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Sample records for cardiovascular effects induced

  1. Radiation-induced cardiovascular effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapio, Soile

    Recent epidemiological studies indicate that exposure to ionising radiation enhances the risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in a moderate but significant manner. Our goal is to identify molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cardiovascular disease using cellular and mouse models. Two radiation targets are studied in detail: the vascular endothelium that plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cardiac function, and the myocardium, in particular damage to the cardiac mitochondria. Ionising radiation causes immediate and persistent alterations in several biological pathways in the endothelium in a dose- and dose-rate dependent manner. High acute and cumulative doses result in rapid, non-transient remodelling of the endothelial cytoskeleton, as well as increased lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation of the heart tissue, independent of whether exposure is local or total body. Proteomic and functional changes are observed in lipid metabolism, glycolysis, mitochondrial function (respiration, ROS production etc.), oxidative stress, cellular adhesion, and cellular structure. The transcriptional regulators Akt and PPAR alpha seem to play a central role in the radiation-response of the endothelium and myocardium, respectively. We have recently started co-operation with GSI in Darmstadt to study the effect of heavy ions on the endothelium. Our research will facilitate the identification of biomarkers associated with adverse cardiac effects of ionising radiation and may lead to the development of countermeasures against radiation-induced cardiac damage.

  2. Cardiovascular effects induced by linalool in normotensive and hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjos, Paulo J C; Lima, Aline O; Cunha, Patrícia S; De Sousa, Damião P; Onofre, Alexandre S C; Ribeiro, Thais P; Medeiros, Isac A; Antoniolli, Angelo R; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J; Santosa, Márcio R V

    2013-01-01

    Linalool is a monoterpene alcohol and constituent of several Brazilian aromatic medicinal plants, popularly used against hypertension. Cardiovascular effects induced by linalool were evaluated. In normotensive rats, (+/-)-linalool [1, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg body weight (BW); intravenous (i.v.)]-induced hypotension was associated with tachycardia, which was attenuated by atropine (2 mg/kg BW) and N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (20 mg/kg BW), but was not modified after indomethacin (5 mg/kg BW) administration. In hypertensive rats, linalool [200 mg/kg BW; oral (v.o.)] reduced blood pressure without changing the heart rate. In intact rings of rat mesenteric artery precontracted with 10 microM phenylephrine, linalool (from 6.4 x 10(-6) to 6.4 x 10(-3) M) induced relaxations in a concentration-dependent manner [E(max) = (115 +/- 13)%] that were not changed after atropine administration [E(max) = (105 +/- 2)%], and were not different from those obtained in endothelium-denuded rings precontracted with phenylephrine [E(max) = (108 +/- 7)%] or 80 mM KCl [E(max) = (113 +/- 7)%] or tetraethylammonium incubation [E(max) = (105 +/- 12)%]. Linalool (1.9 x 10(-3) M) antagonized the contractions induced by CaCl2 (3 x 10(-6)-10(-2) M) (maximal inhibition, 81%). Furthermore, linalool inhibited the contractions induced by 10 microM phenylephrine or 20 mM caffeine. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that linalool reduces blood pressure probably due to a direct effect on the vascular smooth muscle leading to vasodilation.

  3. Median effective concentration of remifentanil for the inhibition of laryngoscope-induced cardiovascular responses

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhenhai; Wang, Fei; Wang, Weizhi; LUO, YANHUA

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to calculate the median effective concentration (EC50) of remifentanil (Rem) for the inhibition of laryngoscope-induced cardiovascular responses, and to observe its effects on the cardiovascular system and stress system. The study included 20 patients, who underwent time-scheduled vocal cord polyp resection with monitoring of heart rate (HR), mean blood pressure (MBP) and auditory evoked potential (AEP)-based A-line ARX Index (AAI). The Rem concentration was initiall...

  4. Activation of the central histaminergic system mediates arachidonic-acid-induced cardiovascular effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinbas, Burcin; Topuz, Bora Burak; İlhan, Tuncay; Yilmaz, Mustafa Sertac; Erdost, Hatice; Yalcin, Murat

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explain the involvement of the central histaminergic system in arachidonic acid (AA)-induced cardiovascular effects in normotensive rats using hemodynamic, immunohistochemistry, and microdialysis studies. Intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered AA (0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 μmol) induced dose- and time-dependent increases in mean arterial pressure and decreased heart rate in conscious normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats. Central injection of AA (0.5 μmol) also increased posterior hypothalamic extracellular histamine levels and produced strong COX-1 but not COX-2 immunoreactivity in the posterior hypothalamus of rats. Moreover, the cardiovascular effects and COX-1 immunoreactivity in the posterior hypothalamus induced by AA (0.5 μmol; i.c.v.) were almost completely blocked by the H2 receptor antagonist ranitidine (50 and 100 nmol; i.c.v.) and partially blocked by the H1 receptor blocker chlorpheniramine (100 nmol; i.c.v.) and the H3-H4 receptor antagonist thioperamide (50 and 100 nmol; i.c.v.). In conclusion, these results indicate that centrally administered AA induces pressor and bradycardic responses in conscious rats. Moreover, we suggest that AA may activate histaminergic neurons and increase extracellular histamine levels, particularly in the posterior hypothalamus. Acting as a neurotransmitter, histamine is potentially involved in AA-induced cardiovascular effects under normotensive conditions.

  5. State-dependent amygdala stimulation-induced cardiovascular effects in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Ruei-Jen; Kuo, Chung-Chih; Liang, Keng-Chen; Yen, Chen-Tung

    2009-12-31

    Stimulation of the amygdala is known to produce pressor, depressor, or has no effects. The present study was performed to test whether amygdala cardiovascular effects are influenced by consciousness states and by different types of anesthetics. Adult rats were set up for stimulation amygdala and measurement of blood pressure in a chronic preparation. After recovery, same sites of the amygdala were stimulated electrically for several trials with the rat under conscious or anesthetic states induced by pentobarbital, urethane, ketamine, alpha-chloralose and urethane plus alpha-chloralose, respectively. The interval between any two stimulation trials was at least 2 days. The stimulation was an 80-Hz, 0.5-ms, 100-micro A square wave pulse train lasting for 15 s. Cardiovascular responsive sites were found in the central, medial, and basolateral nuclei of the amygdala. In stimulating these responsive sites, significantly different cardiovascular effects were induced under a conscious state and an anesthetized state of the animal, yet no significant differences were found among the various anesthetic agents. We conclude, that the cardiovascular influence of the amygdala is state-dependent in the rat.

  6. Cardiovascular effects of gliptins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheen, André J

    2013-02-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors (commonly referred to as gliptins) are a novel class of oral antihyperglycaemic agents with demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Preclinical data and mechanistic studies have indicated a possible beneficial action on blood vessels and the heart, via both glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1)-dependent and GLP-1-independent effects. DPP-4 inhibition increases the concentration of many peptides with potential vasoactive and cardioprotective effects. Clinically, DPP-4 inhibitors improve several risk factors in patients with T2DM. They improve blood glucose control (mainly by reducing postprandial glycaemia), are weight neutral (or even induce modest weight loss), lower blood pressure, improve postprandial lipaemia, reduce inflammatory markers, diminish oxidative stress, and improve endothelial function. Some positive effects on the heart have also been described in patients with ischaemic heart disease or congestive heart failure, although their clinical relevance requires further investigation. Post-hoc analyses of phase II-III, controlled trials suggest a possible cardioprotective effect with a trend for a lower incidence of major cardiovascular events with gliptins than with placebo or active agents. However, the actual relationship between DPP-4 inhibition and cardiovascular outcomes remains to be proven. Major prospective clinical trials with predefined cardiovascular outcomes and involving various DPP-4 inhibitors are now underway in patients with T2DM and a high-risk cardiovascular profile.

  7. Effect of aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea on cardiovascular complications and cataract associated with streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Bhadada, Shraddha V.; Goyal, R. K.

    2015-01-01

    Tephrosia purpurea has been reported to possess antidiabetic activity, however, its effects on cardiovascular complications and cataract associated with diabetes have not been studied. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea on cardiovascular complications and cataract associated with streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. Sprague Dawley rats of either sex were made diabetic with streptozotocin (45 mg/kg, i.v.). Treatment of...

  8. Cardiovascular effects of black tea and nicotine alone or in combination against experimental induced heart injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joukar, Siyavash; Bashiri, Hamideh; Dabiri, Shahriar; Ghotbi, Payam; Sarveazad, Arash; Divsalar, Kouros; Joukar, Farzin; Abbaszadeh, Mahsa

    2012-06-01

    The present study was designed to elucidate the outcome of subchronic co-administration of black tea and nicotine on cardiovascular performance and whether these substances could modulate the isoproterenol-induced cardiac injury. Animal groups were control, black tea, nicotine and black tea plus nicotine. Test groups received nicotine (2 mg/kg s.c.) and black tea brewed (p.o.) each alone and in combination for 4 weeks. On the 28th day, myocardial damage was induced by isoproterenol (50 mg/kg i.p.), and blood samples were taken. On day 29, after hemodynamic parameters recording, hearts were removed for histopathological evaluation. Tea or nicotine consumption had no significant effects on hemodynamic indices of animals without heart damage. When the cardiac injury was induced, tea consumption maintained the maximum dp/dt, and nicotine significantly decreased the pressure-rate product. Moreover, severity of heart lesions was lower in the presence of nicotine or black tea. Concomitant use of these materials did not show extra effects on mentioned parameters more than the effect of each of them alone. The results suggest that subchronic administration of black tea or nicotine for a period of 4 weeks may have a mild cardioprotective effect, while concomitant use of these materials cannot intensify this beneficial effect.

  9. Manganese ferrite-based nanoparticles induce ex vivo, but not in vivo, cardiovascular effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunes ADC

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Allancer DC Nunes,1 Laylla S Ramalho,2 Álvaro PS Souza,1 Elizabeth P Mendes,1,3 Diego B Colugnati,1 Nícholas Zufelato,2 Marcelo H Sousa,4 Andris F Bakuzis,2 Carlos H Castro1,3 1Department of Physiological Sciences, 2Physics Institute, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, Brazil; 3National Institute of Science and Technology in Nanobiopharmaceutics, Belo Horizonte, Brazil; 4Faculty of Ceilândia, University of Brasília, Brasília-DF, Brazil Abstract: Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs have been used for various biomedical applications. Importantly, manganese ferrite-based nanoparticles have useful magnetic resonance imaging characteristics and potential for hyperthermia treatment, but their effects in the cardiovascular system are poorly reported. Thus, the objectives of this study were to determine the cardiovascular effects of three different types of manganese ferrite-based magnetic nanoparticles: citrate-coated (CiMNPs; tripolyphosphate-coated (PhMNPs; and bare magnetic nanoparticles (BaMNPs. The samples were characterized by vibrating sample magnetometer, X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy. The direct effects of the MNPs on cardiac contractility were evaluated in isolated perfused rat hearts. The CiMNPs, but not PhMNPs and BaMNPs, induced a transient decrease in the left ventricular end-systolic pressure. The PhMNPs and BaMNPs, but not CiMNPs, induced an increase in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, which resulted in a decrease in a left ventricular end developed pressure. Indeed, PhMNPs and BaMNPs also caused a decrease in the maximal rate of left ventricular pressure rise (+dP/dt and maximal rate of left ventricular pressure decline (–dP/dt. The three MNPs studied induced an increase in the perfusion pressure of isolated hearts. BaMNPs, but not PhMNPs or CiMNPs, induced a slight vasorelaxant effect in the isolated aortic rings. None of the MNPs were able to change heart

  10. Milan PM1 Induces Adverse Effects on Mice Lungs and Cardiovascular System

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    Francesca Farina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have suggested a link between inhaled particulate matter (PM exposure and increased mortality and morbidity associated with cardiorespiratory diseases. Since the response to PM1 has not yet been deeply investigated, its impact on mice lungs and cardiovascular system is here examined. A repeated exposure to Milan PM1 was performed on BALB/c mice. The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALf and the lung parenchyma were screened for markers of inflammation (cell counts, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α; macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2; heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1; nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells p50 subunit (NFκB-p50; inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS; endothelial-selectin (E-selectin, cytotoxicity (lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; alkaline phosphatase (ALP; heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70; caspase-8-p18, and a putative pro-carcinogenic marker (cytochrome 1B1 (Cyp1B1. Heart tissue was tested for HO-1, caspase-8-p18, NFκB-p50, iNOS, E-selectin, and myeloperoxidase (MPO; plasma was screened for markers of platelet activation and clot formation (soluble platelet-selectin (sP-selectin; fibrinogen; plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1. PM1 triggers inflammation and cytotoxicity in lungs. A similar cytotoxic effect was observed on heart tissues, while plasma analyses suggest blood-endothelium interface activation. These data highlight the importance of lung inflammation in mediating adverse cardiovascular events following increase in ambient PM1 levels, providing evidences of a positive correlation between PM1 exposure and cardiovascular morbidity.

  11. Evaluation of effect of highly standardized aqueous extract of roots and leaves of Withania somnifera on cold pressor test induced cardiovascular changes in healthy human subjects

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    Raveendranath Pilli

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Withania somnifera extract showed a significant decrease in cold pressor stress test induced changes on aortic wave reflections, suggesting its beneficial effects in reducing stress induced cardiovascular changes. However, further clinical studies are warranted to evaluate these effects in patients with cardiovascular and other associated diseases. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(3.000: 873-878

  12. Evaluation of effect of highly standardized aqueous extract of roots and leaves of Withania somnifera on cold pressor test induced cardiovascular changes in healthy human subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Raveendranath Pilli; Niranjan Koilagundla; Ramakanth GSH; Usharani Pingali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stress is an important cardiovascular risk factor. Cold pressor test (CPT) is a simple, validated, non-invasive test used to measure stress induced changes in cardiovascular parameters. The objective of this study was to evaluate effect of Withania somnifera extract on cold pressor stress test induced changes on cardiovascular parameters and aortic wave reflections in healthy human subjects. Methods: This was a double-blind, placebo controlled, crossover study. Participants wer...

  13. Effects of Orlistat-induced Weight Loss on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Obese Chinese Subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐明彤; 吴木潮; 黎锋; 周淑娴; 程桦; 傅祖植

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To observe the influence of weight loss induced by orlistat onseveral cardiovascular diseases risk factors in obeseChinese subjects. Methods Sixty obese Chinesepatients participated in a 24 week clinical trial. Par-ticipants were prescribed a slightly hypocaloric diet andexercise, then they were randomly assigned double-blind treatment with either orlistat 120 mg three times aday or placebo. Their body weight, blood pressure,fasting glucose, insulin, HbA1c, and serum lipid pro-file were performed before and after the weight lossintervention. Results After 24 weeks, orlistat-treated group lost more of their body weight thanplacebo group (6.66 ± 0.52 kg, 8.44 ± 4.08 % and1.98±0.44 kg, 2.44±1.74%, respectively, P <0.05) Moreover, after treatment, orlistat - treatedpatients showed significant decreases in serum levels oftotal cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesteroland high density lipoprotein - cholesterol ( P <0.01), but in placebo group we found no change.Both systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pres-sure fell significantly in orlistat-treated group.Fasting glucose and HOMA- IR in orlistat- treatedgroup was distinctly reduced if compared with placebogroup. Conclusions Weight loss resulting fromorlistat treatment and slightly hypocaloric diet hasproduced favorable effects on several cardiovascularrisk factors in obese Chinese subjects.

  14. Ameliorative effect of black tea on nicotine induced cardiovascular pathogenesis in rat

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamhoseinian, Ahmad; Joukar, Farzin; Joukar, Siyavash; Najafipour, Hamid; Shahouzehi, Beydolah

    2012-01-01

    Regarding the role of nicotine in the development of cardiovascular complications of smoking, we investigated whether black tea has a modulatory effect on cardiovascular pathogenesis of nicotine in rat. Animals were randomized to control, tea, nicotine and tea plus nicotine groups. Test groups received black tea brewed (adding 400 ml boiling water to 10 g Lipton black tea for 5 min) orally alone or with nicotine 2 mg/kg/day, s.c. separately or combined for four weeks. On 28th day, lipids p...

  15. Protective effects of Nigella sativa against hypertension-induced oxidative stress and cardiovascular dysfunction in rats

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    Nur Taşar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the protective effect of Nigella sativa against oxidative injury in the heart and kidney tissues of rats with renovascular hypertension (RVH. RVH model was induced by placing a renal artery clip (2-kidney-1-clip, 2K1C in Wistar albino rats (n= 8, while sham rats (n= 8 had no clip placement. Starting on the 3rd week after the operation, rats received Nigella sativa (0.2 ml/kg/day, intraperitoneally or vehicle for the following 6 weeks. Blood pressures (BP were recorded at the beginning of the study and at the end of the 3rd and 9th weeks. Cardiac functions were assessed using transthoracic echocardiography before the rats were decapitated. Plasma samples were obtained to assay asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, nitric oxide (NO, creatine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH levels. Production of reactive oxidants was monitored by chemiluminescence (CL assay in the cardiac and renal tissues. Moreover oxidative injury was examined through malondialdehyde (MDA and glutathione (GSH levels and Na+,K+-ATPase activity in these tissues. 2K1C caused increased BP and left ventricular (LV dysfunction, while plasma ADMA, CK, and LDH levels were increased (p<0.05-0.001. Moreover, hypertension caused significant decreases in plasma NO levels, as well as in tissue Na+,K+-ATPase activities and GSH contents, while MDA levels in both tissues were increased (p<0.05-0.001. On the other hand, Nigella sativa treatment significantly reduced BP, attenuated oxidative injury and improved LV function. Nigella sativa protected against hypertension-induced tissue damage and improved cardiovascular function via its antioxidant and antihypertensive actions, suggesting a therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa in renovascular hypertension.

  16. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Tephrosia purpurea on Cardiovascular Complications and Cataract Associated with Streptozotocin-induced Diabetes in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadada, Shraddha V; Goyal, R K

    2015-01-01

    Tephrosia purpurea has been reported to possess antidiabetic activity, however, its effects on cardiovascular complications and cataract associated with diabetes have not been studied. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea on cardiovascular complications and cataract associated with streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. Sprague Dawley rats of either sex were made diabetic with streptozotocin (45 mg/kg, i.v.). Treatment of aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea was given in the dose of 300 and 500 mg/kg/day, p.o for 8 weeks. Various hemodynamic (blood pressure, heart rate, +dp/dt, -dp/dt) and biochemical (serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine, urea, lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine kinase) parameters were recorded after 8 weeks of the treatment. To evaluate cataract, various biochemical estimations were done in eye lens. Streptozotocin produced hyperglycemia; hypoinsulinemia; hyperlipidemia; increased blood pressure; increased creatinine, cardiac enzymes, reduction in heart rate and cardiac hypertrophy in rats and all these changes were prevented by the treatment with aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea in both the doses. Streptozotocin also produced decrease in soluble protein and reduced glutathione in lens of rats that was prevented by aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea. Our data suggest that aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea prevents not only the streptozotocin-induced metabolic abnormalities but also cardiovascular complications as well as reduce the risk of development of cataract. PMID:26798165

  17. Effect of aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea on cardiovascular complications and cataract associated with streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraddha V Bhadada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tephrosia purpurea has been reported to possess antidiabetic activity, however, its effects on cardiovascular complications and cataract associated with diabetes have not been studied. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea on cardiovascular complications and cataract associated with streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. Sprague Dawley rats of either sex were made diabetic with streptozotocin (45 mg/kg, i.v.. Treatment of aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea was given in the dose of 300 and 500 mg/kg/day, p.o for 8 weeks. Various hemodynamic (blood pressure, heart rate, +dp/dt, -dp/dt and biochemical (serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine, urea, lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine kinase parameters were recorded after 8 weeks of the treatment. To evaluate cataract, various biochemical estimations were done in eye lens. Streptozotocin produced hyperglycemia; hypoinsulinemia; hyperlipidemia; increased blood pressure; increased creatinine, cardiac enzymes, reduction in heart rate and cardiac hypertrophy in rats and all these changes were prevented by the treatment with aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea in both the doses. Streptozotocin also produced decrease in soluble protein and reduced glutathione in lens of rats that was prevented by aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea. Our data suggest that aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea prevents not only the streptozotocin-induced metabolic abnormalities but also cardiovascular complications as well as reduce the risk of development of cataract.

  18. Protective effect of curcumin on pulmonary and cardiovascular effects induced by repeated exposure to diesel exhaust particles in mice.

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    Abderrahim Nemmar

    Full Text Available Particulate air pollution has been associated with increased risk of cardiopulmonary diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We have previously demonstrated that single dose exposure to diesel exhaust particle (DEP causes lung inflammation and peripheral thrombotic events. Here, we exposed mice with repeated doses of DEP (15 µg/animal every 2(nd day for 6 days (a total of 4 exposures, and measured several cardiopulmonary endpoints 48 h after the end of the treatments. Moreover, the potential protective effect of curcumin (the yellow pigment isolated from turmeric on DEP-induced cardiopulmonary toxicity was assessed. DEP exposure increased macrophage and neutrophil numbers, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF α in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid, and enhanced airway resistance to methacoline measured invasively using Flexivent. DEP also significantly increased plasma C-reactive protein (CRP and TNF α concentrations, systolic blood pressure (SBP as well as the pial arteriolar thrombosis. It also significantly enhanced the plasma D-dimer and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1. Pretreatment with curcumin by oral gavage (45 mg/kg 1 h before exposure to DEP significantly prevented the influx of inflammatory cells and the increase of TNF α in BAL, and the increased airway resistance caused by DEP. Likewise, curcumin prevented the increase of SBP, CRP, TNF α, D-dimer and PAI-1. The thrombosis was partially but significantly mitigated. In conclusion, repeated exposure to DEP induced lung and systemic inflammation characterized by TNFα release, increased SBP, and accelerated coagulation. Our findings indicate that curcumin is a potent anti-inflammatory agent that prevents the release of TNFα and protects against the pulmonary and cardiovascular effects of DEP.

  19. Effects of moxibusting Point Kuan-Yuan on cardiovascular and renal responses to histamine-induced shock.

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    Chen, H C

    1987-01-01

    Moxibustion of the Point Kuan-Yuan is said by some Chinese herb doctors to have "anti-shock" effect. Using histamine-induced shock in anesthetized dogs, we studied the cardiovascular and renal effects of moxibusting Point Kuan-Yuan. We found that it significantly increased cardiac output, total peripheral resistance, and mean blood pressure but it did not significantly increase heart rate. Moxibustion also significantly increased renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate, urine flow, and Na+ Cl-K+ excretions. Whether moxibusting Kuan-Yuan may be useful as an adjunct in treating clinical shocks deserves more extensive studies in well-controlled clinical situations. It may also be helpful in clinical situations in which elevation of the sympathetic activity may be beneficial.

  20. The ventral surface of the medulla in the rat: pharmacologic and autoradiographic localization of GABA-induced cardiovascular effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, J R; Shults, C W; Chase, T N; Helke, C J

    1984-04-16

    Experiments were done to evaluate a rat model for studying the cardiovascular effects of pharmacological manipulations of the ventral surface of the medulla. GABAergic drugs were used because of their well-characterized actions at the ventral surface of the medulla in the cat. GABA and muscimol, applied to the exposed ventral surface with filter paper pledgets, produced dose-dependent decreases in heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) which were reversed with bicuculline but not with strychnine. Bicuculline alone raised HR and MAP. The GABA- or bicuculline-induced cardiovascular effects were mediated primarily by inhibition of sympathetic outflow. The most sensitive site was localized to an intermediate area on the ventral surface of the medulla, between the trapezoid body and exits of the hypoglossal nerves and just lateral to the pyramids. Topical application of [3H]GABA to the intermediate area resulted in labeling that was concentrated at the site of application, and which penetrated the parenchyma 1 mm dorsally. The heaviest labeling was found primarily in the ventral halves of the lateral paragigantocellular nuclei. No tritium was detected in peripheral blood. These data provide evidence for a neuronal system at the ventral medullary surface of the rat which influences sympathetic outflow and is modulated by GABA. PMID:6326937

  1. Protective effects of Nigella sativa against hypertension-induced oxidative stress and cardiovascular dysfunction in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Taşar; Ahmet Özer Şehirli; Ömer Yiğiner; Selami Süleymanoğlu; Meral Yüksel; Berrak Yeğen; Göksel Şener

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the protective effect of Nigella sativa against oxidative injury in the heart and kidney tissues of rats with renovascular hypertension (RVH). RVH model was induced by placing a renal artery clip (2-kidney-1-clip, 2K1C) in Wistar albino rats (n= 8), while sham rats (n= 8) had no clip placement. Starting on the 3rd week after the operation, rats received Nigella sativa (0.2 ml/kg/day, intraperitoneally) or vehicle for the following 6 weeks. Blood pressures (BP) were recorded at...

  2. The effects of acute intermittent hypoxia on cardiovascular parameters in normotensive and chronic hypobaric hypoxia-induced hypertensive rabbits.

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    Yaman, Muhittin O; Guner, Ibrahim; Uzun, Hafize; Sahin, Gulderen; Yelmen, Nermin

    2014-01-01

    The effects of both chronic hypoxia and acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) on cardiovascular system are unclear. We designed this study to develop a rabbit model of hypertension by exposure to chronic hypobaric hypoxia (CHH) and to investigate the effects of AIH on hypertensive rabbits. Present study was performed in 13 albino rabbits that divided into CHH and control groups. To develop hypertension, the rabbits were placed in a hypobaric chamber (390 mmHg; 22 hours/day, 30 days). Afterwards, AIH protocol was applied (8% FIO2 (Fraction of Inspired Oxygen) 1 min + 5 min normoxia, 20 cycles, 2 hours) to rabbits anesthetized with urethane and alpha-chloralose. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and hematocrit values have been determined. Also asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), endothelin-1 and norepinephrine values have been analyzed in blood. We developed a model of hypertension in rabbits via exposure to severe CHH and we believe that ADMA is an important parameter in the development and permanence of CHH-induced hypertension. The main finding of this sudy was the depressor effect of AIH on blood pressure and heart rate in CHH- induced hypertension model. Finally, we believe that AIH protocol may be applicable for prevention and treatment of hypertension if properly developed. PMID:24448370

  3. Cardiovascular effects of basal insulins

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    Mannucci E

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Edoardo Mannucci,1 Stefano Giannini,2 Ilaria Dicembrini1 1Diabetes Agency, Careggi Teaching Hospital, Florence, 2Section of Endocrinology, Department of Biomedical Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Florence and Careggi University Hospital, Florence, Italy Abstract: Basal insulin is an important component of treatment for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. One of the principal aims of treatment in patients with diabetes is the prevention of diabetic complications, including cardiovascular disease. There is some evidence, although controversial, that attainment of good glycemic control reduces long-term cardiovascular risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the potential cardiovascular safety of the different available preparations of basal insulin. Current basal insulin (neutral protamine Hagedorn [NPH], or isophane and basal insulin analogs (glargine, detemir, and the more recent degludec differ essentially by various measures of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects in the bloodstream, presence and persistence of peak action, and within-subject variability in the glucose-lowering response. The currently available data show that basal insulin analogs have a lower risk of hypoglycemia than NPH human insulin, in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, then excluding additional harmful effects on the cardiovascular system mediated by activation of the adrenergic system. Given that no biological rationale for a possible difference in cardiovascular effect of basal insulins has been proposed so far, available meta-analyses of publicly disclosed randomized controlled trials do not show any signal of increased risk of major cardiovascular events between the different basal insulin analogs. However, the number of available cardiovascular events in these trials is very small, preventing any clear-cut conclusion. The results of an ongoing clinical trial comparing glargine and degludec with

  4. Effect of gliclazide on cardiovascular risk factors involved in split-dose streptozotocin induced neonatal rat model: a chronic study

    OpenAIRE

    I. Mohammed Salman; Md. Naseeruddin Inamdar

    2012-01-01

    Background: The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of gliclazide on cardiovascular risk factors involved in type 2 diabetes mellitus using n-STZ rat model on a long term basis. Methods: The diabetic model was developed using a split dose of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg) intraperitoneally on 2nd and 3rd postnatal days. The diabetic rats were treated orally with gliclazide suspension at the dose of 10 mg/kg for 90 days. Cardiovascular risk factors such as systolic blood pressure, heart ra...

  5. Cardiovascular effects of basal insulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannucci, Edoardo; Giannini, Stefano; Dicembrini, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Basal insulin is an important component of treatment for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. One of the principal aims of treatment in patients with diabetes is the prevention of diabetic complications, including cardiovascular disease. There is some evidence, although controversial, that attainment of good glycemic control reduces long-term cardiovascular risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the potential cardiovascular safety of the different available preparations of basal insulin. Current basal insulin (neutral protamine Hagedorn [NPH], or isophane) and basal insulin analogs (glargine, detemir, and the more recent degludec) differ essentially by various measures of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects in the bloodstream, presence and persistence of peak action, and within-subject variability in the glucose-lowering response. The currently available data show that basal insulin analogs have a lower risk of hypoglycemia than NPH human insulin, in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, then excluding additional harmful effects on the cardiovascular system mediated by activation of the adrenergic system. Given that no biological rationale for a possible difference in cardiovascular effect of basal insulins has been proposed so far, available meta-analyses of publicly disclosed randomized controlled trials do not show any signal of increased risk of major cardiovascular events between the different basal insulin analogs. However, the number of available cardiovascular events in these trials is very small, preventing any clear-cut conclusion. The results of an ongoing clinical trial comparing glargine and degludec with regard to cardiovascular safety will provide definitive evidence. PMID:26203281

  6. Effect of gliclazide on cardiovascular risk factors involved in split-dose streptozotocin induced neonatal rat model: a chronic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Mohammed Salman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of gliclazide on cardiovascular risk factors involved in type 2 diabetes mellitus using n-STZ rat model on a long term basis. Methods: The diabetic model was developed using a split dose of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg intraperitoneally on 2nd and 3rd postnatal days. The diabetic rats were treated orally with gliclazide suspension at the dose of 10 mg/kg for 90 days. Cardiovascular risk factors such as systolic blood pressure, heart rate, lipid profile, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase were evaluated at regular intervals along with fasting blood glucose (FBG and oral glucose tolerance test. Results: Gliclazide did not alter FBG however improved the impaired glucose tolerance. The gliclazide treated rats did not develop hypertension and there was a significant difference (p<0.001 at the end of treatment when compared to the diabetic group which could be due to free radical scavenging property of gliclazide. Gliclazide treatment in n-STZ model was found to be effective in preventing hypertension, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activity. Also gliclazide was found to have beneficial effects on the impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidaemia, adiposity index and total fat pad weight. Conclusions: To improve and prevent the cardiovascular risk factors involved in Type II diabetic patients, gliclazide could be clinically beneficial. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2012; 1(3.000: 196-201

  7. Diabetic Cardiovascular Disease Induced by Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayama, Yosuke; Raaz, Uwe; Jagger, Ann; Adam, Matti; Schellinger, Isabel N; Sakamoto, Masaya; Suzuki, Hirofumi; Toyama, Kensuke; Spin, Joshua M; Tsao, Philip S

    2015-10-23

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). DM can lead to multiple cardiovascular complications, including coronary artery disease (CAD), cardiac hypertrophy, and heart failure (HF). HF represents one of the most common causes of death in patients with DM and results from DM-induced CAD and diabetic cardiomyopathy. Oxidative stress is closely associated with the pathogenesis of DM and results from overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS overproduction is associated with hyperglycemia and metabolic disorders, such as impaired antioxidant function in conjunction with impaired antioxidant activity. Long-term exposure to oxidative stress in DM induces chronic inflammation and fibrosis in a range of tissues, leading to formation and progression of disease states in these tissues. Indeed, markers for oxidative stress are overexpressed in patients with DM, suggesting that increased ROS may be primarily responsible for the development of diabetic complications. Therefore, an understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms mediated by oxidative stress is crucial to the prevention and treatment of diabetes-induced CVD. The current review focuses on the relationship between diabetes-induced CVD and oxidative stress, while highlighting the latest insights into this relationship from findings on diabetic heart and vascular disease.

  8. Cardiovascular Effects of Calcium Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian R. Reid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Calcium supplements reduce bone turnover and slow the rate of bone loss. However, few studies have demonstrated reduced fracture incidence with calcium supplements, and meta-analyses show only a 10% decrease in fractures, which is of borderline statistical and clinical significance. Trials in normal older women and in patients with renal impairment suggest that calcium supplements increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. To further assess their safety, we recently conducted a meta-analysis of trials of calcium supplements, and found a 27%–31% increase in risk of myocardial infarction, and a 12%–20% increase in risk of stroke. These findings are robust because they are based on pre-specified analyses of randomized, placebo-controlled trials and are consistent across the trials. Co-administration of vitamin D with calcium does not lessen these adverse effects. The increased cardiovascular risk with calcium supplements is consistent with epidemiological data relating higher circulating calcium concentrations to cardiovascular disease in normal populations. There are several possible pathophysiological mechanisms for these effects, including effects on vascular calcification, vascular cells, blood coagulation and calcium-sensing receptors. Thus, the non-skeletal risks of calcium supplements appear to outweigh any skeletal benefits, and are they appear to be unnecessary for the efficacy of other osteoporosis treatments.

  9. Effect of Lipid Raft on Cardiovascular Diseases Induced by Trans Fatty Acids%脂筏在反式脂肪酸诱导心血管疾病过程中的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王青; 邱斌

    2013-01-01

    The effects of lipid raft on the TFA-induced cardiovascular diseases was studied to provide scientific data for the research on the relation between lipid raft and cardiovascular diseases.%探讨脂筏在反式脂肪酸诱导心血管疾病过程中的作用机制,为研究脂筏和心血管疾病的关系提供科学依据.

  10. Biological effects of dynamic shear stress in cardiovascular pathologies and devices

    OpenAIRE

    Girdhar, Gaurav; Bluestein, Danny

    2008-01-01

    Altered and highly dynamic shear stress conditions have been implicated in endothelial dysfunction leading to cardiovascular disease, and in thromboembolic complications in prosthetic cardiovascular devices. In addition to vascular damage, the pathological flow patterns characterizing cardiovascular pathologies and blood flow in prosthetic devices induce shear activation and damage to blood constituents. Investigation of the specific and accentuated effects of such flow-induced perturbations ...

  11. Cardiovascular effects of phentermine and topiramate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Jens; Astrup, Arne; Engeli, Stefan;

    2014-01-01

    . Cardiovascular data associated with long-term use of phentermine and topiramate extended-release indicate that this combination may be a safe and effective option for reducing weight in overweight/obese patients at low-to-intermediate cardiovascular risk.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms...

  12. Acute lung injury induces cardiovascular dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suda, Koichi; Tsuruta, Masashi; Eom, Jihyoun;

    2011-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is associated with systemic inflammation and cardiovascular dysfunction. IL-6 is a biomarker of this systemic response and a predictor of cardiovascular events, but its possible causal role is uncertain. Inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting β2 agonists (ICS/LABA) down......-regulate the systemic expression of IL-6, but whether they can ameliorate the cardiovascular dysfunction related to ALI is uncertain. We sought to determine whether IL-6 contributes to the cardiovascular dysfunction related to ALI, and whether budesonide/formoterol ameliorates this process. Wild-type mice were...... these impairments (vasodilatory responses to acetylcholine, P = 0.005; cardiac output, P = 0.025). Pretreatment with the combination of budesonide and formoterol, but not either alone, ameliorated the vasodilatory responses to acetylcholine (P = 0.018) and cardiac output (P drugs also attenuated...

  13. Toxic effects of marijuana on the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratap, Balaji; Korniyenko, Aleksandr

    2012-06-01

    We present a case of marijuana-induced ST segment elevation mimicking Brugada syndrome in a young man. Cannabis can have a multitude of effects on the different organ systems of the body; we take a closer look at its effects on the cardiovascular system, including acute coronary syndrome, arrhythmias and congestive heart failure. PMID:22194141

  14. Tourniquet-induced cardiovascular responses in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery under general anesthesia: Effect of preoperative oral amantadine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Abd Elmawgood

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Preoperative oral amantadine reduced tourniquet induced hypertension and postoperative analgesic requirements in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery under general anesthesia.

  15. Cardiovascular risk, effectiveness and mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gérvas

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Dice la Ley de Hierro de la Epidemiología que todo el que nace muere. Por ello el fin de la Medicina no es evitar la muerte en sí, sino evitar las muertes, las enfermedades y el sufrimiento médicamente evitables.Al final, todos nuestros pacientes morirán – y nosotros mismos moriremos también, obviamente. “Los cuerpos encuentran una forma de morir” y si la causa no es el hambre ni la deshidratación, ni es congénita, ni infecciosa, ni por lesiones, ni por cáncer, ni por suicidio, tenemos que esperar que sea por ‘causa cardiovascular’, enfermedad pulmonar, insuficiencia renal o hepática, demencia u otras enfermedades degenerativas. Pero de algo tenemos que morir.Morir por causa cardiovascular ni es deshonroso, ni implica defectuosa atención clínica. Que la primera causa de muerte sea la cardiovascular no dice nada respecto a los cuidados clínicos, ni debería asustar.Sin embargo, son evitables muchas muertes de causa cardiovascular. Así, se puede evitar mucha mortalidad cardiovascular disminuyendo la desigualdad social, por ejemplo (con mejor re-distribución de la riqueza, mejor educación y demás. Los médicos saben que los factores adversos psicosociales asociados a la pertenencia a la clase baja responden del 35% del riesgo atribuible a la hipertensión en la incidencia del infarto de miocardio (en otra formulación, que pertenecer a la clase baja multiplica por 2,7 dicho riesgo1.También deberíamos saber que contra las muertes cardiovasculares no hay nada como las políticas de salud pública sobre el tabaquismo (restricciones de lugares en los que fumar, aumento del precio del tabaco, campañas de información, y demás.En lo clínico, las muertes cardiovasculares evitables se deben ver en perspectiva, según lo que se puede lograr2. Así, por 100.000 habitantes y año, el tratamiento con inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina (IECA en la insuficiencia cardíaca puede evitar 308 muertes; el consejo m

  16. Cardiovascular effects induced by the hydroalcoholic extract of the stem of Xylopia cayennensis in rats Efeitos cardiovasculares induzidos pelo extrato hidroalcoólico das cascas de Xylopia cayennensis em ratos

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    Alessandra A. Nascimento

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular effects induced by the hydroalcoholic extract of the stem of Xylopia cayennensis (HEXC were studied in rats using a combined in vivo and in vitro approach. In non-anesthetized rats, HEXC injections produced a significant and dose-dependent hypotension associated with an increase in heart rate. The hypotensive response was not attenuated after nitric oxide (NO synthase blockade, L-NAME (20 mg/Kg, i.v.. In isolated rat superior aortic rings, HEXC was able to relax the tonus induced by phenylephrine (1 µM and KCl (80 mM, (EC50 = 85±13 and 62±5 µg/mL, respectively. The smooth muscle-relaxant activity of HEXC was not inhibited by removal of vascular endothelium (EC50 = 58±6 µg/mL. HEXC antagonized CaCl2-induced contractions in depolarizing medium nominally without Ca2+. HEXC inhibited the intracellular calcium-dependent transient contractions induced by caffeine (20 mM in Ca2+-free solution, but not those induced by norepinephrine (1 µM. In isolated rat atrial preparations, HEXC produced negative inotropic and chronotropic responses (IC50= 534±42 and 259±22 µg/mL, respectively. The results obtained suggest that the hypotensive effect of HEXC is probably due to a peripheral vasodilatation, at least, secondary to an interference with the Ca2+ mobilization as a consequence of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel blockade and the inhibition of Ca2+ release from caffeine-sensitive intracellular stores. Finally, HEXC acts directly on the heart decreasing contractility and heart rate, these effects are of little importance to the expression of the hypotensive response induced by HEXC.Os efeitos cardiovasculares induzidos pelo extrato hidroalcoólico do caule de Xylopia cayennensis (EHXC foram estudados em ratos, utilizando uma abordagem combinada in vivo e in vitro. Em ratos não anestesiados, EHXC induziu uma hipotensão não dependente de dose associada com um aumento da freqüência cardíaca. Esta resposta hipontesora não foi

  17. Effect of fedotozine on the cardiovascular pain reflex induced by distension of the irritated colon in the anesthetized rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, A; Diop, L; Rivière, P J; Pascaud, X; Junien, J L

    1994-12-27

    The effect of fedotozine was evaluated in a model of colonic hypersensibility to balloon distension in anesthetized rats. Acetic acid (0.6%, intracolonically) significantly enhanced the hypotension reflex response to colonic distension (P hypersensibility to painful mechanical stimuli and that some but not all kappa-opioid receptor ligands can have enhanced efficacy in this pathological situation. PMID:7705424

  18. Cardiovascular effects of selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krum, Henry; Liew, Danny; Aw, Juan; Haas, Steven

    2004-03-01

    Selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors represent a significant advance in the management of inflammatory disorders. They have similar efficacy to nonselective 'conventional' nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, but a superior gastrointestinal safety profile. However, a significant caveat is the perceived potential of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors to cause adverse cardiovascular effects, an issue first raised by the Vioxx Gastrointestinal Outcomes Research (VIGOR) study of rofecoxib (Vioxx, Merck & Co. Inc.). Mechanisms by which cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors may increase cardiovascular risk are selective inhibition of prostaglandin I2 over thromboxane A2 within the eicosanoid pathway, which promotes thrombosis, and inhibition of prostaglandins E2 and I2 within the kidney, which leads to sodium and water retention and blood pressure elevation. In spite of this, the cardiovascular findings from VIGOR are not firmly supported by observations from large cohort studies and other clinical trials of selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, including the Celecoxib Long-term Arthritis Safety Study. The two main theories that explain the VIGOR findings are that the comparator used (naproxen; Naprosyn, Roche) is cardioprotective and that very high doses of rofecoxib were used, but at present neither is backed by firm evidence. Indeed, there is now early evidence that selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition with celecoxib may even protect against the progression of cardiovascular disease, on the basis that cyclooxygenase-2 mediates key processes in atherothrombosis. Currently, it is not clear what the net cardiovascular effects of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors are. The data are inconsistent and at best, speculative. It may be also that celecoxib and rofecoxib differ in their cardiovascular effects. Clarification of these issues is of vital importance given the vast number of patients presently taking both types of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors. Therefore, what is clear in this situation is

  19. Cocaine-induced cardiovascular effects: lack of evidence for a central nervous system site of action based on hemodynamic studies with cocaine methiodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, L W; Rodak, D J; Kuhn, F E; Wahlstrom, S K; Tessel, R E; Visner, M S; Schaer, G L; Gillis, R A

    1999-01-01

    It has been suggested that cocaine acts directly in the brain to enhance central sympathetic outflow. However, some studies suggested that the cardiovascular effects of cocaine are related to a peripheral action. To characterize further the site of cocaine's cardiovascular effect, we compared the hemodynamic effects of cocaine (2 mg/kg, i.v. bolus) with those observed after administration of an equimolar dose (2.62 mg/kg, i.v. bolus) of cocaine methiodide, a quaternary derivative of cocaine that does not penetrate the blood-brain barrier, by using sufentanil-sedated dogs. Cocaine produced significant (p < 0.05) increases in heart rate (+37+/-11 beats/min), mean arterial pressure (+55+/-11 mm Hg), left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (+5.3+/-1.0 mm Hg), and cardiac output (+2.4+/-0.9 L/min). Cocaine methiodide produced increases in heart rate (+57+/-11 beats/min), mean arterial pressure (+45+/-11 mm Hg), left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (+3.4+/-1.0 mm Hg), and cardiac output (1.1+/-0.9 L/min), which were not significantly different from those observed with cocaine. Because opiate sedation potentially might have attenuated central sympathetic outflow, we further confirmed the qualitative similarity of the actions of cocaine and cocaine methiodide on heart rate and blood pressure in unsedated, conscious dogs. Our data suggest that the cardiovascular effects of cocaine result primarily from a peripheral site of action.

  20. Cardiovascular effects of monoterpenes: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Márcio R. V. Santos; Flávia V. Moreira; Byanka P. Fraga; Damião P. de Souza; Leonardo R. Bonjardim; Lucindo J. Quintans-Junior

    2011-01-01

    The monoterpenes are secondary metabolites of plants. They have various pharmacological properties including antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant, anticancer, anti-spasmodic, hypotensive, and vasorelaxant. The purpose of this research was to review the cardiovascular effects of monoterpenes. The data in this resarch were collected using the Internet portals Pubmed, Scopus, and ISI Web of Knowledge between the years 1987 and 2010. In the study 33 monoterpenes were included, which were relate...

  1. Effect of garlic on cardiovascular disorders: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Maulik Subir; Banerjee Sanjay

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Garlic and its preparations have been widely recognized as agents for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and other metabolic diseases, atherosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, thrombosis, hypertension and diabetes. Effectiveness of garlic in cardiovascular diseases was more encouraging in experimental studies, which prompted several clinical trials. Though many clinical trials showed a positive effect of garlic on almost all cardiovascular conditions mentioned above, however a number...

  2. Cocaine, Marijuana, Hypertension and Cardiovascular Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Ghadiani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine is used by more than 14 million people worldwide, about 0.3 percent of the global population age is 15 to 64 years. After alcohol, cocaine is the most common cause of acute drug-related emergency department visits in the United States. Cocaine consumption is more frequently associated with acute cardiovascular illness.  Cocaine stimulates α1, α2, β1 and β2 adrenergic receptors through increased levels of norepinephrine and a lesser extent epinephrine. The cardiovascular effects of cocaine are thought to be similar and regardless to the route of consumption. An acute coronary syndrome is the most common cardiac problem including myocardial ischemia and infarction even in young persons without atherosclerosis, aortic dissection and rupture, arrhythmias, ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation, asystole and finally sudden death. Other cardiovascular effects that caused by cocaine include coronary artery aneurysm, palpitation, sinus tachycardia, increased systemic vascular resistance and hypertension crisis, left ventricular hypertrophy, myocarditis, cardiomyopathy, myocardial fibrosis, bundle branch block, heart block, supraventricular arrhythmia, accelerated atherosclerosis, hypotension, bradycardia and infective endocarditis  among intravenous users.Cocaine by three mechanisms cause ischemia: 1. increased myocardial oxygen demand, 2. decreased coronary blood flow due to coronary artery vasoconstriction and spasm and 3. Coronary artery thrombosis via activation of platelets, stimulation of platelet aggregation and potentiation of thromboxane production.

  3. Glyphosate induces cardiovascular toxicity in Danio rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Nicole M; Ochs, Jeremy; Zambrzycka, Ewelina; Anderson, Ariann

    2016-09-01

    Glyphosate is a broad spectrum herbicide used aggressively in agricultural practices as well as home garden care. Although labeled "safe" by the chemical industry, doses tested by industry do not mimic chronic exposures to sublethal doses that organisms in the environment are exposed to over long periods of time. Given the widespread uses of and exposure to glyphosate, studies on developmental toxicity are needed. Here we utilize the zebrafish vertebrate model system to study early effects of glyphosate on the developing heart. Treatment by embryo soaking with 50μg/ml glyphosate starting at gastrulation results in structural abnormalities in the atrium and ventricle, irregular heart looping, situs inversus as well as decreased heartbeats by 48h as determined by live imaging and immunohistochemistry. Vasculature in the body was also affected as determined using fli-1 transgenic embryos. To determine if the effects noted at 48h post fertilization are due to early stage alterations in myocardial precursors, we also investigate cardiomyocyte development with a Mef2 antibody and by mef2ca in situ hybridization and find alterations in the Mef2/mef2ca staining patterns during early cardiac patterning stages. We conclude that glyphosate is developmentally toxic to the zebrafish heart.

  4. Selenistasis: Epistatic Effects of Selenium on Cardiovascular Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Loscalzo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although selenium metabolism is intricately linked to cardiovascular biology and function, and deficiency of selenium is associated with cardiac pathology, utilization of selenium in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease remains an elusive goal. From a reductionist standpoint, the major function of selenium in vivo is antioxidant defense via its incorporation as selenocysteine into enzyme families such as glutathione peroxidases and thioredoxin reductases. In addition, selenium compounds are heterogeneous and have complex metabolic fates resulting in effects that are not entirely dependent on selenoprotein expression. This complex biology of selenium in vivo may underlie the fact that beneficial effects of selenium supplementation demonstrated in preclinical studies using models of oxidant stress-induced cardiovascular dysfunction, such as ischemia-reperfusion injury and myocardial infarction, have not been consistently observed in clinical trials. In fact, recent studies have yielded data that suggest that unselective supplementation of selenium may, indeed, be harmful. Interesting biologic actions of selenium are its simultaneous effects on redox balance and methylation status, a combination that may influence gene expression. These combined actions may explain some of the biphasic effects seen with low and high doses of selenium, the potentially harmful effects seen in normal individuals, and the beneficial effects noted in preclinical studies of disease. Given the complexity of selenium biology, systems biology approaches may be necessary to reach the goal of optimization of selenium status to promote health and prevent disease.

  5. Evaluation of the cardiovascular effects of varenicline in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk EB

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Engin Burak Selçuk,1 Meltem Sungu,2 Hakan Parlakpinar,3 Necip Ermiş,4 Elif Taslıdere,5 Nigar Vardı,5 Murat Yalçinsoy,6 Mustafa Sagır,3 Alaaddin Polat,7 Mehmet Karatas,8 Burcu Kayhan-Tetik11Department of Family Medicine, 2Inonu University Medical Faculty, Malatya, Turkey; 3Department of Pharmacology, 4Department of Cardiology, 5Department of Histology and Embryology, 6Department of Pulmonary Medicine, 7Department of Physiology, 8Department of Medical Ethics, Inonu University Medical Faculty, Malatya, TurkeyBackground: Cardiovascular disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among tobacco users. Varenicline is widely used worldwide to help smoking cessation, but some published studies have reported associated cardiovascular events.Objective: To determine the cardiovascular toxicity induced by varenicline in rats.Materials and methods: We randomly separated 34 rats into two groups: 1 the control group (given only distilled water orally, n=10 and the varenicline group (given 9 µg/kg/day varenicline on days 1–3, 9 µg/kg twice daily on days 4–7, and 18 µg/kg twice daily on days 8–90 [total 83 days], n=24. Each group was then subdivided equally into acute and chronic subgroups, and all rats in these groups were euthanized with anesthesia overdose on days 45 and 90, respectively. Body and heart weights, hemodynamic (mean oxygen saturation, mean blood pressure, and heart rate, electrocardiographic (PR, QRS, and QT intervals biochemical (oxidants and antioxidants, and histopathological analyses (including immunostaining were performed.Results: Acute varenicline exposure resulted in loss of body weight, while chronic varenicline exposure caused heart weight loss and decreased mean blood pressure, induced lipid peroxidation, and reduced antioxidant activity. Both acute and chronic varenicline exposure caused impairment of mean oxygen saturation. QT interval was prolonged in the chronic varenicline group, while PR interval

  6. Cardiovascular effects of cocaine: cellular, ionic and molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turillazzi, E; Bello, S; Neri, M; Pomara, C; Riezzo, I; Fineschi, V

    2012-01-01

    Cocaine is a widely abused drug responsible for the majority of deaths ascribed to drug overdose. Many mechanisms have been proposed in order to explain the various cocaine associated cardiovascular complications. Conventionally, cocaine cardiotoxicity has been thought to be mediated indirectly through its sympathomimetic effect, i.e., by inhibiting the reuptake and thus increasing the levels of neuronal catecholamines at work on adrenoceptors. Increased oxidative stress, reactive oxygen species, and cocaine-induced apoptosis in the heart muscle have suggested a new way to understand the cardiotoxic effects of cocaine. More recent studies have led the attention to the interaction of cocaine and some metabolites with cardiac sodium, calcium and potassium channels. The current paper is aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms of cocaine cardiotoxicity which have a specific clinical and forensic interest. From a clinical point of view the full knowledge of the exact mechanisms by which cocaine exerts cardio - vascular damage is essential to identify potential therapeutic targets and improve novel strategies for cocaine related cardiovascular diseases. From a forensic point of view, it is to be underlined that cocaine use is often associated to sudden death in young, otherwise healthy individuals. While such events are widely reported, the relationship between cardiac morphological alterations and molecular/cellular mechanisms is still controversial. In conclusion, the study of cocaine cardiovascular toxicity needs a strict collaboration between clinicians and pathologists which may be very effective in further dissecting the mechanisms underlying cocaine cardiotoxicity and understanding the cardiac cocaine connection. PMID:22856657

  7. Perspectives of induced pluripotent stem cells for cardiovascular system regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csöbönyeiová, Mária; Polák, Štefan

    2015-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold great promise for basic research and regenerative medicine. They offer the same advantages as embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and moreover new perspectives for personalized medicine. iPSCs can be generated from adult somatic tissues by over-expression of a few defined transcription factors, including Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-myc. For regenerative medicine in particular, the technology provides great hope for patients with incurable diseases or potentially fatal disorders such as heart failure. The endogenous regenerative potentials of adult hearts are extremely limited and insufficient to compensate for myocardial loss occurring after myocardial infarction. Recent discoveries have demonstrated that iPSCs have the potential to significantly advance future cardiovascular regenerative therapies. Moreover, iPSCs can be generated from somatic cells of patients with genetic basis for their disease. This human iPSC derivates offer tremendous potential for new disease models. This paper reviews current applications of iPSCs in cardiovascular regenerative medicine and discusses progress in modeling cardiovascular diseases using iPSCs-derived cardiac cells. PMID:25595188

  8. Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes Afford New Opportunities in Inherited Cardiovascular Disease Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. Bayzigitov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental studies of molecular and cellular mechanisms of cardiovascular disease pathogenesis are required to create more effective and safer methods of their therapy. The studies can be carried out only when model systems that fully recapitulate pathological phenotype seen in patients are used. Application of laboratory animals for cardiovascular disease modeling is limited because of physiological differences with humans. Since discovery of induced pluripotency generating induced pluripotent stem cells has become a breakthrough technology in human disease modeling. In this review, we discuss a progress that has been made in modeling inherited arrhythmias and cardiomyopathies, studying molecular mechanisms of the diseases, and searching for and testing drug compounds using patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

  9. Cardiovascular Effects of Antidepressants and Mood Stabilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Akhondzadeh

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a serious disorder in today’s society, with the estimates of lifetime prevalence being as high as 21% of the general population in some developed countries. As defined by the American Psychiatric Association, depression is a heterogeneous disorder often manifested with symptoms at the psychological, behavioral, and physiological levels. Such patients are often reluctant to take synthetic antidepressants in their appropriate doses due to their anticipated side effects including inability to drive a car, dry mouth, constipation, and sexual dysfunction. As a therapeutic alternative, effective herbal drugs may offer advantages in terms of safety and tolerability, possibly also improving patient compliance. The advent of the first antidepressants, Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs and Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCAs, in the 1950s and 1960s represented a dramatic leap forward in the clinical management of depression. The subsequent development of the Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs and the Serotonin Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor (SNRI venlafaxine in the past decade and a half has greatly enhanced the treatment of depression by offering patients medications that are as effective as the older agents but are generally more tolerable and safer in an overdose. The introduction of atypical antidepressants, such as bupropion, nefazadone, and mirtazapine, has added substantially to the available pharmacopoeia for depression. Nonetheless, rates of remission tend to be low and the risk of relapse and recurrence remains high. One of the concerns regarding the safety of antidepressant is its potential risk of cardiotoxicity and cardiovascular side effects. In this review, we will focus on the cardiovascular side effects of different types of antidepressants.

  10. [The effect of neurotensin on the cardiovascular system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadchiĭ, O E; Pokrovskiĭ, V M

    1998-01-01

    Neurotensin is a peptide involved in regulation of cardiovascular system. Neurotensin immunoreactivity is found in myocardium, conduction system of the heart, intracardiac ganglion cells, coronary vessels. High content of this peptide is also determined in structures of sympathoadrenal system. This creates the possibility of hormonal neurotensin action on the heart following sympathetic activation. Neurotensin accelerates heart rate, increases myocardial contractility, affects central haemodynamics, regional blood flow and coronary circulation. Neurotensin modulates autonomic influences on the heart and plays role in mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmogenesis, especially in dynamics of vagally induced cardiac rhythm disorders. Cardiovascular effects of this peptide may be associated with direct influence on the heart and vessels, stimulating action on release of histamine and catecholamines and activation of capsaicin-sensitive afferent neurons which contain calcitonin-gene related peptide and substance P. Cardiovascular action of neurotensin is species dependent and it is followed by pronounced tachyphylaxis. Cellular mechanism of neurotensin action is associated with stimulation of phosphoinositide turnover, elevation of intracellular calcium and cyclic nucleotides level.

  11. Time-dependent effects of cardiovascular exercise on memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roig, Marc; Thomas, Richard; Mang, Cameron S;

    2016-01-01

    We present new evidence supporting the hypothesis that the effects of cardiovascular exercise on memory can be regulated in a time-dependent manner. When the exercise stimulus is temporally coupled with specific phases of the memory formation process, a single bout of cardiovascular exercise may...... be sufficient to improve memory. SUMMARY: The timing of exercise in relation to the information to be remembered is critical to maximize the effects of acute cardiovascular exercise on memory....

  12. Effect of ionizing radiation on cardiovascular system; Les effets des rayonnements ionisants sur le systeme cardiovasculaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milliat, F.; Benderitter, M.; Gaugler, M.H. [Institut de radioprotection et de surete nucleaire, DRPH, SRBE, Laboratoire de radiopathologie et de therapies experimentales (LRTE), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2011-07-01

    Radiotherapy treatment for cancer of the chest, mediastinal area or the neck area is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. With the increasing number of cancer patients and the increased treatment efficiency, the number of cancer survivors is increasing exponentially. The cancer survivors live longer and their long-term follow-up must be considered. The cardiovascular toxicity is mainly associated with the treatment of breast cancer, Hodgkin's lymphoma and head and neck cancer. Radiation-induced cardiovascular effects are insidious and chronic. Their occurrence is linked to numerous factors including the age of the patient at the beginning of the radiotherapy schedule, the number of years following radiotherapy, the doses (and volume) to the heart and the large vessels (coronary and carotid arteries), and the association with the traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Pathophysiological mechanisms remain unclear and, even if similarities with age-related atherosclerosis were established, the specificities of the radiation-induced atherosclerosis for high doses remain to be discovered. For low/moderate doses of ionising radiation, recent epidemiological studies provide evidence of increased risk of cardiovascular pathologies. A better knowledge of the mechanisms associated with the radiation-induced cardiovascular pathologies and the more precise identification of the populations at risk in the future should allow a more effective care of these patients with cardiovascular risk. (authors)

  13. Losartan-antioxidant hybrids: novel molecules for the prevention of hypertension-induced cardiovascular damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Gonzalo; Rodríguez-Puyol, Manuel; Alajarín, Ramón; Serrano, Isabel; Sánchez-Alonso, Patricia; Griera, Mercedes; Vaquero, Juan J; Rodríguez-Puyol, Diego; Alvarez-Builla, Julio; Díez-Marqués, María L

    2009-11-26

    We report the first examples of a new series of antioxidant-sartan hybrids (AO-sartans), which were made by adding an antioxidant fragment to the hydroxymethyl side chain of losartan. Experiments performed in cultured cells demonstrate that these new hybrids retain the ability to block the angiotensin II effect with increased antioxidant ability. In hypertensive rats, these compounds show properties that suggest they may be more useful than losartan for controlling hypertension and preventing hypertension-induced cardiovascular damage.

  14. Modulation of bradykinin-induced gastric-cardiovascular reflexes by histamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, C L; Stahl, G L; Theodossy, S J; Longhurst, J C

    1992-01-01

    Both histamine and bradykinin induce gastric-cardiovascular reflexes and are released during several pathophysiological conditions. This study examined the possibility that histamine modulates the magnitude of the reflex response to stimulation by bradykinin. Thus in chloralose anesthetized cats, the cardiovascular response to stimulation of the gastric serosa with 1 microgram/ml bradykinin was monitored before and after topical application of 100 micrograms/ml histamine (n = 6) or 1 mg/ml diphenhydramine (H1-receptor antagonist) and histamine (n = 5). After application of histamine, bradykinin-induced increases in mean arterial pressure and left ventricular pressure were attenuated by 23 and 27%, respectively. Conversely, when the H1-receptors on the serosal surface of the stomach were blocked (n = 5) before application of histamine, the pressor response to bradykinin was augmented by 26%. To determine the afferents that might contribute to the attenuating effect of histamine, we recorded single unit activity in 14 A delta and 21 C visceral afferent fibers in response to bradykinin stimulation before and after histamine stimulation. We observed that the impulse activity of 10 of the A delta and 14 of the C fibers to bradykinin stimulation was reduced after treatment with histamine. These results suggest that histamine induces an inhibitory effect on the nerve endings of visceral A delta and C fibers to the action of bradykinin through an H1-receptor mechanism. This inhibitory effect attenuates the magnitude of the consequent cardiovascular reflex response.

  15. Risco cardiovascular, efetividade e mortalidade Cardiovascular risk, effectiveness and mortality Riesgo cardiovascular, efectividad y mortalidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gérvas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available

    A Lei de Ferro da Epidemiologia (Ley de Hierro de La Epidemiología diz que todos que nascem, morrem. Por isso, o propósito da Medicina não é evitar a morte por si só, mas evitar as mortes, as doenças e o sofrimento que podem ser medicamente evitáveis.

    No final, todos nossos pacientes morrerão – e nós também, obviamente, morreremos. “Os corpos encontram uma forma de morrer”, e se a causa não for por fome ou desidratação, por motivo congênito e infeccioso, por lesões, câncer ou suicídio, temos que esperar que seja por ‘motivo cardiovascular’, doença pulmonar, insuficiência renal ou hepática, demência ou outras doenças degenerativas. Mas temos que morrer por alguma coisa.

    Morrer por causa cardiovascular não é desonroso, nem refere-se à atenção clínica imperfeita. O fato de a primeira causa de morte ser a cardiovascular não tem nenhuma relação com os cuidados clínicos e nem deveria assustar.

    Entretanto, muitas das mortes por motivo cardiovascular poderiam ser evitadas. Assim, poder-se-ia evitar mortalidade cardiovascular, diminuindo a desigualdade social, por exemplo, com melhor redistribuição da riqueza, melhor educação etc. Os médicos sabem que os fatores adversos psicossociais associados ao fato de pertencer à classe baixa correspondem a 35% do risco atribuído à hipertensão na incidência do infarto do miocárdio (em outra hipótese, pertencer à classe baixa duplica 2,7 tal risco1.

    Também deve-se saber que, contra as mortes cardiovasculares, não há nada como as políticas de saúde pública quanto ao tabagismo (restrições dos lugares onde fumar, aumento do preço do tabaco, campanhas de informação, entre outras.

    Na parte clínica, as mortes cardiovasculares evitáveis devem ser vistas em perspectiva, de acordo com o que seja possível conseguir2. Portanto, por 100.000 habitantes ao ano, o tratamento com inibidores da enzima conversora de angiotensina (IECA

  16. Cardiovascular side effects of psychopharmacologic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potočnjak, Ines; Degoricija, Vesna; Vukičević Baudoin, Dina; Čulig, Josip; Jakovljević, Miro

    2016-09-15

    WHO defined in 1976 psychopharmaca as drugs affecting psychological functions, behaviour and self-perception. Psychopharmacology is the study of pharmacological agents that affect mental and emotional functions. Creative approach to psychopharmacotherapy reflects a transdisciplinary, integrative and person-centered psychiatry. Psychiatric disorders often occur in cardiac patients and can affect the clinical presentation and morbidity. Cardiovascular (CV) side effects (SE) caused by psychopharmaceutic agents require comprehensive attention. Therapeutic approach can increase placebo and decrease nocebo reactions. The main purpose of this review is to comprehend CV SE of psychotropic drugs (PD). Critical overview of CV SE of PD will be presented in this review. Search was directed but not limited to CV effects of psychopharmacological substances, namely antipsychotics, anxiolytics, hypnotics, sedatives, antidepressants and stimulants. Literature review was performed and data identified by searches of Medline and PubMed for period from 2004 to 2015. Only full articles and abstracts published in English were included. SE of PD are organized according to the following types of CV effects: cardiac and circulatory effects, abnormalities of cardiac repolarisation and arrhythmias and heart muscle disease. There is wide spectrum and various CV effects of PD. Results of this review are based on literature research. The reviewed data came largely from prevalence studies, case reports, and cross-sectional studies. Psychopharmacotherapy of psychiatric disorders is complex and when concomitantly present with CV disease, presentation of drug SEs can significantly contribute to illness course. Further development of creative psychopharmacotherapy is required to deal with CV effects of PD. PMID:27352209

  17. Does methylmercury-induced hypercholesterolemia play a causal role in its neurotoxicity and cardiovascular disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Eduardo Luiz; de Oliveira, Jade; Dutra, Márcio Ferreira; Santos, Danúbia Bonfanti; Gonçalves, Carlos Alberto; Goldfeder, Eliane Maria; de Bem, Andreza Fabro; Prediger, Rui Daniel; Aschner, Michael; Farina, Marcelo

    2012-12-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is an environmental pollutant that biomagnifies throughout the aquatic food chain, thus representing a toxicological concern for humans subsiding on fish for their dietary intake. Although the developing brain is considered the critical target organ of MeHg toxicity, recent evidence indicates that the cardiovascular system may be the most sensitive in adults. However, data on the mechanisms mediating MeHg-induced cardiovascular toxicity are scarce. Based on the close relationship between cardiovascular disease and dyslipidemia, this study was designed to investigate the effects of long-term MeHg exposure on plasma lipid levels in mice, as well as their underlying mechanisms and potential relationships to MeHg-induced neurotoxicity. Our major finding was that long-term MeHg exposure induced dyslipidemia in rodents. Specifically, Swiss and C57BL/6 mice treated for 21 days with a drinking solution of MeHg (40 mg/l, ad libitum) diluted in tap water showed increased total and non-HDL plasma cholesterol levels. MeHg-induced hypercholesterolemia was also observed in low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLr⁻/⁻) mice, indicating that this effect was not related to decreased LDLr-mediated cholesterol transport from blood to other tissues. Although the hepatic synthesis of cholesterol was unchanged, significant signs of nephrotoxicity (glomerular shrinkage, tubular vacuolization, and changed urea levels) were observed in MeHg-exposed mice, indicating that the involvement of nephropathy in MeHg-induced lipid dyshomeostasis may not be ruled out. Notably, Probucol (a lipid-lowering drug) prevented the development of hypercholesterolemia when coadministered with MeHg. Finally, hypercholesterolemic LDLr⁻/⁻ mice were more susceptible to MeHg-induced cerebellar glial activation, suggesting that hypercholesterolemia in itself may pose a risk factor in MeHg-induced neurotoxicity. Overall, based on the strong and graded positive association between

  18. Diabetic dyslipidaemia: effective management reduces cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Lawrence A

    2005-05-01

    Patients with diabetes are at significantly increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD); even those patients without a history of a previous myocardial infarction (MI) have as high a risk of a fatal or nonfatal MI as nondiabetic patients with a history of previous MI. As a result it is now generally recommended that cardiovascular risk factors be treated as aggressively in patients with diabetes as in nondiabetic patients with a history of CHD. Results from the recently published Collaborative Atorvastatin Diabetes Study (CARDS) and meta-analysis of primary and secondary interventions trials confirm that there is a uniform relative risk reduction across a wide range of high-risk patients including diabetes patients without established CHD. A highly significant 22-24% reduction in risk of future vascular events is evident when patients with diabetes are treated with statins in trials. Current guidelines, including the recently updated National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) guidelines, endorse aggressive, early intervention in very-high-risk patients, such as those with diabetes plus cardiovascular disease (CVD), regardless of baseline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level in order to achieve an LDL-C goal of 70 mg/dL (1.8 mmol/L). However, despite increasing evidence and knowledge of the value of lipid lowering, a recent survey of diabetes specialists indicates that many patients with diabetes remain untreated or undertreated. The availability of more effective statins should help to close this "action gap", in concert with other measures such as initiatives to improve patient compliance.

  19. Blood donation and cardiovascular disease. Addressing the healthy donor effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peffer, K.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, the possible protective effect of frequent blood donation on cardiovascular disease was studied. Previous research has shown that high iron stores could have damaging effects on developing cardiovascular disease, and that blood donation lowers iron stores. Lowering iron stores throug

  20. Oxidative Stress as a Mechanism of Added Sugar-Induced Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad, Kailash; Dhar, Indu

    2014-01-01

    Added sugars comprising of table sugar, brown sugar, corn syrup, maple syrup, honey, molasses, and other sweeteners in the prepared processed foods and beverages have been implicated in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases. This article deals with the reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a mechanism of sugar-induced cardiovascular diseases. There is an association between the consumption of high levels of serum glucose with cardiovascular diseases. Various sources of sugar-induced gener...

  1. Effect of Allopurinol on Cardiovascular Outcomes in Hyperuricemic Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Søltoft; Pottegård, Anton; Lindegaard, Hanne M;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hyperuricemia and gout have been associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Allopurinol is an effective urate-lowering drug. Whether lowering of urate by allopurinol improves the cardiovascular risk in hyperuricemic patients remains to be established. OBJECTIVE: Our objective...... competing risk regression model, with respect to Antiplatelet Trialists' Collaboration composite outcome (myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death) and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Among 65,971 patients with hyperuricemia, we found 7127 patients on allopurinol treatment. In the propensity...... treatment is associated with a decreased cardiovascular risk among hyperuricemic patients....

  2. Cardiovascular and renal effects of hyperuricaemia and gout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pontremoli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of epidemiological studies have reported an association between serum uric acid levels and a wide variety of high-risk conditions including hypertension, insulin resistance, and kidney and cerebro-cardiovascular disease. All things considered, serum uric acid may induce cardiovascular and kidney events both directly and indirectly by promoting other well-known mechanisms of damage. While asymptomatic hyperuricemia is currently not considered to be an indication for urate lowering therapy, there is growing evidence indicating a linear relationship between pharmacological reduction in serum uric acid and incidence of cardiovascular and renal events.

  3. Trigeminally induced cardiovascular reflex responses in spinalized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ideguchi, S; Hotta, H; Suzuki, A; Umino, M

    2000-03-15

    The effects on cardiovascular functions of noxious stimulation to the orofacial areas innervated by trigeminal afferent nerves were analyzed in urethane-anesthetized, spinal cord-intact rats and in rats acutely spinalized at the second cervical level. In the spinal cord-intact rats, pinching of the upper lip produced increases in both heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). Both responses were considered to be due to activation of sympathetic efferent nerves to the cardiovascular organs. Both responses were attenuated but did not disappear after spinalization at the C2 level. In spinalized rats, sympathetic preganglionic neurons emerging from the thoracolumbar spinal cord could not receive any neural influences from the brain. The HR response in the spinal rats was abolished after either bilateral vagotomy or intravenous injection of a peripherally acting muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist, methylatropine. This suggests that the increase in HR was elicited via vagal cholinergic efferent fibers, probably by decreasing tonic activity of vagus nerves to the heart. In spinal rats, neither vagotomy nor cholinergic blockade affected the increase in MAP, but i.v. injection of the vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist, OPC-21268, abolished the response of MAP. This suggests that the response of MAP was due to peripheral vasoconstriction elicited by vasopressin secreted from the posterior pituitary lobe. The present study demonstrated that, in rats acutely spinalized at the C2 level, noxious stimulation of orofacial areas innervated by the trigeminal nerve could produce reflex increases both in HR, by decreasing cholinergic vagal nerve activity to the heart, and blood pressure, by secreting vasopressin from the pituitary gland, even though sympathetic efferent innervation to the cardiovascular organs could not be directly affected by trigeminal afferent nerve excitation.

  4. Cardiovascular effects of intensive lifestyle intervention in type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weight loss is recommended for overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes on the basis of short-term studies, but long-term effects on cardiovascular disease remain unknown. We examined whether an intensive lifestyle intervention for weight loss would decrease cardiovascular morbidity and mor...

  5. [Cardiovascular effects of GLP-1 receptor agonist treatment: focus on liraglutide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluzík, Martin; Trachta, Pavel; Mráz, Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk reduction is the major aim of type 2 diabetes mellitus treatment. The effects of various antidiabetics on the cardiovascular complications are currently under careful scrutiny. Incretin-based therapy that utilizes the effects of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) or stimulation of its receptor by GLP-1 receptor agonists represents one of the most promising approaches from the potential cardiovascular risk reduction point of view. Experimental studies have shown that the GLP-1 and GLP-1 agonists treatment improves endothelial function, decrease blood pressure and protects myocardium during experimentally-induced ischemia. Clinical studies with GLP-1 receptor agonists consistently show that, in addition to good antidiabetic efficacy, its long-term administration decreases blood pressure, body weight and improves circulating lipid levels while slightly increasing heart rate. In this paper, we focus on the cardiovascular effects of GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide. Preliminary analyses of cardiovascular complications in phase III trials with liraglutide indicate its good cardiovascular safety. A possibility of cardioprotective effects of liraglutide remains still open and is currently studied within a prospective cardiovascular trial LEADER.

  6. Cardiovascular aspects in acromegaly: effects of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, G; Colao, A; Ferone, D; Marzullo, P; Landi, M L; Longobardi, S; Iervolino, E; Cuocolo, A; Fazio, S; Merola, B; Sacca, L

    1996-08-01

    Patients with acromegaly have significant morbidity and mortality, associated with cardiovascular disease. Acromegaly is often complicated by other diseases such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and coronary artery disease, so the existence of acromegalic cardiomyopathy remains uncertain. Cardiac performance was investigated in patients with uncomplicated acromegaly. A subgroup of hypertensive acromegalics was also studied. In addition, the effects of chronic octreotide therapy or surgery on cardiac structure and function in acromegaly were studied. Twenty-six patients and 15 healthy controls underwent gated blood-pool cardiac scintigraphy and echocardiography at rest and during exercise. Echocardiography was repeated after 6 months of octreotide therapy (n = 11). Cardiac scintigraphy was repeated after 12 and 24 months of octreotide therapy (n = 10) or 12 to 24 months after surgery (n = 8). ECG, blood pressure, and heart rate were monitored during cardiac scintigraphy. Left ventricular mass (LVM) was calculated from the findings of the echocardiography. Serum growth hormone (GH) levels and plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels were monitored. LVM index was significantly higher (P cardiac function were similar. Chronic octreotide decreased GH and IGF-1 levels and improved the structural abnormalities as measured by echocardiography. Chronic octreotide or surgery did not alter cardiac function parameters. Thus, important changes in cardiac structure and function occur in uncomplicated acromegaly, and improvements can be demonstrated after chronic octreotide therapy. Heart disease in acromegaly appears to be secondary to high circulating GH levels.

  7. Hydrogen sulfide ameliorates cardiovascular dysfunction induced by cecal ligation and puncture in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, R S; El-Awady, M S; Nader, M A; Ammar, E M

    2015-10-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenously produced gaseous messenger that participates in regulation of cardiovascular functions. This study evaluates the possible protective effect of H2S in cardiovascular dysfunction induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in rats. After 24 h of induction of CLP, heart rate (HR), mortality, cardiac and inflammation biomarkers (creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) isozyme, cardiac troponin I (cTnI), C-reactive protein (CRP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)), in vitro vascular reactivity, histopathological examination, and oxidative biomarkers (malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) were determined. CLP induced elevations in HR, mortality, serum CK-MB, cTnI, CRP, and LDH, in addition to impaired aortic contraction to potassium chloride and phenylephrine and relaxation to acetylcholine without affecting sodium nitroprusside responses. Moreover, CLP increased cardiac and aortic MDA and decreased SOD, without affecting GSH and caused a marked subserosal and interstitial inflammation in endocardium. Sodium hydrosulfide, but not the irreversible inhibitor of H2S synthesis dl-propargyl glycine, protected against CLP-induced changes in HR, mortality, cardiac and inflammatory biomarkers, oxidative stress, and myocardium histopathological changes without affecting vascular dysfunction. Our results confirm that H2S can attenuate CLP-induced cardiac, but not vascular, dysfunction possibly through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects.

  8. Leptin-Induced Sympathetic Nerve Activation: Signaling Mechanisms and Cardiovascular Consequences in Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmouni, Kamal

    2010-01-01

    Obesity increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in part by inducing hypertension. One factor linking excess fat mass to cardiovascular diseases may be the sympathetic cardiovascular actions of leptin. Initial studies of leptin showed it regulates appetite and enhances energy expenditure by activating sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) to thermogenic brown adipose tissue. Further study, however, demonstrated leptin also causes sympathetic excitation to the kidney that, in turn, increase...

  9. Chemical composition and cardiovascular effects induced by the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus DC. Stapf, Poaceae, in rats Composição química e efeitos cardiovasculares do óleo essencial de Cymbopogon citratus DC. Stapf, Poaceae, em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia V. Moreira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cymbopogon citratus DC. Stapf, Poaceae, is used in the folk medicine for hypertension treatment. This work investigated the chemical composition and cardiovascular effects in rats of C. citratus essential oil (EOCC. A phytochemical screening demonstrated the presence of eight constituents, being geranial the major compound (43.08%. In rats, EOCC (1, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, i.v. induced transient hypotension and bradycardia that were attenuated by atropine and sodium thiopental, but not by L-NAME or indomethacin. In rings of rat superior mesenteric artery pre-contracted with phenylephrine, EOCC (1 to 3000 µg/mL induced relaxation that was not affected after removal of the endothelium, after TEA or in rings pre-contracted with KCl (80 mM. Furthermore, EOCC (1000 µg/mL was not able to induce additional effect on maximal relaxation of nifedipine (10 µM. In conclusions, EOCC induces hypotension, possibly by reduction in vascular resistance caused by inhibition of the Ca2+ influx, and bradycardia probably due to an activation of cardiac muscarinic receptors.C. citratus é utilizada na medicina popular para tratar hipertensão. Este trabalho investigou a composição química e os efeitos cardiovasculares do óleo essencial do C. citratus (OECC. Foram identificados oito constituintes no OECC, sendo geranial o majoritário (43,08%. Em ratos, o OECC (1, 5, 10 e 20 mg/kg, i.v. induziu hipotensão e bradicardia que foram atenuadas pela atropina e tiopental sódico, mas não por L-NAME ou indometacina. Em anéis de artéria mesentérica de ratos pré-contraídos com fenilefrina, o OECC (1 a 3000 µg/mL induziu relaxamento que não foi afetado após remoção do endotélio, após TEA ou em anéis pré-contraídos com KCl (80 mM. Além disso, o OECC (1000 µg/mL não induziu efeito adicional sobre o relaxamento máximo da nifedipina (10 µM. Em conclusão, o OECC induz hipotensão possivelmente devido à redução da resistência vascular que pode ser causada

  10. A pilot study on pupillary and cardiovascular changes induced by stereoscopic video movies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugita Norihiro

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taking advantage of developed image technology, it is expected that image presentation would be utilized to promote health in the field of medical care and public health. To accumulate knowledge on biomedical effects induced by image presentation, an essential prerequisite for these purposes, studies on autonomic responses in more than one physiological system would be necessary. In this study, changes in parameters of the pupillary light reflex and cardiovascular reflex evoked by motion pictures were examined, which would be utilized to evaluate the effects of images, and to avoid side effects. Methods Three stereoscopic video movies with different properties were field-sequentially rear-projected through two LCD projectors on an 80-inch screen. Seven healthy young subjects watched movies in a dark room. Pupillary parameters were measured before and after presentation of movies by an infrared pupillometer. ECG and radial blood pressure were continuously monitored. The maximum cross-correlation coefficient between heart rate and blood pressure, ρmax, was used as an index to evaluate changes in the cardiovascular reflex. Results Parameters of pupillary and cardiovascular reflexes changed differently after subjects watched three different video movies. Amplitudes of the pupillary light reflex, CR, increased when subjects watched two CG movies (movies A and D, while they did not change after watching a movie with the real scenery (movie R. The ρmax was significantly larger after presentation of the movie D. Scores of the questionnaire for subjective evaluation of physical condition increased after presentation of all movies, but their relationship with changes in CR and ρmax was different in three movies. Possible causes of these biomedical differences are discussed. Conclusion The autonomic responses were effective to monitor biomedical effects induced by image presentation. Further accumulation of data on multiple autonomic

  11. Acute chemotherapy-induced cardiovascular changes in patients with testicular cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuver, J; Smit, AJ; van der Meer, J; van den Berg, MP; van der Graaf, WTA; Meinardi, MT; Sleijfer, DT; Hoekstra, HJ; van Gessel, AI; van Roon, AM; Gietema, JA

    2005-01-01

    Purpose; After cisplatin- and bleomycin-containing chemotherapy for testicular cancer, part of the patient population will develop acute or long-term cardiovascular toxicity. It is largely unknown whether standard tests can be used to assess chemotherapy-induced cardiovascular changes. Patients and

  12. Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise: Research in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Maschke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on systematic noise effects started in Germany back in the fifties with basic experimental studies on humans. As a result, noise was classified as a non-specific stressor, which could cause an ergotropic activation of the complete organism. In the light of this background research a hypothesis was proposed that long-term noise exposure could have an adverse effect on health. This hypothesis was further supported by animal studies. Since the sixties, the adverse effects of chronic road traffic noise exposure were further examined in humans with the help of epidemiological studies. More epidemiological aircraft noise studies followed in the 1970s and thereafter. The sample size was increased, relevant confounding factors were taken into account, and the exposure and health outcomes were investigated objectively and with higher quality measures. To date, more than 20 German epidemiological traffic noise studies have focused on noise-induced health effects, mainly on the cardiovascular system. In particular, the newer German noise studies demonstrate a clear association between residential exposure to traffic noise (particularly night noise and cardiovascular outcomes. Nevertheless, additional research is needed, particularly on vulnerable groups and multiple noise exposures. The epidemiological findings have still not been fully considered in German regulations, particularly for aircraft noise. The findings, however, were taken into account in national recommendations. The Federal Environment Agency recommends noise rating levels of 65 dB(A for the day and 55 dB(A for the night, as a short-term goal. In the medium term, noise rating levels of 60 / 50 (day, night should be reached and noise rating levels of 55 / 45 in the long run.

  13. Cardiovascular effects of Adonis aestivalis in anesthetized sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maham, Masoud; Sarrafzadeh-Rezaei, Farshid

    2014-01-01

    Adonis aestivalis (summer pheasant-eye) is an annual plant with a crimson flower, distributed in southern Europe and Asia. The plant has large buttercup-like blossoms and soft, fern-like leaves. It blooms in spring and is often found as a weed in cereal fields. Like other Adonis spp., the plant produces cardiac glycosides. It is used in remedies for mild weakness of the heart, especially when accompanied by nervous complaints. Cardiovascular and toxic effects of a hydroalcoholic extract from the aerial parts of A. aestivalis were investigated in sheep and mice. Six male sheep were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital and arterial blood pressure was measured with a transducer connected to the left femoral artery. Heart rate and electrocardiogram (ECG) were registered from lead base-apex ECG derivatives connected to a Powerlab recorder. Three successive equal doses (75 mg kg(-1)) of the hydroalcoholic extract of A. aestivalis intravenously administered to anesthetized sheep. Adonis aestivalis extract induced a significant bradycardia and hypotension in sheep. Various ECG abnormalities in sheep included sinus arrhythmia, shortened and depressed S-T interval, and absence of P wave and flattened or inverted T wave. In addition, ventricular arrhythmias, bradyarrhythmias, atrioventricular block, ventricular premature beats, ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation have also been observed. The acute intraperitoneal toxicity (LD50) of the extract in mice was 2150 mg kg(-1). In conclusion, bradycardia and ECG alterations induced by the extract could explain the justification of traditional use of the of Adonis aestivalis in treating cardiovascular insufficiency. PMID:25568718

  14. The effects of cardiovascular exercise on human memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roig, Marc; Nordbrandt, Sasja; Geertsen, Svend Sparre;

    2013-01-01

    We reviewed the evidence for the use of cardiovascular exercise to improve memory and explored potential mechanisms. Data from 29 and 21 studies including acute and long-term cardiovascular interventions were retrieved. Meta-analyses revealed that acute exercise had moderate (SMD=0.26; 95% CI=0.0.......03, 0.49; p=0.03; N=22) whereas long-term had small (SMD=0.15; 95% CI=0.02, 0.27; p=0.02; N=37) effects on short-term memory. In contrast, acute exercise showed moderate to large (SMD=0.52; 95% CI=0.28, 0.75; p......We reviewed the evidence for the use of cardiovascular exercise to improve memory and explored potential mechanisms. Data from 29 and 21 studies including acute and long-term cardiovascular interventions were retrieved. Meta-analyses revealed that acute exercise had moderate (SMD=0.26; 95% CI=0...

  15. Beneficial effects of chocolate on cardiovascular health | Efectos beneficiosos del chocolate en la salud cardiovascular

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Juaristi, Miren; L. González-Torres; Bravo, Laura; Vaquero, M. Pilar; Bastida, Sara; Sánchez-Muniz, F. J.

    2011-01-01

    Since ancient times, numerous health beneficial effects have been attributed to chocolate, closing up its consumption to a therapeutic use. The present study reviews some relevant studies about chocolate (and its bioactive compounds) on some cardiovascular risk factors and stresses the need of future studies. The consumption of cocoa/ chocolate (i) increases plasma antioxidant capacity, (ii) diminishes platelet function and inflammation, and (iii) decreases diastolic and systolic arterial pre...

  16. Microgravity-induced cardiovascular deconditioning:mechanisms and countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-qing SUN

    2012-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that individuals exposed to actual or simulated microgravity often experience cardiovascular dysfunctions when returning to Earth.The underlying mechanisms of orthostatic intolerance and countermeasure treatment are still poorly understood.In this paper,the progress in the mechanism of cardiovascular deconditioning from the view of vascular remodeling,increased venous compliance in the lower limbs,cellular proliferation and differentiation,and cell signaling pathway was reviewed.Meanwhile,an overview of the countermeasures including exercise,lower body negative pressure,thigh cuffs,traditional Chinese herb medicine and artificial gravity was presented.

  17. Opioid and non-opioid central cardiovascular effects of ketamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, S; Mukherjee, D; Choudhary, A K; Sinha, J N; Gurtu, S

    1990-11-01

    The cardiovascular responses to ketamine injected intracisternally were examined in chloralose anaesthetized cats. Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded at different time intervals after intracisternal injection of drug or saline vehicle. The low doses of ketamine (0.5 or 1.0 mg) elicited dose dependent increase in blood pressure and heart rate. In contrast the high dose of ketamine (4 mg), produced a fall in blood pressure and heart rate. The cardiovascular response elicited by the low dose was naloxone insensitive and completely blocked by haloperidol, but not by dopamine antagonist pimozide. The vasodepressor and bradycardiac effect of the 4 mg dose was naloxone antagonizable. These data show that excitatory cardiovascular effects of the low dose result from a naloxone resistant site while in high doses an inhibitory effect is elicited by action at naloxone sensitive opiate receptors. PMID:1965327

  18. Do the carotid body chemoreceptors mediate cardiovascular and sympathetic adjustments induced by sodium overload in rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrino, Gustavo R; Mourão, Aline A; Moreira, Marina C S; da Silva, Elaine F; Lopes, Paulo R; Fajemiroye, James O; Schoorlemmer, Guss H M; Sato, Mônica A; Reis, Ângela A S; Rebelo, Ana C S; Cravo, Sergio L

    2016-05-15

    Acute plasma hypernatremia induces several cardiovascular and sympathetic responses. It is conceivable that these responses contribute to rapid sodium excretion and restoration of normal conditions. Afferent pathways mediating these responses are not entirely understood. The present study analyses the effects of acute carotid chemoreceptor inactivation on cardiovascular and sympathetic responses induced by infusion of hypertonic saline (HS). All experiments were performed on anesthetized male Wistar rats instrumented for recording of arterial blood pressure (ABP), renal blood flow (RBF) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). Animals were subjected to sham surgery or carotid chemoreceptor inactivation by bilateral ligation of the carotid body artery (CBA). In sham rats (n=8), intravenous infusion of HS (3 M NaCl, 1.8 ml/kg b.wt.) elicited a transient increase (9±2mmHg) in ABP, and long lasting (30 min) increases in RBF (138±5%) and renal vascular conductance (RVC) (128±5%) with concurrent decrease in RSNA (-19±4%). In rats submitted to CBA ligation (n=8), the pressor response to HS was higher (24±2mmHg; p<0.05). However, RBF and RVC responses to HS infusion were significantly reduced (113±5% and 93±4%, respectively) while RSNA was increased (13±2%). When HS (3M NaCl, 200μl) was administrated into internal carotid artery (ICA), distinct sympathetic and cardiovascular responses were observed. In sham-group, HS infusion (3M NaCl, 200μl) into ICA promoted an increase in ABP (26±8mmHg) and RSNA (29±13%). In CBA rats, ABP (-3±5.6mmHg) remained unaltered despite sympathoinhibition (-37.6±5.4%). These results demonstrate that carotid body chemoreceptors play a role in the development of hemodynamic and sympathetic responses to acute HS infusion. PMID:27060222

  19. Efectos beneficiosos del chocolate en la salud cardiovascular Beneficial effects of chocolate on cardiovascular health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gómez-Juaristi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Desde la antigüedad se ha atribuido al chocolate propiedades saludables que lo han aproximado más hacia un uso terapéutico que alimentario. El presente trabajo revisa algunos estudios relevantes de los efectos del chocolate (y sus componentes activos sobre diferentes factores de riesgo cardiovascular y señala la necesidad de futuros estudios. El consumo de cacao/chocolate (i incrementa la actividad antioxidante, (ii modula la función plaquetaria e inflamación y (iii disminuye la presión arterial sistólica y diastólica. Aunque no existe consenso sobre la cantidad óptima a consumir, puede sugerirse que el consumo diario de chocolate rico en cacao (y polifenoles es una buena elección para reducir, al menos parcialmente, el riesgo cardiovascular. No obstante, son necesarios más estudios que profundicen sobre la biodisponibilidad y mecanismos de acción de los componentes activos del chocolate. El estudio de la interacción del chocolate y sus componentes con genes candidatos aportará información fundamental de los individuos "diana" que podrían beneficiarse del potencial efecto saludable del chocolate en el tratamiento cardiovascular.Since ancient times, numerous health beneficial effects have been attributed to chocolate, closing up its consumption to a therapeutic use. The present study reviews some relevant studies about chocolate (and its bioactive compounds on some cardiovascular risk factors and stresses the need of future studies. The consumption of cocoa/ chocolate (i increases plasma antioxidant capacity, (ii diminishes platelet function and inflammation, and (iii decreases diastolic and systolic arterial pressures. Data currently available indicate that daily consumption of cocoa-rich chocolate (rich in polyphenols may at least partially lower cardiovascular disease risk. Further studies are required in order to establish the bioavailability and mechanisms of action of bioactive compounds in chocolate. The study of the

  20. Cardiovascular effects of current and future anti-obesity drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comerma-Steffensen, Simon; Grann, Martin; Andersen, Charlotte;

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity increases and is associated with increases in co-morbidities e.g. type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, obstructive sleep apnea, heart disease, stroke, asthma, several forms of cancer, depression, and may result in reduction of expected remaining lifespan. We have...... reviewed the adverse effects on the cardiovascular system of anti-obesity drugs now retracted from the market as well as the cardiovascular profile of current drugs and potential pathways which are considered for treatment of obesity. Fenfluramine, and sibutramine were withdrawn due to increased...... side effects need to be clarified regarding phentermine and lorcaserin. Drugs approved for type 2 diabetes including glucagon like peptide (GLP-1) analogues and metformin also cause moderate weight losses and have a favourable cardiovascular profile, while the anti-obesity potential of nebivolol...

  1. Sertraline inhibits formalin-induced nociception and cardiovascular responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.H. Santuzzi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the antihyperalgesic effect of sertraline, measured indirectly by the changes of sciatic afferent nerve activity, and its effects on cardiorespiratory parameters, using the model of formalin-induced inflammatory nociception in anesthetized rats. Serum serotonin (5-HT levels were measured in order to test their correlation with the analgesic effect. Male Wistar rats (250-300 g were divided into 4 groups (N = 8/per group: sertraline-treated group (Sert + Saline (Sal and Sert + Formalin (Form; 3 mg·kg-1·day-1, ip, for 7 days and saline-treated group (Sal + Sal and Sal + Form. The rats were injected with 5% (50 µL formalin or saline into the right hind paw. Sciatic nerve activity was recorded using a silver electrode connected to a NeuroLog apparatus, and cardiopulmonary parameters (mean arterial pressure, heart rate and respiratory frequency, assessed after arterial cannulation and tracheotomy, were monitored using a Data Acquisition System. Blood samples were collected from the animals and serum 5-HT levels were determined by ELISA. Formalin injection induced the following changes: sciatic afferent nerve activity (+50.8 ± 14.7%, mean arterial pressure (+1.4 ± 3 mmHg, heart rate (+13 ± 6.8 bpm, respiratory frequency (+4.6 ± 5 cpm and serum 5-HT increased to 1162 ± 124.6 ng/mL. Treatment with sertraline significantly reduced all these parameters (respectively: +19.8 ± 6.9%, -3.3 ± 2 mmHg, -13.1 ± 10.8 bpm, -9.8 ± 5.7 cpm and serum 5-HT level dropped to 634 ± 69 ng/mL (P < 0.05. These results suggest that sertraline plays an analgesic role in formalin-induced nociception probably through a serotonergic mechanism.

  2. Sertraline inhibits formalin-induced nociception and cardiovascular responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santuzzi, C.H. [Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Futuro Neto, H.A. [Departamento de Morfologia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Escola de Medicina da Empresa Brasileira de Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Escola Superior de Ciências da Saúde, Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Vitória, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Pires, J.G.P. [Escola de Medicina da Empresa Brasileira de Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Centro Universitário do Espírito Santo, Colatina, ES (Brazil); Gonçalves, W.L.S. [Centro Universitário do Espírito Santo, Colatina, ES (Brazil); Tiradentes, R.V.; Gouvea, S.A.; Abreu, G.R. [Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil)

    2011-11-18

    The objective of the present study was to determine the antihyperalgesic effect of sertraline, measured indirectly by the changes of sciatic afferent nerve activity, and its effects on cardiorespiratory parameters, using the model of formalin-induced inflammatory nociception in anesthetized rats. Serum serotonin (5-HT) levels were measured in order to test their correlation with the analgesic effect. Male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were divided into 4 groups (N = 8 per group): sertraline-treated group (Sert + Saline (Sal) and Sert + Formalin (Form); 3 mg·kg{sup −1}·day{sup −1}, ip, for 7 days) and saline-treated group (Sal + Sal and Sal + Form). The rats were injected with 5% (50 µL) formalin or saline into the right hind paw. Sciatic nerve activity was recorded using a silver electrode connected to a NeuroLog apparatus, and cardiopulmonary parameters (mean arterial pressure, heart rate and respiratory frequency), assessed after arterial cannulation and tracheotomy, were monitored using a Data Acquisition System. Blood samples were collected from the animals and serum 5-HT levels were determined by ELISA. Formalin injection induced the following changes: sciatic afferent nerve activity (+50.8 ± 14.7%), mean arterial pressure (+1.4 ± 3 mmHg), heart rate (+13 ± 6.8 bpm), respiratory frequency (+4.6 ± 5 cpm) and serum 5-HT increased to 1162 ± 124.6 ng/mL. Treatment with sertraline significantly reduced all these parameters (respectively: +19.8 ± 6.9%, -3.3 ± 2 mmHg, -13.1 ± 10.8 bpm, -9.8 ± 5.7 cpm) and serum 5-HT level dropped to 634 ± 69 ng/mL (P < 0.05). These results suggest that sertraline plays an analgesic role in formalin-induced nociception probably through a serotonergic mechanism.

  3. Cardiovascular responses induced by obstructive apnea are enhanced in hypertensive rats due to enhanced chemoreceptor responsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angheben, Juliana M M; Schoorlemmer, Guus H M; Rossi, Marcio V; Silva, Thiago A; Cravo, Sergio L

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), like patients with sleep apnea, have hypertension, increased sympathetic activity, and increased chemoreceptor drive. We investigated the role of carotid chemoreceptors in cardiovascular responses induced by obstructive apnea in awake SHR. A tracheal balloon and vascular cannulas were implanted, and a week later, apneas of 15 s each were induced. The effects of apnea were more pronounced in SHR than in control rats (Wistar Kyoto; WKY). Blood pressure increased by 57±3 mmHg during apnea in SHR and by 28±3 mmHg in WKY (pchemoreceptors were then inactivated by the ligation of the carotid body artery, and apneas were induced two days later. The inactivation of chemoreceptors reduced the responses to apnea and abolished the difference between SHR and controls. The apnea-induced hypertension was 11±4 mmHg in SHR and 8±4 mmHg in WKY. The respiratory effort was 15±2 mmHg in SHR and 15±2 mmHg in WKY. The heart rate fell 63±18 bpm in SHR and 52±14 bpm in WKY. Similarly, when the chemoreceptors were unloaded by the administration of 100% oxygen, the responses to apnea were reduced. In conclusion, arterial chemoreceptors contribute to the responses induced by apnea in both strains, but they are more important in SHR and account for the exaggerated responses of this strain to apnea.

  4. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenza, Gregg L

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac function is required for blood circulation and systemic oxygen delivery. However, the heart has intrinsic oxygen demands that must be met to maintain effective contractility. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that functions as a master regulator of oxygen homeostasis in all metazoan species. HIF-1 controls oxygen delivery, by regulating angiogenesis and vascular remodeling, and oxygen utilization, by regulating glucose metabolism and redox homeostasis. Analysis of animal models suggests that by activation of these homeostatic mechanisms, HIF-1 plays a critical protective role in the pathophysiology of ischemic heart disease and pressure-overload heart failure. PMID:23988176

  5. Cardiovascular effects of acrylic bone cement in rabbits and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelling, D; Butterworth, K R

    1973-06-16

    The cardiovascular responses to forcing acrylic bone cement, Plasticine, or soft paraffin wax into the medullary cavity of the femur have been studied in rabbits and cats. An acute fall in blood pressure, occurring within a few seconds of insertion, was demonstrated with each substance. In a few of the animals the blood pressure response had a second more protracted component and it is suggested that more than one mechanism is involved. The cardiovascular effects that have been observed in man when acrylic cement is used in prosthetic hip surgery also may be due to more than one mechanism. PMID:4714847

  6. Recent Research Advances in Ivabradine and Its Cardiovascular Effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao GAO

    2009-01-01

    Elevated heart rate is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The inhibitor of funny current (Ⅰ (f)), a hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel current, ivabradine is a new agent selectively reduc-ing heart rate devoid of other cardiovascular effects, which has come into the market in Europe for more than 3 years. It has been approved that pure heart rate reduction by ivabradine can improve myocardial ischemia, endothelial function and myocardial contractile function. Long-term administration will not increase all-cause mortality. Its therapeutic value in stable coronary artery disease has been verified in clinical practice, while in other fields of cardiovascular diseases still needs more evidence-based medical research. This article is a review about its recent research advances in experi-mental and clinical studies.

  7. Individual Effect Modifiers of Dust Exposure Effect on Cardiovascular Morbidity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Vodonos

    Full Text Available High concentrations of particulate matter (PM air pollution have been associated with death and hospital admissions due to cardiovascular morbidity. However, it is not clear a whether high levels of non-anthropogenic PM from dust storms constitute a health risk; and b whether these health risks are exacerbated in a particular demographic.This study comprised all patients above 18 years old admitted to Soroka University Medical Center (1000 bed tertiary hospital, Be'er-Sheva, Israel, 2001-2010 with a primary diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS. Data on meteorological parameters and PM10 (particulate matter <10 μm in aerodiameter were obtained from monitoring stations in the city of Be'er-Sheva. Data were analyzed using a case crossover analysis to examine the effect of dust exposure on hospitalization due to ACS and the interaction with co-morbidities and demographic factors.There were 16,734 hospitalizations due to ACS during the study period. The estimated odds of hospitalization due to ACS was significantly associated with PM10 during non dust storm days at the same day of the exposure (lag0; OR = 1.014 (95%CI 1.001-1.027 for a 10 μg/m3 increase, while a delayed response (lag1 was found during the dust storm days; OR = 1.007 (95%CI 1.002-1.012. The effect size for the dust exposure association was larger for older (above the age of 65, female or Bedouin patients.Exposure to non-anthropogenic PM is associated with cardiovascular morbidity. Health risk associated dust exposure is gender and age specific with older women and Bedouin patients being the most vulnerable groups.

  8. Covariation of phasic cortical and cardiovascular responses: Effects of alertness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.M. van der Veen; L.J.M. Mulder; G. Mulder

    1999-01-01

    Effects of maintaining an alert state on event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and evoked cardiovascular responses were examined in an auditory detection task. Subjects were instructed to detect a possible difference in frequency between two successively presented tones in 5 s periods. Two types of

  9. Avocado Oil Supplementation Modifies Cardiovascular Risk Profile Markers in a Rat Model of Sucrose-Induced Metabolic Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Octavio Carvajal-Zarrabal; Cirilo Nolasco-Hipolito; M. Guadalupe Aguilar-Uscanga; Guadalupe Melo-Santiesteban; Patricia M. Hayward-Jones; Barradas-Dermitz, Dulce M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of avocado oil administration on biochemical markers of cardiovascular risk profile in rats with metabolic changes induced by sucrose ingestion. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: a control group (CG; basic diet), a sick group (MC; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution), and three other groups (MCao, MCac, and MCas; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution plus olive oil and avocado oil extracted by centrifugation or using solvent,...

  10. Naringin Improves Diet-Induced Cardiovascular Dysfunction and Obesity in High Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kathleen Kauter; Md Ashraful Alam; Lindsay Brown

    2013-01-01

    Obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and fatty liver, together termed metabolic syndrome, are key risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Chronic feeding of a diet high in saturated fats and simple sugars, such as fructose and glucose, induces these changes in rats. Naturally occurring compounds could be a cost-effective intervention to reverse these changes. Flavonoids are ubiquitous secondary plant metabolites; naringin gives the bitter taste to grapefruit. This study has evaluated th...

  11. Malnutrition alters the cardiovascular responses induced by central injection of tityustoxin in Fischer rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fernanda Cacilda Santos; Guidine, Patrícia Alves; Ribeiro, Mara Fernandes; Fernandes, Luciano Gonçalves; Xavier, Carlos Henrique; de Menezes, Rodrigo Cunha; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Moraes-Santos, Tasso; Moraes, Márcio Flávio; Chianca, Deoclécio Alves

    2013-12-15

    Scorpion envenoming and malnutrition are considered two important public health problems in Brazil, involving mainly children. Both these conditions are more common among the economically stratified lower income portion of the population, thus suggesting that these factors should be analyzed concomitantly. It is known that cardiorespiratory manifestations, as cardiac arrhythmias, arterial hypertension and hypotension, pulmonary edema and circulatory failure are the main "causa mortis" of scorpion envenomation. Additionally, there are evidences in the literature that deficiencies in dietary intake endanger the CNS and modify the cardiovascular homeostasis. Then, the objective of this work is to evaluate the protein malnourished effect on cardiovascular responses induced by tityustoxin (TsTX, an α-type toxin extracted from the Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom). Fischer rats (n = 20) were injected i.c.v. with TsTX and divided in control and malnorished groups, which were, respectively, submitted to a control and a low-protein diet. Arterial pressure recordings were done until death of the animals. Although both groups presented an increased mean arterial pressure after TsTX injection, this increase was smaller and delayed in malnourished rats, when compared to control rats. In addition, heart rate increased only in rats from the control group. Finally, malnourished rats had an increase in survival time (9:9/13.5 vs. 15.5:10.5/18 min; p = 0.0009). In summary, our results suggest that the protein restriction attenuates the cardiovascular manifestations resulting from TsTX action on CNS. PMID:24060375

  12. Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise: Research in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gösta Bluhm

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Sweden, as in many other European countries, traffic noise is an important environmental health issue. At present, almost two million people are exposed to average noise levels exceeding the outdoor national guideline value (55 dB(A. Despite efforts to reduce the noise burden, noise-related health effects, such as annoyance and sleep disturbances, are increasing. The scientific interest regarding more serious health effects related to the cardiovascular system is growing, and several experimental and epidemiological studies have been performed or are ongoing. Most of the studies on cardiovascular outcomes have been related to noise from road or aircraft traffic. Few studies have included railway noise. The outcomes under study include morning saliva cortisol, treatment for hypertension, self-reported hypertension, and myocardial infarction. The Swedish studies on road traffic noise support the hypothesis of an association between long-term noise exposure and cardiovascular disease. However, the magnitude of effect varies between the studies and has been shown to depend on factors such as sex, number of years at residence, and noise annoyance. Two national studies have been performed on the cardiovascular effects of aircraft noise exposure. The first one, a cross-sectional study assessing self-reported hypertension, has shown a 30% risk increase per 5 dB(A noise increase. The second one, which to our knowledge is the first longitudinal study assessing the cumulative incidence of hypertension, found a relative risk (RR of 1.10 (95% CI 1.01 - 1.19 per 5 dB(A noise increase. No associations have been found between railway noise and cardiovascular diseases. The findings regarding noise-related health effects and their economic consequences should be taken into account in future noise abatement policies and community planning.

  13. Effects of exercise on cardiovascular performance in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo eVigorito

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Progressive Aging induces several structural and functional alterations in the cardiovascular system, among whom particularly important are a reduced number of myocardial cell and of increased interstitial collagen fibers, which result in impaired LV diastolic function. Even in the absence of cardiovascular disease, aging is strongly associated to a age-related reduced maximal aerobic capacity. This is due to a variety of physiological changes both at central and at peripheral level; among central factors, a reduced maximal heart rate (HR response to exercise due to beta1 receptors down-regulation plays a major role; among peripheral factors, progressive aging is associated to peripheral muscle cell biochemical and functional changes including reduction of skeletal muscle cells, decrease of Myosin Heavy Chain (MHC I and IIa muscle fibers and impaired muscle oxidative capacity

  14. Cardiovascular and ventilatory responses to electrically induced cycling with complete epidural anaesthesia in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, M; Perko, G; Secher, N H;

    1994-01-01

    Cardiovascular and ventilatory responses to electrically induced dynamic exercise were investigated in eight healthy young males with afferent neural influence from the legs blocked by epidural anaesthesia (25 ml 2% lidocaine) at L3-L4. This caused cutaneous sensory anaesthesia below T8-T9...... with epidural anaesthesia [93 +/- 3 (rest) to 95 +/- 5 mmHg (exercise)]. As there is ample evidence for similar cardiovascular and ventilatory responses to electrically induced and voluntary exercise (Strange et al. 1993), the present results support the fact that the neural input from working muscle is crucial...

  15. Sauna as a valuable clinical tool for cardiovascular, autoimmune, toxicant- induced and other chronic health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinnion, Walter J

    2011-09-01

    Sauna therapy has been used for hundreds of years in the Scandinavian region as a standard health activity. Studies document the effectiveness of sauna therapy for persons with hypertension, congestive heart failure, and for post-myocardial infarction care. Some individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic fatigue, chronic pain, or addictions also find benefit. Existing evidence supports the use of saunas as a component of depuration (purification or cleansing) protocols for environmentally-induced illness. While far-infrared saunas have been used in many cardiovascular studies, all studies applying sauna for depuration have utilized saunas with radiant heating units. Overall, regular sauna therapy (either radiant heat or far-infrared units) appears to be safe and offers multiple health benefits to regular users. One potential area of concern is sauna use in early pregnancy because of evidence suggesting that hyperthermia might be teratogenic.

  16. Diesel exhaust induced pulmonary and cardiovascular impairment: The role of hypertension intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodavanti, Urmila P., E-mail: kodavanti.urmila@epa.gov [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL), Office of Research and Development (ORD), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency - EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Thomas, Ronald F.; Ledbetter, Allen D.; Schladweiler, Mette C.; Bass, Virginia; Krantz, Q. Todd; King, Charly [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL), Office of Research and Development (ORD), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency - EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Nyska, Abraham [Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Richards, Judy E. [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL), Office of Research and Development (ORD), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency - EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Andrews, Debora [Research Core Unit, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Gilmour, M. Ian [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL), Office of Research and Development (ORD), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency - EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) and associated gases is linked to cardiovascular impairments; however, the susceptibility of hypertensive individuals is poorly understood. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine cardiopulmonary effects of gas-phase versus whole-DE and (2) to examine the contribution of systemic hypertension in pulmonary and cardiovascular effects. Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats were treated with hydralazine to reduce blood pressure (BP) or L-NAME to increase BP. Spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats were treated with hydralazine to reduce BP. Control and drug-pretreated rats were exposed to air, particle-filtered exhaust (gas), or whole DE (1500 μg/m{sup 3}), 4 h/day for 2 days or 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Acute and 4-week gas and DE exposures increased neutrophils and γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT) activity in lavage fluid of WKY and SH rats. DE (4 weeks) caused pulmonary albumin leakage and inflammation in SH rats. Two-day DE increased serum fatty acid binding protein-3 (FABP-3) in WKY. Marked increases occurred in aortic mRNA after 4-week DE in SH (eNOS, TF, tPA, TNF-α, MMP-2, RAGE, and HMGB-1). Hydralazine decreased BP in SH while L-NAME tended to increase BP in WKY; however, neither changed inflammation nor BALF γ-GT. DE-induced and baseline BALF albumin leakage was reduced by hydralazine in SH rats and increased by L-NAME in WKY rats. Hydralazine pretreatment reversed DE-induced TF, tPA, TNF-α, and MMP-2 expression but not eNOS, RAGE, and HMGB-1. ET-1 was decreased by HYD. In conclusion, antihypertensive drug treatment reduces gas and DE-induced pulmonary protein leakage and expression of vascular atherogenic markers. - Highlights: ► Acute diesel exhaust exposure induces pulmonary inflammation in healthy rats. ► In hypertensive rats diesel exhaust effects are seen only after long term exposure. ► Normalizing blood pressure reverses lung protein leakage caused by diesel exhaust. ► Normalizing blood pressure reverses

  17. Diesel exhaust induced pulmonary and cardiovascular impairment: The role of hypertension intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) and associated gases is linked to cardiovascular impairments; however, the susceptibility of hypertensive individuals is poorly understood. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine cardiopulmonary effects of gas-phase versus whole-DE and (2) to examine the contribution of systemic hypertension in pulmonary and cardiovascular effects. Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats were treated with hydralazine to reduce blood pressure (BP) or L-NAME to increase BP. Spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats were treated with hydralazine to reduce BP. Control and drug-pretreated rats were exposed to air, particle-filtered exhaust (gas), or whole DE (1500 μg/m3), 4 h/day for 2 days or 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Acute and 4-week gas and DE exposures increased neutrophils and γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT) activity in lavage fluid of WKY and SH rats. DE (4 weeks) caused pulmonary albumin leakage and inflammation in SH rats. Two-day DE increased serum fatty acid binding protein-3 (FABP-3) in WKY. Marked increases occurred in aortic mRNA after 4-week DE in SH (eNOS, TF, tPA, TNF-α, MMP-2, RAGE, and HMGB-1). Hydralazine decreased BP in SH while L-NAME tended to increase BP in WKY; however, neither changed inflammation nor BALF γ-GT. DE-induced and baseline BALF albumin leakage was reduced by hydralazine in SH rats and increased by L-NAME in WKY rats. Hydralazine pretreatment reversed DE-induced TF, tPA, TNF-α, and MMP-2 expression but not eNOS, RAGE, and HMGB-1. ET-1 was decreased by HYD. In conclusion, antihypertensive drug treatment reduces gas and DE-induced pulmonary protein leakage and expression of vascular atherogenic markers. - Highlights: ► Acute diesel exhaust exposure induces pulmonary inflammation in healthy rats. ► In hypertensive rats diesel exhaust effects are seen only after long term exposure. ► Normalizing blood pressure reverses lung protein leakage caused by diesel exhaust. ► Normalizing blood pressure reverses atherogenic

  18. Monosodium glutamate neonatal treatment induces cardiovascular autonomic function changes in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signorá Peres Konrad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate cardiovascular autonomic function in a rodent obesity model induced by monosodium glutamate injections during the first seven days of life. METHOD: The animals were assigned to control (control, n = 10 and monosodium glutamate (monosodium glutamate, n = 13 groups. Thirty-three weeks after birth, arterial and venous catheters were implanted for arterial pressure measurements, drug administration, and blood sampling. Baroreflex sensitivity was evaluated according to the tachycardic and bradycardic responses induced by sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine infusion, respectively. Sympathetic and vagal effects were determined by administering methylatropine and propranolol. RESULTS: Body weight, Lee index, and epididymal white adipose tissue values were higher in the monosodium glutamate group in comparison to the control group. The monosodium glutamate-treated rats displayed insulin resistance, as shown by a reduced glucose/insulin index (-62.5%, an increased area under the curve of total insulin secretion during glucose overload (39.3%, and basal hyperinsulinemia. The mean arterial pressure values were higher in the monosodium glutamate rats, whereas heart rate variability (>7 times, bradycardic responses (>4 times, and vagal (~38% and sympathetic effects (~36% were reduced as compared to the control group. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that obesity induced by neonatal monosodium glutamate treatment impairs cardiac autonomic function and most likely contributes to increased arterial pressure and insulin resistance.

  19. Effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the cardiovascular system after oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhangjian; Wang, Yun; Zhuo, Lin; Chen, Shi; Zhao, Lin; Luan, Xianguo; Wang, Haifang; Jia, Guang

    2015-12-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) have been widely used in various consumer products, especially food and personal care products. Compared to the well-characterized adverse cardiovascular effect of inhaled ambient ultrafine particles, research on the health response to orally administrated TiO2 NPs is still limited. In our study, we performed an in vivo study in Sprague-Dawley rats to understand the cardiovascular effect of TiO2 NPs after oral intake. After daily gastrointestinal administration of TiO2 NPs at 0, 2, 10, 50 mg/kg for 30 and 90 days, heart rate (HR), blood pressure, blood biochemical parameters and histopathology of cardiac tissues was assessed to quantify cardiovascular damage. Mild and temporary reduction of HR and systolic blood pressure as well as an increase of diastolic blood pressure was observed after daily oral administration of TiO2 NPs for 30 days. Injury of cardiac function was observed after daily oral administration of TiO2 NPs for 90 days as reflected in decreased activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alpha-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBDH) and creatine kinase (CK). Increased white blood cells count (WBC) and granulocytes (GRN) in blood as well as increased concentrations of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in the serum indicated inflammatory response initiated by TiO2 NPs exposure. It was hypothesize that cardiac damage and inflammatory response are the possible mechanisms of the adverse cardiovascular effects induced by orally administrated TiO2 NPs. Data from our study suggested that even at low dose of TiO2 NPs can induce adverse cardiovascular effects after 30 days or 90 days of oral exposure, thus warranting concern for the dietary intake of TiO2 NPs for consumers.

  20. Cardiovascular Effects of Acute Organophosphate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Laudari

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion:Cardiac effects of OP poisoning can be life-threatening. Prompt diagnosis, early supportive and definitive therapies with atropine and oximes along with vigilant monitoring of the patients for prominent cardiac effects such as QT prolongation, VT or VF during hospital stay can definitely save lives of the victims.

  1. EFECTOS DE LOS MEDICAMENTOS CARDIOVASCULARES SOBRE EL GLOBO OCULAR / Effects of cardiovascular drugs on the eyeball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caridad Peraza Martínez

    2013-01-01

    ophthalmology offices, and many of drugs used for these conditions may cause undesirable effects on the eyeball. The objective of this research was to determine the adverse reactions caused by the consumption of these drugs in the visual organ, and highlight their contraindications in people affected by eye disease. Method: A literature search was performed using specialized texts, and the drugs that could produce ocular adverse reactions were identified, as well as those that were contraindicated in ophthalmic diseases. Results: A total of 276 medications were reviewed and 72 (26.08% were selected. Blurred vision (38/72, decreased visual acuity (21/72 and dizziness (16/72 were the most common adverse reactions associated with the use of cardiovascular drugs. The six medications that are contraindicated in these patients are exposed, as well as the 14 that should be prescribed with extreme caution in diseases such as glaucoma, optic atrophy, hypertensive retinopathy and migraine, among others. Conclusions: It was found that 72 drugs (26.08% used in cardiovascular disease may produce some ocular symptoms as an adverse reaction. Blurred vision, decreased visual acuity and dizziness were predominant. It is extremely important to conduct a good medical interview to know the patient´s medical history and avoid the use of drugs that are useful for a disease but harmful for another one. The doctor, knowingly, will weigh the risk / benefit of those drugs that are essential.

  2. A STUDY OF CARDIOVASCULAR AND ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECTS OF TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA

    OpenAIRE

    Jorige Archana et al

    2012-01-01

    Tinospora cordifolia is known for a wide range of medicinal properties. In this study, cardiovascular and antimicrobial properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Tinospora cordifolia were evaluated. Dose dependent negative ionotropic and chronotropic effects were observed with both aqueous and ethanolic extracts. The effects were antagonized by atropine indicating involvement of muscarinic receptors. Maximum antimicrobial activity was found with ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia...

  3. The cardiovascular effects of metformin: lost in translation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riksen, N.P.; Tack, C.J.J.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In overweight patients with diabetes, treatment with metformin improves cardiovascular outcomes. This observation has fuelled the hypothesis that metformin has direct cardiovascular protective properties over and above glucose lowering. Here, we discuss the various cardiovascular

  4. Antioxidative Diet Supplementation Reverses High-Fat Diet-Induced Increases of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Vargas-Robles

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a worldwide epidemic that is characterized not only by excessive fat deposition but also by systemic microinflammation, high oxidative stress, and increased cardiovascular risk factors. While diets enriched in natural antioxidants showed beneficial effects on oxidative stress, blood pressure, and serum lipid composition, diet supplementation with synthetic antioxidants showed contradictive results. Thus, we tested in C57Bl/6 mice whether a daily dosage of an antioxidative mixture consisting of vitamin C, vitamin E, L-arginine, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid (corabion would affect cardiovascular risk factors associated with obesity. Obese mice showed increased serum triglyceride and glucose levels and hypertension after eight weeks of being fed a high-fat diet (HFD. Importantly, corabion ameliorated all of these symptoms significantly. Oxidative stress and early signs of systemic microinflammation already developed after two weeks of high-fat diet and were significantly reduced by daily doses of corabion. Of note, the beneficial effects of corabion could not be observed when applying its single antioxidative components suggesting that a combination of various nutrients is required to counteract HFD-induced cardiovascular risk factors. Thus, daily consumption of corabion may be beneficial for the management of obesity-related cardiovascular complications.

  5. Cardiovascular Effects of Antidepressants and Mood Stabilizers

    OpenAIRE

    Shahin Akhondzadeh; Javad Maleki

    2007-01-01

    Depression is a serious disorder in today’s society, with the estimates of lifetime prevalence being as high as 21% of the general population in some developed countries. As defined by the American Psychiatric Association, depression is a heterogeneous disorder often manifested with symptoms at the psychological, behavioral, and physiological levels. Such patients are often reluctant to take synthetic antidepressants in their appropriate doses due to their anticipated side effects including i...

  6. Variability in Ozone-Induced Pulmonary Injury and Inflammation in Healthy and Cardiovascular Compromised Rat Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    The molecular bases for variability in air pollutant-induced pulmonary injury due to underlying cardiovascular (CVD) and/or metabolic diseases are unknown. We hypothesized that healthy and genetic CVD-prone rat models will exhibit exacerbated response to acute ozone exposure depe...

  7. Effects of pirarubicin, an antitumor antibiotic, on the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, S; Agata, N; Hara, Y; Iguchi, H; Shirai, M; Tone, H; Urakawa, N

    1991-01-01

    In the present study we examined the effects of pirarubicin [(2"R)-4'-O-tetrahydropyranyladriamycin, THP] on a cardiovascular system. An injection of THP (0.39-3.13 mg/kg, i.v.) reduced the mean blood pressure and caused an increase in the respiratory air rate in anesthetized rats. At 1.5 x 10(-6)-1.5 x 10(-5) M, THP markedly relaxed a contraction induced by 10(-7) M norepinephrine in rat aorta with endothelium but not in that without endothelium. At a dose of 0.02-0.5 mg, THP produced an increase in the contractile force and the perfusion flow of isolated perfused guinea pig hearts. At a higher concentration (4.5 x 10(-5)-1.5 x 10(-4) M), it produced a slight increase in the contractile force of the left atria in guinea pigs. This positive inotropic action of THP was inhibited by diphenhydramine (10(-6)-5 x 10(-5) M), chlorpheniramine (3 x 10(-7)-3 x 10(-5) M), and tripelennamine (3 x 10(-7)-3 x 10(-5) M) but not by propranolol (10(-6) M), cimetidine (10(-5) M), diltiazem (10(-6) M), or ryanodine (10(-8) M). THP given i.v. at 2.5 mg/kg elevated the plasma histamine level in anesthetized dogs. From these data, we conclude that THP mainly relaxed the rat aorta in the presence of endothelium and that at higher concentrations, it increased the contractile force in the cardiac muscle, probably mediated through the release of histamine.

  8. Effects of artificial gravity on the cardiovascular system: Computational approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Artiles, Ana; Heldt, Thomas; Young, Laurence R.

    2016-09-01

    Artificial gravity has been suggested as a multisystem countermeasure against the negative effects of weightlessness. However, many questions regarding the appropriate configuration are still unanswered, including optimal g-level, angular velocity, gravity gradient, and exercise protocol. Mathematical models can provide unique insight into these questions, particularly when experimental data is very expensive or difficult to obtain. In this research effort, a cardiovascular lumped-parameter model is developed to simulate the short-term transient hemodynamic response to artificial gravity exposure combined with ergometer exercise, using a bicycle mounted on a short-radius centrifuge. The model is thoroughly described and preliminary simulations are conducted to show the model capabilities and potential applications. The model consists of 21 compartments (including systemic circulation, pulmonary circulation, and a cardiac model), and it also includes the rapid cardiovascular control systems (arterial baroreflex and cardiopulmonary reflex). In addition, the pressure gradient resulting from short-radius centrifugation is captured in the model using hydrostatic pressure sources located at each compartment. The model also includes the cardiovascular effects resulting from exercise such as the muscle pump effect. An initial set of artificial gravity simulations were implemented using the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Compact-Radius Centrifuge (CRC) configuration. Three centripetal acceleration (artificial gravity) levels were chosen: 1 g, 1.2 g, and 1.4 g, referenced to the subject's feet. Each simulation lasted 15.5 minutes and included a baseline period, the spin-up process, the ergometer exercise period (5 minutes of ergometer exercise at 30 W with a simulated pedal cadence of 60 RPM), and the spin-down process. Results showed that the cardiovascular model is able to predict the cardiovascular dynamics during gravity changes, as well as the expected

  9. Cardiovascular Effects of Sevelamer in Stage 3 CKD

    OpenAIRE

    Chue, Colin D; Townend, Jonathan N; Moody, William E.; Zehnder, Daniel; Wall, Nadezhda A.; Harper, Lorraine; Edwards, Nicola C.; Steeds, Richard P.; Ferro, Charles J

    2013-01-01

    Serum phosphate independently predicts cardiovascular mortality in the general population and CKD, even when levels are in the normal range. Associations between serum phosphate, arterial stiffness, and left ventricular (LV) mass suggest a possible pathophysiological mechanism, potentially mediated by the phosphaturic hormone fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23). To what extent the phosphate binder sevelamer modulates these effects is not well understood. In this single-center, randomized, do...

  10. Cardiovascular effects of Adonis aestivalis in anesthetized sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Maham, Masoud; Sarrafzadeh-Rezaei, Farshid

    2014-01-01

    Adonis aestivalis (summer pheasant-eye) is an annual plant with a crimson flower, distributed in southern Europe and Asia. The plant has large buttercup-like blossoms and soft, fern-like leaves. It blooms in spring and is often found as a weed in cereal fields. Like other Adonis spp., the plant produces cardiac glycosides. It is used in remedies for mild weakness of the heart, especially when accompanied by nervous complaints. Cardiovascular and toxic effects of a hydroalcoholic extract from ...

  11. Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise: Research in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Lercher; Dick Botteldooren; Ulrich Widmann; Ulrich Uhrner; Ewald Kammeringer

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular effects of noise rank second in terms of disability-adjusted life year (DALYs) after annoyance. Although research during the past decade has consolidated the available data base, the most recent meta-analysis still shows wide confidence intervals - indicating imprecise information for public health risk assessment. The alpine area of Tyrol in the Austrian part of the Alps has experienced a massive increase in car and heavy goods traffic (road and rail) during the last 35 years....

  12. Leptin and its cardiovascular effects: Focus on angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoya Tahergorabi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptin is an endocrine hormone synthesized by adipocytes. It plays a key role in the energy homeostasis in central and peripheral tissues and has additional roles are attributed to it, such as the regulation of reproduction, immune function, bone homeostasis, and angiogenesis. The plasma concentration of leptin significantly increases in obese individuals. In the present review, we give an introduction concerning leptin, its receptors, signaling pathways, and its effect on cardiovascular system, especially on angiogenesis.

  13. Methylmercury Exposure and Adverse Cardiovascular Effects in Faroese Whaling Men

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Anna Lai; Weihe, Pal; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Jørgensen, Poul J.; Jukka T Salonen; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Murata, Katsuyuki; Nielsen, Hans Petur; Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Askham, Jórun; Grandjean, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Background: Methylmercury (MeHg), a worldwide contaminant found in fish and seafood, has been linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. Objective: We examined 42 Faroese whaling men (30–70 years of age) to assess possible adverse effects within a wide range of MeHg exposures from consumption of pilot whale meat. Methods: We assessed exposure levels from mercury analysis of toenails and whole blood (obtained at the time of clinical examination), and a hair sample collected 7 yea...

  14. Effects of palm oil on cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Y H; Ng, T K

    1991-03-01

    A major public health concern of affluent nations is the excessive consumption of dietary fats which are now closely linked to coronary heart disease. Against this scenario, the tropical oils and palm oil in particular, have been cast as major villains in the U.S.A., despite the fact that palm oil consumption there is negligible. The unsuspecting public may not realise that the call to avoid palm oil is nothing more than a trade ploy since in recent years palm oil has been very competitive and has gained a major share of the world's edible oils and fats market. Many also lose sight of the fact that, palm oil, like other edible oils and fats, is an important component of the diet. The allegation that palm oil consumption leads to raised blood cholesterol levels and is therefore atherogenic is without scientific foundation. Examination of the chemical and fatty acid composition of palm oil or its liquid fraction should convince most nutritionists that the oil has little cholesterol-raising potential. The rationale for these are: it is considered cholesterol free. its major saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid (16:0) has recently been shown to be neutral in its cholesterolaemic effect, particularly in situations where the LDL receptors have not been down-regulated by dietary means or through a genetic effect. palm oil contains negligible amounts (less than 1.5%) of the hypercholesterolemic saturated fatty acids, namely lauric acid (12:0) and myristic acid (14:0). it has moderately rich amounts of the hypocholesterolaemic, monounsaturated oleic acid (18:1, omega-9) and adequate amounts of linoleic acid. (18:2, omega-6). It contains minor components such as the vitamin E tocotrienols which are not only powerful antioxidants but are also natural inhibitors of cholesterol synthesis. Feeding experiments in various animal species and humans also do not support the allegation that palm oil is atherogenic. On the contrary, palm oil consumption reduces blood cholesterol in

  15. Independent effects of early-life experience and trait aggression on cardiovascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Samir; Pugh, Phyllis C; Katz, Erin; Stringfellow, Sara A; Lin, Chee Paul; Wyss, J Michael; Stauss, Harald M; White, C Roger; Clinton, Sarah M; Kerman, Ilan A

    2016-08-01

    Early-life experience (ELE) can significantly affect life-long health and disease, including cardiovascular function. Specific dimensions of emotionality also modify risk of disease, and aggressive traits along with social inhibition have been established as independent vulnerability factors for the progression of cardiovascular disease. Yet, the biological mechanisms mediating these associations remain poorly understood. The present study utilized the inherently stress-susceptible and socially inhibited Wistar-Kyoto rats to determine the potential influences of ELE and trait aggression (TA) on cardiovascular parameters throughout the lifespan. Pups were exposed to maternal separation (MS), consisting of daily 3-h separations of the entire litter from postnatal day (P)1 to P14. The rats were weaned at P21, and as adults were instrumented for chronic radiotelemetry recordings of blood pressure and heart rate (HR). Adult aggressive behavior was assessed using the resident-intruder test, which demonstrated that TA was independent of MS exposure. MS-exposed animals (irrespective of TA) had significantly lower resting HR accompanied by increases in HR variability. No effects of MS on resting blood pressure were detected. In contrast, TA correlated with increased resting mean, systolic, and diastolic arterial pressures but had no effect on HR. TA rats (relative to nonaggressive animals) also manifested increased wall-to-lumen ratio in the thoracic aorta, increased sensitivity to phenylephrine-induced vascular contractility, and increased norepinephrine content in the heart. Together these data suggest that ELE and TA are independent factors that impact baseline cardiovascular function.

  16. Independent effects of early-life experience and trait aggression on cardiovascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Samir; Pugh, Phyllis C; Katz, Erin; Stringfellow, Sara A; Lin, Chee Paul; Wyss, J Michael; Stauss, Harald M; White, C Roger; Clinton, Sarah M; Kerman, Ilan A

    2016-08-01

    Early-life experience (ELE) can significantly affect life-long health and disease, including cardiovascular function. Specific dimensions of emotionality also modify risk of disease, and aggressive traits along with social inhibition have been established as independent vulnerability factors for the progression of cardiovascular disease. Yet, the biological mechanisms mediating these associations remain poorly understood. The present study utilized the inherently stress-susceptible and socially inhibited Wistar-Kyoto rats to determine the potential influences of ELE and trait aggression (TA) on cardiovascular parameters throughout the lifespan. Pups were exposed to maternal separation (MS), consisting of daily 3-h separations of the entire litter from postnatal day (P)1 to P14. The rats were weaned at P21, and as adults were instrumented for chronic radiotelemetry recordings of blood pressure and heart rate (HR). Adult aggressive behavior was assessed using the resident-intruder test, which demonstrated that TA was independent of MS exposure. MS-exposed animals (irrespective of TA) had significantly lower resting HR accompanied by increases in HR variability. No effects of MS on resting blood pressure were detected. In contrast, TA correlated with increased resting mean, systolic, and diastolic arterial pressures but had no effect on HR. TA rats (relative to nonaggressive animals) also manifested increased wall-to-lumen ratio in the thoracic aorta, increased sensitivity to phenylephrine-induced vascular contractility, and increased norepinephrine content in the heart. Together these data suggest that ELE and TA are independent factors that impact baseline cardiovascular function. PMID:27280432

  17. Cardiovascular responses induced by obstructive apnea are enhanced in hypertensive rats due to enhanced chemoreceptor responsivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana M M Angheben

    Full Text Available Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, like patients with sleep apnea, have hypertension, increased sympathetic activity, and increased chemoreceptor drive. We investigated the role of carotid chemoreceptors in cardiovascular responses induced by obstructive apnea in awake SHR. A tracheal balloon and vascular cannulas were implanted, and a week later, apneas of 15 s each were induced. The effects of apnea were more pronounced in SHR than in control rats (Wistar Kyoto; WKY. Blood pressure increased by 57±3 mmHg during apnea in SHR and by 28±3 mmHg in WKY (p<0.05, n = 14/13. The respiratory effort increased by 53±6 mmHg in SHR and by 34±5 mmHg in WKY. The heart rate fell by 209±19 bpm in SHR and by 155±16 bpm in WKY. The carotid chemoreceptors were then inactivated by the ligation of the carotid body artery, and apneas were induced two days later. The inactivation of chemoreceptors reduced the responses to apnea and abolished the difference between SHR and controls. The apnea-induced hypertension was 11±4 mmHg in SHR and 8±4 mmHg in WKY. The respiratory effort was 15±2 mmHg in SHR and 15±2 mmHg in WKY. The heart rate fell 63±18 bpm in SHR and 52±14 bpm in WKY. Similarly, when the chemoreceptors were unloaded by the administration of 100% oxygen, the responses to apnea were reduced. In conclusion, arterial chemoreceptors contribute to the responses induced by apnea in both strains, but they are more important in SHR and account for the exaggerated responses of this strain to apnea.

  18. Cardiovascular effects of intravenous ghrelin infusion in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Esben Thyssen; Andersen, Niels Holmark; Hansen, Troels Krarup;

    2007-01-01

    Ghrelin infusion improves cardiac function in patients suffering from cardiac failure, and bolus administration of ghrelin increases cardiac output in healthy subjects. The cardiovascular effects of more continuous intravenous ghrelin exposure remain to be studied. We therefore studied the cardio......Ghrelin infusion improves cardiac function in patients suffering from cardiac failure, and bolus administration of ghrelin increases cardiac output in healthy subjects. The cardiovascular effects of more continuous intravenous ghrelin exposure remain to be studied. We therefore studied...... the cardiovascular effects of a constant infusion of human ghrelin at a rate of 5 pmol/kg per minute for 180 min. Fifteen healthy, young (aged 23.2 ± 0.5 yr), normal-weight (23.0 ± 0.4 kg/m2) men volunteered in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. With the subjects remaining fasting, peak...... myocardial systolic velocity S′, tissue tracking TT, left ventricular ejection fraction EF, and endothelium-dependent flow-mediated vasodilatation were measured. Ghrelin infusion increased S′ 9% (P = 0.002) and TT 10% (P

  19. Cardiovascular Effects of Saffron: An Evidence-Based Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Akhondzadeh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicine can be a valuable source of assistance for traditional medicine. There are a number of herbs that can beused in conjunction with modern medicine. Herbs can also be taken to aid recovery from serious diseases. Although one should never aim to treat diseases such as cardiovascular disease solely with herbal medicine, the value of herbs used in tandem with modern medicine cannot be ignored. Saffron has been reported to help lower cholesterol and keep cholesterol levels healthy.Animal studies have shown saffron to lower cholesterol by as much as 50%. Saffron has antioxidant properties; it is, therefore,helpful in maintaining healthy arteries and blood vessels. Saffron is also known to have anti-inflammatory properties, which are beneficial to cardiovascular health. The people of Mediterranean countries, where saffron use is common, have lower than normal incidence of heart diseases. From saffron's cholesterol lowering benefits to its anti inflammatory properties,saffron may be one of the best supplements for cardiac health. This paper reviews the studies regarding the beneficial effects of saffron in cardiovascular health.

  20. A STUDY OF CARDIOVASCULAR AND ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECTS OF TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorige Archana et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tinospora cordifolia is known for a wide range of medicinal properties. In this study, cardiovascular and antimicrobial properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Tinospora cordifolia were evaluated. Dose dependent negative ionotropic and chronotropic effects were observed with both aqueous and ethanolic extracts. The effects were antagonized by atropine indicating involvement of muscarinic receptors. Maximum antimicrobial activity was found with ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia (15mm against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The organism showed resistance to aqueous extract giving an inhibition zone of 0.3mm. The data suggest that Tinospora cordifolia could be of benefit in arrhythmias and microbial infections.

  1. Hypoxia Stress Test Reveals Exaggerated Cardiovascular Effects in Hypertensive Rats after Exposure to the Air Pollutant Acrolein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in susceptible populations with cardiovascular disease. Stress tests are useful in assessing cardiovascular risk and manifesting latent effects of exposure. The goal of this study w...

  2. Functional Task Test: 2. Spaceflight-Induced Cardiovascular Change and Recovery During NASA's Functional Task Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Tiffany; Arzeno, Natalia M.; Stenger, Michael; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Platts, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    The overall objective of the functional task test (FTT) is to correlate spaceflight-induced physiological adaptations with changes in performance of high priority exploration mission-critical tasks. This presentation will focus on the recovery from fall/stand test (RFST), which measures the cardiovascular response to the transition from the prone posture (simulated fall) to standing in normal gravity, as well as heart rate (HR) during 11 functional tasks. As such, this test describes some aspects of spaceflight-induced cardiovascular deconditioning and the course of recovery in Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) astronauts. The sensorimotor and neuromuscular components of the FTT are described in two separate abstracts: Functional Task Test 1 and 3.

  3. Functional ingredients and cardiovascular protective effect of pumpkin seed oils

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Okbi, S. Y.; Mohamed, D. A.; Kandil, E.; Ahmed, E. K.; Mohammed, S. E.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the cardiovascular protective effect of Egyptian and European umpkin seed oil (PSO) in hypercholesterolemic rats. Tocopherols, fatty acids (FAs) and unsaponifiable matter (UNSAP) were assessed in both oils. The results showed that α-tocopherol was 108 and 273, γ-tocopherol was 3.95 and 0 and d-tocopherol was 0 and 1.58 mg·100 g-1 oil of the Egyptian and European, respectively. GLC analysis of FAs revealed the presence of linoleic acid as the...

  4. Damaging effects of hyperglycemia on cardiovascular function: spotlight on glucose metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapanga, Rudo F; Essop, M Faadiel

    2016-01-15

    The incidence of cardiovascular complications associated with hyperglycemia is a growing global health problem. This review discusses the link between hyperglycemia and cardiovascular diseases onset, focusing on the role of recently emerging downstream mediators, namely, oxidative stress and glucose metabolic pathway perturbations. The role of hyperglycemia-mediated activation of nonoxidative glucose pathways (NOGPs) [i.e., the polyol pathway, hexosamine biosynthetic pathway, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and protein kinase C] in this process is extensively reviewed. The proposal is made that there is a unique interplay between NOGPs and a downstream convergence of detrimental effects that especially affect cardiac endothelial cells, thereby contributing to contractile dysfunction. In this process the AGE pathway emerges as a crucial mediator of hyperglycemia-mediated detrimental effects. In addition, a vicious metabolic cycle is established whereby hyperglycemia-induced NOGPs further fuel their own activation by generating even more oxidative stress, thereby exacerbating damaging effects on cardiac function. Thus NOGP inhibition, and particularly that of the AGE pathway, emerges as a novel therapeutic intervention for the treatment of cardiovascular complications such as acute myocardial infarction in the presence hyperglycemia.

  5. Nano zerovalent iron particles induce pulmonary and cardiovascular toxicity in an in vitro human co-culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhelin; Yang, Lingyan; Chen, Ku-Fan; Chen, Guan-Wen; Peng, Yen-Ping; Chen, Jen-Kun; Suo, Guangli; Yu, Jiantao; Wang, Wen-Cheng; Lin, Chia-Hua

    2016-09-01

    Despite promising environmental applications for nano zerovalent iron (nZVI), concerns remain about the potential accumulation and toxic effects of nZVI particles. Here, we use an alveolar-capillary co-culture model to investigate a possible link between low-level epithelial exposure to nZVI and pulmonary and cardiovascular toxicity. While nZVI was unable to pass through the epithelial barrier into the endothelium, nZVI exposure did cause oxidative and inflammatory responses in both epithelial and endothelial cells. Therefore, toxic effects induced by nZVI are not restricted to epithelial cells but can be transferred into the endothelium. Communication between A549 and EA.hy926 cells is responsible for amplification of nZVI-induced toxic responses. Decreases in transepithelial electrical resistance and zonula occludens proteins after epithelial exposure to nZVI impaired epithelial barrier integrity. Increases in oxidized α1-antitrypsin and oxidized low-density lipoprotein in the co-culture model suggest that nZVI exposure increases the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and atherosclerosis. Therefore, inhalation of nZVI has the potential to induce cardiovascular disease through oxidative and inflammatory mediators produced from the damaged lung epithelium in chronic lung diseases. PMID:26694701

  6. ED 07-4 IS EXERCISE-INDUCED HYPERTENSION ASSOCIATED WITH ADVERSE CARDIOVASCULAR OUTCOMES?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, James

    2016-09-01

    Millions of clinical exercise stress tests are conducted annually worldwide. The fundamental rationale underlying the conduct of these tests is that cardiovascular irregularities may be revealed during an exercise bout that would otherwise remain unnoticed if testing was only conducted under resting conditions. In order to reveal electrocardiographic abnormalities indicative of cardiac disease, maximal intensity exercise may need to be undertaken, whereas the presence of hypertension can be revealed by the blood pressure response at low to moderate intensity exercise. Therefore, exercise blood pressure measured carefully under standardised conditions should be a useful tool to identify individuals at increased cardiovascular risk. Independent investigators have consistently shown that exercise blood pressure at low to moderate intensities predicts adverse cardiovascular outcomes independent from resting blood pressure and conventional cardiovascular risk factors. This talk will present evidence in support of exercise-induced hypertension as a clinical observation requiring additional follow up care. Future needs in terms of better understanding the mechanisms of exercise hypertension and determination of exercise hypertension thresholds will also be detailed. PMID:27642909

  7. Mitochondrial N-formyl peptides induce cardiovascular collapse and sepsis-like syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenceslau, Camilla Ferreira; McCarthy, Cameron G; Szasz, Theodora; Goulopoulou, Styliani; Webb, R Clinton

    2015-04-01

    Fifty percent of trauma patients who present sepsis-like syndrome do not have bacterial infections. This condition is known as systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). A unifying factor of SIRS and sepsis is cardiovascular collapse. Trauma and severe blood loss cause the release of endogenous molecules known as damage-associated molecular patterns. Mitochondrial N-formyl peptides (F-MIT) are damage-associated molecular patterns that share similarities with bacterial N-formylated peptides and are potent immune system activators. The goal of this study was to investigate whether F-MIT trigger SIRS, including hypotension and vascular collapse via formyl peptide receptor (FPR) activation. We evaluated cardiovascular parameters in Wistar rats treated with FPR or histamine receptor antagonists and inhibitors of the nitric oxide pathway before and after F-MIT infusion. F-MIT, but not nonformylated peptides or mitochondrial DNA, induced severe hypotension via FPR activation and nitric oxide and histamine release. Moreover, F-MIT infusion induced hyperthermia, blood clotting, and increased vascular permeability. To evaluate the role of leukocytes in F-MIT-induced hypotension, neutrophil, basophil, or mast cells were depleted. Depletion of basophils, but not neutrophils or mast cells, abolished F-MIT-induced hypotension. Rats that underwent hemorrhagic shock increased plasma levels of mitochondrial formylated proteins associated with lung damage and antagonism of FPR ameliorated hemorrhagic shock-induced lung injury. Finally, F-MIT induced vasodilatation in isolated resistance arteries via FPR activation; however, F-MIT impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation in the presence of blood. These data suggest that F-MIT may be the link among trauma, SIRS, and cardiovascular collapse.

  8. Berberine: metabolic and cardiovascular effects in preclinical and clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arrigo FG Cicero

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Arrigo FG Cicero1, Sibel Ertek21Internal Medicine, Aging and Kidney Diseases Department, Sant’Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy; 2Ufuk University, Medical Faculty, Dr Ridvan Ege Hospital, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Ankara, TurkeyAbstract: Berberine is a plant alkaloid with numerous biological activities. A large body of preclinical in vitro and in vivo studies support different pharmacological actions of berberine that could be potentially useful in the management of metabolic diseases associated with high cardiovascular disease risk, such as mixed hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. Moreover, it seems that berberine also exerts anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative effects that could play a role in the development of atherosclerosis and its clinical consequences. Recently, the metabolic effects of berberine have been demonstrated in humans, opening new perspectives for the use of this molecule in patient therapy. Larger and longer clinical studies need to be carried out to implement the definition of the therapeutic role of berberine in humans.Keywords: berberine, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cholesterol

  9. Explosive type of moderate-resistance training induces functional, cardiovascular, and molecular adaptations in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltran Valls, Maria Reyes; Dimauro, Ivan; Brunelli, Andrea;

    2014-01-01

    Current recommendations aimed at reducing neuromuscular and functional loss in aged muscle have identified muscle power as a key target for intervention trials, although little is known about the biological and cardiovascular systemic response in the elderly. This study investigated the effects...... of 12 weeks of low-frequency, moderate-intensity, explosive-type resistance training (EMRT) on muscle strength and power in old community-dwelling people (70-75 years), monitoring functional performance linked to daily living activities (ADL) and cardiovascular response, as well as biomarkers of muscle...

  10. Particle-induced pulmonary acute phase response may be the causal link between particle inhalation and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saber, Anne T.; Jacobsen, Nicklas R.; Jackson, Petra;

    2014-01-01

    Inhalation of ambient and workplace particulate air pollution is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. One proposed mechanism for this association is that pulmonary inflammation induces a hepatic acute phase response, which increases risk of cardiovascular disease. Induction...... epidemiological studies. In this review, we present and review emerging evidence that inhalation of particles (e.g., air diesel exhaust particles and nanoparticles) induces a pulmonary acute phase response, and propose that this induction constitutes the causal link between particle inhalation and risk...

  11. Diesel Exhaust-Induced Pulmonary and Cardiovascular Impairment: The Role of Hypertension Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background–Exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) particles and associated gases is linked to cardiovascular impairments; however the susceptibility of hypertensive individuals is less well understood. Objective–1) To determine cardiopulmonary effects of gas-phase versus whole-DE, and 2...

  12. Antidiabetic treatment with gliptins: focus on cardiovascular effects and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisman, Enrique Z; Tenenbaum, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    events. Anyway, it should be emphasized that the encouraging results from basic science were not yet translated into clinical evidence, probably due the multiple and pleiotropic enzymatic effects of DPP4 inhibition. Moreover, when employing saxagliptin, while the drug was not associated with an augmented risk for ischemic events, it should be pinpointed that the rate of hospitalization for heart failure was significantly increased. Gliptins as a group constitute a widely accepted therapy for the management of T2DM, usually as a second-line medication. Nonetheless, for the time being, a definite relationship between gliptins treatment and improved cardiovascular outcomes remains uncertain and needs yet to be proven.

  13. Naringin Improves Diet-Induced Cardiovascular Dysfunction and Obesity in High Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Kauter

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and fatty liver, together termed metabolic syndrome, are key risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Chronic feeding of a diet high in saturated fats and simple sugars, such as fructose and glucose, induces these changes in rats. Naturally occurring compounds could be a cost-effective intervention to reverse these changes. Flavonoids are ubiquitous secondary plant metabolites; naringin gives the bitter taste to grapefruit. This study has evaluated the effect of naringin on diet-induced obesity and cardiovascular dysfunction in high carbohydrate, high fat-fed rats. These rats developed increased body weight, glucose intolerance, increased plasma lipid concentrations, hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis, liver inflammation and steatosis with compromised mitochondrial respiratory chain activity. Dietary supplementation with naringin (approximately 100 mg/kg/day improved glucose intolerance and liver mitochondrial dysfunction, lowered plasma lipid concentrations and improved the structure and function of the heart and liver without decreasing total body weight. Naringin normalised systolic blood pressure and improved vascular dysfunction and ventricular diastolic dysfunction in high carbohydrate, high fat-fed rats. These beneficial effects of naringin may be mediated by reduced inflammatory cell infiltration, reduced oxidative stress, lowered plasma lipid concentrations and improved liver mitochondrial function in rats.

  14. THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS OF CARBONATED MINERAL WATERS IN CARDIOVASCULAR REHABILITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogaru Gabriela

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbonated water baths represent a method used for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases in some spa resorts in Romania. Carbonated mineral waters are the result of the filtration of depth waters through volcanic soils that contain carbon dioxide. The most important effect is the direct effect of carbon dioxide, which is absorbed through the skin, with an absorption coefficient of 30-35 ml/min/sqm body surface area. An excitation of vascular receptors and a dilation of dermal papillae, responsible for skin erythema, occur. The effects of the carbonated water bath on the cardiovascular system are the following: decrease of peripheral resistance by the direct action of carbon dioxide on arterioles and arteriovenous anastomoses; increase of both systolic and diastolic cardiac output, not by central mechanism as in the case of hot baths, but initially, by passive peripheral vasodilation, without increased venous return; subsequently, by accumulation in the cutaneous venous system, venous return towards the right heart will be increased, with a higher diastolic filling and a higher stroke volume. Carbonated water baths increase arteriolar blood flow in the skin, the vasodilator effect being directly proportional to the carbon dioxide concentration in the mineral bath. The effect of external carbonated water treatment is based on mechanical and thermal action, as well as on the chemical properties of carbon dioxide, its influence being either local or postabsorptive. Carbonated water baths are a therapeutic method that is also used in the treatment facilities of the Baile Tusnad spa resort, under the supervision of qualified medical experts, in a pleasant environment close to nature.

  15. Methylmercury exposure and adverse cardiovascular effects in Faroese whalingmen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Anna L; Weihe, Pál; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Methylmercury (MeHg), a worldwide contaminant found in fish and seafood, has been linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. OBJECTIVE: We examined 42 Faroese whaling men (30-70 years of age) to assess possible adverse effects within a wide range of MeHg exposures from...... consumption of pilot whale meat. METHODS: We assessed exposure levels from mercury analysis of toenails and whole blood (obtained at the time of clinical examination), and a hair sample collected 7 years previously. Outcome measures included heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure (BP), common carotid...... intima-media thickness (IMT), and brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP). We carried out multiple regression and structural equation model (SEM) analyses to determine the confounder-adjusted effect of mercury exposure. Taking into account correlations among related measures, we categorized exposure...

  16. Sidestream cigarette smoke effects on cardiovascular responses in conscious rats: involvement of oxidative stress in the fourth cerebral ventricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valenti Vitor E

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette exposure increases brain oxidative stress. The literature showed that increased brain oxidative stress affects cardiovascular regulation. However, no previous study investigated the involvement of brain oxidative stress in animals exposed to cigarette and its relationship with cardiovascular regulation. We aimed to evaluate the effects of central catalase inhibition on baroreflex and cardiovascular responses in rats exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke (SSCS. Methods We evaluated males Wistar rats (320-370 g, which were implanted with a stainless steel guide cannula into the fourth cerebral ventricle (4th V. Femoral artery and vein were cannulated for mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart rate (HR measurement and drug infusion, respectively. Rats were exposed to SSCS during three weeks, 180 minutes, 5 days/week (CO: 100-300 ppm. Baroreflex was tested with a pressor dose of phenylephrine (PHE, 8 μg/kg, bolus to induce bradycardic reflex and a depressor dose of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 50 μg/kg, bolus to induce tachycardic reflex. Cardiovascular responses were evaluated before, 5, 15, 30 and 60 minutes after 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (ATZ, catalase inhibitor, 0.001 g/100 μL injection into the 4th V. Results Central catalase inhibition increased basal HR in the control group during the first 5 minutes. SSCS exposure increased basal HR and attenuated bradycardic peak during the first 15 minutes. Conclusion We suggest that SSCS exposure affects cardiovascular regulation through its influence on catalase activity.

  17. Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise: Research in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Lercher

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular effects of noise rank second in terms of disability-adjusted life year (DALYs after annoyance. Although research during the past decade has consolidated the available data base, the most recent meta-analysis still shows wide confidence intervals - indicating imprecise information for public health risk assessment. The alpine area of Tyrol in the Austrian part of the Alps has experienced a massive increase in car and heavy goods traffic (road and rail during the last 35 years. Over the past 25 years small-, middle-, and large-sized epidemiological health surveys have been conducted - mostly within the framework of environmental health impact assessments. By design, these studies have emphasized a contextually driven environmental stress perspective, where the adverse health effects on account of noise are studied in a broader framework of environmental health, susceptibility, and coping. Furthermore, innovative exposure assessment strategies have been implemented. This article reviews the existing knowledge from these studies over time, and presents the exposure-response curves, with and without interaction assessment, based on standardized re-analyses and discusses it in the light of past and current cardiovascular noise effects research. The findings support relevant moderation by age, gender, and family history in nearly all studies and suggest a strong need for consideration of non-linearity in the exposure-response analyses. On the other hand, air pollution has not played a relevant role as a moderator in the noise-hypertension or the noise-angina pectoris relationship. Finally, different noise modeling procedures can introduce variations in the exposure response curves, with substantive consequences for public health risk assessment of noise exposure.

  18. The role of histamine in the cardiovascular effects of atracurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adt, M; Baumert, J H; Reimann, H J

    1992-02-01

    We have investigated the effect of a bolus injection of atracurium 0.6 mg kg-1 on the cardiovascular system in 16 patients undergoing aortocoronary bypass surgery. H1- and H2-receptor antagonists were administered to eight patients before the neuromuscular blocker. A standard anaesthetic was used comprising fentanyl, flunitrazepam, etomidate and enflurane. After administration of atracurium, haemodynamic changes and plasma histamine concentrations were measured at frequent intervals. In the first group, who received only atracurium, a brief but marked decrease in SVR and MAP occurred, accompanied by an increase in Cl, together with a marked increase in plasma concentration of histamine. In the second group, who received H1- and H2-receptor block, there was no decrease in MAP and only a small increase in plasma histamine concentration. However, there were significant changes in SVR and Cl similar to those in atracurium group.

  19. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes for cardiovascular disease modeling and drug screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arun; Wu, Joseph C; Wu, Sean M

    2013-12-24

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have emerged as a novel tool for drug discovery and therapy in cardiovascular medicine. hiPSCs are functionally similar to human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and can be derived autologously without the ethical challenges associated with hESCs. Given the limited regenerative capacity of the human heart following myocardial injury, cardiomyocytes derived from hiPSCs (hiPSC-CMs) have garnered significant attention from basic and translational scientists as a promising cell source for replacement therapy. However, ongoing issues such as cell immaturity, scale of production, inter-line variability, and cell purity will need to be resolved before human clinical trials can begin. Meanwhile, the use of hiPSCs to explore cellular mechanisms of cardiovascular diseases in vitro has proven to be extremely valuable. For example, hiPSC-CMs have been shown to recapitulate disease phenotypes from patients with monogenic cardiovascular disorders. Furthermore, patient-derived hiPSC-CMs are now providing new insights regarding drug efficacy and toxicity. This review will highlight recent advances in utilizing hiPSC-CMs for cardiac disease modeling in vitro and as a platform for drug validation. The advantages and disadvantages of using hiPSC-CMs for drug screening purposes will be explored as well.

  20. Reproducibility of exercise-induced modulation of cardiovascular responses to cold stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, H M; Leventhal, G; Madu, E C; Reddy, R; Cardoso, S

    1997-04-01

    The modulation of cardiovascular responses to the cold pressor test (CPT) as produced by exercise was studied in 13 volunteers. The reproducibility of the measurements selected for the study, i.e. heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), blood flow (BF) and skin temperature (ST), was investigated through repeat experiments in the fall of 1994 and the winter of 1995. HR was monitored before, during and after a 10-min period of bicycling at 70% of reserve HR. BP, cutaneous BF and ST were measured before and after exercise. Two CPTs (hand into ice-cold water for 1 min) were performed: one preceding exercise and another at 3 min after exercise. The results obtained allow us to conclude that in non-hypertensive volunteers (1) the pronounced cardiovascular responses (ST, BF and BP) induced by CPT are reproducible (p > 0.2) when compared to basal level values and (2) cardiovascular responses to cold stress are significantly attenuated by exercise (p < 0.03). Our study, therefore, supports and validates the use of our coupled exercise-CPT method in ongoing epidemiological studies attempting to identify individuals at risk for the development of hypertension as well as those most likely to benefit from preventative exercise programs.

  1. p38 MAPK mediates cardiovascular and behavioral responses induced by central IL-1β and footshock in conscious rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui-mao ZHENG; Chang-jiang ZOU; Shi-gong ZHU

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the roles of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) in the cardiovascular and behavioral responses induced by intracerebral ventricular injection (icv) of interleukin- 1 β (IL- 1 β) or footshock.METHODS: We examined the effects of p38 MAPK on mean artery blood pressure (mABP), heart rate (HR), and motor activity (MA) during central administration of IL- 1 β, or footshock after icv SB203580 (a specific inhibitor of the p38 MAPK) with Cardiovascular and Behavior Telemetry System in conscious SD rats. RESULTS: (1) IL-1 β (icy) or footshock remarkably rise the mABP, and the maximal changes are (7.8± 1.8) and (12.3±3.5) mmHg,respectively, which was abrogated by the pretreatment with p38 inhibitor SB203580 intracerebroventricularly. (2)Compared with icv saline group, the motor activity was significantly decreased in SB203580 group with maximal changes (-7.6± 1.1) counts/min after footshock. CONCLUSION: p38 MAPK plays an important role in the pressor response induced by central administration of IL- 1 β or footshock and change of motor activity after footshock in conscious rats.

  2. Advances in Experimental Pharmacological Studies of Effects of Astragalus on Cardiovascular System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    han; ling

    2001-01-01

    Astragalus (AS), a traditional Chinese tonic medicine, refers to the dry root of perenial herbaceous plants Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch) and Astragalus mongolicus Bge of leguminosae family, which was first recorded in "Shen Nong's Herbal Classic" (神农本草经). The herb is sweet in flavor, slightly warm in nature and acts on the Spleen and Lung channels. It was described that AS possesses the effects of "invigorating Qi to elevate Yang,consolidating superficies to stop sweating, inducing diuresis to remove edema and promoting healing of sore to regenerate tissue". Its chemical components have been discovered to be AS-saponins (ASS), AS-general flavone (AGF), AS-polysaccharides (APS), amino acid and microelements. During the past two decades, the effects of AS, the prescriptions containing AS and its active components on cardiovascular system have been widely studied(1,2). Its effects of positive inotropic action,reducing blood pressure, and in protecting myocardia against injuries caused by ischemia and ischemia/reperfusion or virus infection have been well documented. The underlying mechanisms of the effects have also been deeply studied. This paper summarizes the pharmacological studies on the effects of AS on cardiovascular system conducted in recent years.……

  3. Advances in Experimental Pharmacological Studies of Effects of Astragalus on Cardiovascular System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩玲; 陈可冀

    2001-01-01

    @@Astragalus (AS), a traditional Chinese tonic medicine, refers to the dry root of perenial herbaceous plants Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch) and Astragalus mongolicus Bge of leguminosae family, which was first recorded in "Shen Nong's Herbal Classic" (神农本草经). The herb is sweet in flavor, slightly warm in nature and acts on the Spleen and Lung channels. It was described that AS possesses the effects of "invigorating Qi to elevate Yang,consolidating superficies to stop sweating, inducing diuresis to remove edema and promoting healing of sore to regenerate tissue". Its chemical components have been discovered to be AS-saponins (ASS), AS-general flavone (AGF), AS-polysaccharides (APS), amino acid and microelements. During the past two decades, the effects of AS, the prescriptions containing AS and its active components on cardiovascular system have been widely studied(1,2). Its effects of positive inotropic action,reducing blood pressure, and in protecting myocardia against injuries caused by ischemia and ischemia/reperfusion or virus infection have been well documented. The underlying mechanisms of the effects have also been deeply studied. This paper summarizes the pharmacological studies on the effects of AS on cardiovascular system conducted in recent years.

  4. A Review of the Effect of Diet on Cardiovascular Calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoll, Rachel; Howard, John McLaren; Henein, Michael Y.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) calcification is known as sub-clinical atherosclerosis and is recognised as a predictor of CV events and mortality. As yet there is no treatment for CV calcification and conventional CV risk factors are not consistently correlated, leaving clinicians uncertain as to optimum management for these patients. For this reason, a review of studies investigating diet and serum levels of macro- and micronutrients was carried out. Although there were few human studies of macronutrients, nevertheless transfats and simple sugars should be avoided, while long chain ω-3 fats from oily fish may be protective. Among the micronutrients, an intake of 800 μg/day calcium was beneficial in those without renal disease or hyperparathyroidism, while inorganic phosphorus from food preservatives and colas may induce calcification. A high intake of magnesium (≥380 mg/day) and phylloquinone (500 μg/day) proved protective, as did a serum 25(OH)D concentration of ≥75 nmol/L. Although oxidative damage appears to be a cause of CV calcification, the antioxidant vitamins proved to be largely ineffective, while supplementation of α-tocopherol may induce calcification. Nevertheless other antioxidant compounds (epigallocatechin gallate from green tea and resveratrol from red wine) were protective. Finally, a homocysteine concentration >12 µmol/L was predictive of CV calcification, although a plasma folate concentration of >39.4 nmol/L could both lower homocysteine and protect against calcification. In terms of a dietary programme, these recommendations indicate avoiding sugar and the transfats and preservatives found in processed foods and drinks and adopting a diet high in oily fish and vegetables. The micronutrients magnesium and vitamin K may be worthy of further investigation as a treatment option for CV calcification. PMID:25906474

  5. A Review of the Effect of Diet on Cardiovascular Calcification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Nicoll

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular (CV calcification is known as sub-clinical atherosclerosis and is recognised as a predictor of CV events and mortality. As yet there is no treatment for CV calcification and conventional CV risk factors are not consistently correlated, leaving clinicians uncertain as to optimum management for these patients. For this reason, a review of studies investigating diet and serum levels of macro- and micronutrients was carried out. Although there were few human studies of macronutrients, nevertheless transfats and simple sugars should be avoided, while long chain ω-3 fats from oily fish may be protective. Among the micronutrients, an intake of 800 μg/day calcium was beneficial in those without renal disease or hyperparathyroidism, while inorganic phosphorus from food preservatives and colas may induce calcification. A high intake of magnesium (≥380 mg/day and phylloquinone (500 μg/day proved protective, as did a serum 25(OHD concentration of ≥75 nmol/L. Although oxidative damage appears to be a cause of CV calcification, the antioxidant vitamins proved to be largely ineffective, while supplementation of α-tocopherol may induce calcification. Nevertheless other antioxidant compounds (epigallocatechin gallate from green tea and resveratrol from red wine were protective. Finally, a homocysteine concentration >12 µmol/L was predictive of CV calcification, although a plasma folate concentration of >39.4 nmol/L could both lower homocysteine and protect against calcification. In terms of a dietary programme, these recommendations indicate avoiding sugar and the transfats and preservatives found in processed foods and drinks and adopting a diet high in oily fish and vegetables. The micronutrients magnesium and vitamin K may be worthy of further investigation as a treatment option for CV calcification.

  6. CARDIOVASCULAR AND OTHER HEALTH EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH ARSENIC EXPOSURE IN INNER MONGOLIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic exposure is associated with cardiovascular and other health effects. The study objectives were to investigate the mode of action and to assess dose-response relationships of arsenic on cardiovascular, diabetic and carcinogenic effects in Ba Men, Inner Mongolia. Ba Men res...

  7. Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise: Research in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Stansfeld

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the auditory effects of noise on humans have been established, the non-auditory effects are not so well established. The emerging links between noise and cardiovascular disease (CVD have potentially important implications on public health and policy. In the United Kingdom (UK, noise from transport is a problem, where more than half of the population is exposed to more than the recommended maximum day-time noise level and just under three-quarters of the population live in areas where the recommended night-time noise level is exceeded. This review focuses on findings from studies conducted in the UK that examined environmental noise and cardiovascular disease. There were statistically no significant associations between road traffic noise and incident ischemic heart disease in the Caerphilly and Speedwell studies, but there was a suggestion of effects when modifying factors such as length of residence, room orientation, and window opening were taken into account. In a sample stratified by pre-existing disease a strongly increased odds of incident ischemic heart disease for the highest annoyance category was found compared to the lowest among men without pre-existing disease (OR = 2.45, 95%1.13 - 5.31, which was not found in men with pre-existing disease. In the Hypertension and exposure to noise near airports (HYENA study, night time aircraft noise exposure (L night was associated with an increased risk of hypertension, in fully adjusted analyses. A 10-dB increase in aircraft noise exposure was associated with an odds ratio of 1.14 (95%CI, 1.01 - 1.29. Aircraft noise was not consistently related to raised systolic blood pressure in children in the road traffic and aircraft noise exposure and children′s cognition and health (RANCH study. There is some evidence of an association among environmental noise exposure and hypertension and ischemic heart disease in the UK studies; further studies are required to explore gender differences, the

  8. Cardiovascular effects of dobutamine and phenylephrine infusion in sevoflurane-anesthetized Thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Minoru; Kurimoto, Shinjiro; Ishikawa, Yuhiro; Tokushige, Hirotaka; Mae, Naomi; Nagata, Shun-ichi; Mamada, Masayuki

    2013-11-01

    To determine dose-dependent cardiovascular effects of dobutamine and phenylephrine during anesthesia in horses, increasing doses of dobutamine and phenylephrine were infused to 6 healthy Thoroughbred horses. Anesthesia was induced with xylazine, guaifenesin and thiopental and maintained with sevoflurane at 2.8% of end-tidal concentration in all horses. The horses were positioned in right lateral recumbency and infused 3 increasing doses of dobutamine (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 µg/kg/min) for 15 min each dose. Following to 30 min of reversal period, 3 increasing doses of phenylephrine (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 µg/kg/min) were infused. Cardiovascular parameters were measured before and at the end of each 15-min infusion period for each drug. Blood samples were collected every 5 min during phenylephrine infusion period. There were no significant changes in heart rate throughout the infusion period. Both dobutamine and phenylephrine reversed sevoflurane-induced hypotension. Dobutamine increased both mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and cardiac output (CO) as the result of the increase in stroke volume, whereas phenylephrine increased MAP but decreased CO as the result of the increase in systemic vascular resistance. Plasma phenylephrine concentration increased dose-dependently, and these values at 15, 30 and 45 min were 6.2 ± 1.2, 17.0 ± 4.8 and 37.9 ± 7.3 ng/ml, respectively. PMID:23832627

  9. Efectos beneficiosos del chocolate en la salud cardiovascular Beneficial effects of chocolate on cardiovascular health

    OpenAIRE

    M. Gómez-Juaristi; L. González-Torres; L. Bravo; M. P. Vaquero; Bastida, S.; Sánchez-Muniz, F. J.

    2011-01-01

    Desde la antigüedad se ha atribuido al chocolate propiedades saludables que lo han aproximado más hacia un uso terapéutico que alimentario. El presente trabajo revisa algunos estudios relevantes de los efectos del chocolate (y sus componentes activos) sobre diferentes factores de riesgo cardiovascular y señala la necesidad de futuros estudios. El consumo de cacao/chocolate (i) incrementa la actividad antioxidante, (ii) modula la función plaquetaria e inflamación y (iii) disminuye la presión a...

  10. Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise: Research in The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise van Kempen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of environmental noise on public health, in The Netherlands, is limited: Less than 1% of the myocardial infarction cases per year are attributable to long-term exposure to road traffic noise. Furthermore, although the Dutch noise policy is not directed to prevent cardiovascular disease due to noise exposure, health does play a role in Dutch noise policy. These are the main conclusions of a systematic review of Dutch observational studies, investigating the possible impact of road traffic and aircraft noise exposure on the cardiovascular system. Since 1970, 14 Dutch studies were published investigating the possible impact of road traffic and aircraft noise exposure on the cardiovascular system. Within these studies a large variety of outcomes were investigated, ranging from blood pressure changes to cardiovascular mortality. The results of the studies were not consistent and only weak associations were found.

  11. Cardiovascular Effects of Unilateral Nephrectomy in Living Kidney Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Moody, William E.; Ferro, Charles J.; Edwards, Nicola C.; Colin D Chue; Lin, Erica Lai Sze; Taylor, Robin J; Cockwell, Paul; Steeds, Richard P; Townend, Jonathan N.; ,

    2016-01-01

    Abstract— There is a robust inverse graded association between glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and cardiovascular risk, but proof of causality is lacking. Emerging data suggest living kidney donation may be associated with increased cardiovascular mortality although the mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesized that the reduction in GFR in living kidney donors is associated with increased left ventricular mass, impaired left ventricular function, and increased aortic stiffness. This was a mult...

  12. Autonomic nervous system mediated effects of food intake. Interaction between gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Orshoven, N.P.

    2008-01-01

    The studies presented in this thesis focused on the autonomic nervous system mediated interactions between the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems in response to food intake and on potential consequences of failure of these interactions. The effects of food intake on cardiovascular parameter

  13. The effects of physical training on cardiovascular parameters, lipid disorders and endothelial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranković Goran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Regular physical activity is widely accepted as factor that reduces all-cause mortality and improves a number of health outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise training on cardiovascular parameters, lipid profile and endothelial function in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD. Methods. The study included seventy patients with stable CAD. All the patients were divided into two groups: the group I - 33 patients with CAD and with regular aerobic physical training during cardiovascular rehabilitation program phase II for 3 weeks in our rehabilitation center and 3 weeks after that in their home setting, and the group II (control - 37 patients with CAD and sedentary lifestyle. Exercise training consisted of continual aerobic exercise for 45 minutes on a treadmill, room bicycle or walking, three times a week. We determined lipid and cardiovascular parameters and nitric oxide (NO concentration at the beginning and after a six-week of training. Results. There were no significant differences in body weight, waist circumference and waist/hip ratio at the start and at the end of physical training program. Physical training significantly reduced body mass index after six weeks compared to the initial and control values. Physical training significantly reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate after a six-week training period (p < 0.05. Heart rate was significantly lower after a training period as compared to the control (p < 0.05. A significant reduction of triglyceride and increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C concentration after cardiovascular rehabilitation were registered (p < 0.05. The concentration of triglycerides was significantly lower while NO and HDL-C were higher after six weeks in the exercise training group (p < 0.05. Conclusion. Dynamic training can improve blood pressure in patients with moderate to severe hypertension and reduce the

  14. Functional ingredients and cardiovascular protective effect of pumpkin seed oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Okbi, S. Y.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the cardiovascular protective effect of Egyptian and European umpkin seed oil (PSO in hypercholesterolemic rats. Tocopherols, fatty acids (FAs and unsaponifiable matter (UNSAP were assessed in both oils. The results showed that α-tocopherol was 108 and 273, γ-tocopherol was 3.95 and 0 and d-tocopherol was 0 and 1.58 mg·100 g-1 oil of the Egyptian and European, respectively. GLC analysis of FAs revealed the presence of linoleic acid as the major fatty acid in both oils. Feeding a hypercholesterolemic diet produced a significant increase in plasma total cholesterol (T-Ch, triglycerides (TGs, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, T-Ch/HDL-Ch, TGs/HDL-Ch and malondialdehyde and a significant reduction in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-Ch, vitamin E, and adiponectin. Rats fed on hypercholesterolemic diet with either oil showed a significant improvement in all biochemical parametersEl objetivo fue evaluar el efecto protector cardiovascular de aceites de semilla de calabaza (PSO de variedades egipcia y europea en ratas con hipercolesterolemia. Se evaluó tocoferoles, ácidos grasos (FAs y materia insaponificable (UNSAP en ambos aceites. Los resultados mostraron valores de α-tocoferol de 108 y 273, γ-tocoferol 3,95 y 0 y δ-tocoferol de 0 y 1,58 mg·100 g-1 en las variedades egipcia y europea, respectivamente. El análisis por GLC de los ácidos grasos (FAS mostró al linoleico como mayoritario en ambos aceites. La alimentación con una dieta hipercolesterolémica produjo en plasma un aumento significativo de colesterol total (T-Ch, triglicéridos (TG, colesterol en lipoproteínas de baja densidad, T-Ch/HDL-Ch, TGs/HDL- ch y malondialdehído y una reducción significativa en el colesterol de lipoproteínas de alta densidad (HDL-cH, vitamina E, y adiponectina. Las ratas alimentadas con una dieta hipercolesterolémica y con ambos aceites, mostraron mejoras significativas en todos los par

  15. Cardiovascular Reactivity in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder With High- or Low-Level Depressive Symptoms: A Cross-Sectional Comparison of Cardiovascular Reactivity to Laboratory-Induced Mental Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei-Yeh; Chiu, Chen-Huan; Lee, Hsin-Chien; Su, Chien-Tien; Tsai, Pei-Shan

    2016-03-01

    Depression increases the risk of adverse cardiac events. Cardiovascular reactivity is defined as the pattern of cardiovascular responses to mental stress. An altered pattern of cardiovascular reactivity is an indicator of subsequent cardiovascular disease. Because depression and adverse cardiac events may have a dose-dependent association, this study examined the differences in cardiovascular reactivity to mental stress between patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) with high depression levels and those with low depression levels. Moreover, autonomic nervous system regulation is a highly plausible biological mechanism for the pattern of cardiovascular reactivity to mental stress. The association between cardiovascular reactivity and parameters of heart rate variability (HRV), an index for quantifying autonomic nervous system activity modulation, was thus examined. This study included 88 patients with MDD. HRV was measured before stress induction. The Stroop Color and Word Test and mirror star-tracing task were used to induce mental stress. We observed no significant association between depressive symptom level and any of the cardiovascular reactivity parameters. Cardiovascular reactivity to mental stress was comparable between patients with MDD with high-level depressive symptoms and those with low-level depressive symptoms. After adjusting for confounding variables, the high-frequency domain of HRV was found to be an independent predictor of the magnitude of heart rate reactivity (β = -.33, p = .002). In conclusion, the magnitude of cardiovascular reactivity may be independent of depression severity in patients with MDD. The autonomic regulation of cardiovascular responses to mental stress primarily influences heart rate reactivity in patients with MDD.

  16. Longitudinal Effects of Embryonic Exposure to Cocaine on Morphology, Cardiovascular Physiology, and Behavior in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersereau, Eric J; Boyle, Cody A; Poitra, Shelby; Espinoza, Ana; Seiler, Joclyn; Longie, Robert; Delvo, Lisa; Szarkowski, Megan; Maliske, Joshua; Chalmers, Sarah; Darland, Diane C; Darland, Tristan

    2016-05-31

    A sizeable portion of the societal drain from cocaine abuse results from the complications of in utero drug exposure. Because of challenges in using humans and mammalian model organisms as test subjects, much debate remains about the impact of in utero cocaine exposure. Zebrafish offer a number of advantages as a model in longitudinal toxicology studies and are quite sensitive physiologically and behaviorally to cocaine. In this study, we have used zebrafish to model the effects of embryonic pre-exposure to cocaine on development and on subsequent cardiovascular physiology and cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in longitudinal adults. Larval fish showed a progressive decrease in telencephalic size with increased doses of cocaine. These treated larvae also showed a dose dependent response in heart rate that persisted 24 h after drug cessation. Embryonic cocaine exposure had little effect on overall health of longitudinal adults, but subtle changes in cardiovascular physiology were seen including decreased sensitivity to isoproterenol and increased sensitivity to cocaine. These longitudinal adult fish also showed an embryonic dose-dependent change in CPP behavior, suggesting an increased sensitivity. These studies clearly show that pre-exposure during embryonic development affects subsequent cocaine sensitivity in longitudinal adults.

  17. Longitudinal Effects of Embryonic Exposure to Cocaine on Morphology, Cardiovascular Physiology, and Behavior in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. Mersereau

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A sizeable portion of the societal drain from cocaine abuse results from the complications of in utero drug exposure. Because of challenges in using humans and mammalian model organisms as test subjects, much debate remains about the impact of in utero cocaine exposure. Zebrafish offer a number of advantages as a model in longitudinal toxicology studies and are quite sensitive physiologically and behaviorally to cocaine. In this study, we have used zebrafish to model the effects of embryonic pre-exposure to cocaine on development and on subsequent cardiovascular physiology and cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP in longitudinal adults. Larval fish showed a progressive decrease in telencephalic size with increased doses of cocaine. These treated larvae also showed a dose dependent response in heart rate that persisted 24 h after drug cessation. Embryonic cocaine exposure had little effect on overall health of longitudinal adults, but subtle changes in cardiovascular physiology were seen including decreased sensitivity to isoproterenol and increased sensitivity to cocaine. These longitudinal adult fish also showed an embryonic dose-dependent change in CPP behavior, suggesting an increased sensitivity. These studies clearly show that pre-exposure during embryonic development affects subsequent cocaine sensitivity in longitudinal adults.

  18. Longitudinal Effects of Embryonic Exposure to Cocaine on Morphology, Cardiovascular Physiology, and Behavior in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersereau, Eric J; Boyle, Cody A; Poitra, Shelby; Espinoza, Ana; Seiler, Joclyn; Longie, Robert; Delvo, Lisa; Szarkowski, Megan; Maliske, Joshua; Chalmers, Sarah; Darland, Diane C; Darland, Tristan

    2016-01-01

    A sizeable portion of the societal drain from cocaine abuse results from the complications of in utero drug exposure. Because of challenges in using humans and mammalian model organisms as test subjects, much debate remains about the impact of in utero cocaine exposure. Zebrafish offer a number of advantages as a model in longitudinal toxicology studies and are quite sensitive physiologically and behaviorally to cocaine. In this study, we have used zebrafish to model the effects of embryonic pre-exposure to cocaine on development and on subsequent cardiovascular physiology and cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in longitudinal adults. Larval fish showed a progressive decrease in telencephalic size with increased doses of cocaine. These treated larvae also showed a dose dependent response in heart rate that persisted 24 h after drug cessation. Embryonic cocaine exposure had little effect on overall health of longitudinal adults, but subtle changes in cardiovascular physiology were seen including decreased sensitivity to isoproterenol and increased sensitivity to cocaine. These longitudinal adult fish also showed an embryonic dose-dependent change in CPP behavior, suggesting an increased sensitivity. These studies clearly show that pre-exposure during embryonic development affects subsequent cocaine sensitivity in longitudinal adults. PMID:27258254

  19. Molecular mechanisms explaining the possible effects of phenolic compounds on reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aubets-Fusté

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present review is to evaluate the possible association between phenolic compounds and cardiovascular disease, proposing that their regular consumption in Western diets could be beneficial for protecting patients against cardiovascular disease. An extensive research of scientific literature was performed in the following electronic specialized databases (PubMed central (PMC-NBCI, Elsevier Journal, Scielo Spain, Scirus, Science Direct, Web of Science, including studies in animals, cells, and humans, to establish the effect of polyphenols in the prevention and development of cardiovascular disease was conducted. The in vitro, animal and human studies show the potential ability of polyphenols to act against cardiovascular disease as a result of their antioxidant effect and vasodilatation and their capacity to improve lipid profile while reducing the concentration of low-density lipoproteins. Polyphenols consumption in Western diets could be beneficial for protecting patients against cardiovascular disease.

  20. Kalpaamruthaa ameliorates mitochondrial and metabolic alterations in diabetes mellitus induced cardiovascular damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latha, Raja; Shanthi, Palanivelu; Sachdanandam, Panchanadham

    2014-12-01

    Efficacy of Kalpaamruthaa on the activities of lipid and carbohydrate metabolic enzymes, electron transport chain complexes and mitochondrial ATPases were studied in heart and liver of experimental rats. Cardiovascular damage (CVD) was developed in 8 weeks after type 2 diabetes mellitus induction with high fat diet (2 weeks) and low dose of streptozotocin (2 × 35 mg/kg b.w. i.p. in 24 hr interval). In CVD-induced rats, the activities of total lipase, cholesterol ester hydrolase and cholesterol ester synthetase were increased, while lipoprotein lipase and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase activities were decreased. The activities of lipid-metabolizing enzymes were altered by Kalpaamruthaa in CVD-induced rats towards normal. Kalpaamruthaa modulated the activities of glycolytic enzymes (hexokinase, phosphogluco-isomerase, aldolase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), gluconeogenic enzymes (glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase) and glycogenolytic enzyme (glycogen phosphorylase) along with increased glycogen content in the liver of CVD-induced rats. The activities of isocitrate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, Complexes and ATPases (Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase) were decreased in CVD-induced rats, which were ameliorated by the treatment with Kalpaamruthaa. This study ascertained the efficacy of Kalpaamruthaa for the treatment of CVD in diabetes through the modulation of metabolizing enzymes and mitochondrial dysfunction.

  1. Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise: Research in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Belojevic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on the cardiovascular effects of noise in Serbia started in the year 2002, including experimental studies on humans and epidemiological studies on the adult and children population of Belgrade and Pancevo. Experimental exposure to noise [L eq = 89 dB (A] had a hypodynamic effect, significantly lowering the cardiac index, cardiac work, and pump performance (P 45 dB (A] and quiet areas [(L night , 8h ≤ 45 dB (A] were 23.6% and 17.5%, respectively. The adjusted odds ratio (OR for hypertension of the exposed group was 1.58 (95% CI = 1.03 - 2.42, P = 0.038, where men living in quiet streets were taken as a reference category. Associations between road traffic noise and blood pressure were also investigated in 328 preschool children in Belgrade. The systolic blood pressure was significantly higher among children from noisy residences and kindergartens, compared to children from both quiet environments (97.30 ± 8.15 and 92.33 ± 8.64 mmHg, respectively, P < 0.01. As a continuation of the study on preschool children, investigations were also carried out on 856 school children, aged between seven and eleven years, in Belgrade. It was found that systolic pressure was significantly higher among children from noisy schools and quiet residences, compared to children from both quiet environments (102.1 ± 9,3 and 100.4 ± 10.4 mmHg, respectively, P < 0.01.

  2. Cardiovascular effects of recombinant human erythropoietin in predialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portolés, J; Torralbo, A; Martin, P; Rodrigo, J; Herrero, J A; Barrientos, A

    1997-04-01

    Treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) has solved the problem of anemia in patients on dialysis. However, its application to predialysis patients has raised some doubts about its effects on the progression of renal disease and on blood pressure (BP) and hemodynamic regulation. We have prospectively studied over at least 6 months a group of 11 predialysis patients receiving rHuEPO treatment (initial dose, 1,000 U subcutaneously three times a week). Clinical assessment and biochemical and hematologic measurements were made once every 2 weeks. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory BP monitoring, echocardiography, and determination of neurohumoral mediators of hemodynamics were performed once every 3 months. An adequate hematologic response was found (hemoglobin, 11.7 +/- 0.4 g/dL v 9 +/- 0.3 g/dL) without changes in the progression of renal disease. A decrease in cardiac output and an increase in total peripheral resistance was seen as anemia improved. A trend toward decreased left ventricular (LV) thickness and a significant decrease in LV mass index (from 178.2 +/- 20.6 g/m2 to 147.3 +/- 20.6 g/m2) were observed. Blood pressure control did not improve; moreover, in some patients an increase in systolic values was detected by ambulatory BP. Casual BP remained seemingly stable. Sequential determinations of neurohumoral mediators of hemodynamic substances (endothelin, renin, norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine) failed to explain these results. Ambulatory BP reveals a worse control in some patients who were previously hypertensive and confirms the utility of this technique in the assessment of patients under erythropoietin treatment. The trend toward LV hypertrophy regression without improved BP control confirms the role of anemia among the multiple factors leading to LV hypertrophy in end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and opens therapeutic possibilities. Better control of BP may avoid a potential offsetting of beneficial effects that correcting anemia would

  3. The Effect of Exercise on the Cardiovascular Risk Factors Constituting the Metabolic Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Pattyn, Nele; Cornelissen, Véronique A; Eshghi, Saeed R. Toghi; Vanhees, Luc

    2012-01-01

    Background Numerous meta-analyses have investigated the effect of exercise in different populations and for single cardiovascular risk factors, but none have specifically focused on the metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients and the concomitant effect of exercise on all associated cardiovascular risk factors. Objective The aim of this article was to perform a systematic review with a meta-analysis of randomized and clinical controlled trials (RCTs, CTs) investigating the effect of exercise on car...

  4. Effect of proton pump inhibitors on magnesium balance: is there a link to cardiovascular risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, Laura Francesca; Filippi, Elisabetta; Vavassori, Sara; Munizio, Nadia; Vecchi, Maurizio; Pastorelli, Luca

    2016-03-01

    Magnesium (Mg(2+)) is the second most copious element inside human cells and the fourth most abundant positively charged ion in the human body. It is of central importance for a broad variety of physiological processes, including intracellular signaling, neuronal excitability, muscle contraction, bone formation and enzyme activation. Its overall balance is tightly regulated by the concerted actions of the intestine, bones and kidneys. Disturbance of this balance can have serious consequences. Symptoms of hypomagnesaemia include tetany, seizures and cardiac arrhythmias, whereas hypermagnesaemia may cause cardiovascular and neuromuscular abnormalities. Drugs can interfere with Mg(2+) homoeostasis in several ways, and proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been associated with hypomagnesaemia. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the adverse effects of these medications on Mg(2+) balance will isuggest ideas for prevention and treatment, and might provide greater insight into Mg(2+) homoeostasis. This review gives an overview of the influence of PPIs on Mg(2+) homoeostasis and provides some understanding of the underlying physiological mechanisms. Moreover, we will discuss the potential link between PPI-induced changes in Mg(2+) homeostasis, and the reported cardiovascular risk observed in long-term PPI users. PMID:27086964

  5. Treatment-related Cardiovascular Late-effects and Exercise Training Countermeasures in Testicular Germ Cell Cancer Survivorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jesper F; Bandak, Mikkel; Campbell, Anna; Jones, Lee W.; Højman, Pernille

    2016-01-01

    Background Treatment of testicular germ cell cancer constitutes a major success story in modern oncology. Today, the vast majority of patients are cured by a therapeutic strategy using one or more highly effective components including surgery (orchiectomy), radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. However, the excellent cancer specific survival comes at considerable costs, as individuals with a history of germ cell cancer experience serious long-term complications, including markedly increased risk of cardiovascular morbidities and premature cardiovascular death. The factors responsible, as well as their mode of action, are not fully understood and there is a lack of knowledge concerning optimal evidence-based long-term follow-up strategies. Results Here, we present the growing body of evidence suggesting that germ cell cancer patients as a consequence of the different treatment components, are subjected to toxicities, which individually, and synergistically, can cause physiological impairments leading to sub-clinical or clinical cardiovascular disorders the ‘multiple-hit hypothesis’). Furthermore, we discuss the efficacy and utility of structured exercise training to ameliorate treatment-induced cardiovascular dysfunction to prevent premature onset of clinical cardiovascular disease in germ cell cancer survivors, with a view towards highlighting future directions of exercise-based survivorship research in the germ cell cancer setting. Conclusion Since exercise training may have the potential to ameliorate and/or reverse long-term cardiovascular disease sequelae in germ cell cancer survivors, a strong rationale exists for the promotion of exercise-oncology research in this setting, in order to provide exercise-recommendations for optimal germ cell cancer survivorship. PMID:25751759

  6. Cardiovascular, electrodermal, and respiratory response patterns to fear- and sadness-inducing films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreibig, Sylvia D; Wilhelm, Frank H; Roth, Walton T; Gross, James J

    2007-09-01

    Responses to fear- and sadness-inducing films were assessed using a broad range of cardiovascular (heart rate, T-wave amplitude, low- and high-frequency heart rate variability, stroke volume, preejection period, left-ventricular ejection time, Heather index, blood pressure, pulse amplitude and transit time, and finger temperature), electrodermal (level, response rate, and response amplitude), and respiratory (rate, tidal volume and its variability, inspiratory flow rate, duty cycle, and end-tidal pCO(2)) measures. Subjective emotional experience and facial behavior (Corrugator Supercilii and Zygomaticus Major EMG) served as control measures. Results indicated robust differential physiological response patterns for fear, sadness, and neutral (mean classification accuracy 85%). Findings are discussed in terms of the fight-flight and conservation-withdrawal responses and possible limitations of a valence-arousal categorization of emotion in affective space.

  7. Cardiovascular Disease Modeling Using Patient-Specific Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Tanaka

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs has opened up a new scientific frontier in medicine. This technology has made it possible to obtain pluripotent stem cells from individuals with genetic disorders. Because iPSCs carry the identical genetic anomalies related to those disorders, iPSCs are an ideal platform for medical research. The pathophysiological cellular phenotypes of genetically heritable heart diseases such as arrhythmias and cardiomyopathies, have been modeled on cell culture dishes using disease-specific iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes. These model systems can potentially provide new insights into disease mechanisms and drug discoveries. This review focuses on recent progress in cardiovascular disease modeling using iPSCs, and discusses problems and future perspectives concerning their use.

  8. Particle-induced pulmonary acute phase response correlates with neutrophil influx linking inhaled particles and cardiovascular risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saber, Anne Thoustrup; Lamson, Jacob Stuart; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun;

    2013-01-01

    Background Particulate air pollution is associated with cardiovascular disease. Acute phase response is causally linked to cardiovascular disease. Here, we propose that particle-induced pulmonary acute phase response provides an underlying mechanism for particle-induced cardiovascular risk. Methods...... at a biofuel plant. Mice were exposed to single or multiple doses of particles by inhalation or intratracheal instillation and pulmonary mRNA expression of Saa3 was determined at different time points of up to 4 weeks after exposure. Also hepatic mRNA expression of Saa3, SAA3 protein levels in...... broncheoalveolar lavage fluid and in plasma and high density lipoprotein levels in plasma were determined in mice exposed to multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Results Pulmonary exposure to particles strongly increased Saa3 mRNA levels in lung tissue and elevated SAA3 protein levels in broncheoalveolar lavage fluid and...

  9. Relationship between cardiovascular dysfunction and hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaan B.D.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetes in rats is characterized by cardiovascular dysfunction beginning 5 days after STZ injection, which may reflect functional or structural autonomic nervous system damage. We investigated cardiovascular and autonomic function, in rats weighing 166 ± 4 g, 5-7, 14, 30, 45, and 90 days after STZ injection (N = 24, 33, 27, 14, and 13, respectively. Arterial pressure (AP, mean AP (MAP variability (standard deviation of the mean of MAP, SDMMAP, heart rate (HR, HR variability (standard deviation of the normal pulse intervals, SDNN, and root mean square of successive difference of pulse intervals (RMSSD were measured. STZ induced increased glycemia in diabetic rats vs control rats. Diabetes reduced resting HR from 363 ± 12 to 332 ± 5 bpm (P < 0.05 5 to 7 days after STZ and reduced MAP from 121 ± 2 to 104 ± 5 mmHg (P = 0.007 14 days after STZ. HR and MAP variability were lower in diabetic vs control rats 30-45 days after STZ injection (RMSSD decreased from 5.6 ± 0.9 to 3.4 ± 0.4 ms, P = 0.04 and SDMMAP from 6.6 ± 0.6 to 4.2 ± 0.6 mmHg, P = 0.005. Glycemia was negatively correlated with resting AP and HR (r = -0.41 and -0.40, P < 0.001 and with SDNN and SDMMAP indices (r = -0.34 and -0.49, P < 0.01. Even though STZ-diabetic rats presented bradycardia and hypotension early in the course of diabetes, their autonomic function was reduced only 30-45 days after STZ injection and these changes were negatively correlated with plasma glucose, suggesting a metabolic origin.

  10. Bronchial, alveolar, and vascular-induced anaphylaxis and irritant-induced cardiovascular and pulmonary responses.

    OpenAIRE

    Yeates, D B; Mussatto, D J; Hameister, W M; Daza, A.; Chandra, T; Wong, L B

    2001-01-01

    We examine the respiratory, bronchomotor, cardiac, and vascular responses to histamine and ragweed allergen delivered to the bronchi or alveoli compartments and the potential role of sensory nerves and reflexes mediating the histamine-induced responses. The masses of aerosols deposited in the bronchi and alveoli were quantitated using radioaerosol techniques. Activation of sensory nerves and/or histamine-induced mediator release were characterized by depositing nedocromil sodium aerosol prior...

  11. Effects of Smokeless Tobacco “Maras Powder” Use on Nitric Oxide and Cardiovascular Risk Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Aytekin Guven, Fatma Tolun

    2012-01-01

    Background: Smokeless tobacco use is common in various parts of the world. In Turkey a type of smokeless tobacco called “Maras powder” is widely used in southeastern region. Smoking is known to have an adverse effect on nitric oxide and cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there is difference between the effects of Maras powder and cigarette smoking on the cardiovascular risk factors and nitric oxide levels.Methods: In the study, participants ...

  12. Cardiovascular effects of a chlorpheniramine/paracetamol combination in hypertensive patients who were sensitive to the pressor effect of pseudoephedrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, S S; Benrimoj, S I; Gordon, R D; Williams, G

    1991-03-01

    Twelve hypertensive patients who were classified as pseudoephedrine-sensitive in a preliminary trial were selected for further investigation with single doses of pseudoephedrine 60 mg, a combination of chlorpheniramine 4 mg with paracetamol 650 mg and placebo. A double-blind, randomised, crossover study design was followed. Treatment with pseudoephedrine produced significant effects on all the four variables measured (systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure, and heart rate). Effects of the chlorpheniramine/paracetamol combination were found to be not significantly different from placebo. It was concluded that the combination may be useful as a medication for 'colds' in hypertensive patients, since it does not induce cardiovascular effects such as those observed with pseudoephedrine. PMID:2054278

  13. Cardiovascular Effects of Saffron: An Evidence-Based Review

    OpenAIRE

    Shahin Akhondzadeh; Maryam Kamalipour

    2011-01-01

    Herbal medicine can be a valuable source of assistance for traditional medicine. There are a number of herbs that can be used in conjunction with modern medicine. Herbs can also be taken to aid recovery from serious diseases. Although one should never aim to treat diseases such as cardiovascular disease solely with herbal medicine, the value of herbs used in tandem with modern medicine cannot be ignored. Saffron has been reported to help lower cholesterol and keep cholesterol levels healthy. ...

  14. Effect of antioxidant vitamin supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yizhou Ye

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antioxidant vitamin (vitamin E, beta-carotene, and vitamin C are widely used for preventing major cardiovascular outcomes. However, the effect of antioxidant vitamin on cardiovascular events remains unclear. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We searched PubMed, EmBase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the proceedings of major conferences for relevant literature. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials that reported on the effects of antioxidant vitamin on cardiovascular outcomes as compared to placebo. Outcomes analyzed were major cardiovascular events, myocardial infarction, stroke, cardiac death, total death, and any possible adverse events. We used the I(2 statistic to measure heterogeneity between trials and calculated risk estimates for cardiovascular outcomes with random-effect meta-analysis. Independent extraction was performed by two reviewers and consensus was reached. Of 293 identified studies, we included 15 trials reporting data on 188209 participants. These studies reported 12749 major cardiovascular events, 6699 myocardial infarction, 3749 strokes, 14122 total death, and 5980 cardiac deaths. Overall, antioxidant vitamin supplementation as compared to placebo had no effect on major cardiovascular events (RR, 1.00; 95%CI, 0.96-1.03, myocardial infarction (RR, 0.98; 95%CI, 0.92-1.04, stroke (RR, 0.99; 95%CI, 0.93-1.05, total death (RR, 1.03; 95%CI, 0.98-1.07, cardiac death (RR, 1.02; 95%CI, 0.97-1.07, revascularization (RR, 1.00; 95%CI, 0.95-1.05, total CHD (RR, 0.96; 95%CI, 0.87-1.05, angina (RR, 0.98; 95%CI, 0.90-1.07, and congestive heart failure (RR, 1.07; 95%CI, 0.96 to 1.19. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Antioxidant vitamin supplementation has no effect on the incidence of major cardiovascular events, myocardial infarction, stroke, total death, and cardiac death.

  15. Enhanced carotid body chemosensory activity and the cardiovascular alterations induced by intermittent hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo eIturriaga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The carotid body (CB plays a main role in the maintenance of the oxygen homeostasis. The hypoxic stimulation of the CB increases the chemosensory discharge, which in turn elicits reflex sympathetic, cardiovascular and ventilatory adjustments. An exacerbate carotid chemosensory activity has been associated with human sympathetic-mediated diseases such as hypertension, insulin resistance, heart failure and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. Indeed, the CB chemosensory discharge becomes tonically hypereactive in experimental models of OSA and heart failure. Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH, a main feature of OSA, enhances CB chemosensory baseline discharges in normoxia and in response to hypoxia, inducing sympathetic overactivity and hypertension. Oxidative stress, increased levels of ET-1, Angiotensin II and pro-inflammatory cytokines, along with a reduced production of NO in the CB, have been associated with the enhanced carotid chemosensory activity. In this review, we will discuss new evidence supporting a main role for the CB chemoreceptor in the autonomic and cardiorespiratory alterations induced by intermittent hypoxia, as well as the molecular mechanisms involved in the CB chemosensory potentiation.

  16. Effects of Simulated Heat Waves on Cardiovascular Functions in Senile Mice

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    Xiakun Zhang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of the effects of simulated heat waves on cardiovascular disease in senile mice was investigated. Heat waves were simulated in a TEM1880 meteorological environment simulation chamber, according to a heat wave that occurred in July 2001 in Nanjing, China. Eighteen senile mice were divided into control, heat wave, and heat wave BH4 groups, respectively. Mice in the heat wave and heat wave BH4 groups were exposed to simulated heat waves in the simulation chamber. The levels of ET-1, NO, HSP60, SOD, TNF, sICAM-1, and HIF-1α in each group of mice were measured after heat wave simulation. Results show that heat waves decreased SOD activity in the myocardial tissue of senile mice, increased NO, HSP60, TNF, sICAM-1, and HIF-1α levels, and slightly decreased ET-1 levels, BH4 can relieve the effects of heat waves on various biological indicators. After a comprehensive analysis of the experiments above, we draw the followings conclusions regarding the influence of heat waves on senile mice: excess HSP60 activated immune cells, and induced endothelial cells and macrophages to secrete large amounts of ICAM-1, TNF-α, and other inflammatory cytokines, it also activated the inflammation response in the body and damaged the coronary endothelial cell structure, which increased the permeability of blood vessel intima and decreased SOD activity in cardiac tissues. The oxidation of lipoproteins in the blood increased, and large amounts of cholesterol were generated. Cholesterol penetrated the intima and deposited on the blood vessel wall, forming atherosclerosis and leading to the occurrence of cardiovascular disease in senile mice. These results maybe are useful for studying the effects of heat waves on elderly humans, which we discussed in the discussion chapter.

  17. Reduction of cardiovascular event rate: different effects of cardiac rehabilitation in CABG and PCI patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, D.; DENDALE, PAUL; Leenders, M; Berger, J.; Raskin, A.; Vaes, J.; Meeusen, R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective - In coronary artery disease, the implementation of a cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programme favourably affects cardiovascular prognosis. However, it remains uncertain whether patients benefit to a similar extent from CR after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In this study, we have assessed whether CR is equally effective for suppressing the two-year cardiovascular event incidence after CABG or PCI. Methods and results - 194 PCI...

  18. Cardiovascular effects of the novel histamine H2 receptor agonist amthamine: interaction with the adrenergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coruzzi, G; Gambarelli, E; Bertaccini, G; Timmerman, H

    1996-03-01

    The cardiovascular effects of the new histamine H2 receptor agonist amthamine were studied in the anaesthetized rat, with particular reference to a possible interaction with the adrenergic system. Amthamine (0.03-3 mumol/kg i.v.) caused vasodepressor responses which were antagonized by famotidine (3 mumol/kg i.v.). At higher doses (30-100 mumol/kg i.v.), amthamine induced a modest increase in the mean arterial pressure, which was significantly enhanced by the blockade of H2 receptors and significantly reduced by the alpha 2 adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine (1 mumol/kg i.v.). The vasopressor response to amthamine was not modified in rats pre-treated with reserpine or 6-hydroxydopamine, and was only minimally modified in adrenalectomized animals, thus suggesting a predominant interaction with postjunctional alpha 2 adrenoceptors in the vascular muscle. The H2 receptor agonist dimaprit (0.3-100 mumol/kg i.v.) caused a reduction in arterial pressure, which was antagonized by famotidine, no pressor response being unmasked. Dimaprit (0.1-30 mumol/kg i.v.) did not modify heart rate but caused a modest bradycardia at 100 mumol/kg i.v. Amthamine (1-100 mumol/kg i.v.) induced a dose-dependent tachycardia, which was only partially (approximately 20%) reduced by famotidine and was totally blocked by propranolol (0.3 mg/kg i.v.). This effect was significantly reduced in rats pre-treated with reserpine or 6-hydroxydopamine and was further reduced by cocaine, thus suggesting a tyramine-like action of amthamine. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that the H2 receptor agonist amthamine can also interact with the adrenergic system when used at doses higher than those necessary to activate H2 receptors. Whereas the increase in blood pressure induced by amthamine seems to be mainly mediated by a direct activation of postjunctional alpha 2 adrenoceptors, the increase in heart rate is predominantly due to neuronal release of catecholamines. These effects should be considered when

  19. A model of cardiovascular disease giving a plausible mechanism for the effect of fractionated low-dose ionizing radiation exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P Little

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is the main cause of coronary heart disease and stroke, the two major causes of death in developed society. There is emerging evidence of excess risk of cardiovascular disease at low radiation doses in various occupationally exposed groups receiving small daily radiation doses. Assuming that they are causal, the mechanisms for effects of chronic fractionated radiation exposures on cardiovascular disease are unclear. We outline a spatial reaction-diffusion model for atherosclerosis and perform stability analysis, based wherever possible on human data. We show that a predicted consequence of multiple small radiation doses is to cause mean chemo-attractant (MCP-1 concentration to increase linearly with cumulative dose. The main driver for the increase in MCP-1 is monocyte death, and consequent reduction in MCP-1 degradation. The radiation-induced risks predicted by the model are quantitatively consistent with those observed in a number of occupationally-exposed groups. The changes in equilibrium MCP-1 concentrations with low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration are also consistent with experimental and epidemiologic data. This proposed mechanism would be experimentally testable. If true, it also has substantive implications for radiological protection, which at present does not take cardiovascular disease into account. The Japanese A-bomb survivor data implies that cardiovascular disease and cancer mortality contribute similarly to radiogenic risk. The major uncertainty in assessing the low-dose risk of cardiovascular disease is the shape of the dose response relationship, which is unclear in the Japanese data. The analysis of the present paper suggests that linear extrapolation would be appropriate for this endpoint.

  20. 对应激源导致心血管疾病的护理干预%Nursing intervention on the cardiovascular diseases induced by stressors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚金芳

    2009-01-01

    机体各种内外变化导致的应激反应,是心血管疾病发生、发展的重要因素.本文简要的论述了多种应激源导致心血管疾病发生的机制及医护如何减少应激源对机体的刺激,从而起到积极的治疗作用,有利于疾病的恢复.%Various internal and external changes in the body caused by stress were the important factors of the happeness and development of cardiovascular diseases. This article discussed the mechanism of cardiovascu-lar diseases induced by stressors and how to reduce the stimulation of stressors to play a positive therapeutic effect.

  1. Pharmacological approaches to the treatment of oxidative stress-induced cardiovascular dysfunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Pedro L; Villamena, Frederick A

    2013-03-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are a growing major global health problem. Our understanding of the mechanisms of pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases has been gaining significant advances and a wealth of knowledge implicates oxidative stress as a key causative agent. However, to date, most efforts to treat heart failure using conventional antioxidant therapies have been less than encouraging. With increasing incidences of cardiovascular disease in young as well as in aging populations, and the problem of long-term diminishing efficacy of conventional therapeutics, the need for new treatments has never been greater. In this review, [corrected] a variety of therapeutic targets and compounds applied to treat cardiovascular diseases via inhibition of oxidative stress are presented.

  2. Effect of folic acid supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Yu-Hao Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Folic acid is widely used to lower homocysteine concentrations and prevent adverse cardiovascular outcomes. However, the effect of folic acid on cardiovascular events is not clear at the present time. We carried out a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effects of folic acid supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We systematically searched Medline, EmBase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, reference lists of articles, and proceedings of major meetings for relevant literature. We included randomized placebo-controlled trials that reported on the effects of folic acid on cardiovascular events compared to placebo. Of 1594 identified studies, we included 16 trials reporting data on 44841 patients. These studies reported 8238 major cardiovascular events, 2001 strokes, 2917 myocardial infarctions, and 6314 deaths. Folic acid supplementation as compared to placebo had no effect on major cardiovascular events (RR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.93-1.04, stroke (RR, 0.89; 95% CI,0.78-1.01, myocardial infarction (RR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.93-1.07, or deaths from any cause (RR, 1.00;95% CI, 0.96-1.05. Moreover, folic acid as compared to placebo also had no effect on the following secondary outcomes: risk of revascularization (RR, 1.05; 95%CI, 0.95-1.16, acute coronary syndrome (RR, 1.06; 95%CI, 0.97-1.15, cancer (RR, 1.08; 95%CI, 0.98-1.21, vascular death (RR, 0.94; 95%CI,0.88-1.02, or non-vascular death (RR, 1.06; 95%CI, 0.97-1.15. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Folic acid supplementation does not effect on the incidence of major cardiovascular events, stroke, myocardial infarction or all cause mortality.

  3. Light Microscopic Evaluation of Cardio-vasculare System in Alloksan-induced Diabetic Rats in Acute Period

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    Selen Bahçeci

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic cardiomyopathy is one of the chronic complication of diabetes and acute effects of diabetes on heart and aorta is not clear. We aimed to determine acute effects of diabetes on cardio-vasculare system with light microscopy. We used 20 Spraque-Dawley rats and applied 150 mg/kg alloxan, intraperitoneally for inducing diabetes and 1 ml SF in control group. After 24 hours, venous blood samples were measured. Blood glucose levels higher than 250 mg/dl were accepted as DM and treated with 4 IU/d human insülin. After 7 days rats were sacrified under ketamin anaesthesia. Heart and aorta were fixed in 10 % buffered formalin. The sectiones were embedded in paraffin and were serially sectioned at 5 m thickness, then stained with Hematoxyline-Eosine (H&E and Heidenhein’s Azan modification.There was no histopathological changes in cardiac muscle cells in control group. But there was a heterogen appearance in cardiac muscle cells and we determined some hydropic degenerations in some of the cardiac muscle cells and a minimal fibrosis in perivasculare and interstitial area in diabetic group. All histological stratums of aorta were seen normally in control group. In diabetic group, there was a clear anisostosis in smooth muscle cells and decreased in nucleus of smooth muscle cells in tunica media. We concluted that DM is caused degeneration and fibrosis in cardiac muscle cells and effective on smooth muscle cells in aorta in acute period.

  4. The effects of music on the cardiovascular system and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trappe, Hans-Joachim

    2010-12-01

    Music may not only improve quality of life but may also effect changes in heart rate and heart rate variability. It has been shown that cerebral flow was significantly lower when listening to 'Va pensiero' from Verdi's 'Nabucco' (70.4±3.3 cm/s) compared with 'Libiam nei lieti calici' from Verdi's 'La Traviata' (70.2±3.1 cm/s) (pmeditation music, whereas heavy metal music or techno are not only ineffective but possibly dangerous and can lead to stress and/or life-threatening arrhythmias. The music of many composers most effectively improves quality of life, will increase health and probably prolong life, particularly music by Bach, Mozart or Italian composers.

  5. Particle-induced pulmonary acute phase response correlates with neutrophil influx linking inhaled particles and cardiovascular risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Thoustrup Saber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Particulate air pollution is associated with cardiovascular disease. Acute phase response is causally linked to cardiovascular disease. Here, we propose that particle-induced pulmonary acute phase response provides an underlying mechanism for particle-induced cardiovascular risk. METHODS: We analysed the mRNA expression of Serum Amyloid A (Saa3 in lung tissue from female C57BL/6J mice exposed to different particles including nanomaterials (carbon black and titanium dioxide nanoparticles, multi- and single walled carbon nanotubes, diesel exhaust particles and airborne dust collected at a biofuel plant. Mice were exposed to single or multiple doses of particles by inhalation or intratracheal instillation and pulmonary mRNA expression of Saa3 was determined at different time points of up to 4 weeks after exposure. Also hepatic mRNA expression of Saa3, SAA3 protein levels in broncheoalveolar lavage fluid and in plasma and high density lipoprotein levels in plasma were determined in mice exposed to multiwalled carbon nanotubes. RESULTS: Pulmonary exposure to particles strongly increased Saa3 mRNA levels in lung tissue and elevated SAA3 protein levels in broncheoalveolar lavage fluid and plasma, whereas hepatic Saa3 levels were much less affected. Pulmonary Saa3 expression correlated with the number of neutrophils in BAL across different dosing regimens, doses and time points. CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary acute phase response may constitute a direct link between particle inhalation and risk of cardiovascular disease. We propose that the particle-induced pulmonary acute phase response may predict risk for cardiovascular disease.

  6. The Age-Specific Quantitative Effects of Metabolic Risk Factors on Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Gitanjali M; Danaei, Goodarz; Farzadfar, Farshad;

    2013-01-01

    The effects of systolic blood pressure (SBP), serum total cholesterol (TC), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and body mass index (BMI) on the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have been established in epidemiological studies, but consistent estimates of effect sizes by age and sex are not availa......The effects of systolic blood pressure (SBP), serum total cholesterol (TC), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and body mass index (BMI) on the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have been established in epidemiological studies, but consistent estimates of effect sizes by age and sex...

  7. Pleiotropic preventive effects of dietary polyphenols in cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Y; Tani, M; Kondo, K

    2013-05-01

    Polyphenols are common constituents of the diet, and research on their health benefits has developed quickly over the past few years. Our purpose is to review recent findings highlighting daily dietary polyphenol intake and the diverse function of polyphenols and their possible relationships to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Several cohort studies have reported an inverse relationship between the daily consumption of polyphenols and CVD risk. Many studies showed that beverages could be a large source of polyphenols. Our previous findings provide that Japanese people intake polyphenols mainly from beverages, especially coffee and green tea (in descending order of polyphenol content). Many kinds of polyphenols act as an antioxidant against low-density lipoprotein oxidation, which is known to promote atherosclerosis. Recent accumulating evidence suggests that dietary polyphenols could exert their cardioprotective actions through their potential to improve metabolic disorder and vascular inflammation. These findings raise the possibility that polyphenols have a wide variety of roles in the intestine, liver and vascular tissue. In addition to identifying mechanisms of polyphenol bioactivity by basic research, much more epidemiological and clinical evidence linking reduced cardiovascular risk with dietary polyphenols intake are needed.

  8. Nitric oxide modulates the cardiovascular effects elicited by acetylcholine in the NTS of awake rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Liana Gouveia; Dias, Ana Carolina Rodrigues; Furlan, Elaina; Colombari, Eduardo

    2008-12-01

    Microinjection of acetylcholine chloride (ACh) in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) of awake rats caused a transient and dose-dependent hypotension and bradycardia. Because it is known that cardiovascular reflexes are affected by nitric oxide (NO) produced in the NTS, we investigated whether these ACh-induced responses depend on NO in the NTS. Responses to ACh (500 pmol in 100 nl) were strongly reduced by ipsilateral microinjection of the NOS inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 10 nmol in 100 nl) in the NTS: mean arterial pressure (MAP) fell by 50 +/- 5 mmHg before L-NAME to 9 +/- 4 mmHg, 10 min after L-NAME, and HR fell by 100 +/- 26 bpm before L-NAME to 20 +/- 10 bpm, 10 min after L-NAME (both P NTS also reduced responses to ACh: MAP fell from 42 +/- 3 mmHg before TRIM to 27 +/- 6 mmHg, 10 min after TRIM (P NTS of conscious rats induces hypotension and bradycardia, and these effects may be mediated at least partly by NO produced in NTS neurons.

  9. Heat- and cold-stress effects on cardiovascular mortality and morbidity among urban and rural populations in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Aleš; Davídkovová, Hana; Kyselý, Jan

    2014-08-01

    Several studies have examined the relationship of high and low air temperatures to cardiovascular mortality in the Czech Republic. Much less is understood about heat-/cold-related cardiovascular morbidity and possible regional differences. This paper compares the effects of warm and cold days on excess mortality and morbidity for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in the city of Prague and a rural region of southern Bohemia during 1994-2009. Population size and age structure are similar in the two regions. The results are evaluated for selected population groups (men and women). Excess mortality (number of deaths) and morbidity (number of hospital admissions) were determined as differences between observed and expected daily values, the latter being adjusted for long-term changes, annual and weekly cycles, and epidemics of influenza/acute respiratory infections. Generally higher relative excess CVD mortality on warm days than on cold days was identified in both regions. In contrast to mortality, weak excess CVD morbidity was observed for both warm and cold days. Different responses of individual CVDs to heat versus cold stress may be caused by the different nature of each CVD and different physiological processes induced by heat or cold stress. The slight differences between Prague and southern Bohemia in response to heat versus cold stress suggest the possible influence of environmental and socioeconomic factors such as the effects of urban heat island and exposure to air pollution, lifestyle differences, and divergence in population structure, which may result in differing vulnerability of urban versus rural population to temperature extremes.

  10. From particles to patients: oxidative stress and the cardiovascular effects of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark R; Shaw, Catherine A; Langrish, Jeremy P

    2012-07-01

    Air pollution, especially airborne particulate matter (PM), is associated with an increase in both morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease, although the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely established. The one consistent observation that links the pulmonary and cardiovascular effects of inhaled PM is oxidative stress. This article examines the evidence for the role of oxidative stress in the cardiovascular effects of air pollution, beginning with observations from epidemiological and controlled exposure studies and then exploring potential mechanistic pathways involving free radical generation from PM itself, to effects of PM on cell cultures, isolated organs, healthy animals and animal models of disease. Particular emphasis is placed on the vascular and atherosclerotic effects of urban air pollution and diesel exhaust emissions as rich sources of environmental ultrafine particles.

  11. Efeitos cardiovascular e metabólico da reposição volêmica com hidroxietilamido 130/0,4 em felinos domésticos com hipovolemia induzida Cardiovascular and metabolic effects of volemic expansion with hydroxyethyl starch 130/0,4 in domestic cats with induced hypovolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Vasconcelos Soares

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar os efeitos da expansão volêmica produzida pelo hidroxietilamido 130/0,4 (HES 130/0,4 ou pelo sangue em gatas com hipovolemia induzida. Foram utilizadas 12 gatas adultas, sem raça definida (SRD, com peso médio de 2,85±0,28kg e hígidas. Os animais foram induzidos à anestesia geral com isofluorano a 5V%, intubados e conectados a um sistema sem reinalação de gases. Após a instrumentação, os animais foram mantidos sob anestesia com isoflurano em 1,3V% e mantidos em ventilação mecânica, ciclada a pressão. Em seguida, foi induzida a hipovolemia por meio da retirada de 30ml kg-1 de sangue da artéria femoral. Após 60 minutos da estabilização do paciente, os tratamentos foram iniciados. No grupo hidroxietilamido (GH, n=06, os animais receberam, como reposição volêmica, o hidroxietilamido 130/0,4 no mesmo volume de sangue retirado e, no grupo sangue (GS, n=06, os animais receberam o próprio sangue retirado, sendo considerado grupo controle. A pressão arterial sistólica, a diastólica e a média e a pressão venosa central aumentaram após a reposição volêmica em ambos os grupos. Observou-se, para o GH, aumento da PaCO2 no T15, no T30 e no T60. Houve redução do pH no T30 e no T45 e de íons Na+ no T90 para GH. A restauração das pressões arteriais com a administração de HES 130/0,4 foi similar ao grupo controle. A reposição volêmica com HES 130/0,4 produz aumento acentuado da PVC; e o uso do HES 130/0,4 em gatas submetidas à hipovolemia não produziu alterações clinicamente significativas no equilíbrio ácido-básico.The aim of this study was to compare the volemic expansion effects produced by hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 (HES 130/0.4 or blood, in female cats with induced hypovolemia. Twelve healthy adult female cats, crossbreed and weighing an average of 2.85±0.28kg were used. They were induced into general anesthesia with isofluorane at 5V%, intubated and connected to a non

  12. Avocado Oil Supplementation Modifies Cardiovascular Risk Profile Markers in a Rat Model of Sucrose-Induced Metabolic Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Carvajal-Zarrabal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of avocado oil administration on biochemical markers of cardiovascular risk profile in rats with metabolic changes induced by sucrose ingestion. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: a control group (CG; basic diet, a sick group (MC; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution, and three other groups (MCao, MCac, and MCas; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution plus olive oil and avocado oil extracted by centrifugation or using solvent, resp.. Glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, low- and high-density lipoproteins (LDL, HDL, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL, lactic dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration were analyzed. Avocado oil reduces TG, VLDL, and LDL levels, in the LDL case significantly so, without affecting HDL levels. An effect was exhibited by avocado oil similar to olive oil, with no significant difference between avocado oil extracted either by centrifugation or solvent in myocardial injury biochemical indicators. Avocado oil decreased hs-CRP levels, indicating that inflammatory processes were partially reversed. These findings suggested that avocado oil supplementation has a positive health outcome because it reduces inflammatory events and produces positive changes in the biochemical indicators studied, related to the development of metabolic syndrome.

  13. Avocado oil supplementation modifies cardiovascular risk profile markers in a rat model of sucrose-induced metabolic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Zarrabal, Octavio; Nolasco-Hipolito, Cirilo; Aguilar-Uscanga, M Guadalupe; Melo-Santiesteban, Guadalupe; Hayward-Jones, Patricia M; Barradas-Dermitz, Dulce M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of avocado oil administration on biochemical markers of cardiovascular risk profile in rats with metabolic changes induced by sucrose ingestion. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: a control group (CG; basic diet), a sick group (MC; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution), and three other groups (MCao, MCac, and MCas; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution plus olive oil and avocado oil extracted by centrifugation or using solvent, resp.). Glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, low- and high-density lipoproteins (LDL, HDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), lactic dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration were analyzed. Avocado oil reduces TG, VLDL, and LDL levels, in the LDL case significantly so, without affecting HDL levels. An effect was exhibited by avocado oil similar to olive oil, with no significant difference between avocado oil extracted either by centrifugation or solvent in myocardial injury biochemical indicators. Avocado oil decreased hs-CRP levels, indicating that inflammatory processes were partially reversed. These findings suggested that avocado oil supplementation has a positive health outcome because it reduces inflammatory events and produces positive changes in the biochemical indicators studied, related to the development of metabolic syndrome.

  14. Effects of Chinese Liquors on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Healthy Young Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Sheng Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To elucidate whether consumption of two Chinese liquors, tea-flavor liquor (TFL and traditional Chinese liquor (TCL have protective effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors in healthy human subjects. Methods. Forty-five healthy subjects (23 men, 22 women, aged 23–28, were recruited and randomized into two groups: TFL and TCL, and consumed 30 mL/day (45% (v/v alcohol of either liquor for 28 days. Results. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol/low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C/LDL-C and apolipoprotein A1 were significantly increased, and total cholesterol (TC and TC/HDL-C were significantly decreased after the intervention in both groups (P<0.05. Serum uric acid (P=0.004 for TFL, P=0.001 for TCL, glucose (P<0.001 for TFL, P<0.001 for TCL and endothelial adhesion molecules (P<0.05 were significantly decreased after the intervention. ADP-induced whole blood platelet aggregation was also significantly decreased after the intervention in both TFL and TCL groups (P<0.05. Conclusions. TFL and TCL consumption had protective effects on CVD risk factors in young humans. However, the results were valid only for 28 days, and that the possibility of adverse effect (liver, kidney of chronic alcohol consumption should be considered.

  15. Effects of acupuncture on behavioral, cardiovascular and hormonal responses in restraint-stressed Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimarães C.M.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a well-known entity and may be defined as a threat to the homeostasis of a being. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of acupuncture on the physiological responses induced by restraint stress. Acupuncture is an ancient therapeutic technique which is used in the treatment and prevention of diseases. Its proposed mechanisms of action are based on the principle of homeostasis. Adult male Wistar EPM-1 rats were divided into four groups: group I (N = 12, unrestrained rats with cannulas previously implanted into their femoral arteries for blood pressure and heart rate measurements; group II (N = 12, rats that were also cannulated and were submitted to 60-min immobilization; group III (N = 12, same as group II but with acupuncture needles implanted at points SP6, S36, REN17, P6 and DU20 during the immobilization period; group IV (N = 14, same as group III but with needles implanted at points not related to acupuncture (non-acupoints. During the 60-min immobilization period animals were assessed for stress-related behaviors, heart rate, blood pressure and plasma corticosterone, noradrenaline and adrenaline levels. Group III animals showed a significant reduction (60% on average, P<0.02 in restraint-induced behaviors when compared to groups II and IV. Data from cardiovascular and hormonal assessments indicated no differences between group III and group II and IV animals, but tended to be lower (50% reduction on average in group I animals. We hypothesize that acupuncture at points SP6, S36, REN17, P6 and DU20 has an anxiolytic effect on restraint-induced stress that is not due to a sedative action

  16. No significant effect of angiotensin II receptor blockade on intermediate cardiovascular end points in hemodialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Christian Daugaard; Kjaergaard, Krista D; Jensen, Jens D;

    2014-01-01

    Agents blocking the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system are frequently used in patients with end-stage renal disease, but whether they exert beneficial cardiovascular effects is unclear. Here the long-term effects of the angiotensin II receptor blocker, irbesartan, were studied in hemodialysis...... the study period significantly correlated with changes in both left ventricular mass and arterial stiffness. Thus, significant effects of irbesartan on intermediate cardiovascular end points beyond blood pressure reduction were absent in hemodialysis patients.Kidney International advance online publication...

  17. Controversies in Cardiovascular Research: Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes – boutique science or valuable arrhythmia model?

    OpenAIRE

    Knollmann, Björn C.

    2013-01-01

    As part of the series on Controversies in Cardiovascular Research, the article reviews the strengths and limitations of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CM) as models of cardiac arrhythmias. Specifically, the article attempts to answer the following questions: Which clinical arrhythmias can be modeled by iPSC-CM? How well can iPSC-CM model adult ventricular myocytes? What are the strengths and limitations of published iPSC-CM arrhythmia models? What new mechanistic i...

  18. Angiotensin II-Induced Production of Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species: Potential Mechanisms and Relevance for Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Dikalov, Sergey I.; Nazarewicz, Rafal R.

    2013-01-01

    Significance: The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in angiotensin II (AngII) induced endothelial dysfunction, cardiovascular and renal remodeling, inflammation, and fibrosis has been well documented. The molecular mechanisms of AngII pathophysiological activity involve the stimulation of NADPH oxidases, which produce superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. AngII also increases the production of mitochondrial ROS, while the inhibition of AngII improves mitochondrial function; however, the speci...

  19. Alkaloids with Cardiovascular Effects from the Marine-Derived Fungus Penicillium expansum Y32

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Qin Fan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Three new alkaloids (1, 4 and 8, together with nine known analogues (2, 3, 5–7, and 9–12, were isolated from the marine-derived fungus Penicillium expansum Y32. Their structures including the absolute configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic and Mosher’s and Marfey’s methods, along with quantum electronic circular dichroism (ECD calculations. Each of the compounds was evaluated for cardiovascular effects in a live zebrafish model. All of the compounds showed a significant mitigative effect on bradycardia caused by astemizole (ASM in the heart rate experiments. Compounds 4–6 and 8–12 exhibited potent vasculogenetic activity in vasculogenesis experiments. This is the first study to report that these types of compounds show cardiovascular effects in zebrafish. The results suggest that these compounds could be promising candidates for cardiovascular disease lead compounds.

  20. Alkaloids with Cardiovascular Effects from the Marine-Derived Fungus Penicillium expansum Y32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ya-Qin; Li, Pei-Hai; Chao, Ya-Xi; Chen, Hao; Du, Ning; He, Qiu-Xia; Liu, Ke-Chun

    2015-10-01

    Three new alkaloids (1, 4 and 8), together with nine known analogues (2, 3, 5-7, and 9-12), were isolated from the marine-derived fungus Penicillium expansum Y32. Their structures including the absolute configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic and Mosher's and Marfey's methods, along with quantum electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. Each of the compounds was evaluated for cardiovascular effects in a live zebrafish model. All of the compounds showed a significant mitigative effect on bradycardia caused by astemizole (ASM) in the heart rate experiments. Compounds 4-6 and 8-12 exhibited potent vasculogenetic activity in vasculogenesis experiments. This is the first study to report that these types of compounds show cardiovascular effects in zebrafish. The results suggest that these compounds could be promising candidates for cardiovascular disease lead compounds. PMID:26506361

  1. The effect of glucagon-like peptide 1 on cardiovascular risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivertsen, Jacob; Rosenmeier, Jaya; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2012-01-01

    on cardiovascular parameters. These effects, possibly independent of the glucose-lowering activity, include changes in blood pressure, endothelial function, body weight, cardiac metabolism, lipid metabolism, left ventricular function, atherosclerosis, and the response to ischemia-reperfusion injury. Thus, GLP-1...... agonists and inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase 4, an enzyme that degrades endogenous GLP-1, have established effectiveness in lowering glucose levels and are routinely used to treat patients with type 2 diabetes. These agents regulate glucose metabolism through multiple mechanisms and have several effects......-based therapies could potentially target both diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This Review highlights the mechanisms targeted by GLP-1-based therapies, and emphasizes current developments in incretin research that are relevant to cardiovascular risk and disease, as well as treatment with GLP-1...

  2. Effects of complex organic mixtures of coal liquid on cardiovascular function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most common diseases in the US are those involving the cardiovascular system. Exposure to certain environmental chemicals and complex mixtures may be involved in some aspects of cardiovascular disease. They have previously reported that high-boiling coal liquids resulted in several affects related to the cardiovascular system of the rate when exposed via whole-body inhalation to the mixture. The most striking observation was a dose dependent elevation in arterial blood pressure for heavy distillate (HD) exposed rates compared to control animals at 2 weeks. They also noted an increase in heart rate and plasma and blood volume. Additional rats were evaluated 6 weeks after exposure, to determine whether these effects represented permanent changes in cardiovascular function, and the effects appeared to be reversible after this longer period. During the past year they have completed the assays of the studies initiated previously and have addressed some possible factors which could explain the effects that they observed. Electrolytes in plasma of rats exposed to the HD were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Plasma aldosterone and angiotensin were measured by radioimmunoassays, and plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein were evaluated with an Abbott VP bichromatic chemistry analyzer. In addition, a comparison of the blood pressure of control rats and rats fed a restricted diet were made, to determine if the anorexia which resulted from HD exposure could be responsible for the changes they observed in cardiovascular function

  3. The effects of high-intensity intermittent exercise training on cardiovascular response to mental and physical challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Mehrdad; Boutcher, Yati N; Boutcher, Stephen H

    2013-02-01

    The purpose was to examine the effect of a 12-week exercise intervention on the cardiovascular and autonomic response of males to mental and physical challenge. Thirty four young overweight males were randomly assigned to either an exercise or control group. The exercise group completed a high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) program three times per week for 12weeks. Cardiovascular response to the Stroop task was determined before and after the intervention by assessing heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), arterial stiffness, baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), and skeletal muscle blood flow. The exercise group improved their aerobic fitness levels by 17% and reduced their body weight by 1.6kg. Exercisers compared to controls experienced a significant reduction in HR (pStroop and exercise. For exercisers, arterial stiffness significantly decreased at rest and during Stroop (pStroop (pStroop (p<0.05). HIIE induced significant cardiovascular and autonomic changes at rest and during mental and physical challenge after 12weeks of training. PMID:23220158

  4. Effects of metformin plus gliclazide versus metformin plus glimepiride on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Memy Hegazy; Abd-Allah, Gamil Mohamed

    2015-09-01

    High blood glucose level, lipid profile disturbances and plasma homocysteine (Hcy) are important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in patients with type 2 diabetes. This study was conducted to evaluate and compare effects of glimepiride/metformin combination versus gliclazide/metformin combination on cardiovascular risk factors in type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. One hundred and eighty T2DM patients were randomly allocated for treatment with placebo (control), metformin (500 mg twice daily), glimepiride (3mg once daily), gliclazide (80 mg once daily), metformin plus glimepiride or metformin plus gliclazide for 3 months. We evaluated plasma levels of glucose (PG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), Hcy, vitamin B12, folic acid and lipid profile before treatment and 3 months post treatment. Compared to metformin treated patients, glimepiride plus metformin induced significant reductions in: fasting plasma glucose, postprandial PG level, HbA1C % and Hcy level. Conversely, plasma folic acid and vitamin B12 were significantly increased. The levels of total cholesterol and triglyceride were significantly decreased; low-density lipoprotein was markedly decreased, whereas high-density lipoprotein was significantly increased and hence risk ratio was significantly decreased. Similar results but with lower values were obtained using combination of metformin plus gliclazide on glycemic control only. Combination of glimepiride with metformin was superior to gliclazide plus metformin in alleviating the cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. PMID:26408873

  5. Chemical Constituents from Licania cruegeriana and Their Cardiovascular and Antiplatelet Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Estrada

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Three new lupane-type triterpenoids: 6β,30-dihydroxybetulinic acid glucopyranosyl ester (4, 6β,30-dihydroxybetulinic acid (5 and 6β-hydroxybetulinic acid (6, were isolated from Licania cruegeriana Urb. along with six known compounds. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods, including IR, ESIMS, 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments, as well as by comparison of their spectral data with those of related compounds. All compounds were evaluated in vivo for their effects on the mean arterial blood pressure (MABP and heart rate (HR of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR and also in vitro for their capacity to inhibit the human platelet aggregation. None of the isolated flavonoids 1–3 showed cardiovascular effects on SHR and among the isolated triterpenoids 4–9 only 5 and 6 produced a significant reduction in MABP (60.1% and 17.2%, respectively and an elevation in HR (11.0% and 41.2%, respectively. Compounds 3, 4, 5 and 6 were able to inhibit human platelet aggregation induced by ADP, collagen and arachidonic acid with different selectivity profiles.

  6. Salutary effects of high-intensity interval training in persons with elevated cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleg, Jerome L

    2016-01-01

    Although moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) has been the traditional model for aerobic exercise training for over four decades, a growing body of literature has demonstrated equal if not greater improvement in aerobic capacity and similar beneficial effects on body composition, glucose metabolism, blood pressure, and quality of life from high-intensity interval training (HIIT). An advantage of HIIT over MICT is the shorter time required to perform the same amount of energy expenditure. The current brief review summarizes the effects of HIIT on peak aerobic capacity and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy adults and those with various cardiovascular diseases, including coronary artery disease, chronic heart failure, and post heart transplantation.

  7. Cardiovascular effects of growth hormone in adult hemodialysis patients: results from a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køber, Lars; Rustom, Rana; Wiedmann, Jonas;

    2010-01-01

    The high morbidity and mortality rates in hemodialysis (HD) patients are due, at least in part, to their increased risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This prospective study evaluated the effect of growth hormone (GH) on a number of CVD risk markers in adult patients on HD.......The high morbidity and mortality rates in hemodialysis (HD) patients are due, at least in part, to their increased risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This prospective study evaluated the effect of growth hormone (GH) on a number of CVD risk markers in adult patients on HD....

  8. Toxic Effects of Mercury on the Cardiovascular and Central Nervous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Fernandes Azevedo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental contamination has exposed humans to various metal agents, including mercury. This exposure is more common than expected, and the health consequences of such exposure remain unclear. For many years, mercury was used in a wide variety of human activities, and now, exposure to this metal from both natural and artificial sources is significantly increasing. Many studies show that high exposure to mercury induces changes in the central nervous system, potentially resulting in irritability, fatigue, behavioral changes, tremors, headaches, hearing and cognitive loss, dysarthria, incoordination, hallucinations, and death. In the cardiovascular system, mercury induces hypertension in humans and animals that has wide-ranging consequences, including alterations in endothelial function. The results described in this paper indicate that mercury exposure, even at low doses, affects endothelial and cardiovascular function. As a result, the reference values defining the limits for the absence of danger should be reduced.

  9. Cardiovascular effects of intravenous administration of propylene glycol and of oxytetracycline in propylene glycol in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, D R; Kitzman, J V; Adams, H R

    1979-06-01

    Comparisons were made of the acute cardiovascular effects of oxytetracycline, oxytetracycline in propylene glycol, and propylene glycol alone given to conscious dairy calves. The calves were chronically instrumented with intravascular catheters and electromagnetic flowmeter transducers in and on the pulmonary and renal arteries. Injection (IV) of aqueous preparations of oxytetracycline produced no statistically significant (P greater than 0.05) cardiocirculatory changes in these calves. Oxytetracycline in propylene glycol and propylene glycol alone both produced transient (1 to 4 minute) periods of cardiovascular depression characterized by cardiac asystole, systemic hypotension, and decreased pulmonary and renal arterial blood flow. The two preparations, in equivalent doses and volumes, produced statistically similar hemodynamic changes in the calves. The data from this study support the conclusion that the monitored cardiovascular effects of the commercially available oxytetracycline in propylene glycol in the intact, awake calves were due to the solvent propylene glycol. This conclusion is consistent with reports of other injectable products containing the same solvent. PMID:475130

  10. Cardiovascular effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors: from risk factors to clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheen, André J

    2013-05-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors (gliptins) are oral incretin-based glucose-lowering agents with proven efficacy and safety in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In addition, preclinical data and mechanistic studies suggest a possible additional non-glycemic beneficial action on blood vessels and the heart, via both glucagon-like peptide-1-dependent and glucagon-like peptide-1-independent effects. As a matter of fact, DPP-4 inhibitors improve several cardiovascular risk factors: they improve glucose control (mainly by reducing the risk of postprandial hyperglycemia) and are weight neutral; may lower blood pressure somewhat; improve postprandial (and even fasting) lipemia; reduce inflammatory markers; diminish oxidative stress; improve endothelial function; and reduce platelet aggregation in patients with T2DM. In addition, positive effects on the myocardium have been described in patients with ischemic heart disease. Results of post hoc analyses of phase 2/3 controlled trials suggest a possible cardioprotective effect with a trend (sometimes significant) toward lower incidence of major cardiovascular events with sitagliptin, vildagliptin, saxagliptin, linagliptin, or alogliptin compared with placebo or other active glucose-lowering agents. However, the definite relationship between DPP-4 inhibition and better cardiovascular outcomes remains to be proven. Major prospective clinical trials involving various DPP-4 inhibitors with predefined cardiovascular outcomes are under way in patients with T2DM and a high-risk cardiovascular profile: the Sitagliptin Cardiovascular Outcome Study (TECOS) on sitagliptin, the Saxagliptin Assessment of Vascular Outcomes Recorded in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (SAVOR-TIMI) 53 trial on saxagliptin, the Cardiovascular Outcomes Study of Alogliptin in Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes and Acute Coronary Syndrome (EXAMINE) trial on alogliptin, and the Cardiovascular Outcome

  11. SUSCEPTIBILITY TO OZONE-INDUCED INJURY AND ANTIOXIDANT COMPENSATION IN RAT MODELS OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased oxidative stress and compromised antioxidant status are common pathologic factors of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). It is hypothesized that individuals with chronic CVD are more susceptible to environmental exposures due to underlying oxidative stress. To determine the ...

  12. Cardiovascular effects of 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide and Andrographis paniculata extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoopan, Nattaporn; Thisoda, Piengpen; Rangkadilok, Nuchanart; Sahasitiwat, Somjed; Pholphana, Nanthanit; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2007-06-01

    Andrographis paniculata has been widely used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of common cold, diarrhea and hypertension. The three major active diterpenoids are andrographolide (AP1), 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (AP3) and neoandrographolide (AP4). It has been reported that AP3 has hypotensive and vasorelaxation effects. However, there is only limited information on the cardiovascular effects of the other diterpenoids and crude extracts containing different levels of AP3. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of these diterpenoids, AP1, AP3, and AP4, isolated from A. paniculata, and different aqueous plant extracts on blood pressure, vascular and chronotropic responses by using conscious rats and their isolated aortas and right atria as the test models. Among the three major diterpenoids, AP3 was the most potent compound for inducing vasorelaxation and decreasing heart rate. In addition, Extract B (high level of AP3) had greater hypotensive effect in conscious rats than Extract A (low level of AP3). Verapamil, a Ca2+ channel blocker, also had a hypotensive effect less than that of Extract C containing a high level of AP3. At the doses and durations of Extract A and B which produced hypotension, the responses of the Extract A-treated aorta to norepinephrine, and the vascular muscarinic responses to acetylcholine of both extracts were decreased. However, repeated doses of both extracts did not alter cardiac beta-adrenoceptor and muscarinic responses of extract-treated rats to NE and ACh, respectively. The results of this study suggest that vascular smooth muscle is the major site of these hypotensive effects of both AP3 and A. paniculata extracts. Furthermore, the consumption of A. paniculata products containing high levels of AP3 may be responsible for causing hypotension in some patients taking this herbal drug. PMID:17650544

  13. Rho kinases in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology: the effect of fasudil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianjian; Wei, Lei

    2013-10-01

    Rho kinase (ROCK) is a major downstream effector of the small GTPase RhoA. ROCK family, consisting of ROCK1 and ROCK2, plays central roles in the organization of actin cytoskeleton and is involved in a wide range of fundamental cellular functions, such as contraction, adhesion, migration, proliferation, and apoptosis. Due to the discovery of effective inhibitors, such as fasudil and Y27632, the biological roles of ROCK have been extensively explored with particular attention on the cardiovascular system. In many preclinical models of cardiovascular diseases, including vasospasm, arteriosclerosis, hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, stroke, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and heart failure, ROCK inhibitors have shown a remarkable efficacy in reducing vascular smooth muscle cell hypercontraction, endothelial dysfunction, inflammatory cell recruitment, vascular remodeling, and cardiac remodeling. Moreover, fasudil has been used in the clinical trials of several cardiovascular diseases. The continuing utilization of available pharmacological inhibitors and the development of more potent or isoform-selective inhibitors in ROCK signaling research and in treating human diseases are escalating. In this review, we discuss the recent molecular, cellular, animal, and clinical studies with a focus on the current understanding of ROCK signaling in cardiovascular physiology and diseases. We particularly note that emerging evidence suggests that selective targeting ROCK isoform based on the disease pathophysiology may represent a novel therapeutic approach for the disease treatment including cardiovascular diseases.

  14. Nonlinear effects of respiration on the crosstalk between cardiovascular and cerebrovascular control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Vlasta; Marchi, Andrea; De Maria, Beatrice; Rossato, Gianluca; Nollo, Giandomenico; Faes, Luca; Porta, Alberto

    2016-05-13

    Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory systems are vital control mechanisms responsible for guaranteeing homeostasis and are affected by respiration. This work proposes the investigation of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular control systems and the nonlinear influences of respiration on both regulations through joint symbolic analysis (JSA), conditioned or unconditioned on respiration. Interactions between cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory systems were evaluated as well by performing correlation analysis between JSA indexes describing the two control systems. Heart period, systolic and mean arterial pressure, mean cerebral blood flow velocity and respiration were acquired on a beat-to-beat basis in 13 subjects experiencing recurrent syncope episodes (SYNC) and 13 healthy individuals (non-SYNC) in supine resting condition and during head-up tilt test at 60° (TILT). Results showed that JSA distinguished conditions and groups, whereas time domain parameters detected only the effect of TILT. Respiration affected cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory systems in a nonlinear way and was able to modulate the interactions between the two control systems with different outcome in non-SYNC and SYNC groups, thus suggesting that the analysis of the impact of respiration on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory systems might improve our understanding of the mechanisms underpinning the development of postural-related syncope.

  15. Nonlinear effects of respiration on the crosstalk between cardiovascular and cerebrovascular control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Vlasta; Marchi, Andrea; De Maria, Beatrice; Rossato, Gianluca; Nollo, Giandomenico; Faes, Luca; Porta, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory systems are vital control mechanisms responsible for guaranteeing homeostasis and are affected by respiration. This work proposes the investigation of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular control systems and the nonlinear influences of respiration on both regulations through joint symbolic analysis (JSA), conditioned or unconditioned on respiration. Interactions between cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory systems were evaluated as well by performing correlation analysis between JSA indexes describing the two control systems. Heart period, systolic and mean arterial pressure, mean cerebral blood flow velocity and respiration were acquired on a beat-to-beat basis in 13 subjects experiencing recurrent syncope episodes (SYNC) and 13 healthy individuals (non-SYNC) in supine resting condition and during head-up tilt test at 60° (TILT). Results showed that JSA distinguished conditions and groups, whereas time domain parameters detected only the effect of TILT. Respiration affected cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory systems in a nonlinear way and was able to modulate the interactions between the two control systems with different outcome in non-SYNC and SYNC groups, thus suggesting that the analysis of the impact of respiration on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory systems might improve our understanding of the mechanisms underpinning the development of postural-related syncope.

  16. Effectiveness of a Pharmacist-Led Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Clinic in Rural Perry County, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Charles; Ford, Frances

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Clinic (CRRC) in Perry County, Alabama, provides free pharmacist-led services. Clinic goals include improving health outcomes and reducing cardiovascular risk factors. Objective. To investigate the effectiveness of the CRRC in rural Perry County, Alabama. The reduction of the modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, blood pressure and body mass index, was evaluated to measure a decrease from baseline to last clinic date. Methods. This retrospective chart review identified 130 patients with at least two blood pressure and BMI measurements from baseline to June 30, 2010. The patients' paper files were used to collect baseline data and most recent measurements, which were recorded on a data collection sheet. Results. There was a statistically significant reduction in systolic blood pressure of 4.08 mmHg, 3.25 mmHg reduction in diastolic blood pressure, and 0.42 kg/m2 reduction in mean BMI. At their last visit prior to June 30, 2010, 59% of hypertensive patients and 35% of diabetic patients were meeting their blood pressure goals. Conclusion. Pharmacist-led management of patients with cardiovascular risk factors significantly reduced blood pressure and allowed more patients to meet their hypertension treatment goals. Despite being modest, reductions in blood pressure and BMI help reduce overall cardiovascular risks. PMID:27525302

  17. Combination Therapy for the Cardiovascular Effects of Perinatal Lead Exposure in Young and Adult Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaspar, Andréia Fresneda [Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Biociências - Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Faculdade da Alta Paulista (FAP), Tupã, SP (Brazil); Cordellini, Sandra, E-mail: cordelli@ibb.unesp.br [Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Biociências - Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    Combination therapy can play a significant role in the amelioration of several toxic effects of lead (Pb) and recovery from associated cardiovascular changes. To investigate the effects of combination therapy on the cardiovascular effects of perinatal lead exposure in young and adult rats Female Wistar rats received drinking water with or without 500 ppm of Pb during pregnancy and lactation. Twenty-two- and 70-day-old rat offspring who were or were not exposed to Pb in the perinatal period received meso-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), L-arginine, or enalapril and a combination of these compounds for 30 additional days. Noradrenaline response curves were plotted for intact and denuded aortas from 23-, 52-, 70-, and 100-day-old rats stratified by perinatal Pb exposure (exposed/unexposed) and treatment received (treated/untreated). Systolic blood pressure was evaluated and shown to be higher in the 23-, 52-, 70-, and 100-day age groups with Pb exposure than in the corresponding control age groups: 117.8 ± 3.9*, 135.2 ± 1.3*, 139.6 ± 1.6*, and 131.7 ± 2.8*, respectively and 107.1 ± 1.8, 118.8 ± 2.1, 126.1 ± 1.1, and 120.5 ± 2.2, respectively (p < 0.05). Increased reactivity to noradrenaline was observed in intact, but not denuded, aortas from 52-, 70-, and 100-day-old exposed rats, and the maximum responses (g of tension) in the respective Pb-exposed and control age groups were as follows: 3.43 ± 0.16*, 4.32 ± 0.18*, and 4.21 ± 0.23*, respectively and 2.38 ± 0.33, 3.37 ± 0.13, and 3.22 ± 0.21, respectively (p < 0.05). All treatments reversed the changes in vascular reactivity to noradrenaline in rats perinatally exposed to Pb. The combination therapy resulted in an earlier restoration of blood pressure in Pb-exposed rats compared with the monotherapies, except for enalapril therapy in young rats. These findings represent a new approach to the development of therapeutic protocols for the treatment of Pb-induced hypertension.

  18. Cardiovascular protection of magnolol: cell-type specificity and dose-related effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Jennifer

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Magnolia officinalis has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. Magnolol, an active component isolated from Magnolia officinalis, is known to be a cardiovascular protector since 1994. The multiplex mechanisms of magnolol on cardiovascular protection depends on cell types and dosages, and will be reviewed and discussed in this article. Magnolol under low and moderate dosage possesses the ability to protect heart from ischemic/reperfusion injury, reduces atherosclerotic change, protects endothelial cell against apoptosis and inhibits neutrophil-endothelial adhesion. The moderate to high concentration of magnolol mainly acts on smooth muscle cells and platelets. Magnolol induces apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells at moderate concentration and inhibits proliferation at moderate and high concentration. High concentration of magnolol also abrogates platelet activation, aggregation and thrombus formation. Magnolol also serves as an smooth muscle relaxant only upon the high concentration. Oral intake of magnolol to reach the therapeutic level for cardiovascular protection is applicable, thus makes magnolol an agent of great potential for preventing cardiovascular diseases in high-risk patients.

  19. Effects of mood induction via music on cardiovascular measures of negative emotion during simulated driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairclough, Stephen H; van der Zwaag, Marjolein; Spiridon, Elena; Westerink, Joyce

    2014-04-22

    A study was conducted to investigate the potential of mood induction via music to influence cardiovascular correlates of negative emotions experience during driving behaviour. One hundred participants were randomly assigned to one of five groups, four of whom experienced different categories of music: High activation/positive valence (HA/PV), high activation/negative valence (HA/NV), low activation/positive valence (LA/PV) and low activation/negative valence (LA/NV). Following exposure to their respective categories of music, participants were required to complete a simulated driving journey with a fixed time schedule. Negative emotion was induced via exposure to stationary traffic during the simulated route. Cardiovascular reactivity was measured via blood pressure, heart rate and cardiovascular impedance. Subjective self-assessment of anger and mood was also recorded. Results indicated that low activation music, regardless of valence, reduced systolic reactivity during the simulated journey relative to HA/NV music and the control (no music) condition. Self-reported data indicated that participants were not consciously aware of any influence of music on their subjective mood. It is concluded that cardiovascular reactivity to negative mood may be mediated by the emotional properties of music.

  20. Los polifenoles, compuestos de origen natural con efectos saludables sobre el sistema cardiovascular The polyphenols, naturally occurring compounds with beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Quiñones

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años numerosos estudios han avalado los efectos beneficiosos de la ingesta de polifenoles sobre la salud, especialmente sobre el sistema cardiovascular. Esto es importante, porque las enfermedades cardiovasculares son la principal causa de muerte en el mundo. Los efectos de los polifenoles son fundamentalmente consecuencia de sus propiedades antioxidantes. Estos compuestos presentan efectos vasodilatadores, son capaces además de mejorar el perfil lipídico y atenúan la oxidación de las lipoproteínas de baja densidad (LDL. Presentan claros efectos antiinflamatorios y estos compuestos son a su vez capaces de modular los procesos de apoptosis en el endotelio vascular. Esta revisión define desde el punto de vista estructural, los distintos grupos de polifenoles que pueden formarse en los vegetales y actualiza los conocimientos sobre su biodisponibilidad. En ella se recopilan asimismo algunos de los estudios recientes que establecen sus propiedades beneficiosas a nivel cardiovascular.In recent years, a number of studies have endorsed the beneficial effects of polyphenols intake on health, especially on the cardiovascular system. This is important since cardiovascular diseases are the main death cause worldwide. The effects of polyphenols are mainly due to their antioxidant properties. These compounds present vasodilating effects, and they can improve the lipid profile and lessen the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL. They show clear antiinflammatory effects and they can modulate the apoptotic pathways in the vascular endothelium. This review defines from the structural viewpoint the different groups of polyphenols that may occur in vegetables, and updates the knowledge on their bioavailability. Some of the recent studies establishing their beneficial properties at a cardiovascular level are also included.

  1. Effect of weight loss on the cardiovascular risk profile of obese patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Zachariae, Claus; Christensen, Robin;

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is associated with obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors including endothelial dysfunction. We aimed to investigate the effects of weight loss on the cardiovascular risk profile of obese patients with psoriasis. A randomised controlled study was conducted in which we measured...... weeks followed by 8 weeks of reduced food intake reaching 1,200 kcal/day or normal healthy foods (n = 30) for 16 weeks. The intervention group lost significantly more weight than controls, which resulted in significant reductions of diastolic blood pressure, resting heart rate, total cholesterol, VLDL...... improved by weight reduction....

  2. Moderation of dietary sodium potentiates the renal and cardiovascular protective effects of angiotensin receptor blockers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J; Holtkamp, Frank A; Parving, Hans-Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    intake during treatment, measured as the 24-h urinary sodium/creatinine ratio of 1177 patients with available 24-h urinary sodium measurements. ARB compared to non-RAASi-based therapy produced the greatest long-term effects on renal and cardiovascular events in the lowest tertile of sodium intake....... Compared to non-RAASi, the trend in risk for renal events was significantly reduced by 43%, not changed, or increased by 37% for each tertile of increased sodium intake, respectively. The trend for cardiovascular events was significantly reduced by 37%, increased by 2% and 25%, respectively. Thus...

  3. The Effects of Cold and Lower Body Negative Pressure on Cardiovascular Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Kean, David J.; Peacock, Corey A; SANDERS, GABRIEL J.; John McDaniel; Colvin, Lisa A. C.; GLICKMAN, ELLEN L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study is to determine how cold exposure and lower body negative pressure effected cardiovascular variables. Methods. Eleven males (20.3 years ± 2.7) underwent two 20-minute exposures to LBNP. During the 2 trials, the subjects were exposed to cold air (10°C) (COLD) and to ambient temperature (23°C) (AMB). The trials consisted of a 100-minute pre-LBNP period followed by a 20-minute exposure to LBNP and then a 15-minute recovery period. Cardiovascular variables were ...

  4. Protective Effects of Panax Notoginseng Saponins on Cardiovascular Diseases: A Comprehensive Overview of Experimental Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochen Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS are one of the most important compounds derived from roots of the herb Panax notoginseng which are traditionally used as a hemostatic medicine to control internal and external bleeding in China for thousands of years. To date, at least twenty saponins were identified and some of them including notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rb1, and ginsenoside Rg1 were researched frequently in the area of cardiovascular protection. However, the protective effects of PNS on cardiovascular diseases based on experimental studies and its underlying mechanisms have not been reviewed systematically. This paper reviewed the pharmacology of PNS and its monomers Rb1, Rg1, and R1 in the treatment for cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Cardiovascular Effects of Olive, a Qur’anic Fruit: a Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Heidari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Today, much attention is being paid to the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. In some parts of the world, the rate of cardiovascular disease is low due to a Mediterranean diet containing olive oil. This systematic review examined the verses and traditions in order to express opinions on olive and compare it with the findings of modern medicine. Methods: This is a qualitative systematic review of studies  in which data  were collected from Qur'an, traditions, and related articles on the internet, limited to English and Persian and without time limitation by using the keywords olive, heart disease and Mediterranean diet. Results: This systematic review demonstrated that olive in the Quran is a clear sign to scientists. Moreover, its use is recommended in the authentic traditions. Conclusion: Based on the results, olive has been found to be effective in reducing mortality and preventing cardiovascular diseases.

  6. Controlled Exposure of Humans with Metabolic Syndrome to Concentrated Ultrafine Ambient Particulate Matter Causes Cardiovascular Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Many studies have reported associations between PM2.5 and adverse cardiovascular effects. However there is increased concern that ultrafine PM (aerodynamic diameter less than 0.1 micron) may be disproportionately toxic relative to the 0.1 to 2.5 micron fraction of PM2...

  7. Bi-directional CB1 receptor-mediated cardiovascular effects of cannabinoids in anaesthetized rats: role of the paraventricular nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzeda, E; Schlicker, E; Luczaj, W; Harasim, E; Baranowska-Kuczko, M; Malinowska, B

    2015-06-01

    The activation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors decreases and increases blood pressure (BP) in anaesthetized and conscious rats, respectively. The aim of our study was to check the possible involvement of CB1 receptors in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) in the cardiovascular effects of cannabinoids in rats. Methanandamide (metabolically stable analogue of the endocannabinoid anandamide) and the synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist CP55940 were microinjected into the PVN of urethane-anaesthetized rats twice (S1 and S2, 20 min apart). Receptor antagonists were administered intravenously (i.v.) 5 min before S1. Methanandamide and CP55940 decreased blood pressure by 15 - 20%. The CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 reversed the depressor effect into a pressor response of 20 - 30%. The pressor effect of CP55940 observed in the presence of AM251 i.v. was reduced by AM251 given additionally into the PVN but not by the i.v. injection of the CB2 antagonist SR144528 or the vanilloid TRPV1 antagonist ruthenium red. In the presence of the peripherally restricted CB1 receptor antagonist AM6545, CP55940 given into the PVN increased BP by 40%. AM6545 reversed the decrease in BP induced by CP55940 i.v. into a marked increase. Bilateral chemical lesion of the PVN by kainic acid abolished all cardiovascular effects of CP55940 i.v. In conclusion, the cannabinoid CP55940 administered to the PVN of urethane-anaesthetized rats can induce depressor and pressor effects. The direction of the response probably depends on the sympathetic tone. The centrally induced hypertensive response of CP55940 can, in addition, be masked by peripheral CB1 receptors.

  8. Differential effects of adulterated versus unadulterated forms of linoleic acid on cardiovascular health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen D.Anton; Kacey Heekin; Carrah Simkins; Andres Acosta

    2013-01-01

    According to the classic "diet-heart" hypothesis,high dietary intake of saturated fats and cholesterol combined with low intake of polyunsaturated fats can increase levels of serum cholesterol and lead to the development of atherogenic plaques and ultimately cardiovascular diseases.Recently,the beneficial health effects of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids,particularly linoleic acid (LA),on cardiovascular health have been called into question with some scientists suggesting that consumption of LA should be reduced in Western countries.The focus of this critical review is on the controversy surrounding the effects of dietary intake of LA on cardiovascular health.Specifically,we critically examined the effects of both unadulterated and adulterated forms of LA on cardiovascular health outcomes based on findings from epidemiological studies and randomized controlled trials.Additionally,we address common concerns surrounding dietary intake of LA regarding its relationship with arachidonic acid,the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids,and its relationship with inflammation.Our critical review indicates that unadulterated forms of LA are cardioprotective and should be consumed as part of a healthy diet.In contrast,abundant evidence now indicates that adulterated forms of LA,predominantly hydrogenated vegetable oils,are atherogenic and should not be considered part of a healthy diet.The ability to adulterate the natural omega-6 fatty acid,LA,has contributed to mixed findings regarding the effects of this fatty acid on cardiovascular health.Thus,it is critical that the source of LA be taken into account when drawing conclusions about the physiological effects of this fatty acid.The findings of the present review are in line with current dietary recommendations of the American Heart Association.

  9. The effects of halothane and isoflurane on cardiovascular function in laterally recumbent horses

    OpenAIRE

    Raisis, A L; Blissitt, Karen; Henley, W.; Rogers, K.; Adams, V; Young, L.E.

    2005-01-01

    Background. Experimental studies in adult horses have shown that general anaesthesia maintained with isoflurane is associated with less depression of cardiovascular function compared with halothane anaesthesia. Adverse effects of intermittent positive-pressure ventilation (IPPV) have also been demonstrated. Nevertheless, the haemodynamic effects of these agents and the effects of differing modes of ventilation have not been assessed during clinical anaesthesia in horses undergoing surgery.Met...

  10. Effects of tofacitinib on cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular outcomes based on phase III and long-term extension data in patients with plaque psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jashin J; Strober, Bruce E; Hansen, Peter R;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a systemic inflammatory condition that is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease. Tofacitinib is being investigated as a treatment for psoriasis. OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the effects of tofacitinib on CV risk factors and major adverse CV even...

  11. Tetrandrine and related bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloids from medicinal herbs: cardiovascular effects and mechanisms of action

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chiu-Yin KWAN; FI ACHIKE

    2002-01-01

    Tetrandrine (TET), a bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloid purified and identified an active ingredient in a Chinese medicinal herb, Radix Stephanae tetrandrae, has been used traditionally for the treatment of congestive circulatory disorder and inflammatory diseases. TET, together with a few of its structural analogues, has long been demonstrated to have antihypertensive action in clinical as well as animal studies. Presumably, the primary anti-hypertensive action of TET is due to its vasodilatory properties. TET prevents or inhibits vascular contraction induced by membrane depolarization with KCl or α-adrenoceptor activation with phenylephrine (PE). TET (30 μmol/L) also inhibits the release of endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) as well as NO production by inducible NO synthase.TET apparently inhibits multiple Ca2+ entry pathways as demonstrated in cell types lacking the L-type Ca2+ channels.In cardiac muscle cells, TET inhibits both L- and T-type Ca2+ channels. In addition to its actions on cardiovascular tissues, TET may also exert its anti-hypertensive action via a Ca2+-dependent manner on other tissues intimately involved in the modulation of blood pressure control, such as adrenal glands. In adrenal glomerulosa cells, KCl- or angiotensin II-induced aldosterone synthesis is highly dependent on extracellular Ca2+. Steroidogenesis and Ca2+-influx in bovine adrenal glomerulosa cells have been shown to be potently inhibited by TET. In bovine adrenal chromaffin cells, TET inhibits Ca2+ currents via L- and N-type channels as well as other unidentified channels with IC50 of 10 μmol/L. Other than the Ca2+ antagonistic effects, TET also interacts with the α-adrenergic receptors and muscarinic receptors based on functional as well as radioligand binding studies. Apart from its functional effects,TET and related compounds also exert effects on tissue structures, such as remodelling of hypertrophied heart and inhibition of angiogenesis, probably by causing apoptotic

  12. Resveratrol blunts the positive effects of exercise training on cardiovascular health in aged men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybholt, Lasse Gliemann; Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Olesen, Jesper;

    2013-01-01

    on atherosclerosis marker VCAM-1. Sirtuin 1 protein levels were not affected by resveratrol supplementation. These findings indicate that, whereas exercise training effectively improves several cardiovascular health parameters in aged men, concomitant resveratrol supplementation blunts most of these effects.......Aging is thought to be associated with decreased vascular function partly due to oxidative stress. Resveratrol is a polyphenol, which, in animal studies has been shown to decrease atherosclerosis, improve cardiovascular health and physical capacity, in part through its effects on Sirtuin 1.......02) and muscle TBX synthase was higher in the resveratrol group after training (P effects of exercise on LDL, TC/HDL ratio and triglycerides concentrations in blood (P effect of exercise training...

  13. Hydrogen sulphide in the RVLM and PVN has no effect on cardiovascular regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloise eStreeter

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S is now recognised as an important signalling molecule and has been shown to have vasodilator and cardio-protectant effects. More recently it has been suggested that H2S may also act within the brain to reduce blood pressure. In the present study we have demonstrated the presence of the H2S producing enzyme, cystathionine  synthase (CBS in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM and the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN, brain regions with key cardiovascular regulatory functions. The cardiovascular role of H2S was investigated by determining the blood pressure (BP, heart rate (HR and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity (LSNA responses elicited by a H2S donor (NaHS, sodium hydrogen sulphide or inhibitors of CBS, microinjected into the RVLM and PVN. In anaesthetised WKY rats bilateral microinjections of NaHS (0.2 – 2000 pmol/side into the RVLM did not significantly affect BP, HR or LSNA, compared to vehicle. Similarly, when the CBS inhibitors, amino-oxyacetate (AOA (0.1 – 1.0 nmol/side or hydroxylamine (HA (0.2 – 2.0 nmol/side, were administered into the RVLM, there were no significant effects on the cardiovascular variables compared to vehicle. Microinjections into the PVN of NaHS, HA and AOA had no consistent significant effects on BP, HR or LSNA compared to vehicle. We also investigated the cardiovascular responses to NaHS microinjected into the RVLM and PVN in SHR rats. Again, there were no significant effects on BP, HR and LSNA. Together, these results suggest that H2S in the RVLM and PVN does not have a major role in cardiovascular regulation.

  14. The effect of a comprehensive lifestyle intervention on cardiovascular risk factors in pharmacologically treated patients with stable cardiovascular disease compared to usual care: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJzelenberg Wilhelmina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The additional benefit of lifestyle interventions in patients receiving cardioprotective drug treatment to improve cardiovascular risk profile is not fully established. The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of a target-driven multidisciplinary structured lifestyle intervention programme of 6 months duration aimed at maximum reduction of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD compared with usual care. Methods A single centre, two arm, parallel group randomised controlled trial was performed. Patients with stable established CVD and at least one lifestyle-related risk factor were recruited from the vascular and cardiology outpatient departments of the university hospital. Blocked randomisation was used to allocate patients to the intervention (n = 71 or control group (n = 75 using an on-site computer system combined with allocations in computer-generated tables of random numbers kept in a locked computer file. The intervention group received the comprehensive lifestyle intervention offered in a specialised outpatient clinic in addition to usual care. The control group continued to receive usual care. Outcome measures were the lifestyle-related cardiovascular risk factors: smoking, physical activity, physical fitness, diet, blood pressure, plasma total/HDL/LDL cholesterol concentrations, BMI, waist circumference, and changes in medication. Results The intervention led to increased physical activity/fitness levels and an improved cardiovascular risk factor profile (reduced BMI and waist circumference. In this setting, cardiovascular risk management for blood pressure and lipid levels by prophylactic treatment for CVD in usual care was already close to optimal as reflected in baseline levels. There was no significant improvement in any other risk factor. Conclusions Even in CVD patients receiving good clinical care and using cardioprotective drug treatment, a comprehensive

  15. On the track of syncope induced by orthostatic stress - feedback mechanisms regulating the cardiovascular system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Johnny T.

    2009-01-01

    A physiological realistic model of the controlled cardiovascular system is constructed and validated against clinical data. Special attention is paid to the heart rate control. Both sit-to-stand and head-up-tilt experiments are encapsulated by the model. The model may be used in studies of syncop...

  16. Effect of cold spells and their modifiers on cardiovascular disease events: evidence from two prospective studies

    OpenAIRE

    Sartini, Claudio; Barry, Sarah J. E.; Wannamethee, S Goya; Whincup, Peter H.; Lennon, Lucy; Ford, Ian; Morris, Richard W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate effects of cold weather spells on incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and potential effect modification of socio-demographic, clinical, behavioural and environmental exposures. Methods: Data from two prospective studies were analysed: the British Regional Heart Study (BRHS), a population-based study of British men aged 60–79 years, followed for CVD incidence from 1998–2000 to 2012; and the PROSPER study of men and women aged 70–82 recruited to a tr...

  17. Effect of cold spells and their modifiers on cardiovascular disease events: evidence from two prospective studies

    OpenAIRE

    Sartini, C.; Barry, S.J.E.; Wannamethee, S. G.; Whincup, P H; Lennon, L; Ford, I; Morris, R W

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate effects of cold weather spells on incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and potential effect modification of socio-demographic, clinical, behavioural and environmental exposures. / Methods: Data from two prospective studies were analysed: the British Regional Heart Study (BRHS), a population-based study of British men aged 60–79 years, followed for CVD incidence from 1998–2000 to 2012; and the PROSPER study of men and women aged 70–82 recruited to a trial of pra...

  18. Analysis of Cardiovascular Diseases Costs and Their Effective Factors in Tabriz Hospitalized Patients, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Cardiovascular diseases are the most important chronic diseases with significant negative effects on the individuals’ quality of life and communities’ economic productivity. Objectives The present study aimed to analyze the costs of cardiovascular diseases and identify the related factors in hospitalized patients of Tabriz Shahid Madani hospital in 2015. Patients and Methods This paper was a cross-sectional study. Cost information was obtained by a bottom-up approach from the patients and their families’ perspective. A number of 285 patients were randomly selected to participate in the study. For data collection, the study deployed a researcher-made questionnaire whose validity and reliability were confirmed by statistical tests. First, the collected data were analyzed using descriptive methods. And then, the researchers used t-test and ANOVA to analyze the relationship between demographic variables and the different types of cost. Tukey test was used to compare differences between groups groups, the researchers used. Results The Study findings showed that the total cost of cardiovascular diseases was 13,074,700 Rials (US$462 per patient. The details of the costs of cardiovascular diseases also showed that direct medical costs, direct non-medical costs, and indirect costs were 10,909,100 Rials (US$386, 109’940 Rials (US$38.90, and 1,066,200 Rials (37.73 US$ which were 83.4%, 8.4% and 8.2% of the total costs, respectively. Statistical analyses indicated a significant relationship between gender, marital status, education, job status, location, type of disease, type of admission, and the reason for hospitalization and some types of assessed costs (P < 0.05. Conclusions The study showed that the costs associated with cardiovascular diseases were not reasonable for many of these patients and their families. This certainly requires more consideration by managers and policy makers in the health care sector and the implementation of

  19. Effect Of Yoga On Cardiovascular And Mental Status In Normal Subjects Above 30 years Of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Herur

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular diseases are much on a rise ever since the past few decades in developing countries. This study was done to analyze the effect of yoga on cardiovascular and mental status in normal subjects above the age of 30 years. The cardiovascular status was assessed by recording the blood pressure and heart rate; and mental status in terms of a questionnaire, before and after 6 months of regular yogic practice. The mean resting heart rate(beats/min before yoga was 77.8 ± 4.8, which reduced significantly to 71.3 ± 5.2 after 6months of yogic practice (p<0.001. The mean resting systolic blood pressure (mm Hg before yogic practice was 131.4 ± 10.2 and after 6months, it was lowered to a highly significant (p<0.001 level of 123.5 ± 9.9. The mean resting diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg before yoga was 85.6 ± 6.8 and reduced significantly (p<0.001 to 79.6 ± 7.3. The mean General Health Questionnare-28(GHQ-28 score before yogic practice was 8.4 ± 5.7 which reduced to 5.0 ± 4.1 after 6 months (p<0.001, showing a positive attitude of the subjects. Hence, yogic practice can be used as an intervention in ageing persons to reduce the morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular diseases.

  20. Effect of short-term pranayama and meditation on cardiovascular functions in healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roopa B Ankad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Asana, pranayama, and meditation are three main techniques of yoga practiced in India over thousands of years to attain functional harmony between the body and mind. Recent studies on long-term yogic practices have shown improvements in cardiovascular functions. Aim: The present study was conducted to ascertain if a short-term practice of pranayama and meditation had improvements in cardiovascular functions in healthy individuals with respect to age, gender, and body mass index (BMI. Settings and Design: This interventional study was conducted in the Department of physiology of S.N. Medical College, Bagalkot. Patients and Methods: Fifty healthy subjects (24 males and 26 females of 20−60 years age group, fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria underwent two hours daily yoga program for 15 days taught by a certified yoga teacher. Pre and post yoga cardiovascular functions were assessed by recording pulse rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and mean blood pressure. Statistical analysis used: The parameters were analyzed by Student′s t test. Results: There was significant reduction in resting pulse rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and mean arterial blood pressure after practicing pranayama and meditation for 15 days. The response was similar in both the genders, both the age groups, 40 yrs and both the groups with BMI, 25 kg/m2 . Conclusion: This study showed beneficial effects of short term (15 days regular pranayama and meditation practice on cardiovascular functions irrespective of age, gender, and BMI in normal healthy individuals.

  1. Beneficial effects of co-administration of PPAR-γ agonist with melatonin on cardiovascular complications associated with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh Suresh Ahire

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Effect of PPAR-g agonists, Thiazolidinediones, in combination with melatonin was studied for cardiovascular complications associated with diabetes. Materials and Methods: Diabetic rats were treated with combination of pioglitazone (10 mg/kg/day p.o. or rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg/day p.o. with melatonin (10 mg/kg/day p.o. for 7 weeks. The biochemical parameters, serum glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, AST, LDH and LDL-cholesterol levels were evaluated at the end of 7 weeks. Also cardiovascular parameters like atherogenic index, blood pressure, hisotology of heart were done. Results and Conclusions: The combination treated groups, pioglitazone plus melatonin (PM and rosiglitazone plus melatonin (RM, showed significant decrease in the blood pressure when compared with diabetic control group. The level of cell injury markers AST and LDH was normalized in the combination groups PM and RM along with significant decrease in the atherogenic index. In the biochemical parameters, the serum glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol levels were significantly lowered in the combination groups. There was significant inhibition of the myonecrosis, reduction in the infiltration and inflammatory cells, and vacuolar changes when compared with diabetic control. The combination treated groups also proved to be effective in normalizing the levels of SOD, GSH, catalase, and LPO in heart homogenates when compared with diabetic control as well as pioglitazone, rosiglitazone, and melatonin-alone-treated groups. Hence, it may be concluded that the combination of PPAR-g agonists, thiazolidinediones, with melatonin may be beneficial in the treatment of diabetes-induced cardiovascular complications.

  2. Effect of acute exercise and cardiovascular fitness on cognitive function: an event-related cortical desynchronization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Chu, Chien-Heng; Wang, Chun-Chih; Song, Tai-Fen; Wei, Gao-Xia

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to clarify the effects of acute exercise and cardiovascular fitness on cognitive function using the Stroop test and event-related desynchronization (ERD) in an aged population. Old adults (63.10 ± 2.89 years) were first assigned to either a high-fitness or a low-fitness group, and they were then subjected to an acute exercise treatment and a reading control treatment in a counterbalanced order. Alpha ERD was recorded during the Stroop test, which was administered after both treatments. Acute exercise improved cognitive performance regardless of the level of cognition, and old adults with higher fitness levels received greater benefits from acute exercise. Additionally, acute exercise, rather than overall fitness, elicited greater lower and upper alpha ERDs relative to the control condition. These findings indirectly suggest that the beneficial effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance may result from exercise-induced attentional control observed during frontal neural excitation. PMID:25308605

  3. Effects of ramadan fasting on cardiovascular and biochemical parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Gupta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Muslims abstain from food and drink from dawn to sunset every day during Ramadan - the holiest month in Islamic lunar calendar.  Methods: The effect of Ramadan fast on body mass index (BMI, blood pressure (BP, fasting blood glucose (FBG and lipid profile were studied on 100 healthy male, adult Muslim volunteers. All parameters were recorded one week before the onset and then in the last week of Ramadan month and compared.  Results: There was no statistically significant effect on BMI, and systolic or diastolic blood pressures (p>0.05. However, fasting blood glucose (FBG, serum total cholesterol (TC, serum triglycerides (TG were significantly decreased (p = 0.000 and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C level was significantly (p=0.000 increased in last week of Ramadan fasting compared to pre fasting levels. Conclusion: Our results show beneficial effects of Ramadan fasting on FBG and serum lipid profile. 

  4. Cardiovascular effects of Teucrium polium L. extract in rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seed Niazmand

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teucrium polium L. (TP have been used in herbal medicine for different purposes such as antispasmodic, antidiabetic and lowering blood lipid. In the present study, the impact of aqueous-ethanol extract of TP on blood pressure, heart rate and intraventricular pressure was investigated in rabbit. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four NWZ rabbits weighed (2-3 kg were randomly divided into four groups. In each experiment, two groups of six rabbits received jugular injection of either TP extract (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg or normal saline for blood pressure effects and two groups for intraventricular pressure. Then, blood pressure, heart rate and intraventricular pressure were measured via carotid cannula using pressure transducer connected to a power lab system, and the data were pooled from independent, single-blinded experiments for each group. Results: Treatment with 80 mg/kg of TP extract significantly depressed the mean arterial blood pressure (12.5%, P< 0.05. However, there was no significant decrease in the 20 or 40 mg/kg dose or normal saline treatment group. Moreover, the extract increased (dp/dtmax (P<0.05, maximum left ventricular pressure (LVPmax (P<0.05 and decreased (dp/dtmin significantly (P<0.05, there was no meaningful effect on left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP. Conclusion : The present results demonstrated the extract had no effect on the heart rate, but showed a positive inotropic on the heart and hypotensive effects. These data suggested that hypotensive effect may counterbalance by the inotropic effect of the extract.

  5. [Comparison of the acute cardiovascular side effects of iopamidol, metrizamide and amidotrizoate after intracoronary and left ventricular injections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schräder, R; Wolpers, H G; Hoeft, A; Korb, H; Hellige, G

    1984-05-01

    The acute cardiovascular side effects of iopamidol (osmolality: 0.8 osmol/kg), metrizamide (0.6 osmol/kg), and amidotrizoate (2.1 osmol/kg) during coronary arteriography (n = 30) and left ventriculography (n = 9) have been compared in anesthetized closed-chest dogs (n = 5). The influences of these contrast media on hemodynamics, coronary circulation, ECG and physicochemical properties of coronary sinus blood were evaluated. Following intracoronary injection, iopamidol and metrizamide cause positive inotropism while amidotrizoate initially induces cardiodepression. All contrast solutions lead to marked increase of myocardial blood flow. Electrocardiographic changes are greater after amidotrizoate (P less than 0.05). A fall of cationic content in coronary sinus blood is seen after each contrast medium. Amidotrizoate leads to more decrease of potassium (P less than 0.01) and both ionized and total calcium (P less than 0.001). Increase of osmolality and hydrogen ionic content is greater after amidotrizoate than after iopamidol and metrizamide (P less than 0.01). Following left ventricular injection, marked peripheral vasodilation, as seen after amidotrizoate, does not occur after low osmolality compounds. There are no significant differences between iopamidol and metrizamide in spite of the slightly higher osmolality of the former. Thus, both contrast materials should be equivalent with respect to their acute cardiovascular side effects under clinical conditions. Advantages of low osmolality radiological contrast media are discussed.

  6. Does water hardness have preventive effect on cardiovascular disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Momeni

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Our study suggests favorable protective effects of water hardness, mainly water magnesium content, on CVDs. Water hardness, as well as calcium and magnesium content of drinking water may have a protective role against CVDs. Further experimental studies are necessary to determine the underlying mechanisms and longitudinal studies are required to study the clinical impacts of the current findings.

  7. Protective role of Kalpaamruthaa in type II diabetes mellitus-induced cardiovascular disease through the modulation of protease-activated receptor-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Latha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kalpaamruthaa (KA is a formulatory herbal preparation has beneficial antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties against cardiovascular damage (CVD. Objective: The present study was undertaken to investigate the protective role of KA in type II diabetes mellitus-induced CVD through the modulation of protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1. Materials and Methods: CVD was developed in 8 weeks after type II diabetes mellitus induction with high fat diet (2 weeks and low dose of streptozotocin (2 × 35 mg/kg b.w. i.p. in 24 h interval. CVD-induced rats treated with KA (200 mg/kg b.w. in 0.5 ml of olive oil orally for 4 weeks. Results: KA increased the activities of enzymatic antioxidants and the levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants in pancreas of CVD-induced rats. KA effectively reduced the lipid peroxides and carbonyl content in the pancreas of CVD-induced rats. KA reduced cellular damage by ameliorating the activities of marker enzymes in plasma, heart and liver. The protective nature of KA was further evidenced by histological observation in pancreas. Further, KA reduced CVD by decreasing the expression of PAR1 in heart. Conclusion: This study exhibits the defending role of KA in type II diabetes mellitus-induced CVD through altering PAR1.

  8. Cardiovascular effects of uremia in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    of smooth muscle cell assigned genes indicates that besides intimal atherosclerosis, uremic vasculopathy in apoE-/- mice is characterized by a uremia-specific medial smooth muscle cell degeneration. Oxidative stress could also be important for the development of atherosclerotic lesions in uremia...... degeneration. Furthermore, the studies suggested that vascular inflammation and systemic oxidative stress may explain some of the proatherogenic effects of uremia in mice. Interestingly, the accelerated atherosclerosis could be prevented by RAS inhibition, or markedly reduced by RAGE blockade, probably through...... anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects. The new uremic mouse model has provided a tool to identify molecular responses of the arterial wall to uremia, and may help identify new approaches for treatment and prevention of atherosclerotic disease in uremia. Also, the data obtained with the mouse...

  9. Cardiovascular effects of calcium-channel blocker with radionuclide ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemodynamic parameters were assessed before and 0.5h after the p.o. of 20 mg of nifedipine (NIF) in 31 patients and 60 mg of dilitiazem (DIL) in 24 patients with radionuclide ventriculography. After oraltherapy, NIF improved the LV pumping function, LVEF increased from 0.56 to 0.63 (P 2 (P 2), respectively, P 2, respectively, P > 0.05. In the group of patients with old myocardial infarction, both negative effect were observed

  10. Effects of Vitamin D3 and Paricalcitol on Immature Cardiomyocytes: A Novel Role for Vitamin D Analogs in the Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ruggiero

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are more prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease than in the general population and they are considered the leading cause of death in patients with end-stage renal disease. The discovery that vitamin D3 plays a considerable role in cardiovascular protection has led, in recent years, to an increase in the administration of therapies based on the use of this molecule; nevertheless, several studies warned that an excess of vitamin D3 may increase the risk of hypercalcemia and vascular calcifications. In this study we evaluated the effects of vitamin D3, and of its selective analog paricalcitol, on immature cardiomyocytes. Results show that vitamin D3 induces cAMP-mediated cell proliferation and significant intracellular calcification. Paricalcitol, however, induces cell differentiation, morphological modifications in cell shape and size, and no intracellular calcification. Furthermore, vitamin D3 and paricalcitol differently affect cardiomyoblasts responses to acetylcholine treatment. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the effects of vitamin D3 and paricalcitol on cardiomyoblasts are different and, if these in vitro observations could be extrapolated in vivo, they suggest that paricalcitol has the potential for cardiovascular protection without the risk of inducing intracellular calcification.

  11. EFFECTS OF EXERCISE TRAINING ON CARDIOVASCULAR ADRENERGIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario eLeosco

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In heart failure (HF, exercise has been shown to modulate cardiac sympathetic hyperactivation which is one of the earliest features of neurohormonal derangement in this syndrome and correlates with adverse outcome. An important molecular alteration related to chronic sympathetic overstimulation in HF is represented by cardiac β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR dysfunction . It has been demonstrated that exercise reverses β-AR dysfunction by restoring cardiac receptor membrane density and G-protein-dependent adenylyl cyclase activation. In particular, several evidence indicate that exercise reduces levels of cardiac G-protein coupled receptor kinase-2 (GRK2 which is known to be involved in both β1-AR and β2-AR dysregulation in HF. Similar alterations of β-AR system have been described also in the senescent heart. It has also been demonstrated that exercise training restores adrenal GRK2/α-2AR/cathecolamine (CA production axis. At vascular level, exercise shows a therapeutic effect on age-related impairment of vascular reactivity to adrenergic stimulation and restores β-AR-dependent vasodilatation by increasing vascular β-AR responsiveness and reducing endothelial GRK2 activity. Sympathetic nervous system overdrive is thought to account for >50 % of all cases of hypertension and a lack of balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic modulation has been observed in hypertensive subjects. Non-pharmacological, lifestyle interventions have been associated with reductions in SNS overactivity and blood pressure in hypertension. Several evidence have highlighted the blood pressure lowering effects of aerobic endurance exercise in patients with hypertension and the significant reduction in sympathetic neural activity has been reported as one of the main mechanisms explaining the favourable effects of exercise on blood pressure control.

  12. Vascular effects of phytoestrogens and alternative menopausal hormone therapy in cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gencel, V B; Benjamin, M M; Bahou, S N; Khalil, R A

    2012-02-01

    Phytoestrogens are estrogenic compounds of plant origin classified into different groups including isoflavones, lignans, coumestans and stilbenes. Isoflavones such as genistein and daidzein are the most studied and most potent phytoestrogens, and are found mainly in soy based foods. The effects of phytoestrogens are partly mediated via estrogen receptors (ERs): ERα, ERβ and possibly GPER. The interaction of phytoestrogens with ERs is thought to induce both genomic and non-genomic effects in many tissues including the vasculature. Some phytoestrogens such as genistein have additional non-ER-mediated effects involving signaling pathways such as tyrosine kinase. Experimental studies have shown beneficial effects of phytoestrogens on endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle, and extracellular matrix. Phytoestrogens may also affect other pathophysiologic vascular processes such as lipid profile, angiogenesis, inflammation, tissue damage by reactive oxygen species, and these effects could delay the progression of atherosclerosis. As recent clinical trials showed no vascular benefits or even increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and CV events with conventional menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), phytoestrogens are being considered as alternatives to pharmacologic MHT. Epidemiological studies in the Far East population suggest that dietary intake of phytoestrogens may contribute to the decreased incidence of postmenopausal CVD and thromboembolic events. Also, the WHO-CARDIAC study supported that consumption of high soybean diet is associated with lower mortalities from coronary artery disease. However, as with estrogen, there has been some discrepancy between the experimental studies demonstrating the vascular benefits of phytoestrogens and the data from clinical trials. This is likely because the phytoestrogens clinical trials have been limited in many aspects including the number of participants enrolled, the clinical end points investigated, and the lack of

  13. Cardiovascular, endocrine and renal effects of urodilatin in normal humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bestle, M.H.; Olsen, N.V.; Christensen, P.;

    1999-01-01

    remained below 0.1%. The results indicate that even moderately natriuretic doses of urodilatin exert protracted effects on systemic hemodynamic, endocrine, and renal functions, including decreases in cardiac output and renal blood flow, without changes in arterial pressure or glomerular filtration rate...... highest doses. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system was inhibited by the three lowest doses but activated by the hypotensive dose of 40 ng. kg-1. min-1. Plasma vasopressin increased by factors of up to 5 during infusion of the three highest doses. Atrial natriuretic peptide immunoreactivity (including...

  14. Stress-induced growth-differentiation factor 15 plays an intriguing role in cardiovascular diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hai-tao; WANG Hai-chang; TAO Ling; LI Cheng-xiang; LI Fei; ZHANG Yu-yang; LIU Bo-wu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To provide an overview of the current knowledge of growth-differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) in heart disease.Data sources To identify relevant publications,we searched PubMED database combining the textual terms of heart,cardiac,cardiovascular disease with GDF-15.Study selection Well-controlled,relatively large-scale,retrospective studies as well as meaningful individual cases were all selected as materials.Results GDF-15 is a distant member of the transforming growth factor-β cytokine superfamily.In myocardium,GDF-15 is weakly expressed under physiological conditions.However,its expression level is increased in response to pathological stress.Growing evidence indicate that elevated levels of GDF-15 is a promising prognostic biomarker in cardiovascular diseases.Moreover,GDF-15 exhibits the properties of endogenous anti-hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes and protecting the heart suffering from ischemia and reperfusion insult.Conclusion Ve GDF-15 may be a promising biomarker for evaluation and management of patient with cardiovascular diseases,and have potential protective properties on myocardium.

  15. An Integrated Model of the Cardiovascular and Central Nervous Systems for Analysis of Microgravity Induced Fluid Redistribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, R.; Gady, S.; Heinemann, K.; Nelson, E. S.; Mulugeta, L.; Ethier, C. R.; Samuels, B. C.; Feola, A.; Vera, J.; Myers, J. G.

    2015-01-01

    A recognized side effect of prolonged microgravity exposure is visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. The medical understanding of this phenomenon is at present preliminary, although it is hypothesized that the headward shift of bodily fluids in microgravity may be a contributor. Computational models can be used to provide insight into the origins of VIIP. In order to further investigate this phenomenon, NASAs Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) is developing an integrated computational model of the human body which is divided into the eye, the cerebrovascular system, and the cardiovascular system. This presentation will focus on the development and testing of the computational model of an integrated model of the cardiovascular system (CVS) and central nervous system (CNS) that simulates the behavior of pressures, volumes, and flows within these two physiological systems.

  16. Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, Stefan; Verheyen, Nicolas; Grübler, Martin R; Tomaschitz, Andreas; März, Winfried

    2016-07-01

    Vitamin D is a precursor of the steroid hormone calcitriol that is crucial for bone and mineral metabolism. Both the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the general population and the identification of the vitamin D receptor in the heart and blood vessels raised interest in the potential cardiovascular effects of vitamin D. Experimental studies have demonstrated various cardiovascular protective actions of vitamin D, but vitamin D intoxication in animals is known to induce vascular calcification. In meta-analyses of epidemiological studies, vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. Findings from Mendelian randomization studies and randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) do not indicate significant effects of a general vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes. Previous RCTs, however, were not adequately designed to address extraskeletal events, and did not focus on vitamin D-deficient individuals. Therefore, currently available evidence does not support cardiovascular benefits or harms of vitamin D supplementation with the commonly used doses, and whether vitamin D has cardiovascular effects in individuals with overt vitamin D deficiency remains to be evaluated. Here, we provide an update on clinical studies on vitamin D and cardiovascular risk, discuss ongoing vitamin D research, and consider the management of vitamin D deficiency from a cardiovascular health perspective. PMID:27150190

  17. Use of pioglitazone in the treatment of diabetes: effect on cardiovascular risk

    OpenAIRE

    Zou C; Hu H

    2013-01-01

    Cong Zou,1 Honglin Hu2 1Department of Endocrinology, Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Urology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, People's Republic of China Abstract: Pioglitazone and other thiazolidinediones (TZDs) initially showed great promise as unique receptor-mediated oral therapy for type 2 diabetes, but a host of serious side effects, primarily cardiovascular, have limited...

  18. Protective Effects of Panax Notoginseng Saponins on Cardiovascular Diseases: A Comprehensive Overview of Experimental Studies

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) are one of the most important compounds derived from roots of the herb Panax notoginseng which are traditionally used as a hemostatic medicine to control internal and external bleeding in China for thousands of years. To date, at least twenty saponins were identified and some of them including notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rb1, and ginsenoside Rg1 were researched frequently in the area of cardiovascular protection. However, the protective effects of PNS on c...

  19. The Effect of Widowhood on Husbands’ and Wives’ Physical Activity: The Cardiovascular Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Stahl, Sarah T.; Schulz, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This prospective study examined the effect of widowhood on physical activity by comparing widowed elders to health status-, age-, and sex-matched married controls. Participants included 396 married controls and 396 widows/widowers age 64 to 91 (M age = 72.7 years) who experienced the death of their spouse while participating in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS). Compared to married controls, widowed men, but not women, were more likely to increase their physical activity...

  20. Instillation rate effects of Exosurf on cerebral and cardiovascular haemodynamics in preterm neonates.

    OpenAIRE

    Saliba, E; Nashashibi, M; Vaillant, M C; Nasr, C; Laugier, J

    1994-01-01

    The acute effects of surfactant instillation rate on the cerebral and cardiovascular haemodynamics were studied in a randomised trial of 27 preterm neonates with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV), mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), blood gases and electroencephalogram (EEG) were continuously recorded before, during, and for at least 10 minutes after the administration of surfactant. The measurements were repeated one, three, and six hours later. Left v...

  1. Effects of Sex and Gender on Adaptation to Space: Cardiovascular Alterations

    OpenAIRE

    Platts, Steven H.; Bairey Merz, C. Noel; Barr, Yael; Fu, Qi; Gulati, Martha; Hughson, Richard,; Levine, Benjamin D.; Mehran, Roxana; Stachenfeld, Nina; Wenger, Nanette K

    2014-01-01

    Sex and gender differences in the cardiovascular adaptation to spaceflight were examined with the goal of optimizing the health and safety of male and female astronauts at the forefront of space exploration. Female astronauts are more susceptible to orthostatic intolerance after space flight; the visual impairment intracranial pressure syndrome predominates slightly in males. Since spaceflight simulates vascular aging, sex-specific effects on vascular endothelium and thrombotic risk warrant e...

  2. Healthy Satiety Effects of Paleolithic diet on Satiety and Risk factors for Cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jönsson, Tommy

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) exhibits considerable variation across agrarian societies, whereas they are virtually absent in non-agrarian societies such as hunter-gatherer and horticultural societies. When looking for lifestyle factors which could promote CVD, it therefore seems logical to focus on the agrarian lifestyle and ways in which it departs from a non-agrarian lifestyle. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the effect of a hunter-gatherer diet (also called Paleol...

  3. Beneficial effect of low ethanol intake on the cardiovascular system: possible biochemical mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudesh Vasdev

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Sudesh Vasdev1, Vicki Gill1, Pawan K Singal21Discipline of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada; 2Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Manitoba, Faculty of Medicine, Winnipeg, Manitoba, CanadaAbstract: Low ethanol intake is known to have a beneficial effect on cardiovascular disease. In cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance leads to altered glucose and lipid metabolism resulting in an increased production of aldehydes, including methylglyoxal. Aldehydes react non-enzymatically with sulfhydryl and amino groups of proteins forming advanced glycation end products (AGEs, altering protein structure and function. These alterations cause endothelial dysfunction with increased cytosolic free calcium, peripheral vascular resistance, and blood pressure. AGEs produce atherogenic effects including oxidative stress, platelet adhesion, inflammation, smooth muscle cell proliferation and modification of lipoproteins. Low ethanol intake attenuates hypertension and atherosclerosis but the mechanism of this effect is not clear. Ethanol at low concentrations is metabolized by low Km alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase, both reactions resulting in the production of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH. This creates a reductive environment, decreasing oxidative stress and secondary production of aldehydes through lipid peroxidation. NADH may also increase the tissue levels of the antioxidants cysteine and glutathione, which bind aldehydes and stimulate methylglyoxal catabolism. Low ethanol improves insulin resistance, increases high-density lipoprotein and stimulates activity of the antioxidant enzyme, paraoxonase. In conclusion, we suggest that chronic low ethanol intake confers its beneficial effect mainly through its ability to increase antioxidant capacity and lower AGEs.Keywords: low ethanol, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, biochemical

  4. Effect of low calorie diet with rice bran oil on cardiovascular risk factors in hyperlipidemic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Zavoshy; Mostafa Noroozi; Hassan Jahanihashemi

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death and disability in industrialized and developing countries. The aim of this research was to determine the effect of rice bran oil, with a low-calorie diet, on lipid profiles, in hyperlipidemic patients. Materials and Methods: This study was a parallel groups′ randomized clinical trial with a pre- and post-test design. Fifty hyperlipidemic patients of both sexes and age range of 25 - 65 years had participated. The patients re...

  5. Study of cardiovascular disease biomarkers among tobacco consumers, part 2: biomarkers of biological effect

    OpenAIRE

    Nordskog, Brian K.; Brown, Buddy G.; Marano, Kristin M.; Campell, Leanne R.; Jones, Bobbette A.; Borgerding, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An age-stratified, cross-sectional study was conducted in the US among healthy adult male cigarette smokers, moist snuff consumers, and non-tobacco consumers to evaluate cardiovascular biomarkers of biological effect (BoBE). Physiological assessments included flow-mediated dilation, ankle-brachial index, carotid intima-media thickness and expired carbon monoxide. Approximately one-half of the measured serum BoBE showed statistically significant differences; IL-12(p70), sICAM-1 and IL...

  6. Cardiovascular effects of edible oils: a comparison between four popular edible oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bester, D; Esterhuyse, A J; Truter, E J; van Rooyen, J

    2010-12-01

    Edible oils form an essential part of the modern diet. These oils play a role as an energy source, and provide the diet with many beneficial micronutrients. Although a popular conception may be that fat should be avoided, certain edible oils as a dietary supplement may play an important role in the improvement of cardiovascular health. CVD has become one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Dietary supplementation with different oils may have beneficial effects on cardiovascular health. While olive oil and sunflower-seed oil are known to reduce serum cholesterol, fish oil has become well known for reducing potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmias. Recently, red palm oil research has shown beneficial effects on cardiac recovery from ischaemia-reperfusion injury. It is clear that dietary supplementation with edible oils may play a vital role in reducing the mortality rate due to heart disease. The specific benefits and disadvantages of these oils should, however, be explored in greater depth. The present review will attempt to identify the benefits and shortcomings of four popular edible oils, namely olive oil, sunflower-seed oil, fish oil and palm oil. Additionally the present review will aim to reveal potential areas of research which could further enhance our understanding of the effects of edible oils on cardiovascular health. PMID:20849681

  7. Fish oil and olive oil supplements attenuate the adverse cardiovascular effects of concentrated ambient air pollution particles exposure in healthy middle-aged adult human volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to ambient levels of air pollution increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Advanced age is among the factors associated with susceptibility to the adverse effects of air pollution. Dietary fatty acid supplementation has been shown to decrease cardiovascular ris...

  8. Beneficial cardiovascular effects of reducing exposure to particulate air pollution with a simple facemask

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jing

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to air pollution is an important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and is associated with increased blood pressure, reduced heart rate variability, endothelial dysfunction and myocardial ischaemia. Our objectives were to assess the cardiovascular effects of reducing air pollution exposure by wearing a facemask. Methods In an open-label cross-over randomised controlled trial, 15 healthy volunteers (median age 28 years walked on a predefined city centre route in Beijing in the presence and absence of a highly efficient facemask. Personal exposure to ambient air pollution and exercise was assessed continuously using portable real-time monitors and global positional system tracking respectively. Cardiovascular effects were assessed by continuous 12-lead electrocardiographic and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Results Ambient exposure (PM2.5 86 ± 61 vs 140 ± 113 μg/m3; particle number 2.4 ± 0.4 vs 2.3 ± 0.4 × 104 particles/cm3, temperature (29 ± 1 vs 28 ± 3°C and relative humidity (63 ± 10 vs 64 ± 19% were similar (P > 0.05 for all on both study days. During the 2-hour city walk, systolic blood pressure was lower (114 ± 10 vs 121 ± 11 mmHg, P vs 88 ± 11/min; P > 0.05. Over the 24-hour period heart rate variability increased (SDNN 65.6 ± 11.5 vs 61.2 ± 11.4 ms, P vs 816 ± 340 ms2, P Conclusion Wearing a facemask appears to abrogate the adverse effects of air pollution on blood pressure and heart rate variability. This simple intervention has the potential to protect susceptible individuals and prevent cardiovascular events in cities with high concentrations of ambient air pollution.

  9. Cardiovascular effects of the essential oil of Croton zehntneri leaves in DOCA-salt hypertensive, conscious rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Siqueira, Rodrigo José Bezerra; Duarte, Gloria Pinto; Magalhães, Pedro Jorge Caldas; Lahlou, Saad

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the cardiovascular effects of the essential oil of Croton zehntneri (EOCZ) in deoxycorticosterone-acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats. Furthermore, in vitro experiments using isolated thoracic aortic rings were performed to assess the vascular effects of the EOCZ. In conscious hypertensive rats, intravenous (i.v.) injections of EOCZ (1-20 mg/kg) induced rapid (2-4 s) and dose-dependent hypotension and bradycardia (phase 1). The hypotension was followed by a significant pressor effect that was more evident at the higher doses (10 and 20 mg/kg) of EOCZ. Hypotension and bradycardia of EOCZ (phase 1) were abolished and respectively reversed into pressor and tachycardiac effects by methylatropine (1 mg/kg, i.v.) pretreatment. In isolated endothelium-intact aortic preparations, increasing concentrations (1-1000 microg/mL) of EOCZ relaxed the potassium-induced contraction in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 (geometric mean [95% confidence interval]) value of 202.0 [92.0-443.7] microg/mL. This vasorelaxant effect remained unaffected by either mechanical removal of functional vascular endothelium (IC50 = 189.0 [159.4-224.7] microg/mL) or the addition of atropine (1 microM) (IC50 = 158.6 [79.8-316.2] microg/mL) in the perfusion medium. These data show that i.v. administration of EOCZ in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats induces a vago-vagal reflex decreases in heart rate and blood pressure (phase 1). EOCZ may induce a second and delayed hypotension due to its direct endothelium-independent vasorelaxant effects, but it seems to be buffered by the pressor component (subsequent to phase 1) of EOCZ. This pattern of blood pressure and heart rate responses to EOCZ seems unaltered by DOCA-salt hypertension, as was similar to that previously reported in conscious normotensive rats.

  10. Stress and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Nobutaka

    2014-01-01

    Recent major advances in medical science have introduced a wide variety of treatments against atherosclerosis-based cardiovascular diseases, which has led to a significant reduction in mortality associated with these diseases. However, atherosclerosis-based cardiovascular disease remains a leading cause of death. Furthermore, progress in medical science has demonstrated the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease to be complicated, with a wide variety of underlying factors. Among these factors, stress is thought to be pivotal. Several types of stress are involved in the development of cardiovascular disease, including oxidative stress, mental stress, hemodynamic stress and social stress. Accumulating evidence indicates that traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis, including diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and smoking, induce oxidative stress in the vasculature. Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction, atherogenesis, hypertension and remodeling of blood vessels. Meanwhile, mental stress is a well-known major contributor to the development of cardiovascular disease. The cardiovascular system is constantly exposed to hemodynamic stress by the blood flow and/or pulsation, and hemodynamic stress exerts profound effects on the biology of vascular cells and cardiomyocytes. In addition, social stress, such as that due to a lack of social support, poverty or living alone, has a negative impact on the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, there are interactions between mental, oxidative and hemodynamic stress. The production of reactive oxygen species is increased under high levels of mental stress in close association with oxidative stress. These stress responses and their interactions play central roles in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis-based cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, the pathophysiological and clinical implications of stress are discussed in this article.

  11. Quercetin ameliorates cardiovascular, hepatic, and metabolic changes in diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchal, Sunil K; Poudyal, Hemant; Brown, Lindsay

    2012-06-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We investigated the responses to the flavonol, quercetin, in male Wistar rats (8-9 wk old) divided into 4 groups. Two groups were given either a corn starch-rich (C) or high-carbohydrate, high-fat (H) diet for 16 wk; the remaining 2 groups were given either a C or H diet for 8 wk followed by supplementation with 0.8 g/kg quercetin in the food for the following 8 wk (CQ and HQ, respectively). The H diet contained ~68% carbohydrates, mainly as fructose and sucrose, and ~24% fat from beef tallow; the C diet contained ~68% carbohydrates as polysaccharides and ~0.7% fat. Compared with the C rats, the H rats had greater body weight and abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, higher systolic blood pressure, impaired glucose tolerance, cardiovascular remodeling, and NAFLD. The H rats had lower protein expressions of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-related factor-2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) with greater expression of NF-κB in both the heart and the liver and less expression of caspase-3 in the liver than in C rats. HQ rats had higher expression of Nrf2, HO-1, and CPT1 and lower expression of NF-κB than H rats in both the heart and the liver. HQ rats had less abdominal fat and lower systolic blood pressure along with attenuation of changes in structure and function of the heart and the liver compared with H rats, although body weight and dyslipidemia did not differ between the H and HQ rats. Thus, quercetin treatment attenuated most of the symptoms of metabolic syndrome, including abdominal obesity, cardiovascular remodeling, and NAFLD, with the most likely mechanisms being decreases in oxidative stress and inflammation.

  12. Short-Term Effects of Isotonic Handgrip Exercise on Cardiovascular Autonomic Reactivity in Healthy Young Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nileshkumar H Patel, Hasmukh D Shah, Wasim A Shaikh, Sushil K Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available "Background: Exercise is a potent stimulus for sympathetic nervous system activation. But the compliance of people for routine form of exercise for BP control has not been very encouraging. Objective of the study was to determine the short-term effects of isotonic handgrip exercise on cardiovascular autonomic reactivity in healthy adolescents and to find a user friendly exercise which help in reducing blood pressure. Method and Materials: Present study was conducted on 50 young healthy adolescents in the age group of 17–19 years. Isotonic handgrip exercise was performed for 20 minutes at the rate 12 contractions per minute (2 sec contraction/3 sec relaxation at an intensity of 30%MVC using Ball-Squeeze Dynamometer. Vascular sympathetic reactivity and cardiac parasympathetic reactivity were tested at baseline and during recovery period (Immediate- post-exercise and 1 hour–post-exercise. Result: There were no changes in the parameters (Expiration: Inspiration ratio and Valsalva Ratio measuring parasympathetic reactivity. Sympathetic reactivity as evaluated by diastolic blood pressure responses to isometric handgrip test (HGT and cold pressor test (CPT showed no significant decreases. No significant difference was observed in cardiovascular autonomic reactivity during immediate and 1 hr post-exercise recovery in both boys and girls. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the exercise regime under consideration could not produce any short-term beneficial effects with respect to cardiovascular autonomic reactivity."

  13. Effect of anger and trait forgiveness on cardiovascular risk in young adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Ross W; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos A; Hawkins, Kirsten A; Batchelor, Wayne B; Fincham, Frank D

    2014-07-01

    High trait anger is linked to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. A potential antidote to the cardiotoxic influence of anger is trait forgiveness (TF), as it has shown associations with improved blood pressure (BP) and cardiovagal tone regulation in cardiac patients. However, it has yet to be determined if anger and forgiveness independently predict cardiovascular parameters. Trait anger (State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2) and TF (Tendency to Forgive Scale) were evaluated in 308 (M = 21.11years ± SD = 2.52) healthy female volunteers allocated to 3 related, yet distinct, studies. Hierarchical multiple regressions tested the incremental contribution of TF after accounting for anger. Study 1 assessed autonomic modulation through beat-to-beat BP and spectral analysis to examine sympathovagal balance and baroreflex functioning. Study 2 used tonometry and pulse wave analysis for aortic hemodynamics. Study 3 assessed 24-hour ambulatory BP and ambulatory arterial stiffness index. Hierarchical models demonstrated that anger was significantly associated with increased sympathovagal tone, increased hemodynamic indices, high ambulatory BPs, and attenuated BP variability and baroreflex. In contrast, TF was associated with more favorable hemodynamic effects (i.e., decreased ventricular work and myocardial oxygen consumption). In conclusion, these results demonstrate divergent cardiovascular effects of anger and forgiveness, such that anger is associated with a more cardiotoxic autonomic and hemodynamic profile, whereas TF is associated with a more cardioprotective profile. These findings suggest that interventions aimed at decreasing anger while increasing forgiveness may be clinically relevant.

  14. Efeitos cardiovascular e metabólico da reposição volêmica com solução salina hipertônica 7,5% associada ou não ao hidroxietilamido 130/0,4 em gatas com hipovolemia induzida Cardiovascular and metabolic effects of volemic expansion with 7.5% hypertonic saline alone or in combination with hydroxyethylstarch 130/0.4 in cats with induced hypovolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doughlas Regalin

    2010-08-01

    Cl 7,5% isoladamente aumenta rapidamente a PAM, PAS e PAD em gatos com hipovolemia induzida, mantendo esse efeito por apenas 30 minutos, enquanto que a administração de hidroxietilamido 130/0,4 associado à NaCl 7,5% promove reestabelecimento mais tardio (após 30 minutos, porém mais duradouro (até 120 minutos da PAM, PAS e PAD em gatas com hipovolemia induzida. A administração de HES 130/0,4 associada à NaCl 7,5% promove aumento acentuado da PVC por até 60 minutos após a administração.Hypovolemia is characterized by body fluid loss leading to an inadequate circulatory flow and consequently tissue injury. The aim of this study was to compare the volume expansion using hypertonic saline solution (NaCl 7.5% alone or in combination with hydroxyethylstarch 130/0.4 (HES 130/0.4 in cats under general anesthesia with isoflurane and exposed to experimental hypovolemia. Twelve adult mixed breed cats, average weight of 3.07±0.56kg were used in this study. The queens were anesthetized using isoflurane and after surgical prepare, anesthesia were maintained with 1 MAC of isoflurane and the animals were mechanically ventilated. After waiting for anesthesia stabilization, baseline cardiovascular and hemogasometric parameters were recorded. Hypovolemia was induced by withdrawing 30mL kg-1 of blood from the femoral artery, after an hour, data were reassessed, and then, the animals were allocated into two groups: HSG (hypertonic saline group, n=6, which received 4mL kg-1 of 7.5% NaCl, and HSCG (hypertonic saline, associated to HES 130/0,4 group n=6 which received 4mL kg-1 of 7.5% NaCl associated to 30ml kg-1 of HES 130/0.4. After the treatments, cardiovascular and hemogasometric parameters were assessed for 120 minutes. Systolic blood pressure (SAP, diastolic blood pressure (DAP, mean arterial pressure (MAP were significantly higher after volemic expansion on HSG at T0. From T45 to T120, SAP, DAP and MAP were significantly higher in HSCG when compared to HSG. Central venous

  15. The Cardiovascular Changes Induced by Inspired Oxygen Fraction in Patients Undergoing on-pump Coronary Artery Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Safavi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increased inspired oxygen fractions (FiO2 have significant hemodynamic effects on consciousvolunteers. These changes may be of great importance in cardiac surgery. The inspiratory gas during open heartsurgery with on-pump technique usually consists of 100% oxygen without any N2O because the risks of bubbleembolism during these procedures. We sought to establish whether the cardiovascular effects of increased FiO2are also present in cardiac surgery patients.Patients and Methods: The present study was a randomized double- blind clinical trial on sixty adult patients(40-70 years with the cardiac ejection fraction (EF of more than 40% and ASA II or III undergoing elective onpumpcoronary artery bypass. They received either a mixture of 50% O2 with 50% air (case group=30 or 100%oxygen (control group=30 throughout the anesthesia. Cardiac index (CI was measured by non- invasive cardiacoutput (NICO technique using end tidal PCO2. Measurements of systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure aswell as heart rate (HR and central venous pressure (CVP, PaO2, arterial PH and CI were obtained at pre-bypass,post bypass, end of surgery and 2 hours after ICU admission. Intra- operative requirements for inotropic drugswere also evaluated. Data were analyzed by SPSS software using t-test and Q-square as well as non parametrictests wherever appropriate.Results: No differences were found between the two groups with regard to age, gender, pump time, operationtime and body mass index and preoperative EF. The mean values of systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressureas well as HR and CI were similar in the case and control groups (p>0.05 at all times of measurement. The meanPaO2 was significantly higher in the control group (p<0.05. The mean pH was statistically higher in the controlgroup but not clinically noticeable. The control group required more inotropic drug support than the case group(16 vs. 8 patients respectively; P < 0.05. Likewise, the mean CVP was

  16. Effect of fast and slow pranayama on perceived stress and cardiovascular parameters in young health-care students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrates that both types of pranayama practice are beneficial in reducing PSS in the healthy subjects but beneficial effect on cardiovascular parameters occurred only after practicing slow pranayama.

  17. Effect of an extruded pea or rice diet on postprandial insulin and cardiovascular responses in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolphe, J L; Drew, M D; Silver, T I; Fouhse, J; Childs, H; Weber, L P

    2015-08-01

    Peas are increasing in popularity as a source of carbohydrate, protein and fibre in extruded canine diets. The aim of this study was to test the health effects of two canine diets with identical macronutrient profiles, but containing either yellow field peas or white rice as the carbohydrate source on metabolism, cardiovascular outcomes and adiposity. First, the acute glycemic, insulinemic and cardiovascular responses to the pea- or rice-based diets were determined in normal weight beagles (n = 7 dogs). The glycemic index did not differ between the pea diet (56 ± 12) and rice diet (63 ± 9). Next, obese beagles (n = 9) were fed the yellow field pea diet or white rice diet ad libitum for 12 weeks in a crossover study. Adiposity (measured using computed tomography), metabolic (oral glucose tolerance test, plasma leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein) and cardiovascular assessments (echocardiography and blood pressure) were performed before and after each crossover study period. After 12 weeks on each diet, peak insulin (p = 0.05) and area under the curve (AUC) for insulin after a 10 g oral glucose tolerance test (p = 0.05) were lower with the pea than the rice diet. Diet did not show a significant effect on body weight, fat distribution, cardiovascular variables, adiponectin or leptin. In conclusion, a diet containing yellow field peas reduced the postprandial insulin response after glucose challenge in dogs despite continued obesity, indicating improved metabolic health. PMID:25475789

  18. Effect of an extruded pea or rice diet on postprandial insulin and cardiovascular responses in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolphe, J L; Drew, M D; Silver, T I; Fouhse, J; Childs, H; Weber, L P

    2015-08-01

    Peas are increasing in popularity as a source of carbohydrate, protein and fibre in extruded canine diets. The aim of this study was to test the health effects of two canine diets with identical macronutrient profiles, but containing either yellow field peas or white rice as the carbohydrate source on metabolism, cardiovascular outcomes and adiposity. First, the acute glycemic, insulinemic and cardiovascular responses to the pea- or rice-based diets were determined in normal weight beagles (n = 7 dogs). The glycemic index did not differ between the pea diet (56 ± 12) and rice diet (63 ± 9). Next, obese beagles (n = 9) were fed the yellow field pea diet or white rice diet ad libitum for 12 weeks in a crossover study. Adiposity (measured using computed tomography), metabolic (oral glucose tolerance test, plasma leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein) and cardiovascular assessments (echocardiography and blood pressure) were performed before and after each crossover study period. After 12 weeks on each diet, peak insulin (p = 0.05) and area under the curve (AUC) for insulin after a 10 g oral glucose tolerance test (p = 0.05) were lower with the pea than the rice diet. Diet did not show a significant effect on body weight, fat distribution, cardiovascular variables, adiponectin or leptin. In conclusion, a diet containing yellow field peas reduced the postprandial insulin response after glucose challenge in dogs despite continued obesity, indicating improved metabolic health.

  19. Acute effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate, on cardiovascular parameters in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Yoshimasa [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Itoh, Takeo, E-mail: titoh@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Shiraishi, Hiroaki [Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Maeno, Yoshitaka [Department of Forensic Medical Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Arima, Yosuke; Torikoshi, Aiko; Namera, Akira [Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Makita, Ryosuke [Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hiroshima Cosmopolitan University, Hiroshima (Japan); Yoshizumi, Masao [Department of Cardiovascular Physiology and Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Nagao, Masataka [Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2013-10-01

    The organophosphorus compound sarin irreversibly inhibits acetylcholinesterase. We examined the acute cardiovascular effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate (BIMP), in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats. Intravenous administration of BIMP (0.8 mg/kg; the LD50 value) induced a long-lasting increase in blood pressure and tended to increase heart rate. In rats pretreated with the non-selective muscarinic-receptor antagonist atropine, BIMP significantly increased both heart rate and blood pressure. In atropine-treated rats, hexamethonium (antagonist of ganglionic nicotinic receptors) greatly attenuated the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure without changing the BIMP-induced increase in heart rate. In rats treated with atropine plus hexamethonium, intravenous phentolamine (non-selective α-adrenergic receptor antagonist) plus propranolol (non-selective β-adrenergic receptor antagonist) completely blocked the BIMP-induced increases in blood pressure and heart rate. In atropine-treated rats, the reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine (1 mg/kg) induced a transient increase in blood pressure, but had no effect on heart rate. These results suggest that in anaesthetized rats, BIMP induces powerful stimulation of sympathetic as well as parasympathetic nerves and thereby modulates heart rate and blood pressure. They may also indicate that an action independent of acetylcholinesterase inhibition contributes to the acute cardiovascular responses induced by BIMP. - Highlights: • A sarin-like agent BIMP markedly increased blood pressure in anaesthetized rats. • Muscarinic receptor blockade enhanced the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure. • Ganglionic nicotinic receptor blockade attenuated the BIMP-induced response. • Blockade of α- as well as β-receptors attenuated the BIMP-induced response.

  20. Effects of slow breathing exercise on cardiovascular functions, pulmonary functions & galvanic skin resistance in healthy human volunteers - a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Turankar, A.V.; Jain, S.; Patel, S.B.; Sinha, S.R.; A. D. Joshi; B N Vallish; Mane, P.R.; Turankar, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Regular practice of slow breathing has been shown to improve cardiovascular and respiratory functions and to decrease the effects of stress. This pilot study was planned to evaluate the short term effects of pranayama on cardiovascular functions, pulmonary functions and galvanic skin resistance (GSR) which mirrors sympathetic tone, and to evaluate the changes that appear within a short span of one week following slow breathing techniques. Methods: Eleven normal health...

  1. Anti-inflamatórios não esteroides: Efeitos cardiovasculares, cérebro-vasculares e renais Antiinflamatorios no esteroides: efectos cardiovasculares, cerebrovasculares y renales Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and renal effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Batlouni

    2010-04-01

    inhibitors. In recent years, the safety of NSAID use in clinical practice has been questioned, especially that of the selective COX-2 inhibitors. The evidence on the increase in cardiovascular risk with the use of NSAIDs is still scarce, due to the lack of randomized and controlled studies with the capacity of evaluating relevant cardiovascular outcomes. However, the results of prospective clinical trials and meta-analyses indicate that the selective COX-2 inhibitors present important adverse cardiovascular effects, which include increased risk of myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident, heart failure, kidney failure and arterial hypertension. The risk of these adverse effects is higher among patients with a previous history of cardiovascular disease or those at high risk to develop it. In these patients, the use of COX-2 inhibitors must be limited to those for which there is no appropriate alternative and, even in these cases, only at low doses and for as little time as possible. Although the most frequent adverse effects have been related to the selective COX-2 inhibition, the absence of selectiveness for this isoenzyme does not completely eliminate the risk of cardiovascular events; therefore, all drugs belonging to the large spectrum of NSAIDs should only be prescribed after consideration of the risk/benefit balance.

  2. Cardiovascular and inflammatory effects of intratracheally instilled ambient dust from Augsburg, Germany, in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters Annette

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rationale Several epidemiological studies associated exposure to increased levels of particulate matter in Augsburg, Germany with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. To elucidate the mechanisms of cardiovascular impairments we investigated the cardiopulmonary responses in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, a model for human cardiovascular diseases, following intratracheal instillation of dust samples from Augsburg. Methods 250 μg, 500 μg and 1000 μg of fine ambient particles (aerodynamic diameter 2.5-AB collected from an urban background site in Augsburg during September and October 2006 (PM2.5 18.2 μg/m3, 10,802 particles/cm3 were instilled in 12 months old SHRs to assess the inflammatory response in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, blood, lung and heart tissues 1 and 3 days post instillation. Radio-telemetric analysis was performed to investigate the cardiovascular responses following instillation of particles at the highest dosage based on the inflammatory response observed. Results Exposure to 1000 μg of PM2.5-AB was associated with a delayed increase in delta mean blood pressure (ΔmBP during 2nd-4th day after instillation (10.0 ± 4.0 vs. -3.9 ± 2.6 mmHg and reduced heart rate (HR on the 3rd day post instillation (325.1 ± 8.8 vs. 348.9 ± 12.5 bpm. BALF cell differential and inflammatory markers (osteopontin, interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 from pulmonary and systemic level were significantly induced, mostly in a dose-dependent way. Protein analysis of various markers indicate that PM2.5-AB instillation results in an activation of endothelin system (endothelin1, renin-angiotensin system (angiotensin converting enzyme and also coagulation system (tissue factor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in pulmonary and cardiac tissues during the same time period when alternation in ΔmBP and HR have been detected. Conclusions Our data suggests that high concentrations of PM2.5-AB

  3. Effect of androgen deprivation therapy on cardiovascular risk factors in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Roayaei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Androgen deprivation is the basis of treatment for advanced stages of prostate cancer. Cardiovascular disease may be a risk factor for mortality in prostate cancer. Therefore, we decided to evaluate the effect of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT on the cardiovascular risk factors in patients with prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study on 2011, 35 patients suffering from metastatic prostate cancer as candidates for ADT were enrolled. Serum levels of fasting blood sugar (FBS, triglyceride (TG and total cholesterol (TC were measured at the beginning and after the 5 th month of ADT. Results: The mean level of TG increased significantly from 130.82 ± 41.57 mg/dl to 150.05 ± 48.29 mg/dl (P < 0.012. Furthermore, serum level of TC increased from 197.62 ± 40.71 mg/dl to 212.54 ± 38.25 mg/dl, which is statistically significant (P < 0.001. A non-significant increase in the serum level of FBS from 96.74 ± 14.04 mg/dl to 99.17 ± 15.23 mg/dl was also seen (P = 0.27. Conclusion: ADT in prostate cancer may lead to an increase in TG and TC levels. In patients with a high risk of cardiovascular disease patient′s lipid profile should be considered during ADT.

  4. High-protein-low-carbohydrate diet: deleterious metabolic and cardiovascular effects depend on age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedarida, Tatiana; Baron, Stephanie; Vessieres, Emilie; Vibert, Francoise; Ayer, Audrey; Marchiol-Fournigault, Carmen; Henrion, Daniel; Paul, Jean-Louis; Noble, Florence; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Beaudeux, Jean-Louis; Cottart, Charles-Henry; Nivet-Antoine, Valerie

    2014-09-01

    High-protein-low-carbohydrate (HP-LC) diets have become widespread. Yet their deleterious consequences, especially on glucose metabolism and arteries, have already been underlined. Our previous study (2) has already shown glucose intolerance with major arterial dysfunction in very old mice subjected to an HP-LC diet. The hypothesis of this work was that this diet had an age-dependent deleterious metabolic and cardiovascular outcome. Two groups of mice, young and adult (3 and 6 mo old), were subjected for 12 wk to a standard or to an HP-LC diet. Glucose and lipid metabolism was studied. The cardiovascular system was explored from the functional stage with Doppler-echography to the molecular stage (arterial reactivity, mRNA, immunohistochemistry). Young mice did not exhibit any significant metabolic modification, whereas adult mice presented marked glucose intolerance associated with an increase in resistin and triglyceride levels. These metabolic disturbances were responsible for cardiovascular damages only in adult mice, with decreased aortic distensibility and left ventricle dysfunction. These seemed to be the consequence of arterial dysfunctions. Mesenteric arteries were the worst affected with a major oxidative stress, whereas aorta function seemed to be maintained with an appreciable role of cyclooxygenase-2 to preserve endothelial function. This study highlights for the first time the age-dependent deleterious effects of an HP-LC diet on metabolism, with glucose intolerance and lipid disorders and vascular (especially microvessels) and cardiac functions. This work shows that HP-LC lead to equivalent cardiovascular alterations, as observed in very old age, and underlines the danger of such diet.

  5. Effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Rosa damascena on cardiovascular responses in normotensive rat

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    Mohammad Naser Shafei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Rosa damascena mill L. (R. damascena is a well-known plant with fragrant effects. Several therapeutic effects of this plant on respiratory, gastrointestinal and nervous systems have been reported. It is also suggested to have beneficial effect on cardiovascular system especially blood pressure regulation. The present study was carried out to evaluate acute cardiovascular effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n= 8 for each group. After anesthesia, a catheter was inserted into the femoral artery and blood pressure and heart rate (HR were continuously recorded by a power lab system. Animals received three doses of hydro-alcoholic extract (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg via peritoneal (i.p. After 30 min, systolic blood pressure (SBP, mean arterial pressure (MAP and HR were recorded and maximal changes were compared to control group. Results: Injection of all doses of the extract did not significantly change HR compare to control group. The SBP, dose dependently, was decreased by all doses of the extract and the maximal response was significant compared to saline group (p Conclusion: This study provides evidence of a hypotensive effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena with no significant effect on HR. Therefore, R. damascena is suggested to have beneficial effect to control blood pressure. However, it needs to be more investigated.

  6. Effects of 50-Hz magnetic field on the cardiovascular system in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI Jin-sheng; WAN Bao-quan; LIU Xing-fa; ZHANG Ye-mao; RUAN Guo-ran; HE Meng-ying; CHEN Chen; WANG Dao-wen

    2016-01-01

    AIM:The 50-Hz magnetic field (MF) is a potential health-risk factor.Its effects on the cardiovascular system have not been fully investigated .This study was conducted to explore the effects of long-term exposure to 50-Hz MF on the cardiovascular system . METHODS:In the study , an exposure system was constructed and the distribution of 50-Hz MF was detected .Sixty-four Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were exposed to 50-Hz MF at 100 μT for 24 weeks, 20 hours per day, while another 64 rats were sham exposed. During the exposure, blood pressure was measured every 4 weeks, and 24 weeks later, echocardiography, cardiac catheterisation and electrocardiography were performed .Moreover , heart and body weight were recorded , while haematoxylin-eosin staining and real-time PCR were conducted .RESULTS:The results showed that compared with the sham group , exposure to 50-Hz MF did not exert any effect on blood pressure, pulse rate, heart rate and cardiac rhythm.Further, echocardiography and cardiac catheterisation showed that there were no significant differences in the cardiac morphology and haemodynamics .In addition , histopathological examination showed that 50-Hz MF exposure had no effect on the structure of hearts .Finally, the expression of the cardiac hypertrophic relative genes did not show any significant differences between 50-Hz MF exposure group and the sham group .CONCLUSION: Taken together , in SD rats, exposure to 50-Hz/100-μT MF for 24 weeks did not show any obvious effects on the cardiovascular system .

  7. YAP is oppositely regulated in iPSC-induced cardiovascular progenitor cell and vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yong-yu; FAN Xiao-fang; DING Lu; CHEN Dan-yang; ZHAO Ru; LI Lan; GONG Yong-sheng

    2016-01-01

    AIM:To explore whether YAP protein is important in induced pluripotent stem cell ( iPSC)-induced cardiovascular progenitor cell and/or vascular smooth muscle differentiation .METHODS:Using episomal vector based reprogramming , we generated human iPSCs from donor fibroblasts .We used both this iPSCs and human H 1 embryonic stem cells to differentiate into vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) through cardiovascular progenitor cells (CVPC).Western blotting, qPCR and immunofluorescence microscopy were used to check the expression of YAP and related genes during this differentiation process .RESULTS:The results showed that iPSCs expressed pluripotent stem cell markers, such as Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, TRA-1-60 and SSEA3, and could form teratoma in SCID mice.YAP was highly expressed in pluripotent stem cells , but dramatically decreased when CVPC differentiation started .YAP gradually increased dur-ing CVPC three-day differentiation.The TAZ and YAP binding partner TEAD1, but not TEAD2 and TEAD4, have similar expression pattern in CVPC differentiation .Immunofluorescence result confirmed that YAP was activated and accumulated in nucleus .Interesting-ly, both YAP and phosphorylated YAP expression decreased to very low level after CVPC differentiated into VSMCs in 7 days.TEAD4 and TAZ also decreased, while TEAD1, TEAD2 and TEAD3 expression did not change during VSMC differentiation .CONCLU-SION:YAP and TEAD1 expression increased during CVPC differentiation , while YAP and TEAD4 expression decreased from CVPC to VSMCs differentiation , which suggested YAP might have different function during diverse cell differentiation .

  8. The heart of the matter: the effects of humor on well-being during recovery from cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Nicholas L; Yoshimura, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the uses of humor among cardiovascular patients to test the associations between humor use, satisfaction with companion relationships, and health during recovery. Self-report data were collected from members of two national support groups for patients recovering from cardiovascular disease. As expected, general humorousness associated with social and psychological well-being. Several specific functions of humor in cardiovascular recovery were identified and linked with health perceptions. Antidote humor increased social and psychological health perceptions, whereas conversation regulation humor and distancing humor were negatively related to perceived social and psychological health. Relationship satisfaction mediated most effects. The findings offer new insight into the variability of humor effects, particularly following cardiovascular treatment. PMID:23829386

  9. High intake of dietary tyramine does not deteriorate glucose handling and does not cause adverse cardiovascular effects in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpéné, Christian; Schaak, Stéphane; Guilbeau-Frugier, Céline; Mercader, Josep; Mialet-Perez, Jeanne

    2016-09-01

    Tyramine is naturally occurring in food and induces pressor responses. Low-tyramine diets are recommended for patients treated with MAO inhibitors to avoid the fatal hypertensive crisis sadly known as "cheese effect". Hence, tyramine intake is suspected to have toxicological consequences in humans, while its administration to type 1 diabetic rodents has been reported to improve glucose tolerance. We investigated in mice whether prolonged tyramine ingestion could alter glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, adipose tissue physiology or cardiovascular functions. Tyramine was added at 0.04 or 0.14 % in the drinking water since this was estimated to increase by 10- to 40-fold the spontaneous tyramine intake of control mice fed a standard diet. Ten to 12 weeks of such tyramine supplementation did not influence body weight gain, adiposity or food consumption. Both doses (reaching approx. 300 and 1100 μmol tyramine/kg bw/day) decreased nonfasting blood glucose but did not modify glucose tolerance or fasting levels of glucose, insulin or circulating lipids. Blood pressure was not increased in tyramine-drinking mice, while only the higher tested dose moderately increased heart rate without change in its variability. Markers of cardiac tissue injury or oxidative stress remained unaltered, except an increased hydrogen peroxide production in heart preparations. In isolated adipocytes, tyramine inhibited lipolysis similarly in treated and control groups, as did insulin. The lack of serious adverse cardiovascular effects of prolonged tyramine supplementation in normoglycemic mice together with the somewhat insulin-like effects found on adipose cells should lead to reconsider favourably the risk/benefit ratio of the intake of this dietary amine. PMID:26634369

  10. The Effect of Music on Anxiety and Cardiovascular Indices in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background The instability of cardiovascular indices and anxiety disorders are common among patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG and could interfere with their recovery. Therefore, improving the cardiovascular indices and anxiety is essential. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the effect of music therapy on anxiety and cardiovascular indices in patients undergoing CABG. Patients and Methods In this randomized controlled trial, 60 patients hospitalized in the cardiovascular surgical intensive care unit of Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Qom city, Iran, in 2013 were selected using a consecutive sampling method and randomly allocated into the experimental and control groups. In the experimental group, patients received 30 minutes of light music, whereas in the control group, patients had 30 minutes of rest in bed. The cardiovascular indices and anxiety were measured immediately before, immediately after and half an hour after the study. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test and repeated measures analysis of variance. Results Compared to the immediately before intervention, the mean anxiety scores immediately after and 30 minutes after the intervention were significantly lower in the experimental group (P 0.05. Conclusions Music therapy is effective in decreasing anxiety among patients undergoing CABG. However, the intervention was not effective on cardiovascular indices. Music can effectively be used as a non-pharmacological method to manage anxiety after CABG.

  11. Effect of hindlimb suspension on cardiovascular responses to sympathomimetics and lower body negative pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, J. Michael; Tipton, Charles M.

    1990-01-01

    To determine whether hindlimb suspension is associated with the development of cardiovascular deconditioning, male rats were studied before and after undergoing one of three treatment conditions for 9 days: (1) cage control (n = 15, CON), (2) horizontal suspension (n = 15, HOZ), and (3) head-down suspension (n = 18, HDS). Testing included lower body negative pressure administered during chloralose-urethan anesthesia and graded doses of sympathomimetic agents (norepinephrine, phenylephrine, and tyramine) administered to conscious unrestrained animals. Both HDS and HOZ were associated with a small decrease in the hypotensive response to lower body negative pressure. The HOZ group, but not the HDS group, exhibited augmented reflex tachycardia. Furthermore, both HDS and HOZ groups manifested reduced pressor responses to phenylephrine after treatment. These reductions were associated with significantly attenuated increases in mesenteric vascular resistance. However, baroreflex control of heart rate was not altered by the treatment conditions. Collectively, these results indicate that 9 days of HDS in rats does not elicit hemodynamic response patterns generally associated with cardiovascular deconditioning induced by hypogravic conditions.

  12. Modulatory effect of semelil (ANGIPARS™) on isoproterenol induced cardiac injury

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadi, Mahboubeh Yeganeh Haj; Badinloo, Marziyeh; Joukar, Siyavash; Mirzaeipour, Fateme; Najafipour, Hamid; Nasri, Hamidreza

    2013-01-01

    Administration of semelil (ANGIPARS™) has been successful in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcer. Considering the improvement of blood flow and anti-inflammatory effect that are attributed to this drug, we investigated its effect on cardiovascular performance in rabbits with isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial injury. Animal groups included: control group; ISO group, received ISO 50 mg/kg s.c. for two consecutive days; S1+ISO, S5+ISO and S10+ISO groups, received semelil 1, 5, and 10 mg...

  13. Effect of fast and slow pranayama on perceived stress and cardiovascular parameters in young health-care students

    OpenAIRE

    Vivek Kumar Sharma; Madanmohan Trakroo,; Velkumary Subramaniam; Rajajeyakumar, M.; Bhavanani, Anand B; Ajit Sahai

    2013-01-01

    Context: Perceived stress is higher for students in various healthcare courses. Previous studies have shown that pranayama practice is beneficial for combating stress and improve cardiovascular functions but both fast and slow pranayama practice produce different physiological responses. Aim: Present study was conducted to compare the effects of commonly practiced slow and fast pranayama on perceived stress and cardiovascular functions in young health-care students. Materials and Method...

  14. Adverse Cardiovascular Effects of Nitrous Oxide: It is not all about Hyperhomocysteinaemia

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    Ata Mahmoodpoor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Once admired for its supposed safety, nitrous oxide is presently blamed to increase adverse cardiovascular effects through augmenting plasma homocysteine concentrations (1, 2. Hemodynamic alterations following the administration of nitrous oxide are extremely complicated and sometimes contradictory. Enhanced venous return, arterial pressure, pulmonary and systemic vascular resistance, cardiac output, pupillary dilation and diaphoresis occur under nitrous oxide administration consistent with sympathomimetic properties of nitrous oxide (3. Conversely, reductions in arterial pressure are also probable, especially in patients with coronary artery disease. Nitrous oxide can also depress myocardial contractility due to decreased availability of Ca2+ for contractile activation; yet, myocardial relaxation kinetics remains intact (4. In the presence of a volatile anesthetic, nitrous oxide decreases MVO2 (Myocardial oxygen consumption and myocardial O2 extraction which may exacerbate myocardial ischemia during concomitant reductions in arterial pressure in patients with coronary artery disease. Consequently, it could be conjectured that probable adverse cardiovascular effects following nitrous oxide administration are variable and consequent of a multi-variable phenomenon rather than a single variable such as increased levels of homocysteine. Studied purely focusing on the effects of nitrous oxide are difficult to conduct due to the numerous confounding factors.In a study by Myles et al., hyperhomocysteinemia has been introduced as the source of the adverse cardiovascular effects of nitrous oxide. However, in this study, increased inspired oxygen concentrations were used to overcome arterial desaturation (1. Given the fact that a constant volume and flow rates are used throughout the anesthesia in a particular patient, increasing the concentrations of oxygen would be associated with decreased delivered nitrous oxide and volatile anesthetic concentrations

  15. The lifecycle effects of nutrition and body size on adult adiposity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajnik, C S

    2002-08-01

    remarkably powerful, intergenerational effect on body size and total and central adiposity. Indians are highly susceptible to insulin resistance and cardiovascular risks, with babies being born small but relatively fat. Insulin resistance is amplified by rapid childhood growth. Dietary factors seem to have profound long-term metabolic influences in pregnancy. Overcrowding with infections and central obesity may amplify cytokine-induced insulin resistance and early diabetes in Indian adults with a low BMI. PMID:12164475

  16. Immediate effect of ice bag application to head and spine on cardiovascular changes in healthy volunteers

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    A Mooventhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objectives: Ice application is one of the treatment procedures used in hydrotherapy. Though its various physiological/therapeutic effects were reported, ice bag application (IBA to head and spine on cardiovascular changes were not reported. Hence, this study aims at evaluating the immediate effect of IBA to head and spine on cardiovascular changes in healthy volunteers. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight subjects were randomized into three sessions ([i] IBA [ii] tap water bag application [TWBA] and [iii] control and intervention was given in one of the 3-different orders. Systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, and pulse rate (PR was assessed before and after 20-min of each intervention. Pulse pressure, mean pressure (MP, rate pressure product (RPP, and double product (Do-P were derived by standard formula. Statistical analysis was performed by repeated measures of analysis of variance and post-hoc analysis with Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons with the use of Statistical Package for Social Sciences version-16. Results: The results showed no significant difference between sessions in all variables. Within-group analysis showed significant reductions in SBP, PR, RPP, Do-P in IBA and TWBA sessions; Significant reduction in DBP, MP in IBA unlike TWBA; and no significant changes in all the variables of control session. Conclusions: Result of our study suggest that though both IBA and TWBA to head and spine might be considered as having effect on improving cardiovascular function in healthy volunteers, IBA to head and spine could be considered as a better choice than TWBA.

  17. Effects of Smokeless Tobacco “Maras Powder” Use on Nitric Oxide and Cardiovascular Risk Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytekin Guven, Fatma Tolun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smokeless tobacco use is common in various parts of the world. In Turkey a type of smokeless tobacco called “Maras powder” is widely used in southeastern region. Smoking is known to have an adverse effect on nitric oxide and cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there is difference between the effects of Maras powder and cigarette smoking on the cardiovascular risk factors and nitric oxide levels.Methods: In the study, participants were 48 Maras powder users, 50 cigarette smokers and 45 nontobacco user subjects. Blood samples were collected and hematological parameters and lipid parameters were measured. Plasma Nitric oxide level was also detected by using the Griess method.Results: Plasma total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride levels were significantly higher in Maras powder and cigarette smokers group than in the nontobacco user group (p<0.001. Plasma HDL-cholesterol levels were significantly lower in Maras powder and cigarette smokers group than in the nontobacco user group (p<0.001. Plasma Nitric oxide levels were found significantly lower in Maras powder and cigarette smokers group compared to the nontobacco user group (4.9±0.9 µmol/l, 4.8±1 µmol/l, 9.4±3.4 µmol/l, respectively, p<0.001 whereas there was no significant difference between the Maras powder and cigarette smokers group. In multivariate logistic regression model, cigarette smoking (Odds ratio=17.832, p<0.001, Maras powder usage (Odds ratio=12.311, p=0.002 and mean platelet volume (Odds ratio=1.425, p=0.030 remained independently associated with lower Nitric oxide levels.Conclusion: We conclude that Maras powder has similar adverse effects on nitric oxide level and cardiovascular risk parameters and thereby it appears to be harmful as cigarette smoking.

  18. [Effects of the 520-day isolation on the functional state of the cardiovascular system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, G P; Buĭlov, S P; Eshchenko, A I; Skedina, M A; Voronkov, Iu I

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the work was to study the cardiovascular effects of simulated factors in a 520-day crewed mission to Mars, and to validate the diagnostic value of the ultrasonic investigation of microcirculation and endothelium-dependent dilation of the right brachial artery in 6 male volunteers at the age of 28 to 39 years. It appears that 520-d isolation affected intracardiac hemodynamics and endothelium function more dramatically compared with 105-d isolation, increasing the risk of atherosclerosis. These findings add insight into the "cost of human adaptation" to very long isolation.

  19. Treatment-related cardiovascular late effects and exercise training countermeasures in testicular germ cell cancer survivorship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper F; Bandak, Mikkel; Campbell, Anna;

    2015-01-01

    , are subjected to toxicities, which individually, and synergistically, can cause physiological impairments leading to sub-clinical or clinical cardiovascular disorders (i.e. the 'multiple-hit hypothesis'). Furthermore, we discuss the efficacy and utility of structured exercise training to ameliorate treatment......BACKGROUND: Treatment of testicular germ cell cancer constitutes a major success story in modern oncology. Today, the vast majority of patients are cured by a therapeutic strategy using one or more highly effective components including surgery (orchiectomy), radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy...

  20. Naltrexone but Not Ketanserin Antagonizes the Subjective, Cardiovascular, and Neuroendocrine Effects of Salvinorin-A in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqueda, Ana Elda; Valle, Marta; Addy, Peter H.; Antonijoan, Rosa Maria; Puntes, Montserrat; Coimbra, Jimena; Ballester, Maria Rosa; Garrido, Maite; González, Mireia; Claramunt, Judit; Barker, Steven; Lomnicka, Izabela; Waguespack, Marian; Johnson, Matthew W.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Salvinorin-A is a terpene found in the leaves of the plant Salvia divinorum. When administered to humans, salvinorin-A induces an intense but short-lasting modified state of awareness, sharing features with those induced by the classical serotonin-2A receptor agonist psychedelics. However, unlike substances such as psilocybin or mescaline, salvinorin-A shows agonist activity at the kappa-opioid receptor rather than at the serotonin-2A receptor. Here, we assessed the involvement of kappa-opioid receptor and serotonin-2A agonism in the subjective, cardiovascular, and neuroendocrine effects of salvinorin-A in humans. Methods: We conducted a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind study with 2 groups of 12 healthy volunteers with experience with psychedelic drugs. There were 4 experimental sessions. In group 1, participants received the following treatment combinations: placebo+placebo, placebo+salvinorin-A, naltrexone+placebo, and naltrexone+salvinorin-A. Naltrexone, a nonspecific opioid receptor antagonist, was administered at a dose of 50mg orally. In group 2, participants received the treatment combinations: placebo+placebo, placebo+salvinorin-A, ketanserin+placebo, and ketanserin+salvinorin-A. Ketanserin, a selective serotonin-2A antagonist, was administered at a dose of 40mg orally. Results: Inhalation of 1mg of vaporized salvinorin-A led to maximum plasma concentrations at 1 and 2 minutes after dosing. When administered alone, salvinorin-A severely reduced external sensory perception and induced intense visual and auditory modifications, increased systolic blood pressure, and cortisol and prolactin release. These effects were effectively blocked by naltrexone, but not by ketanserin. Conclusions: Results support kappa opioid receptor agonism as the mechanism of action underlying the subjective and physiological effects of salvinorin-A in humans and rule out the involvement of a serotonin-2A-mediated mechanism. PMID:26874330

  1. An analysis of the effects of smoking and other cardiovascular risk factors on obliteration rates after arteriovenous malformation radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the relationships of smoking and other cardiovascular disease risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and gender) to rates of radiosurgery-induced obliteration of arteriovenous malformations (AVM). Methods and Materials: We evaluated follow-up imaging and clinical data in 329 AVM patients who received gamma knife radiosurgery at the University of Pittsburgh between 1987 and 1994. There were 113 smokers, 29 hypertensives, 5 diabetics, 4 hypercholesterolemics, 159 male patients, and 170 female patients. All patients had regular clinical or imaging follow-up for a minimum of 3 years after radiosurgery. Results: Multivariate analysis showed that smoking had no effect on AVM obliteration (p>0.43). Hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia had no discernible effect on AVM obliteration in this study (p>0.78). However, females aged 12-49 had a statistically significant lower in-field obliteration rate than males (78% vs. 89%, p=0.0102). Conclusion: Smoking has no effect on AVM obliteration. Hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia had no discernible effect in this study. Further study is needed to establish whether estrogen has a vascular protective effect that could partially limit radiosurgical AVM obliteration, as suggested by this study

  2. Role of Creatine Supplementation on Exercise-Induced Cardiovascular Function and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael I. C. Kingsley

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Many degenerative diseases are associated with increased oxidative stress. Creatine has the potential to act as an indirect and direct antioxidant; however, limited data exist to evaluate the antioxidant capabilities of creatine supplementation within in vivo human systems. This study aimed to investigate the effects of oral creatine supplementation on markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses following exhaustive cycling exercise. Following preliminary testing and two additional familiarization sessions, 18 active males repeated two exhaustive incremental cycling trials (T1 and T2 separated by exactly 7 days. The subjects were assigned, in a double-blind manner, to receive either 20 g of creatine (Cr or a placebo (P for the 5 days preceding T2. Breath-by-breath respiratory data and heart rate were continually recorded throughout the exercise protocol and blood samples were obtained at rest (preexercise, at the end of exercise (postexercise, and the day following exercise (post24 h. Serum hypdroperoxide concentrations were elevated at postexercise by 17 ± 5% above preexercise values (p = 0.030. However, supplementation did not influence lipid peroxidation (serum hypdroperoxide concentrations, resistance of low density lipoprotein to oxidative stress (t1/2max LDL oxidation and plasma concentrations of non-enzymatic antioxidants (retinol, α-carotene, β-carotene, α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, lycopene and vitamin C. Heart rate and oxygen uptake responses to exercise were not affected by supplementation. These findings suggest that short-term creatine supplementation does not enhance non-enzymatic antioxidant defence or protect against lipid peroxidation induced by exhaustive cycling in healthy males.

  3. Evidence Report: Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Other Degenerative Tissue Effects from Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Zarana; Huff, Janice; Saha, Janapriya; Wang, Minli; Blattnig, Steve; Wu, Honglu; Cucinotta, Francis

    2015-01-01

    Occupational radiation exposure from the space environment may result in non-cancer or non-CNS degenerative tissue diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, cataracts, and respiratory or digestive diseases. However, the magnitude of influence and mechanisms of action of radiation leading to these diseases are not well characterized. Radiation and synergistic effects of radiation cause DNA damage, persistent oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and accelerated tissue aging and degeneration, which may lead to acute or chronic disease of susceptible organ tissues. In particular, cardiovascular pathologies such as atherosclerosis are of major concern following gamma-ray exposure. This provides evidence for possible degenerative tissue effects following exposures to ionizing radiation in the form of the GCR or SPEs expected during long-duration spaceflight. However, the existence of low dose thresholds and dose-rate and radiation quality effects, as well as mechanisms and major risk pathways, are not well-characterized. Degenerative disease risks are difficult to assess because multiple factors, including radiation, are believed to play a role in the etiology of the diseases. As additional evidence is pointing to lower, space-relevant thresholds for these degenerative effects, particularly for cardiovascular disease, additional research with cell and animal studies is required to quantify the magnitude of this risk, understand mechanisms, and determine if additional protection strategies are required.The NASA PEL (Permissive Exposure Limit)s for cataract and cardiovascular risks are based on existing human epidemiology data. Although animal and clinical astronaut data show a significant increase in cataracts following exposure and a reassessment of atomic bomb (A-bomb) data suggests an increase in cardiovascular disease from radiation exposure, additional research is required to fully understand and quantify these adverse outcomes at lower doses (less than 0.5 gray

  4. The protective effect of lipoic acid on selected cardiovascular diseases caused by age-related oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skibska, Beata; Goraca, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is considered to be the primary cause of many cardiovascular diseases, including endothelial dysfunction in atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease, hypertension, and heart failure. Oxidative stress increases during the aging process, resulting in either increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production or decreased antioxidant defense. The increase in the incidence of cardiovascular disease is directly related to age. Aging is also associated with oxidative stress, which in turn leads to accelerated cellular senescence and organ dysfunction. Antioxidants may help lower the incidence of some pathologies of cardiovascular diseases and have antiaging properties. Lipoic acid (LA) is a natural antioxidant which is believed to have a beneficial effect on oxidative stress parameters in relation to diseases of the cardiovascular system.

  5. An experimental ovine Theileriosis: The effect of Theileria lestoquardi infection on cardiovascular system in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghfoori, Saeed; Razmi, Gholam Reza; Mohri, Mehrdad; Razavizadeh, Ali Reza Taghavi; Movassaghi, Ahmad Reza

    2016-09-01

    The malignant ovine theileriosis is caused by Theileria lestoquardi, which is highly pathogenic in sheep. Theileriosis involves different organs in ruminants, but the effect of the disease on the cardiovascular system is unclear. To understand the pathogenesis of T. lestoquardi on the cardiovascular system, Baluchi breed sheep were infected with the mentioned parasite by releasing unfed adults of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, which were infected with T. lestoquardi. The infected sheep were clinically examined on days 0, 2, 5, 7, 10, 12, 14, 17, and 21, and the blood samples were collected for biochemical parameters measurement. At termination of the experiment, the infected sheep were euthanized and pathological examinations of heart tissue were conducted. During experimental infection of sheep with T. lestoquardi, activities of cardiac troponin I (cTnI), lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase, were significantly increased (P˂0.05), while a conspicuous decrease (P˂0.05) was observed in creatine phosphokinase activities. Alterations made in biochemical factors almost coincided with the presence of piroplasm in the blood and schizont in lymph nodes. Maximum and minimum of parasitemia in the sheep stood between 3.3% and 0.28%, respectively. In addition, electrocardiography revealed sinus tachycardia, sinus arrhythmia, sino-atrial block and ST-elevation, atrial premature beat, and alteration in QRS and in T waves' amplitude. Heart histopathological examination showed hyperemia, infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells into interstitial tissue, endocarditis, and focal necrosis of cardiac muscle cells. In addition, in one of the sheep, definite occurrence of infarction was observed. The results indicate that T. lestoquardi infection has devastating pathological impacts on the cardiovascular system of sheep. Furthermore, measurement of the cTnI amount is a useful biochemical factor for diagnosis and for better understanding of the severity and

  6. Cardiovascular effects of nose-only water-pipe smoking exposure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemmar, Abderrahim; Yuvaraju, Priya; Beegam, Sumaya; John, Annie; Raza, Haider; Ali, Badreldin H

    2013-09-01

    Water-pipe smoking (WPS) is a major type of smoking in Middle Eastern countries and is increasing in popularity in Western countries and is perceived as relatively safe. However, data on the adverse cardiovascular effects of WPS are scarce. Here, we assessed the cardiovascular effects of nose-only exposure to mainstream WPS generated by commercially available honey-flavored "moasel" tobacco in BALB/c mice. The duration of the session was 30 min/day for 1 mo. Control mice were exposed to air. WPS caused a significant increase of systolic blood pressure (SBP) in vivo (+13 mmHg) and plasma concentrations of IL-6 (+30%) but not that of TNF-α. Heart concentrations of IL-6 (+184%) and TNF-α (+54%) were significantly increased by WPS. Concentrations of ROS (+95%) and lipid peroxidation (+27%) were significantly increased, whereas those of GSH were decreased (-21%). WPS significantly shortened the thrombotic occlusion time in pial arterioles (-46%) and venules (40%). Plasma von Willebrand factor concentrations were significantly increased (+14%) by WPS. Erythrocyte numbers (+15%) and hematocrit (+17%) were significantly increased. Blood samples taken from mice exposed to WPS and exposed to ADP showed significant platelet aggregation compared with air-exposed mice. WPS caused a significant shortening of activated partial thromboplastin time (-45%) and prothrombin time (-13%). We conclude that 1-mo nose-only exposure to WPS increased SBP and caused cardiac inflammation, oxidative stress, and prothrombotic events. Our findings provide plausible elucidation that WPS is injurious to the cardiovascular system.

  7. A Cross-Sectional Study of the Cardiovascular Effects of Welding Fumes.

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    Huiqi Li

    Full Text Available Occupational exposure to particulate air pollution has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the risk to welders working today remains unclear. We aimed to elucidate the cardiovascular effects of exposure to welding fumes.In a cross-sectional study, structured interviews and biological sampling were conducted for 101 welders and 127 controls (all non-smoking males from southern Sweden. Personal breathing zone sampling of respirable dust was performed. Blood pressure (BP and endothelial function (using peripheral arterial tonometry were measured. Plasma and serum samples were collected from peripheral blood for measurement of C-reactive protein, low-density lipoprotein, homocysteine, serum amyloid A, and cytokines.Welders were exposed to 10-fold higher levels of particles than controls. Welders had significantly higher BP compared to controls, an average of 5 mm Hg higher systolic and diastolic BP (P ≤ 0.001. IL-8 was 3.4 ng/L higher in welders (P=0.010. Years working as a welder were significantly associated with increased BP (β=0.35, 95%CI 0.13 - 0.58, P=0.0024 for systolic BP; β=0.32, 95%CI 0.16 - 0.48, P<0.001 for diastolic BP, adjusted for BMI but exposure to respirable dust was not associated with BP. No clear associations occurred between welding and endothelial function, or other effect markers.A modest increase in BP was found among welders compared to controls suggesting that low-to-moderate exposure to welding fumes remains a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

  8. Acute and prolonged adverse effects of temperature on mortality from cardiovascular diseases.

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    Yu-Kai Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of death worldwide, especially for developed countries. Elevated mortality from cardiovascular diseases has been shown related to extreme temperature. We thus assessed the risk of mortality from cerebrovascular diseases, heart diseases, and ischemic heart disease (IHD in relation to temperature profiles in four subtropical metropolitans (Taipei, Taichung, Tainan, and Kaohsiung from 1994 to 2007 in Taiwan. METHODS: Distributed lag non-linear models were applied to estimate the cumulative relative risks (RRs with confidence intervals of cause-specific mortality associated with daily temperature from lag 0 to 20 days, and specific effect of extreme temperature episodes with PM10, NOx, and O3, and other potential confounders controlled. Estimates for cause-specific mortalities were then pooled by random-effect meta-analysis. RESULTS: Comparing to centered temperature at 27 °C, the cumulative 4-day (lag 0 to 3 risk of mortality was significantly elevated at 31 °C for cerebrovascular diseases (RR = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.31 and heart diseases (RR =  1.22; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.46 , but not for IHD (RR =  1.09; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.21. To the other extreme, at 15 °C, the cumulative 21-day (lag 0 to 20 risk of mortality were also remarkably increased for cerebrovascular diseases, heart diseases, and IHD (RRs  =  1.48 with 95% CI: 1.04, 2.12, 2.04 with 95% CI: 1.61, 2.58, and 1.62 with 95% CI: 1.30, 2.01, respectively. Mortality risks for cardiovascular diseases were generally highest on the present day (lag 0 of extreme heat. No particular finding was detected on prolonged extreme temperature event by pooling estimations for cause-specific mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Low temperature was associated with greater risk of mortality from cardiovascular diseases in comparison with that of high temperature. Adverse effects of extreme temperatures are acute at the beginning of exposure.

  9. Adverse cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular effects of marijuana inhalation: what cardiologists need to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Grace; Kloner, Robert A; Rezkalla, Shereif

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana is the most widely used illicit drug, with approximately 200 million users worldwide. Once illegal throughout the United States, cannabis is now legal for medicinal purposes in several states and for recreational use in 3 states. The current wave of decriminalization may lead to more widespread use, and it is important that cardiologists be made aware of the potential for marijuana-associated adverse cardiovascular effects that may begin to occur in the population at a greater frequency. In this report, the investigators focus on the known cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and peripheral effects of marijuana inhalation. Temporal associations between marijuana use and serious adverse events, including myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, cardiomyopathy, stroke, transient ischemic attack, and cannabis arteritis have been described. In conclusion, the potential for increased use of marijuana in the changing legal landscape suggests the need for the community to intensify research regarding the safety of marijuana use and for cardiologists to maintain an awareness of the potential for adverse effects. PMID:24176069

  10. Subjective, cognitive and cardiovascular dose-effect profile of nabilone and dronabinol in marijuana smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, Gillinder; Cooper, Ziva D; Haney, Margaret

    2013-09-01

    Marijuana dependence is a substantial public health problem, with existing treatments showing limited efficacy. In laboratory and clinical studies, the cannabinoid receptor 1 agonist oral Δ9tetrahydrocannabinol (THC; dronabinol) has been shown to decrease marijuana withdrawal but not relapse. Dronabinol has poor bioavailability, potentially contributing to its failure to decrease relapse. The synthetic THC analogue, nabilone, has better bioavailability than dronabinol. We therefore aimed to characterize nabilone's behavioral and physiological effects across a range of acute doses in current marijuana smokers and compare these with dronabinol's effects. Participants (4 female; 10 male) smoking marijuana 6.6 (standard deviation = 0.7) days/week completed this outpatient, within-subjects, double-blind, randomized protocol. Over seven sessions, the time-dependent subjective, cognitive and cardiovascular effects of nabilone (2, 4, 6, 8 mg), dronabinol (10, 20 mg) and placebo were assessed. Nabilone (4, 6, 8 mg) and dronabinol (10, 20 mg) increased ratings of feeling a good effect, a strong effect and/or 'high' relative to placebo; nabilone had a slower onset of peak subjective effects than dronabinol. Nabilone (6, 8 mg) modestly lowered psychomotor speed relative to placebo and dronabinol. There were dose-dependent increases in heart rate after nabilone, and nabilone (2 mg) and dronabinol (10 mg) decreased systolic blood pressure. Thus, nabilone produced sustained, dose-related increases in positive mood, few cognitive decrements and lawful cardiovascular alterations. It had a longer time to peak effects than dronabinol, and effects were more dose-related, suggesting improved bioavailability. Nabilone was well tolerated by marijuana smokers, supporting further testing as a potential medication for marijuana dependence. PMID:22260337

  11. Patient-specific cardiovascular progenitor cells derived from integration-free induced pluripotent stem cells for vascular tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiang; Wang, Yongyu; Jiao, Jiao; Liu, Zhongning; Zhao, Chao; Zhou, Zhou; Zhang, Zhanpeng; Forde, Kaitlynn; Wang, Lunchang; Wang, Jiangang; Baylink, David J; Zhang, Xiao-Bing; Gao, Shaorong; Yang, Bo; Chen, Y Eugene; Ma, Peter X

    2015-12-01

    Tissue-engineered blood vessels (TEBVs) are promising in regenerating a live vascular replacement. However, the vascular cell source is limited, and it is crucial to develop a scaffold that accommodates new type of vascular progenitor cells and facilitates in vivo lineage specification of the cells into functional vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) to regenerate vascular tissue. In the present study, integration-free human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) were established from patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells through episomal vector nucleofection of reprogramming factors. The established hiPSCs were then induced into mesoderm-originated cardiovascular progenitor cells (CVPCs) with a highly efficient directed lineage specification method. The derived CVPCs were demonstrated to be able to differentiate into functional VSMCs. Subcutaneous implantation of CVPCs seeded on macroporous nanofibrous poly(l-lactide) scaffolds led to in vivo VSMC lineage specification and matrix deposition inside the scaffolds. In summary, we established integration-free patient-specific hiPSCs from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, derived CVPCs through directed lineage specification, and developed an advanced scaffold for these progenitor cells to further differentiate in vivo into VSMCs and regenerate vascular tissue in a subcutaneous implantation model. This study has established an efficient patient-specific approach towards in vivo regeneration of vascular tissue.

  12. Marathon run: cardiovascular adaptation and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predel, Hans-Georg

    2014-11-21

    The first marathon run as an athletic event took place in the context of the Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens, Greece. Today, participation in a 'marathon run' has become a global phenomenon attracting young professional athletes as well as millions of mainly middle-aged amateur athletes worldwide each year. One of the main motives for these amateur marathon runners is the expectation that endurance exercise (EE) delivers profound beneficial health effects. However, with respect to the cardiovascular system, a controversial debate has emerged whether the marathon run itself is healthy or potentially harmful to the cardiovascular system, especially in middle-aged non-elite male amateur runners. In this cohort, exercise-induced increases in cardiac biomarkers-troponin and brain natriuretic peptide-and acute functional cardiac alterations have been observed and interpreted as potential cardiac damage. Furthermore, in the cohort of 40- to 65-year-old males engaged in intensive EE, a significant risk for the development of atrial fibrillation has been identified. Fortunately, recent studies demonstrated a normalization of the cardiac biomarkers and the functional alterations within a short time frame. Therefore, these alterations may be perceived as physiological myocardial reactions to the strenuous exercise and the term 'cardiac fatigue' has been coined. This interpretation is supported by a recent analysis of 10.9 million marathon runners demonstrating that there was no significantly increased overall risk of cardiac arrest during long-distance running races. In conclusion, intensive and long-lasting EE, e.g. running a full-distance Marathon, results in high cardiovascular strain whose clinical relevance especially for middle-aged and older athletes is unclear and remains a matter of controversy. Furthermore, there is a need for evidence-based recommendations with respect to medical screening and training strategies especially in male amateur runners over the age of

  13. Effect of Weight Reduction on Cardiovascular Risk Factors and CD34-positive Cells in Circulation

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    Nina A Mikirova, Joseph J Casciari, Ronald E Hunninghake, Margaret M Beezley

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Being overweight or obese is associated with an increased risk for the development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Dyslipidemia of obesity is characterized by elevated fasting triglycerides and decreased high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations. Endothelial damage and dysfunction is considered to be a major underlying mechanism for the elevated cardiovascular risk associated with increased adiposity. Alterations in endothelial cells and stem/endothelial progenitor cell function associated with overweight and obesity predispose to atherosclerosis and thrombosis.In our study, we analyzed the effect of a low calorie diet in combination with oral supplementation by vitamins, minerals, probiotics and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, 125-180 IUs on the body composition, lipid profile and CD34-positive cells in circulation.During this dieting program, the following parameters were assessed weekly for all participants: fat free mass, body fat, BMI, extracellular/intracellular water, total body water and basal metabolic rate. For part of participants blood chemistry parameters and circulating CD34-positive cells were determined before and after dieting.The data indicated that the treatments not only reduced body fat mass and total mass but also improved the lipid profile. The changes in body composition correlated with the level of lipoproteins responsible for the increased cardiovascular risk factors. These changes in body composition and lipid profile parameters coincided with the improvement of circulatory progenitor cell numbers.As the result of our study, we concluded that the improvement of body composition affects the number of stem/progenitor cells in circulation.

  14. Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular effects in response to red bull consumption combined with mental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasser, Erik Konrad; Dulloo, Abdul G; Montani, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-15

    The sale of energy drinks is often accompanied by a comprehensive and intense marketing with claims of benefits during periods of mental stress. As it has been shown that Red Bull negatively impacts human hemodynamics at rest, we investigated the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular consequences when Red Bull is combined with mental stress. In a randomized cross-over study, 20 young healthy humans ingested either 355 ml of a can Red Bull or water and underwent 80 minutes after the respective drink a mental arithmetic test for 5 minutes. Continuous cardiovascular and cerebrovascular recordings were performed for 20 minutes before and up to 90 minutes after drink ingestion. Measurements included beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP), heart rate, stroke volume, and cerebral blood flow velocity. Red Bull increased systolic BP (+7 mm Hg), diastolic BP (+4 mm Hg), and heart rate (+7 beats/min), whereas water drinking had no significant effects. Cerebral blood flow velocity decreased more in response to Red Bull than to water (-9 vs -3 cm/s, p <0.005). Additional mental stress further increased both systolic BP and diastolic BP (+3 mm Hg, p <0.05) and heart rate (+13 beats/min, p <0.005) in response to Red Bull; similar increases were also observed after water ingestion. In combination, Red Bull and mental stress increased systolic BP by about 10 mm Hg, diastolic BP by 7 mm Hg, and heart rate by 20 beats/min and decreased cerebral blood flow velocity by -7 cm/s. In conclusion, the combination of Red Bull and mental stress impose a cumulative cardiovascular load and reduces cerebral blood flow even under a mental challenge.

  15. Nutritional Genomics and the Mediterranean Diet’s Effects on Human Cardiovascular Health

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    Montserrat Fitó

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The synergies and cumulative effects among different foods and nutrients are what produce the benefits of a healthy dietary pattern. Diets and dietary patterns are a major environmental factor that we are exposed to several times a day. People can learn how to control this behavior in order to promote healthy living and aging, and to prevent diet-related diseases. To date, the traditional Mediterranean diet has been the only well-studied pattern. Stroke incidence, a number of classical risk factors including lipid profile and glycaemia, emergent risk factors such as the length of telomeres, and emotional eating behavior can be affected by genetic predisposition. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet could exert beneficial effects on these risk factors. Our individual genetic make-up should be taken into account to better prevent these traits and their subsequent consequences in cardiovascular disease development. In the present work, we review the results of nutritional genomics explaining the role of the Mediterranean diet in human cardiovascular disease. A multidisciplinary approach is necessary to extract knowledge from large-scale data.

  16. Oxidative Stress: An Effective Prognostic Tool for an Early Detection of Cardiovascular Disease in Menopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Mridula; Mohan, Gurinder

    2016-01-01

    Background. Menopause, a form of reproductive aging, is marked by many hormonal variations which cause imbalance in the oxidative processes resulting in onset of endothelial dysfunction leading to cardiovascular disease (CVD). We aimed to analyze the effect of oxidative stress in an early detection of CVD in all menopausal women both normolipidemic and hyperlipidemic. Methods and Results. Study included 523 menopausal women (265 CVD and 258 non-CVD). They were screened for lipid profile, serum malondialdehyde (MDA), serum LDL carbonyl protein, and serum superoxide dismutase (SOD). Pearson's correlation was observed between MDA and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) in both normolipidemic (r = 0.650; p < 0.001) and hyperlipidemic (r = 0.207; p < 0.01) CVD group as compared to non-CVD menopausal women. Significant correlation was also observed between LDL carbonyl content and AIP in normolipidemic (r = 0.650; p < 0.001) and hyperlipidemic (r = 0.248; p < 0.01) CVD menopausal women as compared to non-CVD ones. Conclusion. Strong correlation between atherogenic index of plasma and oxidative stress in CVD menopausal women reveals oxidative stress as an effective prognostic tool for an early detection of cardiovascular risk. PMID:27069688

  17. Effects of Forest Bathing on Cardiovascular and Metabolic Parameters in Middle-Aged Males

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    Qing Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the effects of a forest bathing on cardiovascular and metabolic parameters. Nineteen middle-aged male subjects were selected after they provided informed consent. These subjects took day trips to a forest park in Agematsu, Nagano Prefecture, and to an urban area of Nagano Prefecture as control in August 2015. On both trips, they walked 2.6 km for 80 min each in the morning and afternoon on Saturdays. Blood and urine were sampled before and after each trip. Cardiovascular and metabolic parameters were measured. Blood pressure and pulse rate were measured during the trips. The Japanese version of the profile of mood states (POMS test was conducted before, during, and after the trips. Ambient temperature and humidity were monitored during the trips. The forest bathing program significantly reduced pulse rate and significantly increased the score for vigor and decreased the scores for depression, fatigue, anxiety, and confusion. Urinary adrenaline after forest bathing showed a tendency toward decrease. Urinary dopamine after forest bathing was significantly lower than that after urban area walking, suggesting the relaxing effect of the forest bathing. Serum adiponectin after the forest bathing was significantly greater than that after urban area walking.

  18. Nutritional Genomics and the Mediterranean Diet’s Effects on Human Cardiovascular Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitó, Montserrat; Konstantinidou, Valentini

    2016-01-01

    The synergies and cumulative effects among different foods and nutrients are what produce the benefits of a healthy dietary pattern. Diets and dietary patterns are a major environmental factor that we are exposed to several times a day. People can learn how to control this behavior in order to promote healthy living and aging, and to prevent diet-related diseases. To date, the traditional Mediterranean diet has been the only well-studied pattern. Stroke incidence, a number of classical risk factors including lipid profile and glycaemia, emergent risk factors such as the length of telomeres, and emotional eating behavior can be affected by genetic predisposition. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet could exert beneficial effects on these risk factors. Our individual genetic make-up should be taken into account to better prevent these traits and their subsequent consequences in cardiovascular disease development. In the present work, we review the results of nutritional genomics explaining the role of the Mediterranean diet in human cardiovascular disease. A multidisciplinary approach is necessary to extract knowledge from large-scale data. PMID:27089360

  19. The Biological Relevance of Direct Antioxidant Effects of Polyphenols for Cardiovascular Health in Humans Is Not Established

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollman, P.C.H.; Cassidy, A.; Comte, B.; Heinonen, M.; Richelle, M.; Richling, E.; Serafini, M.; Scalbert, A.; Sies, H.; Vidry, S.

    2011-01-01

    Human studies provide evidence for beneficial effects of polyphenol-rich foods on cardiovascular health. The antioxidant activity of polyphenols potentially explains these effects, but is the antioxidant activity a reliable predictor for these effects? An International Life Sciences Institute Europe

  20. Short-Term Effects of Screening for Cardiovascular Risk in the Deaf Community: A Pilot Study

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    J. V. Patel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is limited information on the risk of cardiovascular disease amongst the Deaf community. Given that the access of Deaf people to mainstream health promotion is likely to be hindered by language barriers, we were interested to assess the short-term impact of cardiovascular health promotion within this group. Using a pilot study we investigated changes in cardiovascular risk factors amongst Deaf people identified to be at high cardiovascular risk, who received standard health promotion by a medical team specializing in cardiovascular health promotion. The short-term impact of cardiovascular health promotion in this group did not reduce estimates of cardiovascular risk. The reasons for this are likely to relate to the design and delivery of health promotion to Deaf people, which deserves further study.

  1. Cardiovascular Side Effects of Atomoxetine and Its Interactions with Inhibitors of the Cytochrome P450 System

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    Pashtoon Murtaza Kasi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders of childhood and adolescence. Classically, stimulants have been used in the treatment of this condition. Atomoxetine (Strattera; Eli Lilly and Company is a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI, one of the first medications in the nonstimulant class of medications that has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of ADHD. Atomoxetine is a phenoxypropylamine derivative and is structurally related to the antidepressant fluoxetine. The common side effects reported with the use of atomoxetine include mainly GI disturbances. Cardiovascular side effects are less commonly reported. The increase in the noradrenergic tone may explain some of the side effects noted with the use of this medication. Here, we present a case of a patient who presented with syncope, orthostatic hypotension, and tachycardia and discuss the various clinical implications based on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the drug.

  2. Effects of High Dietary HEME Iron and Radiation on Cardiovascular Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westby, Christian M.; Brown, A. K.; Platts, S. H.

    2012-01-01

    The radiation related health risks to astronauts is of particular concern to NASA. Data support that exposure to radiation is associated with a number of disorders including a heightened risk for cardiovascular diseases. Independent of radiation, altered nutrient status (e.g. high dietary iron) also increases ones risk for cardiovascular disease. However, it is unknown whether exposure to radiation in combination with high dietary iron further increases ones cardiovascular risk. The intent of our proposal is to generate compulsory data examining the combined effect of radiation exposure and iron overload on sensitivity to radiation injury to address HRP risks: 1) Risk Factor of Inadequate Nutrition; 2) Risk of Cardiac Rhythm Problems; and 3) Risk of Degenerative Tissue or other Health Effects from Space Radiation. Towards our goal we propose two distinct pilot studies using the following specific aims: Vascular Aim 1: To determine the short-term consequences of the independent and combined effects of exposure to gamma radiation and elevated body iron stores on measures of endothelial function and cell viability and integrity. We hypothesize that animals that have high body iron stores and are exposed to gamma radiation will show a greater reduction in endothelial dependent nitric oxid production and larger pathological changes in endothelial integrity than animals that have only 1 of those treatments (either high iron stores or exposure to gamma radiation). Vascular Aim 2: Identify and compare the effects of gamma radiation and elevated body iron stores on the genetic and epigenetic regulation of proteins associated with endothelial cell function. We hypothesize that modifications of epigenetic control and posttranslational expression of proteins associated with endothelial cell function will be differentially altered in rats with high body iron stores and exposed to gamma radiation compared to rats with only 1 type of treatment. Cardiac Aim 1: To determine the

  3. Effect of hormone replacement therapy on cardiovascular outcomes: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

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    Dicheng Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hormone replacement therapy (HRT is widely used to controlling menopausal symptoms and prevent adverse cardiovascular events. However, the benefit and risk of HRT on cardiovascular outcomes remains controversial. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We systematically searched the PubMed, EmBase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases for obtaining relevant literature. All eligible trials reported on the effects of HRT on cardiovascular outcomes. We did a random effects meta-analysis to obtain summary effect estimates for the clinical outcomes with use of relative risks calculated from the raw data of included trials. Of 1903 identified studies, we included 10 trials reporting data on 38908 postmenopausal women. Overall, we noted that estrogen combined with medroxyprogesterone acetate therapy as compared to placebo had no effect on coronary events (RR, 1.07; 95%CI: 0.91-1.26; P = 0.41, myocardial infarction (RR, 1.09; 95%CI: 0.85-1.41; P = 0.48, stroke (RR, 1.21; 95%CI: 1.00-1.46; P = 0.06, cardiac death (RR, 1.19; 95%CI: 0.91-1.56; P = 0.21, total death (RR, 1.06; 95%CI: 0.81-1.39; P = 0.66, and revascularization (RR, 0.95; 95%CI: 0.83-1.08; P = 0.43. In addition, estrogen therapy alone had no effect on coronary events (RR, 0.93; 95%CI: 0.80-1.08; P = 0.33, myocardial infarction (RR, 0.95; 95%CI: 0.78-1.15; P = 0.57, cardiac death (RR, 0.86; 95%CI: 0.65-1.13; P = 0.27, total mortality (RR, 1.02; 95%CI: 0.89-1.18; P = 0.73, and revascularization (RR, 0.77; 95%CI: 0.45-1.31; P = 0.34, but associated with a 27% increased risk for incident stroke (RR, 1.27; 95%CI: 1.06-1.53; P = 0.01. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Hormone replacement therapy does not effect on the incidence of coronary events, myocardial infarction, cardiac death, total mortality or revascularization. However, it might contributed an important role on the risk of incident stroke.

  4. Pleiotropic effects of the dipeptidylpeptidase-4 inhibitors on the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroor, Annayya R; Sowers, James R; Jia, Guanghong; DeMarco, Vincent G

    2014-08-15

    Dipeptidylpeptidase-4 (DPP-4) is a ubiquitously expressed transmembrane protein that removes NH2-terminal dipeptides from various substrate hormones, chemokines, neuropeptides, and growth factors. Two known substrates of DPP-4 include the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory peptide, which are secreted by enteroendocrine cells in response to postprandial hyperglycemia and account for 60–70% of postprandial insulin secretion. DPP-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) block degradation of GLP-1 and gastric inhibitory peptide, extend their insulinotropic effect, and improve glycemia. Since 2006, several DPP-4i have become available for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Clinical trials confirm that DPP-4i raises GLP-1 levels in plasma and improves glycemia with very low risk for hypoglycemia and other side effects. Recent studies also suggest that DPP-4i confers cardiovascular and kidney protection, beyond glycemic control, which may reduce the risk for further development of the multiple comorbidities associated with obesity/type 2 diabetes mellitus, including hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and kidney disease. The notion that DPP-4i may improve CVD outcomes by mechanisms beyond glycemic control is due to both GLP-1-dependent and GLP-1-independent effects. The CVD protective effects by DPP-4i result from multiple factors including insulin resistance, oxidative stress, dyslipidemia, adipose tissue dysfunction, dysfunctional immunity, and antiapoptotic properties of these agents in the heart and vasculature. This review focuses on cellular and molecular mechanisms mediating the CVD protective effects of DPP-4i beyond favorable effects on glycemic control. PMID:24929856

  5. Effects of Exercise on Cardiovascular Performance in the Elderly%运动对老年人心血管功能影响研究进展综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯光辉

    2015-01-01

    衰老会导致老年人心血管系统结构和功能的改变,心肌细胞减少和间质细胞的增多会导致左心室功能损伤,运动能力下降。体育锻炼对于改善老年人心血管功能和运动能力具有一定的正性作用。本文对目前运动对增龄性运动能力下降的益处,对心衰等疾病的改善作用,以及相应的运动计划进行了研究综述,以期安全有效的利用运动来改善老年人的心血管功能和运动能力下降。%Progressive aging induces several structural and functional alterations in the cardiovascular system, among whom particularly important area reduces number of myocardial cells and increases interstitial collagen fibers, which results in impaired left ventricular diastolic function. Even in the absence of cardiovascular disease, aging is strongly associated to an age-related reduced maximal aerobic capacity. Physical activity appears in general to have appositive effect on several health outcomes in the elderly. This review aims to illustrate the beneficial effects of exercise on the physiologic decline of cardiovascular performance occurring with age. Furthermore, it will be stressed also the positive effect of physical activity in elderly patients affected by cardiovascular diseases and multiple co-morbidities which may be significantly worse prognosis in this high risk population.

  6. THE ROLE OF ACTIVE MUSCLE MASS ON EXERCISE-INDUCED CARDIOVASCULAR DRIFT

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    Stylianos N. Kounalakis

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the role of active muscle mass on cardiovascular drift (CVdrift during prolonged exercise. Twelve subjects with peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak of 3.52 ± 0.52 L·min-1 (mean ± SD cycled for 55 min with 80 revolutions per minute with either two legs (2-legged or one leg (1-legged. Oxygen uptake was at 60% of VO2peak throughout the 2-legged trial and at half of this value in 1- legged condition. Cardiac output (CO-CO2 rebreathing, heart rate (HR and quadriceps integrated electromyographic activity (iEMG were higher (p < 0.01 during 2-legged than 1- legged exercise. Changes in stroke volume from 20 to 50 min of exercise were greater in 2-legged than in 1-legged (∆SV: -20.8 ± 0.8 vs. -13.3 ± 1.3 ml·beat-1, p < 0.05. Similarly, changes in heart rate (∆HR were +18.5 ± 0.8 and +10.7 ± 1.0 beats·min-1, in 2-legged and 1-legged, respectively (p < 0.01. Calculated blood volume changes declined significantly in 2-legged exercise (∆BV: -4.25 ± 0.43%, p < 0.05. Sympathetic activation as indicated by the ratio of low and high frequency in spectral analysis of HR (LF HF-1 ratio was higher in 2-legged than in 1- legged trial (p < 0.05. At the end of exercise, CO had a tendency to decrease from 20th min in 2-legged (changes in CO = -0.92 ± 0.3 L·min-1, p = 0.07, whereas it was maintained in 1- legged cycling (∆CO = -0.15 ± 0.2 L·min-1, p = 0.86. Multiple regression analysis showed that HR rise and blood volume decline were predictors of SV drop whereas heart rate increase was explained by rectal temperature and magnitude of muscle mass activation, as indicated by iEMG (p < 0.05 in 2-legged cycling. In conclusion, apart from the well-known factors of thermal status and blood volume decline, it seems that muscle mass involved plays also a role on the development of CVdrift

  7. Effect of Crataegus Usage in Cardiovascular Disease Prevention: An Evidence-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha is a widely used Chinese herb for treatment of gastrointestinal ailments and heart problems and consumed as food. In North America, the role of treatment for heart problems dates back to 1800. Currently, evidence is accumulating from various in vivo and in vitro studies that hawthorn extracts exert a wide range of cardiovascular pharmacological properties, including antioxidant activity, positive inotropic effect, anti-inflammatory effect, anticardiac remodeling effect, antiplatelet aggregation effect, vasodilating effect, endothelial protective effect, reduction of smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation, protective effect against ischemia/reperfusion injury, antiarrhythmic effect, lipid-lowering effect and decrease of arterial blood pressure effect. On the other hand, reviews of placebo-controlled trials have reported both subjective and objective improvement in patients with mild forms of heart failure (NYHA I–III, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. This paper discussed the underlying pharmacology mechanisms in potential cardioprotective effects and elucidated the clinical applications of Crataegus and its various extracts.

  8. Investigating the association of cardiovascular effects with personal exposure to particle components and sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Chang-fu, E-mail: changfu@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China); Institute of Environmental Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China); Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China); Li, Ya-Ru; Kuo, I-Chun [Institute of Environmental Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Shih-Chieh [Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Lin, Lian-Yu; Su, Ta-Chen [Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-01

    Background: Few studies included information on components and sources when exploring the cardiovascular health effects from personal exposure to particulate matters (PM). We previously reported that exposure to PM between 1.0 and 2.5 {mu}m (PM{sub 2.5-1}) was associated with increased cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI, an arterial stiffness index), while exposure to PM smaller than 0.25 {mu}m (PM{sub 0.25}) decreased the heart rate variability (HRV) indices. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between PM elements and cardiovascular health effects and identify responsible sources. Methods: In a panel study of seventeen mail carriers, the subjects were followed for 5-6 days while delivering mail outdoors. Personal filter samples of PM{sub 2.5-1} and PM{sub 0.25} were analyzed for their elemental concentrations. The source-specific exposures were further estimated by using absolute principal factor analysis. We analyzed the component- and source-specific health effects on HRV indices and CAVI using mixed models. Results: Several elements in PM{sub 2.5-1} (e.g., cadmium and strontium) were associated with the CAVI. Subsequent analyses showed that an interquartile range increase in exposure to PM from regional sources was significantly associated with a 3.28% increase in CAVI (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.47%-5.13%). This significant effect remained (3.35%, CI: 1.62%-5.11%) after controlling for the ozone exposures. For exposures to PM{sub 0.25}, manganese, calcium, nickel, and chromium were associated with the CAVI and/or the HRV indices. Conclusions: Our study suggests that PM{sub 2.5-1} and PM{sub 0.25} components may be associated with different cardiovascular effects. Health risks from exposure to PM from sources other than vehicle exhaust should not be underappreciated. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increased arterial stiffness was related to the components in particles between 1.0 and 2.5 {mu}m. Black

  9. Arsenic and cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianchi F.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of epidemiologic, experimental and clinical evidence shows that arsenic may exert relevant cardiovascular effects with early damage such as endothelial dysfunction. Early biomarkers of cardiovascular damage together with markers of exposure, genetic and epigenetic effects, DNA damage, apoptosis, oxidative stress remain unexplored and a study is ongoing in Italy.

  10. Static magnetic field effect on the arterial baroreflex-mediated control of microcirculation: implications for cardiovascular effects due to environmental magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmitrov, Juraj

    2007-08-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that time-varying and static magnetic fields in the environment might affect the cardiovascular system. To explore the underlying physiology, the effect of static magnetic fields (SMFs) on the carotid baroreflex control of microcirculation was studied. Twenty-four hemodynamic monitorings were performed in rabbits sedated by pentobarbital infusion (5 mg/kg/h) during experiments that lasted 120 min. Mean femoral artery blood pressure, heart rate, and ear lobe skin microcirculatory blood flow, measured by microphotoelectric plethysmogram (MPPG), were simultaneously recorded before and after a 40 min exposure of the sinocarotid baroreceptors to Nd(2)-Fe(14)-B alloy magnets (n = 14) or sham magnets (n = 10, control series). The local SMF field was 350 mT, at the baroreceptors' site. Arterial baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was estimated from heart rate/blood pressure response to intravenous bolus injections of nitroprusside and phenylephrine. A significant positive correlation was found between the SMF-induced increase in BRS (DeltaBRS = BRS(afterSMF) - BRS(priorSMF)) and the increment in microvascular blood flow (DeltaMPPG = MPPG(afterSMF) - MPPG(priorSMF)) (r = 0.66, p < 0.009). The SMF probably modulated the arterial baroreflex-mediated microcirculatory control. This could represent one possible mechanism how environmental magnetic fields act on the cardiovascular system, and a method how to complexly adjust macro- and microcirculation with potential clinical implementation. PMID:17530271

  11. The PI3K signaling-mediated nitric oxide contributes to cardiovascular effects of angiotensin-(1-7) in the nucleus tractus solitarii of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhao-Tang; Ren, Chang-Zhen; Yang, Ya-Hong; Zhang, Ru-Wen; Sun, Jia-Cen; Wang, Yang-Kai; Su, Ding-Feng; Wang, Wei-Zhong

    2016-01-30

    Angiotensin-1-7 [Ang-(1-7)], acting via the Mas receptor in the central nervous system, is involved in the regulation of cardiovascular activity. Nitric oxide (NO) is implicated as an important modulator in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS), a key region involved in control of cardiovascular activity. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling in mediating the effect of Ang-(1-7) on NO generation in the NTS. In Sprague-Dawley rats, acute injection of Ang-(1-7) into the NTS significantly increased NO generation and neuronal/endothelial NO synthase (n/eNOS) activity, which were abolished by the selective Mas receptor antagonist d-Alanine-[Ang-(1-7)] (A-779), the PI3K inhibitor LY294002, or the Akt inhibitor triciribine (TCN). Western blotting analysis further demonstrated that Ang-(1-7) significantly increased levels of Akt/NOS phosphorylation in the NTS, and Ang-(1-7)-induced e/nNOS phosphorylation was antagonized by LY294002 or TCN. Furthermore, gene knockdown of PI3K by lentivirus containing small hairpin RNA in the NTS prevented the Ang-(1-7)-induced increases in NOS/Akt phosphorylation and NO production. The physiological (in vivo) experiments showed that pretreatment with the NOS inhibitor l-NAME, LY294002, or TCN abolished the decreases in blood pressure, heart rate, and renal sympathetic nerve activity induced by Ang-(1-7) injected into the NTS. Our findings suggest that nitric oxide release meditated by the Mas-PI3K-NOS signaling pathway is involved in the cardiovascular effects of Ang-(1-7) in the NTS.

  12. The role of adenosine receptors and endogenous adenosine in citalopram-induced cardiovascular toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Kubilay Oransay; Nil Hocaoglu; Mujgan Buyukdeligoz; Yesim Tuncok; Sule Kalkan

    2014-01-01

    Aim: We investigated the role of adenosine in citalopram-induced cardiotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Protocol 1: Rats were randomized into four groups. Sodium cromoglycate was administered to rats. Citalopram was infused after the 5% dextrose, 8-Cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX; A 1 receptor antagonist), 8-(-3-chlorostyryl)-caffeine (CSC; A 2a receptor antagonist), or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) administrations. Protocol 2: First group received 5% dextrose intraperitoneally 1 hour...

  13. Cardiovascular and Renal Effects of High Salt Diet in GDNF+/- Mice with Low Nephron Number

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    Julia Schlote

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To test the suggested association of low nephron number and later development of renal and cardiovascular disease we investigated the effects of high sodium diet in heterozygous GDNF+/- mice. Methods: Aged wild type and GDNF+/- mice were grouped together according to high sodium (HS, 4% or low sodium (LS, 0.03% diet for 4 weeks. The heart, the aorta and the kidneys were processed for morphometric and stereological evaluations and TaqMan PCR. Results: On HS GDNF+/- mice showed significantly higher drinking volume and urine production than wt and mean arterial blood pressure tended to be higher. Heart weight was higher in GDNF+/- than in wt, but the difference was only significant for LS. HS significantly increased cardiac interstitial tissue in GDNF+/-, but not in wt. On LS GDNF+/- mice had significantly larger glomeruli than wt and HS led to an additional two fold increase of glomerular area compared to LS. On electron microscopy glomerular damage after HS was seen in GDNF+/-, but not in wt. Dietary salt intake modulated renal IL-10 gene expression in GDNF+/-. Conclusion: In the setting of 30% lower nephron number HS diet favoured maladaptive changes of the kidney as well as of the cardiovascular system.

  14. The effects of exercise and training on human cardiovascular reflex control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, S E; Bell, C

    2000-07-01

    During physical activity, there is a graded withdrawal of vagal cardiac tone and a graded increase in sympathetic cardiac and vasomotor tone, initiated through both central command from the somatic motor cortex and muscle chemoreceptive and mechanoreceptive inputs. In parallel, there is an upward resetting of the operating point of the arterial baroreflex, with preserved reflex sensitivity. In contrast to the traditional interpretation that blood flow through exercising muscle is independent of vasomotor neural influences because of the dominance of local dilator metabolites, recent evidence suggests that both constrictor and dilator sympathetic neural influences may be involved in determining absolute levels of perfusion. Post-exercise, there is a period of relative hypotension that is associated with decreased peripheral resistance. Some, but not all, evidence indicates a causal role for reduced sympathetic drive. Chronic exercise training appears to reduce resting sympathetic activity, with parallel changes in the gain of a variety of cardiovascular autonomic reflexes initiated from cardiovascular sites. These changes may be attributable at least partly to masking of arterial baroreflexes by the impact of elevated blood volume on low-pressure baroreceptors. The reductions in sympathetic drive that follow training are more pronounced in patients with essential hypertension than in normotensive individuals and are likely to underlie the anti-hypertensive effect of exercise.

  15. [Cardiovascular effect of 15(S)-15-methyl-prostaglandin F2alpha].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retzke, U; Schwarz, R

    1978-01-01

    The reaction of the cardiovascular system on one intramuscular injection of 250 microgram 15-methyl-prostaglandin F2alpha was examined in 14 normotensive healthy pregnant women between 7th and 11th weeks of gestation with the method of quantitative sphygmometry with unbloody graphic recording of arterial blood pressure and direct electronic determination of velocity of aortic pulse wave. The tests were done in 10 patients in intervals of 5 minutes for one hour and in 4 subjects for 12 hours in intervals of one hour. Systolic blood pressure remains nearly constant, but diastolic blood pressure increases and then decreases significantly. Heart rate decreases significantly. Aortic pulse wave velocity decreases in a characteristic manner. Analogous to the biphasic behaviour of blood pressure cardiac output decreases significantly, but then increases insignificantly. The inverse changes of total peripheral resistance are insignificant. Comparing these reactions with the cardiovascular effects of prostaglandin F2alpha or E2, 15-methyl-prostaglandin F2alpha shows the smallest circulatory alterations.

  16. The effects of phthalates in the cardiovascular and reproductive systems: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariana, Melissa; Feiteiro, Joana; Verde, Ignacio; Cairrao, Elisa

    2016-09-01

    Every year millions of tons of plastic are produced around the world and humans are increasingly exposed to them. This constant exposure to plastics has raised some concerns against human health, particularly when it comes to phthalates. These compounds have endocrine-disrupting properties, as they have the ability to bind molecular targets in the body and interfere with hormonal function and quantity. The main use of phthalates is to give flexibility to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) polymers. Phthalates are found in a variety of industrial and consumer products, and as they are not covalently bound to the plastic, phthalates contaminate the environment from which human exposure occurs. Studies in human and animal populations suggest a correlation between phthalate exposure and adverse health outcomes, particularly at the reproductive and cardiovascular systems, however there is much less information about the phthalate toxicity of the later. Thus, the main purpose of this review is to present the studies relating the effects already stated of phthalates on the cardiovascular and reproductive systems, and also present the link between these two systems.

  17. EFFECT OF SUKHA PRANAYAMA AND BHASTRIKA PRANAYAMA ON CARDIOVASCULAR AUTONOMIC FUNCTIONS AMONG YOUNG HEALTHY INDIVIDUALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghouse

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Practice of Yoga causes several changes in normal physiology. Meditation has positive short and longterm rewards which include a balance of the parasympathetic and sympathetic functions. Cardiovascular autonomic functions are quantified by changes in the heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP in response to some of the physiological stimuli and different types of Pranayamas is known to alter the autonomic function. OBJECTIVES To assess the effects of Sukha Pranayama and Bhastrika Pranayama on cardiovascular autonomic functions in normal healthy medical students. MATERIALS AND METHODS 50 male and female young healthy volunteers studying at PES Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Kuppam belonging to age group of 17-22 years were included for the study. Parasympathetic activity was assessed by observing the heart rate changes to immediate standing from lying down position, heart rate changes during deep breathing and heart rate changes during Valsalva manoeuvre using Biopac Student Lab MP30 device. Sympathetic activity was assessed by observing blood pressure changes on immediate standing from lying down position and blood pressure changes during sustained hand grip using sphygmomanometer before and after yoga. RESULTS & CONCLUSION The baseline heart rate and blood pressure response to immediate standing showed a tendency to decrease possibly due to increased vagal tone and decreased sympathetic discharge thereby indicating practice of yogasanas and pranayamas would benefit the young population as it would prepare them in overcoming stress by modulating and optimising sympathetic activities in stressful situations.

  18. Effect of Intensive Blood Pressure Control on Cardiovascular Remodeling in Hypertensive Patients with Nephrosclerosis

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    Otelio Randall

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulse pressure (PP, a marker of arterial system properties, has been linked to cardiovascular (CV complications. We examined (a association between unit changes of PP and (i composite CV outcomes and (ii development of left-ventricular hypertrophy (LVH and (b effect of mean arterial pressure (MAP control on rate of change in PP. We studied 1094 nondiabetics with nephrosclerosis in the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension. Subjects were randomly assigned to usual MAP goal (102–107 mmHg or a lower MAP goal (≤92 mmHg and randomized to beta-blocker, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, or calcium channel blocker. After covariate adjustment, a higher PP was associated with increased risk of CV outcome (RR = 1.28, CI = 1.11–1.47, P<0.01 and new LVH (RR = 1.26, CI = 1.04–1.54, P=0.02. PP increased at a greater rate in the usual than in lower MAP groups (slope ± SE: 1.08 ± 0.15 versus 0.42 ± 0.15 mmHg/year, P=0.002, but not by the antihypertensive treatment assignment. Observations indicate that control to a lower MAP slows the progression of PP, a correlate of cardiovascular remodeling and complications, and may be beneficial to CV health.

  19. The Effects of Cold and Lower Body Negative Pressure on Cardiovascular Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kean, David J.; Peacock, Corey A.; Sanders, Gabriel J.; McDaniel, John; Colvin, Lisa A. C.; Glickman, Ellen L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study is to determine how cold exposure and lower body negative pressure effected cardiovascular variables. Methods. Eleven males (20.3 years ± 2.7) underwent two 20-minute exposures to LBNP. During the 2 trials, the subjects were exposed to cold air (10°C) (COLD) and to ambient temperature (23°C) (AMB). The trials consisted of a 100-minute pre-LBNP period followed by a 20-minute exposure to LBNP and then a 15-minute recovery period. Cardiovascular variables were recorded every 30 minutes using bioimpedance. Results. When LBNP was applied during the AMB trials, stroke volume immediately decreased. During the COLD trial, there was a five-minute delay before the decrease in stroke volume. Heart rate increased immediately after LBNP initiation during the AMB trials but there was a delay in the increase during the COLD trials. That same pattern was followed with mean arterial blood pressures. Cerebral oxygenation was significantly lower throughout the COLD trial as compared to the AMB trials. Six subjects reported symptoms of syncope or presyncope during the AMB trials but there were no reports of symptoms during the COLD trials. Conclusion. From analysis of this data, cold improved the subject's tolerance to LBNP. PMID:25866805

  20. The Effects of Cold and Lower Body Negative Pressure on Cardiovascular Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Kean

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study is to determine how cold exposure and lower body negative pressure effected cardiovascular variables. Methods. Eleven males (20.3 years ± 2.7 underwent two 20-minute exposures to LBNP. During the 2 trials, the subjects were exposed to cold air (10°C (COLD and to ambient temperature (23°C (AMB. The trials consisted of a 100-minute pre-LBNP period followed by a 20-minute exposure to LBNP and then a 15-minute recovery period. Cardiovascular variables were recorded every 30 minutes using bioimpedance. Results. When LBNP was applied during the AMB trials, stroke volume immediately decreased. During the COLD trial, there was a five-minute delay before the decrease in stroke volume. Heart rate increased immediately after LBNP initiation during the AMB trials but there was a delay in the increase during the COLD trials. That same pattern was followed with mean arterial blood pressures. Cerebral oxygenation was significantly lower throughout the COLD trial as compared to the AMB trials. Six subjects reported symptoms of syncope or presyncope during the AMB trials but there were no reports of symptoms during the COLD trials. Conclusion. From analysis of this data, cold improved the subject’s tolerance to LBNP.

  1. Diesel Exhaust Particles Induce Impairment of Vascular and Cardiac Homeostasis in Mice: Ameliorative Effect of Emodin

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    Abderrahim Nemmar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: There is strong epidemiological and clinical evidence that components of the cardiovascular system are adversely affected by particulate air pollutants through the generation of inflammation and oxidative stress. Emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methylanthraquinone, which is commonly found in the roots of rhubarb plant, has strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, its possible protective effect on the cardiovascular effect of particulate air pollutants has never been reported before. Methods: We tested, in Tuck-Ordinary mice, the possible ameliorative effect of emodin on the acute (24h cardiovascular effects of diesel exhaust particles (DEP, 1 mg/kg or saline (control. Emodin (4 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally 1h before and 7h after pulmonary exposure to DEP. Twenty four h following DEP exposure, several cardiovascular endpoints were assessed. Results: Emodin significantly prevented the increase of leukocyte (n=8, Pin vivo prothrombotic effect of DEP in pial arterioles (n=6, Pin vitro in whole blood (n=4-5, PConclusion: We conclude that emodin treatment has consistently protected against DEP-induced impairment of vascular and cardiac homeostasis in mice. Our study provides experimental evidence that the use of functional food such as emodin, pending further studies, can be considered a useful agent and may have the potential to protect or mitigate the cardiovascular detrimental effects observed in people living in cities with high concentrations of particulate air pollution.

  2. Effect of red wine and red grape extract on blood lipids, haemostatic factors, and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Alice Schmidt; Marckmann, P.; Dragsted, L.O.;

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Some epidemiological studies found a lower risk of cardiovascular disease among wine drinkers than among drinkers of other types of ethanol. This difference might be due to an effect of nonalcohol compounds in wine on important cardiovascular risk factors. The objective of this study...... was to compare the effect of red wine, nonalcohol compounds of red wine and placebo on established cardiovascular risk factors. Design: A parallel, four-armed intervention study. Subjects: A total of 69 healthy 38 - 74- y-old men and women. Interventions: Subjects were randomised to either 1: red wine ( males...... before and after intervention. Results: Wine consumption was associated with a significant 11 - 16% increase in fasting HDL-C and 8 - 15% decrease in fasting fibrinogen relative to not drinking wine. There were no significant treatment effects on fasting LDL-C, HDL-C/LDL-C-ratio, VLDL...

  3. Cardiovascular disease mortality of A-bomb survivors and the healthy survivor selection effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöllnberger, H; Ozasa, K; Neff, F; Kaiser, J C

    2015-09-01

    The latest A-bomb survivor data for cardiovascular diseases are analysed to investigate whether in the first years after the bombings the baseline rates of proximal survivors were markedly different compared with those of the distal survivors. This phenomenon relates to a healthy survivor selection effect. This question is important for the decision whether to include or exclude the early years of follow-up when analysing the biological effects from acute low and high dose exposures following the nuclear weapons explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The present study shows that for cerebrovascular diseases and heart diseases the baseline rates are not significantly different in the first two decades of follow-up. Thus, for these two detrimental health outcomes, there is no need to exclude distal survivors and the first decades of follow-up time when investigating the shapes of the related dose-responses. PMID:25948837

  4. Study of cardiovascular disease biomarkers among tobacco consumers, part 2: biomarkers of biological effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordskog, Brian K.; Brown, Buddy G.; Marano, Kristin M.; Campell, Leanne R.; Jones, Bobbette A.; Borgerding, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An age-stratified, cross-sectional study was conducted in the US among healthy adult male cigarette smokers, moist snuff consumers, and non-tobacco consumers to evaluate cardiovascular biomarkers of biological effect (BoBE). Physiological assessments included flow-mediated dilation, ankle-brachial index, carotid intima-media thickness and expired carbon monoxide. Approximately one-half of the measured serum BoBE showed statistically significant differences; IL-12(p70), sICAM-1 and IL-8 were the BoBE that best differentiated among the three groups. A significant difference in ABI was observed between the cigarette smokers and non-tobacco consumer groups. Significant group and age effect differences in select biomarkers were identified. PMID:25787701

  5. Study of cardiovascular disease biomarkers among tobacco consumers, part 2: biomarkers of biological effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordskog, Brian K; Brown, Buddy G; Marano, Kristin M; Campell, Leanne R; Jones, Bobbette A; Borgerding, Michael F

    2015-02-01

    An age-stratified, cross-sectional study was conducted in the US among healthy adult male cigarette smokers, moist snuff consumers, and non-tobacco consumers to evaluate cardiovascular biomarkers of biological effect (BoBE). Physiological assessments included flow-mediated dilation, ankle-brachial index, carotid intima-media thickness and expired carbon monoxide. Approximately one-half of the measured serum BoBE showed statistically significant differences; IL-12(p70), sICAM-1 and IL-8 were the BoBE that best differentiated among the three groups. A significant difference in ABI was observed between the cigarette smokers and non-tobacco consumer groups. Significant group and age effect differences in select biomarkers were identified. PMID:25787701

  6. Fibroblast Growth Factor-23 Helps Explain the Biphasic Cardiovascular Effects of Vitamin D in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Hu, Qiang Xuan, Bo Hu, Ling Lu, Jing Wang, Yuan Han Qin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypovitaminosis D is highly prevalent in chronic kidney disease (CKD. Recently, vitamin D has sparked widespread interest because of its potential favorable benefits on cardiovascular disease (CVD. Evidence from clinical studies and animal models supports the existence of biphasic cardiovascular effects of vitamin D, in which lower doses suppress CVD and higher doses stimulate CVD. However, the mechanism for the different effects remains unclear. Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23 is a recently identified member of the FGF family, and thought to be actively involved in renal phosphate and vitamin D homeostasis. More specifically, Vitamin D stimulates FGF-23 secretion and is inhibited by increased FGF-23. Given this background, we hypothesize that FGF-23 may provide a unique tool to explain the biphasic cardiovascular effects of vitamin D in CKD. The data presented in this review support the hypothesis that FGF-23 may be linked with the high cardiovascular risk in CKD through accelerating the onset of vascular calcification, secondary hyperparathyroidism, left ventricular hypertrophy and endothelial dysfunction. Therefore, modulation of FGF-23 may become a potential therapeutic target to lowing cardiovascular risk in CKD. Several clinical interventions, including decreased phosphate intake, phosphate binders, cinacalcet plus concurrent low-dose vitamin D, C-terminal tail of FGF-23 and renal transplantation, have been employed to manipulate FGF-23.

  7. Comparison of effects of thiopental, propofol or ketamine on the cardiovascular responses of the oculocardiac reflex during strabismus surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Safavi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The oculocardiac reflex (OCR, which is most often encountered during strabismus surgery in children,
    may cause bradycardia, arrhythmias and cardiac arrest following a variety of stimuli arising in or near the eyeball. The
    main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of various anesthetic regimens on modulation of the cardiovascular
    effects of the OCR during strabismus surgery.
    METHODS: Three hundred ASA physical status I-II patients, scheduled for elective strabismus surgery under general
    anesthesia, randomly allocated in a double blind fashion to one of the three anesthetic regimens: group P: propofol (2
    mg/kg, alfentanil 0.02 mg/kg and atracurium 0.5 mg/kg at induction; group K: ketamine racemate (2 mg/kg, alfentanil
    0.02 mg/kg and atracurium 0.5 mg/kg at induction; group T: thiopental (5 mg/kg, alfentanil 0.02 mg/kg, and atracurium
    0.5 mg/kg at induction. Mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart rate (HR were recorded just before induction, at
    1, 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes after induction. OCR was defined as a 20 beats/minute change in HR induced by traction
    compared with basal value.
    RESULTS: Mean HR (± SD during total period of surgery in group P was significantly slower than that in group K
    (111.90 ± 1.10 vs. 116.7 ± 0.70, respectively; P<0.05. Mean HR changes (± SD in group K was significantly higher
    than that in group P (11.2 ± 1.44 vs. 8.7 ± 1.50 respectively, P<0.05. MAP changes (± SD was significantly lower in
    patients in group P compared with patients in group K or T (12.5 ± 1.13 vs. 19.3 ± 0.80 or 18.9 ± 0.91, respectively;
    P<0.05. Incidence of OCR was significantly lower in patients in group K compared with patients in group T or P (9%
    vs. 16% and 13%. Respectively; P<0.05.
    CONCLUSIONS: Induction of anesthesia with ketamine is associated with the least

  8. Cardiovascular effects of Tacca integrifolia Ker-Gawl. extract in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakart Sawangchote

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Rhizome of Tacca integrifolia, a Thai folk medicinal herb, has been used for controlling blood pressure and improving sexual function in humans. However, the biological activities of this herb on the cardiovascular system have not yet been documented. In the present study, we investigated the cardiovascular effects of methanolic extract from the rhizome of this herb (Tacca extract. In the in vivo study, intravenous injection of the Tacca extract (0.04-40 mg/kg caused a decrease in both mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate of anesthetized rats (Nembutal sodium, 60 mg/kg, i.p. in a dose dependent manner. Pretreatment of the animals with muscarinic receptor antagonist, atropine (1 mg/kg, i.v., significantly reduced the hypotensive and the negative chronotropic activities of the Tacca extract. In the in vitro preparation, the Tacca extract (0.001-3 mg/ml caused a decrease in both force and rate of spontaneous contraction of isolated atria in a dose dependent manner. These effects were reduced by preincubation of the atria with atropine (10-7 or 10-6 M. For isolated blood vessels, the Tacca extract (0.003-3 mg/ ml caused vasodilation of endothelium-intact thoracic aortic rings pre-constricted with phenylephrine (3× 10-6 M. This effect disappeared after pre-incubation of blood vessels with atropine (10-6 M or with Nω-nitro- L-arginine (3×10-4 M, or by removing the vascular endothelium. The results obtained suggest that the hypotensive and negative chronotropic effects of the Tacca extract in the rat are due to the active components acting via the muscarinic receptors at the blood vessel to cause vasodilatation by stimulating the release of nitric oxide, as well as on the muscarinic receptors at the atria to cause the decrease of both rate and force of the atrial contraction.

  9. Individualized prediction of the effect of angiotensin receptor inhibition on renal and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with diabetic nephropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sande, Nicolette G C; Dorresteijn, Jannick A N; Visseren, Frank L J; Dwyer, Jamie P; Blankestijn, Peter J; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Heerspink, Hiddo L

    2016-01-01

    Aims Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) reduce cardiovascular and renal complications in patients with diabetic nephropathy but treatment effects may vary across patients. Predicting individualized treatment effect of ARBs on both outcomes may help clinicians and patients to assess the benefit of

  10. Social support and cardiovascular responding to laboratory stress: Moderating effects of gender role identification, sex and type of support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van Well; A.M. Kolk

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine moderating effects of gender role identification, sex, and type of support on the buffering role of social support on cardiovascular responses. We hypothesized that (a) gender role identification, more than sex, would moderate the effect of social su

  11. Safe Oral Triiodo-L-Thyronine Therapy Protects from Post-Infarct Cardiac Dysfunction and Arrhythmias without Cardiovascular Adverse Effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viswanathan Rajagopalan

    Full Text Available A large body of evidence suggests that thyroid hormones (THs are beneficial for the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. We have shown that 3 days of triiodo-L-thyronine (T3 treatment in myocardial infarction (MI rats increased left ventricular (LV contractility and decreased myocyte apoptosis. However, no clinically translatable protocol is established for T3 treatment of ischemic heart disease. We hypothesized that low-dose oral T3 will offer safe therapeutic benefits in MI.Adult female rats underwent left coronary artery ligation or sham surgeries. T3 (~6 μg/kg/day was available in drinking water ad libitum immediately following MI and continuing for 2 month(s (mo. Compared to vehicle-treated MI, the oral T3-treated MI group at 2 mo had markedly improved anesthetized Magnetic Resonance Imaging-based LV ejection fraction and volumes without significant negative changes in heart rate, serum TH levels or heart weight, indicating safe therapy. Remarkably, T3 decreased the incidence of inducible atrial tachyarrhythmias by 88% and improved remodeling. These were accompanied by restoration of gene expression involving several key pathways including thyroid, ion channels, fibrosis, sympathetic, mitochondria and autophagy.Low-dose oral T3 dramatically improved post-MI cardiac performance, decreased atrial arrhythmias and cardiac remodeling, and reversed many adverse changes in gene expression with no observable negative effects. This study also provides a safe and effective treatment/monitoring protocol that should readily translate to humans.

  12. (n-3) Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Health: Are Effects of EPA and DHA Shared or Complementary?123

    OpenAIRE

    Mozaffarian, Dariush; Wu, Jason H Y

    2012-01-01

    Considerable research supports cardiovascular benefits of consuming omega-3 PUFA, also known as (n-3) PUFA, from fish or fish oil. Whether individual long-chain (n-3) PUFA have shared or complementary effects is not well established. We reviewed evidence for dietary and endogenous sources and cardiovascular effects on biologic pathways, physiologic risk factors, and clinical endpoints of EPA [20:5(n-3)], docosapentaenoic acid [DPA, 22:5(n-3)], and DHA [22:6(n-3)]. DHA requires direct dietary ...

  13. A Systematic Review of Effects of Waterpipe Smoking on Cardiovascular and Respiratory Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Linda; Kelly, Debra Lynch; Weglicki, Linda S.; Barnett, Tracey E.; Ferrell, Anastasiya V.; Ghadban, Roula

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Waterpipe smoking (WPS) is a social custom common in many Middle Eastern, North African, and Asian countries and has become increasingly popular in the US, especially among youth; however, WPS smoking may be increasing in the US adult population as well. There is a common belief among waterpipe (WP) smokers that WPS is less harmful than smoking cigarettes. Thus, this review aims to systematically explore the literature on the effects of WP tobacco smoking with a particular focus on cardiovascular and respiratory health outcomes as well as on oxidative stress, immunity, and cell cycle interference health outcomes. METHODOLOGY We conducted a systematic review, guided by the criteria of The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses, using the following online databases MEDLINE, CINAHL, ScienceDirect, PMC, and Cochrane Library. Results were summarized qualitatively. RESULTS Forty studies met the inclusion criteria established for this review. Based on the existing evidence, several cardiovascular and respiratory physiologic health indicators and conditions have been shown to be negatively affected by WPS. In addition to the effects of nicotine and chemical toxicant exposures, WPS was significantly associated with an increase in heart rate, blood pressure, and lower pulmonary function test results, as well as a number of health conditions such as lung cancer, alterations in oxidative stress, immunity, and cell cycle interference. CONCLUSION The current literature provides evidence that WPS is associated with a number of negative health indicators and outcomes. There is need for more research related to WPS and its effects on health so that appropriate campaigns and prevention interventions can be implemented to control the epidemic increase of WPS in the US. PMID:27398028

  14. Short-term effects of black smoke on cardiovascular hospitalization in elderly in Niš, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In past few years numerous epidemiological studies bring new evidence on the effects of particle air pollution on cardiovascular hospitalizations. The aim of our paper was to investigate the association between ambient concentrations of black smoke (BS and daily total non-accidental cardiovascular hospitalizations in elderly in Niš. The daily mean number of all age cardiovascular hospitalizations was 12.46±6.26 (0 to 38 and 5.92±3.29 (0 to 20 among person ≥ 65 yrs. Daily measurements for black smoke (BS and SO2, as well as the daily number of cardiovascular hospitalization among person ≥ 65 yrs of age, have been collected. BS (μg/m3 was measured by the refractometry method and SO2 (μg/m3 by spectrophotometer. Generalized linear model extending Poisson regression was applied. The effects of time trend, seasonal variations, day of week, temperature, relative humidity and barometric pressure were adjusted. Estimated OR of unipolutant regression model for among person ≥ 65 yrs was 1.00135 (95% CI: 0,97835 to 1,02489, and estimated OR of bipolutant model was 1,00975 (95% CI: 0,99457 to 1,02394 per 10μg/m3. The results do not support findings from previous studies that had shown an increase in the number of cardiovascular hospitalization in elderly in association with black smoke. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 42008 i br. 43014

  15. The effectiveness and cost effectiveness of dark chocolate consumption as prevention therapy in people at high risk of cardiovascular disease: best case scenario analysis using a Markov model

    OpenAIRE

    Zomer, Ella; Owen, Alice; Magliano, Dianna J; Liew, Danny; Reid, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To model the long term effectiveness and cost effectiveness of daily dark chocolate consumption in a population with metabolic syndrome at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Design Best case scenario analysis using a Markov model. Setting Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle study. Participants 2013 people with hypertension who met the criteria for metabolic syndrome, with no history of cardiovascular disease and not receiving antihypertensive therapy. Main outcome measures ...

  16. The protective effects of Schisandra chinensis fruit extract and its lignans against cardiovascular disease: a review of the molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Jung Nyeo; Cho, Minsoo; So, Insuk; Jeon, Ju-Hong

    2014-09-01

    Schisandra chinensis fruit extract (SCE) has traditionally been used as an oriental medicine for the treatment of various human diseases, including cardiovascular disease. Advances in scientific knowledge and analytical technologies provide opportunities for translational research involving S. chinensis; such research may contribute to future drug discovery. To date, emerging experimental evidence supports the therapeutic effects of the SCE or its bioactive lignan ingredients in cardiovascular disease, unraveling the mechanistic basis for their pharmacological actions. In the present review, we highlight SCE and its lignans as promising resources for the development of safe, effective, and multi-targeted agents against cardiovascular disease. Moreover, we offer novel insight into future challenges and perspective on S. chinensis research to future clinical investigations and healthcare strategies.

  17. Space radiation and cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerma, Marjan; Nelson, Gregory A; Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Mao, Xiao-Wen; Koturbash, Igor; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2015-12-26

    Future long-distance space missions will be associated with significant exposures to ionizing radiation, and the health risks of these radiation exposures during manned missions need to be assessed. Recent Earth-based epidemiological studies in survivors of atomic bombs and after occupational and medical low dose radiation exposures have indicated that the cardiovascular system may be more sensitive to ionizing radiation than was previously thought. This has raised the concern of a cardiovascular disease risk from exposure to space radiation during long-distance space travel. Ground-based studies with animal and cell culture models play an important role in estimating health risks from space radiation exposure. Charged particle space radiation has dense ionization characteristics and may induce unique biological responses, appropriate simulation of the space radiation environment and careful consideration of the choice of the experimental model are critical. Recent studies have addressed cardiovascular effects of space radiation using such models and provided first results that aid in estimating cardiovascular disease risk, and several other studies are ongoing. Moreover, astronauts could potentially be administered pharmacological countermeasures against adverse effects of space radiation, and research is focused on the development of such compounds. Because the cardiovascular response to space radiation has not yet been clearly defined, the identification of potential pharmacological countermeasures against cardiovascular effects is still in its infancy. PMID:26730293

  18. Space radiation and cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerma, Marjan; Nelson, Gregory A; Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Mao, Xiao-Wen; Koturbash, Igor; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2015-12-26

    Future long-distance space missions will be associated with significant exposures to ionizing radiation, and the health risks of these radiation exposures during manned missions need to be assessed. Recent Earth-based epidemiological studies in survivors of atomic bombs and after occupational and medical low dose radiation exposures have indicated that the cardiovascular system may be more sensitive to ionizing radiation than was previously thought. This has raised the concern of a cardiovascular disease risk from exposure to space radiation during long-distance space travel. Ground-based studies with animal and cell culture models play an important role in estimating health risks from space radiation exposure. Charged particle space radiation has dense ionization characteristics and may induce unique biological responses, appropriate simulation of the space radiation environment and careful consideration of the choice of the experimental model are critical. Recent studies have addressed cardiovascular effects of space radiation using such models and provided first results that aid in estimating cardiovascular disease risk, and several other studies are ongoing. Moreover, astronauts could potentially be administered pharmacological countermeasures against adverse effects of space radiation, and research is focused on the development of such compounds. Because the cardiovascular response to space radiation has not yet been clearly defined, the identification of potential pharmacological countermeasures against cardiovascular effects is still in its infancy.

  19. Breathing Maneuvers as a Vasoactive Stimulus for Detecting Inducible Myocardial Ischemia – An Experimental Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Kady; Guensch, Dominik P; Shie, Nancy; Lebel, Julie; Friedrich, Matthias G

    2016-01-01

    Background Breathing maneuvers can elicit a similar vascular response as vasodilatory agents like adenosine; yet, their potential diagnostic utility in the presence of coronary artery stenosis is unknown. The objective of the study is to investigate if breathing maneuvers can non-invasively detect inducible ischemia in an experimental animal model when the myocardium is imaged with oxygenation-sensitive cardiovascular magnetic resonance (OS-CMR). Methods and Findings In 11 anesthetised swine with experimentally induced significant stenosis (fractional flow reserve coronary artery (LAD) and 9 control animals, OS-CMR at 3T was performed during two different breathing maneuvers, a long breath-hold; and a combined maneuver of 60s of hyperventilation followed by a long breath-hold. The resulting change of myocardial oxygenation was compared to the invasive measurements of coronary blood flow, blood gases, and oxygen extraction. In control animals, all breathing maneuvers could significantly alter coronary blood flow as hyperventilation decreased coronary blood flow by 34±23%. A long breath-hold alone led to an increase of 97±88%, while the increase was 346±327% (pcoronary blood flow response was attenuated after both hyperventilation and the following breath-hold. This was matched by the observed oxygenation response as breath-holds following hyperventilation consistently yielded a significant difference in the signal of the MRI images between the perfusion territory of the stenosis LAD and remote myocardium. There was no difference between the coronary territories during the other breathing maneuvers or in the control group at any point. Conclusion In an experimental animal model, the response to a combined breathing maneuver of hyperventilation with subsequent breath-holding is blunted in myocardium subject to significant coronary artery stenosis. This maneuver may allow for detecting severe coronary artery stenosis and have a significant clinical potential as a

  20. Impact of Heat Wave Definitions on the Added Effect of Heat Waves on Cardiovascular Mortality in Beijing, China

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    Wentan Dong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Heat waves are associated with increased mortality, however, few studies have examined the added effect of heat waves. Moreover, there is limited evidence for the influence of different heat wave definitions (HWs on cardiovascular mortality in Beijing, the capital of China. The aim of this study was to find the best HW definitions for cardiovascular mortality, and we examined the effect modification by an individual characteristic on cardiovascular mortality in Beijing, a typical northern city in China. We applied a Poisson generalized additive approach to estimate the differences in cardiovascular mortality during heat waves (using 12 HWs compared with non-heat-wave days in Beijing from 2006 to 2009. We also validated the model fit by checking the residuals to ensure that the autocorrelation was successfully removed. In addition, the effect modifications by individual characteristics were explored in different HWs. Our results showed that the associations between heat waves and cardiovascular mortality differed from different HWs. HWs using the 93th percentile of the daily average temperature (27.7 °C and a duration ≥5 days had the greatest risk, with an increase of 18% (95% confidence interval (CI: 6%, 31% in the overall population, 24% (95% CI: 10%, 39% in an older group (ages ≥65 years, and 22% (95% CI: 3%, 44% in a female group. The added effect of heat waves was apparent after 5 consecutive heat wave days for the overall population and the older group. Females and the elderly were at higher risk than males and younger subjects (ages <65 years. Our findings suggest that heat wave definitions play a significant role in the relationship between heat wave and cardiovascular mortality. Using a suitable definition may have implications for designing local heat early warning systems and protecting the susceptible populations during heat waves.

  1. Psychological and cumulative cardiovascular effects of repeated angry rumination and visuospatial suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Andrew B; Jones, Kenneth V; Douglas Gregg, M Elizabeth

    2009-11-01

    Brooding rumination is associated with depressed mood, increased negative affect, prolonged anger and inhibited cardiovascular (CV) recovery. Distraction from rumination on a stressful interpersonal encounter is associated with faster CV recovery and decreased negative affect. Studies have suggested that a concurrent visuospatial (VS) task inhibits the maintenance of imagery associated with the perseveration of intrusive negative memories. 120 healthy participants were recruited for the study. As an analogue of repeated angry rumination, the authors explored the effects of repeated visual recall of a provocative confederate and the subsequent impact of two visuospatial (VS) distraction tasks on negative affect, blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). Repeated recall of the provocation generated repeatedly elevated HR with a cumulative trend that may have CV disease risk implications for chronic ruminators. VS distraction did not aid recovery compared with the Control task. PMID:19732797

  2. Effect of surgery on cardiovascular risk factors in mild primary hyperparathyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Jens; Rosen, Thord; Mollerup, Charlotte;

    2009-01-01

    : Calcium and PTH levels were normalized after surgery, and biochemical markers of bone turnover decreased by 35%, followed by a significant increase in BMD in the spine (2.7%; P ...CONTEXT: Mild primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) seems to have a good prognosis, and indications for active treatment (surgery) are widely discussed. The extraskeletal effects of PTH, such as insulin resistance, arterial hypertension, and cardiovascular (CV) risk, may however be reversible...... by operation. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to study biochemical markers of bone turnover, indices of the metabolic syndrome, and various risk markers for CV disease in patients with mild pHPT randomized to observation without surgery or operative treatment and followed for 2 yr. DESIGN/SETTING/PATIENTS: A total...

  3. The Effect of Widowhood on Husbands’ and Wives’ Physical Activity: The Cardiovascular Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Sarah T.; Schulz, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This prospective study examined the effect of widowhood on physical activity by comparing widowed elders to health status-, age-, and sex-matched married controls. Participants included 396 married controls and 396 widows/widowers age 64 to 91 (M age = 72.7 years) who experienced the death of their spouse while participating in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS). Compared to married controls, widowed men, but not women, were more likely to increase their physical activity following the death of their spouse. However, this increased level of activity was not sustained and declines as time since spousal death passes. Moreover, during the year before spousal death, soon-to-be widowed men, but not women, increase their physical activity. Our results suggest that widowed men experience significant changes in physical activity and that the transition to widowhood contribute to these changes. PMID:23975417

  4. Effects of co-administration of artesunate and amodiaquine on some cardiovascular disease indices in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, J O; Igunnu, A; Arise, R O; Malomo, S O

    2011-01-01

    The effects of co-administration of artesunate and amodiaquine on some cardiovascular disease indices were investigated in albino rats (Rattus novergicus). The experimental animals were randomly divided into four groups: those administered distilled water (control), those administered artesunate (2 mg/kg body weight), those administered amodiaquine (6.12 mg/kg body weight) and those co-administered artesunate (2 mg/kg body weight) and amodiaquine (6.12 mg/kg body weight). The drugs were orally administered twice daily for three days after which the serum lipid profile, heart MDA content and heart ALP and ACP activities were determined. Artesunate significantly reduced (P0.05) on other parameters compared to controls. Amodiaquine, on the other hand, significantly reduced (Partesunate and amodiaquine significantly reduced (Partesunate and amodiaquine to patients with coronary heart disease should be with caution.

  5. The PPAR-Platelet Connection: Modulators of Inflammation and Potential Cardiovascular Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Spinelli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically, platelets were viewed as simple anucleate cells responsible for initiating thrombosis and maintaining hemostasis, but clearly they are also key mediators of inflammation and immune cell activation. An emerging body of evidence links platelet function and thrombosis to vascular inflammation. peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs play a major role in modulating inflammation and, interestingly, PPARs (PPARβ/δ and PPARγ were recently identified in platelets. Additionally, PPAR agonists attenuate platelet activation; an important discovery for two reasons. First, activated platelets are formidable antagonists that initiate and prolong a cascade of events that contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD progression. Dampening platelet release of proinflammatory mediators, including CD40 ligand (CD40L, CD154, is essential to hinder this cascade. Second, understanding the biologic importance of platelet PPARs and the mechanism(s by which PPARs regulate platelet activation will be imperative in designing therapeutic strategies lacking the deleterious or unwanted side effects of current treatment options.

  6. Effects of sex and gender on adaptation to space: cardiovascular alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platts, Steven H; Bairey Merz, C Noel; Barr, Yael; Fu, Qi; Gulati, Martha; Hughson, Richard; Levine, Benjamin D; Mehran, Roxana; Stachenfeld, Nina; Wenger, Nanette K

    2014-11-01

    Sex and gender differences in the cardiovascular adaptation to spaceflight were examined with the goal of optimizing the health and safety of male and female astronauts at the forefront of space exploration. Female astronauts are more susceptible to orthostatic intolerance after space flight; the visual impairment intracranial pressure syndrome predominates slightly in males. Since spaceflight simulates vascular aging, sex-specific effects on vascular endothelium and thrombotic risk warrant examination as predisposing factors to atherosclerosis, important as the current cohort of astronauts ages. Currently, 20% of astronauts are women, and the recently selected astronaut recruits are 50% women. Thus there should be expectation that future research will reflect the composition of the overall population to determine potential benefits or risks. This should apply both to clinical studies and to basic science research. PMID:25401939

  7. The PPAR-Platelet Connection: Modulators of Inflammation and Potential Cardiovascular Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, S L; O'Brien, J J; Bancos, S; Lehmann, G M; Springer, D L; Blumberg, N; Francis, C W; Taubman, M B; Phipps, R P

    2008-01-01

    Historically, platelets were viewed as simple anucleate cells responsible for initiating thrombosis and maintaining hemostasis, but clearly they are also key mediators of inflammation and immune cell activation. An emerging body of evidence links platelet function and thrombosis to vascular inflammation. peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) play a major role in modulating inflammation and, interestingly, PPARs (PPARbeta/delta and PPARgamma) were recently identified in platelets. Additionally, PPAR agonists attenuate platelet activation; an important discovery for two reasons. First, activated platelets are formidable antagonists that initiate and prolong a cascade of events that contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD) progression. Dampening platelet release of proinflammatory mediators, including CD40 ligand (CD40L, CD154), is essential to hinder this cascade. Second, understanding the biologic importance of platelet PPARs and the mechanism(s) by which PPARs regulate platelet activation will be imperative in designing therapeutic strategies lacking the deleterious or unwanted side effects of current treatment options.

  8. Plasma concentration and cardiovascular effects of lidocaine during continuous epidural administration in dogs anesthetized with isoflurane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakonju, Iwao; Maeda, Kenichi; Karasawa, Koichi; Tadokoro, Toshiyuki; Kakuta, Tomoko; Takase, Katsuaki

    2011-03-01

    The cardiovascular effects of continuous epidural administration (CEA) of lidocaine were investigated in anesthetized dogs. Loading epidural injections of 2, 4, or 6 mg/kg of lidocaine were followed by CEA with 1, 2, or 3 mg/kg/hr lidocaine, respectively, for 2 hr under 2.0% isoflurane anesthesia. Heart rate, direct blood pressure, cardiac index, and stroke volume decreased dose-dependently during CEA, whereas systemic vascular resistance did not significantly differ with dose, and no characteristic changes were observed in any groups. Plasma lidocaine concentration reached a steady state during CEA and increased in a dose-dependent manner. Circulatory suppression caused by lidocaine CEA was not attributable to peripheral vasodilation, but rather to the direct cardiac action of systemic lidocaine absorption from the peridural space. PMID:21048393

  9. Immediate Effects of Bhramari Pranayama on Resting Cardiovascular Parameters in Healthy Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaldeen, Dilara; Pitani, Ravishankar; Amaldas, Julius

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In yoga, Pranayama has a very important role in maintaining sound health. There is some strong scientific basis on constant physiological changes produced when pranayama is practiced for long duration. Still, there exists a dearth of literature on the effect of Bhramari pranayama (Bhr.p) on physiological systems. Aim To assess the immediate effect of Bhramari pranayama (Bhr.P) practice on the resting cardiovascular parameters in healthy adolescents. Materials and Methods Sixty apparently healthy adolescents of both sex participated in the study. They were randomly divided into Bhr.P (n-30) and control (n-30) group. Informed consent was obtained after explaining the detailed procedure of the study. Bhr.P group practiced Bhramari pranayama for 45 min (5 cycles) and control group was allowed to do normal breathing (12-16 breath /min). Heart rate (HR) was assessed by radial artery palpation method and blood pressure was recorded in supine position after 5 minutes of rest by sphygmomanometer. Results The HR reduced significantly (p-0.001) in Bhr.P group. BP indices, Pulse Pressure (PP), Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP), Rate Pressure Product (RPP) and Double Product (DoP) significantly decreased after Bhr.p practice compared with control. Pre and Post inter group analysis also showed that significant reduction in HR and BP indices in Bhr.P group. Conclusion Present study showed that Bhr.P practice produces relaxed state and in this state parasympathetic activity overrides the sympathetic activity. It suggests that Bhramari pranayama improves the resting cardiovascular parameters in healthy adolescents.

  10. Effect of low calorie diet with rice bran oil on cardiovascular risk factors in hyperlipidemic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Zavoshy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death and disability in industrialized and developing countries. The aim of this research was to determine the effect of rice bran oil, with a low-calorie diet, on lipid profiles, in hyperlipidemic patients. Materials and Methods: This study was a parallel groups′ randomized clinical trial with a pre- and post-test design. Fifty hyperlipidemic patients of both sexes and age range of 25 - 65 years had participated. The patients received a low-calorie diet based on 1400 kcal energy, 17% protein, 26% fat, and 57% carbohydrate per day for four weeks. The treatment group received a low-calorie diet including rice bran oil (30 g / day. Blood samples were obtained after an overnight (12 hours fasting period before the study and on the last day of the intervention period. Anthropometric indices and levels of serum triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein were measured before and after the intervention. Results: In both groups, weight, body mass index, waist, and hip circumferences were significantly reduced (P < 0.05 after four weeks. In comparison with the control group, the results of treatment with rice bran oil, with a low-calorie diet, showed that at the end of the fourth week, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and atherogenic ratio of total cholesterol / high-density lipoprotein were significantly decreased (P < 0.05. Conclusions: The results confirm that rice bran oil, when consumed as part of a healthy diet, is effective in improving risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

  11. Adrenergic and cholinergic activity contributes to the cardiovascular effects of lionfish (Pterois volitans) venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Jarrod E; Hodgson, Wayne C

    2002-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to further investigate the cardiovascular activity of Pterois volitans crude venom. Venom (0.6-18 microg protein/ml) produced dose- and endothelium-dependent relaxation in porcine coronary arteries that was potentiated by atropine (10nM), but significantly attenuated by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine (NOLA; 0.1mM), by prior exposure of the tissue to stonefish antivenom (SFAV, 3 units/ml, 10 min), or by removal of extracellular Ca(2+). In rat paced left atria, venom (10 microg protein/ml) produced a decrease, followed by an increase, in contractile force. Atropine (0.5 microM) abolished the decrease in force and potentiated the increase. Propranolol (5 microM) did not affect the decrease in force but significantly attenuated the increase. In spontaneously beating right atria, venom (10 microg protein/ml) produced an increase in rate that was significantly attenuated by propranolol (5 microM). Prior incubation with SFAV (0.3 units/microg protein, 10 min) abolished both the inotropic and chronotropic responses to venom. In the anaesthetised rat, venom (100 micro protein/kg, i.v.) produced a pressor response, followed by a sustained depressor response. Atropine (1mg/kg, i.v.) potentiated the pressor response. The further addition of prazosin (50 microg/kg, i.v.) restored the original response to venom. Prior administration of SFAV (100 units/kg, i.v., 10 min) significantly attenuated the in vivo response to venom. It is concluded that P. volitans venom produces its cardiovascular effects primarily by acting on muscarinic cholinergic receptors and adrenoceptors. As SFAV neutralised many of the effects of P. volitans venom, we suggest that the two venoms share a similar component(s). PMID:12175616

  12. Effect of Mediterranean Diet in Diabetes Control and Cardiovascular Risk Modification: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana eSleiman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the past few years, there has been a worldwide significant increase in the incidence of type II diabetes (T2DM with both increase in morbidity and mortality. Controlling diabetes through life style modifications, including diet and exercise has always been the cornerstone in diabetes management. As a matter of fact, a number of studies addressed the potential protective role of Mediterranean diet in diabetic patients. Increasing evidence suggests that the Mediterranean diet could be of benefit in diseases associated with chronic inflammation, including metabolic syndrome, diabetes, obesity as well as atherosclerosis, cancer, pulmonary diseases, and cognition disorders. Methods: A systematic review was conducted on the effect of Mediterranean diet in diabetes control and cardiovascular risk modification as well as the possible mechanism through which this diet might exhibit its beneficial role. We did a comprehensive search of multiple electronic databases such as Medline, Google Scholars, PubMed, and the Cochrane central register data until May 2014. We included cross-sectional, prospective and controlled clinical trials that looked at the associations between Mediterranean diet and indices of diabetes control such HbA1c, fasting glucose, and HOMA, in addition to cardiovascular and peripheral vascular outcomes.Outcome/Conclusion: Most of the studies showed favorable effects of Mediterranean diet on glycemic control and CVD, although a certain degree of controversy remains regarding some issues, such as obesity. Important methodological differences and limitations in the studies make it difficult to compare results, thus further longer term studies are needed to evaluate the long-term efficacy of the Mediterranean diet along with the possibility of explaining its mechanism.

  13. Acute effect of weight loss on levels of total bilirubin in obese, cardiovascular high-risk patients: an analysis from the lead-in period of the Sibutramine Cardiovascular Outcome trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Charlotte; Weeke, Peter; Fosbøl, Emil Loldrup;

    2009-01-01

    Low levels of bilirubin are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular adverse events. Weight reduction is known to reduce several cardiovascular risk factors, but effects on bilirubin levels have not been reported. We studied the response of weight loss therapy with sibutramine...... and lifestyle change on levels of total bilirubin in an overweight or obese, cardiovascular high-risk population. Data from the first 4 weeks of the lead-in period of the Sibutramine Cardiovascular Outcome study were analyzed. A total of 10 198 patients provided body weight measurements before and after 4 weeks......, respectively. At screening, bilirubin concentrations were similar between weight loss groups (around 11 micromol/L, P = .7) and increased linearly as a function of weight loss. The effect was significantly more pronounced in men compared with women (P for interaction = .003). Adjusted for multiple variables...

  14. Protective role of Kalpaamruthaa in type II diabetes mellitus-induced cardiovascular disease through the modulation of protease-activated receptor-1

    OpenAIRE

    Raja Latha; Palanivelu Shanthi; Panchanadham Sachdanandam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Kalpaamruthaa (KA) is a formulatory herbal preparation has beneficial antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties against cardiovascular damage (CVD). Objective: The present study was undertaken to investigate the protective role of KA in type II diabetes mellitus-induced CVD through the modulation of protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1). Materials and Methods: CVD was developed in 8 weeks after type II diabetes mellitus induction with high fat diet (2 weeks) and ...

  15. Simulated Microgravity Exerts an Age-Dependent Effect on the Differentiation of Cardiovascular Progenitors Isolated from the Human Heart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania I Fuentes

    Full Text Available Microgravity has a profound effect on cardiovascular function, however, little is known about the impact of microgravity on progenitors that reside within the heart. We investigated the effect of simulated microgravity exposure on progenitors isolated from the neonatal and adult human heart by quantifying changes in functional parameters, gene expression and protein levels after 6-7 days of 2D clinorotation. Utilization of neonatal and adult cardiovascular progenitors in ground-based studies has provided novel insight into how microgravity may affect cells differently depending on age. Simulated microgravity exposure did not impact AKT or ERK phosphorylation levels and did not influence cell migration, but elevated transcripts for paracrine factors were identified in neonatal and adult cardiovascular progenitors. Age-dependent responses surfaced when comparing the impact of microgravity on differentiation. Endothelial cell tube formation was unchanged or increased in progenitors from adults whereas neonatal cardiovascular progenitors showed a decline in tube formation (p<0.05. Von Willebrand Factor, an endothelial differentiation marker, and MLC2v and Troponin T, markers for cardiomyogenic differentiation, were elevated in expression in adult progenitors after simulated microgravity. DNA repair genes and telomerase reverse transcriptase which are highly expressed in early stem cells were increased in expression in neonatal but not adult cardiac progenitors after growth under simulated microgravity conditions. Neonatal cardiac progenitors demonstrated higher levels of MESP1, OCT4, and brachyury, markers for early stem cells. MicroRNA profiling was used to further investigate the impact of simulated microgravity on cardiovascular progenitors. Fifteen microRNAs were significantly altered in expression, including microRNAs-99a and 100 (which play a critical role in cell dedifferentiation. These microRNAs were unchanged in adult cardiac progenitors

  16. Protective effect of silymarin against chemical-induced cardiotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibi Marjan Razavi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac disorders remain one of the most important causes of death in the world. Oxidative stress has been suggested as one of the molecular mechanisms involved in drug-induced cardiac toxicity. Recently, several natural products have been utilized in different studies with the aim to protect the progression of oxidative stress-induced cardiac disorders. There is a large body of evidence that administration of antioxidants may be useful in ameliorating cardiac toxicity. Silymarin, a polyphenolic flavonoid has been shown to have utility in several cardiovascular disorders. In this review, various studies in scientific databases regarding the preventive effects of silymarin against cardiotoxicity induced by chemicals were introduced. Although there are many studies representing the valuable effects of silymarin in different diseases, the number of researches relating to the possible cardiac protective effects of silymarin against drugs induced toxicity is rather limited. Results of these studies show that silymarin has a broad spectrum of cardiac protective activity against toxicity induced by some chemicals including metals, environmental pollutants, oxidative agents and anticancer drugs. Further studies are needed to establish the utility of silymarin in protection against cardiac toxicity.

  17. Cardiovascular effects of 0.5 milligrams per kilogram oral d-amphetamine and possible attenuation by haloperidol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angrist, B; Sanfilipo, M; Wolkin, A

    2001-01-01

    In a series of earlier studies, an oral dose of 0.5 mg/kg d-amphetamine was administered to 81 patients with schizophrenia and eight normal control subjects. Seven more subjects with schizophrenia received placebo. Blood pressure and pulse rate were monitored before and 3 hours after drug administration. Blood pressure increased in both amphetamine groups, whereas placebo had no effect. However, pulse rate did not change in the schizophrenic group and only increased after 3 hours in normal control subjects as blood pressure began to decrease. Significant negative correlations between systolic blood pressure and pulse rate occurred at 2 and 3 hours, suggesting that the early cardiovascular response to amphetamine is an increase in blood pressure that recruits reflex control of heart rate. Eighteen of these subjects had hypertensive responses. Six subjects received 5 mg haloperidol intramuscularly, and 12 others had their blood pressure monitored until normalization. Haloperidol led to a more rapid decline of some but not all indices of blood pressure, suggesting that amphetamine-induced hypertension may have a dopaminergic component.

  18. Apollo Lunar Astronauts Show Higher Cardiovascular Disease Mortality: Possible Deep Space Radiation Effects on the Vascular Endothelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delp, Michael D.; Charvat, Jacqueline M.; Limoli, Charles L.; Globus, Ruth K.; Ghosh, Payal

    2016-01-01

    As multiple spacefaring nations contemplate extended manned missions to Mars and the Moon, health risks could be elevated as travel goes beyond the Earth’s protective magnetosphere into the more intense deep space radiation environment. The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether mortality rates due to cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, accidents and all other causes of death differ in (1) astronauts who never flew orbital missions in space, (2) astronauts who flew only in low Earth orbit (LEO), and (3) Apollo lunar astronauts, the only humans to have traveled beyond Earth’s magnetosphere. Results show there were no differences in CVD mortality rate between non-flight (9%) and LEO (11%) astronauts. However, the CVD mortality rate among Apollo lunar astronauts (43%) was 4–5 times higher than in non-flight and LEO astronauts. To test a possible mechanistic basis for these findings, a secondary purpose was to determine the long-term effects of simulated weightlessness and space-relevant total-body irradiation on vascular responsiveness in mice. The results demonstrate that space-relevant irradiation induces a sustained vascular endothelial cell dysfunction. Such impairment is known to lead to occlusive artery disease, and may be an important risk factor for CVD among astronauts exposed to deep space radiation. PMID:27467019

  19. Apollo Lunar Astronauts Show Higher Cardiovascular Disease Mortality: Possible Deep Space Radiation Effects on the Vascular Endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delp, Michael D; Charvat, Jacqueline M; Limoli, Charles L; Globus, Ruth K; Ghosh, Payal

    2016-01-01

    As multiple spacefaring nations contemplate extended manned missions to Mars and the Moon, health risks could be elevated as travel goes beyond the Earth's protective magnetosphere into the more intense deep space radiation environment. The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether mortality rates due to cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, accidents and all other causes of death differ in (1) astronauts who never flew orbital missions in space, (2) astronauts who flew only in low Earth orbit (LEO), and (3) Apollo lunar astronauts, the only humans to have traveled beyond Earth's magnetosphere. Results show there were no differences in CVD mortality rate between non-flight (9%) and LEO (11%) astronauts. However, the CVD mortality rate among Apollo lunar astronauts (43%) was 4-5 times higher than in non-flight and LEO astronauts. To test a possible mechanistic basis for these findings, a secondary purpose was to determine the long-term effects of simulated weightlessness and space-relevant total-body irradiation on vascular responsiveness in mice. The results demonstrate that space-relevant irradiation induces a sustained vascular endothelial cell dysfunction. Such impairment is known to lead to occlusive artery disease, and may be an important risk factor for CVD among astronauts exposed to deep space radiation. PMID:27467019

  20. Effects of an inverted seated position on single and sustained isometric contractions and cardiovascular parameters of trained individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neary, J Patrick; Salmon, D M; Dahlstrom, Barclay K; Casey, Erica J; Behm, David G

    2015-04-01

    Previous research demonstrated higher maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force with upright vs. inverted positions in untrained individuals. The purpose was to determine the effects of inversion on force, activation, and cardiovascular responses before and following fatigue in trained individuals. Twelve male athletes completed two trials: upright and inverted seated positions. At baseline (upright), either leg extension (LE) or elbow flexion (EF) evoked contractile properties and MVCs were performed. LE and EF contractions were randomly allocated and performed in separate sessions. The subject was then positioned for 150s in each posture, followed by a 30s MVC (MVC30). During each trial, stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (Q), heart rate (HR), time and frequency domain HR variability measures and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) measurements were recorded. ANOVA showed no statistical differences in EF MVC force, but a tendency (p=.12) for LE MVC decline with inversion vs. upright. Evoked resting (p=.1) and potentiated peak twitch (p=.04) force were increased with inverted LE but tended to diminish with inverted EF (p=.06 and p=.1). Force-fatigue, electromyography-fatigue relationships and HR variability during MVC30 fatigue were not affected. HR and Q were significantly (p=.01) lower with inversion following both LE and EF fatigue. Compared to the significant inversion-induced changes associated with untrained individuals in previously published studies, the lack of postural changes in resting force and CV measures may demonstrate that highly trained individuals adapt better to inversion. PMID:25553559

  1. Apollo Lunar Astronauts Show Higher Cardiovascular Disease Mortality: Possible Deep Space Radiation Effects on the Vascular Endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delp, Michael D; Charvat, Jacqueline M; Limoli, Charles L; Globus, Ruth K; Ghosh, Payal

    2016-07-28

    As multiple spacefaring nations contemplate extended manned missions to Mars and the Moon, health risks could be elevated as travel goes beyond the Earth's protective magnetosphere into the more intense deep space radiation environment. The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether mortality rates due to cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, accidents and all other causes of death differ in (1) astronauts who never flew orbital missions in space, (2) astronauts who flew only in low Earth orbit (LEO), and (3) Apollo lunar astronauts, the only humans to have traveled beyond Earth's magnetosphere. Results show there were no differences in CVD mortality rate between non-flight (9%) and LEO (11%) astronauts. However, the CVD mortality rate among Apollo lunar astronauts (43%) was 4-5 times higher than in non-flight and LEO astronauts. To test a possible mechanistic basis for these findings, a secondary purpose was to determine the long-term effects of simulated weightlessness and space-relevant total-body irradiation on vascular responsiveness in mice. The results demonstrate that space-relevant irradiation induces a sustained vascular endothelial cell dysfunction. Such impairment is known to lead to occlusive artery disease, and may be an important risk factor for CVD among astronauts exposed to deep space radiation.

  2. Cardiovascular and metabolic effects of 48-h glucagon-like peptide-1 infusion in compensated chronic patients with heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halbirk, Mads; Nørrelund, Helene; Møller, Niels;

    2010-01-01

    The incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and its analogs are currently emerging as antidiabetic medications. GLP-1 improves left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in dogs with heart failure (HF) and in patients with acute myocardial infarction. We studied metabolic and cardiovascular...... patients. GLP-1 infusion increased circulating insulin levels and reduced plasma glucose concentration but had no major cardiovascular effects in patients without diabetes but with compensated HF. The impact of minor increases in heart rate and diastolic blood pressure during GLP-1 infusion requires...

  3. [Is folic acid effective for the prevention of cardiovascular events in patients with advanced or terminal chronic kidney disease?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, José; Claro, Juan Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease have an increased cardiovascular risk. Several non-traditional factors have been showed to be associated with this risk, including hyperhomocysteinemia. The effects of reducing homocysteine levels with folic acid supplementation have been studied in a number of randomized trials, with mixed results. In this article we critically appraise two systematic reviews providing disparate conclusions about this question and we summarize their main findings using the GRADE methodology. We conclude that there are methodological differences that may explain the mixed results in both systematic reviews. Folic acid supplementation does not reduce cardiovascular morbidity or mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease at any stage.

  4. Medication effectiveness may not be the major reason for accepting cardiovascular preventive medication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Charlotte Gry; Støvring, Henrik; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg;

    2012-01-01

    of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is prevalent. A better understanding of patients' medication-taking behavior is needed and may be reached by studying the reasons why people accept or decline medication recommendations. The aim of this paper was to identify factors that may influence people's decisions...... and reasoning for accepting or declining a cardiovascular preventive medication offer....

  5. Cost-effectiveness of cardiovascular risk management by practice nurses in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiessen, Ans H.; Vermeulen, Karin M.; Broer, Jan; Smit, Andries J.; van der Meer, Klaas

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is largely preventable and prevention expenditures are relatively low. The randomised controlled SPRING-trial (SPRING-RCT) shows that cardiovascular risk management by practice nurses in general practice with and without self-monitoring both decreases cardiov

  6. The effect of continuous combined conjugated equine estrogen plus medroxyprogesterone acetate and tibolone on cardiovascular metabolic risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouby, S.O.; Sidelmann, J.J.; Nilas, L.;

    2008-01-01

    hormone preparations. Here, we compare the effect of combined HT and tibolone on metabolic risk markers for the development of cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to 1.25 or 2.5 mg/day of tibolone or oral continuous combined conjugated equine estrogen plus...... medroxyprogesterone acetate (CEE/MPA). Cardiovascular risk factors were determined at baseline and after 12 months of treatment. RESULTS: Body mass index and blood pressure were unaffected by the HT. HOMA-IR decreased in the CEE/MPA group (3.69 vs. 3.38; p = 0.02). Treatment with tibolone increased tissue......OBJECTIVES: Hormone treatment (HT) after the menopause affects lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and inflammation and may modify risk factors relevant for the clinical expression of the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Tibolone has pharmacodynamic properties different from other...

  7. Respiratory and cardiovascular effects of metals in ambient particulate matter: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Deborah L; Wallace, Lance A; Brinkman, Marielle C; Buehler, Stephanie S; La Londe, Chris

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we critically evaluated the epidemiological and toxicological evidence for the role of specific transition metals (As. Cr. Cu. Fe. Mn. Ni. Sc. Ti. V and Zn) in causing or contributing to the respiratory and cardiovascular health effects associated with ambient PM. Although the epidemiologic studies arc suggestive. and both the in vivo and in vitro laboratory studies document the toxicity of specific metals (Fe. Ni. V and Zn). the overall weight of evidence does not convincingly implicate metals as major contributors to health effects. None of the epidemiology studies that we reviewed conclusively implicated specific transition metals as having caused the respiratory and cardiovascular effects associated with ambient levels of PM. However, the studies reviewed tended to be internal ly consistent in identifying some metals (Fe, Ni, V and Zn) more frequently than others (As, Cu, Mn and Sc) as having positive associations wi th health effects. The major problem wi th which the epidemiological studies were faced was classifying and quantifying exposure. Community and population exposures to metals or other components of ambient PM were inferred from centrally- located samplers that may not accurately represent individual level exposures. Only a few authors reported findings that did not support the stated premise of the study; indeed, statistic ally significant associations are not necessarily biologically significant. It is likely that ·'negative studies" are under-represented in the published literature, making it a challenge to achieve a balanced evaluation of the role of metals in causing health effects associated with ambient PM. Both the in vivo and in vitro study results demonstrated that individual metals (Cu. Fe. Ni. V and Zn) and extracts of metals from ambient PM sources can produce acute inflammatory responses. However. the doses administered to laboratory animals were many orders of magnitude greater than what humans experience from

  8. Does respiratory health contribute to the effects of long-term air pollution exposure on cardiovascular mortality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Joachim

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing epidemiological evidence that short-term and long-term exposure to high levels of air pollution may increase cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In addition, epidemiological studies have shown an association between air pollution exposure and respiratory health. To what extent the association between cardiovascular mortality and air pollution is driven by the impact of air pollution on respiratory health is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether respiratory health at baseline contributes to the effects of long-term exposure to high levels of air pollution on cardiovascular mortality in a cohort of elderly women. Method We analyzed data from 4750 women, aged 55 at the baseline investigation in the years 1985–1994. 2593 of these women had their lung function tested by spirometry. Respiratory diseases and symptoms were asked by questionnaire. Ambient air pollution exposure was assessed by the concentrations of NO2 and total suspended particles at fixed monitoring sites and by the distance of residency to a major road. A mortality follow-up of these women was conducted between 2001 and 2003. For the statistical analysis, Cox' regression was used. Results Women with impaired lung function or pre-existing respiratory diseases had a higher risk of dying from cardiovascular causes. The impact of impaired lung function declined over time. The risk ratio (RR of women with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 of less than 80% predicted to die from cardiovascular causes was RR = 3.79 (95%CI: 1.64–8.74 at 5 years survival time and RR = 1.35 (95%CI: 0.66–2.77 at 12 years. The association between air pollution levels and cardiovascular death rate was strong and statistically significant. However, this association did only change marginally when including indicators of respiratory health into the regression analysis. Furthermore, no interaction between air pollution and respiratory health

  9. Acute and chronic cardiovascular effects of hyperkalemia: new insights into prevention and clinical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Peter A; Beaver, Thomas M; Bennett-Guerrero, Elliott; Emmett, Michael; Fonarow, Gregg C; Goyal, Abhinav; Herzog, Charles A; Kosiborod, Mikhail; Palmer, Biff F

    2014-01-01

    The plasma pool of potassium is a partial reflection of the overall body, transient cellular shifts, and potassium elimination regulated by the kidneys. Potassium concentrations elevating above the upper limit of normal (> 5.0 mEq/L) have become more common in cardiovascular practice due to the growing population of patients with chronic kidney disease and the broad applications of drugs that modulate potassium excretion by either reducing production of angiotensin II (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, direct renin inhibitors, beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists), blocking angiotensin II receptors (angiotensin receptor blockers), or antagonizing the action of aldosterone on mineralocorticoid receptors (mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists). In addition, acute kidney injury, critical illness, crush injuries, and massive red blood cell transfusions can result in hyperkalemia. Progressively more severe elevations in potassium are responsible for abnormalities in cardiac depolarization and repolarization and contractility. Untreated severe hyperkalemia results in sudden cardiac death. Traditional management steps have included reducing dietary potassium and discontinuing potassium supplements; withdrawal of exacerbating drugs; acute treatment with intravenous calcium gluconate, insulin, and glucose; nebulized albuterol; correction of acidosis with sodium bicarbonate for short-term shifts out of the plasma pool; and, finally, gastrointestinal ion exchange with oral sodium polystyrene sulfonate in sorbitol, which is mainly used in the hospital and is poorly tolerated due to gastrointestinal adverse effects. This review explores hyperkalemia as a complication in cardiovascular patients and highlights new acute, chronic, and preventative oral therapies (patiromer calcium, cross-linked polyelectrolyte, ZS-9) that could potentially create a greater margin of safety for vulnerable patients with combined heart and kidney disease.

  10. THE CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS OF MIDAZOLAM CO-INDUCTION TO PROPOFOL FOR INDUCTION IN GERIATRIC PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available : BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to investigate whether a small dose of midazolam and lessening the propofol dosage could prevent the cardiovascular change at tracheal intubation for induction in geriatric patients. METHODS: ninety patients over 65 (ASA physical status 1, 2 scheduled for elective surgery received general anaesthesia with fentanyl and propofol or midazolam. Patients in group P (n= 45 were induced with 0.9% NaCl 0.03 ml /kg, propofol 1.2 mg/kg and fentanyl. Patients in group MP (n= 45 were induced with midazolam 0.03 mg/ kg, propofol 0.8 mg/kg and fentanyl. The time taken to reach loss of consciousness (LOC. After LOC 0.5 mg/kg of atracurium was given and tracheal intubation was performed. The mean blood pressure (MBP and heart rate (HR were recorded were induction as the base value, before intubation, immediately post intubation and 3 minutes after intubation. RESULT: compared with the base values, MBP at before intubation and # minutes after intubation was significantly decreased in group P and group MP (P <0.05. compared with group P, the decrease of MBP was significantly less at before intubation, immediately after intubation and 3 minutes after intubation in group MP (P<0.05. The time taken to reach LOC was significantly decreased in group MP compared with that in group P (P<0.05. There was no significant difference of HR at any time between the two groups. CONCLUSION: co-induction with midazolam and propofol could prevent a marked BP decrease at tracheal intubation for induction in geriatric patients.

  11. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Screening for and Managing Identified Hypertension for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Thi-Phuong-Lan; Wright, E Pamela; Nguyen, Thanh-Trung; Schuiling-Veninga, C C M; Bijlsma, M J; Nguyen, Thi-Bach-Yen; Postma, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To inform development of guidelines for hypertension management in Vietnam, we evaluated the cost-effectiveness of different strategies on screening for hypertension in preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS: A decision tree was combined with a Markov model to measure incrementa

  12. Effects of oxidative stress on fatty acid- and one-carbon-metabolism in psychiatric and cardiovascular disease comorbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assies, J.; Mocking, R.J.; Lok, A.; Ruhe, H.G.; Pouwer, F.; Schene, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in severe psychiatric disorders (depression, schizophrenia). Here, we provide evidence of how the effects of oxidative stress on fatty acid (FA) and one-carbon (1-C) cycle metabolism, which may initially represent adaptive respons

  13. Effects of supplementing holstein heifers with dietary melatonin during late gestation on growth and cardiovascular measurements of their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was to examine the effects of supplementing dams with dietary melatonin during late gestation on offspring growth and cardiovascular measurements. On day 190 of gestation, heifers (n = 20) were blocked by body weight and randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments consisting of ...

  14. Effects of oxidative stress on fatty acid- and one-carbon-metabolism in psychiatric and cardiovascular disease comorbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assies, J.; Mocking, R. J. T.; Lok, A.; Ruhe, H. G.; Pouwer, F.; Schene, A. H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in severe psychiatric disorders (depression, schizophrenia). Here, we provide evidence of how the effects of oxidative stress on fatty acid (FA) and one-carbon (1-C) cycle metabolism, which may initially represent adaptive respons

  15. Cost-Effectiveness of the Diabetes Care Protocol, a Multifaceted Computerized Decision Support Diabetes Management Intervention That Reduces Cardiovascular Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleveringa, Frits G. W.; Welsing, Paco M. J.; van den Donk, Maureen; Gorter, Kees J.; Niessen, Louis W.; Rutten, Guy E. H. M.; Redekop, William K.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - The Diabetes Care Protocol (DCP), a multifaceted Computerized decision support diabetes management intervention, reduces cardiovascular risk Of type 2 diabetic patients. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis of DCP from a Dutch health care perspective. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS -

  16. Cost-effectiveness of the diabetes care protocol, a multifaceted computerized decision support diabetes management intervention that reduces cardiovascular risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.G.W. Cleveringa (Frits G.); P.M.J. Welsing (Paco); M. van den Donk (Maureen); K.J. Gorter; L.W. Niessen (Louis Wilhelmus); G.E.H.M. Rutten (Guy); W.K. Redekop (Ken)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE- The Diabetes Care Protocol (DCP), a multifaceted computerized decision support diabetes management intervention, reduces cardiovascular risk of type 2 diabetic patients. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis of DCP from a Dutch health care perspective. RESEARCH DESIGN AND

  17. Effects of distance between residence and hemodialysis unit on cardiovascular complications and treatments of maintenance hemodialysis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁静

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of etiological classification and the distance between residence and hemodialysis unit on cardiovascular complications and treatments in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients.Methods A total of 756 MHD patients were collected from 12 hemodialysis centers of Guiyang,China between January

  18. Effects of chocolate supplementation on metabolic and cardiovascular parameters in ApoE3L mice fed a high-cholesterol atherogenic diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakala, Gopala K.; Wielinga, Peter Y.; Suarez, Manuel; Bunschoten, Annelies; van Golde, Jolanda M.; Arola, Lluis; Keijer, Jaap; Kleemann, Robert; Kooistra, Teake; Heeringa, Peter

    2013-01-01

    ScopeDietary intake of cocoa and/or chocolate has been suggested to exhibit protective cardiovascular effects although this is still controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chocolate supplementation on metabolic and cardiovascular parameters. Methods and resultsFour gr

  19. Effects of chocolate supplementation on metabolic and cardiovascular parameters in ApoE3L mice fed a high-cholesterol atherogenic diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakala, G.K.; Wielinga, P.Y.; Suarez, M.; Bunschoten, A.; Golde, J.M. van; Arola, L.; Keijer, J.; Kleemann, R.; Kooistra, T.; Heeringa, P.

    2013-01-01

    Scope: Dietary intake of cocoa and/or chocolate has been suggested to exhibit protective cardiovascular effects although this is still controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chocolate supplementation on metabolic and cardiovascular parameters. Methods and results: Fou

  20. Effects of chocolate supplementation on metabolic and cardiovascular parameters in ApoE3L mice fed a high-cholesterol atherogenic diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakala, G.K.; Wielinga, P.Y.; Suarez, M.; Bunschoten, A.; Golde, J.M.; Arola, L.; Keijer, J.; Kleemann, R.; Kooistra, T.; Heeringa, P.

    2013-01-01

    SCOPE: Dietary intake of cocoa and/or chocolate has been suggested to exhibit protective cardiovascular effects although this is still controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chocolate supplementation on metabolic and cardiovascular parameters. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fou

  1. Effect of a group-based rehabilitation programme on glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes patients: The Copenhagen Type 2 Diabetes Rehabilitation Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadstrup, Eva Soelberg; Frølich, Anne; Perrild, Hans Jørgen Duckert;

    2011-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of a group-based rehabilitation programme with an individual counselling programme at improving glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk factors among patients with type 2 diabetes.......To compare the effectiveness of a group-based rehabilitation programme with an individual counselling programme at improving glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk factors among patients with type 2 diabetes....

  2. Magnetically induced QCD Kondo effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Sho; Itakura, Kazunori; Kuramoto, Yoshio

    2016-10-01

    The "QCD Kondo effect" stems from the color exchange interaction in QCD with non-Abelian property, and can be realized in a high-density quark matter containing heavy-quark impurities. We propose a novel type of the QCD Kondo effect induced by a strong magnetic field. In addition to the fact that the magnetic field does not affect the color degrees of freedom, two properties caused by the Landau quantization in a strong magnetic field are essential for the "magnetically induced QCD Kondo effect"; (1) dimensional reduction to 1 +1 -dimensions, and (2) finiteness of the density of states for lowest energy quarks. We demonstrate that, in a strong magnetic field B , the scattering amplitude of a massless quark off a heavy quark impurity indeed shows a characteristic behavior of the Kondo effect. The resulting Kondo scale is estimated as ΛK≃√{eqB }αs1 /3exp {-4 π /Ncαslog (4 π /αs)} where αs and Nc are the fine structure constant of strong interaction and the number of colors in QCD, and eq is the electric charge of light quarks.

  3. Magnetically Induced QCD Kondo Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Ozaki, Sho; Kuramoto, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    The "QCD Kondo effect" stems from the color exchange interaction in QCD with non-Abelian property, and can be realized in a high-density quark matter containing heavy-quark impurities. We propose a novel type of the QCD Kondo effect induced by a strong magnetic field, which is possible even without a Fermi surface (when the quark is massless). In addition to the fact that the magnetic field does not affect the color degrees of freedom, two properties caused by the Landau quantization in a strong magnetic field are essential for the "magnetically induced QCD Kondo effect"; (1) dimensional reduction to 1+1-dimensions, and (2) finiteness of the density of states for lowest energy quarks. We demonstrate that, in a strong magnetic field $B$, the scattering amplitude of a massless quark off a heavy quark impurity indeed shows a characteristic behavior of the Kondo effect. The resulting Kondo scale is estimated as $\\Lambda_{\\rm K} \\simeq \\sqrt{e_qB}\\ {\\rm{exp}}\\{-2(2\\pi)^{2}/N_{c} g^{2} \\}$ where $g$ and $N_c$ are t...

  4. Effect of fluid countermeasures of varying osmolarity on cardiovascular responses to orthostatic stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, John E.

    1989-01-01

    Current operational procedures for shuttle crewmembers include the ingestion of a fluid countermeasure approximately 2 hours before reentry into the earth's gravitational field. The ingestion of the fluid countermeasure is thought to restore plasma volume and improve orthostatic responses upon reentry. The present countermeasure consists of ingesting salt tablets and water to achieve an isotonic solution. It has yet to be determined whether this is the optimal drink to restore orthostatic tolerance. It is also not known whether the drink solution is effective in increasing plasma volume. The purpose here is to evaluate the effectiveness of drink solutions of different osmolarity on restoring plasma volume and orthostatic responses. A hypertonic drink solution was more effective in restoring plasma volume after dehydration than an isotonic solution. However, there were no differences in their effects on an orthostatic challenge. These data suggest that the plasma volume differences produced in this study were not sufficient to produce differences in the cardiovascular responses to an orthostatic challenge, or there are other changes that occur during space flight that are more important in determining orthostatic intolerance.

  5. Cardiovascular physiology and sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, Narayana S; Svatikova, Anna; Somers, Virend K

    2003-05-01

    Sleep is a natural periodic suspension of consciousness during which processes of rest and restoration occur. The cognitive, reparative and regenerative accompaniments of sleep appear to be essential for maintenance of health and homeostasis. This brief overview will examine the cardiovascular responses to normal and disordered sleep, and their physiologic and pathologic implications. In the past, sleep was believed to be a passive state. The tableau of sleep as it unfolds is anything but a passive process. The brain's activity is as complex as wakefulness, never "resting" during sleep. Following the demise of the 'passive theory of sleep' (the reticular activating system is fatigued during the waking day and hence becomes inactive), there arose the 'active theory of sleep' (sleep is due to an active general inhibition of the brain) (1). Hess demonstrated the active nature of sleep in cats, inducing "physiological sleep" with electrical stimulation of the diencephalon (2). Classical experiments of transection of the cat brainstem (3) at midpontine level inhibited sleep completely, implying that centers below this level were involved in the induction of sleep (1, 4). For the first time, measurement of sleep depth without awakening the sleeper using the electroencephalogram (EEG) was demonstrated in animals by Caton and in humans, by Berger (1). This was soon followed by discovery of the rapid eye movement sleep periods (REM) by Aserinski and Kleitman (5), demonstration of periodical sleep cycles and their association with REM sleep (6, 7). Multiple studies and steady discoveries (4) made polysomnography, with its ability to perform simultaneous whole night recordings of EEG, electromyogram (EMG), and electrooculogram (EOC), a major diagnostic tool in study of sleep disorders. This facility has been of further critical importance in allowing evaluation of the interaction between sleep and changes in hemodynamics and autonomic cardiovascular control. Consequently the

  6. Drug-Induced Changes in Risk/Biomarkers and Their Relationship with Renal and Cardiovascular Long-Term Outcome in Patients with Diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miao, Yan; Smink, Paul A.; de Zeeuw, Dick; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Optimal renal and cardiovascular risk management in diabetic patients includes optimal maintenance of blood pressure and control of glucose and lipids. Although the optimal control of these risk factors or "risk/biomarkers" has proven to be effective, it often is difficult to achieve. Co

  7. The Age-Specific Quantitative Effects of Metabolic Risk Factors on Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes: A Pooled Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gitanjali M Singh; Goodarz Danaei; Farshad Farzadfar; Stevens, Gretchen A; Mark Woodward; David Wormser; Stephen Kaptoge; Gary Whitlock; Qing Qiao; Sarah Lewington; Emanuele Di Angelantonio; Stephen Vander Hoorn; Lawes, Carlene M. M.; Ali, Mohammed K; Dariush Mozaffarian

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effects of systolic blood pressure (SBP), serum total cholesterol (TC), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and body mass index (BMI) on the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have been established in epidemiological studies, but consistent estimates of effect sizes by age and sex are not available. METHODS: We reviewed large cohort pooling projects, evaluating effects of baseline or usual exposure to metabolic risks on ischemic heart disease (IHD), hypertensive heart disease (HH...

  8. [Cardiovascular disease in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilfiker-Kleiner, Denise; Bauersachs, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are among the most frequent complications in pregnancies. Among them preexisting heart diseases including congenital heart disease, genetic cardiomyopathies, myocardial infarction and chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathies display a special challenge for the mother and her physicians. Moreover, the incidence of cardiovascular disease induced by or associated with pregnancy, i.e. hypertensive disorders and peripartum cardiomyopathies, has increased over the past decades. In the present overview we explain why pregnancy is a stress model for the maternal heart and summarize the current knowledge on the influence of pregnancy on preexisting cardiomyopathies. We highlight recent advances in research with regard to hypertensive complications in pregnancy and peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM). Moreover, we summarize etiologies, risk factors, pathomechanisms, diagnosis, treatment, management and prognosis. Finally, interdisciplinarity between different clinical fields and basic science is a key requirement to avoid longterm damage to the cardiovascular system induced by pregnancy associated impacts and with this improve women's health in general. PMID:26800071

  9. Effects of Metformin Versus Glipizide on Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Coronary Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jie; Zhang, Yifei; Lai, Shenghan; Lv, Ankang; Su, Qing; Dong, Yan; Zhou, Zhiguang; Tang, Weili; Zhao, Jiajun; Cui, Lianqun; Zou, Dajin; Wang, Dawang; Li, Hong; Liu, Chao; Wu, Guoting; Shen, Jie; Zhu, Dalong; Wang, Weiqing; Shen, Weifeng; Ning, Guang

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The two major classes of antidiabetic drugs, sulfonylureas and metformin, may differentially affect macrovascular complications and mortality in diabetic patients. We compared the long-term effects of glipizide and metformin on the major cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetic patients who had a history of coronary artery disease (CAD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This study is a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. A total of 304 type 2 diabetic patients with CAD, mean age = 63.3 years (range, 36–80 years), were enrolled. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either glipizide (30 mg daily) or metformin (1.5 g daily) for 3 years. The primary end points were times to the composite of recurrent cardiovascular events, including death from a cardiovascular cause, death from any cause, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or arterial revascularization. RESULTS At the end of study drug administration, both groups achieved a significant decrease in the level of glycated hemoglobin (7.1% in the glipizide group and 7.0% in the metformin group). At a median follow-up of 5.0 years, 91 participants had developed 103 primary end points. Intention-to-treat analysis showed an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 0.54 (95% CI 0.30–0.90; P = 0.026) for the composites of cardiovascular events among the patients that received metformin, compared with glipizide. The secondary end points and adverse events were not significantly different between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS Treatment with metformin for 3 years substantially reduced major cardiovascular events in a median follow-up of 5.0 years compared with glipizide. Our results indicated a potential benefit of metformin therapy on cardiovascular outcomes in high-risk patients. PMID:23230096

  10. Cardiovascular, Antinociceptive and Sedative Effects of Medetomidine Infusion in Sevoflurane Anesthesia in Puppies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Morgaz*, JM Domínguez, R Navarrete, JA Fernández-Sarmiento, P Muñoz-Rascón, RJ Gómez-Villamandos and MM Granados

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a constant rate infusion of medetomidine in the cortical brain activity and hemodynamic parameters in sevoflurane anesthetized puppies. Six puppies of the age of two weeks old were included in the study and were anaesthetized three times with sevoflurane. On the first anesthesia, each dog’s minimum alveolar concentration (MAC for sevoflurane was determined by the use of the tail clamp method. On the second anesthesia (sevoflurane, the puppies were anesthetized at each of five multiples of their individual’s MAC, 0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.5 and 1.75 MAC, and bispectral index and cardiorespiratory parameters were registered. On the third anesthesia (sevoflurane+ medetomidine, puppies were anesthetized at each of five multiples of their individual’s MAC, and medetomidine (5 µg/kg+2µg/kg/h was administered. Mild cardiovascular depression was observed in sevoflurane+medetomidine in comparison with sevoflurane. Cortical and antinociceptive effects were not observed with medetomidine infusion although a mature EEG response to noxious stimulation would not have developed in puppies. Central alpha-2 adrenoreceptors would be immature in puppies during the first two weeks of life, and for this reason, medetomidine would not produce sedative and analgesic effects in young puppies. More studies have to be performed to support this statement.

  11. Acute effects of walking on inflammatory and cardiovascular risk in sedentary post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jillian; Murphy, Marie; Trinick, Tom; Duly, Ellie; Nevill, Alan; Davison, Gareth

    2008-02-01

    Biochemical markers of inflammation are emerging as new predictors of risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and may alter acutely with exercise. Few studies have been conducted on the effects of walking on these markers or whether different walking intensities elicit varied effects. As there is growing interest in modifiable lifestyle factors such as walking to reduce CVD risk, these inflammatory responses warrant investigation. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of walking at 50% versus 70% of predicted maximal heart rate on C-reactive protein (CRP), plasma fibrinogen, and triglycerides in sedentary post-menopausal women. Twelve post-menopausal women (mean age 58 years, s +/-6; stature 1.62 m, s+/-0.06; body mass 66.8 kg, s +/-6.2) completed two 30-min treadmill walks in a randomized cross-over design. Fasted blood samples were taken (for the determination of plasma fibrinogen, CRP, and lipids) before, immediately after, and 1 and 24 h after exercise. Triglyceride concentrations decreased from pre-exercise to 24 h post exercise at both walking intensities (time x group interaction, P 0.05). The results of this study suggest that fasting plasma triglycerides are decreased on the morning after 30 min of brisk walking at either 50% or 70% of maximal heart rate (moderate and vigorous intensity).

  12. Cardiovascular effects of histamine administered intracerebroventricularly in critical haemorrhagic hypotension in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochem, J

    2000-06-01

    The study was designed to determine the cardiovascular effects of histamine administered intracerebroventricularly (icv) in a rat model of volume-controlled haemorrhagic shock. The withdrawal of approximately 50% of total blood volume resulted in the death of all control saline icv treated animals within 30 min. Icv injection of histamine produced a prompt dose-dependent (0.1-100 nmol) and long-lasting (10-100 nmol) increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP), pulse pressure (PP) and heart rate (HR), with a 100% survival of 2h after treatment (100 nmol). The increase in MAP and HR after histamine administration in bled rats in comparison to the normovolaemic animals was 2.7-3.3- and 1.3-3.6-fold higher, respectively. Pretreatment with chlorpheniramine (50 nmol icv), H1 receptor antagonist, inhibited the increase in MAP, PP, HR and survival rate produced by histamine, while chlorpheniramine given alone had no effect. Neither ranitidine (50 nmol icv), H2 histamine receptor antagonist, nor thioperamide (50 nmol icv), H3 receptor blocker, influenced the histamine action, however, when given alone, both evoked the pressor effect with elongation of survival time. It can be concluded that histamine administered icv reverses the haemorrhagic shock conditions, and histamine H1 receptors are involved.

  13. [Effect of a new bronchodilator, S-1540 (Bitolterol) and S-1541 on the tracheo-bronchial and cardiovascular system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, N; Kushiku, K; Morishita, H; Nakagami, K; Nakahara, T

    1975-10-01

    The actions on the bronchial smooth muscle and cardiovascular system S-1540 (Bitolterol) (Shionogi Pharmaceuticals), a new bronchodilator which is chemically related to isoprenaline, and S-1541 which is the active metabolite of S-1540 were studied in comparison with the action of isoprenaline (isoproterenol) and orciprenaline (metaproterenol). 1) The relaxing effect on isolated guinea-pig tracheal muscle constricted previously with histamine BaCl2 or acetylcholine was highest with S-1541, followed by isoprenaline and orciprenaline, in that order, and lowest with S-1540. The relaxing effect of S-1541 on acetylcholine-induced tracheal constriction was reduced and that of S-1540 was completely abolished by a previous treatment with propranolol. The relaxing actions of those drugs on bronchial spasms induced by histamine in vivo were highest with S-1541, followed by isoprenaline, and lowest with S-1540. 2) All these drugs exhibited the depressor and positive chronotropic actions in guinea-pigs. The potencies of the actions were found to be in the following order; isoprenaline was most potent, followed by S-1541 with a little less intensity, orciprenaline much weaker, and S-1540 still weaker with a positive chronotropic action of about 1/1000 of S-1541 and depressor action about 1/500. In the open chest guinea-pig, positive inotropic and chronotropic actions of S-1541 were about the same or slightly more potent than those of isoprenaline; S-1540 had a very weak action, being only about 1/1000 as active as S-1541. These actions of S-1540 were completely eliminated by propranolol pretreatment. S-1540 induced to remarkable changes in the electrocardiogram wave forms even in high doses. 3) Those drugs elicited the depressor, positive chronotropic and inotropic actions in rabbits and dogs. In rabbits, isoprenaline was most potent; S-1541 was similar to or a little weaker than isoprenaline; and S-1540 was extremely weak. In the dog, isoprenaline showed the highest of the

  14. Sex steroids and cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bu Beng Yeap

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As men grow older, testosterone (T levels decline and the significance of this change is debated. The evidence supporting a causal role for lower circulating T, or its metabolites dihydrotestosterone (DHT and estradiol, in the genesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD in men is limited. Observational studies associate low baseline T levels with carotid atherosclerosis, aortic and peripheral vascular disease, and with the incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality. Studies using mass spectrometry suggest that when total T is assayed optimally, calculation of free T might not necessarily improve risk stratification. There is limited evidence to support an association of estradiol with CVD. Interventional studies of T therapy in men with coronary artery disease have shown beneficial effects on exercise-induced myocardial ischemia. However, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials (RCTs of T therapy in men with the prespecified outcomes of cardiovascular events or deaths are lacking. Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials of T published up to 2010 found no increase in cardiovascular events, mortality, or prostate cancer with therapy. Recently, in a trial of older men with mobility limitations, men randomized to receive a substantial dose of T reported cardiovascular adverse effects. This phenomenon was not reported from a comparable trial where men received a more conservative dose of T, suggesting a prudent approach should be adopted when considering therapy in frail older men with existing CVD. Adequately powered RCTs of T in middle-aged and older men are needed to clarify whether or not hormonal intervention would reduce the incidence of CVD.

  15. Are the beneficial cardiovascular effects of simvastatin and metformin also associated with a hormone-dependent mechanism improving insulin sensitivity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bulcão

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In addition to lipid-lowering and cardiovascular protective actions, statins may have beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of simvastatin therapy on insulin resistance and on leptin, adiponectin, and C-reactive protein (CRP levels, as compared to metformin, in overweight pre-diabetic subjects. Forty-one subjects with BMI >25 kg/m² and impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance were randomized to take simvastatin, 20 mg/day (N = 20 or metformin, 1.7 g/day (N = 21 for 16 weeks. Blood samples for the determination of metabolic, hormonal, and inflammatory parameters were obtained at baseline and after each treatment. After metformin therapy, significant reductions in mean BMI and waist circumference were observed, and after simvastatin treatment LDL and triglyceride levels were significantly reduced. Insulin resistance determined by the homeostasis model assessment decreased only with metformin. Independently of the type of medication, a significant decrease in CRP levels was detected from baseline to the end of the study. CRP showed a mean reduction of 0.12 ± 0.04 mg/dL (P = 0.002 over time. No change in leptin or adiponectin levels was induced by any therapy. The data suggest that a low dose of simvastatin does not affect insulin resistance in overweight pre-diabetic subjects and has no effect on leptin or adiponectin levels. Further studies including a larger sample size, higher doses of statins, and a placebo control group are necessary to confirm the present data.

  16. Cubozoan venom-induced cardiovascular collapse is caused by hyperkalemia and prevented by zinc gluconate in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel A Yanagihara

    Full Text Available Chironex fleckeri (Australian box jellyfish stings can cause acute cardiovascular collapse and death. We developed methods to recover venom with high specific activity, and evaluated the effects of both total venom and constituent porins at doses equivalent to lethal envenomation. Marked potassium release occurred within 5 min and hemolysis within 20 min in human red blood cells (RBC exposed to venom or purified venom porin. Electron microscopy revealed abundant ~12-nm transmembrane pores in RBC exposed to purified venom porins. C57BL/6 mice injected with venom showed rapid decline in ejection fraction with progression to electromechanical dissociation and electrocardiographic findings consistent with acute hyperkalemia. Recognizing that porin assembly can be inhibited by zinc, we found that zinc gluconate inhibited potassium efflux from RBC exposed to total venom or purified porin, and prolonged survival time in mice following venom injection. These findings suggest that hyperkalemia is the critical event following Chironex fleckeri envenomation and that rapid administration of zinc could be life saving in human sting victims.

  17. Cubozoan venom-induced cardiovascular collapse is caused by hyperkalemia and prevented by zinc gluconate in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagihara, Angel A; Shohet, Ralph V

    2012-01-01

    Chironex fleckeri (Australian box jellyfish) stings can cause acute cardiovascular collapse and death. We developed methods to recover venom with high specific activity, and evaluated the effects of both total venom and constituent porins at doses equivalent to lethal envenomation. Marked potassium release occurred within 5 min and hemolysis within 20 min in human red blood cells (RBC) exposed to venom or purified venom porin. Electron microscopy revealed abundant ~12-nm transmembrane pores in RBC exposed to purified venom porins. C57BL/6 mice injected with venom showed rapid decline in ejection fraction with progression to electromechanical dissociation and electrocardiographic findings consistent with acute hyperkalemia. Recognizing that porin assembly can be inhibited by zinc, we found that zinc gluconate inhibited potassium efflux from RBC exposed to total venom or purified porin, and prolonged survival time in mice following venom injection. These findings suggest that hyperkalemia is the critical event following Chironex fleckeri envenomation and that rapid administration of zinc could be life saving in human sting victims. PMID:23251508

  18. Resveratrol and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Bonnefont-Rousselot

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs has stimulated research for substances that could improve cardiovascular health. Among them, resveratrol (RES, a polyphenolic compound notably present in grapes and red wine, has been involved in the “French paradox”. RES is known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and for its ability to upregulate endothelial NO synthase (eNOS. RES was able to scavenge •OH/O2•− and peroxyl radicals, which can limit the lipid peroxidation processes. Moreover, in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC under glucose-induced oxidative stress, RES restored the activity of dimethylargininedimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH, an enzyme that degrades an endogenous inhibitor of eNOS named asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA. Thus, RES could improve •NO availability and decrease the endothelial dysfunction observed in diabetes. Preclinical studies have made it possible to identify molecular targets (SIRT-1, AMPK, Nrf2, NFκB…; however, there are limited human clinical trials, and difficulties in the interpretation of results arise from the use of high-dose RES supplements in research studies, whereas low RES concentrations are present in red wine. The discussions on potential beneficial effects of RES in CVDs (atherosclerosis, hypertension, stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure should compare the results of preclinical studies with those of clinical trials.

  19. Effect of atorvastatin combine with aspirin on flammatory factors, endothelial function and the cardiovascular complications with diabetic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Wang; Ping Gong

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of atorvastatin combine with aspirin on flammatory factors, endothelial function and the cardiovascular complications with diabetic patients.Methods:A total of 85 type 2 diabetic patients were randomly divided into observation group (43 cases) and control group (42 cases). All patients recieved routine treatment of hypoglycemic drug, while patients in observation group also received atorvastatin and aspirin. Levels of blood lipid, flammatory factors (hs-CRP, TNF-α, IL-6) endothelial function(ET-1,NO), and incidence of cardiovascular complications were tested and compared.Results:Blood lipid have statistical significance after treatment between two groups, TC, TG, LDL-C were significantly lower in observation group, HDL-C was significantly higher in observation group (P <0.05). Observation group flammatory factors (hs-CRP, TNF-α, IL-6) levels decreased significantly after treatment (P<0.05); Observation group ET-1 level decreased significantly, NO level increased significantly after treatment (P<0.05); Incidence of cardiovascular complications was lower than control group in observation group.Conclusions:Atorvastatin combine with aspirin treatment has reliable curative effect in diabetic patients, which can regulate flammatory factors, endothelial function and incidence of cardiovascular complications.

  20. Joint Effect of Early Microvascular Damage in the Eye & Kidney on Risk of Cardiovascular Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Wanfen; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Ong, Peng Guan; Patel, Uptal D; Chow, Khuan Yew; Tai, E Shyong; Ling, Lieng H; Wong, Tien Yin; Cheung, Carol Yim-lui

    2016-01-01

    Microalbuminuria is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but not all individuals require treatment. Retinal microvascular abnormalities and microalbuminuria reflect early systemic microvascular changes. We examined the joint effect of retinal abnormalities and microalbuminuria on CVD risk in an Asian cohort. We conducted a prospective, population-based study. Retinal abnormalities were defined as presence of retinopathy and/or retinal venular widening. Microalbuminuria was defined as urinary albumin: creatinine ratio between 30–300 mg/g. Incident CVD was defined as newly diagnosed clinical stroke, acute myocardial infarction or CVD death. Cox regression models were performed to determine the associations between retinal abnormalities and microalbuminuria with risk of CVD, while controlling for established risk factors. 3,496 participants (aged ≥ 40) were free of prevalent CVD. During the follow-up (5.8 years), 126 (3.60%) participants developed CVD. Persons presenting with both retinal abnormalities and microalbuminuria were 6.71 times (95% CI, 2.68, 16.79) as likely to have incident CVD compared with those without either abnormalities. There was a significant interaction effect between retinal abnormalities and microalbuminuria on incident CVD. Assessment of retinal abnormalities in patients with microalbuminuria may provide additional value in identifying persons at risk of developing CVD. PMID:27273133

  1. Investigation of Toxic Effects of Mushroom Poisoning on the Cardiovascular System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erenler, Ali Kemal; Doğan, Tolga; Koçak, Cem; Ece, Yasemin

    2016-09-01

    Mushroom poisoning (MP) is a public health problem in many countries. It is well known that consumption of wild mushrooms may cause serious toxicity on renal, hepatic and brain functions. In the literature, however, studies investigating cardiotoxic effects of MP are rare. In this study, we evaluated laboratory and ECG findings of patients and sought for possible toxic effects of MP on the cardiovascular system. During a 2-year period, 175 patients with MP were included in the study. The majority of the poisonings occurred in early summertime. The most common complaint was found to be nausea and vomiting followed by mental status alterations. Methods of treatment were mainly based on gastric lavage, activated charcoal and supportive therapy. The most common ECG abnormalities in the patients with MP were sinus tachycardia, sinus arrhythmia, ST/T inversion, 1st degree AV block and QT prolongation, respectively. Cardiac markers of the patients were found to be normal. Then, patients were divided into two subgroups according to symptom onset after consumption (less than 6 hr and more than 6 hr). When the two groups were compared, prevalence of tachycardia was significantly higher in Group II. Additionally, the interval between mushroom consumption and onset of symptoms was strongly correlated with blood pressure (BP). As this interval prolonged, BP of the patients tended to increase. In conclusion, according to our results, although mechanisms need to be clarified, MP causes hypertension and ECG alterations, particularly tachycardia in patients with late-onset symptoms. PMID:26879235

  2. The health effects of US unemployment insurance policy: Does income from unemployment benefits prevent cardiovascular disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Walter (Stefan); M.M. Glymour (Maria); M. Avendano (Mauricio)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Previous studies suggest that unemployment predicts increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, but whether unemployment insurance programs mitigate this risk has not been assessed. Exploiting US state variations in unemployment insurance benefit programs, we tested the hypot

  3. Cardiovascular Diseases in HIV-infected Subjects (HIV-HEART Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    Detection of Frequency, Severity and Progression of Cardiovascular Diseases in Patients With HIV-infection.; Effect on Cardiovascular Risk and Life Quality by Age, Gender, Classic Cardiovascular Risk Factors,; HIV-specific Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Cardiovascular Medication, Antiretroviral Medication

  4. Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Effects of New and Emerging Antidiabetic Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Balfour, Pelbreton C.; Rodriguez, Carlos J.; Ferdinand, Keith C.

    2014-01-01

    Despite remarkable declines in US cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality over the last several decades, the prevalence of risk factors such as type 2 diabetes and hypertension remains high, associated with increasing obesity rates. Although optimal glycemic control remains a primary focus to decrease the disease burden, the FDA has issued guidance recommendations for documenting cardiovascular disease-related safety with research trials on new antidiabetic agents with more demanding r...

  5. Effect of Weight Reduction on Cardiovascular Risk Factors and CD34-positive Cells in Circulation

    OpenAIRE

    Nina A Mikirova, Joseph J Casciari, Ronald E Hunninghake, Margaret M Beezley

    2011-01-01

    Being overweight or obese is associated with an increased risk for the development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Dyslipidemia of obesity is characterized by elevated fasting triglycerides and decreased high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations. Endothelial damage and dysfunction is considered to be a major underlying mechanism for the elevated cardiovascular risk associated with increased adiposity. Alterations in endothelial c...

  6. Effect of Voluntary Ethanol Consumption Combined with Testosterone Treatment on Cardiovascular Function in Rats: Influence of Exercise Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engi, Sheila A; Planeta, Cleopatra S; Crestani, Carlos C

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of voluntary ethanol consumption combined with testosterone treatment on cardiovascular function in rats. Moreover, we investigated the influence of exercise training on these effects. To this end, male rats were submitted to low-intensity training on a treadmill or kept sedentary while concurrently being treated with ethanol for 6 weeks. For voluntary ethanol intake, rats were given access to two bottles, one containing ethanol and other containing water, three 24-hour sessions per week. In the last two weeks (weeks 5 and 6), animals underwent testosterone treatment concurrently with exercise training and exposure to ethanol. Ethanol consumption was not affected by either testosterone treatment or exercise training. Also, drug treatments did not influence the treadmill performance improvement evoked by training. However, testosterone alone, but not in combination with ethanol, reduced resting heart rate. Moreover, combined treatment with testosterone and ethanol reduced the pressor response to the selective α1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine. Treatment with either testosterone or ethanol alone also affected baroreflex activity and enhanced depressor response to acetylcholine, but these effects were inhibited when drugs were coadministrated. Exercise training restored most cardiovascular effects evoked by drug treatments. Furthermore, both drugs administrated alone increased pressor response to phenylephrine in trained animals. Also, drug treatments inhibited the beneficial effects of training on baroreflex function. In conclusion, the present results suggest a potential interaction between toxic effects of testosterone and ethanol on cardiovascular function. Data also indicate that exercise training is an important factor influencing the effects of these substances.

  7. The health effects of US unemployment insurance policy: does income from unemployment benefits prevent cardiovascular disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Walter

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Previous studies suggest that unemployment predicts increased cardiovascular disease (CVD risk, but whether unemployment insurance programs mitigate this risk has not been assessed. Exploiting US state variations in unemployment insurance benefit programs, we tested the hypothesis that more generous benefits reduce CVD risk. METHODS: Cohort data came from 16,108 participants in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS aged 50-65 at baseline interviewed from 1992 to 2010. Data on first and recurrent CVD diagnosis assessed through biennial interviews were linked to the generosity of unemployment benefit programmes in each state and year. Using state fixed-effect models, we assessed whether state changes in the generosity of unemployment benefits predicted CVD risk. RESULTS: States with higher unemployment benefits had lower incidence of CVD, so that a 1% increase in benefits was associated with 18% lower odds of CVD (OR:0.82, 95%-CI:0.71-0.94. This association remained after introducing US census regional division fixed effects, but disappeared after introducing state fixed effects (OR:1.02, 95%-CI:0.79-1.31.This was consistent with the fact that unemployment was not associated with CVD risk in state-fixed effect models. CONCLUSION: Although states with more generous unemployment benefits had lower CVD incidence, this appeared to be due to confounding by state-level characteristics. Possible explanations are the lack of short-term effects of unemployment on CVD risk. Future studies should assess whether benefits at earlier stages of the life-course influence long-term risk of CVD.

  8. Effects of the angiotensin-receptor blocker telmisartan on cardiovascular events in high-risk patients intolerant to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: a randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NN, NN; Yusuf, S; Teo, K;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors reduce major cardiovascular events, but are not tolerated by about 20% of patients. We therefore assessed whether the angiotensin-receptor blocker telmisartan would be effective in patients intolerant to ACE inhibitors with cardiovascular...

  9. Morphine and clonidine combination therapy improves therapeutic window in mice: synergy in antinociceptive but not in sedative or cardiovascular effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura S Stone

    Full Text Available Opioids are used to manage all types of pain including acute, cancer, chronic neuropathic and inflammatory pain. Unfortunately, opioid-related adverse effects such as respiratory depression, tolerance, physical dependence and addiction have led to an underutilization of these compounds for adequate pain relief. One strategy to improve the therapeutic utility of opioids is to co-administer them with other analgesic agents such as agonists acting at α2-adrenergic receptors (α2ARs. Analgesics acting at α2ARs and opioid receptors (ORs frequently synergize when co-administered in vivo. Multimodal analgesic techniques offer advantages over single drug treatments as synergistic combination therapies produce analgesia at lower doses, thus reducing undesired side effects. This inference presumes, however, that the synergistic interaction is limited to the analgesic effects. In order to test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of α2AR/OR combination therapy in acute antinociception and in the often-undesired side effects of sedation and cardiovascular depression in awake unrestrained mice. Morphine, clonidine or their combination was administered by spinal or systemic injection in awake mice. Antinociception was determined using the warm water tail flick assay (52.5°C. Sedation/motor impairment was evaluated using the accelerating rotarod assay and cardiovascular function was monitored by pulse oximetry. Data were converted to percent maximum possible effect and isobolographic analysis was performed to determine if an interaction was subadditive, additive or synergistic. Synergistic interactions between morphine and clonidine were observed in the antinociceptive but not in the sedative/motor or cardiovascular effects. As a result, the therapeutic window was improved ∼200-fold and antinociception was achieved at non-sedating doses with little to no cardiovascular depression. In addition, combination therapy resulted in greater maximum analgesic

  10. The role of self-efficacy in cardiovascular disease self-management: a review of effective programs

    OpenAIRE

    Hannah Katch; Holly Mead

    2010-01-01

    Hannah Katch, Holly MeadThe George Washington University, Department of Health Policy, Washington DC, USAResearch objective: To conduct a comprehensive, systematic review of disease self-management programs for patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD), looking specifically at those with self-efficacy as a key component to the effectiveness of such programs on CVD management and outcomes.Study design: We conducted a review of effective strategies promoting patient involvement and engagement ...

  11. Advances in Integrating Traditional and Omic Biomarkers When Analyzing the Effects of the Mediterranean Diet Intervention in Cardiovascular Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitó, Montserrat; Melander, Olle; Martínez, José Alfredo; Toledo, Estefanía; Carpéné, Christian; Corella, Dolores

    2016-01-01

    Intervention with Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) has provided a high level of evidence in primary prevention of cardiovascular events. Besides enhancing protection from classical risk factors, an improvement has also been described in a number of non-classical ones. Benefits have been reported on biomarkers of oxidation, inflammation, cellular adhesion, adipokine production, and pro-thrombotic state. Although the benefits of the MedDiet have been attributed to its richness in antioxidants, the mechanisms by which it exercises its beneficial effects are not well known. It is thought that the integration of omics including genomics, transcriptomics, epigenomics, and metabolomics, into studies analyzing nutrition and cardiovascular diseases will provide new clues regarding these mechanisms. However, omics integration is still in its infancy. Currently, some single-omics analyses have provided valuable data, mostly in the field of genomics. Thus, several gene-diet interactions in determining both intermediate (plasma lipids, etc.) and final cardiovascular phenotypes (stroke, myocardial infarction, etc.) have been reported. However, few studies have analyzed changes in gene expression and, moreover very few have focused on epigenomic or metabolomic biomarkers related to the MedDiet. Nevertheless, these preliminary results can help to better understand the inter-individual differences in cardiovascular risk and dietary response for further applications in personalized nutrition. PMID:27598147

  12. Advances in Integrating Traditional and Omic Biomarkers When Analyzing the Effects of the Mediterranean Diet Intervention in Cardiovascular Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitó, Montserrat; Melander, Olle; Martínez, José Alfredo; Toledo, Estefanía; Carpéné, Christian; Corella, Dolores

    2016-01-01

    Intervention with Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) has provided a high level of evidence in primary prevention of cardiovascular events. Besides enhancing protection from classical risk factors, an improvement has also been described in a number of non-classical ones. Benefits have been reported on biomarkers of oxidation, inflammation, cellular adhesion, adipokine production, and pro-thrombotic state. Although the benefits of the MedDiet have been attributed to its richness in antioxidants, the mechanisms by which it exercises its beneficial effects are not well known. It is thought that the integration of omics including genomics, transcriptomics, epigenomics, and metabolomics, into studies analyzing nutrition and cardiovascular diseases will provide new clues regarding these mechanisms. However, omics integration is still in its infancy. Currently, some single-omics analyses have provided valuable data, mostly in the field of genomics. Thus, several gene-diet interactions in determining both intermediate (plasma lipids, etc.) and final cardiovascular phenotypes (stroke, myocardial infarction, etc.) have been reported. However, few studies have analyzed changes in gene expression and, moreover very few have focused on epigenomic or metabolomic biomarkers related to the MedDiet. Nevertheless, these preliminary results can help to better understand the inter-individual differences in cardiovascular risk and dietary response for further applications in personalized nutrition. PMID:27598147

  13. Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training versus Continuous Training on Physical Fitness, Cardiovascular Function and Quality of Life in Heart Failure Patients.

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    Nathalie M M Benda

    Full Text Available Physical fitness is an important prognostic factor in heart failure (HF. To improve fitness, different types of exercise have been explored, with recent focus on high-intensity interval training (HIT. We comprehensively compared effects of HIT versus continuous training (CT in HF patients NYHA II-III on physical fitness, cardiovascular function and structure, and quality of life, and hypothesize that HIT leads to superior improvements compared to CT.Twenty HF patients (male:female 19:1, 64±8 yrs, ejection fraction 38±6% were allocated to 12-weeks of HIT (10*1-minute at 90% maximal workload-alternated by 2.5 minutes at 30% maximal workload or CT (30 minutes at 60-75% of maximal workload. Before and after intervention, we examined physical fitness (incremental cycling test, cardiac function and structure (echocardiography, vascular function and structure (ultrasound and quality of life (SF-36, Minnesota living with HF questionnaire (MLHFQ.Training improved maximal workload, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak related to the predicted VO2peak, oxygen uptake at the anaerobic threshold, and maximal oxygen pulse (all P<0.05, whilst no differences were present between HIT and CT (N.S.. We found no major changes in resting cardiovascular function and structure. SF-36 physical function score improved after training (P<0.05, whilst SF-36 total score and MLHFQ did not change after training (N.S..Training induced significant improvements in parameters of physical fitness, although no evidence for superiority of HIT over CT was demonstrated. No major effect of training was found on cardiovascular structure and function or quality of life in HF patients NYHA II-III.Nederlands Trial Register NTR3671.

  14. Effects of Sweet Bee Venom on cardiovascular system in the conscious telemetered Beagle Dogs

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    Lim Chung-San

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:This study was performed to analyse the effects of Sweet Bee Venom(Sweet BV on cardiovascular system in the conscious telemetered Beagle Dogs. Methods:All experiments were conducted at Biotoxtech Company, a non-clinical studies authorized institution, under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP. Male Beagle dogs of 13-19 months old were chosen for the pilot study and surgical implantation was performed for conscious telemetered Beagle dogs. And after confirming condition of Beagle dogs was stable, Sweet BV was administered 4 times(first: 0.0 ㎎/㎏, 2nd: 0.01 ㎎/㎏, 3rd: 0.1 ㎎/㎏, and forth: 0.5 ㎎/㎏, one time/week in thigh muscle of Beagle dogs. And blood pressure, heart rate, electrocardiography and clinical responses were measured. Equal amount of normal saline to the Sweet BV experiment groups was administered to the control group. 1. In the analysis of body weight and taking amount, Beagle dogs did not show significant changes. 2. In the clinical observation, responses of pain and edema were showed depend on dosage of Sweet BV. 3. In the analysis of blood pressure, treatment with Sweet BV did not show significant changes in the dosage of 0.01 ㎎/㎏, but in the dosage of 0.1 ㎎/㎏ and 0.5 ㎎/㎏, treatment with Sweet BV increased blood pressure significantly. 4. In the analysis of heart rate, treatment of Sweet BV did not show significant changes in all dosage and period. 5. In the analysis of electrocardiography, treatment of Sweet BV was not showed significant changes in all dosage and period. Conclusion:Above findings suggest that Sweet BV is relatively safe treatment in the cardiovascular system. But in the using of over dosage, Sweet BV may the cause of increasing blood pressure. Further studies on the subject should be conducted to yield more concrete evidences.

  15. Effects of irregular-shift work and physical activity on cardiovascular risk factors in truck drivers

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    Elaine Cristina Marqueze

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the putative effect of type of shift and its interaction with leisure-time physical activity on cardiovascular risk factors in truck drivers. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken on 57 male truck drivers working at a transportation company, of whom 31 worked irregular shifts and 26 worked on the day-shift. Participants recorded their physical activity using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire along with measurements of blood pressure, body mass index and waist-hip ratio. Participants also provided a fasting blood sample for analysis of lipid-related outcomes. Data were analyzed using a factorial model which was covariate-controlled for age, smoking, work demand, control at work and social support. RESULTS: Most of the irregular-shift and day-shift workers worked more than 8 hours per day (67.7% and 73.1%, respectively. The mean duration of experience working the irregular schedule was 15.7 years. Day-shift workers had never engaged in irregular-shift work and had been working as a truck driver for 10.8 years on average. The irregular-shift drivers had lower work demand but less control compared to day-shift drivers (p < 0.05. Moderately-active irregular-shift workers had higher systolic and diastolic arterial pressures (143.7 and 93.2 mmHg, respectively than moderately-active day-shift workers (116 and 73.3 mmHg, respectively (p < 0.05 as well as higher total cholesterol concentrations (232.1 and 145 mg/dl, respectively (p = 0.01. Irrespective of their physical activity, irregular-shift drivers had higher total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations (211.8 and 135.7 mg/dl, respectively than day-shift workers (161.9 and 96.7 mg/dl, respectively (ANCOVA, p < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Truck drivers are exposed to cardiovascular risk factors due to the characteristics of the job, such as high work demand, long working hours and time in this profession, regardless of shift type or leisure-time physical

  16. Human pharmacology of ayahuasca: subjective and cardiovascular effects, monoamine metabolite excretion, and pharmacokinetics.

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    Riba, Jordi; Valle, Marta; Urbano, Gloria; Yritia, Mercedes; Morte, Adelaida; Barbanoj, Manel J

    2003-07-01

    The effects of the South American psychotropic beverage ayahuasca on subjective and cardiovascular variables and urine monoamine metabolite excretion were evaluated, together with the drug's pharmacokinetic profile, in a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. This pharmacologically complex tea, commonly obtained from Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis, combines N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), an orally labile psychedelic agent showing 5-hydroxytryptamine2A agonist activity, with monoamine oxidase (MAO)-inhibiting beta-carboline alkaloids (harmine, harmaline, and tetrahydroharmine). Eighteen volunteers with prior experience in the use of psychedelics received single oral doses of encapsulated freeze-dried ayahuasca (0.6 and 0.85 mg of DMT/kg of body weight) and placebo. Ayahuasca produced significant subjective effects, peaking between 1.5 and 2 h, involving perceptual modifications and increases in ratings of positive mood and activation. Diastolic blood pressure showed a significant increase at the high dose (9 mm Hg at 75 min), whereas systolic blood pressure and heart rate were moderately and nonsignificantly increased. Cmax values for DMT after the low and high ayahuasca doses were 12.14 ng/ml and 17.44 ng/ml, respectively. Tmax (median) was observed at 1.5 h after both doses. The Tmax for DMT coincided with the peak of subjective effects. Drug administration increased urinary normetanephrine excretion, but, contrary to the typical MAO-inhibitor effect profile, deaminated monoamine metabolite levels were not decreased. This and the negligible harmine plasma levels found suggest a predominantly peripheral (gastrointestinal and liver) site of action for harmine. MAO inhibition at this level would suffice to prevent first-pass metabolism of DMT and allow its access to systemic circulation and the central nervous system.

  17. An examination of the cardiovascular effects of an 'Irukandji' jellyfish, Alatina nr mordens.

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    Winter, Kelly L; Isbister, Geoffrey K; Schneider, Jennifer J; Konstantakopoulos, Nicki; Seymour, Jamie E; Hodgson, Wayne C

    2008-07-10

    Irukandji syndrome is usually characterized by delayed severe abdominal, back and chest pain associated with autonomic effects including diaphoresis, hypertension and, in severe cases, myocardial injury and pulmonary oedema. It is most often associated with envenoming by the jellyfish Carukia barnesi, but a number of other jellyfish, including Alatina mordens, are now known to produce Irukandji syndrome. In the present study, nematocyst-derived venom from A. nr mordens (150-250 microg/kg, i.v.) produced a long-lasting pressor effect in anaesthetised rats. This pressor response (250 microg/kg, i.v.) was significantly inhibited by prior administration of the alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin (200 microg/kg, i.v.) but not by CSL box jellyfish antivenom (300 U/kg, i.v.). A. nr mordens venom 250 microg/kg (i.v.) caused marked increases in plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline concentrations following administration in anaesthetised rats. The venom did not contain appreciable amounts of either adrenaline or noradrenaline. A. nr mordens venom (25 microg/ml) produced a contractile response in rat electrically stimulated vas deferens which was markedly reduced in tissues pre-treated with reserpine (0.1mM) or guanethidine (0.1mM). Sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)-PAGE analysis showed that A. nr mordens venom is comprised of multiple protein bands ranging from 10 to 200 kDa. Western blot analysis using CSL box jellyfish antivenom indicated several antigenic proteins in A. nr mordens venom, however, it did not detect all proteins present in the venom. This study characterizes the in vitro and in vivo effects of A. nr mordens venom and indicates that the cardiovascular effects are at least partially mediated by endogenous catecholamine release. PMID:18547753

  18. Effects of commuting mode on air pollution exposure and cardiovascular health among young adults in Taipei, Taiwan.

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    Liu, Wen-Te; Ma, Chih-Ming; Liu, I-Jung; Han, Bor-Cheng; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Chuang, Kai-Jen

    2015-05-01

    The association between traffic-related air pollution and adverse cardiovascular effects has been well documented; however, little is known about whether different commuting modes can modify the effects of air pollution on the cardiovascular system in human subjects in urban areas with heavy traffic. We recruited 120 young, healthy subjects in Taipei, Taiwan. Each participant was classified with different commuting modes according to his/her own commuting style. Three repeated measurements of heart rate variability (HRV) indices {standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN) and the square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals (r-MSSD)}, particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5), temperature, humidity and noise level were conducted for each subject during 1-h morning commutes (0900-1000 h) in four different commuting modes, including an electrically powered subway, a gas-powered bus, a gasoline-powered car, and walking. Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate the association of PM2.5 with HRV indices. The results showed that decreases in the HRV indices were associated with increased levels of PM2.5. The personal exposure levels to PM2.5 were the highest in the walking mode. The effects of PM2.5 on cardiovascular endpoints were the lowest in the subway mode compared to the effects in the walking mode. The participants in the car and bus modes had reduced effects on their cardiovascular endpoints compared to the participants in the walking mode. We concluded that traffic-related PM2.5 is associated with autonomic alteration. Commuting modes can modify the effects of PM2.5 on HRV indices among young, healthy subjects.

  19. Androgens exert sexually dimorphic effects on angiogenesis: novel insight into the relationship between androgens and cardiovascular disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katya B Rubinow; John K Amory; Stephanie T Page

    2011-01-01

    @@ The effects of androgen exposure on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in men remain poorly understood.Given the earlier incidence of CVD among men relative to women, androgens historically have been assumed to potentiate CVD in men.However,mounting clinical data challenge this assumption and increasingly implicate low levels of circulating testosterone as a risk factor for CVD and mortality.1,2 In their recenfly published report 'A sex-specific role for androgens in angiogenesis',3 Sieveking and colleagues make striking observations regarding the impact of androgens on angiogenesis and recovery from ischemic injury, important components of vascular repair which might provide a mechanism whereby androgens could exert protective cardiovascular effects.Moreover, these findings were sex-specific in both in vitro and in vivo model systems, suggesting a sexually dimorphic effect of androgens in modulating CVD.

  20. System identification of closed-loop cardiovascular control: effects of posture and autonomic blockade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, T. J.; Appel, M. L.; Mukkamala, R.; Mathias, J. M.; Cohen, R. J.

    1997-01-01

    We applied system identification to the analysis of fluctuations in heart rate (HR), arterial blood pressure (ABP), and instantaneous lung volume (ILV) to characterize quantitatively the physiological mechanisms responsible for the couplings between these variables. We characterized two autonomically mediated coupling mechanisms [the heart rate baroreflex (HR baroreflex) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (ILV-HR)] and two mechanically mediated coupling mechanisms [the blood pressure wavelet generated with each cardiac contraction (circulatory mechanics) and the direct mechanical effects of respiration on blood pressure (ILV-->ABP)]. We evaluated the method in humans studied in the supine and standing postures under control conditions and under conditions of beta-sympathetic and parasympathetic pharmacological blockades. Combined beta-sympathetic and parasympathetic blockade abolished the autonomically mediated couplings while preserving the mechanically mediated coupling. Selective autonomic blockade and postural changes also altered the couplings in a manner consistent with known physiological mechanisms. System identification is an "inverse-modeling" technique that provides a means for creating a closed-loop model of cardiovascular regulation for an individual subject without altering the underlying physiological control mechanisms.

  1. Cardiovascular Effects of Allium Sativum (Garlic: An Evidence-Based Review

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    Shahin Akhondzadeh

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Garlic has been used since time immemorial as a culinary spice and medicinal herb. Garlic has been cultivated in the Middle East for more than 5,000 years and has been an important part of traditional Chinese medicine. The region with the largest commercial garlic production is central California. China is also a supplier of commercial garlic. The bulb is used medicinally. Garlic has been touted as an herb with numerous health benefits, from treating the common cold to serving as an anticancer agent. Research has proven that garlic is beneficial for those with hypertension. By thinning the blood garlic can lower blood pressure by 5 to 10 percent. It can also lower cholesterol and discourage clot formation. The sulfur compound allicin, produced by crushing or chewing fresh garlic or by taking powdered garlic products with allicin potential, in turn produces other sulfur compounds: ajoene, allyl sulfides, and vinyldithiins. Aged garlic products lack allicin, but may have activity due to the presence of S-allylcysteine. In this review, we focused on the cardiovascular effects of garlic.

  2. Unintended effects of cardiovascular drugs on the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.

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    Jun Wang

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is rapidly becoming one of the leading causes of disability and mortality in the elderly. As life-expectancy increases, an increasing number of people will rely on modern medicines to treat age-associated disorders. Among these medications, some might benefit, while others might exacerbate, the pathogenesis of AD. We screened 1,600 FDA approved drugs for β-amyloid (Aβ-modifying activity and identified drugs that can potentially influence amyloid precursor protein processing. In this study, we focused on cardiovascular drugs and demonstrated that some hypertensive medication can differentially modulate Aβ, both in vitro and in vivo. Our study suggests that some commonly prescribed drugs might exert unintended effects and modulate AD and provides the basis for continuing investigation of the role of individual drugs on a case-by-case basis. This line of investigation will lead to the identification of common medications that are potentially beneficial or detrimental to AD as a reference for physicians to consider when prescribing the most appropriate drugs for their patients, particularly for treating chronic disorders among the growing geriatric population.

  3. EFFECT OF SPECIFIC “YOGASANAS” ON CARDIOVASCULAR AUTONOMIC FUNCTION TEST

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    Sahoo J K

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of cardiovascular autonomic functions before and after four yogasanas viz. “Vajrasana” with “Yogamudra”, “Paschimmotanasana”, “Dwipad sahajhasta Bhujangasana”, “Padmasana Yogasana” was carried out. Seventy healthy adults (30 males and 40 females in the age group of 16-20years were studied. They were trained for 15 days by a certified yoga teacher. Autonomic function tests were carried out before and after 2 and 4 months of yoga practice. Resting heart rate (HR, BloodPressure (BP, heart rate and blood pressure response to standing, deep breathing and valsalva maneuver and pressure response to cold pressor test were studied. A statisticaly significant decrease in resting heart rate, systolic blood pressure after 2 and 4 months of yoga training in both males and females was found. There was also statistical significant increase in heart response to deep breathing (E:I ratio from 1.4 (mean to 1.56 in males and 1.4 to 1.49 in females. Valsalva ratio also increased from 1.09 to 1.17 in males and 1.09 to 1.21 in females after 4 months training. Our results indicate that the effects of these asanas is to increase vagal modulation of R:R intervals and reduce sympathovagal balance. However, the study is limited by the facts that it is not controlled.

  4. Antenatal Steroids and the IUGR Fetus: Are Exposure and Physiological Effects on the Lung and Cardiovascular System the Same as in Normally Grown Fetuses?

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    Janna L. Morrison

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids are administered to pregnant women at risk of preterm labour to promote fetal lung surfactant maturation. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR is associated with an increased risk of preterm labour. Hence, IUGR babies may be exposed to antenatal glucocorticoids. The ability of the placenta or blood brain barrier to remove glucocorticoids from the fetal compartment or the brain is compromised in the IUGR fetus, which may have implications for lung, brain, and heart development. There is conflicting evidence on the effect of exogenous glucocorticoids on surfactant protein expression in different animal models of IUGR. Furthermore, the IUGR fetus undergoes significant cardiovascular adaptations, including altered blood pressure regulation, which is in conflict with glucocorticoid-induced alterations in blood pressure and flow. Hence, antenatal glucocorticoid therapy in the IUGR fetus may compromise regulation of cardiovascular development. The role of cortisol in cardiomyocyte development is not clear with conflicting evidence in different species and models of IUGR. Further studies are required to study the effects of antenatal glucocorticoids on lung, brain, and heart development in the IUGR fetus. Of specific interest are the aetiology of IUGR and the resultant degree, duration, and severity of hypoxemia.

  5. Effects of different cold-air exposure intensities on the risk of cardiovascular disease in healthy and hypertensive rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Bin; Zhang, Shuyu; Ma, Shoucun; Zhou, Ji; Wang, Baojian

    2014-03-01

    Ten-week-old male Wistar rats (systolic blood pressure, 106-116 mmHg; body weight, 300-320 g) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (systolic blood pressure, 160-176 mmHg; body weight, 210.9-244.9 g) were used as healthy and hypertensive subjects to determine the effects of varying degrees of cold-air exposure in a climate chamber box. The three cold-air ranks were cold air I [minimum temperature (TMIN) 6.4 °C, ↓∆T48 8.6 °C], cold air II (TMIN 3.8 °C, ↓∆T48 11.2 °C), and cold air III (TMIN -0.3 °C, ↓∆T48 15.3 °C), as established from the cold-air data of Zhangye City, China. Each cold-air rank consisted of a temperature drop and a temperature increase with the same initial and terminal temperatures (15 °C). After cold-air exposure, the risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) such as systolic blood pressure, whole blood viscosity (10/s and 150/s), plasma fibrinogen, and blood lipids of the rats were determined. The results indicated that the CVD risk factors of the healthy and hypertensive rats increased significantly with cold-air exposure intensities. The increase in systolic blood pressure was greater during temperature drops, whereas the increases in whole blood viscosity and plasma fibrinogen were greater after cold-air exposure. The effects of cold-air exposure on the CVD risk factors of healthy rats, particularly the systolic blood pressure, whole blood viscosity (150/s), and LDL/HDL, were greater than those in hypertensive rats. In conclusion, CVD risk may increase with cold-air ranks. Blood pressure-induced CVD risk may be greater during cold-air temperature drop, whereas atherosclerosis-induced CVD risk may be greater after cold-air exposure. The effect of cold air on the CVD risk factors in healthy subjects may be more significant than those in hypertensive subjects.

  6. The Lag Effects and Vulnerabilities of Temperature Effects on Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in a Subtropical Climate Zone in China

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    Jixia Huang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This research quantifies the lag effects and vulnerabilities of temperature effects on cardiovascular disease in Changsha—a subtropical climate zone of China. A Poisson regression model within a distributed lag nonlinear models framework was used to examine the lag effects of cold- and heat-related CVD mortality. The lag effect for heat-related CVD mortality was just 0–3 days. In contrast, we observed a statistically significant association with 10–25 lag days for cold-related CVD mortality. Low temperatures with 0–2 lag days increased the mortality risk for those ≥65 years and females. For all ages, the cumulative effects of cold-related CVD mortality was 6.6% (95% CI: 5.2%–8.2% for 30 lag days while that of heat-related CVD mortality was 4.9% (95% CI: 2.0%–7.9% for 3 lag days. We found that in Changsha city, the lag effect of hot temperatures is short while the lag effect of cold temperatures is long. Females and older people were more sensitive to extreme hot and cold temperatures than males and younger people.

  7. Cardiovascular comorbiditiy in psoriasis

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    Gurcharan Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The chronic inflammatory nature of psoriasis is also thought to predispose patients to other diseases with an inflammatory component, the most notable being cardiovascular and metabolic (cardiometabolite disorders. This concept is supported by studies showing that psoriasis is associated with cardiovascular risk factors like diabetes, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking and diseases including MI. Given the increased prevalence of cardiovascular co morbidities in patients, dermatologists treating psoriasis need to approach the disease as a potentially multisystem disorder and must alert these patients to the potentially negative effects of their disease.

  8. Cardiovascular effects of epidural morphine or ropivacaine in isoflurane-anaesthetised pigs during surgical devascularisation of the liver

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    G.F. Stegmann

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular effects of non-abdominal and abdominal surgery during isoflurane anaesthesia (A-group or isoflurane anaesthesia supplemented with either epidural ropivacaine (AR-group; 0.75 % solution, 0.2 mℓ/kg or morphine (AM-group; 0.1 mg/kg diluted in saline to 0.2mℓ/kg were evaluated in 28 healthy pigs with a mean body weight of 30.3 kg SD ± 4.1 during surgical devascularisation of the liver. Anaesthesia was induced with the intramuscular injection of midazolam (0.3 mg/kg and ketamine (10 mg/kg. Anaesthesia was deepened with intravenous propofol to enable tracheal intubation and maintained with isoflurane on a circle rebreathing circuit. The vaporiser was set at 2.5% for the A-group and 1.5% for the AR- and AM-groups. Differences between treatment groups were not statistically significant (P>0.05 for any of the variables. Differences between AM- and AR-groups were marginally significant heart rate (HR (P = 0.06 and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP (P = 0.08. Within treatment groups, differences for the A-group were statistically significant (P<0.05 between non-abdominal and abdominal surgery for HR, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure (DIA and MAP. Within the AM-group differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05 for DIA and MAP, and within the AR group differences for all variables were not statistically significant (P > 0.05. It was concluded that in isoflurane-anaesthetised pigs, the epidural administration of ropivacaine decreased heart rate and improved arterial blood pressure during surgery.

  9. Comparison of the Effect of Fentanyl, Sufentanil, Alfentanil and Remifentanil on Cardiovascular Response to Tracheal Intubation in Children

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    Mohamad-Esmaeil Darabi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation may cause significant cerebral and systemic hemodynamic responses. Many drugs have been shown to be effective in modifying these hemodynamic responses, including fentanyl, sufentanil, alfentanil and remifentanil. The purpose of the current study was to compare the efficacy of fentanyl, sufentanil, alfentanil and remifentanil on blunting cardiovascular changes during laryngoscopy and intubation in children. Methods:Eighty children, 1-6 years old, classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I and II who were scheduled for elective surgery with general anesthesia and orotracheal intubation, were enrolled in this randomized and double-blinded study. Patients were randomly assigned into four groups of 20 patients. Group F received fentanyl 1µg/kg-1, group S received sufentanil 0.1 µg/kg-1, group A received alfentanil 10 µg/kg-1 and group R received remifentanil 1 µg/kg-1 intravenously. After establishment of neuromuscular blockade confirmed with a nerve stimulator, laryngoscopy and orotracheal intubation were performed 3 min after induction. Hemodynamic variables including systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SAP, DAP and heart rate (HR were recorded at base line (before opioid administration, before laryngoscopy and one minute after orotracheal intubation. Findings:The patients characteristics and laryngoscopy grade were similar in all groups. There was no significant difference in the mean values of SAP, DAP and HR at each measured time between the four groups. There was significant difference in the mean values of SAP, DAP and HR measured over time in each group. Conclusion:The intravenous fentanyl attenuated laryngoscopy-induced SAP, DAP and HR increases better than sufentanil, alfentanil or remifentanil and hemodynamic stability is better preserved with fentanyl.

  10. 二甲双胍的心血管保护作用%Cardiovascular protective effects of metformin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方丽娟; 刘乃丰

    2011-01-01

    二甲双胍(Metformin)属双胍类药物,作为口服降糖药应用于2型糖尿病(T2DM)已有50年的历程,其降糖作用已得到公认.近年越来越多的研究发现,二甲双胍具有降糖以外的心血管保护作用,能抑制动脉粥样硬化(Atherosclerosis,AS)、心衰、心肌梗死等心血管病的发生和发展.但二甲双胍确切的心血管保护机制仍不明确,本文综述了二甲双胍对心血管疾病的作用,并探讨其可能的作用机制.%Metformin belongs to biguanide drugs, used as oral hypoglycemic agents in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) for 50 years, and its anti-hyperglycemic effect has been recognized.Furthermore, in recent years more and more studies found that metformin has additional cardiovascular protective effects, including the inhibition of atherosclerosis (AS), heart failure and myocardial infarction.However, the specific effect of metformin on cardiovascular protection is still unclear.This article reviews the effect of metformin in cardiovascular disease and discusses its possible mechanisms.

  11. Modulatory effect of semelil (ANGIPARS™) on isoproterenol induced cardiac injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joukar, Siyavash; Najafipour, Hamid; Mirzaeipour, Fateme; Nasri, Hamidreza; Ahmadi, Mahboubeh Yeganeh Haj; Badinloo, Marziyeh

    2013-01-01

    Administration of semelil (ANGIPARS™) has been successful in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcer. Considering the improvement of blood flow and anti-inflammatory effect that are attributed to this drug, we investigated its effect on cardiovascular performance in rabbits with isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial injury. Animal groups included: control group; ISO group, received ISO 50 mg/kg s.c. for two consecutive days; S1+ISO, S5+ISO and S10+ISO groups, received semelil 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg/day i.p. respectively, 30 min before ISO. On the 3(rd) day, electrocardiogram (ECG) and hemodynamic parameters were recorded; blood samples were taken and hearts were removed for lab investigations. ISO induced heart injury, ECG disturbance, raise of cardiac troponin I and significant decrease in LVSP (p<0.05), +dp/dt max (p<0.01), -dp/dt max (p<0.05) along with increase of LVEDP (p<0.01). Semelil had no significant effects on ECG and plasma cardiac troponin I. Impairment of +dp/dt max and -dp/dt max was significantly improved in S5+ISO and S10+ISO groups (P<0.05 versus ISO). In addition, LVSP and LVEDP was somewhat recovered in these groups, although semelil (1 mg/kg/day) to some extent exacerbated the myocardial lesions induced by ISO (P<0.05). Therefore, in stressful conditions, semelil may improve myocardial contractility; however, it may aggravate the severity of injury. PMID:26417221

  12. Salutary effects of high-intensity interval training in persons with elevated cardiovascular risk [version 1; referees: 3 approved

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    Jerome L. Fleg

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT has been the traditional model for aerobic exercise training for over four decades, a growing body of literature has demonstrated equal if not greater improvement in aerobic capacity and similar beneficial effects on body composition, glucose metabolism, blood pressure, and quality of life from high-intensity interval training (HIIT. An advantage of HIIT over MICT is the shorter time required to perform the same amount of energy expenditure. The current brief review summarizes the effects of HIIT on peak aerobic capacity and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy adults and those with various cardiovascular diseases, including coronary artery disease, chronic heart failure, and post heart transplantation.

  13. Effects of the Mediterranean Diet on Cardiovascular Outcomes—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanage, Thaminda; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Wang, Amanda; Neal, Bruce; Jun, Min; Wong, Muh Geot; Jardine, Meg; Hillis, Graham S.; Perkovic, Vlado

    2016-01-01

    Background A Mediterranean dietary pattern is widely recommended for the prevention of chronic disease. We sought to define the most likely effects of the Mediterranean diet on vascular disease and mortality. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register without language restriction for randomized controlled trials comparing Mediterranean to control diets. Data on study design, patient characteristics, interventions, follow-up duration, outcomes and adverse events were sought. Individual study relative risks (RR) were pooled to create summary estimates. Results Six studies with a total of 10950 participants were included. Effects on major vascular events (n = 477), death (n = 693) and vascular deaths (n = 315) were reported for 3, 5 and 4 studies respectively. For one large study (n = 1000) there were serious concerns about the integrity of the data. When data for all studies were combined there was evidence of protection against major vascular events (RR 0.63, 95% confidence interval 0.53–0.75), coronary events (0.65, 0.50–0.85), stroke (0.65, 0.48–0.88) and heart failure (0.30, 0.17–0.56) but not for all-cause mortality (1.00, 0.86–1.15) or cardiovascular mortality (0.90, 0.72–1.11). After the study of concern was excluded the benefit for vascular events (0.69, 0.55–0.86) and stroke (0.66, 0.48–0.92) persisted but apparently positive findings for coronary events (0.73, 0.51–1.05) and heart failure (0.25, 0.05–1.17) disappeared. Conclusion The Mediterranean diet may protect against vascular disease. However, both the quantity and quality of the available evidence is limited and highly variable. Results must be interpreted with caution. PMID:27509006

  14. Daily egg consumption in hyperlipidemic adults - Effects on endothelial function and cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Simon Anjelica L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limiting consumption of eggs, which are high in cholesterol, is generally recommended to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease. However, recent evidence suggests that dietary cholesterol has limited influence on serum cholesterol or cardiac risk. Objective To assess the effects of egg consumption on endothelial function and serum lipids in hyperlipidemic adults. Methods Randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial of 40 hyperlipidemic adults (24 women, 16 men; average age = 59.9 ± 9.6 years; weight = 76.3 ± 21.8 kilograms; total cholesterol = 244 ± 24 mg/dL. In the acute phase, participants were randomly assigned to one of the two sequences of a single dose of three medium hardboiled eggs and a sausage/cheese breakfast sandwich. In the sustained phase, participants were then randomly assigned to one of the two sequences of two medium hardboiled eggs and 1/2 cup of egg substitute daily for six weeks. Each treatment assignment was separated by a four-week washout period. Outcome measures of interest were endothelial function measured as flow mediated dilatation (FMD and lipid panel. Results Single dose egg consumption had no effects on endothelial function as compared to sausage/cheese (0.4 ± 1.9 vs. 0.4 ± 2.4%; p = 0.99. Daily consumption of egg substitute for 6 weeks significantly improved endothelial function as compared to egg (1.0 ± 1.2% vs. -0.1 ± 1.5%; p p p = 0.01. Study results (positive or negative are expressed in terms of change relative to baseline. Conclusions Egg consumption was found to be non-detrimental to endothelial function and serum lipids in hyperlipidemic adults, while egg substitute consumption was beneficial.

  15. Effects of isotonic and isometric exercises with mist sauna bathing on cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, and metabolic functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwase, Satoshi; Kawahara, Yuko; Nishimura, Naoki; Nishimura, Rumiko; Sugenoya, Junichi; Miwa, Chihiro; Takada, Masumi

    2014-08-01

    To clarify the effects of isometric and isotonic exercise during mist sauna bathing on the cardiovascular function, thermoregulatory function, and metabolism, six healthy young men (22 ± 1 years old, height 173 ± 4 cm, weight 65.0 ± 5.0 kg) were exposed to a mist sauna for 10 min at a temperature of 40 °C, and relative humidity of 100 % while performing or not performing ˜30 W of isometric or isotonic exercise. The effect of the exercise was assessed by measuring tympanic temperature, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, chest sweat rate, chest skin blood flow, and plasma catecholamine and cortisol, glucose, lactate, and free fatty acid levels. Repeated measures ANOVA showed no significant differences in blood pressure, skin blood flow, sweat rate, and total amount of sweating. Tympanic temperature increased more during isotonic exercise, and heart rate increase was more marked during isotonic exercise. The changes in lactate indicated that fatigue was not very great during isometric exercise. The glucose level indicated greater energy expenditure during isometric exercise. The free fatty acid and catecholamine levels indicated that isometric exercise did not result in very great energy expenditure and stress, respectively. The results for isotonic exercise of a decrease in lactate level and an increase in plasma free fatty acid level indicated that fatigue and energy expenditure were rather large while the perceived stress was comparatively low. We concluded that isotonic exercise may be a more desirable form of exercise during mist sauna bathing given the changes in glucose and free fatty acid levels.

  16. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors After Early-Onset Preeclampsia, Late-Onset Preeclampsia, and Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerbeek, Jan H. W.; Hermes, Wietske; Breimer, Anath Y.; van Rijn, Bas B.; Koenen, Steven V.; Mol, Ben W.; Franx, Arie; de Groot, Christianne J. M.; Koster, Maria P. H.; Koster, M.P.H. (Wendy)

    2015-01-01

    Observational studies have shown an increased lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women who experienced a hypertensive disorder in pregnancy. This risk is related to the severity of the pregnancy-related hypertensive disease and gestational age at onset. However, it has not been investi

  17. Endothelins and NADPH oxidases in the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammanahalli, Karigowda J; Sun, Zhongjie

    2008-01-01

    1. The endothelin (ET) system and NADPH oxidase play important roles in the regulation of cardiovascular function, as well as in the pathogenesis of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. 2. Endothelins activate NADPH oxidases and thereby increase superoxide production, resulting in oxidative stress and cardiovascular dysfunction. Thus, NADPH oxidases may mediate the role of endothelins in some cardiovascular diseases. However, the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mediating ET-induced vasoconstriction and cardiovascular disease remains under debate, as evidenced by conflicting reports from different research teams. Conversely, activation of NADPH oxidase can stimulate ET secretion via ROS generation, which further enhances the cardiovascular effects of NADPH oxidase. However, little is known about how ROS activate the endothelin system. It seems that the relationship between ET-1 and ROS may vary with cardiovascular disorders. 3. Endothelins activate NADPH oxidase via the ET receptor-proline-rich tyrosine kinase-2 (Pyk2)-Rac1 pathway. Rac1 is an important regulator of NADPH oxidase. There is ample evidence supporting direct stimulation by Rac1 of NADPH oxidase activity. In addition, Rac1-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is mediated by the generation of ROS.

  18. Effects of Metformin Versus Glipizide on Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Coronary Artery Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Jie; Zhang, Yifei; Lai, Shenghan; Lv, Ankang; Su, Qing; Dong, Yan; Zhou, Zhiguang; Tang, Weili; Zhao, Jiajun; CUI, LIANQUN; Zou, Dajin; Wang, Dawang; Li, Hong; Liu, Chao; Wu, Guoting

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The two major classes of antidiabetic drugs, sulfonylureas and metformin, may differentially affect macrovascular complications and mortality in diabetic patients. We compared the long-term effects of glipizide and metformin on the major cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetic patients who had a history of coronary artery disease (CAD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This study is a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. A total of 304 type 2 diabeti...

  19. The reinforcing, subject-rated, performance, and cardiovascular effects of d-amphetamine: Influence of sensation-seeking status

    OpenAIRE

    Stoops, William W.; Lile, Joshua A.; Robbins, C. Glenn; Martin, Catherine A.; Rush, Craig R.; Kelly, Thomas H.

    2006-01-01

    Individual differences that may contribute to vulnerability to abuse drugs have been identified. Sensation-seeking status has been shown to influence both vulnerability to drug use and response to acute drug administration. The purpose of the present experiment was to examine the reinforcing effects of d-amphetamine in high and low sensation-seeking subjects using a modified progressive-ratio procedure. A battery of subject-rated, performance, and cardiovascular measures was also included to ...

  20. The effect of sitagliptin on cardiovascular risk profile in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Shin S; Kim H

    2016-01-01

    Sooyoung Shin,1 Hyunah Kim2 1College of Pharmacy, Ajou University, Suwon, 2College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women’s University, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: A 2013 postmarketing study suggested a possible link between saxagliptin use and hospital admission for heart failure. Cardiovascular (CV) effects of sitagliptin, the most commonly prescribed antidiabetic in the same class as saxagliptin, have not been evaluated much in Asian patients with type 2 diabetes. This study sou...

  1. A computational physiology approach to personalized treatment models: the beneficial effects of slow breathing on the human cardiovascular system

    OpenAIRE

    FONOBEROVA, MARIA; Mezić, Igor; Buckman, Jennifer F.; Fonoberov, Vladimir A.; Mezić, Adriana; Vaschillo, Evgeny G.; Mun, Eun-Young; Vaschillo, Bronya; Bates, Marsha E.

    2014-01-01

    Heart rate variability biofeedback intervention involves slow breathing at a rate of ∼6 breaths/min (resonance breathing) to maximize respiratory and baroreflex effects on heart period oscillations. This intervention has wide-ranging clinical benefits and is gaining empirical support as an adjunct therapy for biobehavioral disorders, including asthma and depression. Yet, little is known about the system-level cardiovascular changes that occur during resonance breathing or the extent to which ...

  2. The effect of isoflavone supplementation on cardiovascular disease parameters in men undergoing 80% VO2pk exercise.

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, Vanessa Lynn Rogowsky

    2002-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, one of the major causative factors of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), is thought to be initiated by oxidative stress. Particular attention has been paid to the atherogenic effects of oxidative damage on low density lipoproteins (LDL). Current research shows that dietary antioxidant supplementation protects against oxidative stress, and therefore may present preventative measures and treatments for patients with diseases influenced by oxidative stress. Isoflavones found in s...

  3. Hypoxia Stress Test Reveals Exaggerated Cardiovascular Effects in Hypertensive Rats After Exposure to the Air Pollutant Acrolein

    OpenAIRE

    Perez, Christina M.; Ledbetter, Allen D.; Hazari, Mehdi S.; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Carll, Alex P.; Winsett, Darrell W.; Costa, Daniel L.; Farraj, Aimen K.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in susceptible populations. Despite increased risk, adverse responses are often delayed and require additional stress tests to reveal latent effects of exposure. The goal of this study was to use an episode of “transient hypoxia” as an extrinsic stressor to uncover latent susceptibility to environmental pollutants in a rodent model of hypertension. We hypothesized that exposure to acrolein, an u...

  4. Effects of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Communication for Patients With Type 2 Diabetes on Risk Perception in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Welschen, Laura M. C.; Bot, Sandra D M; Kostense, Piet J.; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Timmermans, Daniëlle R.M.; van der Weijden, Trudy; Nijpels, Giel

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) underestimate their risk of developing severe complications, and they do not always understand the risk communication by their caregivers. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an intervention focused on the communication of the absolute 10-year risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with T2DM. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A randomized controlled trial was performed in T2DM patients newly referred to...

  5. Effects of oxidative stress on fatty acid- and one-carbon-metabolism in psychiatric and cardiovascular disease comorbidity

    OpenAIRE

    Assies, J.; Mocking, R J T; Lok, A; Ruhé, H.G.; Pouwer, F.; Schene, A. H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in severe psychiatric disorders (depression, schizophrenia). Here, we provide evidence of how the effects of oxidative stress on fatty acid (FA) and one-carbon (1-C) cycle metabolism, which may initially represent adaptive responses, might underlie comorbidity between CVD and psychiatric disorders. Method We conducted a literature search and integrated data in a narrative review. Results Oxidative stress, mainly generated in...

  6. Effect of a 21 day Daniel Fast on metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk factors in men and women

    OpenAIRE

    Bloomer Richard J; Kabir Mohammad M; Canale Robert E; Trepanowski John F; Marshall Kate E; Farney Tyler M; Hammond Kelley G

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Dietary modification via caloric restriction is associated with multiple effects related to improved metabolic and cardiovascular health. However, a mandated reduction in kilocalories is not well-tolerated by many individuals, limiting the long-term application of such a plan. The Daniel Fast is a widely utilized fast based on the Biblical book of Daniel. It involves a 21 day ad libitum food intake period, devoid of animal products and preservatives, and inclusive of fruit...

  7. Traffic noise and cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Selander, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Traffic noise is an increasing problem in urban areas worldwide, but health effects in relation to traffic noise exposure are not well understood. Several studies show that noise may give rise to acute stress reactions, possibly leading to cardiovascular effects, but the evidence is limited on cardiovascular risks associated with traffic noise exposure. Cardiovascular effects have been indicated for other environmental stressors such as occupational noise exposure and job ...

  8. Effect of L- Arginine On Electrocardiographic Changes Induced By Hypercholesterolemia And Isoproterenol In Rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Pradeep; Goyal, Manish; Agarwal, J L

    2009-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia, a well-known cardiovascular risk factor, is associated with prolonged action potential duration, longer QTc intervals (rate controlled QT interval), suggested that Hypercholesterolemia may have a direct effect on ventricular repolarization. Hypercholesterolemia was induced in rabbits and L-arginine was given orally to animals for sixteen weeks. The isoproterenol was injected in all the animals to produce electrocardiographic changes. ECG was recorded in lead II at start ...

  9. Artificial sweeteners produce the counterintuitive effect of inducing metabolic derangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swithers, Susan E

    2013-09-01

    The negative impact of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages on weight and other health outcomes has been increasingly recognized; therefore, many people have turned to high-intensity sweeteners like aspartame, sucralose, and saccharin as a way to reduce the risk of these consequences. However, accumulating evidence suggests that frequent consumers of these sugar substitutes may also be at increased risk of excessive weight gain, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. This paper discusses these findings and considers the hypothesis that consuming sweet-tasting but noncaloric or reduced-calorie food and beverages interferes with learned responses that normally contribute to glucose and energy homeostasis. Because of this interference, frequent consumption of high-intensity sweeteners may have the counterintuitive effect of inducing metabolic derangements. PMID:23850261

  10. Does a Nephron Deficit Exacerbate the Renal and Cardiovascular Effects of Obesity?

    OpenAIRE

    Seshini Gurusinghe; Brown, Russell D.; Xiaochu Cai; Samuel, Chrishan S.; Ricardo, Sharon D.; Thomas, Merlin C.; Kett, Michelle M

    2013-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that a reduced nephron endowment exacerbates the hypertensive and renal effects of obesity. We therefore examined the impact of diet-induced obesity on renal structure and function, and arterial pressure in a genetic model of reduced nephron endowment, the GDNF Heterozygous (HET) mouse. 6 wk-old male GDNF WT and HET mice were placed on control or high fat (HFF) diet for 20 weeks. 24 hr arterial pressure, heart rate and activity (radiotelemetry), creatinine clearance a...

  11. Utilization of preventive care services and their effect on cardiovascular outcomes in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Vaidya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Varun Vaidya, Gautam Partha, Jennifer HowePharmacy Health Care Administration, Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of Toledo College of Pharmacy, Toledo, OH, USAObjective: To describe and analyze utilization of preventive care services and their effect on cardiovascular outcomes in the United States.Methods: Data from the 2007 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS were used to analyze utilization of preventive care services and their effect on cardiovascular outcomes. Recommendations by the Seventh Report of the Joint Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure and the National Cholesterol Education Program were used to determine appropriate levels of preventive care utilization. Utilization of blood pressure screening and cholesterol checkup services were used as the dependent variable, while age, gender, race, ethnicity, insurance status, and perceived health status were used as independent variables. Since guidelines differ for people with elevated blood pressure, respondents with elevated blood pressure were identified in the MEPS database by self-reported diagnosis. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the population, while a multivariate logistic regression model was built to predict odds of utilizing appropriate levels of preventive services.Results: Total number of adult respondents for which data were available for blood pressure checkup and cholesterol checkup was 20,523 and 15,784, respectively. Overall, MEPS respondents were found to adhere to guideline recommendations for preventive care utilization. Multivariate logistic regression showed that odds of utilization of preventive care services were higher for elderly patients (age >65 years for blood pressure (odds ratio [OR] = 2.39, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.92–2.97 and cholesterol (OR = 3.05, 95% CI: 2.18–4.27 preventive services compared with younger population (age 18–54 years. Males had much lower odds of

  12. Real-world effectiveness of valsartan on hypertension and total cardiovascular risk: review and implications of a translational research program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham I

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ivo Abraham1,2, Karen MacDonald2, Christine Hermans3, Ann Aerts3, Christopher Lee2,4, Heidi Brié3, Stefaan Vancayzeele31Center for Health Outcomes and Pharmacoeconomic Research, and Department of Pharmacy Practice and Science, College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA; 2Matrix45, Earlysville, VA, USA; 3Novartis Pharma, Vilvoorde, Belgium; 4School of Nursing, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, USAAbstract: The pharmacological efficacy of various monotherapy, single pill, and combination therapies of the angiotensin II receptor blocker valsartan have been established, mainly through randomized controlled trials that used similar methodological and statistical platforms and thus enabled synthesis of evidence. The real world effectiveness of valsartan has been studied extensively, but the relative lack of scientific and technical congruence of these studies render synthesis virtually impossible. To date, all have focused on blood pressure outcomes, despite evidence-based calls to grade antihypertensive treatment to patients' total cardiovascular risk. We review a T3 translational research program of seven studies involving valsartan monotherapy as well as single and separate pill combinations, and the determinants and effect on blood pressure and total cardiovascular risk outcomes. All seven studies examined not only the impact of valsartan-based regimens on blood pressure values and control, but also, within a statistical hierarchical approach, the physician- and patient-related determinants of these blood pressure outcomes. Two studies also investigated the determinants and outcomes of valsartan-based treatment on total cardiovascular risk – among the first studies to use this risk coefficient as an outcome rather than only a determinant. These seven studies included a total of 19,533 patients, contributed by 3434 physician-investigators in Belgium – a country particularly well-suited for observational

  13. Anaesthetic, cardiovascular and respiratory effects of a new steroidal agent CT 1341: a comparison with other intravenous anaesthetic drugs in the unrestrained cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, K J; Davis, B; Dodds, M G; Twissell, D J

    1972-10-01

    1. The anaesthetic, cardiovascular, respiratory and adverse effects produced by the intravenous injection of CT 1341, thiopentone, methohexitone, pentobarbitone, propanidid and ketamine have been compared in unrestrained cats prepared with chronically implanted venous and arterial cannulae. Aortic blood pressure and heart rates were monitored before, during and after loss of consciousness.2. CT 1341 produced rapid induction of anaesthesia followed by moderately rapid recovery, was active over a wide range of doses and caused minimal respiratory depression and few adverse effects. It caused an initial short-lasting tachycardia and fall in aortic blood pressure succeeded by a secondary depressor response.3. The safety margin was narrower with the barbiturate drugs than with CT 1341, and large doses induced apnoea and respiratory depression. Small doses of methohexitone elicited excitatory effects and large doses caused severe respiratory and circulatory depression, and recovery from anaesthesia was protracted.4. Propanidid induced short-lasting light anaesthesia. The safety margin was narrowest with this drug and induction was associated with adverse circulatory, respiratory and other effects.5. Ketamine was active over a wide range of doses but exhibited qualitatively different properties from the other anaesthetics. Induction was slower after small doses and these produced circulatory stimulation, catatonia and bizarre behavioural effects. Large doses caused respiratory and circulatory depression and recovery was protracted.6. It is concluded that CT 1341 has a wider therapeutic latitude, produces less respiratory depression and has other advantages over the currently used intravenous anaesthetics. PMID:4651769

  14. Cardiovascular risk during hormonal treatment in patients with prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this review is to provide information on cardiovascular risk following androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) in prostate cancer patients and to suggest potential prevention and management strategies. Androgen deprivation therapy can cause peripheral insulin resistance, increase fat mass and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and induce type 2 diabetes. While recent studies have reported an association in patients with prostate cancer between ADT and increased risk of cardiovascular events, other studies have not detected the association. However, at this time, it is plausible that ADT could increase cardiovascular risk because of the adverse effect of ADT on risk factors for cardiovascular disease. It is advisable that prostate cancer patients in whom ADT is initiated be referred to their physician, who will carefully monitor them for potential metabolic effects. Therefore, physicians should be informed about these potential side effects. This especially applies to men aged >65 years and those with pre-existing cardiovascular comorbidities. Adopting a healthy lifestyle including a balanced diet and regular physical activity is recommended. Patients with cardiovascular disease should receive appropriate preventive therapies, including lipid-lowering, antihypertensive, glucose-lowering, and antiplatelet therapy. ADT should preferably not be unnecessarily administered to prostate cancer patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease, certainly not to those in whom the risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality is low. The physician should carefully weigh the potential benefits of ADT against the possible risks in individual patients with prostate cancer

  15. Disentangling the effects of insomnia and night work on cardiovascular diseases: a study in nursing professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Silva-Costa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are known to be associated with poor sleep quality in general populations, but they have not been consistently associated with specific work schedules. Studies of CVD generally do not simultaneously consider sleep and work schedules, but that approach could help to disentangle their effects. We investigated the association between insomnia and a self-reported physician diagnosis of CVD in day and night workers, considering all sleep episodes during nocturnal and diurnal sleep. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1307 female nursing professionals from 3 public hospitals, using baseline data from the “Health and Work in Nursing - a Cohort Study.” Participants were divided into two groups: i day workers with no previous experience in night shifts (n=281 and whose data on insomnia were related to nocturnal sleep and ii those who worked exclusively at night (n=340 and had data on both nocturnal and diurnal sleep episodes, as they often sleep at daytime. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed. Among day workers, insomnia complaints increased the odds of CVD 2.79-fold (95% CI=1.01-6.71 compared with workers who had no complaints. Among night workers, reports of insomnia during both nocturnal and diurnal sleep increased the odds of reported CVD 3.07-fold (95% CI=1.30-7.24. Workers with insomnia had similar probabilities of reporting CVD regardless of their work schedule, suggesting a relationship to insomnia and not to night work per se. The results also highlighted the importance of including evaluation of all sleep episodes (diurnal plus nocturnal sleep for night workers.

  16. Effects of Soy on Metabolic Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Disease in Elderly Women with the Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Bakhtiary

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To ascertain the effects of soy [in the forms of Textured Soy Protein (TSP and soy-nut] onlipid profiles, apolipoproteins, inflammatory and prothrombotic markers and blood pressure in elderlywomen with the metabolic syndrome.Materials and methods: The study is a 12-week parallel randomized controlled trial that was conductedin rural health centres of Babol, Iran. The participants were 75 women 60-70 years old with the metabolicsyndrome who were randomized to one of the three groups of soy-nut (35g/d, TSP (35g/d and control.Blood pressure and blood biochemical markers were measured at baseline and at the end of the studyincluding, triglyceride, cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, VLDL-C, ApoB100, ApoAI, CRP and fibrinogen.Results: The soy-nut improved significantly LDL-C, VLDL-C and Apo B100 (P<0.05 while fewer improvementsbut significant were observed in these variables in the TSP group only when compared with themean changes from the baseline (P<0.001. Similar result was found for Apo AI in the treatment groups(P<0.01. Serum total cholesterol decreased significantly in the treatment groups compared with controlgroup (P<0.005. The differences from control for triglyceride, HDL-C, fibrinogen, CRP and bloodpressure were not significant.Conclusion: Both forms of soy while improved lipids profiles the soy-nut contribution was more to thisimprovement than the TSP. Therefore, moderate daily intake of soy may be a safe, cheap and practicalmethod to improve cardiovascular disease risk and also reduce the need for medical treatment.

  17. Disentangling the effects of insomnia and night work on cardiovascular diseases: a study in nursing professionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are known to be associated with poor sleep quality in general populations, but they have not been consistently associated with specific work schedules. Studies of CVD generally do not simultaneously consider sleep and work schedules, but that approach could help to disentangle their effects. We investigated the association between insomnia and a self-reported physician diagnosis of CVD in day and night workers, considering all sleep episodes during nocturnal and diurnal sleep. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1307 female nursing professionals from 3 public hospitals, using baseline data from the “Health and Work in Nursing - a Cohort Study.” Participants were divided into two groups: i) day workers with no previous experience in night shifts (n=281) and whose data on insomnia were related to nocturnal sleep and ii) those who worked exclusively at night (n=340) and had data on both nocturnal and diurnal sleep episodes, as they often sleep at daytime. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed. Among day workers, insomnia complaints increased the odds of CVD 2.79-fold (95% CI=1.01-6.71) compared with workers who had no complaints. Among night workers, reports of insomnia during both nocturnal and diurnal sleep increased the odds of reported CVD 3.07-fold (95% CI=1.30-7.24). Workers with insomnia had similar probabilities of reporting CVD regardless of their work schedule, suggesting a relationship to insomnia and not to night work per se. The results also highlighted the importance of including evaluation of all sleep episodes (diurnal plus nocturnal sleep) for night workers

  18. Disentangling the effects of insomnia and night work on cardiovascular diseases: a study in nursing professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Costa, A.; Griep, R.H.; Rotenberg, L.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are known to be associated with poor sleep quality in general populations, but they have not been consistently associated with specific work schedules. Studies of CVD generally do not simultaneously consider sleep and work schedules, but that approach could help to disentangle their effects. We investigated the association between insomnia and a self-reported physician diagnosis of CVD in day and night workers, considering all sleep episodes during nocturnal and diurnal sleep. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1307 female nursing professionals from 3 public hospitals, using baseline data from the “Health and Work in Nursing - a Cohort Study.” Participants were divided into two groups: i) day workers with no previous experience in night shifts (n=281) and whose data on insomnia were related to nocturnal sleep and ii) those who worked exclusively at night (n=340) and had data on both nocturnal and diurnal sleep episodes, as they often sleep at daytime. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed. Among day workers, insomnia complaints increased the odds of CVD 2.79-fold (95% CI=1.01-6.71) compared with workers who had no complaints. Among night workers, reports of insomnia during both nocturnal and diurnal sleep increased the odds of reported CVD 3.07-fold (95% CI=1.30-7.24). Workers with insomnia had similar probabilities of reporting CVD regardless of their work schedule, suggesting a relationship to insomnia and not to night work per se. The results also highlighted the importance of including evaluation of all sleep episodes (diurnal plus nocturnal sleep) for night workers. PMID:25424370

  19. Disentangling the effects of insomnia and night work on cardiovascular diseases: a study in nursing professionals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva-Costa, A. [Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Griep, R.H.; Rotenberg, L. [Laboratório de Educação em Ambiente e Saúde, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-11-21

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are known to be associated with poor sleep quality in general populations, but they have not been consistently associated with specific work schedules. Studies of CVD generally do not simultaneously consider sleep and work schedules, but that approach could help to disentangle their effects. We investigated the association between insomnia and a self-reported physician diagnosis of CVD in day and night workers, considering all sleep episodes during nocturnal and diurnal sleep. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1307 female nursing professionals from 3 public hospitals, using baseline data from the “Health and Work in Nursing - a Cohort Study.” Participants were divided into two groups: i) day workers with no previous experience in night shifts (n=281) and whose data on insomnia were related to nocturnal sleep and ii) those who worked exclusively at night (n=340) and had data on both nocturnal and diurnal sleep episodes, as they often sleep at daytime. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed. Among day workers, insomnia complaints increased the odds of CVD 2.79-fold (95% CI=1.01-6.71) compared with workers who had no complaints. Among night workers, reports of insomnia during both nocturnal and diurnal sleep increased the odds of reported CVD 3.07-fold (95% CI=1.30-7.24). Workers with insomnia had similar probabilities of reporting CVD regardless of their work schedule, suggesting a relationship to insomnia and not to night work per se. The results also highlighted the importance of including evaluation of all sleep episodes (diurnal plus nocturnal sleep) for night workers.

  20. Efeitos hemodinâmicos e vasculares do treinamento resistido: implicações na doença cardiovascular Hemodynamic and vascular effects of resistance training: implications for cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Umpierre

    2007-10-01

    ções vasculares.Resistance training has been proposed as a possible strategy for cardiovascular prevention and rehabilitation, and in this context, this review describes the cardiovascular effects mediated by this type of intervention. Increments in both muscular strength and capacity to perform daily tasks are well-characterized benefits of this type of training. More recently, studies using hemodynamic evaluation have shown cardiovascular stability in patients with coronary disease or heart failure during the performance of resistance exercise, with no apparent detriment to ventricular function or exacerbated increase in exercise blood pressure. Additionally, resting blood pressure also seems to be influenced by chronic resistance training, with a slight reduction in both systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP. The measurement of pressure levels after a single resistance exercise session shows the occurrence of post-exercise hypotension in normal and hypertensive individuals; however, there is controversy as to the intensity of the effort necessary to induce this effect. Recently, intervention studies have investigated resistance exercise effects on vascular variables as arterial compliance and endothelial function. Despite the small number of experiments available, evidence has shown a potential influence of resistance training on the reduction of arterial compliance. On the other hand, peripheral blood flow is increased after resistance training, whereas the endothelial function seems to be improved especially after combined aerobic and resistance training. Additional research is necessary for an analysis of the efficacy of this intervention on validated outcomes, and for a greater understanding of the physiological mechanisms responsible for vascular adaptations.

  1. Effect of a wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) drink intervention on markers of oxidative stress, inflammation and endothelial function in humans with cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riso, Patrizia; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy; Del Bo', Cristian;

    2013-01-01

    Wild blueberries (WB) (Vaccinium angustifolium) are rich sources of polyphenols, such as flavonols, phenolic acids and anthocyanins (ACNs), reported to decrease the risk of cardiovascular and degenerative diseases. This study investigated the effect of regular consumption of a WB or a placebo (PL......) drink on markers of oxidative stress, inflammation and endothelial function in subjects with risk factors for cardiovascular disease.......Wild blueberries (WB) (Vaccinium angustifolium) are rich sources of polyphenols, such as flavonols, phenolic acids and anthocyanins (ACNs), reported to decrease the risk of cardiovascular and degenerative diseases. This study investigated the effect of regular consumption of a WB or a placebo (PL...

  2. Effects of Family Meal Frequency on Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in Korean Elderly Males and Females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tchae-Won Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the case of the elderly who highly depend on family, serious health problems can be caused due to the reduction of family meals. Therefore, this study aims to suggest the fundamental data for management of cardiovascular disease, one of the major causes of death in elderly Koreans, by investigating the effects of family meal frequency on the risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Korean elderly males and females.The raw data of the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES III were utilized. Data of 1,236 respondents were extracted for analysis regarding anthropometry, blood, blood pressure, nutrients and total energy intake. For collected data, using SPSS 18.0 and Amos 18.0, the mean and standard deviation, and the path coefficient between groups through a multi-group analysis by structural equation model were checked.As family meal frequency increased, triglyceride and fasting blood glucose in Korean elderly males were likely to decrease, which led to conflicting results with those of Korean elderly females.Frequent family meal makes a positive effect on reducing several risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Korean elderly.

  3. Advancing cardiovascular tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truskey, George A.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular tissue engineering offers the promise of biologically based repair of injured and damaged blood vessels, valves, and cardiac tissue. Major advances in cardiovascular tissue engineering over the past few years involve improved methods to promote the establishment and differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), scaffolds from decellularized tissue that may produce more highly differentiated tissues and advance clinical translation, improved methods to promote vascularization, and novel in vitro microphysiological systems to model normal and diseased tissue function. iPSC technology holds great promise, but robust methods are needed to further promote differentiation. Differentiation can be further enhanced with chemical, electrical, or mechanical stimuli. PMID:27303643

  4. Effects of supine, prone, and lateral positions on cardiovascular and renal variables in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pump, Bettina; Talleruphuus, Ulrik; Christensen, Niels Juel;

    2002-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that changing the direction of the transverse gravitational stress in horizontal humans modulates cardiovascular and renal variables. On different study days, 14 healthy males were placed for 6 h in either the horizontal supine or prone position following 3 h of being su...

  5. The Effects of Cardiovascular Exercise on College Students' Learning, Recall, and Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salis, Andrea S.

    2010-01-01

    Research on physical activity and cognition is based on the existing theoretical and empirical evidence which indicates that engaging in cardiovascular exercise improves cognitive capabilities, by increasing neural functioning which improves learning (cognitive development). The question this research sought to answer was to determine whether or…

  6. The effects of short-chain fatty acids on the cardiovascular system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, L.B.; Li, M.; van Esch, B.C.A.M.; Garssen, J.; Folkerts, G.

    2016-01-01

    The development of cardiovascular diseases is often attributable to loss of endothelial functions of the vascular tissue or to decreased contractile function of the heart muscle. These disturbances are often caused by imbalances in lipid and glucose metabolism. For instance, these imbalances can res

  7. Effect of sex on the cardiovascular response to adrenaline in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouwenberg, B.J.J.W.; Rietjens, S.J.; Smits, P.; Galan, B.E. de

    2006-01-01

    Cardiovascular responsiveness to stress conditions differs between men and women. It is not known to what extent this observation is explained by differences in the release of stress hormones like adrenaline, or by differences in the response to adrenaline. Therefore, we quantified the hemodynamic r

  8. Effect of Nateglinide on the Incidence of Diabetes and Cardiovascular Events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holman, Rury R.; Haffner, Steven M.; McMurray, John J.; Bethel, M. Angelyn; Holzhauer, Bjoern; Hua, Tsushung A.; Belenkov, Yuri; Boolell, Mitradev; Buse, John B.; Buckley, Brendan M.; Chacra, Antonio R.; Chiang, Fu-Tien; Charbonnel, Bernard; Chow, Chun-Chung; Davies, Melanie J.; Deedwania, Prakash; Diem, Peter; Einhorn, Daniel; Fonseca, Vivian; Fulcher, Gregory R.; Gaciong, Zbigniew; Gaztambide, Sonia; Giles, Thomas; Horton, Edward; Ilkova, Hasan; Jenssen, Trond; Kahn, Steven E.; Krum, Henry; Laakso, Markku; Leiter, Lawrence A.; Levitt, Naomi S.; Mareev, Viacheslav; Martinez, Felipe; Masson, Chantal; Mazzone, Theodore; Meaney, Eduardo; Nesto, Richard; Pan, Changyu; Prager, Rudolf; Raptis, Sotirios A.; Rutten, Guy E. H. M.; Sandstroem, Herbert; Schaper, Frank; Scheen, Andre; Schmitz, Ole; Sinay, Isaac; Soska, Vladimir; Stender, Steen; Tamas, Gyula; Tognoni, Gianni; Tuomilehto, Jaako; Villamil, Alberto S.; Vozar, Juraj; Califf, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND The ability of short-acting insulin secretagogues to reduce the risk of diabetes or cardiovascular events in people with impaired glucose tolerance is unknown. METHODS In a double-blind, randomized clinical trial, we assigned 9306 participants with impaired glucose tolerance and either ca

  9. Effect of Valsartan on the Incidence of Diabetes and Cardiovascular Events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McMurray, John J.; Holman, Rury R.; Haffner, Steven M.; Bethel, M. Angelyn; Holzhauer, Bjoern; Hua, Tsushung A.; Belenkov, Yuri; Boolell, Mitradev; Buse, John B.; Buckley, Brendan M.; Chacra, Antonio R.; Chiang, Fu-Tien; Charbonnel, Bernard; Chow, Chun-Chung; Davies, Melanie J.; Deedwania, Prakash; Diem, Peter; Einhorn, Daniel; Fonseca, Vivian; Fulcher, Gregory R.; Gaciong, Zbigniew; Gaztambide, Sonia; Giles, Thomas; Horton, Edward; Ilkova, Hasan; Jenssen, Trond; Kahn, Steven E.; Krum, Henry; Laakso, Markku; Leiter, Lawrence A.; Levitt, Naomi S.; Mareev, Viacheslav; Martinez, Felipe; Masson, Chantal; Mazzone, Theodore; Meaney, Eduardo; Nesto, Richard; Pan, Changyu; Prager, Rudolf; Raptis, Sotirios A.; Rutten, Guy E. H. M.; Sandstroem, Herbert; Schaper, Frank; Scheen, Andre; Schmitz, Ole; Sinay, Isaac; Soska, Vladimir; Stender, Steen; Tamas, Gyula; Tognoni, Gianni; Tuomilehto, Jaako; Villamil, Alberto S.; Vozar, Juraj; Califf, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND It is not known whether drugs that block the renin-angiotensin system reduce the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular events in patients with impaired glucose tolerance. METHODS In this double-blind, randomized clinical trial with a 2-by-2 factorial design, we assigned 9306 patients with i

  10. Effects of surgical stress and insulin on cardiovascular function and norepinephrine kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, N J; Hilsted, J; Hegedüs, Laszlo;

    1984-01-01

    insulin-dependent diabetics show abnormalities in the regulation of cardiovascular function and sympathetic nervous activity that may be related to the lack of rise in endogenous insulin in these patients. These results suggest that insulin may be of importance for the normal function...

  11. Mortal Kombat: The Effects of Violent Video Technology on Males' Hostility and Cardiovascular Responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Mary E.; Wiest, J. Rose

    A study examined differences in cardiovascular (CV) reactions and hostility following non-violent play and violent video game play. Subjects were 30 male college undergraduate students. Only male subjects were used because most video games are male oriented, males frequent videogame arcades more often than females, and the gender gap in video game…

  12. Effect of early intensive multifactorial therapy on 5-year cardiovascular outcomes in individuals with type 2 diabetes detected by screening (ADDITION-Europe)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griffin, Simon J; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Davies, Melanie J;

    2011-01-01

    Intensive treatment of multiple cardiovascular risk factors can halve mortality among people with established type 2 diabetes. We investigated the effect of early multifactorial treatment after diagnosis by screening....

  13. Short-term effects of a physical activity intervention on obesity and cardiovascular fitness of 12-14-year-old boy students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mohammad Marandi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Findings of this study signify that an implementation of short-term intervention components in the school system may have a beneficial effect on body-fat percentage and cardiovascular fitness of overweight/obese children.

  14. [Cardiovascular prevention - 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vértes, András; Szabados, Eszter

    2016-09-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the main causes of premature death worldwide despite the fact that cardiovascular mortality decreased significantly in the last few decades in financially developed countries. This reduction is partly due to the modern medical and revascularisation treatments, and partly because of the effectiveness of prevention strategies such as lowering blood pressure and cholesterol level, as well as successful strategies against smoking. However, this positive trend is undermined by the striking growth in obesity and in type 2 diabetes mellitus, which could also be successfully controlled by lifestyle changes. This summary is based on an overview of the recent (2016) European Guideline for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases. Here the authors describe preventive strategies and goals to be achieved, the most important lifestyle suggestions, and the secondary prevention medical treatment for patients with already established cardiovascular disease. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(38), 1526-1531. PMID:27640620

  15. Depression and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Steven M; Rumsfeld, John S

    2015-10-01

    There is a wealth of evidence linking depression to increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and worse outcomes among patients with known CVD. In addition, there are safe and effective treatments for depression. Despite this, depression remains under-recognized and undertreated in patients at risk for or living with CVD. In this review, we first summarize the evidence linking depression to increased risk of CVD and worse patient outcomes. We then review the mechanisms by which depression may contribute to cardiovascular risk and poor cardiovascular outcomes. We then summarize prior studies of depression treatment on cardiovascular outcomes. Finally, we offer guidance in the identification and management of depression among CVD populations. Given that 1 in 4 CVD patients has concurrent depression, application of these best-practices will assist providers in achieving optimal outcomes for their CVD patients. PMID:25850976

  16. Testosterone and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloner, Robert A; Carson, Culley; Dobs, Adrian; Kopecky, Stephen; Mohler, Emile R

    2016-02-01

    Testosterone (T) is the principal male sex hormone. As men age, T levels typically fall. Symptoms of low T include decreased libido, vasomotor instability, and decreased bone mineral density. Other symptoms may include depression, fatigue, erectile dysfunction, and reduced muscle strength/mass. Epidemiology studies show that low levels of T are associated with more atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, and cardiovascular events. However, treating hypogonadism in the aging male has resulted in discrepant results in regard to its effect on cardiovascular events. Emerging studies suggest that T may have a future role in treating heart failure, angina, and myocardial ischemia. A large, prospective, long-term study of T replacement, with a primary endpoint of a composite of adverse cardiovascular events including myocardial infarction, stroke, and/or cardiovascular death, is needed. The Food and Drug Administration recently put additional restrictions on T replacement therapy labeling and called for additional studies to determine its cardiac safety. PMID:26846952

  17. Modelos experimentales de enfermedad cardiovascular Experimental models of cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gil Hernández

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo describe los modelos experimentales de utilidad clínica en el estudio de las enfermedades cardiovasculares y hace énfasis en los modelos usados para determinar los mecanismos fisiopatológicos de la aterosclerosis, así como para evaluar los efectos de productos nutricionales y farmacológicos sobre el desarrollo de este proceso inflamatorio complejo común a muchas enfermedades cardiovasculares. Se revisan los modelos animales en los que se puede inducir aterosclerosis por cambios en la composición de la dieta y los modelos animales en los que la alteración de uno o más genes (animales knock-out y knock-in, o la incorporación de genes foráneos de otras especies, da lugar a la aparición de hiperlipidemia con riesgo asociado de aparición de enfermedad cardiovascular temprana. Por otra parte, se consideran algunas de las líneas celulares más utilizadas en el estudio de los mecanismos moleculares de la aterogénesis y de evaluación de sustancias con interés nutricional o farmacológico.The present work describes clinically useful experimental models for the study of cardiovascular disease and emphasites the models used to determine the pathophysiologic mechanisms of atherosclerosis, as well as to evaluate the effects of nutritional and pharmacological products on the development of this complex inflammatory process present in many cardiovascular diseases. Animal models in which ahterosclerosis may be induced by dietary changes are reviewed, as well as those in which modification in one or more genes (knock-out and knock-in animals, or the incorporation of foreign genes from other species lead to early cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, some of the cell lines most frequently used in studying molecular mechanisms of atherosclerosis and assessment of substances with nutritional or pharmacological interest are considered.

  18. Combined effect of blood pressure and total cholesterol levels on long-term risks of subtypes of cardiovascular death: Evidence for Cardiovascular Prevention from Observational Cohorts in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Michihiro; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Asayama, Kei; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Sakurai, Masaru; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Iso, Hiroyasu; Okayama, Akira; Miura, Katsuyuki; Imai, Yutaka; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Okamura, Tomonori

    2015-03-01

    No large-scale, longitudinal studies have examined the combined effects of blood pressure (BP) and total cholesterol levels on long-term risks for subtypes of cardiovascular death in an Asian population. To investigate these relationships, a meta-analysis of individual participant data, which included 73 916 Japanese subjects (age, 57.7 years; men, 41.1%) from 11 cohorts, was conducted. During a mean follow-up of 15.0 years, deaths from coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, and intraparenchymal hemorrhage occurred in 770, 724, and 345 cases, respectively. Cohort-stratified Cox proportional hazard models were used. After stratifying the participants by 4 systolic BP ×4 total cholesterol categories, the group with systolic BP ≥160 mm Hg with total cholesterol ≥5.7 mmol/L had the greatest risk for coronary heart disease death (adjusted hazard ratio, 4.39; P<0.0001 versus group with systolic BP <120 mm Hg and total cholesterol <4.7 mmol/L). The adjusted hazard ratios of systolic BP (per 20 mm Hg) increased with increases in total cholesterol categories (hazard ratio, 1.52; P<0.0001 in group with total cholesterol ≥5.7 mmol/L). Similarly, the adjusted hazard ratios of total cholesterol increased with increases in systolic BP categories (P for interaction ≤0.04). Systolic BP was positively associated with ischemic stroke and intraparenchymal hemorrhage death, and total cholesterol was inversely associated with intraparenchymal hemorrhage, but no significant interactions between BP and total cholesterol were observed for stroke. High BP and high total cholesterol can synergistically increase the risk for coronary heart disease death but not for stroke in the Asian population.

  19. Effects of weight loss and long-term weight maintenance with diets varying in protein and glycemic index on cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gögebakan, Özlem; Kohl, Angela; Osterhoff, Martin A.;

    2011-01-01

    We sought to separately examine the effects of either weight loss or diets varying in protein content and glycemic index without further changes in body weight on cardiovascular risk factors within the Diet, Obesity, and Genes study (DiOGenes).......We sought to separately examine the effects of either weight loss or diets varying in protein content and glycemic index without further changes in body weight on cardiovascular risk factors within the Diet, Obesity, and Genes study (DiOGenes)....

  20. Effectiveness of programmes as part of primary prevention demonstrated on the example of cardiovascular diseases and the metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korczak, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The HTA-report (HTA = Health Technology Assessment deals with the primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus type 2. In 2009 approximately 356,000 people died in Germany due to cardiovascular diseases. According to estimations about 6.3 million people are suffering from diabetes mellitus type 2. The interventions that are subsidized by the public health insurance are mainly focused on sufficient physical activities, healthy nutrition, stress management and the reduction of the consumption of addictive drugs and luxury food. Objectives: Which lifestyle-related measures and/or programmes for primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases and of the metabolic syndrome are effective? To what extent will the health status be improved by these offers? To what extent will existing health resources and skills be strengthened by these offers? Are there any differences regarding the effectiveness among the interventions with respect to different settings or subgroups? Which lifestyle-related interventions and/or programmes for primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases and of the metabolic syndrome are sustainable and cost-effective? Which outcome parameters are in the view of the contributors decisive for the evaluation of the effectiveness? In the view of the contributor are there different values between the outcome parameters? In the view of the payers and other actors are there different values between the outcome parameters? Which ethical and juridical factors have to be considered? Which social and/or socio-economic parameters influence the use of the services and effectiveness? Methods: A systematic literature research is done in 35 databases. For the period 2005 to 2010, reviews, epidemiological and clinical studies as well as economical evaluations which deal with primary prevention programmes regarding cardiovascular diseases or the metabolic syndrome are included. Results: 44 publications meet the