about the origin of insulin resistance Mónica Zamora and Josep A. Villena (Department of Experimental and Health Sciences, Universitat Pompeu Fabra / Laboratory of Metabolism and Obesity, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain) [5] consider the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction, e.g. impaired (mitochondrial) oxidative capacity of the cell or tissue, is one of the main underlying causes of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Although this hypothesis is not free of controversy due to the uncertainty on the sequence of events during type 2 diabetes onset, e.g. whether mitochondrial dysfunction is the cause or the consequence of insulin resistance, it has been widely observed that improving mitochondrial function also improves insulin sensitivity and prevents type 2 diabetes. Thus restoring oxidative capacity by increasing mitochondrial mass appears as a suitable strategy to treat insulin resistance. The effort made by researchers trying to understand the signaling pathways mediating mitochondrial biogenesis has uncovered new potential pharmacological targets and opens the perspectives for the design of suitable treatments for insulin resistance. In addition some of the current used strategies could be used to treat insulin resistance such as lifestyle interventions (caloric restriction and endurance exercise) and pharmacological interventions (thiazolidinediones and other PPAR agonists, resveratrol and other calorie restriction mimetics, AMPK activators, ERR activators). Mitochondrial biogenesis is of special importance in modern neurochemistry because of the broad spectrum

  7. Evaluation of the cardiovascular effects of varenicline in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk EB

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Engin Burak Selçuk,1 Meltem Sungu,2 Hakan Parlakpinar,3 Necip Ermiş,4 Elif Taslıdere,5 Nigar Vardı,5 Murat Yalçinsoy,6 Mustafa Sagır,3 Alaaddin Polat,7 Mehmet Karatas,8 Burcu Kayhan-Tetik11Department of Family Medicine, 2Inonu University Medical Faculty, Malatya, Turkey; 3Department of Pharmacology, 4Department of Cardiology, 5Department of Histology and Embryology, 6Department of Pulmonary Medicine, 7Department of Physiology, 8Department of Medical Ethics, Inonu University Medical Faculty, Malatya, TurkeyBackground: Cardiovascular disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among tobacco users. Varenicline is widely used worldwide to help smoking cessation, but some published studies have reported associated cardiovascular events.Objective: To determine the cardiovascular toxicity induced by varenicline in rats.Materials and methods: We randomly separated 34 rats into two groups: 1 the control group (given only distilled water orally, n=10 and the varenicline group (given 9 µg/kg/day varenicline on days 1–3, 9 µg/kg twice daily on days 4–7, and 18 µg/kg twice daily on days 8–90 [total 83 days], n=24. Each group was then subdivided equally into acute and chronic subgroups, and all rats in these groups were euthanized with anesthesia overdose on days 45 and 90, respectively. Body and heart weights, hemodynamic (mean oxygen saturation, mean blood pressure, and heart rate, electrocardiographic (PR, QRS, and QT intervals biochemical (oxidants and antioxidants, and histopathological analyses (including immunostaining were performed.Results: Acute varenicline exposure resulted in loss of body weight, while chronic varenicline exposure caused heart weight loss and decreased mean blood pressure, induced lipid peroxidation, and reduced antioxidant activity. Both acute and chronic varenicline exposure caused impairment of mean oxygen saturation. QT interval was prolonged in the chronic varenicline group, while PR interval

  8. Therapy of obese patient with Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jindal, Ankur; Whaley-Connell, Adam; Brietzke, Stephen; Sowers, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions and is a significant public health concern. Obesity is associated with increased diabetes, cardiovascular and kidney disease, and associated morbidity and mortality. Despite the increasing public health problem of obesity, there is a dearth of effective treatment options. Following the FDA mandated withdrawal of sibutramine, the treatment options for obesity were limited to orlistat as the only pharmacological treatment option for long term management ...

  9. Cardiovascular effects of monoterpenes: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Márcio R. V. Santos; Flávia V. Moreira; Byanka P. Fraga; Damião P. de Souza; Leonardo R. Bonjardim; Lucindo J. Quintans-Junior

    2011-01-01

    The monoterpenes are secondary metabolites of plants. They have various pharmacological properties including antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant, anticancer, anti-spasmodic, hypotensive, and vasorelaxant. The purpose of this research was to review the cardiovascular effects of monoterpenes. The data in this resarch were collected using the Internet portals Pubmed, Scopus, and ISI Web of Knowledge between the years 1987 and 2010. In the study 33 monoterpenes were included, which were relate...

  10. The Genus Alpinia:A Review of Its Phytochemistry and Pharmacology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Jie Zhang; Jian-Guang Luo; Ling-Yi Kong

    2016-01-01

    Genus Alpinia consists of over 250 species, which are widely distributed in south and southeast Asia. Many plants of genus Alpinia have been used for thousands of years to treat digestive system diseases and as anti-inflammatory drugs. Phytochemical research on this genus has led to the isolation of different kinds of diarylheptanoids, terpenes triterpenoids, phenylbutanoids, lignans, and flavonoids. Experimental evidences revealed that both the crude extracts and pure constituents isolated from the genus Alpinia exhibit a wide range of bioactivities such as anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, cardiovascular, and digestive system protective effects. Here, we summarize the phytochemistry and pharmacology investigation of the genus Alpinia, which can provide reference for further research and drug development.

  11. Social Pharmacology: Expanding horizons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rituparna Maiti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current modern and global society, social changes are in constant evolution due to scientific progress (technology, culture, customs, and hygiene and produce the freedom in individuals to take decisions by themselves or with their doctors toward drug consumption. In the arena of marketed drug products which includes society, individual, administration, and pharmaceutical industry, the young discipline emerged is social pharmacology or sociopharmacology. This science arises from clinical pharmacology, and deals with different parameters, which are important in creating knowledge on marketed drugs. However, the scope of "social pharmacology" is not covered by the so-called "Phase IV" alone, but it is the science that handles the postmarketing knowledge of drugs. The social pharmacology studies the "life cycle" of any marketed pharmaceutical product in the social terrain, and evaluates the effects of the real environment under circumstances totally different in the drug development process. Therefore, there are far-reaching horizons, plural, and shared predictions among health professionals and other, for beneficial use of a drug, toward maximizing the benefits of therapy, while minimizing negative social consequences.

  12. Developmental paediatric anaesthetic pharmacology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing

    2015-01-01

    Safe and effective drug therapy in neonates, infants and children require detailed knowledge about the ontogeny of drug disposition and action as well how these interact with genetics and co-morbidity of children. Recent advances in developmental pharmacology in children follow the increased...

  13. Cocoa Polyphenols and Inflammatory Markers of Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Nasiruddin Khan; Olha Khymenets; Mireia Urpí-Sardà; Sara Tulipani; Mar Garcia-Aloy; María Monagas; Ximena Mora-Cubillos; Rafael Llorach; Cristina Andres-Lacueva

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect of plant-derived food intake in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The potential bioactivity of cocoa and its polyphenolic components in modulating cardiovascular health is now being studied worldwide and continues to grow at a rapid pace. In fact, the high polyphenol content of cocoa is of particular interest from the nutritional and pharmacological viewpoints. Cocoa polyphenols are shown to possess a range of ca...

  14. Pharmacological approach to acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ulrich Christian Bang; Synne Semb; Camilla Nφjgaard; Flemming Bendtsen

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to summarize the current knowledge regarding pharmacological prevention and treatment of acute pancreatitis (AP)based on experimental animal models and clinical trials.Somatostatin (SS) and octreotide inhibit the exocrine production of pancreatic enzymes and may be useful as prophylaxis against Post Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography Pancreatitis (PEP). The protease inhibitor Gabexate mesilate (GM) is used routinely as treatment to AP in some countries, but randomized clinical trials and a meta-analysis do not support this practice. Nitroglycerin (NGL) is a nitrogen oxide (NO) donor, which relaxes the sphincter of Oddi.Studies show conflicting results when applied prior to ERCP and a large multicenter randomized study is warranted. Steroids administered as prophylaxis against PEP has been validated without effect in several randomized trials. The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) indomethacin and diclofenac have in randomized studies showed potential as prophylaxis against PEP. Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is a cytokine with anti-inflammatory properties but two trials testing IL-10 as prophylaxis to PEP have returned conflicting results.Antibodies against tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)have a potential as rescue therapy but no clinical trials are currently being conducted. The antibiotics betalactams and quinolones reduce mortality when necrosis is present in pancreas and may also reduce incidence of infected necrosis. Evidence based pharmacological treatment of AP is limited and studies on the effect of potent anti-inflammatory drugs are warranted.

  15. Pharmacogenomic determinants of response to cardiovascular drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankov Karmen M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite considerable advances in cardiovascular pharmacology, significant inter-individual variability in response to drugs affects both their efficacy and safety profile. Drug-gene associations have emerged as important factors determining a spectrum of response to therapy. Pharmacogenomic interactions in cardiovascular medicine are also involved in etiology of adverse effects that may be life-threatening, such as statininduced myopathy or a hemorrhage/thrombosis event during anticoagulant therapy. Introduction of genetic tests prior to the initiation of therapy and implementation of genetically-guided therapy represent a step forward to achieving a goal of individualized medicine in cardiology, already present in recommendations for warfarin and clopidogrel. However, further investigations addressing genomic predictors of variability in response to drugs are still needed and translating these findings into routine clinical practice remains a substantial challenge. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III41012

  16. Effect of garlic on cardiovascular disorders: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Maulik Subir; Banerjee Sanjay

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Garlic and its preparations have been widely recognized as agents for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and other metabolic diseases, atherosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, thrombosis, hypertension and diabetes. Effectiveness of garlic in cardiovascular diseases was more encouraging in experimental studies, which prompted several clinical trials. Though many clinical trials showed a positive effect of garlic on almost all cardiovascular conditions mentioned above, however a number...

  17. Short communication: Effect of commercial or depurinized milk diet on plasma advanced oxidation protein products, cardiovascular markers, and bone marrow CD34+ stem cell potential in rat experimental hyperuricemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocic, Gordana; Sokolovic, Dusan; Jevtovic, Tatjana; Cvetkovic, Tatjana; Veljkovic, Andrej; Kocic, Hristina; Stojanovic, Svetlana; Jovanovic, Aneta; Jovanovic, Jelena; Zivkovic, Petar

    2014-11-01

    Cardiovascular repair and myocardial contractility may be improved by migration of bone marrow stem cells (BMSC) and their delivery to the site of injury, a process known as BMSC homing. The aim of our study was to examine the dietary effect of a newly patented depurinized milk (DP) that is almost free of uric acid and purine and pyrimidine compounds compared with a standard commercial 1.5% fat UHT milk diet or allopurinol therapy in rat experimental hyperuricemia. Bone marrow stem cell potential (BMCD34(+), CD34-postive bone marrow cells), plasma oxidative stress parameters [advanced oxidation protein products, AOPP) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)], myocardial damage markers [creatine phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)], plasma cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were investigated. The DP milk diet significantly increased the number of BMCD34(+) stem cells compared with commercial UHT milk. Allopurinol given alone also increased the number of BMCD34(+). Hyperuricemia caused a significant increase in all plasma enzyme markers for myocardial damage (CPK, LDH, and AST). A cardioprotective effect was achieved with allopurinol but almost equally with DP milk and more than with commercial milk. Regarding plasma AOPP, TBARS, and cholesterol levels, the most effective treatment was DP milk. In conclusion, the protective role of a milk diet on cardiovascular function may be enhanced through the new depurinized milk diet, which may improve cardiovascular system function via increased bone marrow stem cell regenerative potential, decreased plasma oxidative stress parameters, and decreased levels of myocardial damage markers and cholesterol. New dairy technology strategies focused on eliminating harmful milk compounds should be completely nontoxic. Novel milk products should be tested for their ability to improve tissue repair and function. PMID:25218755

  18. Pharmacology of Iron Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne, Shaina L.; Krishnamurthy, Divya; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Elucidating the molecular basis for the regulation of iron uptake, storage, and distribution is necessary to understand iron homeostasis. Pharmacological tools are emerging to identify and distinguish among different iron transport pathways. Stimulatory or inhibitory small molecules with effects on iron uptake can help characterize the mechanistic elements of iron transport and the roles of the transporters involved in these processes. In particular, iron chelators can serve as potential phar...

  19. The pharmacology of nomegestrol acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Xiangyan; Seeger, Harald; Mueck, Alfred O

    2012-04-01

    Nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC) is a 19-norprogesterone derivative with high biological activity at the progesterone receptor, a weak anti-androgenic effect, but with no binding to estrogen, glucocorticoid or mineralocorticoid receptors. At dosages of 1.5mg/day or more, NOMAC effectively suppresses gonadotropic activity and ovulation in women of reproductive age. Hemostasis, lipids and carbohydrate metabolism remain largely unchanged. In normal and cancerous human breast cells, NOMAC has shown favorable effects on estrogen metabolism. Like natural progesterone (but in contrast to some other synthetic progestogens), it does not appear stimulate the proliferation of cancerous breast cells. While there has been some experience of the use of NOMAC in combination with estrogens as a hormone replacement therapy, most of the data on the compound are reported in the context of its inclusion as a component of a new contraceptive pill comprising 2.5mg NOMAC combined with 1.5mg estradiol. Because of its strong endometrial efficacy, and due to its high antigonadotropic activity and long elimination half-life (about 50h), the contraceptive efficacy of the new pill is maintained even when dosages are missed. Furthermore, for the first time with a monophasic 24/4 regimen containing estradiol, cyclical stability can be achieved comparable with that obtained using pills containing ethinyl estradiol and progestogens like levonorgestrel or drospirenone. The addition of NOMAC to estradiol means that the beneficial effects of estrogen are not lost, which is of especial importance in relation to the cardiovascular system. On the basis both of its pharmacology and of studies performed during the development of the NOMAC/estradiol pill, involving some 4000 women in total, good long-term tolerability can be expected for NOMAC, although its safety profile is still to be fully ascertained, as the clinical endpoint studies are yet to be completed. PMID:22364709

  20. Cardiovascular and renal effects of hyperuricaemia and gout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pontremoli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of epidemiological studies have reported an association between serum uric acid levels and a wide variety of high-risk conditions including hypertension, insulin resistance, and kidney and cerebro-cardiovascular disease. All things considered, serum uric acid may induce cardiovascular and kidney events both directly and indirectly by promoting other well-known mechanisms of damage. While asymptomatic hyperuricemia is currently not considered to be an indication for urate lowering therapy, there is growing evidence indicating a linear relationship between pharmacological reduction in serum uric acid and incidence of cardiovascular and renal events.

  1. Cocoa Polyphenols and Inflammatory Markers of Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasiruddin Khan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect of plant-derived food intake in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. The potential bioactivity of cocoa and its polyphenolic components in modulating cardiovascular health is now being studied worldwide and continues to grow at a rapid pace. In fact, the high polyphenol content of cocoa is of particular interest from the nutritional and pharmacological viewpoints. Cocoa polyphenols are shown to possess a range of cardiovascular-protective properties, and can play a meaningful role through modulating different inflammatory markers involved in atherosclerosis. Accumulated evidence on related anti-inflammatory effects of cocoa polyphenols is summarized in the present review.

  2. Cocoa polyphenols and inflammatory markers of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nasiruddin; Khymenets, Olha; Urpí-Sardà, Mireia; Tulipani, Sara; Garcia-Aloy, Mar; Monagas, María; Mora-Cubillos, Ximena; Llorach, Rafael; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect of plant-derived food intake in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The potential bioactivity of cocoa and its polyphenolic components in modulating cardiovascular health is now being studied worldwide and continues to grow at a rapid pace. In fact, the high polyphenol content of cocoa is of particular interest from the nutritional and pharmacological viewpoints. Cocoa polyphenols are shown to possess a range of cardiovascular-protective properties, and can play a meaningful role through modulating different inflammatory markers involved in atherosclerosis. Accumulated evidence on related anti-inflammatory effects of cocoa polyphenols is summarized in the present review. PMID:24566441

  3. Rehmannia glutinosa: review of botany, chemistry and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ru-Xue; Li, Mao-Xing; Jia, Zheng-Ping

    2008-05-01

    Rehmannia glutinosa, a widely used traditional Chinese herb, belongs to the family of Scrophulariaceae, and is taken to nourish Yin and invigorate the kidney in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and has a very high medicinal value. In recent decades, a great number of chemical and pharmacological studies have been done on Rehmannia glutinosa. More than 70 compounds including iridoids, saccharides, amino acid, inorganic ions, as well as other trace elements have been found in the herb. Studies show that Rehmannia glutinosa and its active principles possess wide pharmacological actions on the blood system, immune system, endocrine system, cardiovascular system and the nervous system. Currently, the effective monomeric compounds or active parts have been screened for the pharmacological activity of Rehmannia glutinosa and the highest quality scientific data is delivered to support the further application and exploitation for new drug development. PMID:18407446

  4. Ginseng leaf-stem: bioactive constituents and pharmacological functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Jingtian

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ginseng root is used more often than other parts such as leaf stem although extracts from ginseng leaf-stem also contain similar active ingredients with pharmacological functions. Ginseng's leaf-stems are more readily available at a lower cost than its root. This article reviews the pharmacological effects of ginseng leaf-stem on some diseases and adverse effects due to excessive consumption. Ginseng leaf-stem extract contains numerous active ingredients, such as ginsenosides, polysaccharides, triterpenoids, flavonoids, volatile oils, polyacetylenic alcohols, peptides, amino acids and fatty acids. The extract contains larger amounts of the same active ingredients than the root. These active ingredients produce multifaceted pharmacological effects on the central nervous system, as well as on the cardiovascular, reproductive and metabolic systems. Ginseng leaf-stem extract also has anti-fatigue, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-obesity, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant and anti-aging properties. In normal use, ginseng leaf-stem extract is quite safe; adverse effects occur only when it is over dosed or is of poor quality. Extracts from ginseng root and leaf-stem have similar multifaceted pharmacological activities (for example central nervous and cardiovascular systems. In terms of costs and source availability, however, ginseng leaf-stem has advantages over its root. Further research will facilitate a wider use of ginseng leaf-stem.

  5. Clinical relevance of cyclic GMP modulators: A translational success story of network pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oettrich, J M; Dao, V T; Frijhoff, J; Kleikers, Pwm; Casas, A I; Hobbs, A J; Schmidt, Hhhw

    2016-04-01

    Therapies that modulate cyclic guanosine-3'-5'-monophosphate (cGMP) have emerged as one of the most successful areas in recent drug discovery and clinical pharmacology. Historically, their focus has been on cardiovascular disease phenotypes; however, cGMP's relevance is likely to go beyond this rather limited organ-based set of indications. Moreover, the multitude of targets and their apparent interchangeability is a proof-of-concept of network pharmacology. PMID:26765222

  6. Pharmacology exercise for undergraduate: MLNMC model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh C. Chaurasia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacology is the backbone of clinical discipline of medical science. In the computer era of advancement, paraclinical teachings become more technical and clinical oriented. Regarding to undergraduate practical’s the animal experimentation and dispensing pharmacy are only exercises. But these are matter of critics due to their non-utility in future. Student’s apathy and non-interest are hidden factor to perform such boring experiments. Meanwhile the old-dated exercises have no potential to tone-up adequate clinical skills in future study instead of wastage of time and money. Killing of innocent animals is crucial and should be socially discouraged. Thus Pharmacology practical are matter of debate in current scenario. Being attachment with past sentiment of traditional dispensing pharmacy and animal experimentations, they are difficult to delete completely. The present article highlights some of our efforts in undergraduate exercises. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(4.000: 495-497

  7. Pharmacology exercise for undergraduate: MLNMC model

    OpenAIRE

    Rakesh C. Chaurasia

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacology is the backbone of clinical discipline of medical science. In the computer era of advancement, paraclinical teachings become more technical and clinical oriented. Regarding to undergraduate practical’s the animal experimentation and dispensing pharmacy are only exercises. But these are matter of critics due to their non-utility in future. Student’s apathy and non-interest are hidden factor to perform such boring experiments. Meanwhile the old-dated exercises have no pot...

  8. Clinical pharmacology and malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckenridge, A M; Winstanley, P A

    1997-10-01

    The role of clinical pharmacology in improving the prevention and treatment of malaria is reviewed. A series of general and specific issues is discussed, concentrating on risk-benefit and cost-effectiveness. The techniques of clinical pharmacokinetics play an important role in the optimal use of drugs and this is illustrated by studies on quinine and proguanil. In discussing amodiaquine toxicity, the role of the pharmacologist and the chemist in designing out drug toxicity lends hope for producing a new generation of antimalarial drugs. PMID:9625927

  9. Pharmacologic treatment of paraphilias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assumpção, Alessandra Almeida; Garcia, Frederico Duarte; Garcia, Heloise Delavenne; Bradford, John M W; Thibaut, Florence

    2014-06-01

    The treatment of paraphilias remains a challenge in the mental health field. Combined pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic treatment is associated with better efficacy. The gold standard treatment of severe paraphilias in adult males is antiandrogen treatment with cognitive behavioral therapy. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have been used in mild types of paraphilia and in cases of sexual compulsions and juvenile paraphilias. Antiandrogen treatments seem to be effective in severe paraphilic subjects committing sexual offenses. In particular, gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs have shown high efficacy working in a similar way to physical castration but being reversible at any time. Treatment recommendations, side effects, and contraindications are discussed. PMID:24877704

  10. Clinical significance of cardiovascular dysmetabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deedwania Prakash C

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although diabetes mellitus is predominantly a metabolic disorder, recent data suggest that it is as much a vascular disorder. Cardiovascular complications are the leading cause of death and disability in patients with diabetes mellitus. A number of recent reports have emphasized that many patients already have atherosclerosis in progression by the time they are diagnosed with clinical evidence of diabetes mellitus. The increased risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular complications in diabetic patients is related to the frequently associated dyslipidemia, hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and endothelial dysfunction. The evolving knowledge regarding the variety of metabolic, hormonal, and hemodynamic abnormalities in patients with diabetes mellitus has led to efforts designed for early identification of individuals at risk of subsequent disease. It has been suggested that insulin resistance, the key abnormality in type II diabetes, often precedes clinical features of diabetes by 5–6 years. Careful attention to the criteria described for the cardiovascular dysmetabolic syndrome should help identify those at risk at an early stage. The application of nonpharmacologic as well as newer emerging pharmacologic therapies can have beneficial effects in individuals with cardiovascular dysmetabolic syndrome and/or diabetes mellitus by improving insulin sensitivity and related abnormalities. Early identification and implementation of appropriate therapeutic strategies would be necessary to contain the emerging new epidemic of cardiovascular disease related to diabetes.

  11. Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Cardiovascular Disease & Diabetes Updated:Mar 23,2016 The following statistics speak ... disease. This content was last reviewed August 2015. Diabetes • Home • About Diabetes • Why Diabetes Matters Introduction Cardiovascular ...

  12. The endothelin system as a therapeutic target in cardiovascular disease: great expectations or bleak house?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, N S; Hadoke, P W F; Bagnall, A J; Webb, D J

    2008-03-01

    There is considerable evidence that the potent vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 (ET-1) contributes to the pathogenesis of a variety of cardiovascular diseases. As such, pharmacological manipulation of the ET system might represent a promising therapeutic goal. Many clinical trials have assessed the potential of ET receptor antagonists in cardiovascular disease, the most positive of which have resulted in the licensing of the mixed ET receptor antagonist bosentan, and the selective ET(A) receptor antagonists, sitaxsentan and ambrisentan, for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). In contrast, despite encouraging data from in vitro and animal studies, outcomes in human heart failure have been disappointing, perhaps illustrating the risk of extrapolating preclinical work to man. Many further potential applications of these compounds, including resistant hypertension, chronic kidney disease, connective tissue disease and sub-arachnoid haemorrhage are currently being investigated in the clinic. Furthermore, experience from previous studies should enable improved trial design and scope remains for development of improved compounds and alternative therapeutic strategies. Although ET-converting enzyme inhibitors may represent one such alternative, there have been relatively few suitable compounds developed, and consequently, clinical experience with these agents remains extremely limited. Recent advances, together with an increased understanding of the biology of the ET system provided by improved experimental tools (including cell-specific transgenic deletion of ET receptors), should allow further targeting of clinical trials to diseases in which ET is involved and allow the therapeutic potential for targeting the ET system in cardiovascular disease to be fully realized. PMID:17965745

  13. Infection and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-17

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Heart Diseases; Myocardial Infarction; Infection; Chlamydia Infections; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Helicobacter Infections; Atherosclerosis

  14. Cardiovascular safety of antipsychotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polcwiartek, Christoffer; Sørensen, Kristian Dahl Kragholm; Schjerning, Ole; Graff, Claus; Nielsen, Jimmi

    2016-01-01

    cardiovascular risk factors. Areas covered: This clinical overview summarizes the cardiovascular safety of antipsychotics by focusing on the wide range of associated adverse effects. In addition, we also discuss current guidelines regarding routine electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring. Expert opinion: As SCD in......, as this may increase risk of Torsades de Pointes and eventually SCD. However, other serious cardiovascular complications of antipsychotics also include Brugada syndrome phenotype, myocardial infarction, and myocarditis. Increased awareness of the cardiovascular safety of antipsychotics can allow...

  15. Crataegus pinnatifida: Chemical Constituents, Pharmacology, and Potential Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqi Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Crataegus pinnatifida (Hawthorn is widely distributed in China and has a long history of use as a traditional medicine. The fruit of C. pinnatifida has been used for the treatment of cardiodynia, hernia, dyspepsia, postpartum blood stasis, and hemafecia and thus increasing interest in this plant has emerged in recent years. Between 1966 and 2013, numerous articles have been published on the chemical constituents, pharmacology or pharmacologic effects and toxicology of C. pinnatifida. To review the pharmacologic advances and to discuss the potential perspective for future investigation, we have summarized the main literature findings of these publications. So far, over 150 compounds including flavonoids, triterpenoids, steroids, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, lignans, hydroxycinnamic acids, organic acids and nitrogen-containing compounds have been isolated and identified from C. pinnatifida. It has been found that these constituents and extracts of C. pinnatifida have broad pharmacological effects with low toxicity on, for example, the cardiovascular, digestive, and endocrine systems, and pathogenic microorganisms, supporting the view that C. pinnatifida has favorable therapeutic effects. Thus, although C. pinnatifida has already been widely used as pharmacological therapy, due to its various active compounds, further research is warranted to develop new drugs.

  16. Crataegus pinnatifida: chemical constituents, pharmacology, and potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiaqi; Peng, Wei; Qin, Rongxin; Zhou, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Crataegus pinnatifida (Hawthorn) is widely distributed in China and has a long history of use as a traditional medicine. The fruit of C. pinnatifida has been used for the treatment of cardiodynia, hernia, dyspepsia, postpartum blood stasis, and hemafecia and thus increasing interest in this plant has emerged in recent years. Between 1966 and 2013, numerous articles have been published on the chemical constituents, pharmacology or pharmacologic effects and toxicology of C. pinnatifida. To review the pharmacologic advances and to discuss the potential perspective for future investigation, we have summarized the main literature findings of these publications. So far, over 150 compounds including flavonoids, triterpenoids, steroids, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, lignans, hydroxycinnamic acids, organic acids and nitrogen-containing compounds have been isolated and identified from C. pinnatifida. It has been found that these constituents and extracts of C. pinnatifida have broad pharmacological effects with low toxicity on, for example, the cardiovascular, digestive, and endocrine systems, and pathogenic microorganisms, supporting the view that C. pinnatifida has favorable therapeutic effects. Thus, although C. pinnatifida has already been widely used as pharmacological therapy, due to its various active compounds, further research is warranted to develop new drugs. PMID:24487567

  17. Pharmacological inhibition of neutrophil pro-inflammatory activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jančinová, V.; Perečko, T.; Harmatha, Juraj; Nosáľ, R.; Drábiková, K.

    Bratislava : Institute of Experimental Pharmacology & Toxicology SAS, 2012 - (Bauer, V.; Mach, M.; Navarová, J.; Sotníková, R.), s. 66-75 ISBN 978-80-971042-0-7. [Drugs: Their Action in Pharmacology and Toxicology. Bratislava (SK), 31.05.2012] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : neutrophil oxidative burst * apoptosis * polyphenols Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  18. Psychological stress and cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    There is an enormous amount of literature on psychological stress and cardiovascular disease. This report reviews conceptual issues in defining stress and then explores the ramifications of stress in terms of the effects of acute versus long-term stressors on cardiac functioning. Examples of acute stressor studies are discussed in terms of disasters (earthquakes) and in the context of experimental stress physiology studies, which offer a more detailed perspective on underlying physiology. Stu...

  19. [Cardiovascular safety of antidiabetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aline Roth, Pressl-Wenger; Jornayvaz, François R

    2016-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized by a high risk of micro- and macro-vascular complications. Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death of diabetic patients. In this context, the search for molecules decreasing cardiovascular mortality makes sense. Until the EMPA-REG OUTCOME study published late 2015, showing a reduction of cardiovascular mortality of patients treated with empagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, there was no molecule known to decrease cardiovascular mortality. The purpose of this article is to review the various existing antidiabetic molecules and their impact (positive/neutral/negative) on cardiovascular mortality. PMID:27487675

  20. Pharmacology of antihypertensive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, G A

    1999-01-01

    The wide variety of first-line agents available for managing high blood pressure include diuretics, beta adrenergic receptor blockers, alpha adrenergic receptor blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, and calcium channel blockers. Supplemental agents used for second-line therapy and special indications, such as pregnancy and hypertensive emergencies, include angiotensin receptor blockers, central-acting agents, direct vasodilators, and adrenergic neuron inhibitors. Selection of agents for particular patients requires consideration of research-based evidence for positive long-term outcomes and of the unique patient profile of age, race, co-morbidities, and lifestyle. A thorough understanding of the pharmacology (mechanism, pharmacokinetics, adverse effects and drug interactions, clinical use) of antihypertensive agents is an essential foundation for nursing practice in women's health. PMID:10584919

  1. Pharmacology of Quercus infectoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, M S; Ikram, M; Fakouhi, T

    1976-12-01

    The galls of Quercus infectoria (Fagaceae), a commonly available plant in Iran, were studied pharmacologically. Two fractions were employed, a dried acetone-treated methanol extract dissolved in water (Fraction A) and a subfraction prepared by chloroform-methanol extraction (Fraction B). Fraction A was active as an analgesic in rats and significantly reduced blood sugar levels in rabbits. Fraction B had CNS depressant activity. Data obtained with a treadmill indicated a decreased activity ratio by Fraction B, suggesting a possible interference in motor coordination. It potentiated the barbiturate sleeping time significantly without changing the onset time or the loss of the righting reflex. In addition, Fraction B exhibited a moderate antitremorine activity by causing a delay in the onset and a decrease in the severity of tremorine-induced tremors. The local anesthetic action of Fraction B was evident due to the complete blockade of the isolated frog sciatic nerve conduction. PMID:1032663

  2. Conus venom peptide pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Richard J; Dutertre, Sébastien; Vetter, Irina; Christie, MacDonald J

    2012-04-01

    Conopeptides are a diverse group of recently evolved venom peptides used for prey capture and/or defense. Each species of cone snails produces in excess of 1000 conopeptides, with those pharmacologically characterized (≈ 0.1%) targeting a diverse range of membrane proteins typically with high potency and specificity. The majority of conopeptides inhibit voltage- or ligand-gated ion channels, providing valuable research tools for the dissection of the role played by specific ion channels in excitable cells. It is noteworthy that many of these targets are found to be expressed in pain pathways, with several conopeptides having entered the clinic as potential treatments for pain [e.g., pyroglutamate1-MrIA (Xen2174)] and one now marketed for intrathecal treatment of severe pain [ziconotide (Prialt)]. This review discusses the diversity, pharmacology, structure-activity relationships, and therapeutic potential of cone snail venom peptide families acting at voltage-gated ion channels (ω-, μ-, μO-, δ-, ι-, and κ-conotoxins), ligand-gated ion channels (α-conotoxins, σ-conotoxin, ikot-ikot, and conantokins), G-protein-coupled receptors (ρ-conopeptides, conopressins, and contulakins), and neurotransmitter transporters (χ-conopeptides), with expanded discussion on the clinical potential of sodium and calcium channel inhibitors and α-conotoxins. Expanding the discovery of new bioactives using proteomic/transcriptomic approaches combined with high-throughput platforms and better defining conopeptide structure-activity relationships using relevant membrane protein crystal structures are expected to grow the already significant impact conopeptides have had as both research probes and leads to new therapies. PMID:22407615

  3. Strategies and methods to study sex differences in cardiovascular structure and function: a guide for basic scientists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Virginia M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease remains the primary cause of death worldwide. In the US, deaths due to cardiovascular disease for women exceed those of men. While cultural and psychosocial factors such as education, economic status, marital status and access to healthcare contribute to sex differences in adverse outcomes, physiological and molecular bases of differences between women and men that contribute to development of cardiovascular disease and response to therapy remain underexplored. Methods This article describes concepts, methods and procedures to assist in the design of animal and tissue/cell based studies of sex differences in cardiovascular structure, function and models of disease. Results To address knowledge gaps, study designs must incorporate appropriate experimental material including species/strain characteristics, sex and hormonal status. Determining whether a sex difference exists in a trait must take into account the reproductive status and history of the animal including those used for tissue (cell harvest, such as the presence of gonadal steroids at the time of testing, during development or number of pregnancies. When selecting the type of experimental animal, additional consideration should be given to diet requirements (soy or plant based influencing consumption of phytoestrogen, lifespan, frequency of estrous cycle in females, and ability to investigate developmental or environmental components of disease modulation. Stress imposed by disruption of sleep/wake cycles, patterns of social interaction (or degree of social isolation, or handling may influence adrenal hormones that interact with pathways activated by the sex steroid hormones. Care must be given to selection of hormonal treatment and route of administration. Conclusions Accounting for sex in the design and interpretation of studies including pharmacological effects of drugs is essential to increase the foundation of basic knowledge upon which to

  4. Redox signaling in cardiovascular health and disease

    OpenAIRE

    Madamanchi, Nageswara R.; Runge, Marschall S.

    2013-01-01

    Spatiotemporal regulation of the activity of a vast array of intracellular proteins and signaling pathways by reactive oxygen species (ROS) governs normal cardiovascular function. However, data from experimental and animal studies strongly support that dysregulated redox signaling, resulting from hyper-activation of various cellular oxidases or mitochondrial dysfunction, is integral to the pathogenesis and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this review, we address how redox signa...

  5. Adiponectin Actions in the Cardiovascular System

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkins, Teresa A.; Ouchi, Noriyuki; Shibata, Rei; Walsh, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is strongly associated with the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Levels of the hormone adiponectin are downregulated in obese individuals, and several experimental studies show that adiponectin protects against the development of various obesity-related metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Adiponectin exhibits favorable effects on atherogenesis, endothelial function, and vascular remodeling by modulation of signaling cascades in cells of the...

  6. PHARMACOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF CITRUS FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Tomar *, Mridula Mall and Pragya Rai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the pharmacological importance of citrus fruits. Citrus fruits are used for various pharmacological importance. According to literature the citrus fruit possess anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective properties.

  7. Cardiovascular Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Pharmacogenomics for the Clinical Practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleder, Anna T; Kalus, James; Lanfear, David E

    2016-01-01

    Current clinical cardiovascular practice requires a clinician to have a strong foundation in multiple aspects of pharmacology. Modern cardiovascular regimens are complex, and optimal management, application of evolving guidelines, and adoption of new therapies build off a more basic understanding of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. In addition, it is likely time to add a third pillar into this discussion, the expanding field of pharmacogenomics referring to the genetic influences on drug response. This field has increasing applications in medicine and clearly holds significant promise for cardiovascular disease management. Awareness of pharmacogenomic advances and the fundamentals of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics can help the clinician more easily deliver great care. Here we attempt to briefly summarize and simplify key concepts of pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacogenomics relevant to the cardiovascular disease practitioner. PMID:26054891

  8. Epigenetic Changes in Diabetes and Cardiovascular Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Samuel T; Plutzky, Jorge; El-Osta, Assam

    2016-05-27

    Cardiovascular complications remain the leading causes of morbidity and premature mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus. Studies in humans and preclinical models demonstrate lasting gene expression changes in the vasculopathies initiated by previous exposure to high glucose concentrations and the associated overproduction of reactive oxygen species. The molecular signatures of chromatin architectures that sensitize the genome to these and other cardiometabolic risk factors of the diabetic milieu are increasingly implicated in the biological memory underlying cardiovascular complications and now widely considered as promising therapeutic targets. Atherosclerosis is a complex heterocellular disease where the contributing cell types possess distinct epigenomes shaping diverse gene expression. Although the extent that pathological chromatin changes can be manipulated in human cardiovascular disease remains to be established, the clinical applicability of epigenetic interventions will be greatly advanced by a deeper understanding of the cell type-specific roles played by writers, erasers, and readers of chromatin modifications in the diabetic vasculature. This review details a current perspective of epigenetic mechanisms of macrovascular disease in diabetes mellitus and highlights recent key descriptions of chromatinized changes associated with persistent gene expression in endothelial, smooth muscle, and circulating immune cells relevant to atherosclerosis. Furthermore, we discuss the challenges associated with pharmacological targeting of epigenetic networks to correct abnormal or deregulated gene expression as a strategy to alleviate the clinical burden of diabetic cardiovascular disease. PMID:27230637

  9. A systematic review on the application of cardiovascular risk prediction models in pharmacoeconomics, with a focus on primary prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevanovic, Jelena; Postma, Maarten J.; Pechlivanoglou, Petros

    2012-01-01

    Background: Long-term trials on the effectiveness of pharmacological treatment for primary cardiovascular disease prevention are scant. For that reason risk prediction models are used as a tool to project changes in cardiovascular disease incidence due to changes in risk factor levels observed in sh

  10. [Pharmacological treatment of obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomis Barbará, R

    2004-01-01

    The pharmacological treatment of obesity should be considered when cannot be achieved a 10% weight loss with diet therapy and physical activity. The drugs effective in obesity treatment may act by different mechanisms such as reduction in food intake, inhibition of fat absorption, increase of thermogenesis and stimulation of adipocyte apoptosis. At present, we only have two marketed drugs for obesity treatment. Sibutramine is an inhibitor of norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonina reuptake which inhibits food intake and increases thermogenesis. Sibutramine administration for a year can induce a weight loss of 4-7%. Its main side effects are hypertension, headache, insomnia and constipation. Orlistat is an inhibitor of pancreatic lipase which is able to block the absorption of 30% of ingested fat. Its administration induces weight loss and reduction of ulterior weight regain. Also, this drug improves hypertension dyslipdaemia and helps to prevent diabetes in 52% of cases when administered over four years. The increase in frequency of stools and interference with vitamin absorption are its main side effects. Glucagon-like peptide 1, which increases insulin sensitivity and satiety, adiponectin and PPAR-gamma agonists which reduce insulin resistance and modulates adipocyte generation are the basis for future therapeutic approaches of obesity. Phosphatase inhibitors induce PPAR-gamma phosphorylation and UCP-1 expression leading to an increase in thermogenesis and reduction in appetite. PMID:15382615

  11. Pharmacology of cannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotenhermen, Franjo

    2004-01-01

    Dronabinol (Delta 9-tetrahydocannabinol, THC), the main source of the pharmacological effects caused by the use of cannabis, is an agonist to both the CB1 and the CB2 subtype of cannabinoid receptors. It is available on prescription in several countries. The non-psychotropic cannabidiol (CBD), some analogues of natural cannabinoids and their metabolites, antagonists at the cannabinoid receptors and modulators of the endogenous cannabinoid system are also promising candidates for clinical research and therapeutic uses. Cannabinoid receptors are distributed in the central nervous system and many peripheral tissues including spleen, leukocytes; reproductive, urinary and gastrointestinal tracts; endocrine glands, arteries and heart. Five endogenous cannabinoids have been detected so far, of whom anandamide and 2-arachidonylglycerol are best characterized. There is evidence that besides the two cannabinoid receptor subtypes cloned so far additional cannabinoid receptor subtypes and vanilloid receptors are involved in the complex physiological functions of the cannabinoid system that include motor coordination, memory procession, control of appetite, pain modulation and neuroprotection. Strategies to modulate their activity include inhibition of re-uptake into cells and inhibition of their degradation to increase concentration and duration of action. Properties of cannabinoids that might be of therapeutic use include analgesia, muscle relaxation, immunosuppression, anti-inflammation, anti-allergic effects, sedation, improvement of mood, stimulation of appetite, anti-emesis, lowering of intraocular pressure, bronchodilation, neuroprotection and antineoplastic effects. PMID:15159677

  12. Quality management of pharmacology and safety pharmacology studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Per; Seiler, Jürg P

    2002-01-01

    Pharmacology has traditionally been excluded from the mandatory application of good laboratory practice (GLP) principles. Consensus has been reached through the process of the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH, Topic S7A) with regard to the definitions of the different types of...... pharmacology studies (ICH S7A): primary pharmacodynamic, secondary pharmacodynamic and safety pharmacology studies, and guidance on the quality standards (expectations for GLP conformity) for these study types have been provided. Primary pharmacodynamic studies are the only study types that are fully exempt...... management should facilitate collaboration across scientific disciplines because a plethora of data, originating from basic pharmacodynamics, toxicology, kinetics, and metabolism, as well as from clinical investigations, are involved in a safety pharmacology assessment. Applying formal GLP standards to...

  13. Autophagy in cardiovascular biology

    OpenAIRE

    Lavandero, Sergio; Chiong, Mario; Rothermel, Beverly A.; Hill, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. As such, there is great interest in identifying novel mechanisms that govern the cardiovascular response to disease-related stress. First described in failing hearts, autophagy within the cardiovascular system has been widely characterized in cardiomyocytes, cardiac fibroblasts, endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, and macrophages. In all cases, a window of optimal autophagic activity appears to be critical to the mai...

  14. Cardiovascular molecular MR imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Lamb, H J; van der Meer, R. W.; Roos, A. (Anna); Bax, J J

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular molecular imaging is a rapidly evolving field of research, aiming to image and quantify molecular and cellular targets in vivo. MR imaging has some inherent properties that make it very suitable for cardiovascular molecular imaging. Until now, only a limited number of studies have been published on cardiovascular molecular imaging using MR imaging. Review In the current review, MR techniques that have already shown potential are discussed. Metabolic MR imaging can ...

  15. STUDENTS’ ATTITUDE TOWARDS DIFFERENT EVALUATION METHODS IN PHARMACOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majagi Suneel Ishwar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Literature review suggests the importance and the need of students’ feedback which may be used to effectively reform evaluation methods in medical sciences. The present study has been conducted to obtain student’s attitude (perception of towards different evaluation methods of pharmacology. The sample consisted of second phase M.B.B.S (n=108 students. Students answered 115 items/questions designed according to Likert’s five point (in agreement with items scale. These items/questions assessed student’s attitude (perception of towards different constituents of evaluation methods of pharmacology like sessional exams, traditional practical exams, objective structured practical exam (OSPE, MCQs, long essays, viva voce, pharmacy practical exercise, experimental pharmacology exercise etc in relation with various aspects of pharmacology subject like understanding, retention, learning clinical applications, mechanism of action of drugs, pharmacological actions, therapeutic uses, prescribing drugs etc. Results of the present study indicated the degree to which each evaluation method like sessional/preliminary theory exams, traditional practical exams and OSPE helps to elicit different constituents of pharmacology subject (ex: mechanism of action of drugs, therapeutic uses etc and the reason for the same is discussed. Similarly usefulness of different constituents of theory exams (MCQs, long essay etc and practical exams (spotters, pharmacy exercises etc towards eliciting the understanding pharmacology is revealed. Present study indicated the merits and demerits of different evaluation methods used in pharmacology. If any reformations/changes have to be incorporated in the evaluation methods, outcomes of this study will definitely help towards improving/modifying the evaluation methods of teaching and learning of pharmacology subject.

  16. Pharmacologic perspectives of functional selectivity by the angiotensin II type 1 receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aplin, Mark; Christensen, Gitte Lund; Hansen, Jakob Lerche

    2008-01-01

    The angiotensin II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor plays a key role in cardiovascular pathophysiology, and it is a major pharmacologic target in the treatment of many cardiovascular disorders. However, AT(1) receptor activation is also involved in adaptive responses to altered hemodynamic demands and to...... sudden injury occurring in the circulatory system. Hence, current drugs that block all AT(1) receptor actions most likely leave room for improvement. Recent developments show that two major signaling pathways used by the AT(1) receptor may be dissected by pharmacologic means. Key pathologic responses...... blockade of G protein actions and simultaneous activation of G protein-dependent or -independent signaling could therefore be desirable in certain situations. The previously unappreciated concept of "functional selectivity" makes this exact strategy feasible and may yield improved drugs for cardiovascular...

  17. Management of cardiovascular disease in patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Alexander; Skov, Lone

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Patients with psoriasis have an increased incidence and prevalence of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, and CV undertreatment in these patients is a well-established problem. The link between psoriasis and CV disease is present on a pathogenic level, as well as due to modifiable...... lifestyle factors such as smoking and alcohol abuse. AREAS COVERED: In this manuscript we describe the evidence associating psoriasis with CV disease, as well as the pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment of CV risk factors including the CV effects of anti-psoriatic therapy and vice versa. EXPERT...

  18. [Research progress of trans-cinnamaldehyde pharmacological effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-qing; Zhang, Zhan-gang; Fu, Yan; Xu, Ying

    2015-12-01

    Trans-cinnamaldehyde, the main component of volatile oil from cassia twig or Cinnamomum cassia, which is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. Trans-cinnamaldehyde is a kind olefine aldehyde of organic compounds and has many pharmacological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-bacterial, antidiabetic, anti-obesity, and neuroprotection etc. The compound has preventive and therapeutic effects on the nervous system, cardiovascular, cancer, diabetes and other diseases. Trans-cinnamaldehyde, as a preventive care of nature medicine, has great clinical and market potential. This paper gives a review about the pharmacological effects and mechanism of trans-cinnamaldehyde researched in the latest five years. We hope to provide some basic information for further research on trans-cinnamaldehyde. PMID:27141665

  19. Teaching Pharmacology by Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Sue

    1997-01-01

    Using pharmacology case studies with nursing students encourages theory-practice links and infuses real-life content. Cases provide rich qualitative data for evaluating curriculum. However, they are not a substitute for evidence-based practice. (SK)

  20. NASA 2010 Pharmacology Evidence Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the Institute of Medicine reviewed NASA's Human Research Program Evidence in assessing the Pharmacology risk identified in NASA's Human Research Program Requirements Document (PRD). Since this review there was a major reorganization of the Pharmacology discipline within the HRP, as well as a re-evaluation of the Pharmacology evidence. This panel is being asked to review the latest version of the Pharmacology Evidence Report. Specifically, this panel will: (1) Appraise the descriptions of the human health-related risk in the HRP PRD. (2) Assess the relevance and comprehensiveness of the evidence in identifying potential threats to long-term space missions. (3) Assess the associated gaps in knowledge and identify additional areas for research as necessary.

  1. A review on dronedarone:Pharmacological, pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farah Iram; Sadaf Ali; Aftab Ahmad; Shah Alam Khan; Asif Husain

    2016-01-01

    Dronedarone, a benzofuran containing chemical compound, is a derivative of amiodarone which is classified as a Class III antiarrhythmic agent. It is prescribed to the cardiovas-cular patients who have paroxysmal or persistent atrial fibrillation to lower the chances of hospitalization. Amiodarone, sotalol, procainamide dofetilide, quinidine, ibutilide, fle-cainide, and propafenone are the other useful medicinal products used to treat atrial fibrillation or cardiac arrhythmia. Dronedarone was approved for clinical use in atrial fibrillation by the Food and Drug Administration in 2009. The generic name for drone-darone is Multaq (Sanofi Aventis). This article briefly highlights the important pharma-cological, pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of dronedarone.

  2. [Pharmacology of bone resorption inhibitor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menuki, Kunitaka; Sakai, Akinori

    2015-10-01

    Currently, bone resorption inhibitor is mainly used for osteoporosis. A number of these agents have been developed. These pharmacological action are various. Bisphosphonate inhibit functions of the osteoclasts by inducing apoptosis. On the one hand, RANK-ligand inhibitor and selective estrogen receptor modulator inhibit formation of osteoclasts. It is important to understand these pharmacological action for the selection of the appropriate medicine. PMID:26529923

  3. Sex Differences in the Developmental Origins of Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Intapad, Suttira; Ojeda, Norma B.; Dasinger, John Henry; Alexander, Barbara T.

    2014-01-01

    The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) proposes that adverse events during early life program an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Experimental models provide proof of concept but also indicate that insults during early life program sex differences in adult blood pressure and cardiovascular risk. This review will highlight the potential mechanisms that contribute to the etiology of sex differences in the developmental programming of cardiovascular disease.

  4. Biomarkers of cardiovascular stress in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeder, Micha T; Mueller, Christian; Schoch, Otto D; Ammann, Peter; Rickli, Hans

    2016-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep-related breathing disorder associated with "cardiovascular stress", i.e. cardiovascular risk factors, cardiovascular diseases, and an increased risk of heart failure, stroke, and death. Experimental and clinical studies have characterized potential underlying mechanisms including biventricular dysfunction, atherosclerosis, and arrhythmia. Assessment of these cardiovascular features of OSA requires a spectrum of clinical tools including ECG, echocardiography, exercise testing, and angiography. In contrast to many cardiovascular diseases, the role of blood biomarkers to characterize cardiovascular function and cardiovascular risk in OSA is poorly defined. In the present review we summarize the available data on biomarkers potentially providing information on cardiovascular features in OSA patients without overt cardiovascular disease. The vast majority of studies on biomarkers of cardiovascular stress in OSA evaluated B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP)/N-terminal-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and cardiac troponins (cTn). Although some studies found significant associations between these cardiac biomarkers and the presence and severity of OSA, data remain conflicting. Also, the detailed pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the link between OSA and hemodynamic cardiac stress (BNP/NT-proBNP) and cardiomyocyte damage (cTn) are poorly understood. Major research efforts are required to establish the clinical role of cardiovascular biomarkers in patients with OSA. PMID:27380998

  5. Lifestyle in Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.O. Younge (John)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Globally, the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still increasing. However, in recent decades, better treatment modalities have led to less cardiovascular related deaths. After years of research, we now generally accept that lifestyle factors are the most importa

  6. Cardiovascular manifestations in hyperthyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Vairamani Kandan; Sathyamurthy P; Rajkumar M; Lavanya Narayanan

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is well known that thyroid hormone directly affects the heart and peripheral vascular system. In hyperthyroidism, cardiovascular manifestations are frequent findings. Atrial arrhythmias, limitations in exercise tolerance, and congestive heart failure were reported to occur more common in older patients as a result of hyperthyroidism. Cardiovascular signs of hyperthyroidism include tachycardia, widened pulse pressure, marked increase in cardiac output with impaired cardiovascula...

  7. Radiopharmaceuticals in cardiovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high incidence of cardiovascular disorders and the attendant morbidity and mortality have encouraged the development of new radiopharmaceuticals for the diagnosis and localisation of coronary diseases. Myocardial perfusion imaging is an invaluable tool for the demonstration of transient ischemia and infarction in heart and identification of viable and non-viable myocardial tissue. Thallium chloride (Tl-201) is the agent currently in wide use but its drawbacks have been well recognised. Hence tremendous amount of research work has been carried out to develop a suitable Tc-99m radiopharmaceutical for this purpose which has resulted in the introduction of two Tc-99m labelled radiopharmaceuticals HEXAMIBI and BATO. These are being tried as myocardial imaging agents these days and the choice amongst these depends on concrete clinical situation. The experimental work involving the synthesis of ligand MIBI, formulation into freeze dried KIT form, quality control procedure, biodistribution studies and finally clinical evaluation of locally produced KIT in human volunteers has now been reported here. Our KIT has been produced for the first time in Pakistan and has been tried on forty five patients in Nuclear Medical Centre, AFIP (Rawalpindi). The results obtained are comparable to those of Ti-201 with a slightly higher liver background in case of MIBI but because of the easy availability MIBI has become agent of choice for myocardial perfusion studies. (author)

  8. Triglycerides and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Varbo, Anette

    2014-01-01

    cholesterol might not cause cardiovascular disease as originally thought has now generated renewed interest in raised concentrations of triglycerides. This renewed interest has also been driven by epidemiological and genetic evidence supporting raised triglycerides, remnant cholesterol, or triglyceride......-rich lipoproteins as an additional cause of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Triglycerides can be measured in the non-fasting or fasting states, with concentrations of 2-10 mmol/L conferring increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and concentrations greater than 10 mmol/L conferring increased risk...... of acute pancreatitis and possibly cardiovascular disease. Although randomised trials showing cardiovascular benefit of triglyceride reduction are scarce, new triglyceride-lowering drugs are being developed, and large-scale trials have been initiated that will hopefully provide conclusive evidence...

  9. Preventing cardiovascular events with empagliflozin: at what cost?

    OpenAIRE

    Naci, Huseyin; Basu, Sanjay; Yudkin, John S.

    2015-01-01

    The EMPA-REG OUTCOME study,1 as the first randomised trial to show that a glucose-lowering intervention was associated with reduced cardiovascular events,2 raises important questions for policy makers. Chief among these questions is whether the detected effect size produces a cost-effective risk reduction from the studied pharmacological approach. The study has undoubtedly brought good news for the trial funders: analysts predict that its findings will propel empagliflozin ahead of other gluc...

  10. Aspirin in Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Events: Does Market Failure Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Roger Lee Mendoza

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Against the backdrop of the 2009 scientific studies qualifying the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular benefits of aspirin, two interrelated questions are raised for investigation in this study. First, why may the government intervene in an otherwise private transaction between physician and patient and between drug manufacturer and buyer, when it involves contentious pharmacological information? Second, does government intervention make a difference in what these transactin...

  11. Feasibility of perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance in paediatric patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kellenberger Christian; Schwitter Juerg; Buechel Emanuela; Balmer Christian; Bauersfeld Urs

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Aims As coronary artery disease may also occur during childhood in some specific conditions, we sought to assess the feasibility and accuracy of perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in paediatric patients. Methods and results First-pass perfusion CMR studies were performed under pharmacological stress with adenosine and by using a hybrid echo-planar pulse sequence with slice-selective saturation recovery preparation. Fifty-six perfusion CMR examinations were performed in...

  12. C-reactive protein is a mediator of cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Bisoendial; S.M. Boekholdt; M. Vergeer; E.S.G. Stroes; J.J.P. Kastelein

    2010-01-01

    C-reactive protein is postulated to embody an index that can reflect cardiovascular risk and can be used to independently predict major cardiovascular events and mortality. On the other hand, credible experimental data have become available that demonstrate the abundant presence of C-reactive protei

  13. Cardiovascular responses to hypogravic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, H.

    1983-01-01

    The cardiovascular deconditioning observed during and after space flight is characterized in a review of human space and simulation studies and animal simulations. The various simulation techniques (horizontal bed rest, head-down tilt, and water immersion in man, and immobilization of animals) are examined, and sample results are presented in graphs. Countermeasures such as exercise regimens, fluid replacement, drugs, venous pooling, G-suits, oscillating beds, electrostimulation of muscles, lower-body negative pressure, body-surface cooling, and hypoxia are reviewed and found to be generally ineffective or unreliable. The need for future space experimentation in both humans and animals is indicated.

  14. Arterial stiffness, central hemodynamics, and cardiovascular risk in hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palatini P

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Paolo Palatini1, Edoardo Casiglia1, Jerzy Gąsowski2, Jerzy Głuszek3, Piotr Jankowski4, Krzysztof Narkiewicz5, Francesca Saladini1, Katarzyna Stolarz-Skrzypek4, Valérie Tikhonoff1, Luc Van Bortel6, Wiktoria Wojciechowska4, Kalina Kawecka-Jaszcz41Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Padova, Padua, Italy; 2Department of Internal Medicine and Gerontology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland; 3Department of Arterial Hypertension, University Hospital, Poznan, Poland; 4First Department of Cardiology and Hypertension, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland; 5Department of Hypertension and Diabetology, Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland; 6Heymans Institute of Pharmacology, Ghent University, Ghent, BelgiumAbstract: This review summarizes several scientific contributions at the recent Satellite Symposium of the European Society of Hypertension, held in Milan, Italy. Arterial stiffening and its hemodynamic consequences can be easily and reliably measured using a range of noninvasive techniques. However, like blood pressure (BP measurements, arterial stiffness should be measured carefully under standardized patient conditions. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity has been proposed as the gold standard for arterial stiffness measurement and is a well recognized predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcome. Systolic BP and pulse pressure in the ascending aorta may be lower than pressures measured in the upper limb, especially in young individuals. A number of studies suggest closer correlation of end-organ damage with central BP than with peripheral BP, and central BP may provide additional prognostic information regarding cardiovascular risk. Moreover, BP-lowering drugs can have differential effects on central aortic pressures and hemodynamics compared with brachial BP. This may explain the greater beneficial effect provided by newer antihypertensive drugs beyond peripheral BP

  15. Multiple sclerosis: general features and pharmacologic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune, inflammatory and desmyelinization disease central nervous system (CNS) of unknown etiology and critical evolution. There different etiological hypotheses talking of a close interrelation among predisposing genetic factors and dissimilar environmental factors, able to give raise to autoimmune response at central nervous system level. Hypothesis of autoimmune pathogeny is based on study of experimental models, and findings in biopsies of affected patients by disease. Accumulative data report that the oxidative stress plays a main role in pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. Oxygen reactive species generated by macrophages has been involved as mediators of demyelinization and of axon damage, in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and strictly in multiple sclerosis. Disease diagnosis is difficult because of there is not a confirmatory unique test. Management of it covers the treatment of acute relapses, disease modification, and symptoms management. These features require an individualized approach, base on evolution of this affection, and tolerability of treatments. In addition to diet, among non-pharmacologic treatments for multiple sclerosis it is recommended physical therapy. Besides, some clinical assays have been performed in which we used natural extracts, nutrition supplements, and other agents with promising results. Pharmacology allowed neurologists with a broad array of proved effectiveness drugs; however, results of research laboratories in past years make probable that therapeutical possibilities increase notably in future. (Author)

  16. The endothelin system as a therapeutic target in cardiovascular disease: great expectations or bleak house?

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkby, N S; Hadoke, P.W.F.; Bagnall, A J; Webb, D J

    2007-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that the potent vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 (ET-1) contributes to the pathogenesis of a variety of cardiovascular diseases. As such, pharmacological manipulation of the ET system might represent a promising therapeutic goal. Many clinical trials have assessed the potential of ET receptor antagonists in cardiovascular disease, the most positive of which have resulted in the licensing of the mixed ET receptor antagonist bosentan, and the selective ETA receptor an...

  17. Molecular cardiovascular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although huge and long-lasting research efforts have been spent on the development of new diagnostic techniques investigating cardiovascular diseases, still fundamental challenges exist; the main challenge being the diagnosis of a suspected or known coronary artery disease or its consequences (myocardial infarction, heart failure etc.). Beside morphological techniques, functional imaging modalities are available in clinical diagnostic algorithms, whereas molecular cardiovascular imaging techniques are still under development. This review summarizes clinical-diagnostical challenges of modern cardiovascular medicine as well as the potential of new molecular imaging techniques to face these. (orig.)

  18. The genus Crataegus: chemical and pharmacological perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional drugs have become a subject of world importance, with both medicinal and economical implications. A regular and widespread use of herbs throughout the world has increased serious concerns over their quality, safety and efficacy. Thus, a proper scientific evidence or assessment has become the criteria for acceptance of traditional health claims. Plants of the genus Crataegus, Rosaceae, are widely distributed and have long been used in folk medicine for the treatment of various ailments such as heart (cardiovascular disorders, central nervous system, immune system, eyes, reproductive system, liver, kidney etc. It also exhibits wide range of cytotoxic, gastroprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-HIV and antimicrobial activities. Phytochemicals like oligomeric procyanidins, flavonoids, triterpenes, polysaccharides, catecholamines have been identified in the genus and many of these have been evaluated for biological activities. This review presents comprehensive information on the chemistry and pharmacology of the genus together with the traditional uses of many of its plants. In addition, this review discusses the clinical trials and regulatory status of various Crataegus plants along with the scope for future research in this aspect.

  19. Non-pharmacological management of hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatt Surya

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a silent killer. Indians are racially predisposed to cardiovascular disease, and the increasing burden of hypertension has only added to the problem. Economic constraints and the allure of additional benefits without adverse effects have made lifestyle modifications an attractive proposition in developing and developed countries alike. Blood pressure is a continuum and any increase above optimal confers additional independent risk of vascular disease, even in ranges previously considered normal. While antihypertensive agents have been used for those patients with blood pressure above the traditional cutoff, there has been increasing emphasis on the prevention and treatment of hypertension by non-pharmacological means, termed ′lifestyle modifications.′ A MEDLINE search was done for relevant references with emphasis on original studies, randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses. Lifestyle modifications that effectively lower blood pressure are increased physical activity, weight loss, limited alcohol consumption, reduced sodium intake and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet. Lifestyle modification is recommended as initial therapy in stage 1 hypertension before initiation of drug therapy and as an adjunct to medication in persons already on drug therapy. In pre-hypertensives, it can reduce the incidence of hypertension and lower end-organ damage. It is emphasized that simple advice from physicians can have a positive influence on patients′ motivation to make lifestyle changes.

  20. Safety pharmacology — Current and emerging concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamdam, Junnat; Sethu, Swaminathan; Smith, Trevor; Alfirevic, Ana; Alhaidari, Mohammad [MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Atkinson, Jeffrey [Lorraine University Pharmacolor Consultants Nancy PCN (France); Ayala, Mimieveshiofuo; Box, Helen; Cross, Michael [MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Delaunois, Annie [UCB Pharma (Belgium); Dermody, Ailsa; Govindappa, Karthik [MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Guillon, Jean-Michel [Sanofi-aventis (France); Jenkins, Rosalind [MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Kenna, Gerry [Astra-Zeneca (United Kingdom); Lemmer, Björn [Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg (Germany); Meecham, Ken [Huntingdon Life Sciences (United Kingdom); Olayanju, Adedamola [MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Pestel, Sabine [Boehringer-Ingelheim (Germany); Rothfuss, Andreas [Roche (Switzerland); and others

    2013-12-01

    Safety pharmacology (SP) is an essential part of the drug development process that aims to identify and predict adverse effects prior to clinical trials. SP studies are described in the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) S7A and S7B guidelines. The core battery and supplemental SP studies evaluate effects of a new chemical entity (NCE) at both anticipated therapeutic and supra-therapeutic exposures on major organ systems, including cardiovascular, central nervous, respiratory, renal and gastrointestinal. This review outlines the current practices and emerging concepts in SP studies including frontloading, parallel assessment of core battery studies, use of non-standard species, biomarkers, and combining toxicology and SP assessments. Integration of the newer approaches to routine SP studies may significantly enhance the scope of SP by refining and providing mechanistic insight to potential adverse effects associated with test compounds. - Highlights: • SP — mandatory non-clinical risk assessments performed during drug development. • SP organ system studies ensure the safety of clinical participants in FiH trials. • Frontloading in SP facilitates lead candidate drug selection. • Emerging trends: integrating SP-Toxicological endpoints; combined core battery tests.

  1. Safety pharmacology — Current and emerging concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety pharmacology (SP) is an essential part of the drug development process that aims to identify and predict adverse effects prior to clinical trials. SP studies are described in the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) S7A and S7B guidelines. The core battery and supplemental SP studies evaluate effects of a new chemical entity (NCE) at both anticipated therapeutic and supra-therapeutic exposures on major organ systems, including cardiovascular, central nervous, respiratory, renal and gastrointestinal. This review outlines the current practices and emerging concepts in SP studies including frontloading, parallel assessment of core battery studies, use of non-standard species, biomarkers, and combining toxicology and SP assessments. Integration of the newer approaches to routine SP studies may significantly enhance the scope of SP by refining and providing mechanistic insight to potential adverse effects associated with test compounds. - Highlights: • SP — mandatory non-clinical risk assessments performed during drug development. • SP organ system studies ensure the safety of clinical participants in FiH trials. • Frontloading in SP facilitates lead candidate drug selection. • Emerging trends: integrating SP-Toxicological endpoints; combined core battery tests

  2. Pioneer in Behavioral Pharmacology: A Tribute to Joseph V. Brady

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, James E.

    2008-01-01

    The contributions of Joseph V. Brady to behavioral pharmacology span more than 50 years and range from early studies using the Estes-Skinner ("conditioned emotional response") procedure to examine drug effects and various physiological processes in experimental animals to the implementation of mobile methadone treatment services and to small group…

  3. A Unified Point Process Probabilistic Framework to Assess Heartbeat Dynamics and Autonomic Cardiovascular Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe eChen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, time-varying inhomogeneous point process models have been introduced for assessment of instantaneous heartbeat dynamics as well as specific cardiovascular control mechanisms and hemodynamics. Assessment of the model's statistics is established through the Wiener-Volterra theory and a multivariate autoregressive (AR structure. A variety of instantaneous cardiovascular metrics, such as heart rate (HR, heart rate variability (HRV, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA, and baroreceptor-cardiac reflex (baroreflex sensitivity (BRS, are derived within a parametric framework and instantaneously updated with adaptive and local maximum likelihood estimation algorithms. Inclusion of second order nonlinearities, with subsequent bispectral quantification in the frequency domain, further allows for definition of instantaneous metrics of nonlinearity. We here organize a comprehensive review of the devised methods as applied to experimental recordings from healthy subjects during propofol anesthesia. Collective results reveal interesting dynamic trends across the different pharmacological interventions operated within each anesthesia session, confirming the ability of the algorithm to track important changes in cardiorespiratory elicited interactions, and pointing at our mathematical approach as a promising monitoring tool for an accurate, noninvasive assessment in clinical practice.

  4. Astaxanthin in Cardiovascular Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Fassett

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and inflammation are established processes contributing to cardiovascular disease caused by atherosclerosis. However, antioxidant therapies tested in cardiovascular disease such as vitamin E, C and β-carotene have proved unsuccessful at reducing cardiovascular events and mortality. Although these outcomes may reflect limitations in trial design, new, more potent antioxidant therapies are being pursued. Astaxanthin, a carotenoid found in microalgae, fungi, complex plants, seafood, flamingos and quail is one such agent. It has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Limited, short duration and small sample size studies have assessed the effects of astaxanthin on oxidative stress and inflammation biomarkers and have investigated bioavailability and safety. So far no significant adverse events have been observed and biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation are attenuated with astaxanthin supplementation. Experimental investigations in a range of species using a cardiac ischaemia-reperfusion model demonstrated cardiac muscle preservation when astaxanthin is administered either orally or intravenously prior to the induction of ischaemia. Human clinical cardiovascular studies using astaxanthin therapy have not yet been reported. On the basis of the promising results of experimental cardiovascular studies and the physicochemical and antioxidant properties and safety profile of astaxanthin, clinical trials should be undertaken.

  5. Teaching Cardiovascular Integrations with Computer Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Nils S.; Campbell, Kenneth B.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a computer-based instructional unit in cardiovascular physiology. The program (which employs simulated laboratory experimental techniques with a problem-solving format is designed to supplement an animal laboratory and to offer students an integrative approach to physiology through use of microcomputers. Also presents an overview of the…

  6. PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF PROTOCATECHUIC ACID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abida Kalsoom; Rashid, Rehana; Fatima, Nighat; Mahmood, Sadaf; Mir, Sadullah; Khan, Sara; Jabeen, Nyla; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2015-01-01

    Protocatechuic acid (3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, PCA) is a simple phenolic acid. It is found in a large variety of edible plants and possesses various pharmacological activities. This article aims to review the modern trends in phytochemical isolation and extraction of PCA from plants and other natural resources. Moreover, this article also encompasses pharmacological and biological activities of PCA. It is well known to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-hyperglycemia, antibacterial, anticancer, anti-ageing, anti-athro- genic, anti-tumoral, anti-asthma, antiulcer, antispasmodic and neurological properties. PMID:26647619

  7. Depression and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Steven M; Rumsfeld, John S

    2015-10-01

    There is a wealth of evidence linking depression to increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and worse outcomes among patients with known CVD. In addition, there are safe and effective treatments for depression. Despite this, depression remains under-recognized and undertreated in patients at risk for or living with CVD. In this review, we first summarize the evidence linking depression to increased risk of CVD and worse patient outcomes. We then review the mechanisms by which depression may contribute to cardiovascular risk and poor cardiovascular outcomes. We then summarize prior studies of depression treatment on cardiovascular outcomes. Finally, we offer guidance in the identification and management of depression among CVD populations. Given that 1 in 4 CVD patients has concurrent depression, application of these best-practices will assist providers in achieving optimal outcomes for their CVD patients. PMID:25850976

  8. Cardiovascular modeling and diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangas, L.J.; Keller, P.E.; Hashem, S.; Kouzes, R.T. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In this paper, a novel approach to modeling and diagnosing the cardiovascular system is introduced. A model exhibits a subset of the dynamics of the cardiovascular behavior of an individual by using a recurrent artificial neural network. Potentially, a model will be incorporated into a cardiovascular diagnostic system. This approach is unique in that each cardiovascular model is developed from physiological measurements of an individual. Any differences between the modeled variables and the variables of an individual at a given time are used for diagnosis. This approach also exploits sensor fusion to optimize the utilization of biomedical sensors. The advantage of sensor fusion has been demonstrated in applications including control and diagnostics of mechanical and chemical processes.

  9. Violence and Cardiovascular Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suglia, Shakira F.; Sapra, Katherine J.; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2014-01-01

    Context Violence, experienced in either childhood or adulthood, has been associated with physical health outcomes including cardiovascular disease. However, the consistency of the existing literature has not been evaluated. Evidence acquisition In 2013, the authors conducted a PubMed and Web of Science review of peer reviewed articles published prior to August 2013 on the relation between violence exposure, experienced in either childhood or adulthood, and cardiovascular outcomes. To meet inclusion criteria, articles had to present estimates for the relation between violence exposure and cardiovascular outcomes (hypertension, blood pressure, stroke, coronary disease, or myocardial infarction) adjusted for demographic factors. Articles focusing on violence from TV, video games, natural disasters, terrorism, or war were excluded. Evidence synthesis The initial search yielded 2,273 articles; after removing duplicates and applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 30 articles were selected for review. A consistent positive relation was noted on the association between violence experienced during childhood and cardiovascular outcomes in adulthood (i.e., hypertension, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction). Associations across genders with varying types of violence exposure were also noted. By contrast, findings were mixed on the relation between adult violence exposure and cardiovascular outcome. Conclusions Despite varying definitions of violence exposure and cardiovascular endpoints, a consistent relation exists between childhood violence exposure, largely assessed retrospectively, and cardiovascular endpoints. Findings are mixed for the adult violence–cardiovascular health relation. The cross-sectional nature of most adult studies and the reliance of self-reported outcomes can potentially be attributed to the lack of findings among adult violence exposure studies. PMID:25599905

  10. Cardiovascular Considerations in Antidepressant Therapy: An Evidence-Based Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibeh Yekehtaz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a definite correlation between cardiovascular diseases and depressive disorders. Nevertheless, many aspects of this association have yet to be fully elucidated. Up to half of coronary artery disease patients are liable to suffer from some depressive symptoms, with approximately 20% receiving a diagnosis of major depressive disorders. Pharmacotherapy is a key factor in the management of major depression, not least in patients with chronic diseases who are likely to fail to show proper compliance and response to non-pharmacological interventions. Antidepressants are not deemed completely safe. Indeed, numerous side effects have been reported with the administration of antidepressants, among which cardiovascular adverse events are of paramount importance owing to their disabling and life-threatening nature. We aimed to re-examine some of the salient issues in antidepressant therapy vis-à-vis cardiovascular considerations, which should be taken into account when prescribing such medications.

  11. The impact of mast cells on cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritikou, Eva; Kuiper, Johan; Kovanen, Petri T; Bot, Ilze

    2016-05-01

    Mast cells comprise an innate immune cell population, which accumulates in tissues proximal to the outside environment and, upon activation, augments the progression of immunological reactions through the release and diffusion of either pre-formed or newly generated mediators. The released products of mast cells include histamine, proteases, as well as a variety of cytokines, chemokines and growth factors, which act on the surrounding microenvironment thereby shaping the immune responses triggered in various diseased states. Mast cells have also been detected in the arterial wall and are implicated in the onset and progression of numerous cardiovascular diseases. Notably, modulation of distinct mast cell actions using genetic and pharmacological approaches highlights the crucial role of this cell type in cardiovascular syndromes. The acquired evidence renders mast cells and their mediators as potential prognostic markers and therapeutic targets in a broad spectrum of pathophysiological conditions related to cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25959384

  12. A review on protocatechuic Acid and its pharmacological potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkar, Sahil; Bais, Souravh

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoids and polyphenols are heterocyclic molecules that have been associated with beneficial effects on human health, such as reducing the risk of various diseases like cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular and brain diseases. Protocatechuic acid (PCA) is a type of widely distributed naturally occurring phenolic acid. PCA has structural similarity with gallic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, and syringic acid which are well-known antioxidant compounds. More than 500 plants contain PCA as active constituents imparting various pharmacological activity and these effects are due to their antioxidant activities, along with other possible mechanisms, such as anti-inflammatory properties and interaction with several enzymes. Over the past two decades, there have been an increasing number of publications on polyphenols and flavonoids, which demonstrate the importance of understanding the chemistry behind the antioxidant activities of both natural and synthesized compounds, considering the benefits from their dietary ingestion as well as pharmacological use. This work aims to review the pharmacological effects of PCA molecules in humans and the structural aspects that contribute to these effects. PMID:25006494

  13. Pharmacology Experiments on the Computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    A computer program that replaces a set of pharmacology and physiology laboratory experiments on live animals or isolated organs is described and illustrated. Five experiments are simulated: dose-effect relationships on smooth muscle, blood pressure and catecholamines, neuromuscular signal transmission, acetylcholine and the circulation, and…

  14. The pharmacological activities of (-)-anonaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hsing-Tan; Wu, Hui-Ming; Chen, Hsin-Liang; Liu, Chi-Ming; Chen, Chung-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Several species of Magnoliaceae and Annonaceae are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. (-)-Anonaine, isolated from several species of Magnoliaceae and Annonaceae, presents antiplasmodial, antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidation, anticancer, antidepression, and vasorelaxant activity. This article provides an overview of the pharmacological functions of (-)-anonaine. PMID:23857128

  15. Pharmacologic Treatment for Temporomandibular Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dym, Harry; Bowler, Dustin; Zeidan, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Pharmacologic agents play an integral role in the overall management of temporomandibular joint disorder. The general dentist should be familiar with the different classes of drugs currently in use for dealing with this often complex medical/dental problem. PMID:27040290

  16. Systems pharmacology of complex diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Jens; Zhao, Shan; Iyengar, Ravi

    2011-01-01

    Systems pharmacology approaches can be used to identify and predict drug-induced adverse events. Disease-centered networks within the human interactome allow us to predict which drugs may produce a similar pathophysiology. Such predictions can be tested in animal models.

  17. The Pharmacological Potential of Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Lindequist

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This review describes pharmacologically active compounds from mushrooms. Compounds and complex substances with antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, antiallergic, immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory, antiatherogenic, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective and central activities are covered, focusing on the review of recent literature. The production of mushrooms or mushroom compounds is discussed briefly.

  18. From unwitnessed fatality to witnessed rescue: Pharmacologic intervention in sudden unexpected death in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richerson, George B; Boison, Detlev; Faingold, Carl L; Ryvlin, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) have been difficult to define, as most cases occur unwitnessed, and physiologic recordings have been obtained in only a handful of cases. However, recent data obtained from human cases and experimental studies in animal models have brought us closer to identifying potential mechanisms. Theories of SUDEP should be able to explain how a seizure starting in the forebrain can sometimes lead to changes in brainstem cardiorespiratory control mechanisms. Herein we focus on three major themes of work on the causes of SUDEP. First, evidence is reviewed identifying postictal hypoventilation as a major contributor to the cause of death. Second, data are discussed that brainstem serotonin and adenosine pathways may be involved, as well as how they may contribute. Finally, parallels are drawn between SIDS and SUDEP, and we highlight similarities pointing to the possibility of shared pathophysiology involving combined failure of respiratory and cardiovascular control mechanisms. Knowledge about the causes of SUDEP may lead to potential pharmacologic approaches for prevention. We end by describing how translation of this work may result in future applications to clinical care. PMID:26749015

  19. Direct renin inhibition: from pharmacological innovation to novel therapeutic opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Massimo; Pontremoli, Roberto; Borghi, Claudio

    2011-09-01

    Nowadays, social and economic burden related to cardiovascular and renal diseases still remains extremely high, although there has been a dramatic improvement of diagnostic options and therapeutic strategies reported in the last 30 years. The progressively higher attention towards integrated pharmacological strategies, which are able to interfere with different pathophysiological mechanisms, has certainly led to better control of cardiovascular and renal diseases. In view of the large involvement of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the vast majority of pathophysiological mechanisms leading to the development and progression of cardiovascular and renal diseases, it can be easily understood why it has been long viewed as the 'ideal' target for the pharmacological treatment of several clinical conditions. Recently, besides the well known therapeutic approaches for RAS blockade, based on the use of ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists (angiotensin receptor blockers [ARBs]) and aldosterone antagonists, both the scientific and medical community have focused their attention on a novel therapeutic option. In 2007, aliskiren, the first compound of a new drug class, the direct renin inhibitors (DRIs), has become available for clinical use, being a novel and innovative therapeutic option. Aliskiren is able to interfere with the enzymatic activity of renin by blocking the catalytic site of the molecule and inducing an 'upstream' RAS blockade. This leads to a modulation of the biological properties of renin, thus resulting in the missed cleavage of angiotensinogen to angiotensin I. Aliskiren has demonstrated antihypertensive efficacy comparable or even superior to that of other classes of antihypertensive drugs, both in monotherapy and in combination therapies. Its safety and tolerability are comparable with those of other antihypertensive drug classes and almost similar to placebo. In addition, it has been demonstrated to reduce progression of

  20. Marathon run: cardiovascular adaptation and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predel, Hans-Georg

    2014-11-21

    The first marathon run as an athletic event took place in the context of the Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens, Greece. Today, participation in a 'marathon run' has become a global phenomenon attracting young professional athletes as well as millions of mainly middle-aged amateur athletes worldwide each year. One of the main motives for these amateur marathon runners is the expectation that endurance exercise (EE) delivers profound beneficial health effects. However, with respect to the cardiovascular system, a controversial debate has emerged whether the marathon run itself is healthy or potentially harmful to the cardiovascular system, especially in middle-aged non-elite male amateur runners. In this cohort, exercise-induced increases in cardiac biomarkers-troponin and brain natriuretic peptide-and acute functional cardiac alterations have been observed and interpreted as potential cardiac damage. Furthermore, in the cohort of 40- to 65-year-old males engaged in intensive EE, a significant risk for the development of atrial fibrillation has been identified. Fortunately, recent studies demonstrated a normalization of the cardiac biomarkers and the functional alterations within a short time frame. Therefore, these alterations may be perceived as physiological myocardial reactions to the strenuous exercise and the term 'cardiac fatigue' has been coined. This interpretation is supported by a recent analysis of 10.9 million marathon runners demonstrating that there was no significantly increased overall risk of cardiac arrest during long-distance running races. In conclusion, intensive and long-lasting EE, e.g. running a full-distance Marathon, results in high cardiovascular strain whose clinical relevance especially for middle-aged and older athletes is unclear and remains a matter of controversy. Furthermore, there is a need for evidence-based recommendations with respect to medical screening and training strategies especially in male amateur runners over the age of

  1. Pharmacologic Approaches to Weight Management: Recent Gains and Shortfalls in Combating Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Katherine H; Kumar, Rekha B; Igel, Leon I; Aronne, Louis J

    2016-07-01

    Obesity is a growing epidemic in the USA with over one third of adults presently classified as obese. Obesity-related comorbidities include many leading causes of preventable death such as heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and certain types of cancer. Modest weight loss of 5-10 % of body weight is sufficient to produce clinically relevant improvements in cardiovascular disease risk factors among patients with overweight and obesity. Until recently, there were limited pharmacologic options approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat obesity. Phentermine/topiramate ER and lorcaserin were approved in 2012, and naltrexone SR/bupropion SR and liraglutide 3.0 mg were approved in 2014. This article reviews recent literature in the field of Obesity Medicine and highlights important findings from clinical trials. Future directions in the pharmacologic management of obesity are presented along with new diabetes medications that promote weight loss and reduce cardiovascular mortality. PMID:27181165

  2. EVALUACIÓN DE LA OPINIÓN DE ESTUDIANTES DE FARMACIA SOBRE LA IMPLEMENTACIÓN DE ALTERNATIVAS BASADAS EN COMPUTADOR PARA EL PROCESO ENSEÑANZA - APRENDIZAJE DE LA FARMACOLOGÍA EXPERIMENTAL Pharmacy student`s opinion about the implementation of computer based alternatives on experimental pharmacology learning-teaching process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina González Guevara

    2008-03-01

    relevantes entre los dos recursos de enseñanza.Background. Nowadays the usage of lab animals in education is being eliminated all around the world. Other strategies are looked for to replace it because there is not any evidence that students trained using other alternatives are less qualified. Objective. The purpose of this research work was to contrast the opinion of the pharmacology students of Pharmacy, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, about the implementation of interactive software compared to the isolated tissue technique. Material and methods. This study compared teaching material which uses lab animals to another one based on an interactive software for the isolated tissue of rodent intestine by means of a survey applied to the seven semester students. Results. Student's opinion, in scale 1 to 5, is that there are advantages of the isolated tissue technique over the interactive software (p<0,05 with respect to information contribution (median 5:4 respectively, knowledge integration (median 5:4 and unexpected results interpretation (median 4:3. In relation to obtained information clarity, student's opinion shows that there aren't differences between the two alternatives (median 4. The use of laboratory animal implies an ethical cost (67% that doesn't exist with the use of interactive software (27%. Finally, is high the acceptance of interactive software as an effective tool in pharmacology learning (77% and is noticeable the student's interest about this alternative being used in other courses (79%. Conclusion. Even though some components of the practice can be lost using the interactive software; real assembly knowledge, confrontation to the difficulties of experimentation with alive beings and approximation to life dynamic process. The students think that there are not relevant differences between this two teaching materials.

  3. Paradoxical pharmacology: turning our pharmacological models upside down.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Clive

    2011-04-01

    Paradoxical pharmacology is a term first suggested by Richard Bond to refer to intriguing observations that chronic use of some drug types can have the opposite biological effect(s) to those seen following acute administration of the same drug. A good example of 'paradoxical pharmacology' is the research Richard has pioneered showing that whereas acute administration of β-blockers is contraindicated in the treatment of asthma, chronic use of certain β-blockers can have therapeutic benefit. It would appear that those β-blockers that can act as inverse agonists at the β2 receptor particularly show this paradoxical effect and the findings of Richard's research not only challenge the dogma of the treatment of asthma but also challenge many of the pharmacological principles of ligand/receptor interactions established by Sir James Black and others. In this paper, I discuss Richard's efforts to evaluate the chronic effects of β-blockers in the airways and how this research caught the imagination of Sir James Black. PMID:21458081

  4. Progestins and cardiovascular risk markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitruk-Ware, R

    2000-01-01

    Several risks are attributed to progestins as a class-effect; however, the progestins used in hormone replacement therapy (HRT) have varying pharmacologic properties and do not induce the same side effects. Natural progesterone (P) and some of its derivatives, such as the 19-norprogesterones, do not exert any androgenic effect and, hence, have no negative effect on the lipids. On the other hand, the 19-nortestosterone derivatives and even some 17-hydroxyprogesterones have a partial androgenic effect, which may explain some of the negative effects observed on surrogate markers of cardiovascular risk. The relevance of the lipid changes induced by sex steroids has been questioned, and studies in the female cynomolgous monkey have not shown a direct relationship to atherosclerosis. Results suggest that estrogens (E) have antiatherogenic effects and that P does not reverse the beneficial effect of estradiol. Also, sex hormones modulate the vasomotor response of the main arteries. E preserves the normal endothelium-mediated dilation of coronary arteries, and P does not reverse this potential cardioprotective mechanism. In the same animal model, the addition of cyclic or continuous medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) to E inhibited vasodilatation by 50%, while nomegestrol acetate did not diminish the E-induced vasodilatation. Not all progestins act similarly on vasomotion or affect cardiovascular risk factors in the same way. Progestins, such as MPA or norethisterone acetate (NETA), exert a partial detrimental effect on the beneficial actions of estrogens with regard to lipid changes, atheroma development, or vasomotion. In contrast, progesterone itself does not have this inhibitory effect on lipid changes and vascular reactivity in animal models or on exercise-induced myocardial ischemia in humans. Nonandrogenic molecules of P itself and of derivatives, such as 19-norprogesterones, would appear neutral on the vessels. Several ongoing randomized controlled trials of HRT are

  5. Gender differences in developmental programming of cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasinger, John Henry; Alexander, Barbara T

    2016-03-01

    Hypertension is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death worldwide. Although multiple factors contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension, studies by Dr David Barker reporting an inverse relationship between birth weight and blood pressure led to the hypothesis that slow growth during fetal life increased blood pressure and the risk for cardiovascular disease in later life. It is now recognized that growth during infancy and childhood, in addition to exposure to adverse influences during fetal life, contributes to the developmental programming of increased cardiovascular risk. Numerous epidemiological studies support the link between influences during early life and later cardiovascular health; experimental models provide proof of principle and indicate that numerous mechanisms contribute to the developmental origins of chronic disease. Sex has an impact on the severity of cardiovascular risk in experimental models of developmental insult. Yet, few studies examine the influence of sex on blood pressure and cardiovascular health in low-birth weight men and women. Fewer still assess the impact of ageing on sex differences in programmed cardiovascular risk. Thus, the aim of the present review is to highlight current data about sex differences in the developmental programming of blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. PMID:26814204

  6. Pharmacology teaching and its reform in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-dong LI; Yuan ZHANG; Cai-li ZHANG; Xiu-mei ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    The general situation of pharmacology teaching in China was introduced and the educational reform in China in recent decade is summarized. The aim of the article is to provide those who are interested in teaching of pharmacology to be acquainted with the teaching of pharmacology, including the teaching of both principles and practice, in China.

  7. Proceedings of the 13. Annual meeting of the Federation of Societies on Experimental Biology; 23. Brazilian congress on biophysics; 30. Brazilian congress on pharmacology and experimental therapeutics; 33. Brazilian congress on physiology; 14. Brazilian congress on clinical research; 22. Brazilian congress on neuroscience and behaviour. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several aspects concerning neuroscience and behavior, compared physiology, endocrinology, pharmacology, molecular immunology and immuno diagnosis, biochemistry, genetic and toxicology of either animals, plants and microorganisms are studied. Topics such as cell membrane structures (including receptors), enzymatic assays, biological pathways, structural chemical analysis, metabolism, biological functions, blood pressure regulation are focused. The use of radiolabelled compounds, e.g. radioassay, radioimmunoassay, radioreceptor assay, are the most applied techniques

  8. [Cardiovascular disease in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilfiker-Kleiner, Denise; Bauersachs, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are among the most frequent complications in pregnancies. Among them preexisting heart diseases including congenital heart disease, genetic cardiomyopathies, myocardial infarction and chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathies display a special challenge for the mother and her physicians. Moreover, the incidence of cardiovascular disease induced by or associated with pregnancy, i.e. hypertensive disorders and peripartum cardiomyopathies, has increased over the past decades. In the present overview we explain why pregnancy is a stress model for the maternal heart and summarize the current knowledge on the influence of pregnancy on preexisting cardiomyopathies. We highlight recent advances in research with regard to hypertensive complications in pregnancy and peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM). Moreover, we summarize etiologies, risk factors, pathomechanisms, diagnosis, treatment, management and prognosis. Finally, interdisciplinarity between different clinical fields and basic science is a key requirement to avoid longterm damage to the cardiovascular system induced by pregnancy associated impacts and with this improve women's health in general. PMID:26800071

  9. Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    2009-01-01

    electrophysiological abnormalities, an entity that is different from alcoholic heart muscle disease. Being clinically latent, cirrhotic cardiomyopathy can be unmasked by physical or pharmacological strain. Consequently, caution should be exercised in the case of stressful procedures, such as large volume paracentesis...

  10. Evaluation of the pharmacological treatment of arterial hypertension associated to heart failure in Camarones town.

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Miguel Milián Vázquez; Idalmis Pérez Alemán; Carlos Martín Álvarez; Maira Quirós Enríquez.; Lidia Vázquez Montero

    2006-01-01

    Background: Arterial hypertension is a risk factor for many cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Objective: To evaluate the pharmacological treatment in patients with arterial hypertension, also suffering from heart failure. Methods: A descriptive-prospective study was carried out, this consisted in the use of prescription-indication drugs through a simple random sample study of 43 patients, representing the 35.2 % in six Family Clinical Units of the urban area of Camarones’ Communita...

  11. In silico rationally designed of a Peptide-mimic pharmacologic low mass predicted chemorecored poly-druggable-structure for the possible potentiating of the efficient delivery of gene constructs through for the internalization successes in experimental therapy of muscular dystrophies.

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannis Grigoriadis

    2015-01-01

    Poor cellular delivery and low bioavailability of novel potent therapeutic molecules continue to remain the bottleneck of modern cancer and gene therapy. Cell-penetrating peptides have provided immense opportunities for the intracellular delivery of bioactive cargos and have led to the first exciting successes in experimental therapy of muscular dystrophies. The arsenal of tools for oligonucleotide delivery has dramatically expanded in the last decade enabling harnessing of cell-surface recep...

  12. Pharmacological effects of Sapindus mukorossi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Aparna; Singh, D K

    2012-01-01

    Sapindus mukorossi is an extremely valuable medicinal plant, distributed in tropical and sub-tropical regions of Asia. The aim of present review is to form a short compilation of the phytochemical composition and pharmacological properties of this multipurpose tree. The main phytoconstituents isolated and identified from different parts of this plant are triterpenoidal saponins of oleanane, dammarane and tirucullane type. The structure and chemical names of all the types of triterpenoidal saponins reported in Sapindus mukorossi are included in this review. Many research studies have been conducted to prove the plant's potential as being spermicidal, contraceptive, hepatoprotective, emetic, anti-inflammatory and anti-protozoal. The present review highlights some of the salient pharmacological uses of Sapindus mukorossi. PMID:22983291

  13. Pharmacological effects of Sapindus mukorossi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Upadhyay

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sapindus mukorossi is an extremely valuable medicinal plant, distributed in tropical and sub-tropical regions of Asia. The aim of present review is to form a short compilation of the phytochemical composition and pharmacological properties of this multipurpose tree. The main phytoconstituents isolated and identified from different parts of this plant are triterpenoidal saponins of oleanane, dammarane and tirucullane type. The structure and chemical names of all the types of triterpenoidal saponins reported in Sapindus mukorossi are included in this review. Many research studies have been conducted to prove the plant's potential as being spermicidal, contraceptive, hepatoprotective, emetic, anti-inflammatory and anti-protozoal. The present review highlights some of the salient pharmacological uses of Sapindus mukorossi.

  14. Pharmacological potential of cerium oxidenanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celardo, Ivana; Pedersen, Jens Z.; Traversa, Enrico; Ghibelli, Lina

    2011-04-01

    Nanotechnology promises a revolution in pharmacology to improve or create ex novo therapies. Cerium oxidenanoparticles (nanoceria), well-known as catalysts, possess an astonishing pharmacological potential due to their antioxidant properties, deriving from a fraction of Ce3+ ions present in CeO2. These defects, compensated by oxygen vacancies, are enriched at the surface and therefore in nanosized particles. Reactions involving redox cycles between the Ce3+ and Ce4+oxidation states allow nanoceria to react catalytically with superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, mimicking the behavior of two key antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, potentially abating all noxious intracellularreactive oxygen species (ROS) via a self-regenerating mechanism. Hence nanoceria, apparently well tolerated by the organism, might fight chronic inflammation and the pathologies associated with oxidative stress, which include cancer and neurodegeneration. Here we review the biological effects of nanoceria as they emerge from in vitro and in vivo studies, considering biocompatibility and the peculiar antioxidant mechanisms.

  15. Pharmacogenomics and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weeke, Peter; Roden, Dan M

    2013-01-01

    Variability in drug responsiveness is a sine qua non of modern therapeutics, and the contribution of genomic variation is increasingly recognized. Investigating the genomic basis for variable responses to cardiovascular therapies has been a model for pharmacogenomics in general and has established...... resulted in changes to the product labels but also have led to development of initial clinical guidelines that consider how to facilitate incorporating genetic information to the bedside. This review summarizes the state of knowledge in cardiovascular pharmacogenomics and considers how variants described...

  16. Advancing cardiovascular tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truskey, George A.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular tissue engineering offers the promise of biologically based repair of injured and damaged blood vessels, valves, and cardiac tissue. Major advances in cardiovascular tissue engineering over the past few years involve improved methods to promote the establishment and differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), scaffolds from decellularized tissue that may produce more highly differentiated tissues and advance clinical translation, improved methods to promote vascularization, and novel in vitro microphysiological systems to model normal and diseased tissue function. iPSC technology holds great promise, but robust methods are needed to further promote differentiation. Differentiation can be further enhanced with chemical, electrical, or mechanical stimuli. PMID:27303643

  17. [Cardiovascular complications of diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Yoshihiko

    2015-12-01

    Several lines of epidemical evidence have shown that type 2 diabetes is the most important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). It has been shown that the risk of primary prevention of CVD in patients with diabetes is equal to that of the secondary prevention in general population. In this manuscript, recent reports on the cardiac tests to detect the cardiovascular lesions will be reviewed. The data suggest that MDCT is a promising test even in the patients with diabetes. Furthermore, recent evidence of the treatment of diabetes with insulin or the drugs available recently such as DPP-4 inhibitors and SGLT-2 inhibitors will be reviewed. PMID:26666152

  18. Research in cardiovascular care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaarsma, Tiny; Deaton, Christi; Fitzsimmons, Donna;

    2014-01-01

    To deliver optimal patient care, evidence-based care is advocated and research is needed to support health care staff of all disciplines in deciding which options to use in their daily practice. Due to the increasing complexity of cardiac care across the life span of patients combined...... of the body of knowledge that is needed to further improve cardiovascular care. In this paper, knowledge gaps in current research related to cardiovascular patient care are identified, upcoming challenges are explored and recommendations for future research are given....

  19. Resveratrol and Cardiovascular Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Dominique Bonnefont-Rousselot

    2016-01-01

    The increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) has stimulated research for substances that could improve cardiovascular health. Among them, resveratrol (RES), a polyphenolic compound notably present in grapes and red wine, has been involved in the “French paradox”. RES is known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and for its ability to upregulate endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). RES was able to scavenge •OH/O2•− and peroxyl radicals, which can limit the lipid peroxi...

  20. Pharmacologic interventions in aging hair

    OpenAIRE

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2006-01-01

    The appearance of hair plays an important role in people’s overall physical appearance and self-perception. With today’s increasing life-expectations, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever. The hair care industry has become aware of this and is delivering active products directed towards meeting this consumer demand. The discovery of pharmacological targets and the development of safe and effective drugs also indicate strategies of the drug industry for maintenance of heal...

  1. Pharmacological effects of Sapindus mukorossi

    OpenAIRE

    Aparna Upadhyay; D K Singh

    2012-01-01

    Sapindus mukorossi is an extremely valuable medicinal plant, distributed in tropical and sub-tropical regions of Asia. The aim of present review is to form a short compilation of the phytochemical composition and pharmacological properties of this multipurpose tree. The main phytoconstituents isolated and identified from different parts of this plant are triterpenoidal saponins of oleanane, dammarane and tirucullane type. The structure and chemical names of all the types of triterpenoidal sap...

  2. The clinical pharmacology of ageing

    OpenAIRE

    Swift, C G

    2003-01-01

    The ageing of populations and individuals continues to be as vital, yet to some extent as neglected, a topic in pharmacology and therapeutics as was first realised about 30 years ago. In parallel with the realisation of the predicted demographic shifts in both the developed and developing world, there have since been major developments in the basic biological concepts of ageing, in the physiology of ageing, in the study of pathogenetic mechanisms underlying a variety of age-associated disorde...

  3. Pharmacologic management of eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, W A

    1988-05-01

    Treatment of eating disorders is difficult regardless of the methods employed. Pharmacologic management in anorexia nervosa and in bulimia nervosa is especially helpful when it is part of a multimodal treatment approach that includes individual, family and behavioral therapy. Care must be taken to guard against side effects, abuse and noncompliance in a group of patients that tends to be prone to all three. PMID:3284300

  4. Pharmacological disruption of maladaptive memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jane R; Torregrossa, Mary M

    2015-01-01

    Many psychiatric disorders are characterized by intrusive, distracting, and disturbing memories that either perpetuate the illness or hinder successful treatment. For example, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) involves such strong reemergence of memories associated with a traumatic event that the individual feels like the event is happening again. Furthermore, drug addiction is characterized by compulsive use and repeated relapse that is often driven by internal memories of drug use and/or by exposure to external stimuli that were associated with drug use. Therefore, identifying pharmacological methods to weaken the strength of maladaptive memories is a major goal of research efforts aimed at finding new treatments for these disorders. The primary mechanism by which memories could be pharmacologically disrupted or altered is through manipulation of memory reconsolidation. Reconsolidation occurs when an established memory is remembered or reactivated, reentering a labile state before again being consolidated into long-term memory storage. Memories are subject to disruption during this labile state. In this chapter we will discuss the preclinical and clinical studies identifying potential pharmacological methods for disrupting the integrity of maladaptive memory to treat mental illness. PMID:25977090

  5. Safety Pharmacology Society: 9th Annual Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavero, Icilio

    2010-03-01

    The keynote presentation of the Safety Pharmacology (SP) Society 9th Annual Meeting addressed the urgency, for pharmaceutical organizations, to implement strategies for effectively communicating drug risks to all concerned stakeholders and, in particular, the general public. The application of chronobiology to SP investigational protocols can improve the search of drug-induced adverse effects. The Distinguished Service Award Lecture reviewed a life-long journey through trials and tribulations in the quest of the ever-distant scientific truth. The revision process of Directive 86/609/EC for improving animal welfare should be conducted with the purpose of maintaining a fair balance among animal protection, human health and research imperatives in order to prevent the migration of pharmaceutical activities outside Europe. Additional topics of interest were the behavioral, metabolic and cardiovascular problems experienced by small animals housed at the standard laboratory temperature. A technology for the automated collection of blood and urine samples in rats implanted with telemetry sensors was presented. Non-clinical, clinical, regulatory and legal aspects of abuse liability were expertly reviewed. The 'degradability' of pharmaceuticals into environment-friendly chemicals should be an actively searched and optimized feature of future pharmaceuticals in order to prevent drug pollution of ecosystems. Transgenic and diseased animal models should be selected whenever they can facilitate the determination of drug-induced adverse effects. SP strategies to investigate the safety of drug combination products were exemplified and analyzed in depth. The future of SP was proposed to lie not in the performance of regulatory studies of pharmacodynamic nature but in developing and early applying an array of screening assays for clearing clinical candidates against known drug-induced organ function injuries. In conclusion, the 2009 SP Society annual meeting offered a wealth of

  6. Cheese and cardiovascular health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the number one cause of mortality worldwide. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is a well-known risk factor of CVD which increases after the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). Cheese is a dietary product commonly consumed in Western countries and known...

  7. Epigenetics and cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite advances in the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD), this group of multifactorial disorders remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide. CVD is associated with multiple genetic and modifiable risk factors; however, known environmental and genetic influences can only...

  8. Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.L. Nijhuis (Rogier)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWhereas secondary prevention of cardiovascular events through risk factor modification in patients with known coronary and carotid artery disease is recognised as cost-effective, CVD prevention by drug therapy in asymptomatic individuals has shown only modest benefits and to be relativel

  9. Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, C. David

    1988-01-01

    Reviews epidemiological studies of cardiovascular diseases especially coronary heart disease (CHD), to document their major public health importance, changes in mortality during this century, and international comparisons of trends. Finds major risk factors for CHD are determined in large part by psychosocial and behavioral mechanisms. Asserts…

  10. Evaluation of efficacy of atorvastatin in prevention of cardiovascular risks in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To demonstrate the dual cardiopulmonary protective effects of Atorvastatin in COPD patients, which may become the mainstay of therapy in prevention of exacerbation of COPD and cardiovascular events in COPD patients. Study Design: Quasi experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted over a period of 6 months (December 2010 to May 2011) with an individual study period of 3 months (90 days), conducted in the Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics in collaboration with Chest medicine JPMC Karachi. Subjects and Methods: Thirty five moderate stable COPD with post bronchodilator FEV 3mg/l, were evaluated in a quasi experimental trial. The patients were assigned to give tablet Atorvastatin 20 mg once daily for 12 consecutive weeks. The primary study outcome was to evaluate the reduction in cardiovascular risk by evaluating the improvement in FEV1 and reduction in hsCRP levels. Efficacy was evaluated at days 30, 60 and day 90. Results: Out of 35 patients only 33 (94%) patients completed the study. At baseline hsCRP level was 6.45+-0.30 which decreased to 4.6+-0.19 (p<0.05) at day 90. FEV1 at baseline was 2.16+-0.07 and at day 90 FEV1 increased upto 2.48+-0.06 (p<0.01). This shows that, the Atorvastatin can lead to statistically significant decrease in the hsCRP levels and increase the forced expiratory volume in one second. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that Atorvastatin effectively decreases the cardiovascular risk by decreasing the systemic inflammation which was indicated by decreasing the hsCRP levels and it can also improve the pulmonary functional capacity in COPD patients. (author)

  11. Pharmacological modulation of arterial stiffness.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boutouyrie, Pierre

    2011-09-10

    Arterial stiffness has emerged as an important marker of cardiovascular risk in various populations and reflects the cumulative effect of cardiovascular risk factors on large arteries, which in turn is modulated by genetic background. Arterial stiffness is determined by the composition of the arterial wall and the arrangement of these components, and can be studied in humans non-invasively. Age and distending pressure are two major factors influencing large artery stiffness. Change in arterial stiffness with drugs is an important endpoint in clinical trials, although evidence for arterial stiffness as a therapeutic target still needs to be confirmed. Drugs that independently affect arterial stiffness include antihypertensive drugs, mostly blockers of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, hormone replacement therapy and some antidiabetic drugs such as glitazones. While the quest continues for \\'de-stiffening drugs\\

  12. Childhood obesity and cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Bridger, Tracey

    2009-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions. Many of these children have risk factors for later disease, including cardiovascular disease. For optimal cardiovascular health, health care professionals must be able to identify children and youth at risk and provide appropriate support as needed. The present article reviews the current medical literature on obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in the paediatric population, the long-term cardiovascular consequences of childhood ...

  13. Nonfasting hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, B G; Langsted, A; Freiberg, J J

    2009-01-01

    , total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 all associate with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. These new data open the possibility that nonfasting rather than fasting lipid profiles can be used for cardiovascular risk prediction. If implemented, this would...... of cardiovascular disease and early death....

  14. Vascular Remodeling in Experimental Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma R. Risler

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic hemodynamic abnormality in hypertension is an increased peripheral resistance that is due mainly to a decreased vascular lumen derived from structural changes in the small arteries wall, named (as a whole vascular remodeling. The vascular wall is an active, flexible, and integrated organ made up of cellular (endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, adventitia cells, and fibroblasts and noncellular (extracellular matrix components, which in a dynamic way change shape or number, or reorganize in response to physiological and pathological stimuli, maintaining the integrity of the vessel wall in physiological conditions or participating in the vascular changes in cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. Research focused on new signaling pathways and molecules that can participate in the mechanisms of vascular remodeling has provided evidence showing that vascular structure is not only affected by blood pressure, but also by mechanisms that are independent of the increased pressure. This review will provide an overview of the evidence, explaining some of the pathophysiologic mechanisms participating in the development of the vascular remodeling, in experimental models of hypertension, with special reference to the findings in spontaneously hypertensive rats as a model of essential hypertension, and in fructose-fed rats as a model of secondary hypertension, in the context of the metabolic syndrome. The understanding of the mechanisms producing the vascular alterations will allow the development of novel pharmacological tools for vascular protection in hypertensive disease.

  15. NEW PHARMACOLOGICAL APPROACHES IN THE TREATMENT OF ONCOLOGICAL DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaloyan D. Georgiev

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Malignant diseases are significant and growing health problem in almost all countries of the world. Besides the results achieved in reduction of morbidity and mortality in individual countries, significant progress of science and practice of oncology medicine and the application of new methods of diagnosis and treatment, cancer remains the second leading cause of death after cardiovascular diseases. The past decade has seen breakthroughs in personalized cancer medicine, where new targeted therapies are being developed which inhibit cellular proliferation and survival in tumors with certain specific oncogenic mutations. These new treatment approaches have shown progress in the understanding of the origin and pathogenesis of tumors, and offer hope for a good outcome of neoplastic diseases. In this review the idea is to present up-to-date report on these new molecular mechanisms and to identify their advantages and disadvantages from the pharmacological point of view.

  16. A Review on Pharmacological Profile of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Narinderpal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha is a plant used in medicine from the time of Ayurveda, the ancient system of Indian medicine. The dried roots of the plant are used in the treatment of nervous and sexual disorders. this review article is presented to compile all the updated information on its phytochemical and pharmacological activities, which were performed by widely different methods. Studies indicate ashwagandha possesses antioxidant, anxiolytic, adaptogen, memory enhancing, antiparkinsonian, antivenom, antiinflammatory, antitumor properties. Various other effects like immunomodulation, hypolipidemic, antibacterial, cardiovascular protection, sexual behaviour, tolerance and dependence have also been studied. These results are very encouraging and indicate this herb should be studied more extensively to confirm these results and reveal other potential therapeutic effects. Clinical trials using ashwagandha for a variety of conditions should also be conducted.

  17. How MDMA's pharmacology and pharmacokinetics drive desired effects and harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael White, C

    2014-03-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is an agent of abuse that has been used by over 16 million Americans. Increased energy, elevated mood, bonding with others, and psychedelic effects are desired effects while liver damage, extended depressed mood, sexual assault, rhabdomyolysis, serotonin syndrome, multiorgan failure, cardiovascular events, arrhythmias, and death are possible adverse effects. These desirable and adverse effects of MDMA are extensions of its fascinating pharmacologic and pharmacokinetic profile. In addition to methamphatemine like effects, MDMA also has mescaline like effects and increases the release of cortisol, oxytocin, and antidiuretic hormone. The desirable effects of MDMA are accentuated by the rave or electronic dance music scene where warm temperatures, vigorous dancing, loud music, and light shows accentuate some of the responses. However, the same environment increases the risk of certain harms. Knowledge of the constellation of these factors is needed for education, prevention of harm, and treatment. PMID:24431106

  18. Pharmacologic considerations for Shuttle astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santy, Patricia A.; Bungo, Michael W.

    1991-01-01

    Medication usage by crewmembers in the preflight and inflight mission periods is common in the Shuttle Program. The most common medical reports for which medication is used are: space motion sickness (SMS), sleeplessness, headache, and backache. A number of medications are available in the Shuttle Medical Kit to treat these problems. Currently, astronauts test all frequently used medications before mission assignment to identify potential side-effects, problems related to performance, personal likes/dislikes, and individual therapeutic effect. However, microgravity-induced changes in drug pharmacokinetics, in combination with multiple operational factors, may significantly alter crewmember responses inflight. This article discusses those factors that may impact pharmacologic efficacy during Shuttle missions.

  19. Gaultheria: Phytochemical and pharmacological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Rui; Qiao, Wen-Lin; Liu, Zi-Zhen; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Jiang, Rui; Li, Shu-Yi; Shi, Ren-Bing; She, Gai-Mei

    2013-01-01

    The genus Gaultheria, comprised of approximately 134 species, is mostly used in ethnic drugs to cure rheumatism and relieve pain. Phytochemical investigations of the genus Gaultheria have revealed the presence of methyl salicylate derivatives, C₆-C₃ constituents, organic acids, terpenoids, steroids, and other compounds. Methyl salicylate glycoside is considered as a characteristic ingredient in this genus, whose anti-rheumatic effects may have a new mechanism of action. In this review, comprehensive information on the phytochemistry, volatile components and the pharmacology of the genus Gaultheria is provided to explore its potential and advance research. PMID:24084015

  20. Gaultheria: Phytochemical and Pharmacological Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-Bing Shi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The genus Gaultheria, comprised of approximately 134 species, is mostly used in ethnic drugs to cure rheumatism and relieve pain. Phytochemical investigations of the genus Gaultheria have revealed the presence of methyl salicylate derivatives, C6-C3 constituents, organic acids, terpenoids, steroids, and other compounds. Methyl salicylate glycoside is considered as a characteristic ingredient in this genus, whose anti-rheumatic effects may have a new mechanism of action. In this review, comprehensive information on the phytochemistry, volatile components and the pharmacology of the genus Gaultheria is provided to explore its potential and advance research.

  1. Non pharmacological treatments in fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Spath

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available To fully answer the complex question of what modes of non pharmacological treatments are useful for fibromyalgia (FM one should ask different layers of questions, and as with peeling layers of onions, be prepared to shed some tears. The first painful question, or layer of the onion, is related to understanding patients’ complaints. Patients who experience recurrent as well as persistent physical symptoms without any objective evidence are too often classified as “psychosomatic disorders” or worse as “non disease” (see Sarzi this issue...

  2. Iomazenil: pharmacological and animal data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The flumazenil analogue Ro 16-0154 (Iomazenil), a benzodiazepine partial inverse agonist, has been labelled by halogen exchange to enable SPECT investigations of central benzodiazepine receptors in human brain. The purified 123I-Ro 16-0154 was found to be stable in rat brain preparations and to be metabolized in rat liver preparations. Its pharmacological properties were comparable to those of flumazenil with the exception of the antagonism of diazepam versus pentylenetetrazol. Biodistribution in rats (1 h p.i.) resulted in a high brain to blood ratio of 16. Clinical studies revealed images of the bezodiazepine receptor density in the brain. (author) 9 figs., 3 tabs., 27 refs

  3. Pharmacologic Therapies in Musculoskeletal Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveless, Melinda S; Fry, Adrielle L

    2016-07-01

    Musculoskeletal conditions are common, and there are many options for pharmacologic therapy. Unfortunately, there is not strong evidence for the use of many of these medications. Acetaminophen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are generally first-line medications for most musculoskeletal pain, but there is more evidence these medications are not as safe as once thought. Other analgesic and antispasmodic medications can be effective for acute pain but generally are not as effective for chronic pain. Antidepressants and anticonvulsants can be more effective for chronic or neuropathic pain. Topical formulations of NSAIDs can be effective for pain with fewer side effects. PMID:27235619

  4. Slow breathing and cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Chaddha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women worldwide. Much emphasis has been placed on the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. While depression and anxiety increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular disease also increases the risk of developing anxiety and depression. Thus, promoting optimal mental health may be important for both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Like lowering blood pressure, lipids, and body weight, lowering anger and hostility and improving depression and anxiety may also be an important intervention in preventive cardiology. As we strive to further improve cardiovascular outcomes, the next bridge to cross may be one of offering patients nonpharmacologic means for combating daily mental stress and promoting mental health, such as yoga and pranayama. Indeed, the best preventive cardiovascular medicine may be a blend of both Western and Eastern medicine.

  5. Migraine and cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo E. Bigal

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Migraine, especially migraine with aura is an established risk factor for ischemic lesions of the brain. Recent evidence has also linked migraine with and without aura to a broader range of ischemic vascular disorders including angina, myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, claudication and cardiovascular mortality. The topic is therefore of considerable interest. Accordingly, herein we review the association between migraine and cardiovascular disease. We start by briefly presenting diagnostic criteria for migraine and revising its pathophysiology. We follow by summarizing the evidence on the topic. We then briefly present the results of a recent meta-analysis. We close by highlighting results of a large epidemiological study conducted after the publication of the meta-analysis.

  6. Prodrugs in Cardiovascular Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Tabrizian

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Prodrugs are biologically inactive derivatives of an active drug intended to solve certain problems of the parent drug such as toxicity, instability, minimal solubility and non-targeting capabilities. The majority of drugs for cardiovascular diseases undergo firstpass metabolism, resulting in drug inactivation and generation of toxic metabolites, which makes them appealing targets for prodrug design. Since prodrugs undergo a chemical reaction to form the parent drug once inside the body, this makes them very effective in controlling the release of a variety of compounds to the targeted site. This review will provide the reader with an insight on the latest developments of prodrugs that are available for treating a variety of cardiovascular diseases. In addition, we will focus on several drug delivery methodologies that have merged with the prodrug approach to provide enhanced target specificity and controlled drug release with minimal side effects.

  7. Cardiovascular and interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This year's cardiovascular section demonstrates a continued growth in the number of digests on cardivascular and general interventional topics and continued progress in MRI studies. The reader will also notice fewer digests on DSA and percutaneous stone removal compared with the 1985 and 1986 Year Books. While newer technology, such as extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, has significantly reduced the number of percutaneous procedures for renal calculi, other interventional procedures, such as those involving fibrinolysis, are increasing by leaps and bounds. A number of digests on benign and malignant bile duct strictures continue to shed light on the management of these difficult cases. While abscess drainage is growing and well accepted by most surgeons, articles on esophageal dilatations seem to be declining in the radiology literature, probably on the basis of fewer operations being performed by us and more being performed by endoscopists. Digests on MRI in the cardiovascular system continue to report excellent images of the aorta and of congenital heart disease

  8. Cardiovascular: radioisotopic angiocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopic angiocardiography, performed after the intravenous injection of 99/sup m/Tc-labeled pertechnetate or albumin, is a simple, rapid, and safe procedure which permits identification and physiologic assessment of a wide variety of congenital and acquired cardiovascular lesions in infants and children. These include atrial and ventricular septal defect, tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonic stenosis, aortopulmonary window, transposition of the great vessels, valvular stenosis and/or insufficiency, myocardial lesions, and lesions of the great vessels. The simplicity of the procedure lends itself to repeated measurements to assess the effects of therapy or to follow the course of the disease. A wide spectrum of congenital and acquired cardiovascular diseases have been studied which have particular application to the pediatric age group. (auth)

  9. Role of MicroRNAs in Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System-Mediated Cardiovascular Inflammation and Remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricica Pacurari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are endogenous regulators of gene expression either by inhibiting translation or protein degradation. Recent studies indicate that microRNAs play a role in cardiovascular disease and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system- (RAAS- mediated cardiovascular inflammation, either as mediators or being targeted by RAAS pharmacological inhibitors. The exact role(s of microRNAs in RAAS-mediated cardiovascular inflammation and remodeling is/are still in early stage of investigation. However, few microRNAs have been shown to play a role in RAAS signaling, particularly miR-155, miR-146a/b, miR-132/122, and miR-483-3p. Identification of specific microRNAs and their targets and elucidating microRNA-regulated mechanisms associated RAS-mediated cardiovascular inflammation and remodeling might lead to the development of novel pharmacological strategies to target RAAS-mediated vascular pathologies. This paper reviews microRNAs role in inflammatory factors mediating cardiovascular inflammation and RAAS genes and the effect of RAAS pharmacological inhibition on microRNAs and the resolution of RAAS-mediated cardiovascular inflammation and remodeling. Also, this paper discusses the advances on microRNAs-based therapeutic approaches that may be important in targeting RAAS signaling.

  10. Cardiovascular Molecular Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Khanicheh, Elham

    2009-01-01

    Although there have been significant improvements in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases they still remain the main cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Currently available diagnostic approaches may not be adequate to detect pathologic changes during the early disease stages, which may be valuable for risk stratification and also to assess a response to a therapy. Therefore molecular imaging techniques such as Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound (CEU) molecular imaging to noninvasively i...

  11. Cardiovascular safety of etoricoxib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriya Georgievna Barskova

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Meticulous attention is paid to the cardiovascular safety of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, the so-called selective cyclooxy-genase 2 (COX-2 inhibitors in particular. The author considers precisely this matter in case of Russia's recent NSAID etoricoxib that has been tested along with other most studied medications from this group, by applying one of the latest meta-analyses. The EULAR recommendations to use NSAIDs are given.

  12. Modelling cardiovascular disease prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Alimadad, Azadeh

    2012-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), cardiovascular disease (CVD), which sits under the chronic disease umbrella, is the number one cause of death globally. Over time, we have witnessed different trends that have influenced the prevalence of CVD. One of the ways of decreasing CVD and its social costs and global fatalities is through influencing preventable CVD risk factors. Though many risk factors such as age and gender are not preventable, there are several effective behaviours...

  13. Pharmacological Approaches in the Treatment and Maintenance of Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gaal, Luc; Dirinck, Eveline

    2016-08-01

    Obesity is a growing global health concern, associated with a number of important comorbid conditions. It increases the risk of diabetes and contributes to development of cardiovascular disease. While the benefits of weight loss are well established, weight reduction remains a difficult-to-reach goal in overweight and obese individuals due to several metabolic and psychological factors. For many patients, lifestyle intervention is insufficient to achieve long-term weight loss, and additional options, such as pharmacotherapy, need to be considered. Besides the challenging enterprise of weight reduction, weight maintenance remains an even more crucial and outcome-determining aspect of weight management. This article focuses on the potential of currently available pharmacological strategies to support weight loss and maintenance goals in individuals at risk. Two pharmacotherapy types are considered: those developed primarily to induce weight loss and those developed primarily for blood glucose control that have a favorable effect on body weight. Finally, the potential of very low- and low-calorie diets combined with pharmacotherapy and pharmacological combination therapies are discussed, as well as emerging approaches in development. PMID:27440841

  14. Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour. Spreng: Botanical, Phytochemical, Pharmacological and Nutritional Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greetha Arumugam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour. Spreng. is a perennial herb belonging to the family Lamiaceae which occurs naturally throughout the tropics and warm regions of Africa, Asia and Australia. This herb has therapeutic and nutritional properties attributed to its natural phytochemical compounds which are highly valued in the pharmaceutical industry. Besides, it has horticultural properties due to its aromatic nature and essential oil producing capability. It is widely used in folk medicine to treat conditions like cold, asthma, constipation, headache, cough, fever and skin diseases. The leaves of the plant are often eaten raw or used as flavoring agents, or incorporated as ingredients in the preparation of traditional food. The literature survey revealed the occurrence 76 volatiles and 30 non-volatile compounds belonging to different classes of phytochemicals such as monoterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, phenolics, flavonoids, esters, alcohols and aldehydes. Studies have cited numerous pharmacological properties including antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, antitumor, wound healing, anti-epileptic, larvicidal, antioxidant and analgesic activities. Also, it has been found to be effective against respiratory, cardiovascular, oral, skin, digestive and urinary diseases. Yet, scientific validation of many other traditional uses would be appreciated, mainly to discover and authenticate novel bioactive compounds from this herb. This review article provides comprehensive information on the botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and nutritional importance of P. amboinicus essential oil and its various solvent extracts. This article allows researchers to further explore the further potential of this multi-utility herb for various biomedical applications.

  15. Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng: Botanical, Phytochemical, Pharmacological and Nutritional Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, Greetha; Swamy, Mallappa Kumara; Sinniah, Uma Rani

    2016-01-01

    Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. is a perennial herb belonging to the family Lamiaceae which occurs naturally throughout the tropics and warm regions of Africa, Asia and Australia. This herb has therapeutic and nutritional properties attributed to its natural phytochemical compounds which are highly valued in the pharmaceutical industry. Besides, it has horticultural properties due to its aromatic nature and essential oil producing capability. It is widely used in folk medicine to treat conditions like cold, asthma, constipation, headache, cough, fever and skin diseases. The leaves of the plant are often eaten raw or used as flavoring agents, or incorporated as ingredients in the preparation of traditional food. The literature survey revealed the occurrence 76 volatiles and 30 non-volatile compounds belonging to different classes of phytochemicals such as monoterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, phenolics, flavonoids, esters, alcohols and aldehydes. Studies have cited numerous pharmacological properties including antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, antitumor, wound healing, anti-epileptic, larvicidal, antioxidant and analgesic activities. Also, it has been found to be effective against respiratory, cardiovascular, oral, skin, digestive and urinary diseases. Yet, scientific validation of many other traditional uses would be appreciated, mainly to discover and authenticate novel bioactive compounds from this herb. This review article provides comprehensive information on the botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and nutritional importance of P. amboinicus essential oil and its various solvent extracts. This article allows researchers to further explore the further potential of this multi-utility herb for various biomedical applications. PMID:27043511

  16. A Pharmacological Primer of Biased Agonism

    OpenAIRE

    Andresen1, Bradley T.

    2011-01-01

    Biased agonism is one of the fastest growing topics in G protein-coupled receptor pharmacology; moreover, biased agonists are used in the clinic today: carvedilol (Coreg®) is a biased agonist of beta-adrenergic receptors. However, there is a general lack of understanding of biased agonism when compared to traditional pharmacological terminology. Therefore, this review is designed to provide a basic introduction to classical pharmacology as well as G protein-coupled receptor signal transductio...

  17. Cardiovascular causes of syncope. Identifying and controlling trigger mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syncope usually has a cardiovascular source, so neurologic evaluation has a low diagnostic yield in these patients. Cardiac arrhythmias in persons with or without structural heart disease can produce syncope. Neurocardiogenic dysfunction that results in diminished venous return and hypercontractility is another frequent cause. Postural hypotension or left ventricular outflow obstruction may also be to blame. Careful history taking and physical examination, head-up tilt testing, echocardiography or radionuclide isotope imaging, and electrophysiologic study are often diagnostic. However, syncope remains undiagnosed in some patients, and they may require periodic reassessment. Treatment options are available for most cardiovascular disorders, among them use of pharmacologic agents; catheter, surgical, or radio-frequency modification of certain tachycardias; and permanent pacing. 33 references

  18. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Cardiovascular Hyperreactivity in Young Venezuelans

    OpenAIRE

    Sady Montes Amador; Mikhail Benet Rodríguez; Lenia Ramos Rodríguez; Esther Cano Andino; Erick Andrés Pérez Martín

    2015-01-01

    Background: cardiovascular hyperreactivity in young people has been associated with different risk factors and a family history of hypertension. Objective: to determine the association between a family history of hypertension and cardiovascular risk factors with cardiovascular hyperreactivity. Method: a correlational, cross-sectional study was conducted in a universe of 77 young individuals aged 18 to 40 years from the Churuguara parish of the Falcon State in Venezuela. The variables were: ag...

  19. Correlation of chronic kidney disease, diabetes and peripheral artery disease with cardiovascular events in patients using stress myocardial perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normal stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) studies generally suggest an excellent prognosis for cardiovascular events. Chronic kidney disease (CKD), diabetes and peripheral artery disease (PAD) have been established as the risk factors for cardiovascular events. However, whether these risk factors significantly predict cardiovascular events in patients with normal stress MPI is unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of these risk factors in patients with normal stress MPI. Patients with normal stress MPI (n=372, male=215 and female=157, age=69 years, CKD without hemodialysis=95, diabetes=99, PAD=19, previous coronary artery disease=116) were followed up for 14 months. Normal stress MPI was defined as a summed stress score of 2 and/or persistent proteinuria. Cardiovascular events included cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure requiring hospitalization. Cardiovascular events occurred in 20 of 372 patients (5.4%). In univariate Cox regression analysis, PAD, diabetes, diabetic retinopathy, insulin use, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, CKD, left ventricular ejection fraction and pharmacological stress tests were significant predictors of cardiovascular events. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, PAD, diabetes and CKD were independent and significant predictors for cardiovascular events, and their number was the strongest predictor for cardiovascular events (hazard ratio=21.7, P<0.001). PAD, diabetes and CKD are coexisting, independent and significant risk factors for cardiovascular events, CKD being the strongest predictor. The number of coexisting risk factors is important in predicting cardiovascular events in patients with normal stress MPI. (author)

  20. Selective management of cardiovascular dysfunction in posttraumatic SIRS and sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R Shayn; Kincaid, Edward H; Russell, Hyde M; Meredith, J Wayne; Chang, Michael C

    2005-03-01

    Cardiovascular dysfunction associated with the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is caused by a combination of decreased myocardial contractility and low vascular resistance. The contribution of each of these components can be determined at the bedside, and directed therapy can be appropriately initiated. Over an 8-month period of time, 23 consecutive patients who experienced posttraumatic SIRS while still being monitored with a volumetric pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) were prospectively evaluated. Ventricular pressure-volume diagrams were constructed to quantify myocardial contractility and afterload. In a resuscitation protocol, dobutamine was administered to patients with an isolated decrease in contractility, and dopamine or epinephrine was instituted for the combination of reduced contractility and afterload. Variables describing cardiovascular function were measured at the time of resolution of initial shock resuscitation (BASE), at the onset of SIRS (ONSET), and after administration of inotropic or vasoactive agents (TREAT). ONSET was associated with a significant decrease in left ventricular power (LVP) (362 +/- 96 to 235 +/- 55 mmHg.L/min/m(2), P index (SWI) (4670 +/- 1213 to 3060 +/- 848 mmHg.mL/m, P SWI significantly increased (235 +/- 55 to 328 +/- 77 mmHg.L/min/m(2), P < 0.00001, and 3060 +/- 848 to 4554 +/- 1423 mmHg.mL/m(2), P < 0.00001, respectively) on the initiation of directed therapy. Specific cardiovascular abnormalities can be identified at the bedside, and this information can guide pharmacologic management. Directed therapy improves cardiovascular function. PMID:15718916

  1. [Pharmacological treatment of acute cough].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Småbrekke, Lars; Melbye, Hasse

    2009-05-14

    Acute cough may cause considerable distress for patients with upper airway infections, and is a symptom commonly presented to doctors. We wanted to assess the evidence basis for pharmacological treatment of this condition. Predefined terms (MeSH and Emtree) and free text were used to search PubMed and Embase for double-blind randomized trials, reviews and guidelines. Little evidence supports the use of guaifenesine, bromhexine and acetylcysteine for acute cough associated with upper airway infections. Likewise, there is insufficient evidence to decide whether noscapine, codeine and ehylmorphine are beneficial for acute cough on this indication. Well-designed randomized controlled trials with valid outcomes are needed to document possible benefits of treatment. Treatment with codeine or ethylmorphine may be at the expense of adverse effects, abuse or dependence. PMID:19448753

  2. Rocuronium bromide: a pharmacological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaly M.H Gaafary, **Essam F. Al. Alkami

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This work was designed to assess the pharmacological effects of rocuronium. In either isolated preparation or intact animals. Rocuronium (6-96 g/ml caused a significant dose related reduction in the amplitude of rat phrenic nerve diaphragm contraction in response to indirect stimulation, the mean percentage reduction were statistically significant. The addition of neostgmine (0.25 g/ml caused complete reversal of the relaxant effect of rocuronium . In intact cat gastrocnemius sciatic nerve preparation rocuronium (25 - 200 g/kg caused dose dependent statiscally significant reduction. In comparing the drug with succinyl choline by the head drop method the mean time in second was 15.34 ±1.57 and 10.44 ±0.91 respectively.

  3. Pharmacological activities of Curcuma caesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyendra Singh Baghel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcuma caesia Roxb. is a perennial, erect rhizomatous herb with large leaves. Fresh rhizomes are aromatic with intense camphoraceous odour, cultivated for its rhizomes, which are used in traditional medicine. The plant is reported to contain camphor, ar-turmerone, (Z-ocimene, ar-curcumene, 1, 8-cineole, elemene, borneol, bornyl acetate and curcumene as the major constituents. The plant has been reported to have antifungal activity, anti-asthmatic, smooth muscle relaxant, antimicrobial activity, antioxidant activity, analgesic, locomotor depressant, anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant effects, anti-inflammatory properties. It is now considered as a valuable source of unique natural products for development of medicines against various diseases. This review gives a view mainly on the meditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological actions of the plant.

  4. Pharmacological challenges in chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne Estrup; Brokjaer, Anne; Fischer, Iben Wendelboe Deleuran;

    2014-01-01

    . Together these factors can result in malabsorption and may also affect the efficacy of pharmacological intervention. The lifestyle of chronic pancreatitis patients may also contribute to gastrointestinal changes. Many patients limit their food intake because of the pain caused by eating and in some cases......Drug absorption in patients with chronic pancreatitis might be affected by the pathophysiology of the disease. The exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is associated with changes in gastrointestinal intraluminal pH, motility disorder, bacterial overgrowth and changed pancreatic gland secretion...... often prescribed as pain treatment. Opioids have intrinsic effects on gastrointestinal motility and hence can modify the absorption of other drugs taken at the same time. Furthermore, the increased fluid absorption caused by opioids will decrease water available for drug dissolution and may hereby...

  5. Translational In Vivo Models for Cardiovascular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliegner, Daniela; Gerdes, Christoph; Meding, Jörg; Stasch, Johannes-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are still the first leading cause of death and morbidity in developed countries. Experimental cardiology research and preclinical drug development in cardiology call for appropriate and especially clinically relevant in vitro and in vivo studies. The use of animal models has contributed to expand our knowledge and our understanding of the underlying mechanisms and accordingly provided new approaches focused on the improvement of diagnostic and treatment strategies of various cardiac pathologies.Numerous animal models in different species as well as in small and large animals have been developed to address cardiovascular complications, including heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, and thrombotic diseases. However, a perfect model of heart failure or other indications that reproduces every aspect of the natural disease does not exist. The complexity and heterogeneity of cardiac diseases plus the influence of genetic and environmental factors limit to mirror a particular disease with a single experimental model.Thus, drug development in the field of cardiology is not only very challenging but also inspiring; therefore animal models should be selected that reflect as best as possible the disease being investigated. Given the wide range of animal models, reflecting critical features of the human pathophysiology available nowadays increases the likelihood of the translation to the patients. Furthermore, this knowledge and the increase of the predictive value of preclinical models help us to find more efficient and reliable solutions as well as better and innovative treatment strategies for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26552402

  6. Cardiovascular determinants of life span

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Y; Camici, G G; Lüscher, T. F.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases rises with aging and is one of the main causes of mortality in western countries. In view of the progressively aging population, there is an urge for a better understanding of age-associated cardiovascular diseases and its underlying molecular mechanisms. The risk factors for cardiovascular diseases include unhealthy diet, diabetes, obesity, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and aging. Increased production of oxygen-derived free radic...

  7. Traffic noise and cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Selander, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Traffic noise is an increasing problem in urban areas worldwide, but health effects in relation to traffic noise exposure are not well understood. Several studies show that noise may give rise to acute stress reactions, possibly leading to cardiovascular effects, but the evidence is limited on cardiovascular risks associated with traffic noise exposure. Cardiovascular effects have been indicated for other environmental stressors such as occupational noise exposure and job ...

  8. Periodontitis and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeftha, A; Holmes, H

    2013-03-01

    Periodontal medicine has been studied and reviewed extensively since its introduction to the dental fraternity. The association of periodontal disease with and its effects on the cardiovascular system are amongst the many topics explored. A summary of the research into these associations and the possible mechanisms of any relationship is presented. Although a link between these two chronic inflammatory diseases is evident, the very heterogeneity of the relevant studies has not provided evidence sufficient to support an actual causal relationship. More stringent epidemiologic and intervention studies are required. PMID:23951765

  9. Punishment, Pharmacological Treatment, and Early Release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that pharmacological treatment may have an impact on aggressive and impulsive behavior. Assuming that these results are correct, would it be morally acceptable to instigate violent criminals to accept pharmacological rehabilitation by offering this treatment in return for...

  10. [Hyperuricemia, gout and cardiovascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Karsten; Burkard, Thilo

    2016-01-01

    Hyperuricemia, gout as well as arterial hypertension and metabolic syndrom are highly prevalent and clinicians are frequently confronted with both conditions in the same patient. Hyperuricemia and gout are associated with cardiovascular comorbidities and a high cardiovascular risk. Despite coherent pathophysiological concepts, it remains to be determined, if this association is independent and causal. In daily clinical practice, cardiovascular risk factors should be thoroughly identified and consequently treated in all patients with hyperuricemia and gout. If preventive treatment of asymptomatic hyperuricemia with urate-lowering agents may improve cardiovascular risk and outcomes remains to be determined and is recommended only in special situations like young patients with severe hyperuricemia. PMID:27008446

  11. Oxidative Stress in Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Csányi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the special issue “Oxidative Stress in Cardiovascular Disease” authors were invited to submit papers that investigate key questions in the field of cardiovascular free radical biology. The original research articles included in this issue provide important information regarding novel aspects of reactive oxygen species (ROS-mediated signaling, which have important implications in physiological and pathophysiological cardiovascular processes. The issue also included a number of review articles that highlight areas of intense research in the fields of free radical biology and cardiovascular medicine.

  12. Complex Pharmacology of Free Fatty Acid Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milligan, Graeme; Shimpukade, Bharat; Ulven, Trond;

    2016-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are historically the most successful family of drug targets. In recent times it has become clear that the pharmacology of these receptors is far more complex than previously imagined. Understanding of the pharmacological regulation of GPCRs now extends beyond...... pharmacology have shaped understanding of the complex pharmacology of receptors that recognize and are activated by nonesterified or "free" fatty acids (FFAs). The FFA family of receptors is a recently deorphanized set of GPCRs, the members of which are now receiving substantial interest as novel targets for...... the treatment of metabolic and inflammatory diseases. Further understanding of the complex pharmacology of these receptors will be critical to unlocking their ultimate therapeutic potential....

  13. Astaxanthin: A Potential Therapeutic Agent in Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Fassett

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Astaxanthin is a xanthophyll carotenoid present in microalgae, fungi, complex plants, seafood, flamingos and quail. It is an antioxidant with anti-inflammatory properties and as such has potential as a therapeutic agent in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Synthetic forms of astaxanthin have been manufactured. The safety, bioavailability and effects of astaxanthin on oxidative stress and inflammation that have relevance to the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, have been assessed in a small number of clinical studies. No adverse events have been reported and there is evidence of a reduction in biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation with astaxanthin administration. Experimental studies in several species using an ischaemia-reperfusion myocardial model demonstrated that astaxanthin protects the myocardium when administered both orally or intravenously prior to the induction of the ischaemic event. At this stage we do not know whether astaxanthin is of benefit when administered after a cardiovascular event and no clinical cardiovascular studies in humans have been completed and/or reported. Cardiovascular clinical trials are warranted based on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties, the safety profile and preliminary experimental cardiovascular studies of astaxanthin.

  14. The impact of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on food allergy and cardiovascular disease. Fish and no chips?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Elsen, L.W.J.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis creates more insight into the efficacy and mechanism of action of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), which act on the interface between pharmacology and nutrition in the prevention of allergic and cardiovascular disease. PUFA are categorized into n-6 and n-3 PUFA. The last decades have

  15. Yoga, Anxiety, and Some Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim CENGIZ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the effects of a yoga program on anxiety, and some cardiovascular risk factors. Forty - six elderly participants aged 40 – 51 years women. The yoga program was based on 3 times/week for 10 weeks a set of yoga techniques, in the form of asana (postures and deep relaxation technique, pranayama (breathing techniques and meditation three for 60 minutes three times a week. The level of anxiety and decreased the risk factors for cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVD. The yoga program reduced the level of anxiety and decreased the risk factors for cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVD in the experimental group. After 8 weeks of the yoga program. SBP, DBP, B MI, HR and WC values were improved. It is likely that the yoga practices of controlling body, mind, and spirit combine to provide useful physiological effects for healthy people and for people compromised by cardiovascular disease.

  16. Resveratrol and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Bonnefont-Rousselot

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs has stimulated research for substances that could improve cardiovascular health. Among them, resveratrol (RES, a polyphenolic compound notably present in grapes and red wine, has been involved in the “French paradox”. RES is known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and for its ability to upregulate endothelial NO synthase (eNOS. RES was able to scavenge •OH/O2•− and peroxyl radicals, which can limit the lipid peroxidation processes. Moreover, in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC under glucose-induced oxidative stress, RES restored the activity of dimethylargininedimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH, an enzyme that degrades an endogenous inhibitor of eNOS named asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA. Thus, RES could improve •NO availability and decrease the endothelial dysfunction observed in diabetes. Preclinical studies have made it possible to identify molecular targets (SIRT-1, AMPK, Nrf2, NFκB…; however, there are limited human clinical trials, and difficulties in the interpretation of results arise from the use of high-dose RES supplements in research studies, whereas low RES concentrations are present in red wine. The discussions on potential beneficial effects of RES in CVDs (atherosclerosis, hypertension, stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure should compare the results of preclinical studies with those of clinical trials.

  17. Cardiovascular benefits of exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal SK

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Shashi K AgarwalMedical Director, Agarwal Health Center, NJ, USAAbstract: Regular physical activity during leisure time has been shown to be associated with better health outcomes. The American Heart Association, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine all recommend regular physical activity of moderate intensity for the prevention and complementary treatment of several diseases. The therapeutic role of exercise in maintaining good health and treating diseases is not new. The benefits of physical activity date back to Susruta, a 600 BC physician in India, who prescribed exercise to patients. Hippocrates (460–377 BC wrote “in order to remain healthy, the entire day should be devoted exclusively to ways and means of increasing one's strength and staying healthy, and the best way to do so is through physical exercise.” Plato (427–347 BC referred to medicine as a sister art to physical exercise while the noted ancient Greek physician Galen (129–217 AD penned several essays on aerobic fitness and strengthening muscles. This article briefly reviews the beneficial effects of physical activity on cardiovascular diseases.Keywords: exercise, cardiovascular disease, lifestyle changes, physical activity, good health

  18. Importance of cardiovascular disease risk management in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorber, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is commonly accompanied by other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, such as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia. Furthermore, CVD is the most common cause of death in people with T2DM. It is therefore of critical importance to minimize the risk of macrovascular complications by carefully managing modifiable CVD risk factors in patients with T2DM. Therapeutic strategies should include lifestyle and pharmacological interventions targeting hyperglycemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, cigarette smoking, physical inactivity, and prothrombotic factors. This article discusses the impact of modifying these CVD risk factors in the context of T2DM; the clinical evidence is summarized, and current guidelines are also discussed. The cardiovascular benefits of smoking cessation, increasing physical activity, and reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and blood pressure are well established. For aspirin therapy, any cardiovascular benefits must be balanced against the associated bleeding risk, with current evidence supporting this strategy only in certain patients who are at increased CVD risk. Although overweight, obesity, and hyperglycemia are clearly associated with increased cardiovascular risk, the effect of their modification on this risk is less well defined by available clinical trial evidence. However, for glucose-lowering drugs, further evidence is expected from several ongoing cardiovascular outcome trials. Taken together, the evidence highlights the value of early intervention and targeting multiple risk factors with both lifestyle and pharmacological strategies to give the best chance of reducing macrovascular complications in the long term. PMID:24920930

  19. Pharmacology of sexually compulsive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codispoti, Victoria L

    2008-12-01

    In a meta-analysis on controlled outcomes evaluations of 22,000 sex offenders, Losel and Schmucker found 80 comparisons between treatment and control groups. The recidivism rate averaged 19% in treated groups, and 27% in controls. Most other reviews reported a lower rate of sexual recidivism in treated sexual offenders. Of 2039 citations in this study (including literature in five languages), 60 studies held independent comparisons. Problematic issues included the control groups; various hormonal, surgical, cognitive behavioral, and psychotherapeutic treatments; and sample sizes. In the 80 studies compared after the year 2000, 32% were reported after 2000, 45% originated in the United States, 45% were reported in journals, and 36% were unpublished. Treatment characteristics showed a significant lack of pharmacologic treatment (7.5%), whereas use cognitive and classical behavioral therapy was 64%. In 68% of the studies, no information was available on the integrity of the treatment implementation; 36% of the treatment settings were outpatient only, 31% were prison settings, and 12% were mixed settings (prison, hospital, and outpatient). Integrating research interpretations is complicated by the heterogeneity of sex offenders, with only 56% being adult men and 17.5% adolescents. Offense types reported included 74% child molestation, 48% incest, and 30% exhibitionism. Pedophilia was not singled out. Follow-up periods varied from 12 months to greater than 84 months. The definition of recidivism ran the gamut from arrest (24%), conviction (30%), charges (19%), and no indication (16%). Results were difficult to interpret because of the methodological problems with this type of study. Overall, a positive outcome was noted with sex offender treatment. Cognitive-behavioral and hormonal treatment were the most promising. Voluntary treatment led to a slightly better outcome than mandatory participation. When accounting for a low base rate of sexual recidivism, the reduction

  20. A comparative analysis of protein targets of withdrawn cardiovascular drugs in human and mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yuqi; Wang, Jingwen; Wang, Yanjie; Huang, Jingfei

    2012-01-01

    Background Mouse is widely used in animal testing of cardiovascular disease. However, a large number of cardiovascular drugs that have been experimentally proved to work well on mouse were withdrawn because they caused adverse side effects in human. Methods In this study, we investigate whether binding patterns of withdrawn cardiovascular drugs are conserved between mouse and human through computational dockings and molecular dynamic simulations. In addition, we also measured the level of con...

  1. The emerging role of outdoor and indoor air pollution in cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinta C Uzoigwe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor and indoor air pollution poses a significant cardiovascular risk, and has been associated with atherosclerosis, the main underlying pathology in many cardiovascular diseases. Although, it is well known that exposure to air pollution causes pulmonary disease, recent studies have shown that cardiovascular health consequences of air pollution generally equal or exceed those due to pulmonary diseases. The objective of this article is to evaluate the current evidence on the emerging role of environmental air pollutions in cardiovascular disease, with specific focus on the types of air pollutants and mechanisms of air pollution-induced cardiotoxicity. Published literature on pollution was systematically reviewed and cited in this article. It is hoped that this review will provide a better understanding of the harmful cardiovascular effects induced by air pollution exposure. This will help to bring a better understanding on the possible preventive health measures and will also serve regulatory agencies and researchers. In addition, elucidating the biological mechanisms underlying the link between air pollution and cardiovascular disease is an essential target in developing novel pharmacological strategies aimed at decreasing adverse effects of air pollution on cardiovascular system.

  2. Biomarkers in cardiovascular diabetology: interleukins and matrixins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisman, Enrique Z; Adler, Yehuda; Tenenbaum, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The impressive correlation between cardiovascular disease and alterations in glucose metabolism has raised the likelihood that atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes may share common antecedents. Inflammation is emerging as a conceivable etiologic mechanism for both. Interleukins are regulatory proteins with ability to accelerate or inhibit inflammatory processes, and matrixins are prepro enzymes responsible for the timely breakdown of extracellular matrix. Interleukins (ILs) are classified based on their role in diabetes and atherosclerosis, hypothesizing that each interleukin acts on both diseases in the same direction - regardless if harmful, favorable or neutral. They are clustered into three groups: noxious (the 'bad', 8 members), comprising IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-15, IL-17 and IL-18; protective (the 'good', 5 members), comprising IL-4, IL-10, IL-11, IL-12 and IL-13; and 'aloof' , comprising IL-5, IL-9, IL-14, IL-16 and IL-19 through IL-29 (15 members). Each group presented converging effects on both diseases. IL-3 was reluctant to clustering and IL-30 through 33 were not included due to the scarce available data. It may be seen that (1) favorable effects of a given interleukin on either diabetes or atherosclerosis predicts similar effects on the other; (2) equally, harmful interleukin effects on one disease can be extrapolated to the other, and (3) absence of influence of a given interleukin on one of these diseases forecasts lack of effects on the other. Matrixins seem to present a similar pathophysiological pattern. These facts further support the unifying etiologic theory of diabetes and heart disease, emphasizing the importance of a cardiovascular diabetologic approach to these cytokines for future research. A pharmacologic simultaneous targeting of interleukins and matrixins might provide an effective means to concurrently control both atherosclerosis and diabetes. PMID:18230955

  3. Cheese and cardiovascular disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Currently, the effect of dairy products on cardiovascular risk is a topic with much debate and conflicting results. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the existing literature regarding the effect of cheese intake and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies included...

  4. Cardiovascular toxicities of biological therapies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    effects. One serious adverse effect is the risk of cardiovascular dysfunction. Some targeted therapies, eg, treatment with monoclonal antibodies or angiogenesis inhibitors, have shown an increased risk of cardiac events. Their influence on the cardiovascular system, however, seems to be transient, but...

  5. Pharmacologic Agents for Chronic Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang Jae

    2015-10-01

    Chronic diarrhea is usually associated with a number of non-infectious causes. When definitive treatment is unavailable, symptomatic drug therapy is indicated. Pharmacologic agents for chronic diarrhea include loperamide, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, diosmectite, cholestyramine, probiotics, antispasmodics, rifaximin, and anti-inflammatory agents. Loperamide, a synthetic opiate agonist, decreases peristaltic activity and inhibits secretion, resulting in the reduction of fluid and electrolyte loss and an increase in stool consistency. Cholestyramine is a bile acid sequestrant that is generally considered as the first-line treatment for bile acid diarrhea. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists have significant benefits in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with diarrhea. Ramosetron improves stool consistency as well as global IBS symptoms. Probiotics may have a role in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. However, data on the role of probiotics in the treatment of chronic diarrhea are lacking. Diosmectite, an absorbent, can be used for the treatment of chronic functional diarrhea, radiation-induced diarrhea, and chemotherapy-induced diarrhea. Antispasmodics including alverine citrate, mebeverine, otilonium bromide, and pinaverium bromide are used for relieving diarrheal symptoms and abdominal pain. Rifaximin can be effective for chronic diarrhea associated with IBS and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Budesonide is effective in both lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis. The efficacy of mesalazine in microscopic colitis is weak or remains uncertain. Considering their mechanisms of action, these agents should be prescribed properly. PMID:26576135

  6. Prostaglandins: pharmacology and clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, S M; Hillier, K

    1974-01-01

    Prostaglandin research has been 1 of the most stimulating features of biomedical investigation in the past decade. Interest developed at a time of expanding knowledge of hormonal and neurohormonal behavior and research work received a tremendous impetus in the early 1960s with the elucidation in Sweden of the chemical structures of prostaglandins, followed by the discovery of their biosynthetic pathways. The original findings of large amounts of prostaglandin in the male accessory genital glands and their secretions, and subsequent discovery in the menstrual and amniotic fluids linked these substances with human production. As a result of further investigation, clinical applications of prostaglandins for the induction of labor and termination of early unwanted pregnancies have been developed. Apart from the functions of the prostaglandins in the reproductive area, they have been shown to have a widespread distribution in the body and produce many different pharmacological effects. Prostaglandins are thought to be involved in the regulation of blood pressure and through their vascular effects have therapeutic potential in the treatment of hypertension and peripheral vascular disease. Through their bronchodilator effect, some prostaglandins may become useful in the treatment of asthma. PMID:4611742

  7. Pharmacological challenges in chronic pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Estrup Olesen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug absorption in patients with chronic pancreatitis might be affected by the pathophysiology of the disease. The exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is associated with changes in gastrointestinal intraluminal pH, motility disorder, bacterial overgrowth and changed pancreatic gland secretion. Together these factors can result in malabsorption and may also affect the efficacy of pharmacological intervention. The lifestyle of chronic pancreatitis patients may also contribute to gastrointestinal changes. Many patients limit their food intake because of the pain caused by eating and in some cases food intake is more or less substituted with alcohol, tobacco and coffee. Alcohol and drug interaction are known to influence the pharmacokinetics by altering either drug absorption or by affecting liver metabolism. Since patients suffering from chronic pancreatitis experience severe pain, opioids are often prescribed as pain treatment. Opioids have intrinsic effects on gastrointestinal motility and hence can modify the absorption of other drugs taken at the same time. Furthermore, the increased fluid absorption caused by opioids will decrease water available for drug dissolution and may hereby affect absorption of the drug. As stated above many factors can influence drug absorption and metabolism in patients with chronic pancreatitis. The factors may not have clinical relevance, but may explain inter-individual variations in responses to a given drug, in patients with chronic pancreatitis.

  8. Bromodomains and their pharmacological inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallenkamp, Daniel; Gelato, Kathy A; Haendler, Bernard; Weinmann, Hilmar

    2014-03-01

    Over 60 bromodomains belonging to proteins with very different functions have been identified in humans. Several of them interact with acetylated lysine residues, leading to the recruitment and stabilization of protein complexes. The bromodomain and extra-terminal domain (BET) proteins contain tandem bromodomains which bind to acetylated histones and are thereby implicated in a number of DNA-centered processes, including the regulation of gene expression. The recent identification of inhibitors of BET and non-BET bromodomains is one of the few examples in which effective blockade of a protein-protein interaction can be achieved with a small molecule. This has led to major strides in the understanding of the function of bromodomain-containing proteins and their involvement in diseases such as cancer and inflammation. Indeed, BET bromodomain inhibitors are now being clinically evaluated for the treatment of hematological tumors and have also been tested in clinical trials for the relatively rare BRD-NUT midline carcinoma. This review gives an overview of the newest developments in the field, with a focus on the biology of selected bromodomain proteins on the one hand, and on reported pharmacological inhibitors on the other, including recent examples from the patent literature. PMID:24497428

  9. Cardiovascular and Hematological Medicine in 2013 - Advances and Insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Debabrata

    2012-12-11

    Welcome to the first issue of Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (CHAMC) for 2013. I hope everyone has had an enjoyable holiday season and I want to wish everyone a wonderful New Year. As you know, our journal (CHAMC) aims to cover the latest and outstanding developments in medicinal chemistry, rational drug design for the discovery of novel cardiovascular and hematological Agents and discusses such therapies in clinical practice. Each issue contains a series of timely in-depth reviews, original research articles and drug clinical trial studies written by leaders in the field covering a range of current topics in cardiovascular and hematological sciences. I feel that CHAMC is an essential journal for every medicinal chemist, clinician and healthcare provider who wishes to be kept informed and up-to-date with the latest and most important developments in cardiovascular and hematological drug discovery and their clinical uses. In the coming issues of the journal, we will discuss several important topics pertinent to chemists and clinicians in the cardiovascular and hematology fields such as curcumin and resveratrol as alternative medicinal agents against metabolic syndrome, interrelationship between chronic kidney disease and risk of cardiovascular diseases and effects of direct renin inhibitor, aliskiren, on arterial hypertension, chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease among others. The journal also delves into hot topics such as genetic testing and personalized medicine, use of literature-based discovery to identify novel therapeutic approaches, pharmacologic mechanism and clinical relevance of P2Y12 inhibitors and intracoronary injection of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa, abciximab, as adjuvant therapy in primary coronary intervention. Cardiovascular medicine and hematology are both very dynamic fields with rapid advances and we will continue to work to keep you up to date on new advances and therapies. I would also take this

  10. Risk of cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, Michael; Starup-Linde, Jakob; Thomsen, Jan Lykke Scheel;

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Type 2 diabetes (DM) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effects of antidiabetic drugs on the composite endpoint (CE) of ischemic heart disease, heart failure or stroke in DM patients. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study. Cases were DM patients who......% CI: 16.88-24.12), neuropathy (OR=1.39, 95% CI: 1.05-1.85) and peripheral artery disease (OR=1.31, 95% CI: 1.02-1.69) increased the risk of CE. Biguanides (OR=0.62 95% CI; 0.54-0.71) and liraglutide (OR=0.48 95% CI; 0.38-0.62) significantly decreased the risk of CE as did statin treatment (OR=0.63, 95...

  11. Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    2008-01-01

    without adequate plasma volume expansion, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) insertion, peritoneovenous shunting and surgery. Cardiac failure is an important cause of mortality after liver transplantation, but improved liver function has also been shown to reverse the cardiac......Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis include cardiac dysfunction and abnormalities in the central, splanchnic and peripheral circulation, and haemodynamic changes caused by humoral and nervous dysregulation. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy implies systolic and diastolic dysfunction and...... abnormalities. No specific treatment can be recommended, and cardiac failure should be treated as in non-cirrhotic patients with sodium restriction, diuretics, and oxygen therapy when necessary. Special care should be taken with the use of ACE inhibitors and angiotensin antagonists in these patients. The...

  12. Assessment of cardiovascular risk.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2010-10-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of death worldwide. Usually atherosclerosis is caused by the combined effects of multiple risk factors. For this reason, most guidelines on the prevention of CVD stress the assessment of total CVD risk. The most intensive risk factor modification can then be directed towards the individuals who will derive the greatest benefit. To assist the clinician in calculating the effects of these multiple interacting risk factors, a number of risk estimation systems have been developed. This review address several issues regarding total CVD risk assessment: Why should total CVD risk be assessed? What risk estimation systems are available? How well do these systems estimate risk? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the current systems? What are the current limitations of risk estimation systems and how can they be resolved? What new developments have occurred in CVD risk estimation?

  13. Vascular endothelial dysfunction and pharmacological treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin; Bo; Su

    2015-01-01

    The endothelium exerts multiple actions involving regulation of vascular permeability and tone, coagulation and fibrinolysis, inflammatory and immunological reactions and cell growth. Alterations of one or more such actions may cause vascular endothelial dysfunction. Different risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, homocystinemia, hyperglycemia, hypertension, smo-king, inflammation, and aging contribute to the development of endothelial dysfunction. Mechanisms underlying endothelial dysfunction are multiple, including impaired endothelium-derived vasodilators, enhanced endothelium-derived vasoconstrictors, over production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species, activation of inflammatory and immune reactions, and imbalance of coagulation and fibrinolysis. Endothelial dysfunction occurs in many cardiovascular diseases, which involves different mechanisms, depending on specific risk factors affecting the disease. Among these mechanisms, a reduction in nitric oxide(NO) bioavailability plays a central role in the development of endothelial dysfunction because NO exerts diverse physiological actions, including vasodilation, anti-inflammation, antiplatelet, antiproliferation and antimigration. Experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated that a variety of currently used or investigational drugs, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin AT1 receptors blockers, angiotensin-(1-7), antioxidants, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, endothelial NO synthase enhancers, phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors, sphingosine-1-phosphate and statins, exert endothelial protective effects. Due to the difference in mechanisms of action, these drugs need to be used according to specific mechanisms underlying endothelial dysfunction of the disease.

  14. Pharmacology in space. Part 1. Influence of adaptive changes on pharmacokinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathers, C. M.; Charles, J. B.; Bungo, M. W.

    1989-01-01

    The topic of pharmacology in space, i.e. the administration of drugs during space flight and the subsequent pharmacokinetic handling of the pharmaceuticals, is a new field about which little is known. In a two-part series, Claire Lathers and colleagues highlight some of the current questions in this field. In this first article the physiological and biochemical changes associated with weightlessness in space are discussed. These changes induce adaptive alterations which may influence the pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. The cardiovascular system is of particular relevance here. Also discussed are the classes of pharmacological agent that are most likely to be used during space flight for medical problems and thus, by necessity, will become drugs to be examined in space to determine whether their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties are altered. Therapy of the most common spaceflight ailment-motion sickness-will be considered next month in Part 2.

  15. Cardiovascular Health in Anxiety or Mood Problems Study (CHAMPS): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Tully, Phillip J; Turnbull, Deborah A; Horowitz, John D; Beltrame, John F.; Selkow, Terina; Baune, Bernhard T; Markwick, Elizabeth; Sauer-Zavala, Shannon; Baumeister, Harald; Cosh, Suzanne; Gary A Wittert

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous psychological and pharmacological interventions have primarily focused on depression disorders in populations with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and the efficacy of anxiety disorder interventions is only more recently being explored. Transdiagnostic interventions address common emotional processes and the full range of anxiety and depression disorders often observed in populations with CVDs. The aim of CHAMPS is to evaluate the feasibility of a unified protocol (UP) for t...

  16. A patient with osteoarthritis and cardiovascular disease presenting with bilateral hip pain: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Yanow, Jennifer; Pappagallo, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The pharmacological management of osteoarthritis normally begins with the administration of acetaminophen or a nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. However, acetaminophen may not be efficacious in all patients, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may be associated with gastrointestinal and cardiovascular adverse effects. Case presentation A 79-year-old Caucasian man with bilateral hip pain was diagnosed with osteoarthritis of the hip. His past medical history in...

  17. Use of Atorvastatin in Lipid Disorders and Cardiovascular Disease in Chinese Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-Cong Ye; Xi-Liang Zhao; Shu-Yang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Statins are still underused for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in China. Hence, we conducted a systemic review on the pharmacology, clinical efficacy, and adverse events of atorvastatin, as well as on patient adherence. Data Sources: We conducted a systemic search in PubMed with the following keywords: "atorvastatin" (Supplementary concept) or "atorvastatin" (All field) and ("China" [AD] or "China" [all field] or "Chinese" [All field]). Study Selection: Cl...

  18. Effect of Crataegus Usage in Cardiovascular Disease Prevention: An Evidence-Based Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Wang; Xingjiang Xiong; Bo Feng

    2013-01-01

    Hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha) is a widely used Chinese herb for treatment of gastrointestinal ailments and heart problems and consumed as food. In North America, the role of treatment for heart problems dates back to 1800. Currently, evidence is accumulating from various in vivo and in vitro studies that hawthorn extracts exert a wide range of cardiovascular pharmacological properties, including antioxidant activity, positive inotropic effect, anti-inflammatory effect, anticardiac remodelin...

  19. Sleep duration, cardiovascular disease, and proinflammatory biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandner MA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Michael A Grandner,1,2 Megan R Sands-Lincoln,3 Victoria M Pak,2,4 Sheila N Garland1,5 1Behavioral Sleep Medicine Program, Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA; 2Center for Sleep and Circadian Neurobiology, University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA; 3Center for Evidence Based Medicine, Elsevier Inc, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 4Division of Sleep Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA; 5Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA Abstract: Habitual sleep duration has been associated with cardiometabolic disease, via several mechanistic pathways, but few have been thoroughly explored. One hypothesis is that short and/or long sleep duration is associated with a proinflammatory state, which could increase risk for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. This hypothesis has been largely explored in the context of experimental sleep deprivation studies which have attempted to demonstrate changes in proinflammatory markers following acute sleep loss in the laboratory. Despite the controlled environment available in these studies, samples tend to lack generalization to the population at large and acute sleep deprivation may not be a perfect analog for short sleep. To address these limitations, population based studies have explored associations between proinflammatory markers and habitual sleep duration. This review summarizes what is known from experimental and cross-sectional studies about the association between sleep duration, cardiovascular disease, and proinflammatory biomarkers. First, the association between sleep duration with both morbidity and mortality, with a focus on cardiovascular disease, is reviewed. Then, a brief review of the potential role of proinflammatory markers in cardiovascular disease is presented. The majority of this review details specific findings related to specific

  20. Nanobiology for the pharmacology of cellular ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabanov, Alexander V; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail P; Khokhlov, Alexey R

    2009-03-01

    Writing this editorial is especially pleasing. First, it provides us an opportunity to introduce new directives to the field of Neuroimmune Pharmacology and to explain why the field of nanomedicine is likely an important part of its future growth and development. Second, it is an opportunity to showcase research in this area currently operative in Russia that may not be readily accessible to the readership. Third, it is a platform to better explain why the Journal Editorial leadership was enthusiastic about the science and its relationship to the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology strategic goals. All are brought to bear in this issue of the Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology. The issue includes articles presented at a recent joint US-Russian workshop entitled, "Health in the 21st Century: Nanomedicine and Self-Organization of Biological Systems" held at M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU), Moscow, Russia, December 10-11, 2007. The conjoint meeting was organized through the Departments of Biology, Chemistry, and Physics, MSU and by the Center for Drug Delivery and Nanomedicine and Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, University of Nebraska Medical Center (Omaha, NE). The speakers included established internationally regarded scientists from these institutions as well as graduate students and faculties at MSU. In addition to selected papers by workshop contributors, we have included several papers closely aligned to the theme of nanomedicine and nanopharmacology of the central nervous system in order to provide a biological anchor for this research. We understand that such works are new to many but hope that its organization and interdisciplinary approaches will appeal to this audience. All together, it is our hope that, by gathering basic and clinical scientists with the common interest of using nanotechnology in the delivery of therapeutic agents with a focus on nanopharmacology and complex supramolecular biological assembly, the

  1. Pharmacologic treatment of migraine. Comparison of guidelines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurmans, A.; Weel, C. van

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare guidelines (not the primary studies) for pharmacologic treatment of migraine as to methods of guideline development; recommendations, particularly on triptans; and quality of supporting evidence (with emphasis on comparative studies of triptans versus ergot alkaloids and nonste

  2. Urotensin II in cardiovascular regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser D Russell

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Fraser D RussellSchool of Health and Sport Sciences, Faculty of Science, Health and Education, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, Queensland, AustraliaAbstract: Cardiovascular function is modulated by neuronal transmitters, circulating hormones, and factors that are released locally from tissues. Urotensin II (UII is an 11 amino acid peptide that stimulates its’ obligatory G protein coupled urotensin II receptors (UT to modulate cardiovascular function in humans and in other animal species, and has been implicated in both vasculoprotective and vasculopathic effects. For example, tissue and circulating concentrations of UII have been reported to increase in some studies involving patients with atherosclerosis, heart failure, hypertension, preeclampsia, diabetes, renal disease and liver disease, raising the possibility that the UT receptor system is involved in the development and/or progression of these conditions. Consistent with this hypothesis, administration of UT receptor antagonists to animal models of cardiovascular disease have revealed improvements in cardiovascular remodelling and hemodynamics. However, recent studies have questioned this contributory role of UII in disease, and have instead postulated a protective effect on the cardiovascular system. For example, high concentrations of circulating UII correlated with improved clinical outcomes in patients with renal disease or myocardial infarction. The purpose of this review is to consider the regulation of the cardiovascular system by UII, giving consideration to methodologies for measurement of plasma concentrations, sites of synthesis and triggers for release.Keywords: urotensin II, cardiovascular disease, heart failure, hypertension

  3. Urotensin II in cardiovascular regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser D Russell

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Fraser D RussellSchool of Health and Sport Sciences, Faculty of Science, Health and Education, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, Queensland, AustraliaAbstract: Cardiovascular function is modulated by neuronal transmitters, circulating hormones, and factors that are released locally from tissues. Urotensin II (UII is an 11 amino acid peptide that stimulates its’ obligatory G protein coupled urotensin II receptors (UT to modulate cardiovascular function in humans and in other animal species, and has been implicated in both vasculoprotective and vasculopathic effects. For example, tissue and circulating concentrations of UII have been reported to increase in some studies involving patients with atherosclerosis, heart failure, hypertension, preeclampsia, diabetes, renal disease and liver disease, raising the possibility that the UT receptor system is involved in the development and/or progression of these conditions. Consistent with this hypothesis, administration of UT receptor antagonists to animal models of cardiovascular disease have revealed improvements in cardiovascular remodelling and hemodynamics. However, recent studies have questioned this contributory role of UII in disease, and have instead postulated a protective effect on the cardiovascular system. For example, high concentrations of circulating UII correlated with improved clinical outcomes in patients with renal disease or myocardial infarction. The purpose of this review is to consider the regulation of the cardiovascular system by UII, giving consideration to methodologies for measurement of plasma concentrations, sites of synthesis and triggers for release.Keywords: urotensin II, cardiovascular disease, heart failure, hypertension

  4. Molecular Mechanisms of Cardiovascular Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The average lifespan of humans is increasing, and with it the percentage of people entering the 65 and older age group is growing rapidly and will continue to do so in the next 20 years. Within this age group, cardiovascular disease will remain the leading cause of death, and the cost associated with treatment will continue to increase. Aging is an inevitable part of life and unfortunately poses the largest risk factor for cardiovascular disease. CONTENT: We provide an overview of some of the molecular mechanisms involved in regulating lifespan and health, including mitochondria, telomeres, stem cells, sirtuins, Adenosine Monophosphate-activated Protein Kinase, Mammalian Target of Rapamycin and Insulin-like Growth Factor 1. We also provide future perspectives of lifespan and health, which are intimately linked fields. SUMMARY: Aging remains the biggest non-modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The biological, structural and mechanical changes in senescent cardiovascular system are thought to contribute in increasing incidence of cardiovascular disease in aging. Understanding the mechanisms contributing to such changes is therefore crucial for both prevention and development of treatment for cardiovascular diseases. KEYWORDS: cardiovascular aging, mitochondria, telomeres, sirtuin, stem cells.

  5. CASSIA TORA: A PHYTO-PHARMACOLOGICAL OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Das Chandan; Dash Sujit; Sahoo Durga Charan; Mohanty Arnabaditya; Rout Dolley

    2011-01-01

    Cassia tora, a popular Indian medicinal plant, has long been used in Ayurvedic system of medicine. The plant has been found to possess diverse number of pharmacological activities. The present paper gives an account of updated information on its phytochemical and pharmacological activities. The review reveals that wide range of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from the plant and it possess important activities like laxative, skin diseases, ringworm, eye diseases, liver complaint,...

  6. Methods in pharmacology: measurement of cardiac output

    OpenAIRE

    Geerts, Bart F; Aarts, Leon P; Jansen, Jos R.

    2011-01-01

    Many methods of cardiac output measurement have been developed, but the number of methods useful for human pharmacological studies is limited. The ‘holy grail’ for the measurement of cardiac output would be a method that is accurate, precise, operator independent, fast responding, non-invasive, continuous, easy to use, cheap and safe. This method does not exist today. In this review on cardiac output methods used in pharmacology, the Fick principle, indicator dilution techniques, arterial pul...

  7. Pharmacological treatment of depression in older people

    OpenAIRE

    Curran, Stephen; Byrne, Andrew; Wattis, John

    2006-01-01

    In the light of recent National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) and Committee for the Safety of Medicines (CSM) guidance we discuss the importance of the diagnosis of depression in old age and review pharmacological interventions. An introductory section is followed by sections on each of the main antidepressant groups. This briefly describes their pharmacology and reviews research done specifically relevant to older people. Finally practical clinical applications are discussed.

  8. Cardiovascular side effects of psychopharmacologic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potočnjak, Ines; Degoricija, Vesna; Vukičević Baudoin, Dina; Čulig, Josip; Jakovljević, Miro

    2016-09-15

    WHO defined in 1976 psychopharmaca as drugs affecting psychological functions, behaviour and self-perception. Psychopharmacology is the study of pharmacological agents that affect mental and emotional functions. Creative approach to psychopharmacotherapy reflects a transdisciplinary, integrative and person-centered psychiatry. Psychiatric disorders often occur in cardiac patients and can affect the clinical presentation and morbidity. Cardiovascular (CV) side effects (SE) caused by psychopharmaceutic agents require comprehensive attention. Therapeutic approach can increase placebo and decrease nocebo reactions. The main purpose of this review is to comprehend CV SE of psychotropic drugs (PD). Critical overview of CV SE of PD will be presented in this review. Search was directed but not limited to CV effects of psychopharmacological substances, namely antipsychotics, anxiolytics, hypnotics, sedatives, antidepressants and stimulants. Literature review was performed and data identified by searches of Medline and PubMed for period from 2004 to 2015. Only full articles and abstracts published in English were included. SE of PD are organized according to the following types of CV effects: cardiac and circulatory effects, abnormalities of cardiac repolarisation and arrhythmias and heart muscle disease. There is wide spectrum and various CV effects of PD. Results of this review are based on literature research. The reviewed data came largely from prevalence studies, case reports, and cross-sectional studies. Psychopharmacotherapy of psychiatric disorders is complex and when concomitantly present with CV disease, presentation of drug SEs can significantly contribute to illness course. Further development of creative psychopharmacotherapy is required to deal with CV effects of PD. PMID:27352209

  9. Pharmacological and clinical properties of curcumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Christopher S Beevers¹, Shile Huang²¹Department of Pharmacology, Ross University School of Medicine, Picard-Portsmouth, Commonwealth of Dominica; ²Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA, USAAbstract: The polyphenol natural product curcumin has been the subject of numerous studies over the past decades, which have identified and characterized the compound's pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and clinical pharmacological properties. In in vitro and in vivo model systems, curcumin displays potent pharmacological effects, by targeting many critical cellular factors, through a diverse array of mechanisms of action. Despite this tremendous molecular versatility, however, the clinical application of curcumin remains limited due to poor pharmacokinetic characteristics in human beings. The current trend is to develop and utilize unique delivery systems, chemical derivatives, and chemical analogs to circumvent these pharmacological obstacles, in order to optimize the conditions for curcumin as a chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent in diseases such as cancer, diabetes, obesity, Alzheimer's disease, and inflammatory disorders. The present work seeks to review recent studies in the basic pharmacological principles and potential clinical applications of curcumin.Keywords: curcumin, pharmacological properties, signal transduction, cellular targets, cancer, inflammation

  10. Simulations of the Cardiovascular System Using the Cardiovascular Simulation Toolbox

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz-León, Gabriela; Vílchez-Monge, Marta; Montero-Rodríguez, Juan J.

    2014-01-01

    In the present document, six mathematical models of the cardiovascular system are studied and implemented in MATLAB R2013a using an updated version of the Cardiovascular Simulation Toolbox proposed by O. Barnea at the Tel-Aviv University. All the mathematical models are based on electrical lumped-parameter analogies. The results of the simulations are compared with a list of expected hemodynamic parameters and contrasted with laboratory values.

  11. Cardiovascular MRI with ferumoxytol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, J P; Nguyen, K-L; Han, F; Zhou, Z; Salusky, I; Ayad, I; Hu, P

    2016-08-01

    The practice of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CEMRA) has changed significantly in the span of a decade. Concerns regarding gadolinium (Gd)-associated nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in those with severely impaired renal function spurred developments in low-dose CEMRA and non-contrast MRA as well as efforts to seek alternative MR contrast agents. Originally developed for MR imaging use, ferumoxytol (an ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle), is currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia in adults with renal disease. Since its clinical availability in 2009, there has been rising interest in the scientific and clinical use of ferumoxytol as an MR contrast agent. The unique physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties of ferumoxytol, including its long intravascular half-life and high r1 relaxivity, support a spectrum of MRI applications beyond the scope of Gd-based contrast agents. Moreover, whereas Gd is not found in biological systems, iron is essential for normal metabolism, and nutritional iron deficiency poses major public health challenges worldwide. Once the carbohydrate shell of ferumoxytol is degraded, the elemental iron at its core is incorporated into the reticuloendothelial system. These considerations position ferumoxytol as a potential game changer in the field of CEMRA and MRI. In this paper, we aim to summarise our experience with the cardiovascular applications of ferumoxytol and provide a brief synopsis of ongoing investigations on ferumoxytol-enhanced MR applications. PMID:27221526

  12. Pharmacological potential of Populus nigra extract as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardiovascular and hepatoprotective agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nadjet Debbache-Benaida; Dina Atmani-Kilani; Valrie Barbara Schini-Keirth; Nouredine Djebbli; Djebbar Atmani

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and vasorelaxant activities of Populus nigra flower buds ethanolic extract. Methods: Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the extract were assessed using respectively the ABTS test and the animal model of carrageenan-induced paw edema. Protection from hepatic toxicity caused by aluminum was examined by histopathologic analysis of liver sections. Vasorelaxant effect was estimated in endothelium-intact and-rubbed rings of porcine coronary arteries precontracted with high concentration of U46619. Results:The results showed a moderate antioxidant activity (40%), but potent anti-inflammatory activity (49.9%) on carrageenan-induced mice paw edema, and also as revealed by histopathologic examination, complete protection against AlCl3-induced hepatic toxicity. Relaxant effects of the same extract on vascular preparation from porcine aorta precontracted with high concentration of U46619 were considerable at 10-1 g/L, and comparable (P>0.05) between endothelium-intact (67.74%, IC50=0.04 mg/mL) and-rubbed (72.72%, IC50=0.075 mg/mL) aortic rings. Conclusions: The extract exerted significant anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and vasorelaxant activities, the latter being endothelium-independent believed to be mediated mainly by the ability of components present in the extract to exert antioxidant properties, probably related to an inhibition of Ca2+influx.

  13. Angiogenesis : Potentials for pharmacologic intervention in the treatment of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and chronic inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffioen, AW; Molema, G

    2000-01-01

    Angiogenesis, or the formation of new blood vessels out of pre-existing capillaries, is a sequence of events that is fundamental to many physiologic and pathologic processes such as cancer, ischemic diseases, and chronic inflammation. With the identification of several proangiogenic molecules such a

  14. Pharmacologic management of the patient with disorders of the cardiovascular system. Infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowper, T R

    1996-07-01

    IE, although an infrequent event, remains a serious and frequently lethal complication in patients at risk. Oral microorganisms undoubtedly play a significant role in the development of IE in such patients. For example, in a retrospective review of prosthetic cardiac valve candidates (156) at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 15% were found to have at least one abscessed tooth, whereas approximately 17% were found to have severe (class IV) periodontal disease. Cardiac defects in conjunction with bacteremias from such dental pathoses clearly elevate the risk, although a small but increasing number of noncardiac conditions and behavioral patterns seem also to be able to induce susceptibility. Whether dental or other medical procedures are truly direct inducers of IE, however, remains to be proven and in all probability are only minor contributors overall. Despite its ubiquitous use, antibiotic prophylaxis has not been proven in human clinical trials, and its underlying rationale is arbitrary and questionable at best; nevertheless, its efficacy in animal models has led to the current human protocols. A more profitable strategy, and certainly an adjunctive one, should be to direct one's effort at eliminating oral pathology and educating and motivating patients at risk toward meticulous oral hygiene--an exhortation published many years before the advent of antibiotics and still undoubtedly the best recommendation today. PMID:8829048

  15. Sex differences in cardiovascular function

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolář, František; Ošťádal, Bohuslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 207, č. 4 (2013), s. 584-587. ISSN 1748-1708 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : heart * vascular * risk factors * sex Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 4.251, year: 2013

  16. Cold Weather and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Cold Weather and Cardiovascular Disease Updated:Sep 16,2015 ... Your Heart Health • Watch, Learn & Live Animations Library Cold Weather Fitness Guide Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood ...

  17. Human and equine cardiovascular endocrinology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vekens, Nicky Van Der; Hunter, Ingrid; Gøtze, Jens Peter;

    2013-01-01

    important species differences, which can partly be explained by variations in physiology or pathophysiology. Most important are physiological differences in heart rate, cardiovascular response to exercise, food and water intake, and molecular elimination in plasma. Pathological differences are even more...

  18. Exercise and the Cardiovascular System

    OpenAIRE

    Saeid Golbidi; Ismail Laher

    2012-01-01

    There are alarming increases in the incidence of obesity, insulin resistance, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The risk of these diseases is significantly reduced by appropriate lifestyle modifications such as increased physical activity. However, the exact mechanisms by which exercise influences the development and progression of cardiovascular disease are unclear. In this paper we review some important exercise-induced changes in cardiac, vascular, and blood tissues and discuss...

  19. Cardiovascular physiology in space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John B.; Bungo, Michael W.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of space flight on the cardiovascular system have been studied since the first manned flights. In several instances, the results from these investigations have directly contradicted the predictions based on established models. Results suggest associations between space flight's effects on other organ systems and those on the cardiovascular system. Such findings provide new insights into normal human physiology. They must also be considered when planning for the safety and efficiency of space flight crewmembers.

  20. Integrative approaches for cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneri, Mimi; Mercado, Nestor; Suhar, Christopher

    2009-12-01

    In the United States, $2.5 trillion is spent on healthcare annually. Seven chronic diseases account for half of all this expense. Of these 7, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, stroke, and diabetes mellitus are largely preventable. Integrative cardiology programs that focus on risk-factor modification through lifestyle change combined with early detection and advanced lipid management offer a new paradigm to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:19955547

  1. Serotonin receptors as cardiovascular targets

    OpenAIRE

    Villalón, Carlos; De Vries, Peter; Saxena, Pramod Ranjan

    1997-01-01

    textabstractSerotonin exerts complex effects in the cardiovascular system, including hypotension or hypertension, vasodilatation or vasoconstriction, and/or bradycardia or tachycardia; the eventual response depends primarily on the nature of the 5-HT receptors involved. In the light of current 5-HT receptor classification, the authors reanalyse the cardiovascular responses mediated by 5-HT receptors and discuss the established and potential therapeutic applications of 5-HT ligands in the trea...

  2. Cardiovascular effects of basal insulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannucci, Edoardo; Giannini, Stefano; Dicembrini, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Basal insulin is an important component of treatment for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. One of the principal aims of treatment in patients with diabetes is the prevention of diabetic complications, including cardiovascular disease. There is some evidence, although controversial, that attainment of good glycemic control reduces long-term cardiovascular risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the potential cardiovascular safety of the different available preparations of basal insulin. Current basal insulin (neutral protamine Hagedorn [NPH], or isophane) and basal insulin analogs (glargine, detemir, and the more recent degludec) differ essentially by various measures of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects in the bloodstream, presence and persistence of peak action, and within-subject variability in the glucose-lowering response. The currently available data show that basal insulin analogs have a lower risk of hypoglycemia than NPH human insulin, in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, then excluding additional harmful effects on the cardiovascular system mediated by activation of the adrenergic system. Given that no biological rationale for a possible difference in cardiovascular effect of basal insulins has been proposed so far, available meta-analyses of publicly disclosed randomized controlled trials do not show any signal of increased risk of major cardiovascular events between the different basal insulin analogs. However, the number of available cardiovascular events in these trials is very small, preventing any clear-cut conclusion. The results of an ongoing clinical trial comparing glargine and degludec with regard to cardiovascular safety will provide definitive evidence. PMID:26203281

  3. Estrogen Signaling and Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Estrogen has pleiotropic effects on the cardiovascular system. The mechanisms by which estrogen confers these pleiotropic effects on cardiovascular function is under active investigation. Until a decade ago, all estrogen signaling was thought to occur by estrogen binding to nuclear estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ), which bind to DNA and function as ligand activated transcription factors. Estrogen binding to the receptor alters gene expression thereby altering cell function. In 2000 estrogen w...

  4. Molecular Mechanisms of Cardiovascular Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Meiliana; Andi Wijaya

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The average lifespan of humans is increasing, and with it the percentage of people entering the 65 and older age group is growing rapidly and will continue to do so in the next 20 years. Within this age group, cardiovascular disease will remain the leading cause of death, and the cost associated with treatment will continue to increase. Aging is an inevitable part of life and unfortunately poses the largest risk factor for cardiovascular disease. CONTENT: We provide an overview of...

  5. Microalbuminuria: a Cardiovascular Risk Factor

    OpenAIRE

    ERCAN, Ertuğrul

    2010-01-01

    Albumin is a protein which is charged negatively. By correcting for the daily excretion of creatinine, the albumin creatinin ratio implicates the daily excretion of albumin in spot urine. Albuminuria is a cardiovascular risk factor in patients with diabetes, hypertension, and the general population. Urinary albumin excretion is independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events, even after adjustment for risk factors. Risk has been shown to increase continuously with inc...

  6. CardioGenBase: A Literature Based Multi-Omics Database for Major Cardiovascular Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandar V

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs account for high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Both, genetic and epigenetic factors are involved in the enumeration of various cardiovascular diseases. In recent years, a vast amount of multi-omics data are accumulated in the field of cardiovascular research, yet the understanding of key mechanistic aspects of CVDs remain uncovered. Hence, a comprehensive online resource tool is required to comprehend previous research findings and to draw novel methodology for understanding disease pathophysiology. Here, we have developed a literature-based database, CardioGenBase, collecting gene-disease association from Pubmed and MEDLINE. The database covers major cardiovascular diseases such as cerebrovascular disease, coronary artery disease (CAD, hypertensive heart disease, inflammatory heart disease, ischemic heart disease and rheumatic heart disease. It contains ~1,500 cardiovascular disease genes from ~2,4000 research articles. For each gene, literature evidence, ontology, pathways, single nucleotide polymorphism, protein-protein interaction network, normal gene expression, protein expressions in various body fluids and tissues are provided. In addition, tools like gene-disease association finder and gene expression finder are made available for the users with figures, tables, maps and venn diagram to fit their needs. To our knowledge, CardioGenBase is the only database to provide gene-disease association for above mentioned major cardiovascular diseases in a single portal. CardioGenBase is a vital online resource to support genome-wide analysis, genetic, epigenetic and pharmacological studies.

  7. Parameter trajectory analysis to identify treatment effects of pharmacological interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian A Tiemann

    Full Text Available The field of medical systems biology aims to advance understanding of molecular mechanisms that drive disease progression and to translate this knowledge into therapies to effectively treat diseases. A challenging task is the investigation of long-term effects of a (pharmacological treatment, to establish its applicability and to identify potential side effects. We present a new modeling approach, called Analysis of Dynamic Adaptations in Parameter Trajectories (ADAPT, to analyze the long-term effects of a pharmacological intervention. A concept of time-dependent evolution of model parameters is introduced to study the dynamics of molecular adaptations. The progression of these adaptations is predicted by identifying necessary dynamic changes in the model parameters to describe the transition between experimental data obtained during different stages of the treatment. The trajectories provide insight in the affected underlying biological systems and identify the molecular events that should be studied in more detail to unravel the mechanistic basis of treatment outcome. Modulating effects caused by interactions with the proteome and transcriptome levels, which are often less well understood, can be captured by the time-dependent descriptions of the parameters. ADAPT was employed to identify metabolic adaptations induced upon pharmacological activation of the liver X receptor (LXR, a potential drug target to treat or prevent atherosclerosis. The trajectories were investigated to study the cascade of adaptations. This provided a counter-intuitive insight concerning the function of scavenger receptor class B1 (SR-B1, a receptor that facilitates the hepatic uptake of cholesterol. Although activation of LXR promotes cholesterol efflux and -excretion, our computational analysis showed that the hepatic capacity to clear cholesterol was reduced upon prolonged treatment. This prediction was confirmed experimentally by immunoblotting measurements of SR-B1

  8. Pharmacological, morphological and behavioral analysis of motor impairment in experimentally vitamin C deficient guinea pigs Análise farmacológica, morfológica e comportamental do comprometimento motor em cobaios com deficiência de vitamina C induzida experimentalmente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Barreto Oriá

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The scurvy shows an inflammatory disease and gingival bleeding. Nevertheless, in an animal model for guinea pigs, described by Den Hartog Jager in 1985, scurvy was associated with a motor neuron disease with demyelinization of the pyramidal tract, provoking neurogenic atrophy of muscles. Aiming at searching the protective role of vitamin C in nervous system, a pharmacological, morphological and behavioral study was conducted. Three experimental groups were used: A100, animals receiving 100 mg/ vitamin C/ day; A5.0, animals receiving 5.0 mg/vitamin C/ day; and A0, animals without vitamin C. We analyzed the weight gain, muscular diameter and behavioral tests. In all tests examined, we found significant differences between the supplemented groups in comparison with scorbutic group (pO escorbuto se caracteriza por doença inflamatória e sangramento gengival. Contudo, num modelo animal em cobaios, descrito por Den Hartog Jager em 1985, o estado escorbútico foi associado à doença do neurônio motor com desmielinização do trato piramidal, provocando atrofia neurogênica dos músculos. Objetivando investigar o papel protetor da vitamina C no sistema nervoso, um estudo farmacológico, morfológico e comportamental foi conduzido. Três grupos experimentais foram usados: A100, animais recebendo 100 mg/vitamina C/ dia; A5,0, animais recebendo 5,0 mg/ vitamina C/ dia; e A0, animais sem vitamina C. Nós avaliamos o ganho de peso, diâmetro muscular e realizamos testes comportamentais. Em todos os testes examinados, detectamos diferenças significantes dos grupos suplementados em relação ao grupo escorbútico (p<0,05. Os animais foram sacrificados para histopatologia do músculo gastrocnemius, medula espinhal e tecidos dentários. Também foi realizado estudo morfométrico da espessura do periodonto e do diâmetro dos corpos celulares dos neurônios motores alfa. A carência de vitamina C parece comprometer a morfologia da medula espinhal envolvendo o

  9. Attitude, perception and feedback of second year medical students on teaching-learning methodology and evaluation methods in pharmacology: A questionnaire-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma A Bhosale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To assess the student′s attitude, perception and feedback on teaching-learning methodology and evaluation methods in pharmacology. Materials and Methods: One hundred and forty second year medical students studying at Smt. Kashibai Navale Medical College, Pune, were selected. They were administered a pre-validated questionnaire containing 22 questions. Suggestions were also asked regarding the qualities of good pharmacology teachers and modification in pharmacology teaching methods. Descriptive statistics were used and results were expressed as percentage. Results: Majority of the students found cardiovascular system (49.25% as the most interesting topic in pharmacology, whereas most of the students opined that cardiovascular system (60.10%, chemotherapy (54.06% and central nervous system (44.15% are going to be the most useful topics in internship. 48.53% students preferred clinical/patient-related pharmacology and 39.13% suggested use of audiovisual-aided lectures. Prescription writing and criticism of prescription were amongst the most useful and interesting in practical pharmacology. Students expressed interest in microteaching and problem-based learning, whereas seminars, demonstrations on manikin and museum studies were mentioned as good adjuvants to routine teaching. Multiple Choice Question (MCQ practice tests and theory viva at the end of a particular system and periodical written tests were mentioned as effective evaluation methods. Students were found to have lot of interest in gathering information on recent advances in pharmacology and suggested to include new drug information along with prototype drugs in a comparative manner. Conclusion: There is a need of conducting few microteaching sessions and more of clinical-oriented problem-based learning with MCQ-based revisions at the end of each class in the pharmacology teaching at undergraduate level.

  10. Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Francisco B; Lavie, Carl J; Blair, Steven N

    2016-05-27

    The prevalence of obesity has increased worldwide over the past few decades. In 2013, the prevalence of obesity exceeded the 50% of the adult population in some countries from Oceania, North Africa, and Middle East. Lower but still alarmingly high prevalence was observed in North America (≈30%) and in Western Europe (≈20%). These figures are of serious concern because of the strong link between obesity and disease. In the present review, we summarize the current evidence on the relationship of obesity with cardiovascular disease (CVD), discussing how both the degree and the duration of obesity affect CVD. Although in the general population, obesity and, especially, severe obesity are consistently and strongly related with higher risk of CVD incidence and mortality, the one-size-fits-all approach should not be used with obesity. There are relevant factors largely affecting the CVD prognosis of obese individuals. In this context, we thoroughly discuss important concepts such as the fat-but-fit paradigm, the metabolically healthy but obese (MHO) phenotype and the obesity paradox in patients with CVD. About the MHO phenotype and its CVD prognosis, available data have provided mixed findings, what could be partially because of the adjustment or not for key confounders such as cardiorespiratory fitness, and to the lack of consensus on the MHO definition. In the present review, we propose a scientifically based harmonized definition of MHO, which will hopefully contribute to more comparable data in the future and a better understanding on the MHO subgroup and its CVD prognosis. PMID:27230640

  11. Non Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancers - Current Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Ankur; Kumar, Kuldip; Anand, Kuljeet Singh

    2015-07-01

    Cognition refers to the mental processes involved in thinking, knowing, remembering, judging, and problem solving. Cognitive dysfunctions are an integral part of neuropsychiatric disorders as well as in healthy ageing. Cognitive Enhancers are molecules that help improve aspects of cognition like memory, intelligence, motivation, attention and concentration. Recently, Non Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancers have gained popularity as effective and safe alternative to various established drugs. Many of these Non Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancers seem to be more efficacious compared to currently available Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancers. This review describes and summarizes evidence on various Non Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancers such as physical exercise, sleep, meditation and yoga, spirituality, nutrients, computer training, brain stimulation, and music. We also discuss their role in ageing and different neuro-psychiatric disorders, and current status of Cochrane database recommendations. We searched the Pubmed database for the articles and reviews having the terms 'non pharmacological and cognitive' in the title, published from 2000 till 2014. A total of 11 results displayed, out of which 10 were relevant to the review. These were selected and reviewed. Appropriate cross-references within the articles along with Cochrane reviews were also considered and studied. PMID:26393186

  12. Importance of cardiovascular disease risk management in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorber D

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Lorber Division of Endocrinology, New York Hospital Queens, Department of Medicine, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is commonly accompanied by other cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors, such as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia. Furthermore, CVD is the most common cause of death in people with T2DM. It is therefore of critical importance to minimize the risk of macrovascular complications by carefully managing modifiable CVD risk factors in patients with T2DM. Therapeutic strategies should include lifestyle and pharmacological interventions targeting hyperglycemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, cigarette smoking, physical inactivity, and prothrombotic factors. This article discusses the impact of modifying these CVD risk factors in the context of T2DM; the clinical evidence is summarized, and current guidelines are also discussed. The cardiovascular benefits of smoking cessation, increasing physical activity, and reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and blood pressure are well established. For aspirin therapy, any cardiovascular benefits must be balanced against the associated bleeding risk, with current evidence supporting this strategy only in certain patients who are at increased CVD risk. Although overweight, obesity, and hyperglycemia are clearly associated with increased cardiovascular risk, the effect of their modification on this risk is less well defined by available clinical trial evidence. However, for glucose-lowering drugs, further evidence is expected from several ongoing cardiovascular outcome trials. Taken together, the evidence highlights the value of early intervention and targeting multiple risk factors with both lifestyle and pharmacological strategies to give the best chance of reducing macrovascular complications in the long term. Keywords: cardiovascular risk, hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia

  13. PHARMACOLOGICAL SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE FOR THE PROMISE OF TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameel Mohd

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The usage of plants, plant extracts or plant-derived pure chemicals for disease management, become a therapeutic modality, which has stood the test of time. In the present review, we focus on pharmacological profile (in tabular form of Tribulus terrestris L., apart from Phytochemistry, Taxonomy and Traditional uses. Data were located, selected and extracted from SCI database, Medline, Pubmed, Highwire and Google Scholar. Fruits and seeds of Tribulus terrestris L., (Zygophyllaceae are of immense importance in oriental medicine because they are used as an aphrodisiac, diuretic and anthelmintic, as well as to treat coughs and kidney failure. Tribulus terrestris L. has reported to have antimicrobial, antihypertension, diuretic, antiacetylcholine, haemolytic activity, spermatogenesis and libido enhancer, antitumor activity and effects on cardiovascular system. Furostanol and spirostanol saponins, flavonoid glycosides, alkaloids, steroidal saponins named terrestrosins A, B, C, D and E, F-gitonis, gitnin and amides have been reported to occur in Tribulus terrestris L. Traditionally T. terrestris is used in folk medicine as a tonic, aphrodisiac, palliative, astringent, stomachic, antihypertensive, diuretic, lithon-triptic, cordial drug and urinary anti-infective. The ash of the whole plant is good for external application in rheumatic-arthritis.

  14. Mechanistic and Pharmacological Issues of Aspirin as an Anticancer Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Patrignani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent findings have shown that aspirin, taken for several years, reduces the long-term risk of some cancers, particularly colorectal cancer. The result that aspirin benefit is detectable at daily low-doses (at least 75mg, the same used for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, positions the antiplatelet action of aspirin at the center of its antitumor efficacy. At low-doses given every 24 h, aspirin is acting by a complete and persistent inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX-1 in platelets (in the pre-systemic circulation while causing a limited and rapidly reversible inhibitory effect on COX-2 and/or COX-1 expressed in nucleated cells. Aspirin has a short half-life in human circulation (approximately 20 min; nucleated cells have the ability to resynthesize the acetylated COX-isozymes within a few hours, while platelets do not. COX-independent mechanisms of aspirin, such as the inhibition of Wnt/ b-catenin and NF-kB signaling and the acetylation of extra-COX proteins, have been suggested to play a role in its chemo-preventive effects, but their relevance remains to be demonstrated in vivo at clinical doses. In conclusion, the results of clinical pharmacology and the analysis of randomized and epidemiological studies suggest that colorectal cancer and atherothrombosis share a common mechanism of disease, i.e. enhanced platelet activation in response to injury at distinct sites.

  15. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Cardiovascular Hyperreactivity in Young Venezuelans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sady Montes Amador

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: cardiovascular hyperreactivity in young people has been associated with different risk factors and a family history of hypertension. Objective: to determine the association between a family history of hypertension and cardiovascular risk factors with cardiovascular hyperreactivity. Method: a correlational, cross-sectional study was conducted in a universe of 77 young individuals aged 18 to 40 years from the Churuguara parish of the Falcon State in Venezuela. The variables were: age, sex, skin color, family history of hypertension, medical history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, alcohol consumption, salt intake, physical activity and body mass index. The diastolic and systolic blood pressure before and after the pressor response elicited by an isometric exercise were determined as hemodynamic variables. Results: thirteen percent of the participants developed vascular reactivity after the hand-held weight test. Cardiovascular hyperreactivity is three times higher in individuals with a family history of hypertension. Sixty percent of those with a body mass index greater than or equal to 27 kg/m2 are hyperreactive. There is a higher cardiovascular response to the hand-held weight test as the consumption of alcohol increases. Thirty three point three percent of the participants who smoke are hyperreactive. Conclusions: there is a significant association between a family history of hypertension, obesity, salt intake, alcohol consumption and vascular hyperreactivity.

  16. Integrating Pharmacology Topics in High School Biology and Chemistry Classes Improves Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz-Bloom, Rochelle D.; Halpin, Myra J.

    2003-01-01

    Although numerous programs have been developed for Grade Kindergarten through 12 science education, evaluation has been difficult owing to the inherent problems conducting controlled experiments in the typical classroom. Using a rigorous experimental design, we developed and tested a novel program containing a series of pharmacology modules (e.g.,…

  17. Molecular pharmacology of human NMDA receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Maiken; Hansen, Kasper Bø; Andersen, Karen Toftegaard;

    2012-01-01

    current knowledge of the relationship between NMDA receptor structure and function. We summarize studies on the biophysical properties of human NMDA receptors and compare these properties to those of rat orthologs. Finally, we provide a comprehensive pharmacological characterization that allows side......-by-side comparison of agonists, un-competitive antagonists, GluN2B-selective non-competitive antagonists, and GluN2C/D-selective modulators at recombinant human and rat NMDA receptors. The evaluation of biophysical properties and pharmacological probes acting at different sites on the receptor suggest that the...... binding sites and conformational changes leading to channel gating in response to agonist binding are highly conserved between human and rat NMDA receptors. In summary, the results of this study suggest that no major detectable differences exist in the pharmacological and functional properties of human...

  18. Conotoxins: Structure, Therapeutic Potential and Pharmacological Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Rafia; Karim, Sajjad; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Wilson, Cornelia M; Mirza, Zeenat

    2016-01-01

    Cone snails, also known as marine gastropods, from Conus genus produce in their venom a diverse range of small pharmacologically active structured peptides called conotoxins. The cone snail venoms are widely unexplored arsenal of toxins with therapeutic and pharmacological potential, making them a treasure trove of ligands and peptidic drug leads. Conotoxins are small disulfide bonded peptides, which act as remarkable selective inhibitors and modulators of ion channels (calcium, sodium, potassium), nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, noradrenaline transporters, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, and neurotensin receptors. They are highly potent and specific against several neuronal targets making them valuable as research tools, drug leads and even therapeutics. In this review, we discuss their gene superfamily classification, nomenclature, post-translational modification, structural framework, pharmacology and medical applications of the active conopeptides. We aim to give an overview of their structure and therapeutic potential. Understanding these aspects of conopeptides will help in designing more specific peptidic analogues. PMID:26601961

  19. Towards a genealogy of pharmacological practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Ricardo; Ried, Nicolás

    2016-03-01

    Following Foucault's work on disciplinary power and biopolitics, this article maps an initial cartography of the research areas to be traced by a genealogy of pharmacological practice. Pharmacology, as a practical activity, refers to the creation, production and sale of drugs/medication. This work identifies five lines of research that, although often disconnected from each other, may be observed in the specialized literature: (1) pharmaceuticalization; (2) regulation of the pharmaceutical industry; (3) the political-economic structure of the pharmaceutical industry; (4) consumption/consumerism of medications; (5) and bio-knowledge. The article suggests that a systematic analysis of these areas leads one to consider pharmacological practice a sui generis apparatus of power, which reaches beyond the purely disciplinary and biopolitical levels to encompass molecular configurations, thereby giving rise not only to new types of government over life, but also to new struggles for life, extending from molecular to population-wide levels. PMID:25956710

  20. Pharmacological action and mechanisms of ginkgolide B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Shi-hai; FANG Dian-chun

    2007-01-01

    Objective To review the recent research progress in pharmacological actions and mechanisms of ginkgolide B.Data sources Information included in this article was identified by searching of PUBMED (1987-2006) online resources using the key terms "ginkgolide B", "platelet activating factor", and "pharmacological".Study selection Mainly original milestone articles and critical reviews written by major pioneer investigators of the field were selected.Results The key issues related to the pharmacological actions and mechanisms of ginkgolide B were summarized. The ginkgolide B possesses a number of beneficial effects such as anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, antioxidant, and neuroprotective effects. Meantime, their mechaniams were discussed.Conclusions The Ginkgolide B is the most potent antagonist of platelet activating factor (PAF) and exhibits therapeutic action in a variety of diseases mainly by the PAF receptor.

  1. Evaluation of Antidepressant activity of Simvastatin, Lovastatin and Atorvastatin in Male Swiss Mice - An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudadappanavar Anupama M

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Context: Depression is the commonest mood disorder, could also be secondary to a number of physical disorders. Pharmacological treatment of such co-morbidities is difficult. If statins show antidepressant activity that could appear to be better lipid-lowering agents as they provide additional benefits in cardiovascular disorders with co-morbidity like depression. Aims: To investigate the effect of simvastatin, lovastatin and atorvastatin for their antidepressant activity using forced swim test and tail suspension test on behavioral models of depression in male swiss mice. Design: Experimental Study Methods and Material: The in vivo antidepressant activity of simvastatin and lovastatin was studied using forced swim test and tail suspension test. The mice received the drug as per their weight and subjected for experimentation. Group mean immobility time was calculated in treated and control groups for comparison. Statistical analysis used: One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by Bonferroni’s multiple comparison test. (P / 0.05 Results: Simvastatin and Lovastatin used in the present study showed significant antidepressant activity in both behavioral models of depression (p<0.05 while atorvastatin failed to show significant antidepressant action. Conclusion: The study suggests that the antidepressant activity of simvastatin and lovastatin, if could be extrapolated to clinical situations, appear to be better lipid-lowering agents as they provide additional benefits in cardiovascular disorders with co-morbidity like depression.

  2. New Potential Pharmacological Functions of Chinese Herbal Medicines via Regulation of Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Yuen Kwan Law

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a universal catabolic cellular process for quality control of cytoplasm and maintenance of cellular homeostasis upon nutrient deprivation and environmental stimulus. It involves the lysosomal degradation of cellular components such as misfolded proteins or damaged organelles. Defects in autophagy are implicated in the pathogenesis of diseases including cancers, myopathy, neurodegenerations, infections and cardiovascular diseases. In the recent decade, traditional drugs with new clinical applications are not only commonly found in Western medicines, but also highlighted in Chinese herbal medicines (CHM. For instance, pharmacological studies have revealed that active components or fractions from Chaihu (Radix bupleuri, Hu Zhang (Rhizoma polygoni cuspidati, Donglingcao (Rabdosia rubesens, Hou po (Cortex magnoliae officinalis and Chuan xiong (Rhizoma chuanxiong modulate cancers, neurodegeneration and cardiovascular disease via autophagy. These findings shed light on the potential new applications and formulation of CHM decoctions via regulation of autophagy. This article reviews the roles of autophagy in the pharmacological actions of CHM and discusses their new potential clinical applications in various human diseases.

  3. Berberine: New Insights from Pharmacological Aspects to Clinical Evidences in the Management of Metabolic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliceti, Cristiana; Franco, Placido; Spinozzi, Silvia; Roda, Aldo; Cicero, Arrigo F G

    2016-01-01

    Berberine is a quaternary ammonium salt from the protoberberine group of isoquinoline alkaloids found in such plants as gender Berberis. Berberine is recognised to improve glucose and lipid metabolism disorders and preliminary clinical evidences suggest the ability of berberine to reduce endothelial inflammation improving vascular health, even in patients already affected by cardiovascular diseases, suggesting a possible interesting role of berberine and its metabolites in clinical practice. However, its physicochemical properties, pharmacokinetic, and metabolism are not fully elucidated and contradictory data have been reported. This review provides a summary regarding the pharmacological and biological features of berberine, with a focus on berberine as well as their pharmacologically active metabolites and the different mechanisms underlying their activities in order to clarify the correct use of berberine supplementation, alone or in association with other nutraceuticals, for the management of metabolic disorders associated to increased cardiovascular disease risk. A particular attention has also been given to the available clinical trials assessing its short- and middle- term use tolerability, safety and efficacy in various conditions, such as dyslipidaemia, impaired fasting glucose, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. PMID:27063256

  4. Recent Research Advances in Ivabradine and Its Cardiovascular Effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao GAO

    2009-01-01

    Elevated heart rate is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The inhibitor of funny current (Ⅰ (f)), a hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel current, ivabradine is a new agent selectively reduc-ing heart rate devoid of other cardiovascular effects, which has come into the market in Europe for more than 3 years. It has been approved that pure heart rate reduction by ivabradine can improve myocardial ischemia, endothelial function and myocardial contractile function. Long-term administration will not increase all-cause mortality. Its therapeutic value in stable coronary artery disease has been verified in clinical practice, while in other fields of cardiovascular diseases still needs more evidence-based medical research. This article is a review about its recent research advances in experi-mental and clinical studies.

  5. Pharmacological evaluation of bee venom and melittin

    OpenAIRE

    Camila G. Dantas; Tássia L.G.M. Nunes; Tâmara L.G.M. Nunes; Ailma O. da Paixão; Francisco P. Reis; Waldecy de L. Júnior; Juliana C. Cardoso; Kátia P. Gramacho; Gomes, Margarete Z

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the pharmacological effects of bee venom and its major component, melittin, on the nervous system of mice. For the pharmacological analysis, mice were treated once with saline, 0.1 or 1.2 mg/kg of bee venom and 0.1 mg/kg of melittin, subcutaneously, 30 min before being submitted to behavioral tests: locomotor activity and grooming (open-field), catalepsy, anxiety (elevated plus-maze), depression (forced swimming test) and apomorphine-induced stereot...

  6. CASSIA TORA: A PHYTO-PHARMACOLOGICAL OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Chandan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cassia tora, a popular Indian medicinal plant, has long been used in Ayurvedic system of medicine. The plant has been found to possess diverse number of pharmacological activities. The present paper gives an account of updated information on its phytochemical and pharmacological activities. The review reveals that wide range of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from the plant and it possess important activities like laxative, skin diseases, ringworm, eye diseases, liver complaint, dysentery and anthelmentic. Various other activities like antioxidant, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, antinociceptive, antiplasmodial, antifungal & antimicrobial, hyperlipemia & hypotensive have also been reported. These reports are very encouraging and indicate that herb should be studied more extensively for its therapeutic benefits.

  7. PHYTO-PHARMACOLOGICAL REVIEW OF ARGYREIA NERVOSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Krishnaveni

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicines are the significant and reliable sources for treating various diseases. Argyreia nervosa is traditionally used in wound healing, syphilius,diuretics,rheumatic affections, leucohorrhoea.,cerebral disorders, ulcers, as anti-tumour and to prevent contraception.Phytoconstituents such as flavanoids, steroids, ergoline alkaloids and triterpenoids were identified. Pharmacological studies proved its anticonvulsant, immunomodulatory, hypotensive, anti- inflammatory and nootropic effect.The present form of article highlights the phytochemical and pharmacological studies including traditional practice of Argyreia nervosa have been carried out so far.

  8. Proceedings of the 13. Annual meeting of the Federation of Societies on Experimental Biology; 23. Brazilian congress on biophysics; 30. Brazilian congress on pharmacology and experimental therapeutics; 33. Brazilian congress on physiology; 14. Brazilian congress on clinical research; 22. Brazilian congress on neuroscience and behaviour. Abstracts; Anais do 13. Reuniao anual da Federacao de Sociedades de Biologia Experimental; 23. Congresso brasileiro de biofisica; 30. Congresso brasileiro de farmacologia e terapeutica experimental; 33. Congresso brasileiro de fisiologia; 14. Congresso brasileiro de investigacao clinica; 22. Congresso brasileiro de neurociencias e comportamento. Resumos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    Several aspects concerning neuroscience and behavior, compared physiology, endocrinology, pharmacology, molecular immunology and immuno diagnosis, biochemistry, genetic and toxicology of either animals, plants and microorganisms are studied. Topics such as cell membrane structures (including receptors), enzymatic assays, biological pathways, structural chemical analysis, metabolism, biological functions, blood pressure regulation are focused. The use of radiolabelled compounds, e.g. radioassay, radioimmunoassay, radioreceptor assay, are the most applied techniques.

  9. Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin R. Grübler

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency, as well as cardiovascular diseases (CVD and related risk factors are highly prevalent worldwide and frequently co-occur. Vitamin D has long been known to be an essential part of bone metabolism, although recent evidence suggests that vitamin D plays a key role in the pathophysiology of other diseases, including CVD, as well. In this review, we aim to summarize the most recent data on the involvement of vitamin D deficiency in the development of major cardiovascular risk factors: hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease and endothelial dysfunction. In addition, we outline the most recent observational, as well as interventional data on the influence of vitamin D on CVD. Since it is still an unresolved issue whether vitamin D deficiency is causally involved in the pathogenesis of CVD, data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs designed to assess the impact of vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes are awaited with anticipation. At present, we can only conclude that vitamin D deficiency is an independent cardiovascular risk factor, but whether vitamin D supplementation can significantly improve cardiovascular outcomes is still largely unknown.

  10. Central neural control of the cardiovascular system: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dampney, Roger A L

    2016-09-01

    This brief review, which is based on a lecture presented at the American Physiological Society Teaching Refresher Course on the Brain and Systems Control as part of the Experimental Biology meeting in 2015, aims to summarize current concepts of the principal mechanisms in the brain that regulate the autonomic outflow to the cardiovascular system. Such cardiovascular regulatory mechanisms do not operate in isolation but are closely coordinated with respiratory and other regulatory mechanisms to maintain homeostasis. The brain regulates the cardiovascular system by two general means: 1) feedforward regulation, often referred to as "central command," and 2) feedback or reflex regulation. In most situations (e.g., during exercise, defensive behavior, sleep, etc.), both of these general mechanisms contribute to overall cardiovascular homeostasis. The review first describes the mechanisms and central circuitry subserving the baroreceptor, chemoreceptor, and other reflexes that work together to regulate an appropriate level of blood pressure and blood oxygenation and then considers the brain mechanisms that defend the body against more complex environmental challenges, using dehydration and cold and heat stress as examples. The last section of the review considers the central mechanisms regulating cardiovascular function associated with different behaviors, with a specific focus on defensive behavior and exercise. PMID:27445275

  11. The inflammatory protein Pentraxin 3 in cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornai, Francesco; Carrizzo, Albino; Forte, Maurizio; Ambrosio, Mariateresa; Damato, Antonio; Ferrucci, Michela; Biagioni, Francesca; Busceti, Carla; Puca, Annibale A; Vecchione, Carmine

    2016-01-01

    The acute phase protein Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) plays a non-redundant role as a soluble pattern recognition receptor for selected pathogens and it represents a rapid biomarker for primary local activation of innate immunity and inflammation. Recent evidence indicates that PTX3 exerts an important role in modulating the cardiovascular system in humans and experimental models. In particular, there are conflicting points concerning the effects of PTX3 in cardiovascular diseases (CVD) since several observations indicate a cardiovascular protective effect of PTX3 while others speculate that the increased plasma levels of PTX3 in subjects with CVD correlate with disease severity and with poor prognosis in elderly patients. In the present review, we discuss the multifaceted effects of PTX3 on the cardiovascular system focusing on its involvement in atherosclerosis, endothelial function, hypertension, myocardial infarction and angiogenesis. This may help to explain how the specific modulation of PTX3 such as the use of different dosing, time, and target organs could help to contain different vascular diseases. These opposite actions of PTX3 will be emphasized concerning the modulation of cardiovascular system where potential therapeutic implications of PTX3 in humans are discussed. PMID:27559355

  12. COMPUTER ASSISTED LEARNING: PERCEPTION AND ACCEPTABILITY OF UNDERGRADUATE MEDICAL STUDENTS IN PHARMACOLOGY EXPERIMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi Babu; Heraman Singh; Jayasree

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND According to Medical Council of India theory and practical curriculum is very essential for all medical subjects in the under-graduate medical course in India. Animal based experimental pharmacology is still being taught in many institutions in the country, though such a practice has been abandoned at many centers. However, the use of animals in research and experimentation has been debated, defended and protested by both individuals and organizations at various levels. In recen...

  13. Reduction of NADPH-oxidase activity ameliorates the cardiovascular phenotype in a mouse model of Williams-Beuren Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Campuzano

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A hallmark feature of Williams-Beuren Syndrome (WBS is a generalized arteriopathy due to elastin deficiency, presenting as stenoses of medium and large arteries and leading to hypertension and other cardiovascular complications. Deletion of a functional NCF1 gene copy has been shown to protect a proportion of WBS patients against hypertension, likely through reduced NADPH-oxidase (NOX-mediated oxidative stress. DD mice, carrying a 0.67 Mb heterozygous deletion including the Eln gene, presented with a generalized arteriopathy, hypertension, and cardiac hypertrophy, associated with elevated angiotensin II (angII, oxidative stress parameters, and Ncf1 expression. Genetic (by crossing with Ncf1 mutant and/or pharmacological (with ang II type 1 receptor blocker, losartan, or NOX inhibitor apocynin reduction of NOX activity controlled hormonal and biochemical parameters in DD mice, resulting in normalized blood pressure and improved cardiovascular histology. We provide strong evidence for implication of the redox system in the pathophysiology of the cardiovascular disease in a mouse model of WBS. The phenotype of these mice can be ameliorated by either genetic or pharmacological intervention reducing NOX activity, likely through reduced angII-mediated oxidative stress. Therefore, anti-NOX therapy merits evaluation to prevent the potentially serious cardiovascular complications of WBS, as well as in other cardiovascular disorders mediated by similar pathogenic mechanism.

  14. Alternative Radioligands for Investigating the Molecular Pharmacology of Melatonin Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legros, Céline; Brasseur, Chantal; Delagrange, Philippe; Ducrot, Pierre; Nosjean, Olivier; Boutin, Jean A

    2016-03-01

    Melatonin exerts a variety of physiologic activities that are mainly relayed through the melatonin receptors MT1 and MT2 Low expressions of these receptors in tissues have led to widespread experimental use of the agonist 2-[(125)I]-iodomelatonin as a substitute for melatonin. We describe three iodinated ligands: 2-(2-[(2-iodo-4,5-dimethoxyphenyl)methyl]-4,5-dimethoxy phenyl) (DIV880) and (2-iodo-N-2-[5-methoxy-2-(naphthalen-1-yl)-1H-pyrrolo[3,2-b]pyridine-3-yl])acetamide (S70254), which are specific ligands at MT2 receptors, and N-[2-(5-methoxy-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]iodoacetamide (SD6), an analog of 2-[(125)I]-iodomelatonin with slightly different characteristics. Here, we further characterized these new ligands with regards to their molecular pharmacology. We performed binding experiments, saturation assays, association/dissociation rate measurements, and autoradiography using sheep and rat tissues and recombinant cell lines. Our results showed that [(125)I]-S70254 is receptor, and can be used with both cells and tissue. This radioligand can be used in autoradiography. Similarly, DIV880, a partial agonist [43% of melatonin on guanosine 5'-3-O-(thio)triphosphate binding assay], selective for MT2, can be used as a tool to selectively describe the pharmacology of this receptor in tissue samples. The molecular pharmacology of both human melatonin receptors MT1 and MT2, using a series of 24 ligands at these receptors and the new radioligands, did not lead to noticeable variations in the profiles. For the first time, we described radiolabeled tools that are specific for one of the melatonin receptors (MT2). These tools are amenable to binding experiments and to autoradiography using sheep or rat tissues. These specific tools will permit better understanding of the role and implication in physiopathologic processes of the melatonin receptors. PMID:26759496

  15. Cardiovascular Disease and Thyroid Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Jens; Selmer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid function has a profound effect on the heart, and both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates are increased in hyperthyroidism. New-onset atrial fibrillation carries a prolonged risk for the development of hyperthyroidism, suggesting altered availability of thyroid hormones at the ce......Thyroid function has a profound effect on the heart, and both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates are increased in hyperthyroidism. New-onset atrial fibrillation carries a prolonged risk for the development of hyperthyroidism, suggesting altered availability of thyroid hormones...... at the cellular level. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is associated with increased left ventricular mass of the heart, which reverts after obtaining euthyroidism. Mortality and risk of major cardiovascular events are increased. Subclinical hypothyroidism is also associated with subtle changes in the heart, e.g. its...

  16. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spallone, Vincenza; Ziegler, Dan; Freeman, Roy;

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy (CAN) Subcommittee of Toronto Consensus Panel on Diabetic Neuropathy worked to update CAN guidelines, with regard to epidemiology, clinical impact, diagnosis, usefulness of CAN testing, and management. CAN is the impairment of cardiovascular autonomic control...... in the setting of diabetes after exclusion of other causes. The prevalence of confirmed CAN is around 20%, and increases up to 65% with age and diabetes duration. Established risk factors for CAN are glycaemic control in type 1 and a combination of hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and glycaemic control...... in type 2 diabetes. CAN is a risk marker of mortality and cardiovascular morbidity, and possibly a progression promoter of diabetic nephropathy. Criteria for CAN diagnosis and staging are: 1. one abnormal cardio-vagal test identifies possible or early CAN; 2. at least two abnormal cardio-vagal tests...

  17. Cognitive dysfunction after cardiovascular surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, K S; Steinmetz, J; Rasmussen, L S

    2009-01-01

    This review describes the incidence, risk factors, and long-term consequences of cognitive dysfunction after cardiovascular surgery. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is increasingly being recognized as an important complication, especially in the elderly. A highly sensitive neuropsychol......This review describes the incidence, risk factors, and long-term consequences of cognitive dysfunction after cardiovascular surgery. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is increasingly being recognized as an important complication, especially in the elderly. A highly sensitive...... neuropsychological test battery must be used to detect POCD and a well-matched control group is very useful for the analysis and interpretation of the test RESULTS: Cardiovascular surgery is associated with a high incidence of POCD. Cardiopulmonary bypass was thought to explain this difference, but randomized...

  18. Lymphatic System in Cardiovascular Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspelund, Aleksanteri; Robciuc, Marius R; Karaman, Sinem; Makinen, Taija; Alitalo, Kari

    2016-02-01

    The mammalian circulatory system comprises both the cardiovascular system and the lymphatic system. In contrast to the blood vascular circulation, the lymphatic system forms a unidirectional transit pathway from the extracellular space to the venous system. It actively regulates tissue fluid homeostasis, absorption of gastrointestinal lipids, and trafficking of antigen-presenting cells and lymphocytes to lymphoid organs and on to the systemic circulation. The cardinal manifestation of lymphatic malfunction is lymphedema. Recent research has implicated the lymphatic system in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases including obesity and metabolic disease, dyslipidemia, inflammation, atherosclerosis, hypertension, and myocardial infarction. Here, we review the most recent advances in the field of lymphatic vascular biology, with a focus on cardiovascular disease. PMID:26846644

  19. Cardiovascular Session Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, Peter; Schneider, Sue

    1999-01-01

    It was apparent that the bed-rest and spaceflight data indicated that decreases in plasma volume and cardiac atrophy along with cardiac remodeling were fundamental changes which predisposed many astronauts to post flight orthostatic intolerance. Despite the recently acquired in-flight and post-flight muscle sympathetic nerve activity findings suggesting that the sympathetic nerve responses were appropriate there remains significant contrary data from bed-rest studies, post- flight stand tests and hind-limb unweighted rat studies that suggest that the vasoconstrictive responses were compromised at least insufficient in susceptible individuals. The key issues raised is whether a diminished increase in sympathetic activity from baseline without changes in 254 First Biennial Space Biomedical Investigators'Workshop Cardiovascular peak response or receptor adaptations is an abnormal response or is an individual variance of response to the accentuated decrease in stroke volume. Data relating autonomic neural control of heart rate were presented to suggest that the vagal and sympathetic control of heart rate was attenuated. Also, bed-rest and space flight induced attenuated baroreflex control of heart rate was shown to be restored to pre-bedrest function by one bout of maximal dynamic exercise. However, these data were confounded by relying on the use of R-R interval as a measure of efferent responses of the baroreflex during a condition in which the baseline heart rate was changed. Clearly the idea that the autonomic control of heart rate may be changed by microgravity needs further investigation. This direction is suggested despite the fact that in the triple product (HR x SV x TPR = MAP) assessment of the regulation of arterial blood pressure during orthostasis the role of the HR reflex may be less influential than that associated. with cardiac atrophy (SV changes) and aberrant sympathetic vasoconstriction (resistance) changes. Although sympathetic nerve activity

  20. Pharmacological toxicological studies on certain drugs subjected to radiation or used radioprotective agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study represents two main subjects. The first encounters the effect of radiosterilization of certain pharmaceretical preparations such as antihistaminics (cimetidine), anticonvulsants (diazepam), beta and calcium channel blacker (propranolol and verapamil) on their pharmacological activity. Results of this study revealed that the previously mentioned drugs can be effectively and safely sterilized by gamma irradiation without deleterious effect on their pharmacological activity. The other subject presented in this study is essentially a pharmacological subject encountering toxicological problems. Data of this study demonstrated that chemical radiation protection has been successfully reported using single drug administration has been successfully reported using single drug administration such as imidazole, and Sh-bearing compounds. In the present work, the radioprotective effect of imidazole was demonstrated on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Furthermore, combined drug administration was found to exert more protective action with less toxicity and therefore minimize the side effects of the radioprotective drugs. Thus, combination of imidazole and serotonin showed potential protective effect on blood gases was also reported. In addition, combination of cysteine and vitamin E afforded a better protection on adrenocortical function in rats than either agent alone. 4 figs., 1 tab

  1. Novel therapeutic approaches targeting matrix metalloproteinases in cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briasoulis, Alexandros; Tousoulis, Dimitris; Papageorgiou, Nikolaos; Kampoli, Anna-Maria; Androulakis, Emmanuel; Antoniades, Charalambos; Tsiamis, Eleftherios; Latsios, George; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2012-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), are proteinases that participate in extracellular matrix remodelling and degradation. Under normal physiological conditions, the activities of MMPs are regulated at the level of transcription, of activation of the pro-MMP precursor zymogens and of inhibition by endogenous inhibitors (tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases; TIMPs). Alteration in the regulation of MMP activity is implicated in atherosclerotic plaque development, coronary artery disease and heart failure. The pathological effects of MMPs and TIMPs in cardiovascular diseases involve vascular remodelling, atherosclerotic plaque instability and left ventricular remodelling after myocardial infarction. Since excessive tissue remodelling and increased matrix metalloproteinase activity have been demonstrated during atherosclerotic lesion progression, MMPs represent a potential target for therapeutic intervention aimed at modification of vascular pathology by restoring the physiological balance between MMPs and TIMPs. This review discusses pharmacological approaches to MMP inhibition. PMID:22519451

  2. Biofield therapies in cardiovascular disease management: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joel G; Taylor, Ann Gill

    2011-01-01

    Though there have been advances over the last 30 years in the therapeutic approaches to cardiovascular disease (CVD), heart disease and stroke remain the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Many medical therapies for CVD are associated with a number of side effects, often leading patients to seek non-pharmacological treatments to complement standard care. Referred to as complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), these therapies consist of a heterogeneous group of modalities used in addition to conventional health care. Biofield therapies exist within this CAM domain and involve the direction of healing energy to facilitate general health and well-being by modifying the energy field. What follows is a brief overview of three biofield therapies developed or used within the field of nursing (Therapeutic Touch, Reiki, and Healing Touch), surveying the use of these interventions for individuals with CVD, and outcomes that may impact CVD risk factors and health-related quality of life. PMID:21697661

  3. DIETA Y PREVENCIÓN SECUNDARIA DE LA ENFERMEDAD CARDIOVASCULAR Diet and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Ángel Arango

    2011-01-01

    mortalidad en pacientes con angina y favorecen la recurrencia de arritmias ventriculares (B-III.Background. There is abundant evidence regarding the effects of diet as a strategy for managing cardiovascular risk factors in primary prevention, covering all types of situations and complications including a whole range of studies from cases and controls, retrospective cohorts, prospective studies to controlled random clinical trial. Objectives. Establishing evidence from recent studies and revised and updated clinical practice guidelines about secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease by dietary management. Materials and methods. Databases were electronically searched using the words «secondary prevention» and connectors «heart» and «cardiovascular risk.» Only studies whose main objective had been the reduction of new cardiovascular events were accepted. Results. A Mediterranean-type diet was shown to be associated with lower overall mortality rates, particularly due to cardiac causes. A cholesterol-reducing diet lowered the recurrent heart-attack rate and appearance of angina, as well as recurrent heart-attacks associated with omega 3 fatty acid 18 consumption (recommendations and level of evidence: B-IIa. A fish fat oil rich diet increased the risk of death and sudden death from cardiac causes in subjects suffering from angina and favored the recurrence of ventricular arrhythmias (B-III. Omega-3 fatty acids from fish and vegetables did not reduce greater cardiovascular events in patients with suitable antihypertensive, antithrombotic and dyslipidaemia (BIII pharmacological therapy. Conclusions. Mediterranean-type diets and those reducing cholesterol rich in omega-3 fatty acids probably have a favourable effect on preventing secondary cardiovascular disease (B-IIa. Such effect disappears when associated with pharmacological treatment of cardiovascular risk factors (B-III. Omega-3 fatty acids probably increase mortality in patients suffering from angina and favour

  4. The Pharmacological Activities of (−-Anonaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yi Chen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Several species of Magnoliaceae and Annonaceae are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. (−-Anonaine, isolated from several species of Magnoliaceae and Annonaceae, presents antiplasmodial, antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidation, anticancer, antidepression, and vasorelaxant activity. This article provides an overview of the pharmacological functions of (−-anonaine.

  5. Plant cannabinoids: a neglected pharmacological treasure trove

    OpenAIRE

    Mechoulam, Raphael

    2005-01-01

    Most of the cannabinoids in Cannabis sativa L. have not been fully evaluated for their pharmacological activity. A publication in this issue presents evidence that a plant cannabinoid, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin is a potent antagonist of anandamide, a major endogenous cannabinoid. It seems possible that many of the non-psychoactive constituents of this plant will be of biological interest.

  6. Pharmacological Interventions for Students with ADD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Vance L.

    2003-01-01

    A review of the research on pharmacological interventions for students with attention deficit disorder finds that psychostimulants such as methylphenidate (Ritalin) are effective in improving focus and impulse control, but should be used in conjunction with psychosocial and behavioral interventions. Comprehensive medical screenings and guidelines…

  7. Radioreceptor assay: theory and applications to pharmacology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the first part of this work is to present the theory of the radioreceptor assay and to compare it to the other techniques of radioanalysis (radioimmunoassay, competitive protein binding assays). The technology of the radioreceptor assay is then presented and its components (preparation of the receptors, radioligand, incubation medium) are described. The analytical characteristics of the radioreceptor assay (specificity, sensitivity, reproductibility, accuracy) and the pharmacological significance of the results are discussed. The second part is devoted to the description of the radioreceptor assays of some pharmacological classes (neuroleptics, tricyclic antidepressants, benzodiazepines, β-blockers, anticholinergic drugs) and to their use in therapeutic drug monitoring. In conclusion, by their nature, radioreceptor assays are highly sensitive, reliable, precise, accurate and simple to perform. Their chief disadvantage relates to specificity, since any substance having an appreciable affinity to the receptor site will displace the specifically bound radioligand. Paradoxically in some cases, this lack of specificity may be advantageous in that it allows for the detection of not only the apparent compound but of active metabolites and endogenous receptor agonists as well and in that radioreceptors assays can be devised for a whole pharmacological class and not only for one drug as it is the case for classical physico-chemical techniques. For all these reasons future of radioreceptor assay in pharmacology appears promising

  8. Investigational pharmacology for low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash K Bhandary

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Avinash K Bhandary1 , Gary P Chimes2, Gerard A Malanga3 1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 3New Jersey Sports Medicine Institute; Overlook Hospital; Mountainside Hospital; Rehabilitation Medicine and Electrodiagnosis, St Michael’s Medical Center; Horizon Healthcare Worker’s Compensation Services, Blue Cross and Blue Shield Worker’s Compensation, Summit, NJ, USAStudy design: Review and reinterpretation of existing literature.Objective: This review article summarizes the anatomy and pathogenesis of disease processes that contribute to low back pain, and discusses key issues in existing therapies for chronic low back pain. The article also explains the scientific rationale for investigational pharmacology and highlights emerging compounds in late development.Results/conclusion: While the diverse and complex nature of chronic low back pain continues to challenge clinicians, a growing understanding of chronic low back pain on a cellular level has refined our approach to managing chronic low back pain with pharmacology. Many emerging therapies with improved safety profiles are currently in the research pipeline and will contribute to a multimodal therapeutic algorithm in the near future. With the heterogeneity of the patient population suffering from chronic low back pain, the clinical challenge will be accurately stratifying the optimal pharmacologic approach for each patient.Keywords: low back pain, investigational, pharmacology, drugs

  9. Systems Pharmacology in Small Molecular Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhou

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Drug discovery is a risky, costly and time-consuming process depending on multidisciplinary methods to create safe and effective medicines. Although considerable progress has been made by high-throughput screening methods in drug design, the cost of developing contemporary approved drugs did not match that in the past decade. The major reason is the late-stage clinical failures in Phases II and III because of the complicated interactions between drug-specific, human body and environmental aspects affecting the safety and efficacy of a drug. There is a growing hope that systems-level consideration may provide a new perspective to overcome such current difficulties of drug discovery and development. The systems pharmacology method emerged as a holistic approach and has attracted more and more attention recently. The applications of systems pharmacology not only provide the pharmacodynamic evaluation and target identification of drug molecules, but also give a systems-level of understanding the interaction mechanism between drugs and complex disease. Therefore, the present review is an attempt to introduce how holistic systems pharmacology that integrated in silico ADME/T (i.e., absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity, target fishing and network pharmacology facilitates the discovery of small molecular drugs at the system level.

  10. PHYTO-PHARMACOLOGICAL REVIEW OF ARGYREIA NERVOSA

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnaveni, A; T. Sant Rani

    2011-01-01

    Herbal medicines are the significant and reliable sources for treating various diseases. Argyreia nervosa is traditionally used in wound healing, syphilius,diuretics,rheumatic affections, leucohorrhoea.,cerebral disorders, ulcers, as anti-tumour and to prevent contraception.Phytoconstituents such as flavanoids, steroids, ergoline alkaloids and triterpenoids were identified. Pharmacological studies proved its anticonvulsant, immunomodulatory, hypotensive, anti- inflammatory and no...

  11. Pharmacological interventions for phantom limb pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jun; LIAN Yan-hong; XIE Kang-jie; CAI Shu-nü

    2013-01-01

    Objective To review the mechanisms and current clinical application of pharmacological interventions for phantom limb pain.Data sources Both Chinese and English language literatures were searched using MEDLINE (1982-2011),Pubmed (1982-2011) and the Index of Chinese Language Literature (1982-2011).Study selection Data from published articles about pharmacological management of phantom limb pain in recent domestic and foreign literature were selected.Data extraction Data were mainly extracted from 96 articles which are listed in the reference section of this review.Results By reviewing the mechanisms and current clinical application of pharmacological interventions for phantom limb pain,including anticonvulsants,antidepressants,local anaesthetics,N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists,non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs,tramadol,opioids,calcitonin,capsaicin,beta-adrenergic blockers,clonidine,muscle relaxants,and emerging drugs,we examined the efficacy and safety of these medications,outlined the limitations and future directions.Conclusions Although there is lack of evidence-based consensus guidelines for the pharmacological management of phantom limb pain,we recommend tricyclic antidepressants,gabapentin,tramadol,opioids,local anaesthetics and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists as the rational options for the treatment of phantom limb pain.

  12. Clinical pharmacology of novel anticancer drug formulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuurman, F.E.

    2013-01-01

    Studies outlined in this thesis describe the impact of drug formulations on pharmacology of anticancer drugs. It consists of four parts and starts with a review describing the mechanisms of low oral bioavailability of anti-cancer drugs and strategies for improvement of the bioavailability. The major

  13. Pharmacologic desensitization for dental phobias: clinical observations.

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, P. A.; Peskin, R. M.; Pierce, C. J.

    1990-01-01

    The elimination of the extreme fear reported by dental phobic patients traditionally involves psychologic interventions such as systematic desensitization. Observations resulting from a conscious sedation approach, as outlined in two case histories, suggest that a desensitization phenomena is occurring. This pharmacologic desensitization appears to mimic elements of systematic desensitization. Optimal management of fearful patients may sometimes require conjunctive support from both dental be...

  14. Non-pharmacological treatments for COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulhall, Patrick; Criner, Gerard

    2016-07-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) affects roughly 10% of the global population and is growing in prevalence annually. COPD is characterized by progressive non-reversible narrowing of airways mainly due to cigarette smoking. Therapeutic interventions aimed at altering this progressive disease course can largely be grouped into pharmacological or non-pharmacological therapies. The focus of this paper is on the non-pharmacological aspects of COPD management, reviewing the current literature to provide an evidence-based management approach. Non-pharmacological therapies reviewed in this article include the implementation of comprehensive care models utilizing a coordinated multidisciplinary team, tele-monitoring and patient-centred approach to optimize COPD care and improve compliance. Preventing progression of COPD via smoking cessation remains of paramount importance, and newer therapeutic options including electronic cigarettes show promise in small studies as cessation aids. COPD has systemic manifestations that can be ameliorated with the enrollment in pulmonary rehabilitation programmes, which focus on exercise endurance to improve dyspnoea and quality of life. Advanced therapeutics for COPD includes lung volume reduction surgery for a pre-specified cohort and minimally invasive bronchoscopic valves that in recent reviews show promise. Lastly, patients on maximal COPD therapy with progressive disease can be referred for lung transplantation; however, this often requires a highly selected and motivated patient and care team. Survival rates for lung transplantation are improving; thus, this procedure remains a viable option as more expertise and experience are gained. PMID:27099216

  15. Non Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancers – Current Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Sachdeva, Ankur; Kumar, Kuldip; Anand, Kuljeet Singh

    2015-01-01

    Cognition refers to the mental processes involved in thinking, knowing, remembering, judging, and problem solving. Cognitive dysfunctions are an integral part of neuropsychiatric disorders as well as in healthy ageing. Cognitive Enhancers are molecules that help improve aspects of cognition like memory, intelligence, motivation, attention and concentration. Recently, Non Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancers have gained popularity as effective and safe alternative to various established drugs. ...

  16. Mitochondria: pharmacological manipulation of cell death

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchier-Hayes, Lisa; Lartigue, Lydia; Newmeyer, Donald D.

    2005-01-01

    Cell death by apoptosis or necrosis is often important in the etiology and treatment of disease. Since mitochondria play important roles in cell death pathways, these organelles are potentially prime targets for therapeutic intervention. Here we discuss the mechanisms through which mitochondria participate in the cell death process and also survey some of the pharmacological approaches that target mitochondria in various ways.

  17. Systems Pharmacology in Small Molecular Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Wang, Yonghua; Lu, Aiping; Zhang, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Drug discovery is a risky, costly and time-consuming process depending on multidisciplinary methods to create safe and effective medicines. Although considerable progress has been made by high-throughput screening methods in drug design, the cost of developing contemporary approved drugs did not match that in the past decade. The major reason is the late-stage clinical failures in Phases II and III because of the complicated interactions between drug-specific, human body and environmental aspects affecting the safety and efficacy of a drug. There is a growing hope that systems-level consideration may provide a new perspective to overcome such current difficulties of drug discovery and development. The systems pharmacology method emerged as a holistic approach and has attracted more and more attention recently. The applications of systems pharmacology not only provide the pharmacodynamic evaluation and target identification of drug molecules, but also give a systems-level of understanding the interaction mechanism between drugs and complex disease. Therefore, the present review is an attempt to introduce how holistic systems pharmacology that integrated in silico ADME/T (i.e., absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity), target fishing and network pharmacology facilitates the discovery of small molecular drugs at the system level. PMID:26901192

  18. Cardiovascular disease incidence and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, Stine; Agyemang, Charles; Zwisler, Ann Dorthe;

    2016-01-01

    Studies on cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and survival show varying results between different ethnic groups. Our aim was to add a new dimension by exploring the role of migrant status in combination with ethnic background on incidence of-and survival from-CVD and more specifically acute...... of some types of cardiovascular disease compared to Danish-born. Family-reunified migrants on the other hand had lower rates of CVD. All migrants had better survival than Danish-born indicating that migrants may not always be disadvantaged in health....

  19. Enfermedad cardiovascular en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Lizzie M. Castillo S; Ana Teresa Alvarado G; María Isabel Sánchez V

    2006-01-01

    En Costa Rica la enfermedad cardiovascular cobra en promedio 6 vidas por día, lo cual representa un aumento escalonado en los últimos años, debido en su mayoría a cambios en el estilo de vida del costarricense. Además, llama la atención, que factores de riesgo para enfermedad cardiovascular como son el fumado, obesidad infantil, alcoholismo, diabetes, dislipidemia e hipertensión han mostrado un incremento en su incidencia. Por lo tanto,se pretende realizar una revisión de los programas de det...

  20. Correlation of pharmacological activity and receptor binding of guanabenz during development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many studies to elucidate the pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and molecular pharmacological profile of guanabenz, an α2-adrenergic receptor agonist, have been reported; however, the effects of this drug on the developing fetus have been largely ignored. The ability of a drug to alter fetal cardiovascular activity is dependent upon both the penetration of the drug across the placenta and upon maturation of the system(s) through which the drug exerts its effects. Consequently, it is hypothesized that the pharmacological activity of guanabenz on the fetus is influenced both by placenta actions on drug transfer and the time course of development of the central and/or peripheral α2adrenergic receptor system(s) through which the drug exerts its effects. Guanabenz (GB) when administered to the maternal sheep elicited a cardiovascular response similar to that observed in rats, dogs, and humans. An initial, transient increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP) was followed by a sustained decrease in MAP. This decrease in MAP was accompanied by a prolonged decrease in heart rate (HR). No cardiovascular response to maternally administered GB was observed in the fetal lamb. Pharmacokinetic studies revealed that GB is widely distributed in the pregnant ewe; however, the placenta appears to act as a relative barrier to the transfer of GB into the fetal compartment. In order to ascertain if the mature fetal lamb had developed functional α2-adrenergic receptors, GB was administered directly to the fetus. A transient increase in MAP was elicited; however, no prolonged decrease in either MAP or HR occurred. Following validation of [3H]guanabenz ([3H]GB) binding assay in rat cerebral cortex, studies to correlate [3H]GB binding in sheep cortex with pharmacodynamic response was conducted

  1. [Hypertension, endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitenberg, A

    2006-10-01

    Increased blood pressure induces functional and structural changes of the vascular endothelium. Depression of endothelium-dependant vasodilatation is an early manifestation of endothelial dysfunction due to hypertension. It can be demonstrated by pharmacological or physiological tests. Decreased availability of nitric oxide (NO) is a major determinant of the depression of vasodilatation. It may be caused by a reduction in the activity of NO-endothelial synthase (NOSe) related to: 1) a deficit in substrate (L-arginine), 2) an inhibition by asymmetrical dimethylarginine, 3) a deficit in the cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4). However, the increase in oxidative stress, a producer of superoxide radicals which combine with NO to form peroxynitrates (ONOO-), is the determining factor. It is related to activation of membranous NAD(P)H oxidases initiated by the stimulation of activating mecanosensors of protein C kinase. The message is amplified by oxidation of BH4 which transforms the NOSe into a producer of superoxide radicals. A cascade of auto-amplification loops leading to atherosclerosis and its complications is then triggered. The superoxide radicals and the peroxynitrates oxidise the LDL-cholesterol. They activate the nuclear factor-kappaB which controls the genes stimulating the expression of many proteins: angiotensinogen and AT1 receptors which stimulate the sympathetic system, receptors of oxidised LDL, adhesion and migration factors (ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin and MCP-1), pro-inflammatory cytokins (interleukines and TNF-alpha), growth factors (MAP kinases), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1. The monocytes and smooth muscle cells produce metalloproteinases and pro-inflammatory cytokins which destabilise the atheromatous plaque and favourise vascular remodelling. Inshort, the endothelial dysfunction due to hypertension plays a role in a complex physiopathological process and is a marker of future cardiovascular events. PMID:17100143

  2. 穿心莲软胶囊与穿心莲片的药理作用及急性毒性实验研究%Experimental Study on Pharmacological Effects and Acute Toxicity of Andrographis Soft Capsules and Andrographis Tablets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟晓凤

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究对比穿心莲软胶囊与穿心莲片的药理作用及穿心莲软胶囊的毒性。方法:本文以大鼠为实验对象,分别对大鼠使用细菌脂多糖进行发热实验、啤酒酵母能够辅助发热实验进行,穿心莲胶囊对发热大鼠使用后,能够起到散热效果,并对数据进行观察;此外,对小鼠采用角叉菜胶进行肿胀实验,二甲苯与醋酸辅助肿胀实验进行,增加小鼠腹腔毛细血管的通透性,之后对小鼠使用穿心莲胶囊,对肿胀小鼠的抗炎症效果进行分析观察。结果:穿心莲软胶囊的散热作用明显高于穿心莲片,中剂量的穿心莲软胶囊的消炎作用显著高于穿心莲片,P<0.05。研究发现,小鼠的每日最大毒性耐受量是110.25 g/kg,是成人日用量的525倍。结论:穿心莲软胶囊具备良好的散热和抗炎作用,而且没有明显的毒副作用。%Objective:To study and compare the pharmacological effects of andrographis soft capsules and andrographis Tablet and toxicity of andrographis soft capsules. Methods: Rats were taken as the experimental objects. Lipopolysaccharide was used fot the fever experiment and beer yeast was the assistant in the fever experiment. After the fever experiment, andrographis capsules were given to the fever rats to dissipate heat and the data were observed. In addition, swelling experiments on mice were done by carrageenan, with xylene and acetic acid as the assistant. The peritoneal capillary permeability of the mice were increased. And then andrographis capsules was used to resist inflammation and the anti-inflammatory effect was observed. Results: The effect dissipating heat of andrographis soft capsules was significantly higher than that of andrographis tablets and the anti-inflammatory effect of andrographis soft capsules in middle dose was significantly higher than that of andrographis tablets,P<0.05. It was found that the daily maximum toxicity tolerance

  3. Green tea catechins: defensive role in cardiovascular disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pooja Bhardwaj; Deepa Khanna

    2013-01-01

    Green tea,Camellia sinensis (Theaeeae),a major source of flavonoids such as catechins,has recently shown multiple cardiovascular health benefits through various experimental and clinical studies.These studies suggest that green tea catechins prevent the incidence of detrimental cardiovascular events,and also lower the cardiovascular mortality rate.Catechins present in green tea have the ability to prevent atherosclerosis,hypertension,endothelial dysfunction,ischemic heart diseases,cardiomyopathy,cardiac hypertrophy and congestive heart failure by decreasing oxidative stress,preventing inflammatory events,reducing platelet aggregation and halting the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells.Catechins afford an anti-oxidant effect by inducing anti-oxidant enzymes,inhibiting pro-oxidant enzymes and scavenging free radicals.Catechins present anti-inflammatory activity through the inhibition of transcriptional factor NF-κB-mediated production of cytokines and adhesion molecules.Green tea catechins interfere with vascular growth factors and thus inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation,and also inhibit thrombogenesis by suppressing platelet adhesion.Additionally,catechins could protect vascular endothelial cells and enhance vascular integrity and regulate blood pressure.In this review various experimental and clinical studies suggesting the role of green tea catechins against the markers of cardiovascular disorders and the underlying mechanisms for these actions are discussed.

  4. Pharmacological analysis of intrinsic neuronal oscillations in rd10 retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Biswas

    Full Text Available In the widely used mouse model of retinal degeneration, rd1, the loss of photoreceptors leads to rhythmic electrical activity of around 10-16 Hz in the remaining retinal network. Recent studies suggest that this oscillation is formed within the electrically coupled network of AII amacrine cells and ON-bipolar cells. A second mouse model, rd10, displays a delayed onset and slower progression of degeneration, making this mouse strain a better model for human retinitis pigmentosa. In rd10, oscillations occur at a frequency of 3-7 Hz, raising the question whether oscillations have the same origin in the two mouse models. As rd10 is increasingly being used as a model to develop experimental therapies, it is important to understand the mechanisms underlying the spontaneous rhythmic activity. To study the properties of oscillations in rd10 retina we combined multi electrode recordings with pharmacological manipulation of the retinal network. Oscillations were abolished by blockers for ionotropic glutamate receptors and gap junctions. Frequency and amplitude of oscillations were modulated strongly by blockers of inhibitory receptors and to a lesser extent by blockers of HCN channels. In summary, although we found certain differences in the pharmacological modulation of rhythmic activity in rd10 compared to rd1, the overall pattern looked similar. This suggests that the generation of rhythmic activity may underlie similar mechanisms in rd1 and rd10 retina.

  5. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors: From pharmacology to clinical read-outs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrignani, Paola; Patrono, Carlo

    2015-04-01

    Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) is a prototypic cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor. It was synthesized serendipitously from a natural compound, i.e., salicylic acid, with known analgesic activity. This chemical modification, obtained for the first time in an industrial environment in 1897, endowed aspirin with the unique capacity of acetylating and inactivating permanently COX-isozymes. Traditional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (tNSAIDs) were developed to mimic the pharmacological effects of aspirin, using aspirin-sensitive experimental models of pain and inflammation as the template for screening new chemical entities. Among the tNSAIDs, some were endowed with moderate COX- selectivity (e.g., diclofenac), but no studies of sufficient size and duration were performed to show any clinically relevant difference between different members of the class. Similarly, no serious attempts were made to unravel the mechanisms involved in the shared therapeutic and toxic effects of tNSAIDs until the discovery of COX-2. This led to characterizing their main therapeutic effects as being COX-2-dependent and their gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity as being COX-1-dependent, and provided a rationale for developing a new class of selective COX-2 inhibitors, the coxibs. This review will discuss the clinical pharmacology of tNSAIDs and coxibs, and the clinical read-outs of COX-isozyme inhibition. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Oxygenated metabolism of PUFA: analysis and biological relevance." PMID:25263946

  6. The Contributions of Paul Ehrlich to Pharmacology: A Tribute on the Occasion of the Centenary of His Nobel Prize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Fèlix; Rosich, Laia

    2008-01-01

    On the centenary of Paul Ehrlich's Nobel Prize, this German researcher deserves to be remembered as a pioneer in a large number of scientific disciplines. As a result of his enthusiasm and scientific abilities, dedication, and contacts with other scientists of his time, he was able to make countless contributions in fields as diverse as histology, haematology, immunology, oncology, microbiology and pharmacology, among others. Although the Swedish award was meant to recognize the standardization of the manufacture of antidiphtheria serum, it was the discovery of arsphenamine (Salvarsan) for the treatment of syphilis which won him wider international acclaim. From a pharmacological perspective, Ehrlich's outstanding contributions include dissemination of the ‘magic bullet’ concept for the synthesis of antibacterials, introduction of concepts such as chemoreceptor and chemotherapy, and linking the chemical structure of compounds to their pharmacological activity. These achievements took place within the framework he established for the transition from experimental pharmacology to therapeutic pharmacology. He introduced a modern research system based on the synthesis of multiple chemical structures for pharmacological screening in animal models of disease states. These contributions were undoubtedly decisive in propitiating the wider development of antibiotics decades later. For these reasons, it is fitting to mark the 100th anniversary of the Nobel Prize awarded to this great scientist by commemorating the importance of his contributions to the advance of pharmacology. PMID:18679046

  7. The Global Burden of Cardiovascular Disease: The Role of Endothelial Function and Arterial Elasticity in Cardiovascular Disease as Novel and Emerging Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, Stephen P; Dudenbostel, Tanja

    2011-04-01

    Some consider the measurements of arterial elasticity and flow-mediated dilation to be an indirect "biomarker" of endothelial dysfunction. As such, we describe the various uses of these techniques in the evaluation of the natural history of vascular disease. These measures are potential markers of disease, as abnormalities reflect changes in the integrity of vascular structure but occur prior to the manifestation of symptomatic cardiovascular events. In this review, the natural history of arterial elasticity is discussed, and the effects of aging and inflammation are reviewed. The role that arterial elasticity and flow-mediated dilation have in predicting future cardiovascular disease, and the effects of pharmacologic agents on these measures, is also reviewed. PMID:24000308

  8. Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... jointly produced, collaborated with, or endorsed by the Society of Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions. Press & News » Review ... SCAI Member? Create an Account Advertisement Advertisement The Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions Foundation, 1100 17th ...

  9. Comparative cardiovascular safety of dementia medications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Emil L; Peterson, Eric D; Holm, Ellen;

    2012-01-01

    To compare the cardiovascular safety of currently marketed dementia medications in new users in the United States and Denmark.......To compare the cardiovascular safety of currently marketed dementia medications in new users in the United States and Denmark....

  10. Effectiveness of Psychological and Pharmacological Treatments for Nocturnal Enuresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Arthur C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Assesses overall effectiveness of psychological and pharmacological treatments, relative effectiveness of specific treatments, and moderators of treatment effectiveness for nocturnal enuretic children via quantitative integration of research. Findings confirm that more children benefit from psychological than from pharmacological interventions and…

  11. Models of tumourigenesis and their relevance for tumour pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M Mader

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the complex interplay between tumour biology and tumour pharmacology is the most promising approach to implement novel and rationally designed pharmacologic concepts. The current models of tumourigenesis are an indispensable impetus to this learning process.

  12. Cardiovascular risk factors in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut;

    2001-01-01

    Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross...

  13. Women's cardiovascular health in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocumbi, Ana Olga; Sliwa, Karen

    2012-03-01

    The predominant pattern of cardiovascular diseases in sub-Saharan Africa is that of poverty-related conditions (rheumatic heart valve disease, untreated congenital heart disease, tuberculous pericarditis) and diseases of unclear aetiology with a higher prevalence in this part of the world (peripartum cardiomyopathy, endomyocardial fibrosis). However, the prevalence of the traditional risk factors for cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and marked obesity is high in a number of sub-Saharan settings, although they vary considerably among countries, urban/rural locations and specific subpopulations. In urban settings, hypertensive heart disease with systolic and diastolic function contributes substantially to morbidity. Awareness of the general public and health workers about the burden of cardiovascular diseases in women must be increased, and risk factor control programmes must be included in the health research agenda on the African continent. Improvement in health services with coordination of maternal health services and non-communicable diseases is also needed. This review focuses on the current knowledge of cardiovascular healthcare of women in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly their propensity for various forms of heart disease, access to healthcare, treatment received within the respective healthcare system, response to therapy and mortality. It highlights the gaps in knowledge and the paucity of data in most of these aspects. PMID:22350029

  14. Hedgehog morphogen in cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, Maarten F.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Spek, C. Arnold

    2006-01-01

    In this review, we focus on the basic biology of the important developmental Hedgehog ( Hh) protein family, its general function in development, pathway mechanisms, and gene discovery and nomenclature. Hh function in cardiovascular development and recent findings concerning Hh signaling in ischemia

  15. Cardiovascular calcification. An inflammatory disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiovascular calcification is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This disease of dysregulated metabolism is no longer viewed as a passive degenerative disease, but instead as an active process triggered by pro-inflammatory cues. Furthermore, a positive feedback loop of calcification and inflammation is hypothesized to drive disease progression in arterial calcification. Both calcific aortic valve disease and atherosclerotic arterial calcification may possess similar underlying mechanisms. Early histopathological studies first highlighted the contribution of inflammation to cardiovascular calcification by demonstrating the accumulation of macrophages and T lymphocytes in 'early' lesions within the aortic valves and arteries. A series of in vitro work followed, which gave a mechanistic insight into the stimulation of smooth muscle cells to undergo osteogenic differentiation and mineralization. The emergence of novel technology, in the form of animal models and more recently molecular imaging, has enabled accelerated progression of this field, by providing strong evidence regarding the concept of this disorder as an inflammatory disease. Although there are still gaps in our knowledge of the mechanisms behind this disorder, this review discusses the various studies that have helped form the concept of the inflammation-dependent cardiovascular calcification paradigm. (author)

  16. Seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marti-Soler, Helena; Gubelmann, Cédric; Aeschbacher, Stefanie;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in a large set of population-based studies. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 24 population-based studies from 15 countries, with a total sample size of 237 979 subjects. CVRFs included Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist...

  17. Serotonin receptors as cardiovascular targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Villalón (Carlos); P.A.M. de Vries (Peter); P.R. Saxena (Pramod Ranjan)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractSerotonin exerts complex effects in the cardiovascular system, including hypotension or hypertension, vasodilatation or vasoconstriction, and/or bradycardia or tachycardia; the eventual response depends primarily on the nature of the 5-HT receptors involved. In the light of current 5-HT

  18. Down Syndrome: A Cardiovascular Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vis, J. C.; Duffels, M. G. J.; Winter, M. M.; Weijerman, M. E.; Cobben, J. M.; Huisman, S. A.; Mulder, B. J. M.

    2009-01-01

    This review focuses on the heart and vascular system in patients with Down syndrome. A clear knowledge on the wide spectrum of various abnormalities associated with this syndrome is essential for skillful management of cardiac problems in patients with Down syndrome. Epidemiology of congenital heart defects, cardiovascular aspects and…

  19. Epac and the cardiovascular system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, Martina; Sand, Carsten; Jakobs, Karl H.; Michel, Martin C.; Weernink, Paschal A. Oude

    2007-01-01

    Exchange protein activated by cyclic AMP (Epac) - a cyclic AMP-activated guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Ras-like GTPases - has emerged as a novel mediator of pivotal processes in the cardiovascular system, including cellular calcium handling, hypertrophy, integrin-mediated cell adhesion, est

  20. [Psoriasis and cardiovascular risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Roy; Pavlovsky, Lev; David, Michael

    2012-10-01

    Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease which may dramatically affect patients' lives. This chronic disease is characterized by a protracted course of alternating remissions and relapses. In recent years, the attention of researchers has focused on the association between psoriasis and cardiovascular disease risk factors. This review summarizes the literature on this topic with an emphasis on research conducted in Israel. PMID:23316664

  1. Cannabinoids as therapeutic agents in cardiovascular disease: a tale of passions and illusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendizábal, V E; Adler-Graschinsky, E

    2007-06-01

    In addition to their classical known effects, such as analgesia, impairment of cognition and learning and appetite enhancement, cannabinoids have also been related to the regulation of cardiovascular responses and implicated in cardiovascular pathology. Elevated levels of endocannabinoids have been related to the extreme hypotension associated with various forms of shock as well as to the cardiovascular abnormalities that accompany cirrhosis. In contrast, cannabinoids have also been associated with beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system, such as a protective role in atherosclerosis progression and in cerebral and myocardial ischaemia. In addition, it has also been suggested that the pharmacological manipulation of the endocannabinoid system may offer a novel approach to antihypertensive therapy. During the last decades, the tremendous increase in the understanding of the molecular basis of cannabinoid activity has encouraged many pharmaceutical companies to develop more potent synthetic cannabinoid analogues and antagonists, leading to an explosion of basic research and clinical trials. Consequently. not only the synthetic THC dronabinol (Marinol) and the synthetic THC analogue nabilone (Cesamet) have been approved in the United States, but also the standardized cannabis extract (Sativex) in Canada. At least three strategies can be foreseen in the future clinical use of cannabinoid-based drugs: (a) the use of CB(1) receptor antagonists, such as the recently approved rimonabant (b) the use of CB(2)-selective agonists, and (c) the use of inhibitors of endocannabinoid degradation. In this context, the present review examines the effects of cannabinoids and of the pharmacological manipulation of the endocannabinoid system, in cardiovascular pathophysiology. PMID:17450170

  2. Heart rate control with adrenergic blockade: Clinical outcomes in cardiovascular medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Feldman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available David Feldman1, Terry S Elton2, Doron M Menachemi3, Randy K Wexler41Heart Failure/Transplant and VAD Programs, Minneapolis Heart Institute, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA; 2Division of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA; 3Heart Failure Services, Edith Wolfson Medical Center, The Heart Institute, Sakler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Holon, Israel; 4Department of Clinical Family Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USAAbstract: The sympathetic nervous system is involved in regulating various cardiovascular parameters including heart rate (HR and HR variability. Aberrant sympathetic nervous system expression may result in elevated HR or decreased HR variability, and both are independent risk factors for development of cardiovascular disease, including heart failure, myocardial infarction, and hypertension. Epidemiologic studies have established that impaired HR control is linked to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. One successful way of decreasing HR and cardiovascular mortality has been by utilizing β-blockers, because their ability to alter cell signaling at the receptor level has been shown to mitigate the pathogenic effects of sympathetic nervous system hyperactivation. Numerous clinical studies have demonstrated that β-blocker-mediated HR control improvements are associated with decreased mortality in postinfarct and heart failure patients. Although improved HR control benefits have yet to be established in hypertension, both traditional and vasodilating β-blockers exert positive HR control effects in this patient population. However, differences exist between traditional and vasodilating β-blockers; the latter reduce peripheral vascular resistance and exert neutral or positive effects on important metabolic parameters. Clinical evidence suggests that attainment of HR control is an important treatment objective for patients with cardiovascular

  3. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance of the right ventricle

    OpenAIRE

    Alpendurada, Francisco Diogo

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Whilst most of the attention has been devoted to the left ventricle in cardiovascular disease, the right ventricle has been somewhat neglected. In the last decades, there has been a renewal of interest in the right ventricle, in part driven by advances in cardiovascular imaging. Methods: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance is arguably the best imaging modality for the study of the right ventricle. In this research thesis, cardiovascular magnetic resonance w...

  4. Sex steroids and cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bu Beng Yeap

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As men grow older, testosterone (T levels decline and the significance of this change is debated. The evidence supporting a causal role for lower circulating T, or its metabolites dihydrotestosterone (DHT and estradiol, in the genesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD in men is limited. Observational studies associate low baseline T levels with carotid atherosclerosis, aortic and peripheral vascular disease, and with the incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality. Studies using mass spectrometry suggest that when total T is assayed optimally, calculation of free T might not necessarily improve risk stratification. There is limited evidence to support an association of estradiol with CVD. Interventional studies of T therapy in men with coronary artery disease have shown beneficial effects on exercise-induced myocardial ischemia. However, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials (RCTs of T therapy in men with the prespecified outcomes of cardiovascular events or deaths are lacking. Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials of T published up to 2010 found no increase in cardiovascular events, mortality, or prostate cancer with therapy. Recently, in a trial of older men with mobility limitations, men randomized to receive a substantial dose of T reported cardiovascular adverse effects. This phenomenon was not reported from a comparable trial where men received a more conservative dose of T, suggesting a prudent approach should be adopted when considering therapy in frail older men with existing CVD. Adequately powered RCTs of T in middle-aged and older men are needed to clarify whether or not hormonal intervention would reduce the incidence of CVD.

  5. Cardiovascular adverse effects of phenytoin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guldiken, B; Rémi, J; Noachtar, Soheyl

    2016-05-01

    Phenytoin is an established drug in the treatment of acute repetitive seizures and status epilepticus. One of its main advantages over benzodiazepines is the less sedative effect. However, the possibility of cardiovascular adverse effects with the intravenous use of phenytoin cause a reluctance to its usage, and this has lead to a search for safer anticonvulsant drugs. In this study, we aimed to review the studies which evaluated the safety of phenytoin with respect to cardiovascular adverse effects. The original clinical trials and case reports listed in PUBMED in English language between the years of 1946-2014 were evaluated. As the key words, "phenytoin, diphenylhydantoin, epilepsy, seizure, cardiac toxicity, asystole, arrhythmia, respiratory arrest, hypotension, death" were used. Thirty-two clinical trials and ten case reports were identified. In the case reports, a rapid infusion rate (>50 mg/min) of phenytoin appeared as the major cause of increased mortality. In contrast, no serious cardiovascular adverse effects leading to death were met in the clinical trials which applied the recommended infusion rate and dosages. An infusion rate of 50 mg/min was reported to be safe for young patients. For old patients and patients with a cardiovascular co-morbidity, a slower infusion rate was recommended with a careful follow-up of heart rhythm and blood pressure. No cardiovascular adverse effect was reported in oral phenytoin overdoses except one case with a very high serum phenytoin level and hypoalbuminemia. Phenytoin is an effective and well tolerated drug in the treatment of epilepsy. Intravenous phenytoin is safe when given at recommended infusion rates and doses. PMID:26645393

  6. Cardiovascular Reactivity and its Association with the Risk of Cardiovascular Morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Lisset León Regal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: there are no studies that confirm the association between cardiovascular hyperreactivity and the risk of cardiovascular morbidity. Objective: to determine the association between cardiovascular hyperreactivity and the risk of cardiovascular morbidity in normotensive individuals. Methods: a cross-sectional, correlational study was conducted. The universe consisted of the population aged 15 to 74 years in Cienfuegos municipality; the sample included 644 people. The variables were: sex, skin color, age, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, smoking, baseline systolic blood pressure, cardiovascular reactivity, and risk of cardiovascular morbidity. The risk of cardiovascular morbidity was calculated by applying the Framingham Risk Functions. The Pearson’s Chi-square test and the prevalence ratio were used with a 95 % confidence interval. The direction of the relationship between cardiovascular reactivity, age, and systolic blood pressure was analyzed considering the Eta value. Results: the prevalence of cardiovascular hyperreactivity was higher among people aged 65 to 74 years and males. A higher risk of cardiovascular morbidity was observed in cardiovascular hyperreactive individuals. There is an association between non-optimal systolic blood pressure, increasing age, and high risk of cardiovascular morbidity in cardiovascular hyperreactive people. Conclusions: the risk of cardiovascular morbidity is higher in cardiovascular hyperreactive individuals than in normoreactive people. Age and systolic blood pressure showed greater association with high risk of cardiovascular morbidity.

  7. [Secondary nephrotic syndrome due to cardiovascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Tomoya; Takahashi, Fumihiko; Kikuchi, Kenjiro

    2004-10-01

    Cardiovascular diseases ralely evoke nephrotic syndrome. Especially hypertensive renal disease (nephroscrelosis) and renovascular hypertension occasionally may lead to nephrotic syndrome. We reported a case of nephrotic syndrome with renovascular hypertension successfully treated with candesartan. In eldery patients cardiovascular diseases are appeared. It is very important for clinicians to detect the mechanism of nephrotic syndrome caused by cardiovascular diseases. PMID:15500142

  8. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance in Marfan syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Dormand, Helen; Mohiaddin, Raad H

    2013-01-01

    This review provides an overview of Marfan syndrome with an emphasis on cardiovascular complications and cardiovascular imaging. Both pre- and post-operative imaging is addressed with an explanation of surgical management. All relevant imaging modalities are discussed with a particular focus on cardiovascular MR.

  9. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in systemic hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Maceira Alicia M; Mohiaddin Raad H

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Systemic hypertension is a highly prevalent potentially modifiable cardiovascular risk factor. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis of underlying causes for hypertension, in assessing cardiovascular complications of hypertension, and in understanding the pathophysiology of the disease process. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) provides accurate and reproducible measures of ventricular volumes, mass, function and haemodynamics as well as uniquely allowing tissue char...

  10. Chocolate and Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Xin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of chocolate has been often hypothesized to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD due to chocolate's high levels of stearic acid and antioxidant flavonoids. However, debate still lingers regarding the true long term beneficial cardiovascular effects of chocolate overall. Methods We reviewed English-language MEDLINE publications from 1966 through January 2005 for experimental, observational, and clinical studies of relations between cocoa, cacao, chocolate, stearic acid, flavonoids (including flavonols, flavanols, catechins, epicatechins, and procynadins and the risk of cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease (CHD, stroke. A total of 136 publications were selected based on relevance, and quality of design and methods. An updated meta-analysis of flavonoid intake and CHD mortality was also conducted. Results The body of short-term randomized feeding trials suggests cocoa and chocolate may exert beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk via effects on lowering blood pressure, anti-inflammation, anti-platelet function, higher HDL, decreased LDL oxidation. Additionally, a large body of trials of stearic acid suggests it is indeed cholesterol-neutral. However, epidemiologic studies of serum and dietary stearic acid are inconclusive due to many methodologic limitations. Meanwhile, the large body of prospective studies of flavonoids suggests the flavonoid content of chocolate may reduce risk of cardiovascular mortality. Our updated meta-analysis indicates that intake of flavonoids may lower risk of CHD mortality, RR = 0.81 (95% CI: 0.71–0.92 comparing highest and lowest tertiles. Conclusion Multiple lines of evidence from laboratory experiments and randomized trials suggest stearic acid may be neutral, while flavonoids are likely protective against CHD mortality. The highest priority now is to conduct larger randomized trials to definitively investigate the impact of chocolate consumption on long

  11. Strategies for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Claudio

    2015-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is frequently accompanied by multimorbidities in affected patients. Even though the majority of these comorbidities are also related to advanced age and cigarette smoke, also COPD itself has significant impact on insurgence, or worsening of these conditions. As a consequence, COPD is regarded as a complex disease with pulmonary and extra-pulmonary involvement. According to current guidelines for the management of COPD patients, the comprehensive treatment of this condition should target respiratory symptoms as well as comorbidities. Cardiovascular disease is one of the most frequent comorbidities in COPD patients and there are several strategies for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease in COPD patients. These include smoking cessation, pharmacologic prevention of cardiovascular disease, and the treatment of COPD. Beta-blockers for the prevention of cardiovascular disease have been traditionally limited in COPD patients, albeit current evidence supporting their efficacy and safety in these patients. With regard to COPD medications, corticosteroids are generally not recommended, except for exacerbations, while long-acting beta2-agonists have demonstrated an acceptable profile of cardiovascular safety. Long-acting anticholinergic bronchodilators, in particular tiotropium in the mist inhaler formulation, have been associated with an increased risk of major cardiovascular events and mortality. Data on this issue remain, however, controversial. Glycopyrronium, a recently introduced anticholinergic, demonstrated. a rapid and sustained relief of respiratory symptoms with a favorable safety profile and no increase in cardiovascular risk, in monotherapy and in combination with a long-acting beta2-agonist in a comprehensive trial program indicating a valid option for COPD patients with CV comorbidities. PMID:25655487

  12. Berberine: metabolic and cardiovascular effects in preclinical and clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arrigo FG Cicero

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Arrigo FG Cicero1, Sibel Ertek21Internal Medicine, Aging and Kidney Diseases Department, Sant’Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy; 2Ufuk University, Medical Faculty, Dr Ridvan Ege Hospital, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Ankara, TurkeyAbstract: Berberine is a plant alkaloid with numerous biological activities. A large body of preclinical in vitro and in vivo studies support different pharmacological actions of berberine that could be potentially useful in the management of metabolic diseases associated with high cardiovascular disease risk, such as mixed hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. Moreover, it seems that berberine also exerts anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative effects that could play a role in the development of atherosclerosis and its clinical consequences. Recently, the metabolic effects of berberine have been demonstrated in humans, opening new perspectives for the use of this molecule in patient therapy. Larger and longer clinical studies need to be carried out to implement the definition of the therapeutic role of berberine in humans.Keywords: berberine, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cholesterol

  13. Taste and Hypertension in Humans: Targeting Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roura, Eugeni; Foster, Simon; Winklebach, Anja; Navarro, Marta; Thomas, Walter; Campbell, Katrina; Stowasser, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The association between salty taste and NaCl intake with hypertension is well-established, although it is far from completely understood. Other taste types such as sweet, umami or bitter have also been related to alterations in blood pressure. Here, we review the mutual relationship between taste and hypertension to identify potential avenues to better control blood pressure. This review focuses on published data involving humans, with the exception of a section on molecular mechanisms. There is compelling evidence to suggest that changes in salty taste sensitivity can be used to predict the onset of hypertension. This goes hand in hand with the medical concept of sodium sensitivity, which also increases with age, particularly in hypertensive patients. The association of hypertension with the loss of taste acuity less definitive with some data/conclusions masked by the use of anti-hypertensive drugs. In fact, this group of therapeutic agents can reduce food taste perception resulting in mild to severe hypogeusia and dysgeusia. In the elderly, antihypertensive drugs may lead to a loss of appetite, thus, selecting treatments with low or no impact on taste perception should be advised. Pharmacological approaches to mitigate cardiovascular disease (CVD) could well take a different spin in the future following the discovery of taste receptors (TAS1R and TAS2R) in the cardiovascular system. Finally, long-term dietary strategies to minimize the risk of development of hypertension and CVD are discussed identifying several nutrients and public health policies with relevant potential. PMID:26881437

  14. Aspirin in Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Events: Does Market Failure Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger L. Mendoza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Two interrelated questions were raised for investigation in this study: (1 why may government intervene in an otherwise private transaction between physician and patient and between drug manufacturer and buyer? (2 Does government intervention make a difference in what these transacting parties would otherwise have decided or chosen in its absence? Approach: An internet literature search was performed, using query term combinations, to identify aspirin-related studies. The search yielded 51 juried publications that met our predetermined criteria for inclusion and thematic analysis. Results: Some variance exists within the surveyed literature concerning government intervention in aspirin prophylaxis for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, particularly heart attacks, strokes and cardiovascular death. This study identified 4 instances of market failure that offer some of the strongest theoretical and practical considerations for public policy intervention in aspirin’s pharmacological information. However, there is also indication that the sense of increased protection arising from safety regulations could stimulate risky behavior that nullifies their net protective effects or benefits. Conclusion: It is not clear either from the surveyed literature or existing economic theory if, ceteris paribus, mandatory safety information is necessary to alter or modify the marginal propensity of a physician to recommend and a patient to purchase, aspirin. The study suggested the need for policy reinforcements to any safety information regulation, if market failures are to be effectively addressed and risk compensating behavior reduced.

  15. Aspirin and lipid mediators in the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrör, Karsten; Rauch, Bernhard H

    2015-09-01

    Aspirin is an unique compound because it bears two active moieties within one and the same molecule: a reactive acetyl group and the salicylate metabolite. Salicylate has some effects similar to aspirin, however only at higher concentrations, usually in the millimolar range, which are not obtained at conventional antiplatelet aspirin doses of 100-300 mg/day. Pharmacological actions of aspirin in the cardiovascular system at these doses are largely if not entirely due to target structure acetylation. Several classes of lipid mediators become affected: Best known is the cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) in platelets with subsequent inhibition of thromboxane and, possibly, thrombin formation. By this action, aspirin also inhibits paracrine thromboxane functions on other lipid mediators, such as the platelet storage product sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), an inflammatory mediator. Acetylation of COX-2 allows for generation of 15-(R)HETE and subsequent formation of "aspirin-triggered lipoxin" (ATL) by interaction with white cell lipoxygenases. In the cardiovascular system, aspirin also acetylates eNOS with subsequent upregulation of NO formation and enhanced expression of the antioxidans heme-oxygenase-1. This action is possibly also COX-2/ATL mediated. Many more acetylation targets have been identified in live cells by quantitative acid-cleavable activity-based protein profiling and might result in discovery of even more aspirin targets in the near future. PMID:26201059

  16. Dynamics of polydisperse irreversible adsorption: a pharmacological example

    CERN Document Server

    Erban, R; Fisher, K D; Kevrekidis, Yu G; Seymour, L W; Chapman, Jonathan; Erban, Radek; Fisher, Kerry D.; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G.; Seymour, Leonard W.

    1999-01-01

    Many drug delivery systems suffer from undesirable interactions with the host immune system. It has been experimentally established that covalent attachment (irreversible adsorption) of suitable macromolecules to the surface of the drug carrier can reduce such undesirable interactions. A fundamental understanding of the adsorption process is still lacking. In this paper, the classical random irreversible adsorption model is generalized to capture certain essential processes involved in pharmacological applications, allowing for macromolecules of different sizes, partial overlapping of the tails of macromolecules, and the influence of reactions with the solvent on the adsorption process. Working in one dimension, an integro-differential evolution equation for the adsorption process is derived and the asymptotic behaviour of the surface area covered and the number of molecules attached to the surface is studied. Finally, equation-free dynamic renormalization tools are applied to study the asymptotically self-si...

  17. Inclusion of terpenes in cyclodextrins: Preparation, characterization and pharmacological approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Pollyana S S; Lucchese, Angélica M; Araújo-Filho, Heitor G; Menezes, Paula P; Araújo, Adriano A S; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J; Quintans, Jullyana S S

    2016-10-20

    Terpenes constitute the largest class of natural products and are important resources for the pharmaceutical, food and cosmetics industries. However, due to their low water solubility and poor bioavailability there has been a search for compounds that could improve their physicochemical properties. Cyclodextrins (natural and derived) have been proposed for this role and have been complexed with different types of terpenes. This complexation has been demonstrated by using analytical techniques for characterizing complexes such as DSC, NMR, XRD, FTIR, and TGA. The formation of inclusion complexes has been able to improve drug characteristics such as bioavailability, solubility and stability; and to enhance biological activity and efficacy. This review shows strong experimental evidence that cyclodextrins improve the pharmacological properties of terpenes, and therefore need to be recognized as being possible targets for clinical use. PMID:27474645

  18. Pills or push-ups? Effectiveness and public perception of pharmacological and non-pharmacological cognitive enhancement.

    OpenAIRE

    Caviola, L.; Faber, NS

    2015-01-01

    We review work on the effectiveness of different forms of cognitive enhancement, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological. We consider caffeine, methylphenidate, and modafinil for pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE) and computer training, physical exercise, and sleep for non-pharmacological cognitive enhancement (NPCE). We find that all of the techniques described can produce significant beneficial effects on cognitive performance. However, effect sizes are moderate, and consisten...

  19. Pills or Push-Ups? Effectiveness and Public Perception of Pharmacological and Non-Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Caviola, Lucius; Nadira S. Faber

    2015-01-01

    We review work on the effectiveness of different forms of cognitive enhancement, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological. We consider caffeine, methylphenidate, and modafinil for pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE) and computer training, physical exercise, and sleep for non-pharmacological cognitive enhancement (NPCE). We find that all of the techniques described can produce significant beneficial effects on cognitive performance. However, effect sizes are moderate, and consisten...

  20. Pills or push-ups? Effectiveness and public perception of pharmacological and non-pharmacological cognitive enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Lucius eCaviola; Nadira S. Faber

    2015-01-01

    We review work on the effectiveness of different forms of cognitive enhancement, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological. We consider caffeine, methylphenidate, and modafinil for pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE) and computer training, physical exercise, and sleep for non-pharmacological cognitive enhancement (NPCE). We find that all of the techniques described can produce significant beneficial effects on cognitive performance. However, effect sizes are moderate, and consisten...

  1. Review of Rhubarbs: Chemistry and Pharmacology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG; Qing-xia; WU; Hai-feng; GUO; Jian; NAN; Hai-jiang; CHEN; Shi-lin; YANG; Jun-shan; XU; Xu-dong

    2013-01-01

    Rhubarb is a perennial herb belonging to the genus Rheum L. (Polygonaceae). Rhei Radix et Rhizoma (rhubarb roots and rhizomes) is one of the most popular Chinese materia medica and has been widely used for strong laxative function. About 200 compounds with six different types of skeletons (anthraquinone, anthrone, stilbene, flavonoids, acylglucoside, and pyrone) have so far been isolated from eighteen species of the genus Rheum L. These constituents showed extensive pharmacological activities including cathartic, diuretic, anticancer, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects, as well as toxicological effects. Chemical fingerprint, LC-MS, and other analytical techniques have been used for the quality control of rhubarb. This comprehensive review summarizes the researches into the isolation, pharmacological activities, and phytochemical analysis reported since investigations began in the late 1940s. In addition, pharmacokinetic studies and clinical application of rhubarb are also discussed in present paper.

  2. Review of Rhubarbs: Chemistry and Pharmacology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Qing-xia; WU Hai-feng; GUO Jian; NAN Hai-jiang; CHEN Shi-lin; YANG Jun-shan; XU Xu-dong

    2013-01-01

    Rhubarb is a perennial herb belonging to the genus Rheum L.(Polygonaceae).Rhei Radix et Rhizoma (rhubarbroots and rhizomes) is one of the most popular Chinese materia medica and has been widely used for strong laxative function.About 200 compounds with six different types of skeletons (anthraquinone,anthrone,stilbene,flavonoids,acylglucoside,and pyrone) have so far been isolated from eighteen species of the genus Rheum L These constituents showed extensive pharmacological activities including cathartic,diuretic,anticancer,hepatoprotective,anti-inflammatory,and analgesic effects,as well as toxicological effects.Chemical fingerprint,LC-MS,and other analytical techniques have been used for the quality control of rhubarb.This comprehensive review summarizes the researches into the isolation,pharmacological activities,and phytochemical analysis reported since investigations began in the late 1940s.In addition,pharmacokinetic studies and clinical application of rhubarb are also discussed in present paper.

  3. Pharmacological evaluation of bee venom and melittin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila G. Dantas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the pharmacological effects of bee venom and its major component, melittin, on the nervous system of mice. For the pharmacological analysis, mice were treated once with saline, 0.1 or 1.2 mg/kg of bee venom and 0.1 mg/kg of melittin, subcutaneously, 30 min before being submitted to behavioral tests: locomotor activity and grooming (open-field, catalepsy, anxiety (elevated plus-maze, depression (forced swimming test and apomorphine-induced stereotypy. Haloperidol, imipramine and diazepam were administered alone (positive control or as a pre-treatment (haloperidol.The bee venom reduced motor activity and promoted cataleptic effect, in a similar manner to haloperidol.These effects were decreased by the pretreatment with haloperidol. Both melittin and bee venom decreased the apomorphine-induced stereotypies. The data indicated the antipsychotic activity of bee venom and melittin in a murine model.

  4. Common mullein, pharmacological and chemical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Riaz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Verbascum thapsus L. [Khardhag or Common mullein], a member of the family Scrophulariaceae, is a famous herb that is found all over Europe, in temperate Asia, in North America and is well-reputed due to its medicinal properties. This medicinal herb contains various chemical constituents like saponins, iridoid and phenylethanoid glycosides, flavonoids, vitamin C and minerals. It is famous in various communities worldwide for the treatment of various disorders of both humans and animals aliments. A number of pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, antiviral, antihepatotoxic and anti-hyperlipidemic activity have been ascribed to this plant. The plant is used to treat tuberculosis also, earache and bronchitis. In the present paper botanical and ethnomedicinal description, pharmacological profile and phytochemistry of this herb is being discussed.

  5. Angioedema: Clinical Presentations and Pharmacological Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins-Yoder, Angela Smith

    2016-01-01

    Angioedema (AE) is a unique clinical presentation of an unchecked release of bradykinin. The origin of this clinical presentation can be either genetic or acquired. The outcome within the patient is subcutaneous swelling of the lower layers of the epidermis. Symptoms are most often localized to the upper airway or the gastrointestinal tract. A typical course resolves in 5 to 7 days, but in some patients, the clinical manifestations exist up to 6 weeks. Hereditary AE is rare and genetically linked, and typically, the patient has episodes for many years before diagnosis. Episodes of acquired AE may be drug induced, triggered by a specific allergen, or idiopathic. Angioedema can elicit the need for critical care interventions, for advanced airway management, or unnecessary abdominal surgery. The treatment for these patients is evolving as new pharmacological agents are developed. This article addresses subtypes of AE, triggers, pharmacology, and information for interdisciplinary team planning of individualized case management. PMID:27258954

  6. Clinical pharmacology considerations in biologics development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang ZHAO; Tian-hua REN; Diane D WANG

    2012-01-01

    Biologics,including monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and other therapeutic proteins such as cytokines and growth hormones,have unique characteristics compared to small molecules.This paper starts from an overview of the pharmacokinetics (PK) of biologics from a mechanistic perspective,the determination of a starting dose for first-in-human(FIH) studies,and dosing regimen optimisation for phase Ⅱ/Ⅲ clinical trials.Subsequently,typical clinical pharmacology issues along the corresponding pathways for biologics development are summarised,including drug-drug interactions,QTc prolongation,immunogenicity,and studies in specific populations.The relationships between the molecular structure of biologics,their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics,and the corresponding clinical pharmacology strategies are summarised and depicted in a schematic diagram.

  7. Perinatal inflammation: a common factor in the early origins of cardiovascular disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Maria U; Wallace, Megan J; Pepe, Salvatore; Menheniott, Trevelyan R; Moss, Timothy J; Burgner, David

    2015-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease continues to be the leading cause of global morbidity and mortality. Traditional risk factors account for only part of the attributable risk. The origins of atherosclerosis are in early life, a potential albeit largely unrecognized window of opportunity for early detection and treatment of subclinical cardiovascular disease. There are robust epidemiological data indicating that poor intrauterine growth and/or prematurity, and perinatal factors such as maternal hypercholesterolaemia, smoking, diabetes and obesity, are associated with adverse cardiovascular intermediate phenotypes in childhood and adulthood. Many of these early-life risk factors result in a heightened inflammatory state. Inflammation is a central mechanism in the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, but few studies have investigated the role of overt perinatal infection and inflammation (chorioamnionitis) as a potential contributor to cardiovascular risk. Limited evidence from human and experimental models suggests an association between chorioamnionitis and cardiac and vascular dysfunction. Early life inflammatory events may be an important mechanism in the early development of cardiovascular risk and may provide insights into the associations between perinatal factors and adult cardiovascular disease. This review aims to summarise current data on the early life origins of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, with particular focus on perinatal inflammation. PMID:26223841

  8. A clinical approach to obstructive sleep apnea as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeder, Micha T; Schoch, Otto D; Rickli, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with cardiovascular risk factors, cardiovascular diseases, and increased mortality. Epidemiological studies have established these associations, and there are now numerous experimental and clinical studies which have provided information on the possible underlying mechanisms. Mechanistic proof-of-concept studies with surrogate endpoints have been performed to demonstrate that treatment of OSA by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has the potential to reverse or at least to attenuate not only OSA but also the adverse cardiovascular effects associated with OSA. However, no randomized studies have been performed to demonstrate that treatment of OSA by CPAP improves clinical outcomes in patients with cardiovascular risk factors and/or established cardiovascular disease and concomitant OSA. In the present review, we summarize the current knowledge on the role of OSA as a potential cardiovascular risk factor, the impact of OSA on cardiac function, the role of OSA as a modifier of the course of cardiovascular diseases such as coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, and heart failure, and the insights from studies evaluating the impact of CPAP therapy on the cardiovascular features associated with OSA. PMID:27051291

  9. Dyslipidemia: evidence of efficacy of the pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment in the elderly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Claudia F Gravina; Marcelo Bertolami; Giselle HP Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    The clinical decision to control risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the elderly takes the followings into consideration: (1) the elderly life expectancy; (2) the elderly biological age and functional capacity; (3) the role of cardiovascular disease in the elderly group; (4) the prevalence of risk factors in the elderly; and (5) The effectiveness of treatment of risk factors in the elderly. A large number of studies showed the efficacy of secondary and primary prevention of dyslipidemia in the elderly. However, the only trial that included patients over 80 years was the Heart Protection Study (HPS). Statins are considered the first line therapy for lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Because lifestyle changes are very difficult to achieve, doctors in general tend to prescribe many drugs to control cardiovascular risk factors. However, healthy food consumption remains a cornerstone in primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention and should be implemented by everyone.

  10. Pharmacological effects of medicinal plants on skin

    OpenAIRE

    Zohreh Bakhtiyari, MSc; Mohammadreza Radan, MD

    2013-01-01

    Skin is one of the most sensitive parts of the body and is important to maintain the beauty of man. Herbal products have fewer side effects than chemicals and have pharmacological effects on the skin, so are used in cosmetic preparations. Books, articles and electronic databases including ISI Web of Science, PubMed, Magiran and IranMedex were searched to identify plants with positive effects on the skin, regardless of adverse effects and their interactions. A number of plants which were...

  11. Chemistry and Pharmacology of Citrus sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Manuel J. Favela-Hernández; Omar González-Santiago; Mónica A. Ramírez-Cabrera; Patricia C. Esquivel-Ferriño; María del Rayo Camacho-Corona

    2016-01-01

    Presently the search for new drugs from natural resources is of growing interest to the pharmaceutical industry. Natural products have been the source of new drugs since ancient times. Plants are a good source of secondary metabolites which have been found to have beneficial properties. The present study is a review of the chemistry and pharmacology of Citrus sinensis. This review reveals the therapeutic potential of C. sinensis as a source of natural compounds with important activities that ...

  12. Natural Products and Ion Channel Pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Teichert, Russell W.; Olivera, Baldomero M.

    2010-01-01

    An accelerated rate of natural-product discovery is critical for the future of ion channel pharmacology. For the full potential of natural products to be realized, an interdisciplinary initiative is required that combines chemical ecology and ion channel physiology. A prime source of future drug leads targeted to ion channels is the vast assortment of compounds that mediate biotic interactions in the marine environment. Many animals have evolved a chemical strategy to change the behavior of t...

  13. The genus chenopodium: Phytochemistry, ethnopharmacology and pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Zlatina Kokanova-Nedialkova, , , , , and; Paraskev T Nedialkov; Stefan D. Nikolov

    2009-01-01

    The review includes 154 references on the genus Chenopodium covered up to December 2008 and has been compiled using references mainly from Chemical Abstracts and Pubmed. This article briefly reviews the phytochemistry, ethnopharmacology and pharmacology of Chenopodium genus. Three hundred seventy nine compounds isolated from different species are reported. Fenolics, flavonoids, saponins, ecdysteroids and triterpenoids were the major classes of phytoconstituents of this genus. The detailed dis...

  14. Pharmacologic desensitization for dental phobias: clinical observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, P. A.; Peskin, R. M.; Pierce, C. J.

    1990-01-01

    The elimination of the extreme fear reported by dental phobic patients traditionally involves psychologic interventions such as systematic desensitization. Observations resulting from a conscious sedation approach, as outlined in two case histories, suggest that a desensitization phenomena is occurring. This pharmacologic desensitization appears to mimic elements of systematic desensitization. Optimal management of fearful patients may sometimes require conjunctive support from both dental behavioral scientists and dental anesthesiologists. PMID:1982984

  15. An agenda for UK clinical pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, Jamie J.; McDowell, Sarah E

    2012-01-01

    The internet and the World Wide Web have changed the ways that we function. As technologies grow and adapt, there is a huge potential for the internet to affect drug research and development, as well as many other aspects of clinical pharmacology. We review some of the areas of interest to date and discuss some of the potential areas in which internet-based technology can be exploited.

  16. Pharmacology of benzodiazepine receptors: an update.

    OpenAIRE

    Sieghart, W.

    1994-01-01

    Benzodiazepine receptors are allosteric modulatory sites on GABAA receptors. GABAA receptors are probably composed of five protein subunits, at least some of which belong to different subunit classes. So far six alpha-, four beta-, three gamma-, and delta- and two rho = p subunits of GABAA receptors have been identified. A large number of different subunit combinations, each of which will result in a GABAA receptor with distinct electrophysiological and pharmacological properties, are therefo...

  17. Pharmacological enhancement of fear reduction: preclinical models

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Bronwyn M.; Langton, Julia M; Richardson, Rick

    2011-01-01

    Anxiety disorders have a high prevalence, and despite the substantial advances in the psychological treatment of anxiety, relapse is still a common problem. One approach to improving existing psychological treatments for anxiety has been to develop pharmacological agents that can be used to enhance the processes underlying exposure therapy, which is the most commonly used and empirically validated psychological treatment for anxiety during which individuals are taught to appropriately inhibit...

  18. Phytochemical and pharmacological profile of Ipomoea aquatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manvar, Mital N; Desai, T R

    2013-01-01

    Ipomoea aquatica (I. aquatica) (Convolvulaceae) is commonly grown green leafy vegetable found throughout India, Ceylon, Tropical Asia, Africa, and Australia. Traditionally, I. aquatica used as carminative agent and lessens inflammation, and is useful in fever, jaundice, biliousness, bronchitis, liver complaints, etc., I. aquatica is a rich source of vitamins, minerals, proteins, fibers, carotenes, and flavanoids with many health benefits. The objective of this review is to highlight the pharmacognostical, phytochemical, and pharmacological information of this plant. PMID:24231393

  19. Phytochemical and pharmacological profile of Ipomoea aquatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mital N Manvar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ipomoea aquatica (I. aquatica (Convolvulaceae is commonly grown green leafy vegetable found throughout India, Ceylon, Tropical Asia, Africa, and Australia. Traditionally, I. aquatica used as carminative agent and lessens inflammation, and is useful in fever, jaundice, biliousness, bronchitis, liver complaints, etc., I. aquatica is a rich source of vitamins, minerals, proteins, fibers, carotenes, and flavanoids with many health benefits. The objective of this review is to highlight the pharmacognostical, phytochemical, and pharmacological information of this plant.

  20. Palpation Simulator of Beating Aorta for Cardiovascular Surgery Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yasuhiro; Nakao, Megumi; Kuroda, Tomohiro; Oyama, Hiroshi; Komori, Masaru; Matsuda, Tetsuya; Sakaguchi, Genichi; Komeda, Masashi; Takahashi, Takashi

    In field of cardiovascular surgeries, palpation of aorta plays important roles in decision of surgical site.This paper develops palpation simulator of aorta based on a finite element based physical model.The proposed model calculates soft tissue deformation according to the affection of inner pressure and the operation of a surgeon.The proposed method is implemented on a prototype with dual PHANToM device.Experimental results confirmed our model achieves real time simulation of the surgical palpation.

  1. PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SELECTED PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneh Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Araucaria cookii, Bauhinia blakeana and Brassaia actinophylla are ornamental plants. The presence of various phytochemicals and pharmacologically important compounds in these plants can be exploited for their medicinal use. But there are no reports on the phytochemical and pharmacological evaluation of these plants and this study aims at investigating these. The plant extracts were prepared in different solvents like methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate, acetone, hexane, water and chloroform. Qualitative analysis of phytochemicals were assessed. The anti-microbial, anti-oxidant and enzyme inhibitory activity was determined for all three plant extracts. Anti-bacterial activity against three gram negative bacteria, E. coli, Pseudomonas and Klebsiella was done and Araucaria cooki showed highest antibacterial activity among the three plants. Maximum antioxidant activity was seen in methanol extract of Brassaia actinophyla with 81% inhibition. The order of the antioxidant activity of the three plants are in the order B.actinophylla>A cookie>B.blakeana. The results of phytochemical analysis suggest that phytosteroids are present in all the three plants. Maximum inhibition against the tested enzymes was exhibited by hexane and chloroform extracts of A.cookii. Hemolytic activity was done and the hexane extract showed maximum haemolysis where as aqueous extracts showed minimum activity. From the results it is clear that the three plant extracts has pharmacological applications. This is the first report of antimicrobial, antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of these three plant extracts. Further studies are needed to exploit the actual mechanism and active compounds of these plants.

  2. Ethics of pharmacological research involving adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welisch, Eva; Altamirano-Diaz, Luis A

    2015-02-01

    Pharmacological research in the adolescent population is not meeting adolescents' needs. Medication is still frequently prescribed off label, and studies especially in sensitive areas of adolescent health care are underrepresented. Adolescents did not benefit from the new knowledge gained in cancer research, and their outcome has essentially not improved during the last two decades in comparison to younger children and adults. There are many obstacles that make it challenging to enroll adolescents in pharmacological research. Access can be difficult. Confidentiality plays an essential role for minors and may be a hindrance, notably to studying sexual and mental health matters. Pharmaceutical companies may exclude the adolescent patient because of a lack of profit and in fear of a complex study design. Research concepts should be explained to the adolescent in a comprehensive manner, and assent and consent forms should be clear and understandable. New laws and incentives have been developed to encourage pharmaceutical companies to engage adolescents in their research projects. Centralization and collaboration of all parties involved may make the whole approach to adolescent research more efficient and uniform. The mature minor doctrine has facilitated the enrollment process. Parental consent may be waived for low-risk medical trials to promote recruitment. Ethics committees therefore play a major role in protecting the adolescent from harm from participating in research. In conclusion, pharmacological research in adolescents has to be encouraged. This will increase the safety of current medical treatment regimens and will allow this population to benefit from therapeutic advancements. PMID:25523399

  3. Pharmacological Modulation of Hemodynamics in Adult Zebrafish In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Brönnimann

    Full Text Available Hemodynamic parameters in zebrafish receive increasing attention because of their important role in cardiovascular processes such as atherosclerosis, hematopoiesis, sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis. To study underlying mechanisms, the precise modulation of parameters like blood flow velocity or shear stress is centrally important. Questions related to blood flow have been addressed in the past in either embryonic or ex vivo-zebrafish models but little information is available for adult animals. Here we describe a pharmacological approach to modulate cardiac and hemodynamic parameters in adult zebrafish in vivo.Adult zebrafish were paralyzed and orally perfused with salt water. The drugs isoprenaline and sodium nitroprusside were directly applied with the perfusate, thus closely resembling the preferred method for drug delivery in zebrafish, namely within the water. Drug effects on the heart and on blood flow in the submental vein were studied using electrocardiograms, in vivo-microscopy and mathematical flow simulations.Under control conditions, heart rate, blood flow velocity and shear stress varied less than ± 5%. Maximal chronotropic effects of isoprenaline were achieved at a concentration of 50 μmol/L, where it increased the heart rate by 22.6 ± 1.3% (n = 4; p < 0.0001. Blood flow velocity and shear stress in the submental vein were not significantly increased. Sodium nitroprusside at 1 mmol/L did not alter the heart rate but increased blood flow velocity by 110.46 ± 19.64% (p = 0.01 and shear stress by 117.96 ± 23.65% (n = 9; p = 0.03.In this study, we demonstrate that cardiac and hemodynamic parameters in adult zebrafish can be efficiently modulated by isoprenaline and sodium nitroprusside. Together with the suitability of the zebrafish for in vivo-microscopy and genetic modifications, the methodology described permits studying biological processes that are dependent on hemodynamic alterations.

  4. Cardiovascular risk, effectiveness and mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gérvas

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Dice la Ley de Hierro de la Epidemiología que todo el que nace muere. Por ello el fin de la Medicina no es evitar la muerte en sí, sino evitar las muertes, las enfermedades y el sufrimiento médicamente evitables.Al final, todos nuestros pacientes morirán – y nosotros mismos moriremos también, obviamente. “Los cuerpos encuentran una forma de morir” y si la causa no es el hambre ni la deshidratación, ni es congénita, ni infecciosa, ni por lesiones, ni por cáncer, ni por suicidio, tenemos que esperar que sea por ‘causa cardiovascular’, enfermedad pulmonar, insuficiencia renal o hepática, demencia u otras enfermedades degenerativas. Pero de algo tenemos que morir.Morir por causa cardiovascular ni es deshonroso, ni implica defectuosa atención clínica. Que la primera causa de muerte sea la cardiovascular no dice nada respecto a los cuidados clínicos, ni debería asustar.Sin embargo, son evitables muchas muertes de causa cardiovascular. Así, se puede evitar mucha mortalidad cardiovascular disminuyendo la desigualdad social, por ejemplo (con mejor re-distribución de la riqueza, mejor educación y demás. Los médicos saben que los factores adversos psicosociales asociados a la pertenencia a la clase baja responden del 35% del riesgo atribuible a la hipertensión en la incidencia del infarto de miocardio (en otra formulación, que pertenecer a la clase baja multiplica por 2,7 dicho riesgo1.También deberíamos saber que contra las muertes cardiovasculares no hay nada como las políticas de salud pública sobre el tabaquismo (restricciones de lugares en los que fumar, aumento del precio del tabaco, campañas de información, y demás.En lo clínico, las muertes cardiovasculares evitables se deben ver en perspectiva, según lo que se puede lograr2. Así, por 100.000 habitantes y año, el tratamiento con inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina (IECA en la insuficiencia cardíaca puede evitar 308 muertes; el consejo m

  5. Nuclear imaging of cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear imaging methods provide noninvasive indexes of myocardial function, perfusion, and metabolism and are well accepted in clinical cardiology. Advances in prevention and treatment of cardiac disease have resulted in decreasing cardiovascular mortality in industrialized nations. The improvement in therapeutic options has increased the demand for diagnostic tests that might guide clinical decision making. Information beyond the pure anatomic characterization of coronary stenoses is required. Nuclear imaging can be used for early detection and monitoring of the severity and extent of disease. The prognostic potential of such functional testing is being increasingly appreciated and used to guide therapy, thereby resulting in improvement of the quality and cost-effectiveness of the workup of patients with cardiovascular disease. Extensive clinical validation has resulted in growing acceptance of these techniques. Furthermore, ongoing improvement of imaging techniques and development of new radiopharmaceuticals will pave the way for disease-specific, molecular-targeted cardiac imaging in the future. (orig.)

  6. Cardiovascular Prevention of Cognitive Decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Jacques Monsuez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Midlife cardiovascular risk factors, including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipemia, and an unhealthy lifestyle, have been linked to subsequent incidence, delay of onset, and progression rate of Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia. Conversely, optimal treatment of cardiovascular risk factors prevents and slows down age-related cognitive disorders. The impact of antihypertensive therapy on cognitive outcome in patients with hypertension was assessed in large trials which demonstrated a reduction in progression of MRI white matter hyperintensities, in cognitive decline and in incidence of dementia. Large-scale database correlated statin use and reduction in the incidence of dementia, mainly in patients with documented atherosclerosis, but clinical trials failed to reach similar conclusions. Whether a multitargeted intervention would substantially improve protection, quality of life, and reduce medical cost expenditures in patients with lower risk profile has not been ascertained. This would require appropriately designed trials targeting large populations and focusing on cognitive decline as a primary outcome endpoint.

  7. Psychological hardiness predicts cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartone, Paul T; Valdes, James J; Sandvik, Asle

    2016-09-01

    Many, but not all people experience diminished health, performance and well-being as a function of exposure to stress. However, the underlying neurophysiological processes which characterize hardy or resilient people are not well understood. This study examines psychological hardiness and several indicators of cardiovascular health, including body mass index (BMI) and blood cholesterol markers in a sample of 338 middle-aged adults enrolled in a national security education program. Hierarchical regression analyses reveal that after controlling for the influence of age and sex, high hardiness is related to higher HDL - high density lipoprotein and less body fat (BMI). Lower hardiness is associated with greater total cholesterol to HDL ratio, a cardiovascular disease risk factor. These results suggest that psychological hardiness confers resilience in part through an influence on cholesterol production and metabolism. PMID:26652199

  8. Cardiovascular stress of photochemotherapy (PUVA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recently devised therapy for psoriasis and related skin diseases, consisting of long-wave ultraviolet light and oral 8-methoxypsoralen (PUVA), was investigated for its cardiovascular effects. In seventeen patients, long-wave ultraviolet light therapy in a treatment enclosure (mean duration, 19.3 minutes) resulted in ambient temperatures of 39.2 degrees C +/- 2.1 degrees C (SD) and skin temperatures of 38.2 degrees C +/- 1.4 degrees C. In upright subjects, heart rate rose 30.8% to 114.4 +/- 25.2 beats per minute (bpm). Intensive room air conditioning, outside of the treatment enclosure, although significantly lowering skin and ambient temperatures, did not affect the heart rates significantly. PUVA therapy is associated with a definite cardiovascular stress when the box type of therapeutic unit is used. Possible modifications are discussed

  9. Ionizing radiation and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoel, David G

    2006-09-01

    For more than 15 years the A-bomb survivor studies have shown increased noncancer mortality due to radiation exposures. The most prominent cause of this increase is circulatory disease mortality. Although the estimated relative risk is less than for solid cancers (1.2 versus 1.6 per Sv), there are measurable increases in cardiovascular disease mortality at doses greater than 0.5 Sv. The evidence for circulatory diseases in mortality studies of occupational cohorts exposed to external radiation is less compelling. It is generally accepted that atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the arteries and a risk factor for myocardial infarction. Immunological markers for inflammatory disease have been shown to be dose related in A-bomb survivors. Evidence from animal studies reveals increased cardiovascular mortality and arterial endothelial damage from both neutron and, to a lesser extent, gamma exposures. PMID:17119211

  10. Helicobacter pylori and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukazman, M; Yeniova, O; Dal, K; Yavuz, B

    2015-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most common infections in human. The association between H. pylori and gastrointestinal diseases including peptic ulcer, chronic gastritis, mucosa associated tissue lymphoma (MALT) and gastric cancer is well known. However it was also suggested that H. pylori was linked to various extra-gastrointestinal disorders such as diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease. In this review we summarized the association between H. pylori and cardiovascular disease. PMID:26502864

  11. Renal Dysfunction and Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Soveri, Inga

    2006-01-01

    Kidney dysfunction increases cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The mechanisms for the risk increase seem to involve a combination of traditional and non-traditional CVD risk factors. We studied renal dysfunction as CVD and mortality risk factor in middle-aged men free from diabetes and CVD. The risk for myocardial infarction (MI) and CVD mortality was increased by ~40% in the 16.5% of men with worse renal function, independent of other CVD risk factors. Renal transplant dysfunction as CVD an...

  12. Cell Therapy for Cardiovascular Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Takehara, Naofumi

    2013-01-01

    A great numbers of cardiovascular disease patients all over the world are suffering in the poor outcomes. Under this situation, cardiac regeneration therapy to reorganize the postnatal heart that is defined as a terminal differentiated-organ is a very important theme and mission for human beings. However, the temporary success of several clinical trials using usual cell types with uncertain cell numbers has provided the transient effect of cell therapy to these patients. We therefore should r...

  13. Cardiovascular Function in Pulmonary Emphysema

    OpenAIRE

    Dina Visca; Marina Aiello; Alfredo Chetta

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic cardiovascular disease, such as coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, and cardiac arrhythmias, have a strong influence on each other, and systemic inflammation has been considered as the main linkage between them. On the other hand, airflow limitation may markedly affect lung mechanics in terms of static and dynamic hyperinflation, especially in pulmonary emphysema, and they can in turn influence cardiac performance as well...

  14. Platelet proteomics in cardiovascular diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Vélez; Ángel García

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, platelet proteomics has been applied successfully to the study of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). It is very well known that platelets play a pivotal role in the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying many CVDs, especially acute coronary syndromes (ACSs), since they are implied in thrombus formation after atheroma plaque rupture. This is the reason why molecules involved in platelet activation and aggregation are primary targets for treatment of ACSs. Many efforts are aimed...

  15. Fish Oil in Cardiovascular Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Alaswad, Khaldoon; Lavie, Carl J.; Milani, Richard V.; O'Keefe, James H

    2002-01-01

    The potential benefits of fish oil have been touted for several decades. The authors review evidence from epidemiologic, retrospective, and controlled prospective clinical trials demonstrating the effects of omega-3 fatty acids (fish oil) for the prevention of major cardiovascular events including myocardial infarction and stroke in primary and especially secondary prevention settings. Fish oil's efficacy in reducing total mortality and sudden cardiac death appears particularly promising, pro...

  16. Perindopril for improving cardiovascular events

    OpenAIRE

    DiNicolantonio, James; O'Keefe, James

    2014-01-01

    James J DiNicolantonio, James H O'Keefe Department of Preventive Cardiology, Saint Luke's Mid America Heart Institute, Kansas City, MO, USAIn a recent review in Vascular Health and Risk Management Wang et al state that “In mainly placebo-controlled cardiovascular (CV)-outcome studies in patients with hypertension, CV benefits with perindopril were associated with large reductions in BP.”1 However, perindopril in the European Trial on Reduction of Cardiac Ev...

  17. Perindopril for improving cardiovascular events

    OpenAIRE

    DiNicolantonio JJ; O’Keefe JH

    2014-01-01

    James J DiNicolantonio, James H O'Keefe Department of Preventive Cardiology, Saint Luke's Mid America Heart Institute, Kansas City, MO, USAIn a recent review in Vascular Health and Risk Management Wang et al state that “In mainly placebo-controlled cardiovascular (CV)-outcome studies in patients with hypertension, CV benefits with perindopril were associated with large reductions in BP.”1 However, perindopril in the European Trial on Reduction of Cardiac Events With Perind...

  18. Genetic risks for cardiovascular diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Zafarmand, M. H.

    2008-01-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), which involves the heart, brain, and peripheral circulation, is a major health problem world-wide. The development of atherosclerosis is a complex process, and several established risk factors are involved. Nevertheless, these established risk factors do not fully explain the occurrence of CVD and further insight is required in factors such as genetic determinants that may identify individuals at risk. In this thesis we worked on the genetic basis...

  19. Cardiovascular complications of radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, William; Shamsa, Kamran; Lee, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    The cardiovascular sequelae of radiation exposure are an important cause of morbidity and mortality following radiation therapy for cancer, as well as after exposure to radiation after atomic bombs or nuclear accidents. In the United States, most of the data on radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD) come from patients treated with radiation therapy for Hodgkin disease and breast cancer. Additionally, people exposed to radiation from the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, and the Chernobyl, Ukraine, nuclear accident have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The total dose of radiation, as well as the fractionation of the dose, plays an important role in the development of RIHD. All parts of the heart are affected, including the pericardium, vasculature, myocardium, valves, and conduction system. The mechanism of injury is complex, but one major mechanism is injury to endothelium in both the microvasculature and coronary arteries. This likely also contributes to damage and fibrosis within the myocardium. Additionally, various inflammatory and profibrotic cytokines contribute to injury. Diagnosis and treatment are not significantly different from those for conventional cardiovascular disease; however, screening for heart disease and lifelong cardiology follow-up is essential in patients with past radiation exposure. PMID:25290729

  20. Perindopril for improving cardiovascular events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DiNicolantonio JJ

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available James J DiNicolantonio, James H O'Keefe Department of Preventive Cardiology, Saint Luke's Mid America Heart Institute, Kansas City, MO, USAIn a recent review in Vascular Health and Risk Management Wang et al state that “In mainly placebo-controlled cardiovascular (CV-outcome studies in patients with hypertension, CV benefits with perindopril were associated with large reductions in BP.”1 However, perindopril in the European Trial on Reduction of Cardiac Events With Perindopril in Stable Coronary Artery Disease (EUROPA study significantly reduced major cardiovascular events despite a small reduction (approximately 4 mmHg in systolic blood pressure from baseline.2,3 Additionally, the average baseline blood pressure in the EUROPA was just 137/82 mmHg, and in those without hypertension, perindopril still provided a 20% reduction in the combined endpoint of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and cardiac arrest.4,5 In fact, patients receiving perindopril with a baseline systolic blood pressure of <120 mmHg had the greatest reduction in the primary event.6 View original paper by Wang and colleagues. 

  1. Robotic technology in cardiovascular medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonatti, Johannes; Vetrovec, George; Riga, Celia; Wazni, Oussama; Stadler, Petr

    2014-05-01

    Robotic technology has been used in cardiovascular medicine since the late 1990s. Interventional cardiology, electrophysiology, endovascular surgery, minimally invasive cardiac surgery, and laparoscopic vascular surgery are all fields of application. Robotic devices enable endoscopic reconstructive surgery in narrow spaces and fast, very precise placement of catheters and devices in catheter-based interventions. In all robotic systems, the operator manipulates the robotic arms from a control station or console. In the field of cardiac surgery, mitral valve repair, CABG surgery, atrial septal defect repair, and myxoma resection can be achieved using robotic technology. Furthermore, vascular surgeons can perform a variety of robotically assisted operations to treat aortic, visceral, and peripheral artery disease. In electrophysiology, ablation procedures for atrial fibrillation can be carried out with robotic support. In the past few years, robotically assisted percutaneous coronary intervention and abdominal aortic endovascular surgery techniques have been developed. The basic feasibility and safety of robotic approaches in cardiovascular medicine has been demonstrated, but learning curves and the high costs associated with this technology have limited its widespread use. Nonetheless, increased procedural speed, accuracy, and reduced exposure to radiation and contrast agent in robotically assisted catheter-based interventions, as well as reduced surgical trauma and shortened patient recovery times after robotic cardiovascular surgery are promising achievements in the field. PMID:24663088

  2. Effect of crataegus usage in cardiovascular disease prevention: an evidence-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Xiong, Xingjiang; Feng, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha) is a widely used Chinese herb for treatment of gastrointestinal ailments and heart problems and consumed as food. In North America, the role of treatment for heart problems dates back to 1800. Currently, evidence is accumulating from various in vivo and in vitro studies that hawthorn extracts exert a wide range of cardiovascular pharmacological properties, including antioxidant activity, positive inotropic effect, anti-inflammatory effect, anticardiac remodeling effect, antiplatelet aggregation effect, vasodilating effect, endothelial protective effect, reduction of smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation, protective effect against ischemia/reperfusion injury, antiarrhythmic effect, lipid-lowering effect and decrease of arterial blood pressure effect. On the other hand, reviews of placebo-controlled trials have reported both subjective and objective improvement in patients with mild forms of heart failure (NYHA I-III), hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. This paper discussed the underlying pharmacology mechanisms in potential cardioprotective effects and elucidated the clinical applications of Crataegus and its various extracts. PMID:24459528

  3. [The benefits of carvedilol therapy in the treatment of patients with high cardiovascular risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fi, Zsolt; Szentes, Veronika

    2016-06-26

    Among the variety of cardiologic pharmacological therapy options, beta-blockers stand on a prominent position. There are several reasons for this. On one hand they have numerous indication rounds, even though professional guidelines have recently tended to de-emphasize them for treatments of hypertension without complication or comorbidity. However, in addition to hypertonic cases associated with cardiac complication, they play a fundamental role in treating heart failure and arrhythmia and the different clinical manifestations (stable angina pectoris, myocardial state) of ischemic heart disease. The decade long development of the pharmacological group made its hemodynamic effects ever more refined. On the other hand we must not neglect the fact that more and more features came to light that positively influence the outcome of cardiovascular diseases. Verification of these latter features in numerous multicentric studies showed how to achieve a beneficial effect on survivability, independent on even hemodynamic effects during beta-blocker therapy. PMID:27319383

  4. Advances in pharmacological studies of silymarin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Cheng Rui

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Silymarin is the flavonoids extracted from the seeds of Silybum marianum (L Gearth as a mixture of three structural isomers: silybin, silydianin and silychristin, the former being the most active component. Silymarin protects liver cell membrane against hepatotoxic agents and improves liver function in experimental animals and humans. It is generally accepted that silymarin exerts a membrane-stabilizing action preventing or inhibiting membrane peroxidation. The experiments with soybean lipoxygenase showed that the three components of silymarin brought about a concentration-dependent non-competitive inhibition of the lipoxygenase. The experiments also showed an analogous interaction with animal lipoxygenase, thus showing that an inhibition of the peroxidation of the fatty acid in vivo was self-evident. Silybin almost completely suppressed the formation of PG at the highest concentration (0.3 mM and proved to be an inhibitor of PG synthesis in vitro. In our experiments, silybin at lower dose (65 mg/Kg decreased liver lipoperoxide content and microsomal lipoperoxidation to 84.5% and 68.55% of those of the scalded control rats respectively, and prevented the decrease of liver microsomal cytochrome p-450 content and p-nitroanisole-0-demethylase activity 24 h post-scalding. Effects of silymarin on cardiovascular systen have been studied in this university since 1980. O. O silymarin 800 mg/Kg/d or silybin 600 mg/Kg/d reduced plasma total cholesterol, LDL-C and VLDL-C. They however, enhanced HDL-C in hyperlipenic rats. Further studies showed that silymarin enhanced HDL-C in hyperlipemic rats. Further studies showed that silymarin enhanced HDL-C but didn't affect HDL-C, a property of this component which is beneficial to treatment of atherosclerosis. The results showed silymarin 80 mg or silybin 60 mg decreased in vitro platelet aggregation (porcentagem in rats. The maximal platelet aggregation induced by ADP declined significantly, and time to reach

  5. Risco cardiovascular, efetividade e mortalidade Cardiovascular risk, effectiveness and mortality Riesgo cardiovascular, efectividad y mortalidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gérvas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available

    A Lei de Ferro da Epidemiologia (Ley de Hierro de La Epidemiología diz que todos que nascem, morrem. Por isso, o propósito da Medicina não é evitar a morte por si só, mas evitar as mortes, as doenças e o sofrimento que podem ser medicamente evitáveis.

    No final, todos nossos pacientes morrerão – e nós também, obviamente, morreremos. “Os corpos encontram uma forma de morrer”, e se a causa não for por fome ou desidratação, por motivo congênito e infeccioso, por lesões, câncer ou suicídio, temos que esperar que seja por ‘motivo cardiovascular’, doença pulmonar, insuficiência renal ou hepática, demência ou outras doenças degenerativas. Mas temos que morrer por alguma coisa.

    Morrer por causa cardiovascular não é desonroso, nem refere-se à atenção clínica imperfeita. O fato de a primeira causa de morte ser a cardiovascular não tem nenhuma relação com os cuidados clínicos e nem deveria assustar.

    Entretanto, muitas das mortes por motivo cardiovascular poderiam ser evitadas. Assim, poder-se-ia evitar mortalidade cardiovascular, diminuindo a desigualdade social, por exemplo, com melhor redistribuição da riqueza, melhor educação etc. Os médicos sabem que os fatores adversos psicossociais associados ao fato de pertencer à classe baixa correspondem a 35% do risco atribuído à hipertensão na incidência do infarto do miocárdio (em outra hipótese, pertencer à classe baixa duplica 2,7 tal risco1.

    Também deve-se saber que, contra as mortes cardiovasculares, não há nada como as políticas de saúde pública quanto ao tabagismo (restrições dos lugares onde fumar, aumento do preço do tabaco, campanhas de informação, entre outras.

    Na parte clínica, as mortes cardiovasculares evitáveis devem ser vistas em perspectiva, de acordo com o que seja possível conseguir2. Portanto, por 100.000 habitantes ao ano, o tratamento com inibidores da enzima conversora de angiotensina (IECA

  6. Atherosclerosis: from biology to pharmacological treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Graziano Riccioni; Valeriana Sblendorio

    2012-01-01

    A recent explosion in the amount of cardiovascular risk has swept across the globe. Primary prevention is the preferred method to lower cardiovascular risk. Lowering the prevalence of obesity is the most urgent matter, and is pleiotropic since it affects blood pressure, lipid profiles, glucose metabolism, inflammation, and atherothrombotic disease progression. Given the current obstacles, success of primary prevention remains uncertain. At the same time, the consequences of delay and inaction will inevitably be disastrous, and the sense of urgency mounts. Pathological and epidemiological data confirm that atherosclerosis begins in early childhood, and advances seamlessly and inexorably throughout life. Risk factors in childhood are similar to those in adults, and track between stages of life. When indicated, aggressive treatment should begin at the earliest indication, and be continued for many years. For those patients at intermediate risk according to global risk scores, C-reactive protein, coronary artery calcium, and carotid intima-media thickness are available for further stratification. Using statins for primary prevention is recommended by guidelines, is prevalent, but remains under prescribed. Statin drugs are unrivaled, evidence-based, major weapons to lower cardiovascular risk. Even when low density lipoprotein cholesterol targets are attained, over half of patients continue to have disease progression and clinical events. Though clinical evidence is incomplete, altering or raising the blood high density lipoprotein cholesterol level continues to be pursued. The aim of this review is to point out the attention of key aspects of vulnerable plaques regarding their pathogenesis and treatment.

  7. Lifestyle, Cardiovascular Drugs and Risk Factors in Younger and Elder Adults: The PEP Family Heart Study

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Schwandt; Evelyn Liepold; Thomas Bertsch; Gerda-Maria Haas

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to compare cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, lifestyle habits and pharmacological treatment in two groups of elder adults with 20 years difference in their mean age. Methods: This study comprised 590 women including two groups with mean age of 42.4±5.5 vs. 66.5±4.0 years, and 486 men of two groups with mean age of 44.1±5.6 vs. 63.9±7.0 years. Data on physical examination, fasting blood analyses, 7-day dietary re-cords, physical activity, smoking and a...

  8. Metabolomic Profiling for Identification of Novel Potential Biomarkers in Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria G. Barderas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolomics involves the identification and quantification of metabolites present in a biological system. Three different approaches can be used: metabolomic fingerprinting, metabolic profiling, and metabolic footprinting, in order to evaluate the clinical course of a disease, patient recovery, changes in response to surgical intervention or pharmacological treatment, as well as other associated features. Characteristic patterns of metabolites can be revealed that broaden our understanding of a particular disorder. In the present paper, common strategies and analytical techniques used in metabolomic studies are reviewed, particularly with reference to the cardiovascular field.

  9. The phytochemistry, traditional uses and pharmacology of Piper Betel. linn (Betel Leaf): A pan-asiatic medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Farhan; Mane, Prajwal P; Rai, Manoj P; Thilakchand, Karadka R; Bhat, Harshith P; Kamble, Prathibha S; Palatty, Princy L; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2014-08-26

    Since antiquity, Piper betel. Linn, commonly known as betel vine, has been used as a religious, recreational and medicinal plant in Southeast Asia. The leaves, which are the most commonly used plant part, are pungent with aromatic flavor and are widely consumed as a mouth freshener. It is carminative, stimulant, astringent and is effective against parasitic worms. Experimental studies have shown that it possess diverse biological and pharmacological effects, which includes antibacterial, antifungal, larvicidal, antiprotozal, anticaries, gastroprotective effects, free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, antiulcer and chemopreventive activities. The active principles hydroxychavicol, allylpyrocatechol and eugenol with their plethora of pharmacological properties may also have the potential to develop as bioactive lead molecule. In this review, an attempt is made to summarize the religious, traditional uses, phytochemical composition and experimentally validated pharmacological properties of Piper betel. Emphasis is also placed on aspects warranting detail studies for it to be of pharmaceutical/clinical use to humans. PMID:25159859

  10. Pharmacological Actions of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1, Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide, and Glucagon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekar, R; Singh, K; Arokiaraj, A W R; Chow, B K C

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon family of peptide hormones is a group of structurally related brain-gut peptides that exert their pleiotropic actions through interactions with unique members of class B1 G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). They are key regulators of hormonal homeostasis and are important drug targets for metabolic disorders such as type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obesity, and dysregulations of the nervous systems such as migraine, anxiety, depression, neurodegeneration, psychiatric disorders, and cardiovascular diseases. The current review aims to provide a detailed overview of the current understanding of the pharmacological actions and therapeutic advances of three members within this family including glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), and glucagon. PMID:27572131

  11. Redox biology of hydrogen sulfide: Implications for physiology, pathophysiology, and pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asaf Stein

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S has emerged as a critical mediator of multiple physiological processes in mammalian systems. The pathways involved in the production, consumption, and mechanism of action of H2S appear to be sensitive to alterations in the cellular redox state and O2 tension. Indeed, the catabolism of H2S through a putative oxidation pathway, the sulfide quinone oxido-reductase system, is highly dependent on O2 tension. Dysregulation of H2S homeostasis has also been implicated in numerous pathological conditions and diseases. In this review, the chemistry and the main physiological actions of H2S are presented. Some examples highlighting the cytoprotective actions of H2S within the context of cardiovascular disease are also reported. Elucidation of the redox biology of H2S will enable the development of new pharmacological agents based on this intriguing new redox cellular signal.

  12. Postgraduate pharmacology curriculum in medical institutions in India: Time for need-based appraisal and modifications

    OpenAIRE

    Dinesh K Badyal; Chetna Desai; Tripathi, Santanu K.; Dhaneria, S. P.; Chandy, Sujith J.; B K Bezbaruah

    2014-01-01

    The need to revise the curriculum for the postgraduate course (M.D.) in Pharmacology has been perceived by the academicians in India since quite some time. The changing professional requirements of the graduating students, the current scenario vis a vis animal experimentation and the emphasis of the Medical Council of India on a competency based curriculum has triggered this felt need. In spite of the fact that most medical institutions and universities in India offer postgraduate courses in ...

  13. Pharmacognostical, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Evaluation for the Antiulcer Activity of Polyherbal Suspension

    OpenAIRE

    AVS. Praveen Kumar; Venu Gopal Jonnalagadda; Jyothi M Joy; Prathyusha. S; Mohana Lakshmi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: From the past few years there is increasing research interest on the natural compounds, due to their wide variety of pharmacological activities. The main aim of the present study was to conduct the evaluation of the Poly herbal suspension (PHS) which includes the preliminary phytochemical screening, standardisation and experimental antiulcer activity. Methods: In this study we conduct the phytochemical screening, standardisation using the high performance thin layer chromatography ...

  14. Chemistry and Pharmacology of Citrus sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favela-Hernández, Juan Manuel J; González-Santiago, Omar; Ramírez-Cabrera, Mónica A; Esquivel-Ferriño, Patricia C; Camacho-Corona, María del Rayo

    2016-01-01

    Presently the search for new drugs from natural resources is of growing interest to the pharmaceutical industry. Natural products have been the source of new drugs since ancient times. Plants are a good source of secondary metabolites which have been found to have beneficial properties. The present study is a review of the chemistry and pharmacology of Citrus sinensis. This review reveals the therapeutic potential of C. sinensis as a source of natural compounds with important activities that are beneficial for human health that could be used to develop new drugs. PMID:27072414

  15. The genus chenopodium: Phytochemistry, ethnopharmacology and pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatina Kokanova-Nedialkova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The review includes 154 references on the genus Chenopodium covered up to December 2008 and has been compiled using references mainly from Chemical Abstracts and Pubmed. This article briefly reviews the phytochemistry, ethnopharmacology and pharmacology of Chenopodium genus. Three hundred seventy nine compounds isolated from different species are reported. Fenolics, flavonoids, saponins, ecdysteroids and triterpenoids were the major classes of phytoconstituents of this genus. The detailed distribution of these compounds among the different Chenopodium species with the related references is given in tables. In addition, this review discusses the traditional medicinal uses of different Chenopodium species as well as recent developments done in this aspect.

  16. Screening for Pharmacological Chaperones in Fabry Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Sang-Hoon; Murray, Gary J.; Kluepfel-Stahl, Stefanie; Cooney, Adele M.; Quirk, Jane M.; Schiffmann, Raphael; Brady, Roscoe O.; Kaneski, Christine R.

    2007-01-01

    As a prerequisite for full clinical trials of pharmacological chaperone therapy (PCT) for Fabry disease we developed a rapid screening assay for enhancement of endogenous α-galactosidase A (α-Gal A) in patient-derived cells. We used a T-cell based system to screen 11 mutations causing Fabry disease for enhanceability using 1- deoxygalactonojirimycin (DGJ). When patient derived T-cells were grown in the presence of DGJ α-Gal A activity increased to more than 50% of normal in several mutations ...

  17. Pharmacological studies of the lung with PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron emission tomography (PET), known to be used for lung ventilation and perfusion studies, can also be used in pharmacology to obtain information that is otherwise not available. The lung takes up biologically active substances which can be inactivated or activated, and synthesises and releases others. Such information in man has been obtained from samples of human lungs, or from in vivo first-pass studies, invasive or not, as well as from in vivo kinetic studies using external detection methods with scintillation cameras. PET provides now quantitative regional data in the human lung

  18. Pharmacologic agents for mucus clearance in bronchiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Girish B; Ilowite, Jonathan S

    2012-06-01

    There are no approved pharmacologic agents to enhance mucus clearance in non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis. Evidence supports the use of hyperosmolar agents in CF, and studies with inhaled mannitol and hypertonic saline are ongoing in bronchiectasis. N-acetylcysteine may act more as an antioxidant than a mucolytic in other lung diseases. Dornase α is beneficial to patients with CF, but is not useful in patients with non-CF bronchiectasis. Mucokinetic agents such as β-agonists have the potential to improve mucociliary clearance in normals and many disease states, but have not been adequately studied in patients with bronchiectasis. PMID:22640851

  19. Role of the Sympathetic Nervous System in Stress-Mediated Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering, Dagmara; Lachowska, Kamila; Schlaich, Markus

    2015-10-01

    A high incidence of acute cardiovascular events and sudden cardiac death following unexpected acute emotional stress or a natural catastrophic disaster has been well-documented over the past decades. Chronic psychosocial factors have been shown to be directly linked to the development of hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Activation of various neurogenic pathways is an important mediator of acute and chronic stress-induced hypertension and heart disease. Heightened sympathetic activation has been shown to be a critical contributor linking psychogenic effects on cardiovascular regulation to serious and often fatal CV outcomes. Accordingly, several therapeutic approaches that attenuate autonomic imbalance via modulation of increased sympathetic outflow by either non-pharmacological or interventional means have been shown to alleviate clinical symptoms. Likewise stress reduction per se achieved with transcendental medicine has been linked to improved patient outcomes. Therapies that oppose adrenergic activity and/or have the potential to attenuate negative emotions are likely to reduce cardiovascular risk and its adverse consequences attributable to chronic mental stress. PMID:26318888

  20. Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise: Research in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gösta Bluhm

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Sweden, as in many other European countries, traffic noise is an important environmental health issue. At present, almost two million people are exposed to average noise levels exceeding the outdoor national guideline value (55 dB(A. Despite efforts to reduce the noise burden, noise-related health effects, such as annoyance and sleep disturbances, are increasing. The scientific interest regarding more serious health effects related to the cardiovascular system is growing, and several experimental and epidemiological studies have been performed or are ongoing. Most of the studies on cardiovascular outcomes have been related to noise from road or aircraft traffic. Few studies have included railway noise. The outcomes under study include morning saliva cortisol, treatment for hypertension, self-reported hypertension, and myocardial infarction. The Swedish studies on road traffic noise support the hypothesis of an association between long-term noise exposure and cardiovascular disease. However, the magnitude of effect varies between the studies and has been shown to depend on factors such as sex, number of years at residence, and noise annoyance. Two national studies have been performed on the cardiovascular effects of aircraft noise exposure. The first one, a cross-sectional study assessing self-reported hypertension, has shown a 30% risk increase per 5 dB(A noise increase. The second one, which to our knowledge is the first longitudinal study assessing the cumulative incidence of hypertension, found a relative risk (RR of 1.10 (95% CI 1.01 - 1.19 per 5 dB(A noise increase. No associations have been found between railway noise and cardiovascular diseases. The findings regarding noise-related health effects and their economic consequences should be taken into account in future noise abatement policies and community planning.

  1. Positive Cardiovascular Health: A Timely Convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labarthe, Darwin R; Kubzansky, Laura D; Boehm, Julia K; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Berry, Jarett D; Seligman, Martin E P

    2016-08-23

    Two concepts, positive health and cardiovascular health, have emerged recently from the respective fields of positive psychology and preventive cardiology. These parallel constructs are converging to foster positive cardiovascular health and a growing collaboration between psychologists and cardiovascular scientists to achieve significant improvements in both individual and population cardiovascular health. We explore these 2 concepts and note close similarities in the measures that define them, the health states that they aim to produce, and their intended long-term clinical and public health outcomes. We especially examine subjective health assets, such as optimism, that are a core focus of positive psychology, but have largely been neglected in preventive cardiology. We identify research to date on positive cardiovascular health, discuss its strengths and limitations thus far, and outline directions for further engagement of cardiovascular scientists with colleagues in positive psychology to advance this new field. PMID:27539179

  2. Reverse pharmacology for developing an anti-malarial phytomedicine. The example of Argemone mexicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Simoes-Pires

    2014-12-01

    Reverse pharmacology, also called bedside-to-bench, is a research approach based on the traditional knowledge and relates to reversing the classical laboratory to clinic pathway to a clinic to laboratory practice. It is a trans-disciplinary approach focused on traditional knowledge, experimental observations and clinical experiences. This paper is an overview of the reverse pharmacology approach applied to the decoction of Argemone mexicana, used as an antimalarial traditional medicine in Mali. A. mexicana appeared as the most effective traditional medicine for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Mali, and the clinical efficacy of the decoction was comparable to artesunate–amodiaquine as previously published. Four stages of the reverse pharmacology process will be described here with a special emphasis on the results for stage 4. Briefly, allocryptopine, protopine and berberine were isolated through bioguided fractionation, and had their identity confirmed by spectroscopic analysis. The three alkaloids showed antiparasitic activity in vitro, of which allocryptopine and protopine were selective towards Plasmodium falciparum. Furthermore, the amount of the three active alkaloids in the decoction was determined by quantitative NMR, and preliminary in vivo assays were conducted. On the basis of these results, the reverse pharmacology approach is discussed and further pharmacokinetic studies appear to be necessary in order to determine whether these alkaloids can be considered as phytochemical markers for quality control and standardization of an improved traditional medicine made with this plant.

  3. Endogenous Estrogen-Mediated Heme Oxygenase Regulation in Experimental Menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anikó Pósa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen deficiency is one of the main causes of age-associated diseases in the cardiovascular system. Female Wistar rats were divided into four experimental groups: pharmacologically ovariectomized, surgically ovariectomized, and 24-month-old intact aging animals were compared with a control group. The activity and expression of heme oxygenases (HO in the cardiac left ventricle, the concentrations of cardiac interleukin-6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, the myeloperoxidase (MPO activity in the cardiac left ventricle, and the effects of heme oxygenase blockade (by 24-hour and 1-hour pretreatment with tin-protoporphyrin IX, SnPP on the epinephrine and phentolamine-induced electrocardiogram ST segment changes in vivo were investigated. The cardiac HO activity and the expression of HO-1 and HO-2 were significantly decreased in the aged rats and after ovariectomy. Estrogen depletion was accompanied by significant increases in the expression of IL-6 and TNF-α. The aged and ovariectomized animals exhibited a significantly elevated MPO activity and a significant ST segment depression. After pretreatment with SnPP augmented ST segment changes were determined. These findings demonstrate that the sensitivity to cardiac ischemia in estrogen depletion models is associated with suppression of the activity and expression of the HO system and increases in the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and biomarkers.

  4. Liver function tests: Association with cardiovascular outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    An association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and cardiovascular disease has been repeatedly reported. Several studies have focused on levels of gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in relation to cardiovascular outcomes. Evidence indicates that GGT may have a potential role for cardiovascular risk stratification while the role of ALT for cardiac prognosis remains controversial. A conceptual framework that includes not only GGT and ALT but also markers ...

  5. Astaxanthin in Cardiovascular Health and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Fassett, Robert G; Coombes, Jeff S

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are established processes contributing to cardiovascular disease caused by atherosclerosis. However, antioxidant therapies tested in cardiovascular disease such as vitamin E, C and β-carotene have proved unsuccessful at reducing cardiovascular events and mortality. Although these outcomes may reflect limitations in trial design, new, more potent antioxidant therapies are being pursued. Astaxanthin, a carotenoid found in microalgae, fungi, complex plants, seaf...

  6. Reactive Oxygen Species in Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sugamura, Koichi; Keaney, John F.

    2011-01-01

    Based on the ‘free-radical theory’ of disease, researchers have been trying to elucidate the role of oxidative stress from free radicals in cardiovascular disease. Considerable data indicate that ROS and oxidative stress are important features of cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis, hypertension, and congestive heart failure. However, blanket strategies with antioxidants to ameliorate cardiovascular disease have not generally yielded favorable results. However, our understanding...

  7. Cardiovascular Disease, Mitochondria, and Traditional Chinese Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Wang; Fei Lin; Li-li Guo; Xing-jiang Xiong; Xun Fan

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that mitochondria play an important role in the cardiovascular system and mutations of mitochondrial DNA affect coronary artery disease, resulting in hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cardiomyopathy. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used for thousands of years to treat cardiovascular disease, but it is not yet clear how TCM affects mitochondrial function. By reviewing the interactions between the cardiovascular system, mitochondrial DNA, and TCM, we sho...

  8. Riesgo cardiovascular en la mujer

    OpenAIRE

    Claver García, Laura

    2014-01-01

    La enfermedad cardiovascular siempre ha sido considerada una enfermedad de hombres. Sin embargo, existen datos que reflejan el aumento de esta patología en las mujeres, alcanzando e incluso superando al número de varones, y llegando a ser en España la primera causa de muerte. En ellas, estos episodios suelen comenzar 10 años más tarde debido a la protección que durante la etapa fértil brindan los estrógenos. Sin embargo, tras la menopausia los niveles de estas hormonas disminuyen y es ent...

  9. Image processing in cardiovascular radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past ten years digital image processing has contributed decisively to the advance of cardiovascular radiology. Not only images of better diagnostic value could be produced, but also in many cases the risk for the patient was diminished. In this paper three topics are discussed: One of the principal methods is digital angiography especially with functional imaging. In addition, because of the rapid progress of digital imaging data compression became a major issue. Finally there is a good chance that 3D-processing of MRI data will at least partly replace the present invasive techniques

  10. [Cognitive dysfunction in cardiovascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladwig, Karl-Heinz

    2016-08-01

    A multitude of modifiable risk factors during the median phase of life are often causative for cognitive dysfunction (CD) in old age. High evidence exists for cigarette smoking, diabetes, physical inactivity and sleeping disorders. Single large scale population based studies proof it for hypertension, hypercholesterinemia and depression, conflicting evidence exists for obesity and work stress. Little attention is paid to the close association between cardiovascular disease conditions and CD, particularly for atrial fibrillation, heart failure and for older patients with coronary heart disease. Undetected CD may be responsible for non-adherence and failure of self-care programs in chronic heart patients. PMID:27557067

  11. Pharmacological potentials of Premna integrifolia L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, Prashant Y.

    2016-01-01

    Premna integrifolia Linn. (Verbenaceae) is an important constituent of the formulation of ten roots of herbs known as Daśamūla and is widely used for treating various ailments in the Indian system of medicine. Aim of this review is to provide comprehensive information on the pharmacological activities of various parts of P. integrifolia. All the relevant universally accepted electronic databases were searched with respect to the terms “Agnimanthā”, “Headache tree”, “Premna integrifolia”, “Premna obtusifolia”, “Premna serratifolia” including Indian classical texts, pharmacopoeias, Ayurvedic books, journals, etc., for information without specific timeline. Complete information of the plant has been collected manually since the year 1964 and has been arranged chronologically. The collected data reflects that many ethno-medicinal claims have been confirmed through the modern in-vitro and in-vivo pharmacological studies using different extracts and their isolates of P. integrifolia. The isolation of active constituents, their biological actions, clinical safety and validation of traditional uses of P. integrifolia could provide leads for further scientific research. The information collected here will be useful to set-up research protocols for modern drugs and Ayurvedic formulation development.

  12. Ganoderma lucidum: a potent pharmacological macrofungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanodiya, Bhagwan S; Thakur, Gulab Singh; Baghel, Rakesh K; Prasad, G B K S; Bisen, P S

    2009-12-01

    Ganoderma lucidum (Ling Zhi) is a basidiomycete white rot macrofungus which has been used extensively as "the mushroom of immortality" in China, Japan, Korea and other Asian countries for 2000 years. A great deal of work has been carried out on therapeutic potential of Ganoderma lucidum. The basidiocarp, mycelia and spores of Ganoderma lucidum contain approximately 400 different bioactive compounds, which mainly include triterpenoids, polysaccharides, nucleotides, sterols, steroids, fatty acids, proteins/peptides and trace elements which has been reported to have a number of pharmacological effects including immunomodulation, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, chemo-preventive, antitumor, chemo and radio protective, sleep promoting, antibacterial, antiviral (including anti-HIV), hypolipidemic, anti-fibrotic, hepatoprotective, anti-diabetic, anti-androgenic, anti-angiogenic, anti-herpetic, antioxidative and radical-scavenging, anti-aging, hypoglycemic, estrogenic activity and anti-ulcer properties. Ganoderma lucidum has now become recognized as an alternative adjuvant in the treatment of leukemia, carcinoma, hepatitis and diabetes. The macrofungus is very rare in nature rather not sufficient for commercial exploitation for vital therapeutic emergencies, therefore, the cultivation on solid substrates, stationary liquid medium or by submerged cultivation has become an essential aspect to meet the driving force towards the increasing demands in the international market. Present review focuses on the pharmacological aspects, cultivation methods and bioactive metabolites playing a significant role in various therapeutic applications. PMID:19939212

  13. Neuro-pharmacological functional MRI of epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied patients with epilepsy by neuro-pharmacological functional MRI technique using diazepam. Five normal volunteers and 7 patients with epilepsy were investigated. MRI was performed by a 1.5 T unit (SIGNA Horizon, GE) using the following parameters: TR/TE 5000 msec/80 msec, FA 90 deg, FOV 200 mm, matrix 128 x 128, slice thickness 7 mm. We performed MRI scanning over 5 minutes (2 minutes before and 3 minutes after injection of diazepam) for each 1 session; we scanned 3 sessions for each patient at intervals of 5 minutes. The diazepam was injected rapidly from the antecubital vein. The dose of diazepam was 0.05 mg/kg/injection (total dose was 0.15 mg/kg). The data were analyzed statistically using t-test. Signal change after administration of diazepam was less than 1 to 2% in healthy volunteers. By contrast, in patient with epilepsy, the signal change was almost 3%, which was significantly greater than that of the normal area (p=0.01). The neuro-pharmacological functional MRI technique using diazepam might be a useful method to identify epileptic foci. (author)

  14. Phytochemical and pharmacological review of Lagenaria sicereria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Rakesh P; Kalariya, Manisha; Parmar, Sachin K; Sheth, Navin R

    2010-10-01

    Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) standley (LS) (Family: Cucurbitaceae) is an annual herbaceous climbing plant with a long history of traditional medicinal uses in many countries, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Since ancient times the climber has been known for its curative properties, and has been utilized for treatment of various ailments, including jaundice, diabetes, ulcer, piles, colitis, insanity, hypertension, congestive cardiac failure (CCF), and skin diseases. Its fruit pulp is used both as an emetic and purgative, and for its cooling, diuretic, antibilious, and pectoral properties. Boiled in oil this pulp is used to treat rheumatism and insomnia. A wide range of chemical compounds including sterols, terpenoids, flavonoids, and saponins have been isolated from the species. Its extracts have been found to possess various pharmacological activities. Below, we give a comprehensive review of its ethnomedical uses, chemical constituents, and pharmacological profile as a medicinal plant. Particular attention is given to its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antihyperlipidemic, diuretic, hepatoprotective, anthelmintic, and antibacterial effects so that its potential uses in pharmaceutics can be better evaluated. PMID:21731373

  15. Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Berberis Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Mokhber-Dezfuli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Berberis (Berberidaceae includes about 500 species worldwide, some of which are widely cultivated in the north-eastern regions of Iran. This genus consists of spiny deciduous evergreen shrubs, characterized by yellow wood and flowers. The cultivation of seedless barberry in South Khorasan goes back to two hundred years ago. Medicinal properties for all parts of these plants have been reported, including: Antimicrobial, antiemetic, antipyretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-arrhythmic, sedative, anti-cholinergic, cholagogic, anti-leishmaniasis, and anti-malaria. The main compounds found in various species of Berberis, are berberine and berbamine. Phytochemical analysis of various species of this genus revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenolic compounds, sterols and triterpenes. Although there are some review articles on Berberis vulgaris (as the most applied species, there is no review on the phytochemical and pharmacological activities of other well-known species of the genus Berberis. For this reason, the present review mainly focused on the diverse secondary metabolites of various species of this genus and the considerable pharmacological and biological activities together with a concise story of the botany and cultivation.

  16. Phytochemistry and pharmacology of berberis species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhber-Dezfuli, Najmeh; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Kurepaz-Mahmoodabadi, Mahdieh

    2014-01-01

    The genus Berberis (Berberidaceae) includes about 500 species worldwide, some of which are widely cultivated in the north-eastern regions of Iran. This genus consists of spiny deciduous evergreen shrubs, characterized by yellow wood and flowers. The cultivation of seedless barberry in South Khorasan goes back to two hundred years ago. Medicinal properties for all parts of these plants have been reported, including: Antimicrobial, antiemetic, antipyretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-arrhythmic, sedative, anti-cholinergic, cholagogic, anti-leishmaniasis, and anti-malaria. The main compounds found in various species of Berberis, are berberine and berbamine. Phytochemical analysis of various species of this genus revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenolic compounds, sterols and triterpenes. Although there are some review articles on Berberis vulgaris (as the most applied species), there is no review on the phytochemical and pharmacological activities of other well-known species of the genus Berberis. For this reason, the present review mainly focused on the diverse secondary metabolites of various species of this genus and the considerable pharmacological and biological activities together with a concise story of the botany and cultivation. PMID:24600191

  17. Pharmacological potentials of Premna integrifolia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Y Mali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Premna integrifolia Linn. (Verbenaceae is an important constituent of the formulation of ten roots of herbs known as Daśamūla and is widely used for treating various ailments in the Indian system of medicine. Aim of this review is to provide comprehensive information on the pharmacological activities of various parts of P. integrifolia. All the relevant universally accepted electronic databases were searched with respect to the terms “Agnimanthā”, “Headache tree”, “Premna integrifolia”, “Premna obtusifolia”, “Premna serratifolia” including Indian classical texts, pharmacopoeias, Ayurvedic books, journals, etc., for information without specific timeline. Complete information of the plant has been collected manually since the year 1964 and has been arranged chronologically. The collected data reflects that many ethno-medicinal claims have been confirmed through the modern in-vitro and in-vivo pharmacological studies using different extracts and their isolates of P. integrifolia. The isolation of active constituents, their biological actions, clinical safety and validation of traditional uses of P. integrifolia could provide leads for further scientific research. The information collected here will be useful to set-up research protocols for modern drugs and Ayurvedic formulation development.

  18. Phytochemical and pharmacological review of Lagenaria sicereria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh P Prajapati

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lagenaria siceraria (Molina standley (LS (Family: Cucurbitaceae is an annual herbaceous climbing plant with a long history of traditional medicinal uses in many countries, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Since ancient times the climber has been known for its curative properties, and has been utilized for treatment of various ailments, including jaundice, diabetes, ulcer, piles, colitis, insanity, hypertension, congestive cardiac failure (CCF, and skin diseases. Its fruit pulp is used both as an emetic and purgative, and for its cooling, diuretic, antibilious, and pectoral properties. Boiled in oil this pulp is used to treat rheumatism and insomnia. A wide range of chemical compounds including sterols, terpenoids, flavonoids, and saponins have been isolated from the species. Its extracts have been found to possess various pharmacological activities. Below, we give a comprehensive review of its ethnomedical uses, chemical constituents, and pharmacological profile as a medicinal plant. Particular attention is given to its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antihyperlipidemic, diuretic, hepatoprotective, anthelmintic, and antibacterial effects so that its potential uses in pharmaceutics can be better evaluated.

  19. Efficacy of Neurofeedback Versus Pharmacological Support in Subjects with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Castro, Paloma; Cueli, Marisol; Rodríguez, Celestino; García, Trinidad; Álvarez, Luis

    2016-03-01

    Behavioral training in neurofeedback has proven to be an essential complement to generalize the effects of pharmacological support in subjects who have attention deficit with hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Therefore, this investigation attempts to analyze the efficacy of neurofeedback compared with pharmacological support and the combination of both. Participants were 131 students, classified into four groups: control (did not receive neurofeedback or pharmacological support), neurofeedback group, pharmacological support group, and combined group (neurofeedback + pharmacological support). Participants' executive control and cortical activation were assessed before and after treatment. Results indicate that the combined group obtained more benefits and that the neurofeedback group improved to a greater extent in executive control than the pharmacological support group. It is concluded that this kind of training may be an alternative to stimulate activation in subjects with ADHD. PMID:26290167

  20. Pharmacology in space. Part 2. Controlling motion sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathers, C. M.; Charles, J. B.; Bungo, M. W.

    1989-01-01

    In this second article in the two-part series on pharmacology in space, Claire Lathers and colleagues discuss the pharmacology of drugs used to control motion sickness in space and note that the pharmacology of the 'ideal' agent has yet to be worked out. That motion sickness may impair the pharmacological action of a drug by interfering with its absorption and distribution because of alteration of physiology is a problem unique to pharmacology in space. The authors comment on the problem of designing suitable ground-based studies to evaluate the pharmacological effect of drugs to be used in space and discuss the use of salivary samples collected during space flight to allow pharmacokinetic evaluations necessary for non-invasive clinical drug monitoring.