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Sample records for cardiovascular effects induced

  1. Radiation-induced cardiovascular effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapio, Soile

    Recent epidemiological studies indicate that exposure to ionising radiation enhances the risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in a moderate but significant manner. Our goal is to identify molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cardiovascular disease using cellular and mouse models. Two radiation targets are studied in detail: the vascular endothelium that plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cardiac function, and the myocardium, in particular damage to the cardiac mitochondria. Ionising radiation causes immediate and persistent alterations in several biological pathways in the endothelium in a dose- and dose-rate dependent manner. High acute and cumulative doses result in rapid, non-transient remodelling of the endothelial cytoskeleton, as well as increased lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation of the heart tissue, independent of whether exposure is local or total body. Proteomic and functional changes are observed in lipid metabolism, glycolysis, mitochondrial function (respiration, ROS production etc.), oxidative stress, cellular adhesion, and cellular structure. The transcriptional regulators Akt and PPAR alpha seem to play a central role in the radiation-response of the endothelium and myocardium, respectively. We have recently started co-operation with GSI in Darmstadt to study the effect of heavy ions on the endothelium. Our research will facilitate the identification of biomarkers associated with adverse cardiac effects of ionising radiation and may lead to the development of countermeasures against radiation-induced cardiac damage.

  2. Effects of Exercise on Cardiovascular Dysfunctions Induced by Cigarette Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Sater Khaled A.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is known to adversely affect many organs and systems in human, where the cardiovascular system is one of the important targets. However, the exact mechanisms by which cigarette smoke alters myocardial and endothelial cells function and induces cardiovascular pathology are not clear. There are no reports especially with nitric oxide (NO•, uric acid and hemodynamics after acute exercise in smokers up to date. This study is designed to investigate the role of oxidative stress, NO• and uric acid in the pathophysiologic mechanisms of smoking- induced cardiovascular diseases.40 apparently healthy subjects were studied. Depending on their previous physical conditioning status subjects were divided into equal four groups (n=10, physically active nonsmokers, physically active smokers, sedentary nonsmokers and sedentary smokers. Exercise tolerance was evaluated for each subject by using a running race (3 kilometers after a worming up period of 5 minutes.The obtained data revealed that regular exercise significantly decreased the plasma malonaldehyde, total cholesterol, LDL and uric acid levels below sedentary levels. Pre and post race plasma level of malonaldehyde and uric acid levels were significantly increased, while, plasma glutathione and NO• were decreased in sedentary smokers than the sedentary non smokers, physically active smokers and physically active non smokers.These findings point to the role of NO•, uric acid and lipid peroxide in the pathophysiologic mechanisms of smoking induced cardiovascular diseases. Sedentary smokers may be at an even greater risk of oxidative stress-related cardiovascular diseases. Finally, every body should include in a regular exercise.

  3. Biphasic cardiovascular and respiratory effects induced by β-citronellol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Filho, Helder Veras; de Souza Silva, Camila Meirelles; de Siqueira, Rodrigo JoséBezerra; Lahlou, Saad; Dos Santos, Armênio Aguiar; Magalhães, Pedro Jorge Caldas

    2016-03-15

    β-Citronellol is a monoterpene found in the essential oil of various plants with antihypertensive properties. In fact, β-citronellol possesses hypotensive actions due to its vasodilator abilities. Here we aimed to show that β-citronellol recruits airway sensory neural circuitry to evoke cardiorespiratory effects. In anesthetized rats, intravenous injection of β-citronellol caused biphasic hypotension, bradycardia and apnea. Bilateral vagotomy, perivagal capsaicin treatment or injection into the left ventricle abolished first rapid phase (named P1) but not delayed phase P2 of the β-citronellol effects. P1 persisted after pretreatment with capsazepine, ondansetron, HC-030031 or suramin. Suramin abolished P2 of apnea. In awake rats, β-citronellol induced biphasic hypotension and bradycardia being P1 abolished by methylatropine. In vitro, β-citronellol inhibited spontaneous or electrically-evoked contractions of rat isolated right or left atrium, respectively, and fully relaxed sustained contractions of phenylephrine in mesenteric artery rings. In conclusion, chemosensitive pulmonary vagal afferent fibers appear to mediate the cardiovascular and respiratory effects of β-citronellol. The transduction mechanism in P1 seems not to involve the activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1), transient receptor potential ankyrin subtype 1 (TRPA1), purinergic (P2X) or 5-HT3 receptors located on airways sensory nerves. P2 of hypotension and bradycardia seems resulting from a cardioinhibitory and vasodilatory effect of β-citronellol and the apnea from a purinergic signaling. PMID:26872991

  4. Median effective concentration of remifentanil for the inhibition of laryngoscope-induced cardiovascular responses

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhenhai; Wang, Fei; Wang, Weizhi; LUO, YANHUA

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to calculate the median effective concentration (EC50) of remifentanil (Rem) for the inhibition of laryngoscope-induced cardiovascular responses, and to observe its effects on the cardiovascular system and stress system. The study included 20 patients, who underwent time-scheduled vocal cord polyp resection with monitoring of heart rate (HR), mean blood pressure (MBP) and auditory evoked potential (AEP)-based A-line ARX Index (AAI). The Rem concentration was initiall...

  5. Activation of the central histaminergic system mediates arachidonic-acid-induced cardiovascular effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinbas, Burcin; Topuz, Bora Burak; İlhan, Tuncay; Yilmaz, Mustafa Sertac; Erdost, Hatice; Yalcin, Murat

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explain the involvement of the central histaminergic system in arachidonic acid (AA)-induced cardiovascular effects in normotensive rats using hemodynamic, immunohistochemistry, and microdialysis studies. Intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered AA (0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 μmol) induced dose- and time-dependent increases in mean arterial pressure and decreased heart rate in conscious normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats. Central injection of AA (0.5 μmol) also increased posterior hypothalamic extracellular histamine levels and produced strong COX-1 but not COX-2 immunoreactivity in the posterior hypothalamus of rats. Moreover, the cardiovascular effects and COX-1 immunoreactivity in the posterior hypothalamus induced by AA (0.5 μmol; i.c.v.) were almost completely blocked by the H2 receptor antagonist ranitidine (50 and 100 nmol; i.c.v.) and partially blocked by the H1 receptor blocker chlorpheniramine (100 nmol; i.c.v.) and the H3-H4 receptor antagonist thioperamide (50 and 100 nmol; i.c.v.). In conclusion, these results indicate that centrally administered AA induces pressor and bradycardic responses in conscious rats. Moreover, we suggest that AA may activate histaminergic neurons and increase extracellular histamine levels, particularly in the posterior hypothalamus. Acting as a neurotransmitter, histamine is potentially involved in AA-induced cardiovascular effects under normotensive conditions. PMID:25065747

  6. Stonefish antivenom neutralises the inflammatory and cardiovascular effects induced by scorpionfish Scorpaena plumieri venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Helena L; Menezes, Thiago N; Carnielli, Juliana B T; Andrich, Filipe; Evangelista, Karla S; Chávez-Olórtegui, Carlos; Vassallo, Dalton V; Figueiredo, Suely G

    2011-06-01

    Venomous fish are often involved in human accidents and symptoms of envenomation include local (intense pain and swelling) and systemic effects (cardiovascular and neurological disorders). However the only commercially available antivenom is against the Indo-Pacific stonefish Synanceja trachynisStonefish Antivenom (SFAV). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential of SFAV in neutralising the in vivo effects of some toxic activities of scorpionfish Scorpaena plumieri venom (SpV), and the in vitro immuno cross-reactivity. The SpV (7.5-100 μg/animal) caused nociceptive and dose-dependent edematogenic responses in the mice footpad. In rats SpV (300 μg/kg, i.v.) produced immediate and transient increase in arterial blood pressure and decrease in heart rate. Prior incubation of SpV with SFAV (1 μg SpV/1 U SFAV) abolished the inflammatory response, and significantly attenuated the cardiovascular effects induced by SPV. Western blotting analysis on two-dimensional SDS-PAGE of S plumieri venom proteins using SFAV proved that the epitopes recognized by SFAV are shared with the ∼98 kDa proteins. This is the first report of venom similarities between Indo-Pacific and Atlantic venomous fish, suggesting that the SpV compound responsible for inflammatory and cardiovascular effects possesses similar biochemical and antigenic properties to those found in stonefish venom. PMID:21510970

  7. Effect of aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea on cardiovascular complications and cataract associated with streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Bhadada, Shraddha V.; Goyal, R. K.

    2015-01-01

    Tephrosia purpurea has been reported to possess antidiabetic activity, however, its effects on cardiovascular complications and cataract associated with diabetes have not been studied. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea on cardiovascular complications and cataract associated with streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. Sprague Dawley rats of either sex were made diabetic with streptozotocin (45 mg/kg, i.v.). Treatment of...

  8. Manganese ferrite-based nanoparticles induce ex vivo, but not in vivo, cardiovascular effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunes ADC

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Allancer DC Nunes,1 Laylla S Ramalho,2 Álvaro PS Souza,1 Elizabeth P Mendes,1,3 Diego B Colugnati,1 Nícholas Zufelato,2 Marcelo H Sousa,4 Andris F Bakuzis,2 Carlos H Castro1,3 1Department of Physiological Sciences, 2Physics Institute, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, Brazil; 3National Institute of Science and Technology in Nanobiopharmaceutics, Belo Horizonte, Brazil; 4Faculty of Ceilândia, University of Brasília, Brasília-DF, Brazil Abstract: Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs have been used for various biomedical applications. Importantly, manganese ferrite-based nanoparticles have useful magnetic resonance imaging characteristics and potential for hyperthermia treatment, but their effects in the cardiovascular system are poorly reported. Thus, the objectives of this study were to determine the cardiovascular effects of three different types of manganese ferrite-based magnetic nanoparticles: citrate-coated (CiMNPs; tripolyphosphate-coated (PhMNPs; and bare magnetic nanoparticles (BaMNPs. The samples were characterized by vibrating sample magnetometer, X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy. The direct effects of the MNPs on cardiac contractility were evaluated in isolated perfused rat hearts. The CiMNPs, but not PhMNPs and BaMNPs, induced a transient decrease in the left ventricular end-systolic pressure. The PhMNPs and BaMNPs, but not CiMNPs, induced an increase in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, which resulted in a decrease in a left ventricular end developed pressure. Indeed, PhMNPs and BaMNPs also caused a decrease in the maximal rate of left ventricular pressure rise (+dP/dt and maximal rate of left ventricular pressure decline (–dP/dt. The three MNPs studied induced an increase in the perfusion pressure of isolated hearts. BaMNPs, but not PhMNPs or CiMNPs, induced a slight vasorelaxant effect in the isolated aortic rings. None of the MNPs were able to change heart

  9. Evaluation of effect of highly standardized aqueous extract of roots and leaves of Withania somnifera on cold pressor test induced cardiovascular changes in healthy human subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Raveendranath Pilli; Niranjan Koilagundla; Ramakanth GSH; Usharani Pingali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stress is an important cardiovascular risk factor. Cold pressor test (CPT) is a simple, validated, non-invasive test used to measure stress induced changes in cardiovascular parameters. The objective of this study was to evaluate effect of Withania somnifera extract on cold pressor stress test induced changes on cardiovascular parameters and aortic wave reflections in healthy human subjects. Methods: This was a double-blind, placebo controlled, crossover study. Participants wer...

  10. Ameliorative effect of black tea on nicotine induced cardiovascular pathogenesis in rat

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamhoseinian, Ahmad; Joukar, Farzin; Joukar, Siyavash; Najafipour, Hamid; Shahouzehi, Beydolah

    2012-01-01

    Regarding the role of nicotine in the development of cardiovascular complications of smoking, we investigated whether black tea has a modulatory effect on cardiovascular pathogenesis of nicotine in rat. Animals were randomized to control, tea, nicotine and tea plus nicotine groups. Test groups received black tea brewed (adding 400 ml boiling water to 10 g Lipton black tea for 5 min) orally alone or with nicotine 2 mg/kg/day, s.c. separately or combined for four weeks. On 28th day, lipids p...

  11. Effects of Orlistat-induced Weight Loss on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Obese Chinese Subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐明彤; 吴木潮; 黎锋; 周淑娴; 程桦; 傅祖植

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To observe the influence of weight loss induced by orlistat onseveral cardiovascular diseases risk factors in obeseChinese subjects. Methods Sixty obese Chinesepatients participated in a 24 week clinical trial. Par-ticipants were prescribed a slightly hypocaloric diet andexercise, then they were randomly assigned double-blind treatment with either orlistat 120 mg three times aday or placebo. Their body weight, blood pressure,fasting glucose, insulin, HbA1c, and serum lipid pro-file were performed before and after the weight lossintervention. Results After 24 weeks, orlistat-treated group lost more of their body weight thanplacebo group (6.66 ± 0.52 kg, 8.44 ± 4.08 % and1.98±0.44 kg, 2.44±1.74%, respectively, P <0.05) Moreover, after treatment, orlistat - treatedpatients showed significant decreases in serum levels oftotal cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesteroland high density lipoprotein - cholesterol ( P <0.01), but in placebo group we found no change.Both systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pres-sure fell significantly in orlistat-treated group.Fasting glucose and HOMA- IR in orlistat- treatedgroup was distinctly reduced if compared with placebogroup. Conclusions Weight loss resulting fromorlistat treatment and slightly hypocaloric diet hasproduced favorable effects on several cardiovascularrisk factors in obese Chinese subjects.

  12. Protective effects of Nigella sativa against hypertension-induced oxidative stress and cardiovascular dysfunction in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Taşar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the protective effect of Nigella sativa against oxidative injury in the heart and kidney tissues of rats with renovascular hypertension (RVH. RVH model was induced by placing a renal artery clip (2-kidney-1-clip, 2K1C in Wistar albino rats (n= 8, while sham rats (n= 8 had no clip placement. Starting on the 3rd week after the operation, rats received Nigella sativa (0.2 ml/kg/day, intraperitoneally or vehicle for the following 6 weeks. Blood pressures (BP were recorded at the beginning of the study and at the end of the 3rd and 9th weeks. Cardiac functions were assessed using transthoracic echocardiography before the rats were decapitated. Plasma samples were obtained to assay asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, nitric oxide (NO, creatine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH levels. Production of reactive oxidants was monitored by chemiluminescence (CL assay in the cardiac and renal tissues. Moreover oxidative injury was examined through malondialdehyde (MDA and glutathione (GSH levels and Na+,K+-ATPase activity in these tissues. 2K1C caused increased BP and left ventricular (LV dysfunction, while plasma ADMA, CK, and LDH levels were increased (p<0.05-0.001. Moreover, hypertension caused significant decreases in plasma NO levels, as well as in tissue Na+,K+-ATPase activities and GSH contents, while MDA levels in both tissues were increased (p<0.05-0.001. On the other hand, Nigella sativa treatment significantly reduced BP, attenuated oxidative injury and improved LV function. Nigella sativa protected against hypertension-induced tissue damage and improved cardiovascular function via its antioxidant and antihypertensive actions, suggesting a therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa in renovascular hypertension.

  13. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Tephrosia purpurea on Cardiovascular Complications and Cataract Associated with Streptozotocin-induced Diabetes in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadada, Shraddha V; Goyal, R K

    2015-01-01

    Tephrosia purpurea has been reported to possess antidiabetic activity, however, its effects on cardiovascular complications and cataract associated with diabetes have not been studied. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea on cardiovascular complications and cataract associated with streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. Sprague Dawley rats of either sex were made diabetic with streptozotocin (45 mg/kg, i.v.). Treatment of aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea was given in the dose of 300 and 500 mg/kg/day, p.o for 8 weeks. Various hemodynamic (blood pressure, heart rate, +dp/dt, -dp/dt) and biochemical (serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine, urea, lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine kinase) parameters were recorded after 8 weeks of the treatment. To evaluate cataract, various biochemical estimations were done in eye lens. Streptozotocin produced hyperglycemia; hypoinsulinemia; hyperlipidemia; increased blood pressure; increased creatinine, cardiac enzymes, reduction in heart rate and cardiac hypertrophy in rats and all these changes were prevented by the treatment with aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea in both the doses. Streptozotocin also produced decrease in soluble protein and reduced glutathione in lens of rats that was prevented by aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea. Our data suggest that aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea prevents not only the streptozotocin-induced metabolic abnormalities but also cardiovascular complications as well as reduce the risk of development of cataract. PMID:26798165

  14. Effect of aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea on cardiovascular complications and cataract associated with streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraddha V Bhadada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tephrosia purpurea has been reported to possess antidiabetic activity, however, its effects on cardiovascular complications and cataract associated with diabetes have not been studied. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea on cardiovascular complications and cataract associated with streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. Sprague Dawley rats of either sex were made diabetic with streptozotocin (45 mg/kg, i.v.. Treatment of aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea was given in the dose of 300 and 500 mg/kg/day, p.o for 8 weeks. Various hemodynamic (blood pressure, heart rate, +dp/dt, -dp/dt and biochemical (serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine, urea, lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine kinase parameters were recorded after 8 weeks of the treatment. To evaluate cataract, various biochemical estimations were done in eye lens. Streptozotocin produced hyperglycemia; hypoinsulinemia; hyperlipidemia; increased blood pressure; increased creatinine, cardiac enzymes, reduction in heart rate and cardiac hypertrophy in rats and all these changes were prevented by the treatment with aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea in both the doses. Streptozotocin also produced decrease in soluble protein and reduced glutathione in lens of rats that was prevented by aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea. Our data suggest that aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea prevents not only the streptozotocin-induced metabolic abnormalities but also cardiovascular complications as well as reduce the risk of development of cataract.

  15. Protective effect of curcumin on pulmonary and cardiovascular effects induced by repeated exposure to diesel exhaust particles in mice.

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    Abderrahim Nemmar

    Full Text Available Particulate air pollution has been associated with increased risk of cardiopulmonary diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We have previously demonstrated that single dose exposure to diesel exhaust particle (DEP causes lung inflammation and peripheral thrombotic events. Here, we exposed mice with repeated doses of DEP (15 µg/animal every 2(nd day for 6 days (a total of 4 exposures, and measured several cardiopulmonary endpoints 48 h after the end of the treatments. Moreover, the potential protective effect of curcumin (the yellow pigment isolated from turmeric on DEP-induced cardiopulmonary toxicity was assessed. DEP exposure increased macrophage and neutrophil numbers, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF α in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid, and enhanced airway resistance to methacoline measured invasively using Flexivent. DEP also significantly increased plasma C-reactive protein (CRP and TNF α concentrations, systolic blood pressure (SBP as well as the pial arteriolar thrombosis. It also significantly enhanced the plasma D-dimer and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1. Pretreatment with curcumin by oral gavage (45 mg/kg 1 h before exposure to DEP significantly prevented the influx of inflammatory cells and the increase of TNF α in BAL, and the increased airway resistance caused by DEP. Likewise, curcumin prevented the increase of SBP, CRP, TNF α, D-dimer and PAI-1. The thrombosis was partially but significantly mitigated. In conclusion, repeated exposure to DEP induced lung and systemic inflammation characterized by TNFα release, increased SBP, and accelerated coagulation. Our findings indicate that curcumin is a potent anti-inflammatory agent that prevents the release of TNFα and protects against the pulmonary and cardiovascular effects of DEP.

  16. Prevention and reversal by cocaine esterase of cocaine-induced cardiovascular effects in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Susan K.; Narasimhan, Diwahar; Cooper, Ziva; Sunahara, Roger K; Woods, James H.

    2009-01-01

    The present study is the first to utilize bacterial cocaine esterase (CocE) to increase elimination of a lethal dose of cocaine and evaluate its cardioprotective effects. Rats received one of 5 treatments: CocE 1 min after saline; CocE 1 min after a lethal i.p. dose of cocaine; saline 1 min after a lethal i.p. dose of cocaine; CocE immediately after observing a cocaine-induced convulsion; and CocE 1 min after observing a cocaine-induced convulsion. Measures were taken of ECG, blood pressure, ...

  17. The ventral surface of the medulla in the rat: pharmacologic and autoradiographic localization of GABA-induced cardiovascular effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, J R; Shults, C W; Chase, T N; Helke, C J

    1984-04-16

    Experiments were done to evaluate a rat model for studying the cardiovascular effects of pharmacological manipulations of the ventral surface of the medulla. GABAergic drugs were used because of their well-characterized actions at the ventral surface of the medulla in the cat. GABA and muscimol, applied to the exposed ventral surface with filter paper pledgets, produced dose-dependent decreases in heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) which were reversed with bicuculline but not with strychnine. Bicuculline alone raised HR and MAP. The GABA- or bicuculline-induced cardiovascular effects were mediated primarily by inhibition of sympathetic outflow. The most sensitive site was localized to an intermediate area on the ventral surface of the medulla, between the trapezoid body and exits of the hypoglossal nerves and just lateral to the pyramids. Topical application of [3H]GABA to the intermediate area resulted in labeling that was concentrated at the site of application, and which penetrated the parenchyma 1 mm dorsally. The heaviest labeling was found primarily in the ventral halves of the lateral paragigantocellular nuclei. No tritium was detected in peripheral blood. These data provide evidence for a neuronal system at the ventral medullary surface of the rat which influences sympathetic outflow and is modulated by GABA. PMID:6326937

  18. POSSIBLE PREVENTIVE EFFECT OF CHITOSAN FROM CARDIOVASCULAR RISK INDUCED BY IRRADIATION OR ISOPRENALINE IN RATS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myocardial infarction is a major public health concern leading to death all over the world. In the present study, an attempt has been made to examine the antioxidant and preventive effects of chitosan (marine polysaccharide) on ionizing radiation or isoprenaline-induced atherosclerosis in male albino rats. Dietary supplementation of 4% chitosan for one month significantly reduced the elevation in the levels of serum and plasma diagnostic parameters induced as a results of ionizing radiation exposure or isoprenaline injection. It exerted significant antilipidemic and antioxidant effects by maintaining the levels of total lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides and low density lipoprotein in serum at the levels comparable to that of control animals. Also, chitosan supplementation significantly prevented gamma radiation and isoprenaline-induced lipid peroxidation and maintained the reduced glutathione content, glutathione peroxidase activity, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in plasma near the normal level. The results of the present investigation indicated that the cardioprotective effect of chitosan might be ascribable to the hypolipidemic property and/or antioxidant nature of chitosan

  19. Protective effects of Nigella sativa against hypertension-induced oxidative stress and cardiovascular dysfunction in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Taşar; Ahmet Özer Şehirli; Ömer Yiğiner; Selami Süleymanoğlu; Meral Yüksel; Berrak Yeğen; Göksel Şener

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the protective effect of Nigella sativa against oxidative injury in the heart and kidney tissues of rats with renovascular hypertension (RVH). RVH model was induced by placing a renal artery clip (2-kidney-1-clip, 2K1C) in Wistar albino rats (n= 8), while sham rats (n= 8) had no clip placement. Starting on the 3rd week after the operation, rats received Nigella sativa (0.2 ml/kg/day, intraperitoneally) or vehicle for the following 6 weeks. Blood pressures (BP) were recorded at...

  20. The effects of acute intermittent hypoxia on cardiovascular parameters in normotensive and chronic hypobaric hypoxia-induced hypertensive rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Muhittin O; Guner, Ibrahim; Uzun, Hafize; Sahin, Gulderen; Yelmen, Nermin

    2014-01-01

    The effects of both chronic hypoxia and acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) on cardiovascular system are unclear. We designed this study to develop a rabbit model of hypertension by exposure to chronic hypobaric hypoxia (CHH) and to investigate the effects of AIH on hypertensive rabbits. Present study was performed in 13 albino rabbits that divided into CHH and control groups. To develop hypertension, the rabbits were placed in a hypobaric chamber (390 mmHg; 22 hours/day, 30 days). Afterwards, AIH protocol was applied (8% FIO2 (Fraction of Inspired Oxygen) 1 min + 5 min normoxia, 20 cycles, 2 hours) to rabbits anesthetized with urethane and alpha-chloralose. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and hematocrit values have been determined. Also asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), endothelin-1 and norepinephrine values have been analyzed in blood. We developed a model of hypertension in rabbits via exposure to severe CHH and we believe that ADMA is an important parameter in the development and permanence of CHH-induced hypertension. The main finding of this sudy was the depressor effect of AIH on blood pressure and heart rate in CHH- induced hypertension model. Finally, we believe that AIH protocol may be applicable for prevention and treatment of hypertension if properly developed. PMID:24448370

  1. Cardiovascular effects of basal insulins

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    Mannucci E

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Edoardo Mannucci,1 Stefano Giannini,2 Ilaria Dicembrini1 1Diabetes Agency, Careggi Teaching Hospital, Florence, 2Section of Endocrinology, Department of Biomedical Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Florence and Careggi University Hospital, Florence, Italy Abstract: Basal insulin is an important component of treatment for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. One of the principal aims of treatment in patients with diabetes is the prevention of diabetic complications, including cardiovascular disease. There is some evidence, although controversial, that attainment of good glycemic control reduces long-term cardiovascular risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the potential cardiovascular safety of the different available preparations of basal insulin. Current basal insulin (neutral protamine Hagedorn [NPH], or isophane and basal insulin analogs (glargine, detemir, and the more recent degludec differ essentially by various measures of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects in the bloodstream, presence and persistence of peak action, and within-subject variability in the glucose-lowering response. The currently available data show that basal insulin analogs have a lower risk of hypoglycemia than NPH human insulin, in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, then excluding additional harmful effects on the cardiovascular system mediated by activation of the adrenergic system. Given that no biological rationale for a possible difference in cardiovascular effect of basal insulins has been proposed so far, available meta-analyses of publicly disclosed randomized controlled trials do not show any signal of increased risk of major cardiovascular events between the different basal insulin analogs. However, the number of available cardiovascular events in these trials is very small, preventing any clear-cut conclusion. The results of an ongoing clinical trial comparing glargine and degludec with

  2. Effect of gliclazide on cardiovascular risk factors involved in split-dose streptozotocin induced neonatal rat model: a chronic study

    OpenAIRE

    I. Mohammed Salman; Md. Naseeruddin Inamdar

    2012-01-01

    Background: The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of gliclazide on cardiovascular risk factors involved in type 2 diabetes mellitus using n-STZ rat model on a long term basis. Methods: The diabetic model was developed using a split dose of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg) intraperitoneally on 2nd and 3rd postnatal days. The diabetic rats were treated orally with gliclazide suspension at the dose of 10 mg/kg for 90 days. Cardiovascular risk factors such as systolic blood pressure, heart ra...

  3. Cardiovascular effects of basal insulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannucci, Edoardo; Giannini, Stefano; Dicembrini, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Basal insulin is an important component of treatment for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. One of the principal aims of treatment in patients with diabetes is the prevention of diabetic complications, including cardiovascular disease. There is some evidence, although controversial, that attainment of good glycemic control reduces long-term cardiovascular risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the potential cardiovascular safety of the different available preparations of basal insulin. Current basal insulin (neutral protamine Hagedorn [NPH], or isophane) and basal insulin analogs (glargine, detemir, and the more recent degludec) differ essentially by various measures of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects in the bloodstream, presence and persistence of peak action, and within-subject variability in the glucose-lowering response. The currently available data show that basal insulin analogs have a lower risk of hypoglycemia than NPH human insulin, in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, then excluding additional harmful effects on the cardiovascular system mediated by activation of the adrenergic system. Given that no biological rationale for a possible difference in cardiovascular effect of basal insulins has been proposed so far, available meta-analyses of publicly disclosed randomized controlled trials do not show any signal of increased risk of major cardiovascular events between the different basal insulin analogs. However, the number of available cardiovascular events in these trials is very small, preventing any clear-cut conclusion. The results of an ongoing clinical trial comparing glargine and degludec with regard to cardiovascular safety will provide definitive evidence. PMID:26203281

  4. Effect of gliclazide on cardiovascular risk factors involved in split-dose streptozotocin induced neonatal rat model: a chronic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Mohammed Salman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of gliclazide on cardiovascular risk factors involved in type 2 diabetes mellitus using n-STZ rat model on a long term basis. Methods: The diabetic model was developed using a split dose of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg intraperitoneally on 2nd and 3rd postnatal days. The diabetic rats were treated orally with gliclazide suspension at the dose of 10 mg/kg for 90 days. Cardiovascular risk factors such as systolic blood pressure, heart rate, lipid profile, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase were evaluated at regular intervals along with fasting blood glucose (FBG and oral glucose tolerance test. Results: Gliclazide did not alter FBG however improved the impaired glucose tolerance. The gliclazide treated rats did not develop hypertension and there was a significant difference (p<0.001 at the end of treatment when compared to the diabetic group which could be due to free radical scavenging property of gliclazide. Gliclazide treatment in n-STZ model was found to be effective in preventing hypertension, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activity. Also gliclazide was found to have beneficial effects on the impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidaemia, adiposity index and total fat pad weight. Conclusions: To improve and prevent the cardiovascular risk factors involved in Type II diabetic patients, gliclazide could be clinically beneficial. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2012; 1(3.000: 196-201

  5. Cardiovascular adverse effects of phenytoin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guldiken, B; Rémi, J; Noachtar, Soheyl

    2016-05-01

    Phenytoin is an established drug in the treatment of acute repetitive seizures and status epilepticus. One of its main advantages over benzodiazepines is the less sedative effect. However, the possibility of cardiovascular adverse effects with the intravenous use of phenytoin cause a reluctance to its usage, and this has lead to a search for safer anticonvulsant drugs. In this study, we aimed to review the studies which evaluated the safety of phenytoin with respect to cardiovascular adverse effects. The original clinical trials and case reports listed in PUBMED in English language between the years of 1946-2014 were evaluated. As the key words, "phenytoin, diphenylhydantoin, epilepsy, seizure, cardiac toxicity, asystole, arrhythmia, respiratory arrest, hypotension, death" were used. Thirty-two clinical trials and ten case reports were identified. In the case reports, a rapid infusion rate (>50 mg/min) of phenytoin appeared as the major cause of increased mortality. In contrast, no serious cardiovascular adverse effects leading to death were met in the clinical trials which applied the recommended infusion rate and dosages. An infusion rate of 50 mg/min was reported to be safe for young patients. For old patients and patients with a cardiovascular co-morbidity, a slower infusion rate was recommended with a careful follow-up of heart rhythm and blood pressure. No cardiovascular adverse effect was reported in oral phenytoin overdoses except one case with a very high serum phenytoin level and hypoalbuminemia. Phenytoin is an effective and well tolerated drug in the treatment of epilepsy. Intravenous phenytoin is safe when given at recommended infusion rates and doses. PMID:26645393

  6. The lysyl oxidase inhibitor (β-aminopropionitrile) reduces leptin profibrotic effects and ameliorates cardiovascular remodeling in diet-induced obesity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Martínez, Ernesto; Rodríguez, Cristina; Galán, María; Miana, María; Jurado-López, Raquel; Bartolomé, María Visitación; Luaces, María; Islas, Fabián; Martínez-González, José; López-Andrés, Natalia; Cachofeiro, Victoria

    2016-03-01

    Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is an extracellular matrix (ECM)-modifying enzyme that has been involved in cardiovascular remodeling. We explore the impact of LOX inhibition in ECM alterations induced by obesity in the cardiovascular system. LOX is overexpressed in the heart and aorta from rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). β-Aminopropionitrile (BAPN), an inhibitor of LOX activity, significantly attenuated the increase in body weight and cardiac hypertrophy observed in HFD rats. No significant differences were found in cardiac function or blood pressure among any group. However, HFD rats showed cardiac and vascular fibrosis and enhanced levels of superoxide anion (O2(-)), collagen I and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) in heart and aorta and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in aorta, effects that were attenuated by LOX inhibition. Interestingly, BAPN also prevented the increase in circulating leptin levels detected in HFD fed animals. Leptin increased protein levels of collagen I, TGF-β and CTGF, Akt phosphorylation and O2(-) production in both cardiac myofibroblasts and vascular smooth muscle cells in culture, while LOX inhibition ameliorated these alterations. LOX knockdown also attenuated leptin-induced collagen I production in cardiovascular cells. Our findings indicate that LOX inhibition attenuates the fibrosis and the oxidative stress induced by a HFD on the cardiovascular system. The reduction of leptin levels by BAPN in vivo and the ability of this compound to inhibit leptin-induced profibrotic mediators and ROS production in cardiac and vascular cells suggest that interactions between leptin and LOX regulate downstream events responsible for myocardial and vascular fibrosis in obesity. PMID:26780438

  7. Biological effects of dynamic shear stress in cardiovascular pathologies and devices

    OpenAIRE

    Girdhar, Gaurav; Bluestein, Danny

    2008-01-01

    Altered and highly dynamic shear stress conditions have been implicated in endothelial dysfunction leading to cardiovascular disease, and in thromboembolic complications in prosthetic cardiovascular devices. In addition to vascular damage, the pathological flow patterns characterizing cardiovascular pathologies and blood flow in prosthetic devices induce shear activation and damage to blood constituents. Investigation of the specific and accentuated effects of such flow-induced perturbations ...

  8. Effect of Tinospora cordifolia on physical and cardiovascular performance induced by physical stress in healthy human volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salve, Bharat A.; Tripathi, Raakhi K.; Petare, Anup U.; Raut, Ashwinikumar A.; Rege, Nirmala N.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In Ayurveda Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers., has been used for its Rasayana, Deepana, Jwaranashana, Tridosha Shamaka properties. It is an immunomodulator, useful in stress, hyperlipidemia, pyrexia. T. cordifolia was evaluated for adaptogenic activity in healthy volunteers during exercise. Aims: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of T. cordifolia on physical performance, and secondary objectives were to evaluate muscle power, maximal oxygen consumption, and sympathetic activity in comparison with placebo when subjected to physical stress. Materials and Methods: A total of thirty participants were randomly assigned into three groups (n = 10 each) namely placebo, TC 150 and TC 300. Placebo group received maize starch capsule, TC 150 and TC 300 received 150 mg and 300 mg, respectively of T. cordifolia aqueous extract in capsule form once daily in the morning for 28 days. The assessment was performed at baseline visit, day 14 and 28. Physical stressors were cycle ergometer exercise, Jammer's hand-held dynamometer, and cold pressor tests. Physical performance evaluated was maximum distance and speed, oxygen consumption (VO2 max), and hand grip strength. Cardiovascular response was assessed by multiple heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) measurements during each test. Results: On day 28, TC 150 mg group showed a significant increase in mean maximum speed compared to placebo. On day 14 and 28, TC 300 mg group showed a significant decrease in mean systolic BP (SBP) and HR on fixed workload exercise compared to placebo. There was significant increasing dose effect of both TC groups on SBP on day 14 and 28 and on HR on day 28 only. On day 14 and 28, TC 300 mg showed a significant decrease in mean HR on the cold pressor test, compared to placebo. Conclusion: T. cordifolia improved physical performance and suppressed over activation of the sympathetic nervous system showing its adaptogenic property.

  9. Effect Of Cassia Glauca LAMK, Leaves Extract On Cardiovascular And Renal Complications Associated With Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuber J Birajdar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the cardio-protective and nephro-protective potential of ethanolic (CGE and water extract (CGW of Cassia glauca leaves. Methods: Type 1 diabetes was induced by single intravenous injection of 45 mg/kg of Streptozotocin (STZ in male Wistar rats. Rats with fasting blood glucose levels>200mg/dl after seven days of STZ administration were randomized into different groups and were treated with CGE and CGW in graded doses for 56 days. On 52nd day, Intra peritoneal glucose tolerance (IPGTT test and serum insulin were performed and blood glucose, lipid profiles, cardiac and renal parameters were estimated. In addition, enzymatic and non-enzymatic liver antioxidant levels were also estimated. Results: Treatment with extracts increases the glucose uptake in diabetic rats suggest that the mode of action is like Rosiglitazone. The insulin levels after glucose load and HOMA values suggest that there is no insulin resistance in diabetic rats indicates that rats are under severe diabetic condition (Type1. Supplementation with both doses of CGE and CGW improved glucose tolerance, and insulin tolerance suggesting that, there is an improvement in STZ-induced deleterious effects. In addition, CGE and CGW supplementation decreased oxidative stress by improving endogenous antioxidant levels. Furthermore, administration of CGE and CGW improved diabetic cardio-toxicity and nephro-toxicity. Conclusion: Treatment with CGE and CGW improved cardiac and renal profile. Taken together, these results suggest that CGE and CGW have potent anti-diabetic, cardio-protective, nephro-protective, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activity.

  10. Cardiovascular risk, effectiveness and mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gérvas

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Dice la Ley de Hierro de la Epidemiología que todo el que nace muere. Por ello el fin de la Medicina no es evitar la muerte en sí, sino evitar las muertes, las enfermedades y el sufrimiento médicamente evitables.Al final, todos nuestros pacientes morirán – y nosotros mismos moriremos también, obviamente. “Los cuerpos encuentran una forma de morir” y si la causa no es el hambre ni la deshidratación, ni es congénita, ni infecciosa, ni por lesiones, ni por cáncer, ni por suicidio, tenemos que esperar que sea por ‘causa cardiovascular’, enfermedad pulmonar, insuficiencia renal o hepática, demencia u otras enfermedades degenerativas. Pero de algo tenemos que morir.Morir por causa cardiovascular ni es deshonroso, ni implica defectuosa atención clínica. Que la primera causa de muerte sea la cardiovascular no dice nada respecto a los cuidados clínicos, ni debería asustar.Sin embargo, son evitables muchas muertes de causa cardiovascular. Así, se puede evitar mucha mortalidad cardiovascular disminuyendo la desigualdad social, por ejemplo (con mejor re-distribución de la riqueza, mejor educación y demás. Los médicos saben que los factores adversos psicosociales asociados a la pertenencia a la clase baja responden del 35% del riesgo atribuible a la hipertensión en la incidencia del infarto de miocardio (en otra formulación, que pertenecer a la clase baja multiplica por 2,7 dicho riesgo1.También deberíamos saber que contra las muertes cardiovasculares no hay nada como las políticas de salud pública sobre el tabaquismo (restricciones de lugares en los que fumar, aumento del precio del tabaco, campañas de información, y demás.En lo clínico, las muertes cardiovasculares evitables se deben ver en perspectiva, según lo que se puede lograr2. Así, por 100.000 habitantes y año, el tratamiento con inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina (IECA en la insuficiencia cardíaca puede evitar 308 muertes; el consejo m

  11. Cardiovascular effects induced by the hydroalcoholic extract of the stem of Xylopia cayennensis in rats Efeitos cardiovasculares induzidos pelo extrato hidroalcoólico das cascas de Xylopia cayennensis em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra A. Nascimento

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular effects induced by the hydroalcoholic extract of the stem of Xylopia cayennensis (HEXC were studied in rats using a combined in vivo and in vitro approach. In non-anesthetized rats, HEXC injections produced a significant and dose-dependent hypotension associated with an increase in heart rate. The hypotensive response was not attenuated after nitric oxide (NO synthase blockade, L-NAME (20 mg/Kg, i.v.. In isolated rat superior aortic rings, HEXC was able to relax the tonus induced by phenylephrine (1 µM and KCl (80 mM, (EC50 = 85±13 and 62±5 µg/mL, respectively. The smooth muscle-relaxant activity of HEXC was not inhibited by removal of vascular endothelium (EC50 = 58±6 µg/mL. HEXC antagonized CaCl2-induced contractions in depolarizing medium nominally without Ca2+. HEXC inhibited the intracellular calcium-dependent transient contractions induced by caffeine (20 mM in Ca2+-free solution, but not those induced by norepinephrine (1 µM. In isolated rat atrial preparations, HEXC produced negative inotropic and chronotropic responses (IC50= 534±42 and 259±22 µg/mL, respectively. The results obtained suggest that the hypotensive effect of HEXC is probably due to a peripheral vasodilatation, at least, secondary to an interference with the Ca2+ mobilization as a consequence of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel blockade and the inhibition of Ca2+ release from caffeine-sensitive intracellular stores. Finally, HEXC acts directly on the heart decreasing contractility and heart rate, these effects are of little importance to the expression of the hypotensive response induced by HEXC.Os efeitos cardiovasculares induzidos pelo extrato hidroalcoólico do caule de Xylopia cayennensis (EHXC foram estudados em ratos, utilizando uma abordagem combinada in vivo e in vitro. Em ratos não anestesiados, EHXC induziu uma hipotensão não dependente de dose associada com um aumento da freqüência cardíaca. Esta resposta hipontesora não foi

  12. Acute lung injury induces cardiovascular dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suda, Koichi; Tsuruta, Masashi; Eom, Jihyoun;

    2011-01-01

    -regulate the systemic expression of IL-6, but whether they can ameliorate the cardiovascular dysfunction related to ALI is uncertain. We sought to determine whether IL-6 contributes to the cardiovascular dysfunction related to ALI, and whether budesonide/formoterol ameliorates this process. Wild-type mice were...... pretreated for 3 hours with intratracheal budesonide, formoterol, or both, before LPS was sprayed into their tracheas. IL-6-deficient mice were similarly exposed to LPS. Four hours later, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum were collected, and endothelial and cardiac functions were measured, using...... these impairments (vasodilatory responses to acetylcholine, P = 0.005; cardiac output, P = 0.025). Pretreatment with the combination of budesonide and formoterol, but not either alone, ameliorated the vasodilatory responses to acetylcholine (P = 0.018) and cardiac output (P < 0.001). These drugs also...

  13. Chemical composition and cardiovascular effects induced by the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus DC. Stapf, Poaceae, in rats Composição química e efeitos cardiovasculares do óleo essencial de Cymbopogon citratus DC. Stapf, Poaceae, em ratos

    OpenAIRE

    Flávia V. Moreira; Joana F. A. Bastos; Blank, Arie F.; Péricles B. Alves; Santos, Márcio R.V.

    2010-01-01

    Cymbopogon citratus DC. Stapf, Poaceae, is used in the folk medicine for hypertension treatment. This work investigated the chemical composition and cardiovascular effects in rats of C. citratus essential oil (EOCC). A phytochemical screening demonstrated the presence of eight constituents, being geranial the major compound (43.08%). In rats, EOCC (1, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, i.v.) induced transient hypotension and bradycardia that were attenuated by atropine and sodium thiopental, but not by L-N...

  14. EFFECTS OF THE MIXED MU/KAPPA OPIOID NALBUPHINE ON COCAINE-INDUCED CHANGES IN SUBJECTIVE AND CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSES IN MEN

    OpenAIRE

    Mello, Nancy K.; Mendelson, Jack H.; Sholar, Michelle B.; Jaszyna-Gasior, Maria; Goletiani, Nathalie; Siegel, Arthur J

    2005-01-01

    Kappa opioid agonists functionally antagonize some abuse-related and locomotor effects of cocaine, and reduce cocaine self-administration by rhesus monkeys. We compared the cardiovascular and subjective effects of acute doses of the mu/kappa opioid nalbuphine alone (5 mg/70 kg, i.v.), with cocaine alone (0.2 mg/kg, i.v.), and with nalbuphine + cocaine in combination, under placebo-controlled, double-blind conditions. Subjects met DSM-IV criteria for current cocaine abuse. Nalbuphine serum lev...

  15. Cardiovascular effects of monoterpenes: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Márcio R. V. Santos; Flávia V. Moreira; Byanka P. Fraga; Damião P. de Souza; Leonardo R. Bonjardim; Lucindo J. Quintans-Junior

    2011-01-01

    The monoterpenes are secondary metabolites of plants. They have various pharmacological properties including antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant, anticancer, anti-spasmodic, hypotensive, and vasorelaxant. The purpose of this research was to review the cardiovascular effects of monoterpenes. The data in this resarch were collected using the Internet portals Pubmed, Scopus, and ISI Web of Knowledge between the years 1987 and 2010. In the study 33 monoterpenes were included, which were relate...

  16. Effect of garlic on cardiovascular disorders: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Maulik Subir; Banerjee Sanjay

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Garlic and its preparations have been widely recognized as agents for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and other metabolic diseases, atherosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, thrombosis, hypertension and diabetes. Effectiveness of garlic in cardiovascular diseases was more encouraging in experimental studies, which prompted several clinical trials. Though many clinical trials showed a positive effect of garlic on almost all cardiovascular conditions mentioned above, however a number...

  17. Cocaine, Marijuana, Hypertension and Cardiovascular Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Ghadiani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine is used by more than 14 million people worldwide, about 0.3 percent of the global population age is 15 to 64 years. After alcohol, cocaine is the most common cause of acute drug-related emergency department visits in the United States. Cocaine consumption is more frequently associated with acute cardiovascular illness.  Cocaine stimulates α1, α2, β1 and β2 adrenergic receptors through increased levels of norepinephrine and a lesser extent epinephrine. The cardiovascular effects of cocaine are thought to be similar and regardless to the route of consumption. An acute coronary syndrome is the most common cardiac problem including myocardial ischemia and infarction even in young persons without atherosclerosis, aortic dissection and rupture, arrhythmias, ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation, asystole and finally sudden death. Other cardiovascular effects that caused by cocaine include coronary artery aneurysm, palpitation, sinus tachycardia, increased systemic vascular resistance and hypertension crisis, left ventricular hypertrophy, myocarditis, cardiomyopathy, myocardial fibrosis, bundle branch block, heart block, supraventricular arrhythmia, accelerated atherosclerosis, hypotension, bradycardia and infective endocarditis  among intravenous users.Cocaine by three mechanisms cause ischemia: 1. increased myocardial oxygen demand, 2. decreased coronary blood flow due to coronary artery vasoconstriction and spasm and 3. Coronary artery thrombosis via activation of platelets, stimulation of platelet aggregation and potentiation of thromboxane production.

  18. Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Models of Inherited Cardiovascular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenjian; Lan, Feng; Zhang, Hongjia

    2014-10-16

    Cardiovascular cells derived from patient specific induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) harbor gene mutations associated with the pathogenesis of inherited cardiac diseases and congenital heart diseases (CHD). Numerous reports have demonstrated the utilization of human induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (hiPSC) to model cardiac diseases as a means of investigating their underlying mechanisms. So far, they have been shown to investigate the molecular mechanisms of many cardiac disorders, such as long-QT syndrome (LQT), catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), LEOPARD syndrome (LS), arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM), Friedreich ataxia (FRDA), Barth syndrome (BTHS), hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), Marfan syndrome (MFS) and other CHD. This article summarizes the growing body of research related to modeling various cardiac diseases using hiPSCs. Moreover, by reviewing the methods used in previous studies, we propose multiple novel applications of hiPSCs to investigate comprehensive cardiovascular disorders and facilitate drug discovery. PMID:25322695

  19. Selenistasis: Epistatic Effects of Selenium on Cardiovascular Phenotype

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    Joseph Loscalzo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although selenium metabolism is intricately linked to cardiovascular biology and function, and deficiency of selenium is associated with cardiac pathology, utilization of selenium in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease remains an elusive goal. From a reductionist standpoint, the major function of selenium in vivo is antioxidant defense via its incorporation as selenocysteine into enzyme families such as glutathione peroxidases and thioredoxin reductases. In addition, selenium compounds are heterogeneous and have complex metabolic fates resulting in effects that are not entirely dependent on selenoprotein expression. This complex biology of selenium in vivo may underlie the fact that beneficial effects of selenium supplementation demonstrated in preclinical studies using models of oxidant stress-induced cardiovascular dysfunction, such as ischemia-reperfusion injury and myocardial infarction, have not been consistently observed in clinical trials. In fact, recent studies have yielded data that suggest that unselective supplementation of selenium may, indeed, be harmful. Interesting biologic actions of selenium are its simultaneous effects on redox balance and methylation status, a combination that may influence gene expression. These combined actions may explain some of the biphasic effects seen with low and high doses of selenium, the potentially harmful effects seen in normal individuals, and the beneficial effects noted in preclinical studies of disease. Given the complexity of selenium biology, systems biology approaches may be necessary to reach the goal of optimization of selenium status to promote health and prevent disease.

  20. Evaluation of the cardiovascular effects of varenicline in rats

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    Selçuk EB

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Engin Burak Selçuk,1 Meltem Sungu,2 Hakan Parlakpinar,3 Necip Ermiş,4 Elif Taslıdere,5 Nigar Vardı,5 Murat Yalçinsoy,6 Mustafa Sagır,3 Alaaddin Polat,7 Mehmet Karatas,8 Burcu Kayhan-Tetik11Department of Family Medicine, 2Inonu University Medical Faculty, Malatya, Turkey; 3Department of Pharmacology, 4Department of Cardiology, 5Department of Histology and Embryology, 6Department of Pulmonary Medicine, 7Department of Physiology, 8Department of Medical Ethics, Inonu University Medical Faculty, Malatya, TurkeyBackground: Cardiovascular disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among tobacco users. Varenicline is widely used worldwide to help smoking cessation, but some published studies have reported associated cardiovascular events.Objective: To determine the cardiovascular toxicity induced by varenicline in rats.Materials and methods: We randomly separated 34 rats into two groups: 1 the control group (given only distilled water orally, n=10 and the varenicline group (given 9 µg/kg/day varenicline on days 1–3, 9 µg/kg twice daily on days 4–7, and 18 µg/kg twice daily on days 8–90 [total 83 days], n=24. Each group was then subdivided equally into acute and chronic subgroups, and all rats in these groups were euthanized with anesthesia overdose on days 45 and 90, respectively. Body and heart weights, hemodynamic (mean oxygen saturation, mean blood pressure, and heart rate, electrocardiographic (PR, QRS, and QT intervals biochemical (oxidants and antioxidants, and histopathological analyses (including immunostaining were performed.Results: Acute varenicline exposure resulted in loss of body weight, while chronic varenicline exposure caused heart weight loss and decreased mean blood pressure, induced lipid peroxidation, and reduced antioxidant activity. Both acute and chronic varenicline exposure caused impairment of mean oxygen saturation. QT interval was prolonged in the chronic varenicline group, while PR interval

  1. Cardiovascular effects of cocaine: cellular, ionic and molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turillazzi, E; Bello, S; Neri, M; Pomara, C; Riezzo, I; Fineschi, V

    2012-01-01

    Cocaine is a widely abused drug responsible for the majority of deaths ascribed to drug overdose. Many mechanisms have been proposed in order to explain the various cocaine associated cardiovascular complications. Conventionally, cocaine cardiotoxicity has been thought to be mediated indirectly through its sympathomimetic effect, i.e., by inhibiting the reuptake and thus increasing the levels of neuronal catecholamines at work on adrenoceptors. Increased oxidative stress, reactive oxygen species, and cocaine-induced apoptosis in the heart muscle have suggested a new way to understand the cardiotoxic effects of cocaine. More recent studies have led the attention to the interaction of cocaine and some metabolites with cardiac sodium, calcium and potassium channels. The current paper is aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms of cocaine cardiotoxicity which have a specific clinical and forensic interest. From a clinical point of view the full knowledge of the exact mechanisms by which cocaine exerts cardio - vascular damage is essential to identify potential therapeutic targets and improve novel strategies for cocaine related cardiovascular diseases. From a forensic point of view, it is to be underlined that cocaine use is often associated to sudden death in young, otherwise healthy individuals. While such events are widely reported, the relationship between cardiac morphological alterations and molecular/cellular mechanisms is still controversial. In conclusion, the study of cocaine cardiovascular toxicity needs a strict collaboration between clinicians and pathologists which may be very effective in further dissecting the mechanisms underlying cocaine cardiotoxicity and understanding the cardiac cocaine connection. PMID:22856657

  2. Cardiovascular Effects of Antidepressants and Mood Stabilizers

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    Shahin Akhondzadeh

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a serious disorder in today’s society, with the estimates of lifetime prevalence being as high as 21% of the general population in some developed countries. As defined by the American Psychiatric Association, depression is a heterogeneous disorder often manifested with symptoms at the psychological, behavioral, and physiological levels. Such patients are often reluctant to take synthetic antidepressants in their appropriate doses due to their anticipated side effects including inability to drive a car, dry mouth, constipation, and sexual dysfunction. As a therapeutic alternative, effective herbal drugs may offer advantages in terms of safety and tolerability, possibly also improving patient compliance. The advent of the first antidepressants, Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs and Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCAs, in the 1950s and 1960s represented a dramatic leap forward in the clinical management of depression. The subsequent development of the Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs and the Serotonin Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor (SNRI venlafaxine in the past decade and a half has greatly enhanced the treatment of depression by offering patients medications that are as effective as the older agents but are generally more tolerable and safer in an overdose. The introduction of atypical antidepressants, such as bupropion, nefazadone, and mirtazapine, has added substantially to the available pharmacopoeia for depression. Nonetheless, rates of remission tend to be low and the risk of relapse and recurrence remains high. One of the concerns regarding the safety of antidepressant is its potential risk of cardiotoxicity and cardiovascular side effects. In this review, we will focus on the cardiovascular side effects of different types of antidepressants.

  3. Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes Afford New Opportunities in Inherited Cardiovascular Disease Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. Bayzigitov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental studies of molecular and cellular mechanisms of cardiovascular disease pathogenesis are required to create more effective and safer methods of their therapy. The studies can be carried out only when model systems that fully recapitulate pathological phenotype seen in patients are used. Application of laboratory animals for cardiovascular disease modeling is limited because of physiological differences with humans. Since discovery of induced pluripotency generating induced pluripotent stem cells has become a breakthrough technology in human disease modeling. In this review, we discuss a progress that has been made in modeling inherited arrhythmias and cardiomyopathies, studying molecular mechanisms of the diseases, and searching for and testing drug compounds using patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

  4. Effect of ionizing radiation on cardiovascular system; Les effets des rayonnements ionisants sur le systeme cardiovasculaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milliat, F.; Benderitter, M.; Gaugler, M.H. [Institut de radioprotection et de surete nucleaire, DRPH, SRBE, Laboratoire de radiopathologie et de therapies experimentales (LRTE), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2011-07-01

    Radiotherapy treatment for cancer of the chest, mediastinal area or the neck area is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. With the increasing number of cancer patients and the increased treatment efficiency, the number of cancer survivors is increasing exponentially. The cancer survivors live longer and their long-term follow-up must be considered. The cardiovascular toxicity is mainly associated with the treatment of breast cancer, Hodgkin's lymphoma and head and neck cancer. Radiation-induced cardiovascular effects are insidious and chronic. Their occurrence is linked to numerous factors including the age of the patient at the beginning of the radiotherapy schedule, the number of years following radiotherapy, the doses (and volume) to the heart and the large vessels (coronary and carotid arteries), and the association with the traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Pathophysiological mechanisms remain unclear and, even if similarities with age-related atherosclerosis were established, the specificities of the radiation-induced atherosclerosis for high doses remain to be discovered. For low/moderate doses of ionising radiation, recent epidemiological studies provide evidence of increased risk of cardiovascular pathologies. A better knowledge of the mechanisms associated with the radiation-induced cardiovascular pathologies and the more precise identification of the populations at risk in the future should allow a more effective care of these patients with cardiovascular risk. (authors)

  5. Risco cardiovascular, efetividade e mortalidade Cardiovascular risk, effectiveness and mortality Riesgo cardiovascular, efectividad y mortalidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gérvas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available

    A Lei de Ferro da Epidemiologia (Ley de Hierro de La Epidemiología diz que todos que nascem, morrem. Por isso, o propósito da Medicina não é evitar a morte por si só, mas evitar as mortes, as doenças e o sofrimento que podem ser medicamente evitáveis.

    No final, todos nossos pacientes morrerão – e nós também, obviamente, morreremos. “Os corpos encontram uma forma de morrer”, e se a causa não for por fome ou desidratação, por motivo congênito e infeccioso, por lesões, câncer ou suicídio, temos que esperar que seja por ‘motivo cardiovascular’, doença pulmonar, insuficiência renal ou hepática, demência ou outras doenças degenerativas. Mas temos que morrer por alguma coisa.

    Morrer por causa cardiovascular não é desonroso, nem refere-se à atenção clínica imperfeita. O fato de a primeira causa de morte ser a cardiovascular não tem nenhuma relação com os cuidados clínicos e nem deveria assustar.

    Entretanto, muitas das mortes por motivo cardiovascular poderiam ser evitadas. Assim, poder-se-ia evitar mortalidade cardiovascular, diminuindo a desigualdade social, por exemplo, com melhor redistribuição da riqueza, melhor educação etc. Os médicos sabem que os fatores adversos psicossociais associados ao fato de pertencer à classe baixa correspondem a 35% do risco atribuído à hipertensão na incidência do infarto do miocárdio (em outra hipótese, pertencer à classe baixa duplica 2,7 tal risco1.

    Também deve-se saber que, contra as mortes cardiovasculares, não há nada como as políticas de saúde pública quanto ao tabagismo (restrições dos lugares onde fumar, aumento do preço do tabaco, campanhas de informação, entre outras.

    Na parte clínica, as mortes cardiovasculares evitáveis devem ser vistas em perspectiva, de acordo com o que seja possível conseguir2. Portanto, por 100.000 habitantes ao ano, o tratamento com inibidores da enzima conversora de angiotensina (IECA

  6. Cardiovascular side effects of psychopharmacologic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potočnjak, Ines; Degoricija, Vesna; Vukičević Baudoin, Dina; Čulig, Josip; Jakovljević, Miro

    2016-09-15

    WHO defined in 1976 psychopharmaca as drugs affecting psychological functions, behaviour and self-perception. Psychopharmacology is the study of pharmacological agents that affect mental and emotional functions. Creative approach to psychopharmacotherapy reflects a transdisciplinary, integrative and person-centered psychiatry. Psychiatric disorders often occur in cardiac patients and can affect the clinical presentation and morbidity. Cardiovascular (CV) side effects (SE) caused by psychopharmaceutic agents require comprehensive attention. Therapeutic approach can increase placebo and decrease nocebo reactions. The main purpose of this review is to comprehend CV SE of psychotropic drugs (PD). Critical overview of CV SE of PD will be presented in this review. Search was directed but not limited to CV effects of psychopharmacological substances, namely antipsychotics, anxiolytics, hypnotics, sedatives, antidepressants and stimulants. Literature review was performed and data identified by searches of Medline and PubMed for period from 2004 to 2015. Only full articles and abstracts published in English were included. SE of PD are organized according to the following types of CV effects: cardiac and circulatory effects, abnormalities of cardiac repolarisation and arrhythmias and heart muscle disease. There is wide spectrum and various CV effects of PD. Results of this review are based on literature research. The reviewed data came largely from prevalence studies, case reports, and cross-sectional studies. Psychopharmacotherapy of psychiatric disorders is complex and when concomitantly present with CV disease, presentation of drug SEs can significantly contribute to illness course. Further development of creative psychopharmacotherapy is required to deal with CV effects of PD. PMID:27352209

  7. Blood donation and cardiovascular disease. Addressing the healthy donor effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peffer, K.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, the possible protective effect of frequent blood donation on cardiovascular disease was studied. Previous research has shown that high iron stores could have damaging effects on developing cardiovascular disease, and that blood donation lowers iron stores. Lowering iron stores throug

  8. Oxidative Stress as a Mechanism of Added Sugar-Induced Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad, Kailash; Dhar, Indu

    2014-01-01

    Added sugars comprising of table sugar, brown sugar, corn syrup, maple syrup, honey, molasses, and other sweeteners in the prepared processed foods and beverages have been implicated in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases. This article deals with the reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a mechanism of sugar-induced cardiovascular diseases. There is an association between the consumption of high levels of serum glucose with cardiovascular diseases. Various sources of sugar-induced gener...

  9. Cardiovascular and renal effects of hyperuricaemia and gout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pontremoli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of epidemiological studies have reported an association between serum uric acid levels and a wide variety of high-risk conditions including hypertension, insulin resistance, and kidney and cerebro-cardiovascular disease. All things considered, serum uric acid may induce cardiovascular and kidney events both directly and indirectly by promoting other well-known mechanisms of damage. While asymptomatic hyperuricemia is currently not considered to be an indication for urate lowering therapy, there is growing evidence indicating a linear relationship between pharmacological reduction in serum uric acid and incidence of cardiovascular and renal events.

  10. Cardiovascular effects of intensive lifestyle intervention in type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weight loss is recommended for overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes on the basis of short-term studies, but long-term effects on cardiovascular disease remain unknown. We examined whether an intensive lifestyle intervention for weight loss would decrease cardiovascular morbidity and mor...

  11. Time-dependent effects of cardiovascular exercise on memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roig, Marc; Thomas, Richard; Mang, Cameron S;

    2016-01-01

    We present new evidence supporting the hypothesis that the effects of cardiovascular exercise on memory can be regulated in a time-dependent manner. When the exercise stimulus is temporally coupled with specific phases of the memory formation process, a single bout of cardiovascular exercise may be...

  12. Identification of vascular responses to exercise and orthostatic stress in bed rest-induced cardiovascular deconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aletti, Federico; Ferrario, Manuela; Tam, Enrico; Cautero, Michela; Cerutti, Sergio; Capelli, Carlo; Baselli, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of bed rest-induced cardiovascular deconditioning were investigated by means of a previously developed multivariate model for the assessment of arterial control of circulation. The vascular response to exercise and tilt, before and after a 14-day head down tilt bed rest, was identified and disentangled from the main mechanisms due to global, neural control of circulation. Results of the decomposition of diastolic pressure and pulse pressure beat-by-beat series and the relevant spectral analysis suggested that the autoregulation-related response is not affected by prolonged exposition to microgravity. As to the complex regulation of arterial blood pressure, a maintained responsiveness to sympathetic stimuli was found, even in presence of indications of the cardiovascular deconditioning, such as tachycardia, reset of baroreflex, cardiopulmonary unloading. These preliminary results emphasized the necessity for more complex analyses of the main alterations and compensatory mechanisms elicited by microgravity-induced-cardiovascular deconditioning, in order to develop more effective long term strategies to prevent it. PMID:19963898

  13. Increased susceptibility to cardiovascular effects of dihydrocapcaicin in resuscitated rats. Cardiovascular effects of dihydrocapsaicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Keld; Ristagno, Giuseppe; Jayatissa, Magdalena Niepsuj; Axelsen, Mads; Gotfredsen, Jacob W; Weber, Uno J; Køber, Lars; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Videbaek, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    Survivors of a cardiac arrest often have persistent cardiovascular derangements following cardiopulmonary resuscitation including decreased cardiac output, arrhythmias and morphological myocardial damage. These cardiovascular derangements may lead to an increased susceptibility towards the external...... and internal environment of the cardiovascular system as compared to the healthy situation....

  14. Cardiovascular effects of phentermine and topiramate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Jens; Astrup, Arne; Engeli, Stefan;

    2014-01-01

    approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration as an adjunct to lifestyle intervention for the chronic treatment of overweight/obese adults. This review summarizes and evaluates the cardiovascular risk/benefit profile associated with phentermine and topiramate, individually and in combination...

  15. Cardiovascular changes during induced emotion: an application of lang's theory of emotional imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prkachin, K M; Williams-Avery, R M; Zwaal, C; Mills, D E

    1999-09-01

    Studies of emotion have provided occasional support for physiological differentiation of affective states; however, the evidence has been inconsistent. The aims of the present study were to investigate cardiovascular changes associated with relived experiences of happiness, sadness, anger, fear, and disgust and to examine the utility of methods designed to optimize the induction of emotional responses. Thirty-four undergraduates who scored 0.5 sd above the mean on Larsen and Diener's Affect Intensity Measure described their most intense experiences of five emotions. These descriptions were then used to induce those emotions while blood pressure and other hemodynamic measures were monitored. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and stroke volume differentiated among emotions. The results support the suggestion that cardiovascular activity differentiates emotional states and provide some insight into the physiological adjustments subserving such effects. The study demonstrates a method that may be applied to studies of discrete emotions. PMID:10576474

  16. Chemical composition and cardiovascular effects induced by the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus DC. Stapf, Poaceae, in rats Composição química e efeitos cardiovasculares do óleo essencial de Cymbopogon citratus DC. Stapf, Poaceae, em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia V. Moreira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cymbopogon citratus DC. Stapf, Poaceae, is used in the folk medicine for hypertension treatment. This work investigated the chemical composition and cardiovascular effects in rats of C. citratus essential oil (EOCC. A phytochemical screening demonstrated the presence of eight constituents, being geranial the major compound (43.08%. In rats, EOCC (1, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, i.v. induced transient hypotension and bradycardia that were attenuated by atropine and sodium thiopental, but not by L-NAME or indomethacin. In rings of rat superior mesenteric artery pre-contracted with phenylephrine, EOCC (1 to 3000 µg/mL induced relaxation that was not affected after removal of the endothelium, after TEA or in rings pre-contracted with KCl (80 mM. Furthermore, EOCC (1000 µg/mL was not able to induce additional effect on maximal relaxation of nifedipine (10 µM. In conclusions, EOCC induces hypotension, possibly by reduction in vascular resistance caused by inhibition of the Ca2+ influx, and bradycardia probably due to an activation of cardiac muscarinic receptors.C. citratus é utilizada na medicina popular para tratar hipertensão. Este trabalho investigou a composição química e os efeitos cardiovasculares do óleo essencial do C. citratus (OECC. Foram identificados oito constituintes no OECC, sendo geranial o majoritário (43,08%. Em ratos, o OECC (1, 5, 10 e 20 mg/kg, i.v. induziu hipotensão e bradicardia que foram atenuadas pela atropina e tiopental sódico, mas não por L-NAME ou indometacina. Em anéis de artéria mesentérica de ratos pré-contraídos com fenilefrina, o OECC (1 a 3000 µg/mL induziu relaxamento que não foi afetado após remoção do endotélio, após TEA ou em anéis pré-contraídos com KCl (80 mM. Além disso, o OECC (1000 µg/mL não induziu efeito adicional sobre o relaxamento máximo da nifedipina (10 µM. Em conclusão, o OECC induz hipotensão possivelmente devido à redução da resistência vascular que pode ser causada

  17. Leptin-Induced Sympathetic Nerve Activation: Signaling Mechanisms and Cardiovascular Consequences in Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmouni, Kamal

    2010-01-01

    Obesity increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in part by inducing hypertension. One factor linking excess fat mass to cardiovascular diseases may be the sympathetic cardiovascular actions of leptin. Initial studies of leptin showed it regulates appetite and enhances energy expenditure by activating sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) to thermogenic brown adipose tissue. Further study, however, demonstrated leptin also causes sympathetic excitation to the kidney that, in turn, increase...

  18. Treatment-related cardiovascular late effects and exercise training countermeasures in testicular germ cell cancer survivorship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper F; Bandak, Mikkel; Campbell, Anna;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment of testicular germ cell cancer constitutes a major success story in modern oncology. Today, the vast majority of patients are cured by a therapeutic strategy using one or more highly effective components including surgery (orchiectomy), radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy......-induced cardiovascular dysfunction to prevent premature onset of clinical cardiovascular disease in germ cell cancer survivors, with a view towards highlighting future directions of exercise-based survivorship research in the germ cell cancer setting. CONCLUSION: As exercise training may have the potential to ameliorate....... However, the excellent cancer-specific survival comes at considerable costs, as individuals with a history of germ cell cancer experience serious long-term complications, including markedly increased risk of cardiovascular morbidities and premature cardiovascular death. The factors responsible, as well as...

  19. Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise: Research in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Maschke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on systematic noise effects started in Germany back in the fifties with basic experimental studies on humans. As a result, noise was classified as a non-specific stressor, which could cause an ergotropic activation of the complete organism. In the light of this background research a hypothesis was proposed that long-term noise exposure could have an adverse effect on health. This hypothesis was further supported by animal studies. Since the sixties, the adverse effects of chronic road traffic noise exposure were further examined in humans with the help of epidemiological studies. More epidemiological aircraft noise studies followed in the 1970s and thereafter. The sample size was increased, relevant confounding factors were taken into account, and the exposure and health outcomes were investigated objectively and with higher quality measures. To date, more than 20 German epidemiological traffic noise studies have focused on noise-induced health effects, mainly on the cardiovascular system. In particular, the newer German noise studies demonstrate a clear association between residential exposure to traffic noise (particularly night noise and cardiovascular outcomes. Nevertheless, additional research is needed, particularly on vulnerable groups and multiple noise exposures. The epidemiological findings have still not been fully considered in German regulations, particularly for aircraft noise. The findings, however, were taken into account in national recommendations. The Federal Environment Agency recommends noise rating levels of 65 dB(A for the day and 55 dB(A for the night, as a short-term goal. In the medium term, noise rating levels of 60 / 50 (day, night should be reached and noise rating levels of 55 / 45 in the long run.

  20. A pilot study on pupillary and cardiovascular changes induced by stereoscopic video movies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugita Norihiro

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taking advantage of developed image technology, it is expected that image presentation would be utilized to promote health in the field of medical care and public health. To accumulate knowledge on biomedical effects induced by image presentation, an essential prerequisite for these purposes, studies on autonomic responses in more than one physiological system would be necessary. In this study, changes in parameters of the pupillary light reflex and cardiovascular reflex evoked by motion pictures were examined, which would be utilized to evaluate the effects of images, and to avoid side effects. Methods Three stereoscopic video movies with different properties were field-sequentially rear-projected through two LCD projectors on an 80-inch screen. Seven healthy young subjects watched movies in a dark room. Pupillary parameters were measured before and after presentation of movies by an infrared pupillometer. ECG and radial blood pressure were continuously monitored. The maximum cross-correlation coefficient between heart rate and blood pressure, ρmax, was used as an index to evaluate changes in the cardiovascular reflex. Results Parameters of pupillary and cardiovascular reflexes changed differently after subjects watched three different video movies. Amplitudes of the pupillary light reflex, CR, increased when subjects watched two CG movies (movies A and D, while they did not change after watching a movie with the real scenery (movie R. The ρmax was significantly larger after presentation of the movie D. Scores of the questionnaire for subjective evaluation of physical condition increased after presentation of all movies, but their relationship with changes in CR and ρmax was different in three movies. Possible causes of these biomedical differences are discussed. Conclusion The autonomic responses were effective to monitor biomedical effects induced by image presentation. Further accumulation of data on multiple autonomic

  1. Beneficial effects of chocolate on cardiovascular health | Efectos beneficiosos del chocolate en la salud cardiovascular

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Juaristi, Miren; L. González-Torres; Bravo, Laura; Vaquero, M. Pilar; Bastida, Sara; Sánchez-Muniz, F. J.

    2011-01-01

    Since ancient times, numerous health beneficial effects have been attributed to chocolate, closing up its consumption to a therapeutic use. The present study reviews some relevant studies about chocolate (and its bioactive compounds) on some cardiovascular risk factors and stresses the need of future studies. The consumption of cocoa/ chocolate (i) increases plasma antioxidant capacity, (ii) diminishes platelet function and inflammation, and (iii) decreases diastolic and systolic arterial pre...

  2. Ursolic acid plays a protective role in obesity-induced cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ting; Yu, Ya-Mei; Chang, Weng-Cheng; Chiang, Su-Yin; Chan, Hsu-Chin; Lee, Ming-Fen

    2016-06-01

    The metabolic disturbance of obesity is one of the most common risk factors of atherosclerosis. Resistin, an obesity-induced adipokine, can induce the expression of cell adhesion molecules and the attachment of monocytes to endothelial cells, which play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. Ursolic acid, a pentacyclic triterpenoid found in fruits and many herbs, exhibits an array of biological effects such as anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential underlying mechanisms of the effect of ursolic acid on resistin-induced adhesion of U937 cells to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Our data indicated that ursolic acid suppressed the adhesion of U937 to HUVECs and downregulated the expression of adhesion molecules, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and E-selectin, in resistin-induced HUVECs by decreasing the production of intracellular reaction oxygen species (ROS) and attenuating the nuclear translocation of NFκB. Ursolic acid appeared to inhibit resistin-induced atherosclerosis, suggesting that ursolic acid may play a protective role in obesity-induced cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26991492

  3. Opioid and non-opioid central cardiovascular effects of ketamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, S; Mukherjee, D; Choudhary, A K; Sinha, J N; Gurtu, S

    1990-11-01

    The cardiovascular responses to ketamine injected intracisternally were examined in chloralose anaesthetized cats. Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded at different time intervals after intracisternal injection of drug or saline vehicle. The low doses of ketamine (0.5 or 1.0 mg) elicited dose dependent increase in blood pressure and heart rate. In contrast the high dose of ketamine (4 mg), produced a fall in blood pressure and heart rate. The cardiovascular response elicited by the low dose was naloxone insensitive and completely blocked by haloperidol, but not by dopamine antagonist pimozide. The vasodepressor and bradycardiac effect of the 4 mg dose was naloxone antagonizable. These data show that excitatory cardiovascular effects of the low dose result from a naloxone resistant site while in high doses an inhibitory effect is elicited by action at naloxone sensitive opiate receptors. PMID:1965327

  4. Efectos beneficiosos del chocolate en la salud cardiovascular Beneficial effects of chocolate on cardiovascular health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gómez-Juaristi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Desde la antigüedad se ha atribuido al chocolate propiedades saludables que lo han aproximado más hacia un uso terapéutico que alimentario. El presente trabajo revisa algunos estudios relevantes de los efectos del chocolate (y sus componentes activos sobre diferentes factores de riesgo cardiovascular y señala la necesidad de futuros estudios. El consumo de cacao/chocolate (i incrementa la actividad antioxidante, (ii modula la función plaquetaria e inflamación y (iii disminuye la presión arterial sistólica y diastólica. Aunque no existe consenso sobre la cantidad óptima a consumir, puede sugerirse que el consumo diario de chocolate rico en cacao (y polifenoles es una buena elección para reducir, al menos parcialmente, el riesgo cardiovascular. No obstante, son necesarios más estudios que profundicen sobre la biodisponibilidad y mecanismos de acción de los componentes activos del chocolate. El estudio de la interacción del chocolate y sus componentes con genes candidatos aportará información fundamental de los individuos "diana" que podrían beneficiarse del potencial efecto saludable del chocolate en el tratamiento cardiovascular.Since ancient times, numerous health beneficial effects have been attributed to chocolate, closing up its consumption to a therapeutic use. The present study reviews some relevant studies about chocolate (and its bioactive compounds on some cardiovascular risk factors and stresses the need of future studies. The consumption of cocoa/ chocolate (i increases plasma antioxidant capacity, (ii diminishes platelet function and inflammation, and (iii decreases diastolic and systolic arterial pressures. Data currently available indicate that daily consumption of cocoa-rich chocolate (rich in polyphenols may at least partially lower cardiovascular disease risk. Further studies are required in order to establish the bioavailability and mechanisms of action of bioactive compounds in chocolate. The study of the

  5. Cardiovascular Effects of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yu Mi; Jung, Chang Hee

    2016-06-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a member of the proglucagon incretin family, and GLP-1 receptor agonists (RAs) have been introduced as a new class of antidiabetic medications in the past decade. The benefits of GLP-1 RAs are derived from their pleiotropic effects, which include glucose-dependent insulin secretion, suppressed glucagon secretion, and reduced appetite. Moreover, GLP-1 RAs also exert beneficial roles on multiple organ systems in which the GLP-1 receptors exist, including the cardiovascular system. Cardiovascular effects of GLP-1 RAs have been of great interest since the burden from cardiovascular diseases (CVD) has been unbearably increasing in a diabetic population worldwide, despite strict glycemic control and advanced therapeutic techniques to treat CVD. Preclinical studies have already demonstrated the beneficial effects of GLP-1 on myocardium and vascular endothelium, and many clinical studies evaluating changes in surrogate markers of CVD have suggested potential benefits from the use of GLP-1 RAs. Data from numerous clinical trials primarily evaluating the antihyperglycemic effects of multiple GLP-1 RAs have also revealed that changes in most CVD risk markers reported as secondary outcomes have been in favor of GLP-1 RAs treatment. However, to date, there is only one randomized clinical trial of GLP-1 RAs (the ELIXA study) evaluating major cardiovascular events as their primary outcomes, and in this study, a neutral cardiovascular effect of lixisenatide was observed in high-risk diabetic subjects. Therefore, the results of ongoing CVD outcome trials with the use of GLP-1 RAs should be awaited to elucidate the translation of benefits previously seen in CVD risk marker studies into large clinical trials with primary cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:27118277

  6. Do the carotid body chemoreceptors mediate cardiovascular and sympathetic adjustments induced by sodium overload in rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrino, Gustavo R; Mourão, Aline A; Moreira, Marina C S; da Silva, Elaine F; Lopes, Paulo R; Fajemiroye, James O; Schoorlemmer, Guss H M; Sato, Mônica A; Reis, Ângela A S; Rebelo, Ana C S; Cravo, Sergio L

    2016-05-15

    Acute plasma hypernatremia induces several cardiovascular and sympathetic responses. It is conceivable that these responses contribute to rapid sodium excretion and restoration of normal conditions. Afferent pathways mediating these responses are not entirely understood. The present study analyses the effects of acute carotid chemoreceptor inactivation on cardiovascular and sympathetic responses induced by infusion of hypertonic saline (HS). All experiments were performed on anesthetized male Wistar rats instrumented for recording of arterial blood pressure (ABP), renal blood flow (RBF) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). Animals were subjected to sham surgery or carotid chemoreceptor inactivation by bilateral ligation of the carotid body artery (CBA). In sham rats (n=8), intravenous infusion of HS (3 M NaCl, 1.8 ml/kg b.wt.) elicited a transient increase (9±2mmHg) in ABP, and long lasting (30 min) increases in RBF (138±5%) and renal vascular conductance (RVC) (128±5%) with concurrent decrease in RSNA (-19±4%). In rats submitted to CBA ligation (n=8), the pressor response to HS was higher (24±2mmHg; p<0.05). However, RBF and RVC responses to HS infusion were significantly reduced (113±5% and 93±4%, respectively) while RSNA was increased (13±2%). When HS (3M NaCl, 200μl) was administrated into internal carotid artery (ICA), distinct sympathetic and cardiovascular responses were observed. In sham-group, HS infusion (3M NaCl, 200μl) into ICA promoted an increase in ABP (26±8mmHg) and RSNA (29±13%). In CBA rats, ABP (-3±5.6mmHg) remained unaltered despite sympathoinhibition (-37.6±5.4%). These results demonstrate that carotid body chemoreceptors play a role in the development of hemodynamic and sympathetic responses to acute HS infusion. PMID:27060222

  7. Recent Research Advances in Ivabradine and Its Cardiovascular Effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao GAO

    2009-01-01

    Elevated heart rate is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The inhibitor of funny current (Ⅰ (f)), a hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel current, ivabradine is a new agent selectively reduc-ing heart rate devoid of other cardiovascular effects, which has come into the market in Europe for more than 3 years. It has been approved that pure heart rate reduction by ivabradine can improve myocardial ischemia, endothelial function and myocardial contractile function. Long-term administration will not increase all-cause mortality. Its therapeutic value in stable coronary artery disease has been verified in clinical practice, while in other fields of cardiovascular diseases still needs more evidence-based medical research. This article is a review about its recent research advances in experi-mental and clinical studies.

  8. Covariation of phasic cortical and cardiovascular responses: Effects of alertness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.M. van der Veen; L.J.M. Mulder; G. Mulder

    1999-01-01

    Effects of maintaining an alert state on event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and evoked cardiovascular responses were examined in an auditory detection task. Subjects were instructed to detect a possible difference in frequency between two successively presented tones in 5 s periods. Two types of

  9. Individual Effect Modifiers of Dust Exposure Effect on Cardiovascular Morbidity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Vodonos

    Full Text Available High concentrations of particulate matter (PM air pollution have been associated with death and hospital admissions due to cardiovascular morbidity. However, it is not clear a whether high levels of non-anthropogenic PM from dust storms constitute a health risk; and b whether these health risks are exacerbated in a particular demographic.This study comprised all patients above 18 years old admitted to Soroka University Medical Center (1000 bed tertiary hospital, Be'er-Sheva, Israel, 2001-2010 with a primary diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS. Data on meteorological parameters and PM10 (particulate matter <10 μm in aerodiameter were obtained from monitoring stations in the city of Be'er-Sheva. Data were analyzed using a case crossover analysis to examine the effect of dust exposure on hospitalization due to ACS and the interaction with co-morbidities and demographic factors.There were 16,734 hospitalizations due to ACS during the study period. The estimated odds of hospitalization due to ACS was significantly associated with PM10 during non dust storm days at the same day of the exposure (lag0; OR = 1.014 (95%CI 1.001-1.027 for a 10 μg/m3 increase, while a delayed response (lag1 was found during the dust storm days; OR = 1.007 (95%CI 1.002-1.012. The effect size for the dust exposure association was larger for older (above the age of 65, female or Bedouin patients.Exposure to non-anthropogenic PM is associated with cardiovascular morbidity. Health risk associated dust exposure is gender and age specific with older women and Bedouin patients being the most vulnerable groups.

  10. Sertraline inhibits formalin-induced nociception and cardiovascular responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santuzzi, C.H. [Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Futuro Neto, H.A. [Departamento de Morfologia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Escola de Medicina da Empresa Brasileira de Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Escola Superior de Ciências da Saúde, Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Vitória, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Pires, J.G.P. [Escola de Medicina da Empresa Brasileira de Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Centro Universitário do Espírito Santo, Colatina, ES (Brazil); Gonçalves, W.L.S. [Centro Universitário do Espírito Santo, Colatina, ES (Brazil); Tiradentes, R.V.; Gouvea, S.A.; Abreu, G.R. [Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil)

    2011-11-18

    The objective of the present study was to determine the antihyperalgesic effect of sertraline, measured indirectly by the changes of sciatic afferent nerve activity, and its effects on cardiorespiratory parameters, using the model of formalin-induced inflammatory nociception in anesthetized rats. Serum serotonin (5-HT) levels were measured in order to test their correlation with the analgesic effect. Male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were divided into 4 groups (N = 8 per group): sertraline-treated group (Sert + Saline (Sal) and Sert + Formalin (Form); 3 mg·kg{sup −1}·day{sup −1}, ip, for 7 days) and saline-treated group (Sal + Sal and Sal + Form). The rats were injected with 5% (50 µL) formalin or saline into the right hind paw. Sciatic nerve activity was recorded using a silver electrode connected to a NeuroLog apparatus, and cardiopulmonary parameters (mean arterial pressure, heart rate and respiratory frequency), assessed after arterial cannulation and tracheotomy, were monitored using a Data Acquisition System. Blood samples were collected from the animals and serum 5-HT levels were determined by ELISA. Formalin injection induced the following changes: sciatic afferent nerve activity (+50.8 ± 14.7%), mean arterial pressure (+1.4 ± 3 mmHg), heart rate (+13 ± 6.8 bpm), respiratory frequency (+4.6 ± 5 cpm) and serum 5-HT increased to 1162 ± 124.6 ng/mL. Treatment with sertraline significantly reduced all these parameters (respectively: +19.8 ± 6.9%, -3.3 ± 2 mmHg, -13.1 ± 10.8 bpm, -9.8 ± 5.7 cpm) and serum 5-HT level dropped to 634 ± 69 ng/mL (P < 0.05). These results suggest that sertraline plays an analgesic role in formalin-induced nociception probably through a serotonergic mechanism.

  11. Sertraline inhibits formalin-induced nociception and cardiovascular responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.H. Santuzzi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the antihyperalgesic effect of sertraline, measured indirectly by the changes of sciatic afferent nerve activity, and its effects on cardiorespiratory parameters, using the model of formalin-induced inflammatory nociception in anesthetized rats. Serum serotonin (5-HT levels were measured in order to test their correlation with the analgesic effect. Male Wistar rats (250-300 g were divided into 4 groups (N = 8/per group: sertraline-treated group (Sert + Saline (Sal and Sert + Formalin (Form; 3 mg·kg-1·day-1, ip, for 7 days and saline-treated group (Sal + Sal and Sal + Form. The rats were injected with 5% (50 µL formalin or saline into the right hind paw. Sciatic nerve activity was recorded using a silver electrode connected to a NeuroLog apparatus, and cardiopulmonary parameters (mean arterial pressure, heart rate and respiratory frequency, assessed after arterial cannulation and tracheotomy, were monitored using a Data Acquisition System. Blood samples were collected from the animals and serum 5-HT levels were determined by ELISA. Formalin injection induced the following changes: sciatic afferent nerve activity (+50.8 ± 14.7%, mean arterial pressure (+1.4 ± 3 mmHg, heart rate (+13 ± 6.8 bpm, respiratory frequency (+4.6 ± 5 cpm and serum 5-HT increased to 1162 ± 124.6 ng/mL. Treatment with sertraline significantly reduced all these parameters (respectively: +19.8 ± 6.9%, -3.3 ± 2 mmHg, -13.1 ± 10.8 bpm, -9.8 ± 5.7 cpm and serum 5-HT level dropped to 634 ± 69 ng/mL (P < 0.05. These results suggest that sertraline plays an analgesic role in formalin-induced nociception probably through a serotonergic mechanism.

  12. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenza, Gregg L

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac function is required for blood circulation and systemic oxygen delivery. However, the heart has intrinsic oxygen demands that must be met to maintain effective contractility. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that functions as a master regulator of oxygen homeostasis in all metazoan species. HIF-1 controls oxygen delivery, by regulating angiogenesis and vascular remodeling, and oxygen utilization, by regulating glucose metabolism and redox homeostasis. Analysis of animal models suggests that by activation of these homeostatic mechanisms, HIF-1 plays a critical protective role in the pathophysiology of ischemic heart disease and pressure-overload heart failure. PMID:23988176

  13. Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise: Research in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gösta Bluhm

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Sweden, as in many other European countries, traffic noise is an important environmental health issue. At present, almost two million people are exposed to average noise levels exceeding the outdoor national guideline value (55 dB(A. Despite efforts to reduce the noise burden, noise-related health effects, such as annoyance and sleep disturbances, are increasing. The scientific interest regarding more serious health effects related to the cardiovascular system is growing, and several experimental and epidemiological studies have been performed or are ongoing. Most of the studies on cardiovascular outcomes have been related to noise from road or aircraft traffic. Few studies have included railway noise. The outcomes under study include morning saliva cortisol, treatment for hypertension, self-reported hypertension, and myocardial infarction. The Swedish studies on road traffic noise support the hypothesis of an association between long-term noise exposure and cardiovascular disease. However, the magnitude of effect varies between the studies and has been shown to depend on factors such as sex, number of years at residence, and noise annoyance. Two national studies have been performed on the cardiovascular effects of aircraft noise exposure. The first one, a cross-sectional study assessing self-reported hypertension, has shown a 30% risk increase per 5 dB(A noise increase. The second one, which to our knowledge is the first longitudinal study assessing the cumulative incidence of hypertension, found a relative risk (RR of 1.10 (95% CI 1.01 - 1.19 per 5 dB(A noise increase. No associations have been found between railway noise and cardiovascular diseases. The findings regarding noise-related health effects and their economic consequences should be taken into account in future noise abatement policies and community planning.

  14. Effects of exercise on cardiovascular performance in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo eVigorito

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Progressive Aging induces several structural and functional alterations in the cardiovascular system, among whom particularly important are a reduced number of myocardial cell and of increased interstitial collagen fibers, which result in impaired LV diastolic function. Even in the absence of cardiovascular disease, aging is strongly associated to a age-related reduced maximal aerobic capacity. This is due to a variety of physiological changes both at central and at peripheral level; among central factors, a reduced maximal heart rate (HR response to exercise due to beta1 receptors down-regulation plays a major role; among peripheral factors, progressive aging is associated to peripheral muscle cell biochemical and functional changes including reduction of skeletal muscle cells, decrease of Myosin Heavy Chain (MHC I and IIa muscle fibers and impaired muscle oxidative capacity

  15. Avocado Oil Supplementation Modifies Cardiovascular Risk Profile Markers in a Rat Model of Sucrose-Induced Metabolic Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Octavio Carvajal-Zarrabal; Cirilo Nolasco-Hipolito; M. Guadalupe Aguilar-Uscanga; Guadalupe Melo-Santiesteban; Patricia M. Hayward-Jones; Barradas-Dermitz, Dulce M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of avocado oil administration on biochemical markers of cardiovascular risk profile in rats with metabolic changes induced by sucrose ingestion. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: a control group (CG; basic diet), a sick group (MC; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution), and three other groups (MCao, MCac, and MCas; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution plus olive oil and avocado oil extracted by centrifugation or using solvent,...

  16. Naringin Improves Diet-Induced Cardiovascular Dysfunction and Obesity in High Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kathleen Kauter; Md Ashraful Alam; Lindsay Brown

    2013-01-01

    Obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and fatty liver, together termed metabolic syndrome, are key risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Chronic feeding of a diet high in saturated fats and simple sugars, such as fructose and glucose, induces these changes in rats. Naturally occurring compounds could be a cost-effective intervention to reverse these changes. Flavonoids are ubiquitous secondary plant metabolites; naringin gives the bitter taste to grapefruit. This study has evaluated th...

  17. Malnutrition alters the cardiovascular responses induced by central injection of tityustoxin in Fischer rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fernanda Cacilda Santos; Guidine, Patrícia Alves; Ribeiro, Mara Fernandes; Fernandes, Luciano Gonçalves; Xavier, Carlos Henrique; de Menezes, Rodrigo Cunha; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Moraes-Santos, Tasso; Moraes, Márcio Flávio; Chianca, Deoclécio Alves

    2013-12-15

    Scorpion envenoming and malnutrition are considered two important public health problems in Brazil, involving mainly children. Both these conditions are more common among the economically stratified lower income portion of the population, thus suggesting that these factors should be analyzed concomitantly. It is known that cardiorespiratory manifestations, as cardiac arrhythmias, arterial hypertension and hypotension, pulmonary edema and circulatory failure are the main "causa mortis" of scorpion envenomation. Additionally, there are evidences in the literature that deficiencies in dietary intake endanger the CNS and modify the cardiovascular homeostasis. Then, the objective of this work is to evaluate the protein malnourished effect on cardiovascular responses induced by tityustoxin (TsTX, an α-type toxin extracted from the Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom). Fischer rats (n = 20) were injected i.c.v. with TsTX and divided in control and malnorished groups, which were, respectively, submitted to a control and a low-protein diet. Arterial pressure recordings were done until death of the animals. Although both groups presented an increased mean arterial pressure after TsTX injection, this increase was smaller and delayed in malnourished rats, when compared to control rats. In addition, heart rate increased only in rats from the control group. Finally, malnourished rats had an increase in survival time (9:9/13.5 vs. 15.5:10.5/18 min; p = 0.0009). In summary, our results suggest that the protein restriction attenuates the cardiovascular manifestations resulting from TsTX action on CNS. PMID:24060375

  18. Cardiovascular Effects of Acute Organophosphate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Laudari

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion:Cardiac effects of OP poisoning can be life-threatening. Prompt diagnosis, early supportive and definitive therapies with atropine and oximes along with vigilant monitoring of the patients for prominent cardiac effects such as QT prolongation, VT or VF during hospital stay can definitely save lives of the victims.

  19. EFECTOS DE LOS MEDICAMENTOS CARDIOVASCULARES SOBRE EL GLOBO OCULAR / Effects of cardiovascular drugs on the eyeball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caridad Peraza Martínez

    2013-01-01

    ophthalmology offices, and many of drugs used for these conditions may cause undesirable effects on the eyeball. The objective of this research was to determine the adverse reactions caused by the consumption of these drugs in the visual organ, and highlight their contraindications in people affected by eye disease. Method: A literature search was performed using specialized texts, and the drugs that could produce ocular adverse reactions were identified, as well as those that were contraindicated in ophthalmic diseases. Results: A total of 276 medications were reviewed and 72 (26.08% were selected. Blurred vision (38/72, decreased visual acuity (21/72 and dizziness (16/72 were the most common adverse reactions associated with the use of cardiovascular drugs. The six medications that are contraindicated in these patients are exposed, as well as the 14 that should be prescribed with extreme caution in diseases such as glaucoma, optic atrophy, hypertensive retinopathy and migraine, among others. Conclusions: It was found that 72 drugs (26.08% used in cardiovascular disease may produce some ocular symptoms as an adverse reaction. Blurred vision, decreased visual acuity and dizziness were predominant. It is extremely important to conduct a good medical interview to know the patient´s medical history and avoid the use of drugs that are useful for a disease but harmful for another one. The doctor, knowingly, will weigh the risk / benefit of those drugs that are essential.

  20. A STUDY OF CARDIOVASCULAR AND ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECTS OF TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA

    OpenAIRE

    Jorige Archana et al

    2012-01-01

    Tinospora cordifolia is known for a wide range of medicinal properties. In this study, cardiovascular and antimicrobial properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Tinospora cordifolia were evaluated. Dose dependent negative ionotropic and chronotropic effects were observed with both aqueous and ethanolic extracts. The effects were antagonized by atropine indicating involvement of muscarinic receptors. Maximum antimicrobial activity was found with ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia...

  1. Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise: Research in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Gösta Bluhm; Charlotta Eriksson

    2011-01-01

    In Sweden, as in many other European countries, traffic noise is an important environmental health issue. At present, almost two million people are exposed to average noise levels exceeding the outdoor national guideline value (55 dB(A)). Despite efforts to reduce the noise burden, noise-related health effects, such as annoyance and sleep disturbances, are increasing. The scientific interest regarding more serious health effects related to the cardiovascular system is growing, and several exp...

  2. Diesel exhaust induced pulmonary and cardiovascular impairment: The role of hypertension intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) and associated gases is linked to cardiovascular impairments; however, the susceptibility of hypertensive individuals is poorly understood. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine cardiopulmonary effects of gas-phase versus whole-DE and (2) to examine the contribution of systemic hypertension in pulmonary and cardiovascular effects. Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats were treated with hydralazine to reduce blood pressure (BP) or L-NAME to increase BP. Spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats were treated with hydralazine to reduce BP. Control and drug-pretreated rats were exposed to air, particle-filtered exhaust (gas), or whole DE (1500 μg/m3), 4 h/day for 2 days or 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Acute and 4-week gas and DE exposures increased neutrophils and γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT) activity in lavage fluid of WKY and SH rats. DE (4 weeks) caused pulmonary albumin leakage and inflammation in SH rats. Two-day DE increased serum fatty acid binding protein-3 (FABP-3) in WKY. Marked increases occurred in aortic mRNA after 4-week DE in SH (eNOS, TF, tPA, TNF-α, MMP-2, RAGE, and HMGB-1). Hydralazine decreased BP in SH while L-NAME tended to increase BP in WKY; however, neither changed inflammation nor BALF γ-GT. DE-induced and baseline BALF albumin leakage was reduced by hydralazine in SH rats and increased by L-NAME in WKY rats. Hydralazine pretreatment reversed DE-induced TF, tPA, TNF-α, and MMP-2 expression but not eNOS, RAGE, and HMGB-1. ET-1 was decreased by HYD. In conclusion, antihypertensive drug treatment reduces gas and DE-induced pulmonary protein leakage and expression of vascular atherogenic markers. - Highlights: ► Acute diesel exhaust exposure induces pulmonary inflammation in healthy rats. ► In hypertensive rats diesel exhaust effects are seen only after long term exposure. ► Normalizing blood pressure reverses lung protein leakage caused by diesel exhaust. ► Normalizing blood pressure reverses atherogenic

  3. Moderate inappropriately high aldosterone/NaCl constellation in mice: cardiovascular effects and the role of cardiovascular epidermal growth factor receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Barbara; Rabe, Sindy; Winter, Sabrina; Ruhs, Stefanie; Mildenberger, Sigrid; Schneider, Bettina; Sibilia, Maria; Gotthardt, Michael; Kempe, Sabine; Mäder, Karsten; Grossmann, Claudia; Gekle, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Non-physiological activation of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), e.g. by aldosterone under conditions of high salt intake, contributes to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, although beneficial effects of aldosterone also have been described. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) contributes to cardiovascular alterations and mediates part of the MR effects. Recently, we showed that EGFR is required for physiological homeostasis and function of heart and arteries in adult animals. We hypothesize that moderate high aldosterone/NaCl, at normal blood pressure, affects the cardiovascular system depending on cardiovascular EGFR. Therefore we performed an experimental series in male and female animals each, using a recently established mouse model with EGFR knockout in vascular smooth muscle cells and cardiomyocytes and determined the effects of a mild-high aldosterone-to-NaCl constellation on a.o. marker gene expression, heart size, systolic blood pressure, impulse conduction and heart rate. Our data show that (i) cardiac tissue of male but not of female mice is sensitive to mild aldosterone/NaCl treatment, (ii) EGFR knockout induces stronger cardiac disturbances in male as compared to female animals and (iii) mild aldosterone/NaCl treatment requires the EGFR in order to disturb cardiac tissue homeostasis whereas beneficial effects of aldosterone seem to be independent of EGFR. PMID:25503263

  4. Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Münzel, Thomas; Gori, Tommaso; Babisch, Wolfgang; Basner, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    The role of noise as an environmental pollutant and its impact on health are being increasingly recognized. Beyond its effects on the auditory system, noise causes annoyance and disturbs sleep, and it impairs cognitive performance. Furthermore, evidence from epidemiologic studies demonstrates that environmental noise is associated with an increased incidence of arterial hypertension, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Both observational and experimental studies indicate that in particular nig...

  5. Cardiovascular Effects of Antidepressants and Mood Stabilizers

    OpenAIRE

    Shahin Akhondzadeh; Javad Maleki

    2007-01-01

    Depression is a serious disorder in today’s society, with the estimates of lifetime prevalence being as high as 21% of the general population in some developed countries. As defined by the American Psychiatric Association, depression is a heterogeneous disorder often manifested with symptoms at the psychological, behavioral, and physiological levels. Such patients are often reluctant to take synthetic antidepressants in their appropriate doses due to their anticipated side effects including i...

  6. Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise: Research in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Lercher; Dick Botteldooren; Ulrich Widmann; Ulrich Uhrner; Ewald Kammeringer

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular effects of noise rank second in terms of disability-adjusted life year (DALYs) after annoyance. Although research during the past decade has consolidated the available data base, the most recent meta-analysis still shows wide confidence intervals - indicating imprecise information for public health risk assessment. The alpine area of Tyrol in the Austrian part of the Alps has experienced a massive increase in car and heavy goods traffic (road and rail) during the last 35 years....

  7. Leptin and its cardiovascular effects: Focus on angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoya Tahergorabi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptin is an endocrine hormone synthesized by adipocytes. It plays a key role in the energy homeostasis in central and peripheral tissues and has additional roles are attributed to it, such as the regulation of reproduction, immune function, bone homeostasis, and angiogenesis. The plasma concentration of leptin significantly increases in obese individuals. In the present review, we give an introduction concerning leptin, its receptors, signaling pathways, and its effect on cardiovascular system, especially on angiogenesis.

  8. Methylmercury Exposure and Adverse Cardiovascular Effects in Faroese Whaling Men

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Anna Lai; Weihe, Pal; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Jørgensen, Poul J.; Jukka T Salonen; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Murata, Katsuyuki; Nielsen, Hans Petur; Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Askham, Jórun; Grandjean, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Background: Methylmercury (MeHg), a worldwide contaminant found in fish and seafood, has been linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. Objective: We examined 42 Faroese whaling men (30–70 years of age) to assess possible adverse effects within a wide range of MeHg exposures from consumption of pilot whale meat. Methods: We assessed exposure levels from mercury analysis of toenails and whole blood (obtained at the time of clinical examination), and a hair sample collected 7 yea...

  9. Cardiovascular Effects of Sevelamer in Stage 3 CKD

    OpenAIRE

    Chue, Colin D; Townend, Jonathan N; Moody, William E.; Zehnder, Daniel; Wall, Nadezhda A.; Harper, Lorraine; Edwards, Nicola C.; Steeds, Richard P.; Ferro, Charles J

    2013-01-01

    Serum phosphate independently predicts cardiovascular mortality in the general population and CKD, even when levels are in the normal range. Associations between serum phosphate, arterial stiffness, and left ventricular (LV) mass suggest a possible pathophysiological mechanism, potentially mediated by the phosphaturic hormone fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23). To what extent the phosphate binder sevelamer modulates these effects is not well understood. In this single-center, randomized, do...

  10. Effects of palm oil on cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Y H; Ng, T K

    1991-03-01

    A major public health concern of affluent nations is the excessive consumption of dietary fats which are now closely linked to coronary heart disease. Against this scenario, the tropical oils and palm oil in particular, have been cast as major villains in the U.S.A., despite the fact that palm oil consumption there is negligible. The unsuspecting public may not realise that the call to avoid palm oil is nothing more than a trade ploy since in recent years palm oil has been very competitive and has gained a major share of the world's edible oils and fats market. Many also lose sight of the fact that, palm oil, like other edible oils and fats, is an important component of the diet. The allegation that palm oil consumption leads to raised blood cholesterol levels and is therefore atherogenic is without scientific foundation. Examination of the chemical and fatty acid composition of palm oil or its liquid fraction should convince most nutritionists that the oil has little cholesterol-raising potential. The rationale for these are: it is considered cholesterol free. its major saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid (16:0) has recently been shown to be neutral in its cholesterolaemic effect, particularly in situations where the LDL receptors have not been down-regulated by dietary means or through a genetic effect. palm oil contains negligible amounts (less than 1.5%) of the hypercholesterolemic saturated fatty acids, namely lauric acid (12:0) and myristic acid (14:0). it has moderately rich amounts of the hypocholesterolaemic, monounsaturated oleic acid (18:1, omega-9) and adequate amounts of linoleic acid. (18:2, omega-6). It contains minor components such as the vitamin E tocotrienols which are not only powerful antioxidants but are also natural inhibitors of cholesterol synthesis. Feeding experiments in various animal species and humans also do not support the allegation that palm oil is atherogenic. On the contrary, palm oil consumption reduces blood cholesterol in

  11. Antioxidative Diet Supplementation Reverses High-Fat Diet-Induced Increases of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Vargas-Robles

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a worldwide epidemic that is characterized not only by excessive fat deposition but also by systemic microinflammation, high oxidative stress, and increased cardiovascular risk factors. While diets enriched in natural antioxidants showed beneficial effects on oxidative stress, blood pressure, and serum lipid composition, diet supplementation with synthetic antioxidants showed contradictive results. Thus, we tested in C57Bl/6 mice whether a daily dosage of an antioxidative mixture consisting of vitamin C, vitamin E, L-arginine, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid (corabion would affect cardiovascular risk factors associated with obesity. Obese mice showed increased serum triglyceride and glucose levels and hypertension after eight weeks of being fed a high-fat diet (HFD. Importantly, corabion ameliorated all of these symptoms significantly. Oxidative stress and early signs of systemic microinflammation already developed after two weeks of high-fat diet and were significantly reduced by daily doses of corabion. Of note, the beneficial effects of corabion could not be observed when applying its single antioxidative components suggesting that a combination of various nutrients is required to counteract HFD-induced cardiovascular risk factors. Thus, daily consumption of corabion may be beneficial for the management of obesity-related cardiovascular complications.

  12. Resveratrol blunts the positive effects of exercise training on cardiovascular health in aged men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybholt, Lasse Gliemann; Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Olesen, Jesper;

    2013-01-01

    signaling and through an improved antioxidant capacity. We tested the hypothesis that resveratrol supplementation enhances training-induced improvements in cardiovascular health parameters in aged men. Twenty-seven healthy physically inactive aged men (age: 65 ± 1 years; BMI: 25.4 ± 0.7 kg/m2; MAP: 95.8 ± 2.......02) and muscle TBX synthase was higher in the resveratrol group after training (P <0.05). Resveratrol administration also abolished the positive effects of exercise on LDL, TC/HDL ratio and triglycerides concentrations in blood (P <0.05). Resveratrol did not potentiate the effect of exercise training on......Aging is thought to be associated with decreased vascular function partly due to oxidative stress. Resveratrol is a polyphenol, which, in animal studies has been shown to decrease atherosclerosis, improve cardiovascular health and physical capacity, in part through its effects on Sirtuin 1...

  13. Cardiovascular effects of intravenous ghrelin infusion in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Esben Thyssen; Andersen, Niels Holmark; Hansen, Troels Krarup;

    2007-01-01

    Ghrelin infusion improves cardiac function in patients suffering from cardiac failure, and bolus administration of ghrelin increases cardiac output in healthy subjects. The cardiovascular effects of more continuous intravenous ghrelin exposure remain to be studied. We therefore studied the cardio......Ghrelin infusion improves cardiac function in patients suffering from cardiac failure, and bolus administration of ghrelin increases cardiac output in healthy subjects. The cardiovascular effects of more continuous intravenous ghrelin exposure remain to be studied. We therefore studied...... the cardiovascular effects of a constant infusion of human ghrelin at a rate of 5 pmol/kg per minute for 180 min. Fifteen healthy, young (aged 23.2 ± 0.5 yr), normal-weight (23.0 ± 0.4 kg/m2) men volunteered in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. With the subjects remaining fasting, peak...... myocardial systolic velocity S′, tissue tracking TT, left ventricular ejection fraction EF, and endothelium-dependent flow-mediated vasodilatation were measured. Ghrelin infusion increased S′ 9% (P = 0.002) and TT 10% (P

  14. Independent effects of early-life experience and trait aggression on cardiovascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Samir; Pugh, Phyllis C; Katz, Erin; Stringfellow, Sara A; Lin, Chee Paul; Wyss, J Michael; Stauss, Harald M; White, C Roger; Clinton, Sarah M; Kerman, Ilan A

    2016-08-01

    Early-life experience (ELE) can significantly affect life-long health and disease, including cardiovascular function. Specific dimensions of emotionality also modify risk of disease, and aggressive traits along with social inhibition have been established as independent vulnerability factors for the progression of cardiovascular disease. Yet, the biological mechanisms mediating these associations remain poorly understood. The present study utilized the inherently stress-susceptible and socially inhibited Wistar-Kyoto rats to determine the potential influences of ELE and trait aggression (TA) on cardiovascular parameters throughout the lifespan. Pups were exposed to maternal separation (MS), consisting of daily 3-h separations of the entire litter from postnatal day (P)1 to P14. The rats were weaned at P21, and as adults were instrumented for chronic radiotelemetry recordings of blood pressure and heart rate (HR). Adult aggressive behavior was assessed using the resident-intruder test, which demonstrated that TA was independent of MS exposure. MS-exposed animals (irrespective of TA) had significantly lower resting HR accompanied by increases in HR variability. No effects of MS on resting blood pressure were detected. In contrast, TA correlated with increased resting mean, systolic, and diastolic arterial pressures but had no effect on HR. TA rats (relative to nonaggressive animals) also manifested increased wall-to-lumen ratio in the thoracic aorta, increased sensitivity to phenylephrine-induced vascular contractility, and increased norepinephrine content in the heart. Together these data suggest that ELE and TA are independent factors that impact baseline cardiovascular function. PMID:27280432

  15. Explosive type of moderate-resistance training induces functional, cardiovascular, and molecular adaptations in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltran Valls, Maria Reyes; Dimauro, Ivan; Brunelli, Andrea;

    2014-01-01

    12 weeks of low-frequency, moderate-intensity, explosive-type resistance training (EMRT) on muscle strength and power in old community-dwelling people (70-75 years), monitoring functional performance linked to daily living activities (ADL) and cardiovascular response, as well as biomarkers of muscle......Current recommendations aimed at reducing neuromuscular and functional loss in aged muscle have identified muscle power as a key target for intervention trials, although little is known about the biological and cardiovascular systemic response in the elderly. This study investigated the effects of...... damage, cardiovascular risk, and cellular stress response. The present study provides the first evidence that EMRT was highly effective in achieving a significant enhancement in muscular strength and power as well as in functional performance without causing any detrimental modification in cardiovascular...

  16. Cardiovascular effects of weightlessness and ground-based simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Harold

    1988-01-01

    A large number of animal and human flight and ground-based studies were conducted to uncover the cardiovascular effects of weightlessness. Findings indicate changes in cardiovascular function during simulations and with spaceflight that lead to compromised function on reambulation and/or return to earth. This altered state termed cardiovascular deconditioning is most clearly manifest when in an erect body state. Hemodynamic parameters inidicate the presence of excessive tachnycardia, hypotension (leading to presyncope in one-third of the subjects), decreased heart volume, decreased plasma and circulating blood volumes and loss of skeletal muscle mass, particularly in the lower limbs. No clinically harmful effects were observed to date, but in-depth follow-ups were limited, as was available physiologic information. Available data concerning the causes for the observed changes indicate significant roles for mechanisms involved with body fluid-volume regulation, altered cardiac function, and the neurohumoral control of the control of the peripheral circulation. Satisfactory measures are not found. Return to preflight state was variable and only slightly dependent on flight duration. Future progress awaits availability of flight durations longer than several weeks.

  17. Cardiovascular Effects of Saffron: An Evidence-Based Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Akhondzadeh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicine can be a valuable source of assistance for traditional medicine. There are a number of herbs that can beused in conjunction with modern medicine. Herbs can also be taken to aid recovery from serious diseases. Although one should never aim to treat diseases such as cardiovascular disease solely with herbal medicine, the value of herbs used in tandem with modern medicine cannot be ignored. Saffron has been reported to help lower cholesterol and keep cholesterol levels healthy.Animal studies have shown saffron to lower cholesterol by as much as 50%. Saffron has antioxidant properties; it is, therefore,helpful in maintaining healthy arteries and blood vessels. Saffron is also known to have anti-inflammatory properties, which are beneficial to cardiovascular health. The people of Mediterranean countries, where saffron use is common, have lower than normal incidence of heart diseases. From saffron's cholesterol lowering benefits to its anti inflammatory properties,saffron may be one of the best supplements for cardiac health. This paper reviews the studies regarding the beneficial effects of saffron in cardiovascular health.

  18. A STUDY OF CARDIOVASCULAR AND ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECTS OF TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorige Archana et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tinospora cordifolia is known for a wide range of medicinal properties. In this study, cardiovascular and antimicrobial properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Tinospora cordifolia were evaluated. Dose dependent negative ionotropic and chronotropic effects were observed with both aqueous and ethanolic extracts. The effects were antagonized by atropine indicating involvement of muscarinic receptors. Maximum antimicrobial activity was found with ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia (15mm against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The organism showed resistance to aqueous extract giving an inhibition zone of 0.3mm. The data suggest that Tinospora cordifolia could be of benefit in arrhythmias and microbial infections.

  19. Hypoxia Stress Test Reveals Exaggerated Cardiovascular Effects in Hypertensive Rats after Exposure to the Air Pollutant Acrolein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in susceptible populations with cardiovascular disease. Stress tests are useful in assessing cardiovascular risk and manifesting latent effects of exposure. The goal of this study w...

  20. Cardiovascular and ventilatory responses to electrically induced cycling with complete epidural anaesthesia in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, M; Perko, G; Secher, N H;

    1994-01-01

    Cardiovascular and ventilatory responses to electrically induced dynamic exercise were investigated in eight healthy young males with afferent neural influence from the legs blocked by epidural anaesthesia (25 ml 2% lidocaine) at L3-L4. This caused cutaneous sensory anaesthesia below T8-T9 and.......1 vs. 17.3 +/- 0.91 min-1) were similar, and ventilation (54 +/- 5 vs. 45 +/- 41 min-1) was higher (P <0.05). In contrast, the rise in mean arterial blood pressure during voluntary exercise (93 +/- 4 (rest) to 119 +/- 4 mmHg (exercise)) was not manifest during electrically induced exercise with...... epidural anaesthesia [93 +/- 3 (rest) to 95 +/- 5 mmHg (exercise)]. As there is ample evidence for similar cardiovascular and ventilatory responses to electrically induced and voluntary exercise (Strange et al. 1993), the present results support the fact that the neural input from working muscle is crucial...

  1. Early cardiovascular changes occurring in diet-induced, obese insulin-resistant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisamen, Barbara; Dietrich, Daneel; Bezuidenhout, Nicole; Lopes, John; Flepisi, Brian; Blackhurst, Dee; Lochner, Amanda

    2012-09-01

    The metabolic syndrome is recognized as a cluster of disturbances associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Over the past two decades, the number of people with the metabolic syndrome has increased at an alarming rate. This increase is associated with the global epidemic of both obesity and diabetes. Cardiovascular mortality is increased among diabetics and obesity-related insulin-resistant patients, and obesity is currently recognized as independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We aimed to establish the effects of a short period of an altered diet on the heart using a rat model of hyperphagia-induced obesity (diet supplemented with sucrose and condensed milk for 8 weeks = DIO) compared to age-matched controls. Isolated, perfused hearts were subjected to global or regional ischaemia/reperfusion. Function on reperfusion was recorded and infarct size determined. A plasma lipid profile was established via HPLC-based methods and proteins involved in metabolic signalling determined either by western blotting or RT-PCR. 8 weeks of diet resulted in whole-body but not myocardial insulin resistance, increased plasma triglyceride and phospholipid levels as well as increased lipid peroxidation. Despite the similar baseline function, hearts from DIO animals showed significantly poorer postischaemic recovery than controls (41.9 % RPP recovery vs 57.9 %, P < 0.05, n = 7-11/group) but surprisingly, smaller infarct size (24.95 ± 1.97 vs 47.26 ± 4.05 % of the area at risk, P < 0.005, n = 8/group). Basal phosphorylation of PKB/Akt was elevated but IRS-1 and SERCA-2 expression severely downregulated. In conclusion, after only 8 weeks of a slight change in diet, the rat heart shows signs of metabolic remodelling. Some of these changes may be protective but others may be detrimental and eventually lead to maladaptation. PMID:22638648

  2. EFFECTS OF CARDIOVASCULAR REHABILITATION IN PATIENTS ADMITTED TO THE “Dr Benedek Geza” Hospital of Rehabilitation IN CARDIOVASCULAR Diseases, COVASNA

    OpenAIRE

    Suceveanu Mihaela; Pop Dana; Suceveanu Paul; Sitar Tǎut Adela Viviana; Zdrenghea Dumitru; Hâncu Nicolae

    2015-01-01

    Background. Cardiovascular rehabilitation is an important objective of the treatment of cardiovascular patients in general, and ischemic heart disease patients in particular. The aim of the study is to monitor the effects of long-term cardiovascular rehabilitation in patients readmitted to the “Dr Benedek Geza” Hospital of Rehabilitation in Cardiovascular Diseases Covasna. Material and methods. The study included 92 patients with a mean age of 66.31±9 years, of which 63% women, who had...

  3. Functional ingredients and cardiovascular protective effect of pumpkin seed oils

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Okbi, S. Y.; Mohamed, D. A.; Kandil, E.; Ahmed, E. K.; Mohammed, S. E.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the cardiovascular protective effect of Egyptian and European umpkin seed oil (PSO) in hypercholesterolemic rats. Tocopherols, fatty acids (FAs) and unsaponifiable matter (UNSAP) were assessed in both oils. The results showed that α-tocopherol was 108 and 273, γ-tocopherol was 3.95 and 0 and d-tocopherol was 0 and 1.58 mg·100 g-1 oil of the Egyptian and European, respectively. GLC analysis of FAs revealed the presence of linoleic acid as the...

  4. Cardiovascular effects of cromakalim (BRL 34915) in healthy volunteers.

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, J S; Whitehead, E M; Shanks, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    1. The effect of oral doses of cromakalim 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg on several cardiovascular parameters was studied in healthy male volunteers. 2. In the first study, no dose of cromakalim reduced systolic or diastolic blood pressure in the supine or standing position. Reductions of diastolic blood pressure after exercise (P less than 0.01) were observed 4 h after administration of 2.0 mg. 3. There was a trend towards increased heart rate after 2.0 mg at all time intervals, and significant ch...

  5. Functional Task Test: 2. Spaceflight-Induced Cardiovascular Change and Recovery During NASA's Functional Task Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Tiffany; Arzeno, Natalia M.; Stenger, Michael; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Platts, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    The overall objective of the functional task test (FTT) is to correlate spaceflight-induced physiological adaptations with changes in performance of high priority exploration mission-critical tasks. This presentation will focus on the recovery from fall/stand test (RFST), which measures the cardiovascular response to the transition from the prone posture (simulated fall) to standing in normal gravity, as well as heart rate (HR) during 11 functional tasks. As such, this test describes some aspects of spaceflight-induced cardiovascular deconditioning and the course of recovery in Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) astronauts. The sensorimotor and neuromuscular components of the FTT are described in two separate abstracts: Functional Task Test 1 and 3.

  6. Berberine: metabolic and cardiovascular effects in preclinical and clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arrigo FG Cicero

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Arrigo FG Cicero1, Sibel Ertek21Internal Medicine, Aging and Kidney Diseases Department, Sant’Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy; 2Ufuk University, Medical Faculty, Dr Ridvan Ege Hospital, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Ankara, TurkeyAbstract: Berberine is a plant alkaloid with numerous biological activities. A large body of preclinical in vitro and in vivo studies support different pharmacological actions of berberine that could be potentially useful in the management of metabolic diseases associated with high cardiovascular disease risk, such as mixed hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. Moreover, it seems that berberine also exerts anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative effects that could play a role in the development of atherosclerosis and its clinical consequences. Recently, the metabolic effects of berberine have been demonstrated in humans, opening new perspectives for the use of this molecule in patient therapy. Larger and longer clinical studies need to be carried out to implement the definition of the therapeutic role of berberine in humans.Keywords: berberine, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cholesterol

  7. The effects of music on the cardiovascular system and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trappe, Hans-Joachim

    2010-12-01

    Music may not only improve quality of life but may also effect changes in heart rate and heart rate variability. It has been shown that cerebral flow was significantly lower when listening to 'Va pensiero' from Verdi's 'Nabucco' (70.4±3.3 cm/s) compared with 'Libiam nei lieti calici' from Verdi's 'La Traviata' (70.2±3.1 cm/s) (pflow during rest (67.6±3.3 cm/s) or when listening to Beethoven's Ninth Symphony (69.4±3.1 cm/s). It was reported that relaxing music significantly decreases the level of anxiety of patients in a preoperative setting (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)-X-1 score 34)-to a greater extent even than orally administered midazolam (STAI-X-1 score 36) (pmusic group (STAI-X-1 score 30) compared with the midazolam group (STAI-X-1 score 34) (pmusic a useful alternative to midazolam for premedication. In addition, there is sufficient practical evidence of stress reduction suggesting that a proposed regimen of listening to music while resting in bed after open-heart surgery is important in clinical use. After 30 min of bed rest, there was a significant difference in cortisol levels between the music (484.4 mmol/l) and the non-music group (618.8 mmol/l) (pmusic produce significantly better correlations between cardiovascular or respiratory signals compared with music with a more uniform emphasis (pmusic and meditation music, whereas heavy metal music or techno are not only ineffective but possibly dangerous and can lead to stress and/or life-threatening arrhythmias. The music of many composers most effectively improves quality of life, will increase health and probably prolong life, particularly music by Bach, Mozart or Italian composers. PMID:21062776

  8. Nano zerovalent iron particles induce pulmonary and cardiovascular toxicity in an in vitro human co-culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhelin; Yang, Lingyan; Chen, Ku-Fan; Chen, Guan-Wen; Peng, Yen-Ping; Chen, Jen-Kun; Suo, Guangli; Yu, Jiantao; Wang, Wen-Cheng; Lin, Chia-Hua

    2016-09-01

    Despite promising environmental applications for nano zerovalent iron (nZVI), concerns remain about the potential accumulation and toxic effects of nZVI particles. Here, we use an alveolar-capillary co-culture model to investigate a possible link between low-level epithelial exposure to nZVI and pulmonary and cardiovascular toxicity. While nZVI was unable to pass through the epithelial barrier into the endothelium, nZVI exposure did cause oxidative and inflammatory responses in both epithelial and endothelial cells. Therefore, toxic effects induced by nZVI are not restricted to epithelial cells but can be transferred into the endothelium. Communication between A549 and EA.hy926 cells is responsible for amplification of nZVI-induced toxic responses. Decreases in transepithelial electrical resistance and zonula occludens proteins after epithelial exposure to nZVI impaired epithelial barrier integrity. Increases in oxidized α1-antitrypsin and oxidized low-density lipoprotein in the co-culture model suggest that nZVI exposure increases the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and atherosclerosis. Therefore, inhalation of nZVI has the potential to induce cardiovascular disease through oxidative and inflammatory mediators produced from the damaged lung epithelium in chronic lung diseases. PMID:26694701

  9. Coarctation induces alterations in basement membranes in the cardiovascular system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipke, D W; McCarthy, K J; Elton, T S;

    1993-01-01

    A coarctation hypertensive rat model was used to examine the effects of elevated blood pressure on basement membrane component synthesis by cardiac myocytes and aorta using immunohistochemistry and Northern blot analysis. Carotid arterial pressure increased immediately on coarctation, and left ve...

  10. THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS OF CARBONATED MINERAL WATERS IN CARDIOVASCULAR REHABILITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogaru Gabriela

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbonated water baths represent a method used for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases in some spa resorts in Romania. Carbonated mineral waters are the result of the filtration of depth waters through volcanic soils that contain carbon dioxide. The most important effect is the direct effect of carbon dioxide, which is absorbed through the skin, with an absorption coefficient of 30-35 ml/min/sqm body surface area. An excitation of vascular receptors and a dilation of dermal papillae, responsible for skin erythema, occur. The effects of the carbonated water bath on the cardiovascular system are the following: decrease of peripheral resistance by the direct action of carbon dioxide on arterioles and arteriovenous anastomoses; increase of both systolic and diastolic cardiac output, not by central mechanism as in the case of hot baths, but initially, by passive peripheral vasodilation, without increased venous return; subsequently, by accumulation in the cutaneous venous system, venous return towards the right heart will be increased, with a higher diastolic filling and a higher stroke volume. Carbonated water baths increase arteriolar blood flow in the skin, the vasodilator effect being directly proportional to the carbon dioxide concentration in the mineral bath. The effect of external carbonated water treatment is based on mechanical and thermal action, as well as on the chemical properties of carbon dioxide, its influence being either local or postabsorptive. Carbonated water baths are a therapeutic method that is also used in the treatment facilities of the Baile Tusnad spa resort, under the supervision of qualified medical experts, in a pleasant environment close to nature.

  11. Diesel Exhaust-Induced Pulmonary and Cardiovascular Impairment: The Role of Hypertension Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background–Exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) particles and associated gases is linked to cardiovascular impairments; however the susceptibility of hypertensive individuals is less well understood. Objective–1) To determine cardiopulmonary effects of gas-phase versus whole-DE, and 2...

  12. Sidestream cigarette smoke effects on cardiovascular responses in conscious rats: involvement of oxidative stress in the fourth cerebral ventricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valenti Vitor E

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette exposure increases brain oxidative stress. The literature showed that increased brain oxidative stress affects cardiovascular regulation. However, no previous study investigated the involvement of brain oxidative stress in animals exposed to cigarette and its relationship with cardiovascular regulation. We aimed to evaluate the effects of central catalase inhibition on baroreflex and cardiovascular responses in rats exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke (SSCS. Methods We evaluated males Wistar rats (320-370 g, which were implanted with a stainless steel guide cannula into the fourth cerebral ventricle (4th V. Femoral artery and vein were cannulated for mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart rate (HR measurement and drug infusion, respectively. Rats were exposed to SSCS during three weeks, 180 minutes, 5 days/week (CO: 100-300 ppm. Baroreflex was tested with a pressor dose of phenylephrine (PHE, 8 μg/kg, bolus to induce bradycardic reflex and a depressor dose of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 50 μg/kg, bolus to induce tachycardic reflex. Cardiovascular responses were evaluated before, 5, 15, 30 and 60 minutes after 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (ATZ, catalase inhibitor, 0.001 g/100 μL injection into the 4th V. Results Central catalase inhibition increased basal HR in the control group during the first 5 minutes. SSCS exposure increased basal HR and attenuated bradycardic peak during the first 15 minutes. Conclusion We suggest that SSCS exposure affects cardiovascular regulation through its influence on catalase activity.

  13. Naringin Improves Diet-Induced Cardiovascular Dysfunction and Obesity in High Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Kauter

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and fatty liver, together termed metabolic syndrome, are key risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Chronic feeding of a diet high in saturated fats and simple sugars, such as fructose and glucose, induces these changes in rats. Naturally occurring compounds could be a cost-effective intervention to reverse these changes. Flavonoids are ubiquitous secondary plant metabolites; naringin gives the bitter taste to grapefruit. This study has evaluated the effect of naringin on diet-induced obesity and cardiovascular dysfunction in high carbohydrate, high fat-fed rats. These rats developed increased body weight, glucose intolerance, increased plasma lipid concentrations, hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis, liver inflammation and steatosis with compromised mitochondrial respiratory chain activity. Dietary supplementation with naringin (approximately 100 mg/kg/day improved glucose intolerance and liver mitochondrial dysfunction, lowered plasma lipid concentrations and improved the structure and function of the heart and liver without decreasing total body weight. Naringin normalised systolic blood pressure and improved vascular dysfunction and ventricular diastolic dysfunction in high carbohydrate, high fat-fed rats. These beneficial effects of naringin may be mediated by reduced inflammatory cell infiltration, reduced oxidative stress, lowered plasma lipid concentrations and improved liver mitochondrial function in rats.

  14. Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise: Research in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Lercher

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular effects of noise rank second in terms of disability-adjusted life year (DALYs after annoyance. Although research during the past decade has consolidated the available data base, the most recent meta-analysis still shows wide confidence intervals - indicating imprecise information for public health risk assessment. The alpine area of Tyrol in the Austrian part of the Alps has experienced a massive increase in car and heavy goods traffic (road and rail during the last 35 years. Over the past 25 years small-, middle-, and large-sized epidemiological health surveys have been conducted - mostly within the framework of environmental health impact assessments. By design, these studies have emphasized a contextually driven environmental stress perspective, where the adverse health effects on account of noise are studied in a broader framework of environmental health, susceptibility, and coping. Furthermore, innovative exposure assessment strategies have been implemented. This article reviews the existing knowledge from these studies over time, and presents the exposure-response curves, with and without interaction assessment, based on standardized re-analyses and discusses it in the light of past and current cardiovascular noise effects research. The findings support relevant moderation by age, gender, and family history in nearly all studies and suggest a strong need for consideration of non-linearity in the exposure-response analyses. On the other hand, air pollution has not played a relevant role as a moderator in the noise-hypertension or the noise-angina pectoris relationship. Finally, different noise modeling procedures can introduce variations in the exposure response curves, with substantive consequences for public health risk assessment of noise exposure.

  15. The effects of cardiovascular exercise on human memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roig, Marc; Nordbrandt, Sasja; Geertsen, Svend Sparre;

    2013-01-01

    We reviewed the evidence for the use of cardiovascular exercise to improve memory and explored potential mechanisms. Data from 29 and 21 studies including acute and long-term cardiovascular interventions were retrieved. Meta-analyses revealed that acute exercise had moderate (SMD=0.26; 95% CI=0...

  16. Effects of whole body vibration training on body composition, skeletal muscle strength, and cardiovascular health

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Song-Young; Son, Won-Mok; Kwon, Oh-Sung

    2015-01-01

    Whole body vibration training (WBVT) has been used as a supplement to conventional exercise training such as resistance exercise training to improve skeletal muscle strength, specifically, in rehabilitation field. Recently, this exercise modality has been utilized by cardiovascular studies to examine whether WBVT can be a useful exercise modality to improve cardiovascular health. These studies reported that WBVT has not only beneficial effects on muscular strength but also cardiovascular heal...

  17. The effects of exercise on cardiovascular outcomes before, during, and after treatment for breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sturgeon, Kathleen M.; Ky, Bonnie; Libonati, Joseph R.; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2013-01-01

    Asymptomatic cardiotoxicity following breast cancer treatment is a significant issue for many patients, as these patients typically face an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Exercise has well established benefits to improve and maintain cardiovascular function across patients with and without CVD. However, there is a dearth of information on the effects of exercise on cardiovascular outcomes in breast cancer patients. While pre-clinical studies support the use of exercise in mit...

  18. CARDIOVASCULAR AND OTHER HEALTH EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH ARSENIC EXPOSURE IN INNER MONGOLIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic exposure is associated with cardiovascular and other health effects. The study objectives were to investigate the mode of action and to assess dose-response relationships of arsenic on cardiovascular, diabetic and carcinogenic effects in Ba Men, Inner Mongolia. Ba Men res...

  19. A Review of the Effect of Diet on Cardiovascular Calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoll, Rachel; Howard, John McLaren; Henein, Michael Y.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) calcification is known as sub-clinical atherosclerosis and is recognised as a predictor of CV events and mortality. As yet there is no treatment for CV calcification and conventional CV risk factors are not consistently correlated, leaving clinicians uncertain as to optimum management for these patients. For this reason, a review of studies investigating diet and serum levels of macro- and micronutrients was carried out. Although there were few human studies of macronutrients, nevertheless transfats and simple sugars should be avoided, while long chain ω-3 fats from oily fish may be protective. Among the micronutrients, an intake of 800 μg/day calcium was beneficial in those without renal disease or hyperparathyroidism, while inorganic phosphorus from food preservatives and colas may induce calcification. A high intake of magnesium (≥380 mg/day) and phylloquinone (500 μg/day) proved protective, as did a serum 25(OH)D concentration of ≥75 nmol/L. Although oxidative damage appears to be a cause of CV calcification, the antioxidant vitamins proved to be largely ineffective, while supplementation of α-tocopherol may induce calcification. Nevertheless other antioxidant compounds (epigallocatechin gallate from green tea and resveratrol from red wine) were protective. Finally, a homocysteine concentration >12 µmol/L was predictive of CV calcification, although a plasma folate concentration of >39.4 nmol/L could both lower homocysteine and protect against calcification. In terms of a dietary programme, these recommendations indicate avoiding sugar and the transfats and preservatives found in processed foods and drinks and adopting a diet high in oily fish and vegetables. The micronutrients magnesium and vitamin K may be worthy of further investigation as a treatment option for CV calcification. PMID:25906474

  20. A Review of the Effect of Diet on Cardiovascular Calcification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Nicoll

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular (CV calcification is known as sub-clinical atherosclerosis and is recognised as a predictor of CV events and mortality. As yet there is no treatment for CV calcification and conventional CV risk factors are not consistently correlated, leaving clinicians uncertain as to optimum management for these patients. For this reason, a review of studies investigating diet and serum levels of macro- and micronutrients was carried out. Although there were few human studies of macronutrients, nevertheless transfats and simple sugars should be avoided, while long chain ω-3 fats from oily fish may be protective. Among the micronutrients, an intake of 800 μg/day calcium was beneficial in those without renal disease or hyperparathyroidism, while inorganic phosphorus from food preservatives and colas may induce calcification. A high intake of magnesium (≥380 mg/day and phylloquinone (500 μg/day proved protective, as did a serum 25(OHD concentration of ≥75 nmol/L. Although oxidative damage appears to be a cause of CV calcification, the antioxidant vitamins proved to be largely ineffective, while supplementation of α-tocopherol may induce calcification. Nevertheless other antioxidant compounds (epigallocatechin gallate from green tea and resveratrol from red wine were protective. Finally, a homocysteine concentration >12 µmol/L was predictive of CV calcification, although a plasma folate concentration of >39.4 nmol/L could both lower homocysteine and protect against calcification. In terms of a dietary programme, these recommendations indicate avoiding sugar and the transfats and preservatives found in processed foods and drinks and adopting a diet high in oily fish and vegetables. The micronutrients magnesium and vitamin K may be worthy of further investigation as a treatment option for CV calcification.

  1. Cocoa Flavanol Cardiovascular Effects Beyond Blood Pressure Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumar, Agnes; Schmieder, Roland E

    2016-04-01

    The protective cardiovascular (CV) effect of cocoa flavanol has been a target of many recent clinical prospective and retrospective investigations. Epidemiological data in different patient cohorts revealed an association between higher intake of flavanol-rich foods and decreased incidence of CV events, especially stroke and myocardial infarction. Cocoa flavanol has been shown to reduce systolic (2.8 mm Hg) and diastolic (2.2 mm Hg) office blood pressure (BP). Greater BP reduction has been found in hypertensive patients and people younger than 50 years. Cocoa flavanol intake exerts beneficial effects on pathophysiologic mechanisms of hypertension-related organ damage, such as improved endothelial function, anti-inflammatory potency, inhibition of platelet activation, and increased vasodilatory capacity. Recent clinical trials have focused on establishing a potential link between epidemiology and pathophysiology of flavanol and identified possible mechanisms for prevention of end-organ damage in patients at CV risk. This review summarizes the available data on the antihypertensive effects of cocoa flavanol beyond BP-BP lowering lowering effects, accentuates subgroup-specific protective actions of cocoa according to patients' different CV risk profile, and outlines potential cocoa flavanol-associated clinical implications. PMID:26514936

  2. Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise: Research in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Stansfeld

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the auditory effects of noise on humans have been established, the non-auditory effects are not so well established. The emerging links between noise and cardiovascular disease (CVD have potentially important implications on public health and policy. In the United Kingdom (UK, noise from transport is a problem, where more than half of the population is exposed to more than the recommended maximum day-time noise level and just under three-quarters of the population live in areas where the recommended night-time noise level is exceeded. This review focuses on findings from studies conducted in the UK that examined environmental noise and cardiovascular disease. There were statistically no significant associations between road traffic noise and incident ischemic heart disease in the Caerphilly and Speedwell studies, but there was a suggestion of effects when modifying factors such as length of residence, room orientation, and window opening were taken into account. In a sample stratified by pre-existing disease a strongly increased odds of incident ischemic heart disease for the highest annoyance category was found compared to the lowest among men without pre-existing disease (OR = 2.45, 95%1.13 - 5.31, which was not found in men with pre-existing disease. In the Hypertension and exposure to noise near airports (HYENA study, night time aircraft noise exposure (L night was associated with an increased risk of hypertension, in fully adjusted analyses. A 10-dB increase in aircraft noise exposure was associated with an odds ratio of 1.14 (95%CI, 1.01 - 1.29. Aircraft noise was not consistently related to raised systolic blood pressure in children in the road traffic and aircraft noise exposure and children′s cognition and health (RANCH study. There is some evidence of an association among environmental noise exposure and hypertension and ischemic heart disease in the UK studies; further studies are required to explore gender differences, the

  3. p38 MAPK mediates cardiovascular and behavioral responses induced by central IL-1β and footshock in conscious rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui-mao ZHENG; Chang-jiang ZOU; Shi-gong ZHU

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the roles of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) in the cardiovascular and behavioral responses induced by intracerebral ventricular injection (icv) of interleukin- 1 β (IL- 1 β) or footshock.METHODS: We examined the effects of p38 MAPK on mean artery blood pressure (mABP), heart rate (HR), and motor activity (MA) during central administration of IL- 1 β, or footshock after icv SB203580 (a specific inhibitor of the p38 MAPK) with Cardiovascular and Behavior Telemetry System in conscious SD rats. RESULTS: (1) IL-1 β (icy) or footshock remarkably rise the mABP, and the maximal changes are (7.8± 1.8) and (12.3±3.5) mmHg,respectively, which was abrogated by the pretreatment with p38 inhibitor SB203580 intracerebroventricularly. (2)Compared with icv saline group, the motor activity was significantly decreased in SB203580 group with maximal changes (-7.6± 1.1) counts/min after footshock. CONCLUSION: p38 MAPK plays an important role in the pressor response induced by central administration of IL- 1 β or footshock and change of motor activity after footshock in conscious rats.

  4. Efectos beneficiosos del chocolate en la salud cardiovascular Beneficial effects of chocolate on cardiovascular health

    OpenAIRE

    M. Gómez-Juaristi; L. González-Torres; L. Bravo; M. P. Vaquero; Bastida, S.; Sánchez-Muniz, F. J.

    2011-01-01

    Desde la antigüedad se ha atribuido al chocolate propiedades saludables que lo han aproximado más hacia un uso terapéutico que alimentario. El presente trabajo revisa algunos estudios relevantes de los efectos del chocolate (y sus componentes activos) sobre diferentes factores de riesgo cardiovascular y señala la necesidad de futuros estudios. El consumo de cacao/chocolate (i) incrementa la actividad antioxidante, (ii) modula la función plaquetaria e inflamación y (iii) disminuye la presión a...

  5. Cardiovascular effects of dobutamine and phenylephrine infusion in sevoflurane-anesthetized Thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Minoru; Kurimoto, Shinjiro; Ishikawa, Yuhiro; Tokushige, Hirotaka; Mae, Naomi; Nagata, Shun-ichi; Mamada, Masayuki

    2013-11-01

    To determine dose-dependent cardiovascular effects of dobutamine and phenylephrine during anesthesia in horses, increasing doses of dobutamine and phenylephrine were infused to 6 healthy Thoroughbred horses. Anesthesia was induced with xylazine, guaifenesin and thiopental and maintained with sevoflurane at 2.8% of end-tidal concentration in all horses. The horses were positioned in right lateral recumbency and infused 3 increasing doses of dobutamine (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 µg/kg/min) for 15 min each dose. Following to 30 min of reversal period, 3 increasing doses of phenylephrine (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 µg/kg/min) were infused. Cardiovascular parameters were measured before and at the end of each 15-min infusion period for each drug. Blood samples were collected every 5 min during phenylephrine infusion period. There were no significant changes in heart rate throughout the infusion period. Both dobutamine and phenylephrine reversed sevoflurane-induced hypotension. Dobutamine increased both mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and cardiac output (CO) as the result of the increase in stroke volume, whereas phenylephrine increased MAP but decreased CO as the result of the increase in systemic vascular resistance. Plasma phenylephrine concentration increased dose-dependently, and these values at 15, 30 and 45 min were 6.2 ± 1.2, 17.0 ± 4.8 and 37.9 ± 7.3 ng/ml, respectively. PMID:23832627

  6. Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise: Research in The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise van Kempen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of environmental noise on public health, in The Netherlands, is limited: Less than 1% of the myocardial infarction cases per year are attributable to long-term exposure to road traffic noise. Furthermore, although the Dutch noise policy is not directed to prevent cardiovascular disease due to noise exposure, health does play a role in Dutch noise policy. These are the main conclusions of a systematic review of Dutch observational studies, investigating the possible impact of road traffic and aircraft noise exposure on the cardiovascular system. Since 1970, 14 Dutch studies were published investigating the possible impact of road traffic and aircraft noise exposure on the cardiovascular system. Within these studies a large variety of outcomes were investigated, ranging from blood pressure changes to cardiovascular mortality. The results of the studies were not consistent and only weak associations were found.

  7. Cardiovascular Effects of Unilateral Nephrectomy in Living Kidney Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Moody, William E.; Ferro, Charles J.; Edwards, Nicola C.; Colin D Chue; Lin, Erica Lai Sze; Taylor, Robin J; Cockwell, Paul; Steeds, Richard P; Townend, Jonathan N.; ,

    2016-01-01

    Abstract— There is a robust inverse graded association between glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and cardiovascular risk, but proof of causality is lacking. Emerging data suggest living kidney donation may be associated with increased cardiovascular mortality although the mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesized that the reduction in GFR in living kidney donors is associated with increased left ventricular mass, impaired left ventricular function, and increased aortic stiffness. This was a mult...

  8. Improvement of cardiovascular effects of metoprolol by replacement of common salt with a potassium- and magnesium-enriched salt alternative.

    OpenAIRE

    Mervaala, E. M.; Laakso, J; Vapaatalo, H.; Karppanen, H.

    1994-01-01

    1. The influence of sodium chloride (NaCl)-enrichment of the diet (6% of the dry weight) and that of a novel sodium-reduced, potassium-, magnesium-, and L-lysine-enriched salt alternative on the cardiovascular effects of the beta 1-adrenoceptor blocking drug, metoprolol, was studied in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. 2. Increased dietary sodium chloride intake produced a marked rise in blood pressure and induced left ventricular and renal hypertrophy. By contrast, the salt alter...

  9. The effects of physical training on cardiovascular parameters, lipid disorders and endothelial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranković Goran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Regular physical activity is widely accepted as factor that reduces all-cause mortality and improves a number of health outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise training on cardiovascular parameters, lipid profile and endothelial function in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD. Methods. The study included seventy patients with stable CAD. All the patients were divided into two groups: the group I - 33 patients with CAD and with regular aerobic physical training during cardiovascular rehabilitation program phase II for 3 weeks in our rehabilitation center and 3 weeks after that in their home setting, and the group II (control - 37 patients with CAD and sedentary lifestyle. Exercise training consisted of continual aerobic exercise for 45 minutes on a treadmill, room bicycle or walking, three times a week. We determined lipid and cardiovascular parameters and nitric oxide (NO concentration at the beginning and after a six-week of training. Results. There were no significant differences in body weight, waist circumference and waist/hip ratio at the start and at the end of physical training program. Physical training significantly reduced body mass index after six weeks compared to the initial and control values. Physical training significantly reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate after a six-week training period (p < 0.05. Heart rate was significantly lower after a training period as compared to the control (p < 0.05. A significant reduction of triglyceride and increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C concentration after cardiovascular rehabilitation were registered (p < 0.05. The concentration of triglycerides was significantly lower while NO and HDL-C were higher after six weeks in the exercise training group (p < 0.05. Conclusion. Dynamic training can improve blood pressure in patients with moderate to severe hypertension and reduce the

  10. Functional ingredients and cardiovascular protective effect of pumpkin seed oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Okbi, S. Y.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the cardiovascular protective effect of Egyptian and European umpkin seed oil (PSO in hypercholesterolemic rats. Tocopherols, fatty acids (FAs and unsaponifiable matter (UNSAP were assessed in both oils. The results showed that α-tocopherol was 108 and 273, γ-tocopherol was 3.95 and 0 and d-tocopherol was 0 and 1.58 mg·100 g-1 oil of the Egyptian and European, respectively. GLC analysis of FAs revealed the presence of linoleic acid as the major fatty acid in both oils. Feeding a hypercholesterolemic diet produced a significant increase in plasma total cholesterol (T-Ch, triglycerides (TGs, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, T-Ch/HDL-Ch, TGs/HDL-Ch and malondialdehyde and a significant reduction in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-Ch, vitamin E, and adiponectin. Rats fed on hypercholesterolemic diet with either oil showed a significant improvement in all biochemical parametersEl objetivo fue evaluar el efecto protector cardiovascular de aceites de semilla de calabaza (PSO de variedades egipcia y europea en ratas con hipercolesterolemia. Se evaluó tocoferoles, ácidos grasos (FAs y materia insaponificable (UNSAP en ambos aceites. Los resultados mostraron valores de α-tocoferol de 108 y 273, γ-tocoferol 3,95 y 0 y δ-tocoferol de 0 y 1,58 mg·100 g-1 en las variedades egipcia y europea, respectivamente. El análisis por GLC de los ácidos grasos (FAS mostró al linoleico como mayoritario en ambos aceites. La alimentación con una dieta hipercolesterolémica produjo en plasma un aumento significativo de colesterol total (T-Ch, triglicéridos (TG, colesterol en lipoproteínas de baja densidad, T-Ch/HDL-Ch, TGs/HDL- ch y malondialdehído y una reducción significativa en el colesterol de lipoproteínas de alta densidad (HDL-cH, vitamina E, y adiponectina. Las ratas alimentadas con una dieta hipercolesterolémica y con ambos aceites, mostraron mejoras significativas en todos los par

  11. Effects of Tetrodotoxin on the Mammalian Cardiovascular System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Zimmer

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The human genome encodes nine functional voltage-gated Na+ channels. Three of them, namely Nav1.5, Nav1.8, and Nav1.9, are resistant to nanomolar concentrations of tetrodotoxin (TTX; IC50 ≥ 1 μM. The other isoforms, which are predominantly expressed in the skeletal muscle and nervous system, are highly sensitive to TTX (IC50 ~ 10 nM. During the last two decades, it has become evident that in addition to the major cardiac isoform Nav1.5, several of those TTX sensitive isoforms are expressed in the mammalian heart. Whereas immunohistochemical and electrophysiological methods demonstrated functional expression in various heart regions, the physiological importance of those isoforms for cardiac excitation in higher mammals is still debated. This review summarizes our knowledge on the systemic cardiovascular effects of TTX in animals and humans, with a special focus on cardiac excitation and performance at lower concentrations of this marine drug. Altogether, these data strongly suggest that TTX sensitive Na+ channels, detected more recently in various heart tissues, are not involved in excitation phenomena in the healthy adult heart of higher mammals.

  12. Effect of Mobile Phone Radiation on Cardiovascular Development of Chick Embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, W; Wang, F; Zhang, W; Fang, N; Zhao, W; Wang, J

    2016-06-01

    The biological effects on cardiovascular development of chicken embryos were examined after radiation exposure using mobile phone (900 MHz; specific absorption rate˜1.07 W/kg) intermittently 3 h per day during incubation. Samples were selected by morphological and histological methods. The results showed the rate of embryonic mortality and cardiac deformity increased significantly in exposed group (P Comet assay data showed the haemocyte mean tail in the exposed group was significantly larger than that of the control (P < 0.01). The arterial vascular wall of exposed group was thicker (P < 0.05) than that of the control on D13, which was reversed to normal in later stages. Our findings suggest that long-term exposure of MPR may induce myocardium pathological changes, DNA damage and increased mortality; however, there was little effect on vascular development. PMID:26171674

  13. Effects of thyroid hormone on β-adrenergic responsiveness of aging cardiovascular systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have compared the effects of β-adrenergic stimulation on the heart and peripheral vasculature of young (2-mo-old) and older (12-mo-old) rats both in the presence and absence of triiodothyronine (T3)-induced hyperthyroidism. The hemodynamic consequences of T3 treatment were less prominent in the aged hyperthyroid rats compared with young hyperthyroid rats (both in intact and pithed rats). There was a decrease in sensitivity of chronotropic responsiveness to isoproterenol in older pithed rats, which was apparently reversed by T3 treatment. The number and affinity of myocardial β-adrenergic receptor sites measured by [125I]cyanopindolol were not significantly different in young and older control rats; also, β-receptor density increased to a similar extent in both young and older T3-treated rats. The ability of isoproterenol to relax mesenteric arterial rings, markedly blunted in older rats, was partially restored by T3 treatment without their being any change in isoproterenol-mediated relaxation in the arterial preparation from young rats. The number and affinity of the β-adrenergic receptors measured in the mesenteric arteries was unaffected by either aging or T3 treatment. The data suggest that effects of thyroid hormone and age-related alterations of cardiovascular responsiveness to β-adrenergic stimulation are interrelated in a complex fashion with a net result that the hyperkinetic cardiovascular manifestations in hyperthyroidism are attenuated in the older animals

  14. Longitudinal Effects of Embryonic Exposure to Cocaine on Morphology, Cardiovascular Physiology, and Behavior in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersereau, Eric J; Boyle, Cody A; Poitra, Shelby; Espinoza, Ana; Seiler, Joclyn; Longie, Robert; Delvo, Lisa; Szarkowski, Megan; Maliske, Joshua; Chalmers, Sarah; Darland, Diane C; Darland, Tristan

    2016-01-01

    A sizeable portion of the societal drain from cocaine abuse results from the complications of in utero drug exposure. Because of challenges in using humans and mammalian model organisms as test subjects, much debate remains about the impact of in utero cocaine exposure. Zebrafish offer a number of advantages as a model in longitudinal toxicology studies and are quite sensitive physiologically and behaviorally to cocaine. In this study, we have used zebrafish to model the effects of embryonic pre-exposure to cocaine on development and on subsequent cardiovascular physiology and cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in longitudinal adults. Larval fish showed a progressive decrease in telencephalic size with increased doses of cocaine. These treated larvae also showed a dose dependent response in heart rate that persisted 24 h after drug cessation. Embryonic cocaine exposure had little effect on overall health of longitudinal adults, but subtle changes in cardiovascular physiology were seen including decreased sensitivity to isoproterenol and increased sensitivity to cocaine. These longitudinal adult fish also showed an embryonic dose-dependent change in CPP behavior, suggesting an increased sensitivity. These studies clearly show that pre-exposure during embryonic development affects subsequent cocaine sensitivity in longitudinal adults. PMID:27258254

  15. Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise: Research in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Belojevic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on the cardiovascular effects of noise in Serbia started in the year 2002, including experimental studies on humans and epidemiological studies on the adult and children population of Belgrade and Pancevo. Experimental exposure to noise [L eq = 89 dB (A] had a hypodynamic effect, significantly lowering the cardiac index, cardiac work, and pump performance (P 45 dB (A] and quiet areas [(L night , 8h ≤ 45 dB (A] were 23.6% and 17.5%, respectively. The adjusted odds ratio (OR for hypertension of the exposed group was 1.58 (95% CI = 1.03 - 2.42, P = 0.038, where men living in quiet streets were taken as a reference category. Associations between road traffic noise and blood pressure were also investigated in 328 preschool children in Belgrade. The systolic blood pressure was significantly higher among children from noisy residences and kindergartens, compared to children from both quiet environments (97.30 ± 8.15 and 92.33 ± 8.64 mmHg, respectively, P < 0.01. As a continuation of the study on preschool children, investigations were also carried out on 856 school children, aged between seven and eleven years, in Belgrade. It was found that systolic pressure was significantly higher among children from noisy schools and quiet residences, compared to children from both quiet environments (102.1 ± 9,3 and 100.4 ± 10.4 mmHg, respectively, P < 0.01.

  16. The Effect of Exercise on the Cardiovascular Risk Factors Constituting the Metabolic Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Pattyn, Nele; Cornelissen, Véronique A; Eshghi, Saeed R. Toghi; Vanhees, Luc

    2012-01-01

    Background Numerous meta-analyses have investigated the effect of exercise in different populations and for single cardiovascular risk factors, but none have specifically focused on the metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients and the concomitant effect of exercise on all associated cardiovascular risk factors. Objective The aim of this article was to perform a systematic review with a meta-analysis of randomized and clinical controlled trials (RCTs, CTs) investigating the effect of exercise on car...

  17. The cardiovascular effects of regular and decaffeinated coffee.

    OpenAIRE

    Smits, P; Thien, T; van T'Laar, A

    1985-01-01

    In a single-blind study the effects of drinking two cups of regular or decaffeinated coffee on blood pressure, heart rate, forearm blood flow and plasma concentrations of caffeine, renin and catecholamines were studied in 12 normotensive subjects. Drinking regular coffee led to a rise of blood pressure, a fall of heart rate and an increase of plasma catecholamines. Decaffeinated coffee induced a smaller increase of diastolic blood pressure without changing other parameters. This study shows t...

  18. High-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular remodeling in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchal, Sunil K; Poudyal, Hemant; Iyer, Abishek; Nazer, Reeza; Alam, Md Ashraful; Diwan, Vishal; Kauter, Kathleen; Sernia, Conrad; Campbell, Fiona; Ward, Leigh; Gobe, Glenda; Fenning, Andrew; Brown, Lindsay

    2011-05-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome including central obesity, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia is increasing. Development of adequate therapy for metabolic syndrome requires an animal model that mimics the human disease state. Therefore, we have characterized the metabolic, cardiovascular, hepatic, renal, and pancreatic changes in male Wistar rats (8-9 weeks old) fed on a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet including condensed milk (39.5%), beef tallow (20%), and fructose (17.5%) together with 25% fructose in drinking water; control rats were fed a cornstarch diet. During 16 weeks on this diet, rats showed progressive increases in body weight, energy intake, abdominal fat deposition, and abdominal circumference along with impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, and increased plasma leptin and malondialdehyde concentrations. Cardiovascular signs included increased systolic blood pressure and endothelial dysfunction together with inflammation, fibrosis, hypertrophy, increased stiffness, and delayed repolarization in the left ventricle of the heart. The liver showed increased wet weight, fat deposition, inflammation, and fibrosis with increased plasma activity of liver enzymes. The kidneys showed inflammation and fibrosis, whereas the pancreas showed increased islet size. In comparison with other models of diabetes and obesity, this diet-induced model more closely mimics the changes observed in human metabolic syndrome. PMID:21572266

  19. High-carbohydrate high-fat diet–induced metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular remodeling in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchal, Sunil K; Poudyal, Hemant; Iyer, Abishek; Nazer, Reeza; Alam, Ashraful; Diwan, Vishal; Kauter, Kathleen; Sernia, Conrad; Campbell, Fiona; Ward, Leigh; Gobe, Glenda; Fenning, Andrew; Brown, Lindsay

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome including central obesity, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia is increasing. Development of adequate therapy for metabolic syndrome requires an animal model that mimics the human disease state. Therefore, we have characterized the metabolic, cardiovascular, hepatic, renal, and pancreatic changes in male Wistar rats (8-9 weeks old) fed on a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet including condensed milk (39.5%), beef tallow (20%), and fructose (17.5%) together with 25% fructose in drinking water; control rats were fed a cornstarch diet. During 16 weeks on this diet, rats showed progressive increases in body weight, energy intake, abdominal fat deposition, and abdominal circumference along with impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, and increased plasma leptin and malondialdehyde concentrations. Cardiovascular signs included increased systolic blood pressure and endothelial dysfunction together with inflammation, fibrosis, hypertrophy, increased stiffness, and delayed repolarization in the left ventricle of the heart. The liver showed increased wet weight, fat deposition, inflammation, and fibrosis with increased plasma activity of liver enzymes. The kidneys showed inflammation and fibrosis, whereas the pancreas showed increased islet size. In comparison with other models of diabetes and obesity, this diet-induced model more closely mimics the changes observed in human metabolic syndrome. PMID:20966763

  20. Isolated and synergistic effects of PM10 and average temperature on cardiovascular and respiratory mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Samya de Lara Lins de Araujo Pinheiro; Paulo Hilário Nascimento Saldiva; Joel Schwartz; Antonella Zanobetti

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the effect of air pollution and temperature on mortality due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. METHODS We evaluated the isolated and synergistic effects of temperature and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter 40 years old due to cardiovascular disease and that of individuals > 60 years old due to respiratory diseases in Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, between 1998 and 2008. Three methodologies were u...

  1. Effects of Smokeless Tobacco “Maras Powder” Use on Nitric Oxide and Cardiovascular Risk Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Guven, Aytekin; Tolun, Fatma

    2012-01-01

    Background: Smokeless tobacco use is common in various parts of the world. In Turkey a type of smokeless tobacco called “Maras powder” is widely used in southeastern region. Smoking is known to have an adverse effect on nitric oxide and cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there is difference between the effects of Maras powder and cigarette smoking on the cardiovascular risk factors and nitric oxide levels. Methods: In the study, participants were 48 Mar...

  2. Effects of Smokeless Tobacco “Maras Powder” Use on Nitric Oxide and Cardiovascular Risk Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Aytekin Guven, Fatma Tolun

    2012-01-01

    Background: Smokeless tobacco use is common in various parts of the world. In Turkey a type of smokeless tobacco called “Maras powder” is widely used in southeastern region. Smoking is known to have an adverse effect on nitric oxide and cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there is difference between the effects of Maras powder and cigarette smoking on the cardiovascular risk factors and nitric oxide levels.Methods: In the study, participants ...

  3. Beneficial effects of recreational football on the cardiovascular risk profile in untrained premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Hansen, P R; Randers, M B;

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the cardiovascular health effects of 16 weeks of recreational football training in untrained premenopausal women in comparison with continuous running training. Fifty healthy women were matched and randomized to a football (FG, n=25) or a running (RG, n=25) group and......, regular recreational football training has significant favorable effects on the cardiovascular risk profile in untrained premenopausal women and is at the least as efficient as continuous running....

  4. Particle-induced pulmonary acute phase response may be the causal link between particle inhalation and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saber, Anne T.; Jacobsen, Nicklas R.; Jackson, Petra;

    2014-01-01

    Inhalation of ambient and workplace particulate air pollution is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. One proposed mechanism for this association is that pulmonary inflammation induces a hepatic acute phase response, which increases risk of cardiovascular disease. Induction of...... epidemiological studies. In this review, we present and review emerging evidence that inhalation of particles (e.g., air diesel exhaust particles and nanoparticles) induces a pulmonary acute phase response, and propose that this induction constitutes the causal link between particle inhalation and risk of...... cardiovascular disease. Increased levels of acute phase mRNA and proteins in lung tissues, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and plasma clearly indicate pulmonary acute phase response following pulmonary deposition of different kinds of particles including diesel exhaust particles, nanoparticles, and carbon nanotubes...

  5. Particle-induced pulmonary acute phase response correlates with neutrophil influx linking inhaled particles and cardiovascular risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saber, Anne Thoustrup; Lamson, Jacob Stuart; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun;

    2013-01-01

    Background Particulate air pollution is associated with cardiovascular disease. Acute phase response is causally linked to cardiovascular disease. Here, we propose that particle-induced pulmonary acute phase response provides an underlying mechanism for particle-induced cardiovascular risk. Methods...... at a biofuel plant. Mice were exposed to single or multiple doses of particles by inhalation or intratracheal instillation and pulmonary mRNA expression of Saa3 was determined at different time points of up to 4 weeks after exposure. Also hepatic mRNA expression of Saa3, SAA3 protein levels in...... broncheoalveolar lavage fluid and in plasma and high density lipoprotein levels in plasma were determined in mice exposed to multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Results Pulmonary exposure to particles strongly increased Saa3 mRNA levels in lung tissue and elevated SAA3 protein levels in broncheoalveolar lavage fluid and...

  6. Cardiovascular Disease Modeling Using Patient-Specific Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Tanaka

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs has opened up a new scientific frontier in medicine. This technology has made it possible to obtain pluripotent stem cells from individuals with genetic disorders. Because iPSCs carry the identical genetic anomalies related to those disorders, iPSCs are an ideal platform for medical research. The pathophysiological cellular phenotypes of genetically heritable heart diseases such as arrhythmias and cardiomyopathies, have been modeled on cell culture dishes using disease-specific iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes. These model systems can potentially provide new insights into disease mechanisms and drug discoveries. This review focuses on recent progress in cardiovascular disease modeling using iPSCs, and discusses problems and future perspectives concerning their use.

  7. Relationship between cardiovascular dysfunction and hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaan B.D.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetes in rats is characterized by cardiovascular dysfunction beginning 5 days after STZ injection, which may reflect functional or structural autonomic nervous system damage. We investigated cardiovascular and autonomic function, in rats weighing 166 ± 4 g, 5-7, 14, 30, 45, and 90 days after STZ injection (N = 24, 33, 27, 14, and 13, respectively. Arterial pressure (AP, mean AP (MAP variability (standard deviation of the mean of MAP, SDMMAP, heart rate (HR, HR variability (standard deviation of the normal pulse intervals, SDNN, and root mean square of successive difference of pulse intervals (RMSSD were measured. STZ induced increased glycemia in diabetic rats vs control rats. Diabetes reduced resting HR from 363 ± 12 to 332 ± 5 bpm (P < 0.05 5 to 7 days after STZ and reduced MAP from 121 ± 2 to 104 ± 5 mmHg (P = 0.007 14 days after STZ. HR and MAP variability were lower in diabetic vs control rats 30-45 days after STZ injection (RMSSD decreased from 5.6 ± 0.9 to 3.4 ± 0.4 ms, P = 0.04 and SDMMAP from 6.6 ± 0.6 to 4.2 ± 0.6 mmHg, P = 0.005. Glycemia was negatively correlated with resting AP and HR (r = -0.41 and -0.40, P < 0.001 and with SDNN and SDMMAP indices (r = -0.34 and -0.49, P < 0.01. Even though STZ-diabetic rats presented bradycardia and hypotension early in the course of diabetes, their autonomic function was reduced only 30-45 days after STZ injection and these changes were negatively correlated with plasma glucose, suggesting a metabolic origin.

  8. Cardiovascular effects of a chlorpheniramine/paracetamol combination in hypertensive patients who were sensitive to the pressor effect of pseudoephedrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, S S; Benrimoj, S I; Gordon, R D; Williams, G

    1991-03-01

    Twelve hypertensive patients who were classified as pseudoephedrine-sensitive in a preliminary trial were selected for further investigation with single doses of pseudoephedrine 60 mg, a combination of chlorpheniramine 4 mg with paracetamol 650 mg and placebo. A double-blind, randomised, crossover study design was followed. Treatment with pseudoephedrine produced significant effects on all the four variables measured (systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure, and heart rate). Effects of the chlorpheniramine/paracetamol combination were found to be not significantly different from placebo. It was concluded that the combination may be useful as a medication for 'colds' in hypertensive patients, since it does not induce cardiovascular effects such as those observed with pseudoephedrine. PMID:2054278

  9. Bronchial, alveolar, and vascular-induced anaphylaxis and irritant-induced cardiovascular and pulmonary responses.

    OpenAIRE

    Yeates, D B; Mussatto, D J; Hameister, W M; Daza, A.; Chandra, T; Wong, L B

    2001-01-01

    We examine the respiratory, bronchomotor, cardiac, and vascular responses to histamine and ragweed allergen delivered to the bronchi or alveoli compartments and the potential role of sensory nerves and reflexes mediating the histamine-induced responses. The masses of aerosols deposited in the bronchi and alveoli were quantitated using radioaerosol techniques. Activation of sensory nerves and/or histamine-induced mediator release were characterized by depositing nedocromil sodium aerosol prior...

  10. Cardiovascular Effects of Saffron: An Evidence-Based Review

    OpenAIRE

    Shahin Akhondzadeh; Maryam Kamalipour

    2011-01-01

    Herbal medicine can be a valuable source of assistance for traditional medicine. There are a number of herbs that can be used in conjunction with modern medicine. Herbs can also be taken to aid recovery from serious diseases. Although one should never aim to treat diseases such as cardiovascular disease solely with herbal medicine, the value of herbs used in tandem with modern medicine cannot be ignored. Saffron has been reported to help lower cholesterol and keep cholesterol levels healthy. ...

  11. Effect of antioxidant vitamin supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yizhou Ye

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antioxidant vitamin (vitamin E, beta-carotene, and vitamin C are widely used for preventing major cardiovascular outcomes. However, the effect of antioxidant vitamin on cardiovascular events remains unclear. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We searched PubMed, EmBase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the proceedings of major conferences for relevant literature. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials that reported on the effects of antioxidant vitamin on cardiovascular outcomes as compared to placebo. Outcomes analyzed were major cardiovascular events, myocardial infarction, stroke, cardiac death, total death, and any possible adverse events. We used the I(2 statistic to measure heterogeneity between trials and calculated risk estimates for cardiovascular outcomes with random-effect meta-analysis. Independent extraction was performed by two reviewers and consensus was reached. Of 293 identified studies, we included 15 trials reporting data on 188209 participants. These studies reported 12749 major cardiovascular events, 6699 myocardial infarction, 3749 strokes, 14122 total death, and 5980 cardiac deaths. Overall, antioxidant vitamin supplementation as compared to placebo had no effect on major cardiovascular events (RR, 1.00; 95%CI, 0.96-1.03, myocardial infarction (RR, 0.98; 95%CI, 0.92-1.04, stroke (RR, 0.99; 95%CI, 0.93-1.05, total death (RR, 1.03; 95%CI, 0.98-1.07, cardiac death (RR, 1.02; 95%CI, 0.97-1.07, revascularization (RR, 1.00; 95%CI, 0.95-1.05, total CHD (RR, 0.96; 95%CI, 0.87-1.05, angina (RR, 0.98; 95%CI, 0.90-1.07, and congestive heart failure (RR, 1.07; 95%CI, 0.96 to 1.19. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Antioxidant vitamin supplementation has no effect on the incidence of major cardiovascular events, myocardial infarction, stroke, total death, and cardiac death.

  12. Effects of Simulated Heat Waves on Cardiovascular Functions in Senile Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiakun Zhang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of the effects of simulated heat waves on cardiovascular disease in senile mice was investigated. Heat waves were simulated in a TEM1880 meteorological environment simulation chamber, according to a heat wave that occurred in July 2001 in Nanjing, China. Eighteen senile mice were divided into control, heat wave, and heat wave BH4 groups, respectively. Mice in the heat wave and heat wave BH4 groups were exposed to simulated heat waves in the simulation chamber. The levels of ET-1, NO, HSP60, SOD, TNF, sICAM-1, and HIF-1α in each group of mice were measured after heat wave simulation. Results show that heat waves decreased SOD activity in the myocardial tissue of senile mice, increased NO, HSP60, TNF, sICAM-1, and HIF-1α levels, and slightly decreased ET-1 levels, BH4 can relieve the effects of heat waves on various biological indicators. After a comprehensive analysis of the experiments above, we draw the followings conclusions regarding the influence of heat waves on senile mice: excess HSP60 activated immune cells, and induced endothelial cells and macrophages to secrete large amounts of ICAM-1, TNF-α, and other inflammatory cytokines, it also activated the inflammation response in the body and damaged the coronary endothelial cell structure, which increased the permeability of blood vessel intima and decreased SOD activity in cardiac tissues. The oxidation of lipoproteins in the blood increased, and large amounts of cholesterol were generated. Cholesterol penetrated the intima and deposited on the blood vessel wall, forming atherosclerosis and leading to the occurrence of cardiovascular disease in senile mice. These results maybe are useful for studying the effects of heat waves on elderly humans, which we discussed in the discussion chapter.

  13. Reduction of cardiovascular event rate: different effects of cardiac rehabilitation in CABG and PCI patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, D.; DENDALE, PAUL; Leenders, M; Berger, J.; Raskin, A.; Vaes, J.; Meeusen, R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective - In coronary artery disease, the implementation of a cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programme favourably affects cardiovascular prognosis. However, it remains uncertain whether patients benefit to a similar extent from CR after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In this study, we have assessed whether CR is equally effective for suppressing the two-year cardiovascular event incidence after CABG or PCI. Methods and results - 194 PCI...

  14. A model of cardiovascular disease giving a plausible mechanism for the effect of fractionated low-dose ionizing radiation exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P Little

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is the main cause of coronary heart disease and stroke, the two major causes of death in developed society. There is emerging evidence of excess risk of cardiovascular disease at low radiation doses in various occupationally exposed groups receiving small daily radiation doses. Assuming that they are causal, the mechanisms for effects of chronic fractionated radiation exposures on cardiovascular disease are unclear. We outline a spatial reaction-diffusion model for atherosclerosis and perform stability analysis, based wherever possible on human data. We show that a predicted consequence of multiple small radiation doses is to cause mean chemo-attractant (MCP-1 concentration to increase linearly with cumulative dose. The main driver for the increase in MCP-1 is monocyte death, and consequent reduction in MCP-1 degradation. The radiation-induced risks predicted by the model are quantitatively consistent with those observed in a number of occupationally-exposed groups. The changes in equilibrium MCP-1 concentrations with low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration are also consistent with experimental and epidemiologic data. This proposed mechanism would be experimentally testable. If true, it also has substantive implications for radiological protection, which at present does not take cardiovascular disease into account. The Japanese A-bomb survivor data implies that cardiovascular disease and cancer mortality contribute similarly to radiogenic risk. The major uncertainty in assessing the low-dose risk of cardiovascular disease is the shape of the dose response relationship, which is unclear in the Japanese data. The analysis of the present paper suggests that linear extrapolation would be appropriate for this endpoint.

  15. Enhanced carotid body chemosensory activity and the cardiovascular alterations induced by intermittent hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo eIturriaga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The carotid body (CB plays a main role in the maintenance of the oxygen homeostasis. The hypoxic stimulation of the CB increases the chemosensory discharge, which in turn elicits reflex sympathetic, cardiovascular and ventilatory adjustments. An exacerbate carotid chemosensory activity has been associated with human sympathetic-mediated diseases such as hypertension, insulin resistance, heart failure and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. Indeed, the CB chemosensory discharge becomes tonically hypereactive in experimental models of OSA and heart failure. Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH, a main feature of OSA, enhances CB chemosensory baseline discharges in normoxia and in response to hypoxia, inducing sympathetic overactivity and hypertension. Oxidative stress, increased levels of ET-1, Angiotensin II and pro-inflammatory cytokines, along with a reduced production of NO in the CB, have been associated with the enhanced carotid chemosensory activity. In this review, we will discuss new evidence supporting a main role for the CB chemoreceptor in the autonomic and cardiorespiratory alterations induced by intermittent hypoxia, as well as the molecular mechanisms involved in the CB chemosensory potentiation.

  16. Cardiovascular effects of current and future anti-obesity drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comerma-Steffensen, Simon; Grann, Martin; Andersen, Charlotte;

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity increases and is associated with increases in co-morbidities e.g. type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, obstructive sleep apnea, heart disease, stroke, asthma, several forms of cancer, depression, and may result in reduction of expected remaining lifespan. We have...... to be investigated. For type 2 diabetes, new drug classes with possible advantageous cardiovascular profiles, e.g. GLP-1 analogues and sodium-glucose co-transport type 2 inhibitors, are associated with weight loss and are currently being evaluated as anti-obesity drugs....

  17. Effect of folic acid supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hao Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Folic acid is widely used to lower homocysteine concentrations and prevent adverse cardiovascular outcomes. However, the effect of folic acid on cardiovascular events is not clear at the present time. We carried out a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effects of folic acid supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We systematically searched Medline, EmBase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, reference lists of articles, and proceedings of major meetings for relevant literature. We included randomized placebo-controlled trials that reported on the effects of folic acid on cardiovascular events compared to placebo. Of 1594 identified studies, we included 16 trials reporting data on 44841 patients. These studies reported 8238 major cardiovascular events, 2001 strokes, 2917 myocardial infarctions, and 6314 deaths. Folic acid supplementation as compared to placebo had no effect on major cardiovascular events (RR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.93-1.04, stroke (RR, 0.89; 95% CI,0.78-1.01, myocardial infarction (RR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.93-1.07, or deaths from any cause (RR, 1.00;95% CI, 0.96-1.05. Moreover, folic acid as compared to placebo also had no effect on the following secondary outcomes: risk of revascularization (RR, 1.05; 95%CI, 0.95-1.16, acute coronary syndrome (RR, 1.06; 95%CI, 0.97-1.15, cancer (RR, 1.08; 95%CI, 0.98-1.21, vascular death (RR, 0.94; 95%CI,0.88-1.02, or non-vascular death (RR, 1.06; 95%CI, 0.97-1.15. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Folic acid supplementation does not effect on the incidence of major cardiovascular events, stroke, myocardial infarction or all cause mortality.

  18. Cardiovascular effects of uremia in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    of smooth muscle cell assigned genes indicates that besides intimal atherosclerosis, uremic vasculopathy in apoE-/- mice is characterized by a uremia-specific medial smooth muscle cell degeneration. Oxidative stress could also be important for the development of atherosclerotic lesions in uremia. In...... muscle cell degeneration. Furthermore, the studies suggested that vascular inflammation and systemic oxidative stress may explain some of the proatherogenic effects of uremia in mice. Interestingly, the accelerated atherosclerosis could be prevented by RAS inhibition, or markedly reduced by RAGE blockade......The purpose of this thesis work was to establish an experimental mouse model for studying the pathogenesis and therapy of accelerated atherosclerosis in uremia. Uremia was induced by surgical 5/6 nephrectomy in apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE-/-) mice and led to development of severe aortic...

  19. Effects of diurnal temperature range on cardiovascular and respiratory hospital admissions in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Youn-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul; Kim, Ho

    2012-02-15

    The effects of heat and cold waves have been studied as risk factors for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. However, few studies have examined the effect of diurnal temperature changes on health. We hypothesized that the diurnal temperature range (DTR) may affect the rate of hospital admissions for cardiovascular- and respiratory-related diseases, and therefore investigated the risk of hospital admissions of cardiovascular (stroke, myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, cardiac failure, cardiac disease, and arrhythmia) and respiratory (asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and pneumonia) diseases attributable to DTR in four metropolitan areas in Korea during 2003-2006. The area-combined effects of DTR on some cardiovascular and respiratory diseases were significantly increased by an increment of DTR. In particular, the effects on cardiac failure and asthma were significant with the percentage change of hospital admissions per 1 °C increment of DTR at 3.0% (95% CI, 1.4-4.6) and 1.1% (95% CI, 0.1-2.0), respectively, among 9 diseases. For those 75 years and older, the DTR effect on asthma admissions was greater than in those aged under 75 years. These results support the hypothesis of a positive association between DTR and cardiovascular and respiratory hospital admission. PMID:22281041

  20. Heat- and cold-stress effects on cardiovascular mortality and morbidity among urban and rural populations in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Aleš; Davídkovová, Hana; Kyselý, Jan

    2014-08-01

    Several studies have examined the relationship of high and low air temperatures to cardiovascular mortality in the Czech Republic. Much less is understood about heat-/cold-related cardiovascular morbidity and possible regional differences. This paper compares the effects of warm and cold days on excess mortality and morbidity for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in the city of Prague and a rural region of southern Bohemia during 1994-2009. Population size and age structure are similar in the two regions. The results are evaluated for selected population groups (men and women). Excess mortality (number of deaths) and morbidity (number of hospital admissions) were determined as differences between observed and expected daily values, the latter being adjusted for long-term changes, annual and weekly cycles, and epidemics of influenza/acute respiratory infections. Generally higher relative excess CVD mortality on warm days than on cold days was identified in both regions. In contrast to mortality, weak excess CVD morbidity was observed for both warm and cold days. Different responses of individual CVDs to heat versus cold stress may be caused by the different nature of each CVD and different physiological processes induced by heat or cold stress. The slight differences between Prague and southern Bohemia in response to heat versus cold stress suggest the possible influence of environmental and socioeconomic factors such as the effects of urban heat island and exposure to air pollution, lifestyle differences, and divergence in population structure, which may result in differing vulnerability of urban versus rural population to temperature extremes.

  1. Light Microscopic Evaluation of Cardio-vasculare System in Alloksan-induced Diabetic Rats in Acute Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selen Bahçeci

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic cardiomyopathy is one of the chronic complication of diabetes and acute effects of diabetes on heart and aorta is not clear. We aimed to determine acute effects of diabetes on cardio-vasculare system with light microscopy. We used 20 Spraque-Dawley rats and applied 150 mg/kg alloxan, intraperitoneally for inducing diabetes and 1 ml SF in control group. After 24 hours, venous blood samples were measured. Blood glucose levels higher than 250 mg/dl were accepted as DM and treated with 4 IU/d human insülin. After 7 days rats were sacrified under ketamin anaesthesia. Heart and aorta were fixed in 10 % buffered formalin. The sectiones were embedded in paraffin and were serially sectioned at 5 m thickness, then stained with Hematoxyline-Eosine (H&E and Heidenhein’s Azan modification.There was no histopathological changes in cardiac muscle cells in control group. But there was a heterogen appearance in cardiac muscle cells and we determined some hydropic degenerations in some of the cardiac muscle cells and a minimal fibrosis in perivasculare and interstitial area in diabetic group. All histological stratums of aorta were seen normally in control group. In diabetic group, there was a clear anisostosis in smooth muscle cells and decreased in nucleus of smooth muscle cells in tunica media. We concluted that DM is caused degeneration and fibrosis in cardiac muscle cells and effective on smooth muscle cells in aorta in acute period.

  2. Cardiovascular effects of CPU-23, a novel L-type calcium channel blocker with a unique molecular structure

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Hui; Earle, Mary L; Jiang, Yanfen; Loutzenhiser, Kathy A; Triggle, Christopher R

    1997-01-01

    The cardiovascular effects of CPU-23 (1-{1-[(6-methoxy)-naphth-2-yl]}-ethyl-2-(1-piperidinyl)-acetyl-6,7-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline), a cleavage product of tetrandrine, were investigated using the whole cell perforated patch-clamp technique, in vitro tension measurements and in vivo haemodynamic recordings.CPU-23 (1 and 10 μM) dose-dependently reduced concentration–response curves for KCl and phenylephrine (PE) in the rat tail artery; inhibition of KCl-induced contraction was mu...

  3. Particle-induced pulmonary acute phase response correlates with neutrophil influx linking inhaled particles and cardiovascular risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Thoustrup Saber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Particulate air pollution is associated with cardiovascular disease. Acute phase response is causally linked to cardiovascular disease. Here, we propose that particle-induced pulmonary acute phase response provides an underlying mechanism for particle-induced cardiovascular risk. METHODS: We analysed the mRNA expression of Serum Amyloid A (Saa3 in lung tissue from female C57BL/6J mice exposed to different particles including nanomaterials (carbon black and titanium dioxide nanoparticles, multi- and single walled carbon nanotubes, diesel exhaust particles and airborne dust collected at a biofuel plant. Mice were exposed to single or multiple doses of particles by inhalation or intratracheal instillation and pulmonary mRNA expression of Saa3 was determined at different time points of up to 4 weeks after exposure. Also hepatic mRNA expression of Saa3, SAA3 protein levels in broncheoalveolar lavage fluid and in plasma and high density lipoprotein levels in plasma were determined in mice exposed to multiwalled carbon nanotubes. RESULTS: Pulmonary exposure to particles strongly increased Saa3 mRNA levels in lung tissue and elevated SAA3 protein levels in broncheoalveolar lavage fluid and plasma, whereas hepatic Saa3 levels were much less affected. Pulmonary Saa3 expression correlated with the number of neutrophils in BAL across different dosing regimens, doses and time points. CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary acute phase response may constitute a direct link between particle inhalation and risk of cardiovascular disease. We propose that the particle-induced pulmonary acute phase response may predict risk for cardiovascular disease.

  4. Effects of Induced Astigmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Delwyn G.; Walton, Howard N.

    1968-01-01

    The relationship of astigmatism to reading and the possible detrimental effects it might have on reading were investigated. The greatest incidence of astigmatism was for the with-the-rule type ranging from .50 to 1.00 diopter. This type of astigmatism was induced in 35 seniors from the Los Angeles College of Optometry by placing cylindrical lenses…

  5. Effects of Chinese Liquors on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Healthy Young Humans

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    Ju-Sheng Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To elucidate whether consumption of two Chinese liquors, tea-flavor liquor (TFL and traditional Chinese liquor (TCL have protective effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors in healthy human subjects. Methods. Forty-five healthy subjects (23 men, 22 women, aged 23–28, were recruited and randomized into two groups: TFL and TCL, and consumed 30 mL/day (45% (v/v alcohol of either liquor for 28 days. Results. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol/low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C/LDL-C and apolipoprotein A1 were significantly increased, and total cholesterol (TC and TC/HDL-C were significantly decreased after the intervention in both groups (P<0.05. Serum uric acid (P=0.004 for TFL, P=0.001 for TCL, glucose (P<0.001 for TFL, P<0.001 for TCL and endothelial adhesion molecules (P<0.05 were significantly decreased after the intervention. ADP-induced whole blood platelet aggregation was also significantly decreased after the intervention in both TFL and TCL groups (P<0.05. Conclusions. TFL and TCL consumption had protective effects on CVD risk factors in young humans. However, the results were valid only for 28 days, and that the possibility of adverse effect (liver, kidney of chronic alcohol consumption should be considered.

  6. Translational barriers and their effect upon cardiovascular revenues and reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call, Scott R

    2004-01-01

    During the past 2 decades in health care environments, particularly hospitals, attempts to centralize operational processes have inadvertently bred barriers to interdepartmental communication, resulting in the creation of informational silos and, ultimately, decreases in revenues reported and reimbursement obtained. Overall, operational centralization has reaped process improvement. However, these efficiencies have come at the cost of measurable accuracies that directly affect the bottom line. Cardiovascular managers and administrators should not assume that all the benefits from reviewing claims and information processes within symbiotic departments have already been obtained. Key long-standing services provided to the managers and administrators by departments such as Hospital or Health Information Management/Systems (HIM/HIS), the Business Office (Patient Financial/Account Services), and Information Systems should be periodically reviewed, fine tuned, and overhauled if necessary. The consequence of such reviews and maintenance will be tangible gains in operational efficiency as well as increased financial productivity. PMID:15185625

  7. Effects of acupuncture on behavioral, cardiovascular and hormonal responses in restraint-stressed Wistar rats

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    Guimarães C.M.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a well-known entity and may be defined as a threat to the homeostasis of a being. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of acupuncture on the physiological responses induced by restraint stress. Acupuncture is an ancient therapeutic technique which is used in the treatment and prevention of diseases. Its proposed mechanisms of action are based on the principle of homeostasis. Adult male Wistar EPM-1 rats were divided into four groups: group I (N = 12, unrestrained rats with cannulas previously implanted into their femoral arteries for blood pressure and heart rate measurements; group II (N = 12, rats that were also cannulated and were submitted to 60-min immobilization; group III (N = 12, same as group II but with acupuncture needles implanted at points SP6, S36, REN17, P6 and DU20 during the immobilization period; group IV (N = 14, same as group III but with needles implanted at points not related to acupuncture (non-acupoints. During the 60-min immobilization period animals were assessed for stress-related behaviors, heart rate, blood pressure and plasma corticosterone, noradrenaline and adrenaline levels. Group III animals showed a significant reduction (60% on average, P<0.02 in restraint-induced behaviors when compared to groups II and IV. Data from cardiovascular and hormonal assessments indicated no differences between group III and group II and IV animals, but tended to be lower (50% reduction on average in group I animals. We hypothesize that acupuncture at points SP6, S36, REN17, P6 and DU20 has an anxiolytic effect on restraint-induced stress that is not due to a sedative action

  8. Effects of complex organic mixtures of coal liquid on cardiovascular function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most common diseases in the US are those involving the cardiovascular system. Exposure to certain environmental chemicals and complex mixtures may be involved in some aspects of cardiovascular disease. They have previously reported that high-boiling coal liquids resulted in several affects related to the cardiovascular system of the rate when exposed via whole-body inhalation to the mixture. The most striking observation was a dose dependent elevation in arterial blood pressure for heavy distillate (HD) exposed rates compared to control animals at 2 weeks. They also noted an increase in heart rate and plasma and blood volume. Additional rats were evaluated 6 weeks after exposure, to determine whether these effects represented permanent changes in cardiovascular function, and the effects appeared to be reversible after this longer period. During the past year they have completed the assays of the studies initiated previously and have addressed some possible factors which could explain the effects that they observed. Electrolytes in plasma of rats exposed to the HD were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Plasma aldosterone and angiotensin were measured by radioimmunoassays, and plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein were evaluated with an Abbott VP bichromatic chemistry analyzer. In addition, a comparison of the blood pressure of control rats and rats fed a restricted diet were made, to determine if the anorexia which resulted from HD exposure could be responsible for the changes they observed in cardiovascular function

  9. Avocado Oil Supplementation Modifies Cardiovascular Risk Profile Markers in a Rat Model of Sucrose-Induced Metabolic Changes

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    Octavio Carvajal-Zarrabal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of avocado oil administration on biochemical markers of cardiovascular risk profile in rats with metabolic changes induced by sucrose ingestion. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: a control group (CG; basic diet, a sick group (MC; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution, and three other groups (MCao, MCac, and MCas; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution plus olive oil and avocado oil extracted by centrifugation or using solvent, resp.. Glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, low- and high-density lipoproteins (LDL, HDL, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL, lactic dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration were analyzed. Avocado oil reduces TG, VLDL, and LDL levels, in the LDL case significantly so, without affecting HDL levels. An effect was exhibited by avocado oil similar to olive oil, with no significant difference between avocado oil extracted either by centrifugation or solvent in myocardial injury biochemical indicators. Avocado oil decreased hs-CRP levels, indicating that inflammatory processes were partially reversed. These findings suggested that avocado oil supplementation has a positive health outcome because it reduces inflammatory events and produces positive changes in the biochemical indicators studied, related to the development of metabolic syndrome.

  10. The age-specific quantitative effects of metabolic risk factors on cardiovascular diseases and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Gitanjali M; Danaei, Goodarz; Farzadfar, Farshad;

    2013-01-01

    The effects of systolic blood pressure (SBP), serum total cholesterol (TC), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and body mass index (BMI) on the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have been established in epidemiological studies, but consistent estimates of effect sizes by age and sex are not availa...

  11. Cardiovascular effects of growth hormone in adult hemodialysis patients: results from a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køber, Lars; Rustom, Rana; Wiedmann, Jonas; Kappelgaard, Anne-Marie; El Nahas, Meguid; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    The high morbidity and mortality rates in hemodialysis (HD) patients are due, at least in part, to their increased risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This prospective study evaluated the effect of growth hormone (GH) on a number of CVD risk markers in adult patients on HD.......The high morbidity and mortality rates in hemodialysis (HD) patients are due, at least in part, to their increased risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This prospective study evaluated the effect of growth hormone (GH) on a number of CVD risk markers in adult patients on HD....

  12. Effects of metformin plus gliclazide versus metformin plus glimepiride on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Memy Hegazy; Abd-Allah, Gamil Mohamed

    2015-09-01

    High blood glucose level, lipid profile disturbances and plasma homocysteine (Hcy) are important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in patients with type 2 diabetes. This study was conducted to evaluate and compare effects of glimepiride/metformin combination versus gliclazide/metformin combination on cardiovascular risk factors in type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. One hundred and eighty T2DM patients were randomly allocated for treatment with placebo (control), metformin (500 mg twice daily), glimepiride (3mg once daily), gliclazide (80 mg once daily), metformin plus glimepiride or metformin plus gliclazide for 3 months. We evaluated plasma levels of glucose (PG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), Hcy, vitamin B12, folic acid and lipid profile before treatment and 3 months post treatment. Compared to metformin treated patients, glimepiride plus metformin induced significant reductions in: fasting plasma glucose, postprandial PG level, HbA1C % and Hcy level. Conversely, plasma folic acid and vitamin B12 were significantly increased. The levels of total cholesterol and triglyceride were significantly decreased; low-density lipoprotein was markedly decreased, whereas high-density lipoprotein was significantly increased and hence risk ratio was significantly decreased. Similar results but with lower values were obtained using combination of metformin plus gliclazide on glycemic control only. Combination of glimepiride with metformin was superior to gliclazide plus metformin in alleviating the cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. PMID:26408873

  13. The effects of high-intensity intermittent exercise training on cardiovascular response to mental and physical challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Mehrdad; Boutcher, Yati N; Boutcher, Stephen H

    2013-02-01

    The purpose was to examine the effect of a 12-week exercise intervention on the cardiovascular and autonomic response of males to mental and physical challenge. Thirty four young overweight males were randomly assigned to either an exercise or control group. The exercise group completed a high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) program three times per week for 12weeks. Cardiovascular response to the Stroop task was determined before and after the intervention by assessing heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), arterial stiffness, baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), and skeletal muscle blood flow. The exercise group improved their aerobic fitness levels by 17% and reduced their body weight by 1.6kg. Exercisers compared to controls experienced a significant reduction in HR (pStroop and exercise. For exercisers, arterial stiffness significantly decreased at rest and during Stroop (pStroop (pStroop (p<0.05). HIIE induced significant cardiovascular and autonomic changes at rest and during mental and physical challenge after 12weeks of training. PMID:23220158

  14. Chemical Constituents from Licania cruegeriana and Their Cardiovascular and Antiplatelet Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Estrada

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Three new lupane-type triterpenoids: 6β,30-dihydroxybetulinic acid glucopyranosyl ester (4, 6β,30-dihydroxybetulinic acid (5 and 6β-hydroxybetulinic acid (6, were isolated from Licania cruegeriana Urb. along with six known compounds. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods, including IR, ESIMS, 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments, as well as by comparison of their spectral data with those of related compounds. All compounds were evaluated in vivo for their effects on the mean arterial blood pressure (MABP and heart rate (HR of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR and also in vitro for their capacity to inhibit the human platelet aggregation. None of the isolated flavonoids 1–3 showed cardiovascular effects on SHR and among the isolated triterpenoids 4–9 only 5 and 6 produced a significant reduction in MABP (60.1% and 17.2%, respectively and an elevation in HR (11.0% and 41.2%, respectively. Compounds 3, 4, 5 and 6 were able to inhibit human platelet aggregation induced by ADP, collagen and arachidonic acid with different selectivity profiles.

  15. Toxic Effects of Mercury on the Cardiovascular and Central Nervous Systems

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    Bruna Fernandes Azevedo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental contamination has exposed humans to various metal agents, including mercury. This exposure is more common than expected, and the health consequences of such exposure remain unclear. For many years, mercury was used in a wide variety of human activities, and now, exposure to this metal from both natural and artificial sources is significantly increasing. Many studies show that high exposure to mercury induces changes in the central nervous system, potentially resulting in irritability, fatigue, behavioral changes, tremors, headaches, hearing and cognitive loss, dysarthria, incoordination, hallucinations, and death. In the cardiovascular system, mercury induces hypertension in humans and animals that has wide-ranging consequences, including alterations in endothelial function. The results described in this paper indicate that mercury exposure, even at low doses, affects endothelial and cardiovascular function. As a result, the reference values defining the limits for the absence of danger should be reduced.

  16. [Cardiovascular-protective effect of tadalafil in the treatment of erectile dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan

    2013-12-01

    The enzyme phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5), widely distributed in the heart, smooth muscle, and blood vessels, catalyzes the hydrolysis of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), a potent vasodilator, and is also a nitric oxide (NO) donor. Tadalafil is the first PDE 5 inhibitor approved by FDA for the treatment of ED. Recent studies have shown several pleiotropic beneficial effects of PDE-5 inhibitors in patients with cardiovascular diseases (coronary heart disease, hypertension, heart failure, and pulmonary arterial hypertension) and diabetes mellitus. It has been demonstrated that tadalafil can not only improve sexual function, but also elevate the endothelial cell-derived NO level, activate protein kinase A, upregulate the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, and improve hemodynamic indexes. Thus, the PDE-5 inhibitor tadalafil, with its cardiovascular-protective effect, can be a therapeutic option for the treatment of ED patients with cardiovascular disease. PMID:24432631

  17. Cardiovascular effects of intravenous administration of propylene glycol and of oxytetracycline in propylene glycol in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, D R; Kitzman, J V; Adams, H R

    1979-06-01

    Comparisons were made of the acute cardiovascular effects of oxytetracycline, oxytetracycline in propylene glycol, and propylene glycol alone given to conscious dairy calves. The calves were chronically instrumented with intravascular catheters and electromagnetic flowmeter transducers in and on the pulmonary and renal arteries. Injection (IV) of aqueous preparations of oxytetracycline produced no statistically significant (P greater than 0.05) cardiocirculatory changes in these calves. Oxytetracycline in propylene glycol and propylene glycol alone both produced transient (1 to 4 minute) periods of cardiovascular depression characterized by cardiac asystole, systemic hypotension, and decreased pulmonary and renal arterial blood flow. The two preparations, in equivalent doses and volumes, produced statistically similar hemodynamic changes in the calves. The data from this study support the conclusion that the monitored cardiovascular effects of the commercially available oxytetracycline in propylene glycol in the intact, awake calves were due to the solvent propylene glycol. This conclusion is consistent with reports of other injectable products containing the same solvent. PMID:475130

  18. Controversies in Cardiovascular Research: Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes – boutique science or valuable arrhythmia model?

    OpenAIRE

    Knollmann, Björn C.

    2013-01-01

    As part of the series on Controversies in Cardiovascular Research, the article reviews the strengths and limitations of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CM) as models of cardiac arrhythmias. Specifically, the article attempts to answer the following questions: Which clinical arrhythmias can be modeled by iPSC-CM? How well can iPSC-CM model adult ventricular myocytes? What are the strengths and limitations of published iPSC-CM arrhythmia models? What new mechanistic i...

  19. Angiotensin II-Induced Production of Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species: Potential Mechanisms and Relevance for Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Dikalov, Sergey I.; Nazarewicz, Rafal R.

    2013-01-01

    Significance: The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in angiotensin II (AngII) induced endothelial dysfunction, cardiovascular and renal remodeling, inflammation, and fibrosis has been well documented. The molecular mechanisms of AngII pathophysiological activity involve the stimulation of NADPH oxidases, which produce superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. AngII also increases the production of mitochondrial ROS, while the inhibition of AngII improves mitochondrial function; however, the speci...

  20. Acute cardiovascular effects of exposure to air pollution: components, vascular mechanisms and protecting the public

    OpenAIRE

    Langrish, Jeremy Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution, particularly fine and ultrafine particulate matter derived from combustion sources, has been consistently associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Recent controlled exposure studies demonstrate that short-term exposure to diesel exhaust, which can contribute up to 40% of urban particulate air pollution, results in impaired vascular endothelial and fibrinolytic function in healthy volunteers, and increased exercise-induced m...

  1. Cardiovascular effects of 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide and Andrographis paniculata extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoopan, Nattaporn; Thisoda, Piengpen; Rangkadilok, Nuchanart; Sahasitiwat, Somjed; Pholphana, Nanthanit; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2007-06-01

    Andrographis paniculata has been widely used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of common cold, diarrhea and hypertension. The three major active diterpenoids are andrographolide (AP1), 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (AP3) and neoandrographolide (AP4). It has been reported that AP3 has hypotensive and vasorelaxation effects. However, there is only limited information on the cardiovascular effects of the other diterpenoids and crude extracts containing different levels of AP3. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of these diterpenoids, AP1, AP3, and AP4, isolated from A. paniculata, and different aqueous plant extracts on blood pressure, vascular and chronotropic responses by using conscious rats and their isolated aortas and right atria as the test models. Among the three major diterpenoids, AP3 was the most potent compound for inducing vasorelaxation and decreasing heart rate. In addition, Extract B (high level of AP3) had greater hypotensive effect in conscious rats than Extract A (low level of AP3). Verapamil, a Ca2+ channel blocker, also had a hypotensive effect less than that of Extract C containing a high level of AP3. At the doses and durations of Extract A and B which produced hypotension, the responses of the Extract A-treated aorta to norepinephrine, and the vascular muscarinic responses to acetylcholine of both extracts were decreased. However, repeated doses of both extracts did not alter cardiac beta-adrenoceptor and muscarinic responses of extract-treated rats to NE and ACh, respectively. The results of this study suggest that vascular smooth muscle is the major site of these hypotensive effects of both AP3 and A. paniculata extracts. Furthermore, the consumption of A. paniculata products containing high levels of AP3 may be responsible for causing hypotension in some patients taking this herbal drug. PMID:17650544

  2. Effect of air pollution on diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Pereira Filho

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes increases the risk of cardiovascular mortality and these patients, even without previous myocardial infarction, run the risk of fatal coronary heart disease similar to non-diabetic patients surviving myocardial infarction. There is evidence showing that particulate matter air pollution is associated with increases in cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of diabetes mellitus on the association of air pollution with cardiovascular emergency room visits in a tertiary referral hospital in the city of São Paulo. Using a time-series approach, and adopting generalized linear Poisson regression models, we assessed the effect of daily variations in PM10, CO, NO2, SO2, and O3 on the daily number of emergency room visits for cardiovascular diseases in diabetic and non-diabetic patients from 2001 to 2003. A semi-parametric smoother (natural spline was adopted to control long-term trends, linear term seasonal usage and weather variables. In this period, 45,000 cardiovascular emergency room visits were registered. The observed increase in interquartile range within the 2-day moving average of 8.0 µg/m³ SO2 was associated with 7.0% (95%CI: 4.0-11.0 and 20.0% (95%CI: 5.0-44.0 increases in cardiovascular disease emergency room visits by non-diabetic and diabetic groups, respectively. These data indicate that air pollution causes an increase of cardiovascular emergency room visits, and that diabetic patients are extremely susceptible to the adverse effects of air pollution on their health conditions.

  3. Effectiveness of a Pharmacist-Led Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Clinic in Rural Perry County, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Charles; Ford, Frances

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Clinic (CRRC) in Perry County, Alabama, provides free pharmacist-led services. Clinic goals include improving health outcomes and reducing cardiovascular risk factors. Objective. To investigate the effectiveness of the CRRC in rural Perry County, Alabama. The reduction of the modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, blood pressure and body mass index, was evaluated to measure a decrease from baseline to last clinic date. Methods. This retrospective chart review identified 130 patients with at least two blood pressure and BMI measurements from baseline to June 30, 2010. The patients' paper files were used to collect baseline data and most recent measurements, which were recorded on a data collection sheet. Results. There was a statistically significant reduction in systolic blood pressure of 4.08 mmHg, 3.25 mmHg reduction in diastolic blood pressure, and 0.42 kg/m2 reduction in mean BMI. At their last visit prior to June 30, 2010, 59% of hypertensive patients and 35% of diabetic patients were meeting their blood pressure goals. Conclusion. Pharmacist-led management of patients with cardiovascular risk factors significantly reduced blood pressure and allowed more patients to meet their hypertension treatment goals. Despite being modest, reductions in blood pressure and BMI help reduce overall cardiovascular risks. PMID:27525302

  4. Combination Therapy for the Cardiovascular Effects of Perinatal Lead Exposure in Young and Adult Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaspar, Andréia Fresneda [Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Biociências - Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Faculdade da Alta Paulista (FAP), Tupã, SP (Brazil); Cordellini, Sandra, E-mail: cordelli@ibb.unesp.br [Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Biociências - Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    Combination therapy can play a significant role in the amelioration of several toxic effects of lead (Pb) and recovery from associated cardiovascular changes. To investigate the effects of combination therapy on the cardiovascular effects of perinatal lead exposure in young and adult rats Female Wistar rats received drinking water with or without 500 ppm of Pb during pregnancy and lactation. Twenty-two- and 70-day-old rat offspring who were or were not exposed to Pb in the perinatal period received meso-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), L-arginine, or enalapril and a combination of these compounds for 30 additional days. Noradrenaline response curves were plotted for intact and denuded aortas from 23-, 52-, 70-, and 100-day-old rats stratified by perinatal Pb exposure (exposed/unexposed) and treatment received (treated/untreated). Systolic blood pressure was evaluated and shown to be higher in the 23-, 52-, 70-, and 100-day age groups with Pb exposure than in the corresponding control age groups: 117.8 ± 3.9*, 135.2 ± 1.3*, 139.6 ± 1.6*, and 131.7 ± 2.8*, respectively and 107.1 ± 1.8, 118.8 ± 2.1, 126.1 ± 1.1, and 120.5 ± 2.2, respectively (p < 0.05). Increased reactivity to noradrenaline was observed in intact, but not denuded, aortas from 52-, 70-, and 100-day-old exposed rats, and the maximum responses (g of tension) in the respective Pb-exposed and control age groups were as follows: 3.43 ± 0.16*, 4.32 ± 0.18*, and 4.21 ± 0.23*, respectively and 2.38 ± 0.33, 3.37 ± 0.13, and 3.22 ± 0.21, respectively (p < 0.05). All treatments reversed the changes in vascular reactivity to noradrenaline in rats perinatally exposed to Pb. The combination therapy resulted in an earlier restoration of blood pressure in Pb-exposed rats compared with the monotherapies, except for enalapril therapy in young rats. These findings represent a new approach to the development of therapeutic protocols for the treatment of Pb-induced hypertension.

  5. Los polifenoles, compuestos de origen natural con efectos saludables sobre el sistema cardiovascular The polyphenols, naturally occurring compounds with beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Quiñones

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años numerosos estudios han avalado los efectos beneficiosos de la ingesta de polifenoles sobre la salud, especialmente sobre el sistema cardiovascular. Esto es importante, porque las enfermedades cardiovasculares son la principal causa de muerte en el mundo. Los efectos de los polifenoles son fundamentalmente consecuencia de sus propiedades antioxidantes. Estos compuestos presentan efectos vasodilatadores, son capaces además de mejorar el perfil lipídico y atenúan la oxidación de las lipoproteínas de baja densidad (LDL. Presentan claros efectos antiinflamatorios y estos compuestos son a su vez capaces de modular los procesos de apoptosis en el endotelio vascular. Esta revisión define desde el punto de vista estructural, los distintos grupos de polifenoles que pueden formarse en los vegetales y actualiza los conocimientos sobre su biodisponibilidad. En ella se recopilan asimismo algunos de los estudios recientes que establecen sus propiedades beneficiosas a nivel cardiovascular.In recent years, a number of studies have endorsed the beneficial effects of polyphenols intake on health, especially on the cardiovascular system. This is important since cardiovascular diseases are the main death cause worldwide. The effects of polyphenols are mainly due to their antioxidant properties. These compounds present vasodilating effects, and they can improve the lipid profile and lessen the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL. They show clear antiinflammatory effects and they can modulate the apoptotic pathways in the vascular endothelium. This review defines from the structural viewpoint the different groups of polyphenols that may occur in vegetables, and updates the knowledge on their bioavailability. Some of the recent studies establishing their beneficial properties at a cardiovascular level are also included.

  6. Obesity-Induced Changes in Adipose Tissue Microenvironment and Their Impact on Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, José J; Ouchi, Noriyuki; Gokce, Noyan; Walsh, Kenneth

    2016-05-27

    Obesity is causally linked with the development of cardiovascular disorders. Accumulating evidence indicates that cardiovascular disease is the collateral damage of obesity-driven adipose tissue dysfunction that promotes a chronic inflammatory state within the organism. Adipose tissues secrete bioactive substances, referred to as adipokines, which largely function as modulators of inflammation. The microenvironment of adipose tissue will affect the adipokine secretome, having actions on remote tissues. Obesity typically leads to the upregulation of proinflammatory adipokines and the downregulation of anti-inflammatory adipokines, thereby contributing to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we focus on the microenvironment of adipose tissue and how it influences cardiovascular disorders, including atherosclerosis and ischemic heart diseases, through the systemic actions of adipokines. PMID:27230642

  7. Moderation of dietary sodium potentiates the renal and cardiovascular protective effects of angiotensin receptor blockers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J; Holtkamp, Frank A; Parving, Hans-Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    intake during treatment, measured as the 24-h urinary sodium/creatinine ratio of 1177 patients with available 24-h urinary sodium measurements. ARB compared to non-RAASi-based therapy produced the greatest long-term effects on renal and cardiovascular events in the lowest tertile of sodium intake....... Compared to non-RAASi, the trend in risk for renal events was significantly reduced by 43%, not changed, or increased by 37% for each tertile of increased sodium intake, respectively. The trend for cardiovascular events was significantly reduced by 37%, increased by 2% and 25%, respectively. Thus...

  8. The Effects of Cold and Lower Body Negative Pressure on Cardiovascular Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Kean, David J.; Peacock, Corey A; SANDERS, GABRIEL J.; John McDaniel; Colvin, Lisa A. C.; GLICKMAN, ELLEN L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study is to determine how cold exposure and lower body negative pressure effected cardiovascular variables. Methods. Eleven males (20.3 years ± 2.7) underwent two 20-minute exposures to LBNP. During the 2 trials, the subjects were exposed to cold air (10°C) (COLD) and to ambient temperature (23°C) (AMB). The trials consisted of a 100-minute pre-LBNP period followed by a 20-minute exposure to LBNP and then a 15-minute recovery period. Cardiovascular variables were ...

  9. Effect of weight loss on the cardiovascular risk profile of obese patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Zachariae, Claus; Christensen, Robin;

    2014-01-01

    weeks followed by 8 weeks of reduced food intake reaching 1,200 kcal/day or normal healthy foods (n = 30) for 16 weeks. The intervention group lost significantly more weight than controls, which resulted in significant reductions of diastolic blood pressure, resting heart rate, total cholesterol, VLDL......Psoriasis is associated with obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors including endothelial dysfunction. We aimed to investigate the effects of weight loss on the cardiovascular risk profile of obese patients with psoriasis. A randomised controlled study was conducted in which we measured the...... microvascular endothelial function with peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT), selected plasma markers of endothelial function, and traditional cardiovascular risk factors in 60 obese patients with psoriasis. The participants were randomised to either low-energy diet (n = 30) providing 800-1,000 kcal/day for 8...

  10. Protective Effects of Panax Notoginseng Saponins on Cardiovascular Diseases: A Comprehensive Overview of Experimental Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochen Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS are one of the most important compounds derived from roots of the herb Panax notoginseng which are traditionally used as a hemostatic medicine to control internal and external bleeding in China for thousands of years. To date, at least twenty saponins were identified and some of them including notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rb1, and ginsenoside Rg1 were researched frequently in the area of cardiovascular protection. However, the protective effects of PNS on cardiovascular diseases based on experimental studies and its underlying mechanisms have not been reviewed systematically. This paper reviewed the pharmacology of PNS and its monomers Rb1, Rg1, and R1 in the treatment for cardiovascular diseases.

  11. Cardiovascular Effects of Olive, a Qur’anic Fruit: a Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Heidari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Today, much attention is being paid to the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. In some parts of the world, the rate of cardiovascular disease is low due to a Mediterranean diet containing olive oil. This systematic review examined the verses and traditions in order to express opinions on olive and compare it with the findings of modern medicine. Methods: This is a qualitative systematic review of studies  in which data  were collected from Qur'an, traditions, and related articles on the internet, limited to English and Persian and without time limitation by using the keywords olive, heart disease and Mediterranean diet. Results: This systematic review demonstrated that olive in the Quran is a clear sign to scientists. Moreover, its use is recommended in the authentic traditions. Conclusion: Based on the results, olive has been found to be effective in reducing mortality and preventing cardiovascular diseases.

  12. Sidestream cigarette smoke effects on cardiovascular responses in conscious rats: involvement of oxidative stress in the fourth cerebral ventricle

    OpenAIRE

    Valenti Vitor E; de Abreu Luiz; Sato Monica A; Ferreira Celso; Adami Fernando; Fonseca Fernando LA; Xavier Valdelias; Godoy Moacir; Monteiro Carlos B; Vanderlei Luiz Carlos M; Saldiva Paulo HN

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Cigarette exposure increases brain oxidative stress. The literature showed that increased brain oxidative stress affects cardiovascular regulation. However, no previous study investigated the involvement of brain oxidative stress in animals exposed to cigarette and its relationship with cardiovascular regulation. We aimed to evaluate the effects of central catalase inhibition on baroreflex and cardiovascular responses in rats exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke (SSCS). M...

  13. Controlled Exposure of Humans with Metabolic Syndrome to Concentrated Ultrafine Ambient Particulate Matter Causes Cardiovascular Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Many studies have reported associations between PM2.5 and adverse cardiovascular effects. However there is increased concern that ultrafine PM (aerodynamic diameter less than 0.1 micron) may be disproportionately toxic relative to the 0.1 to 2.5 micron fraction of PM2...

  14. Differential effects of adulterated versus unadulterated forms of linoleic acid on cardiovascular health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen D.Anton; Kacey Heekin; Carrah Simkins; Andres Acosta

    2013-01-01

    According to the classic "diet-heart" hypothesis,high dietary intake of saturated fats and cholesterol combined with low intake of polyunsaturated fats can increase levels of serum cholesterol and lead to the development of atherogenic plaques and ultimately cardiovascular diseases.Recently,the beneficial health effects of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids,particularly linoleic acid (LA),on cardiovascular health have been called into question with some scientists suggesting that consumption of LA should be reduced in Western countries.The focus of this critical review is on the controversy surrounding the effects of dietary intake of LA on cardiovascular health.Specifically,we critically examined the effects of both unadulterated and adulterated forms of LA on cardiovascular health outcomes based on findings from epidemiological studies and randomized controlled trials.Additionally,we address common concerns surrounding dietary intake of LA regarding its relationship with arachidonic acid,the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids,and its relationship with inflammation.Our critical review indicates that unadulterated forms of LA are cardioprotective and should be consumed as part of a healthy diet.In contrast,abundant evidence now indicates that adulterated forms of LA,predominantly hydrogenated vegetable oils,are atherogenic and should not be considered part of a healthy diet.The ability to adulterate the natural omega-6 fatty acid,LA,has contributed to mixed findings regarding the effects of this fatty acid on cardiovascular health.Thus,it is critical that the source of LA be taken into account when drawing conclusions about the physiological effects of this fatty acid.The findings of the present review are in line with current dietary recommendations of the American Heart Association.

  15. Isolated and synergistic effects of PM10 and average temperature on cardiovascular and respiratory mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samya de Lara Lins de Araujo Pinheiro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the effect of air pollution and temperature on mortality due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. METHODS We evaluated the isolated and synergistic effects of temperature and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter 40 years old due to cardiovascular disease and that of individuals > 60 years old due to respiratory diseases in Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, between 1998 and 2008. Three methodologies were used to evaluate the isolated association: time-series analysis using Poisson regression model, bidirectional case-crossover analysis matched by period, and case-crossover analysis matched by the confounding factor, i.e., average temperature or pollutant concentration. The graphical representation of the response surface, generated by the interaction term between these factors added to the Poisson regression model, was interpreted to evaluate the synergistic effect of the risk factors. RESULTS No differences were observed between the results of the case-crossover and time-series analyses. The percentage change in the relative risk of cardiovascular and respiratory mortality was 0.85% (0.45;1.25 and 1.60% (0.74;2.46, respectively, due to an increase of 10 μg/m3 in the PM10 concentration. The pattern of correlation of the temperature with cardiovascular mortality was U-shaped and that with respiratory mortality was J-shaped, indicating an increased relative risk at high temperatures. The values for the interaction term indicated a higher relative risk for cardiovascular and respiratory mortalities at low temperatures and high temperatures, respectively, when the pollution levels reached approximately 60 μg/m3. CONCLUSIONS The positive association standardized in the Poisson regression model for pollutant concentration is not confounded by temperature, and the effect of temperature is not confounded by the pollutant levels in the time-series analysis. The simultaneous exposure to different levels of

  16. Isolated and synergistic effects of PM10 and average temperature on cardiovascular and respiratory mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Samya de Lara Lins de Araujo; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Schwartz, Joel; Zanobetti, Antonella

    2014-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the effect of air pollution and temperature on mortality due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. METHODS We evaluated the isolated and synergistic effects of temperature and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter 40 years old due to cardiovascular disease and that of individuals > 60 years old due to respiratory diseases in Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, between 1998 and 2008. Three methodologies were used to evaluate the isolated association: time-series analysis using Poisson regression model, bidirectional case-crossover analysis matched by period, and case-crossover analysis matched by the confounding factor, i.e., average temperature or pollutant concentration. The graphical representation of the response surface, generated by the interaction term between these factors added to the Poisson regression model, was interpreted to evaluate the synergistic effect of the risk factors. RESULTS No differences were observed between the results of the case-crossover and time-series analyses. The percentage change in the relative risk of cardiovascular and respiratory mortality was 0.85% (0.45;1.25) and 1.60% (0.74;2.46), respectively, due to an increase of 10 μg/m3 in the PM10 concentration. The pattern of correlation of the temperature with cardiovascular mortality was U-shaped and that with respiratory mortality was J-shaped, indicating an increased relative risk at high temperatures. The values for the interaction term indicated a higher relative risk for cardiovascular and respiratory mortalities at low temperatures and high temperatures, respectively, when the pollution levels reached approximately 60 μg/m3. CONCLUSIONS The positive association standardized in the Poisson regression model for pollutant concentration is not confounded by temperature, and the effect of temperature is not confounded by the pollutant levels in the time-series analysis. The simultaneous exposure to different levels of environmental factors can

  17. The effects of halothane and isoflurane on cardiovascular function in laterally recumbent horses

    OpenAIRE

    Raisis, A L; Blissitt, Karen; Henley, W.; Rogers, K.; Adams, V; Young, L.E.

    2005-01-01

    Background. Experimental studies in adult horses have shown that general anaesthesia maintained with isoflurane is associated with less depression of cardiovascular function compared with halothane anaesthesia. Adverse effects of intermittent positive-pressure ventilation (IPPV) have also been demonstrated. Nevertheless, the haemodynamic effects of these agents and the effects of differing modes of ventilation have not been assessed during clinical anaesthesia in horses undergoing surgery.Met...

  18. Tetrandrine and related bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloids from medicinal herbs: cardiovascular effects and mechanisms of action

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chiu-Yin KWAN; FI ACHIKE

    2002-01-01

    Tetrandrine (TET), a bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloid purified and identified an active ingredient in a Chinese medicinal herb, Radix Stephanae tetrandrae, has been used traditionally for the treatment of congestive circulatory disorder and inflammatory diseases. TET, together with a few of its structural analogues, has long been demonstrated to have antihypertensive action in clinical as well as animal studies. Presumably, the primary anti-hypertensive action of TET is due to its vasodilatory properties. TET prevents or inhibits vascular contraction induced by membrane depolarization with KCl or α-adrenoceptor activation with phenylephrine (PE). TET (30 μmol/L) also inhibits the release of endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) as well as NO production by inducible NO synthase.TET apparently inhibits multiple Ca2+ entry pathways as demonstrated in cell types lacking the L-type Ca2+ channels.In cardiac muscle cells, TET inhibits both L- and T-type Ca2+ channels. In addition to its actions on cardiovascular tissues, TET may also exert its anti-hypertensive action via a Ca2+-dependent manner on other tissues intimately involved in the modulation of blood pressure control, such as adrenal glands. In adrenal glomerulosa cells, KCl- or angiotensin II-induced aldosterone synthesis is highly dependent on extracellular Ca2+. Steroidogenesis and Ca2+-influx in bovine adrenal glomerulosa cells have been shown to be potently inhibited by TET. In bovine adrenal chromaffin cells, TET inhibits Ca2+ currents via L- and N-type channels as well as other unidentified channels with IC50 of 10 μmol/L. Other than the Ca2+ antagonistic effects, TET also interacts with the α-adrenergic receptors and muscarinic receptors based on functional as well as radioligand binding studies. Apart from its functional effects,TET and related compounds also exert effects on tissue structures, such as remodelling of hypertrophied heart and inhibition of angiogenesis, probably by causing apoptotic

  19. The effect of a comprehensive lifestyle intervention on cardiovascular risk factors in pharmacologically treated patients with stable cardiovascular disease compared to usual care: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJzelenberg Wilhelmina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The additional benefit of lifestyle interventions in patients receiving cardioprotective drug treatment to improve cardiovascular risk profile is not fully established. The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of a target-driven multidisciplinary structured lifestyle intervention programme of 6 months duration aimed at maximum reduction of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD compared with usual care. Methods A single centre, two arm, parallel group randomised controlled trial was performed. Patients with stable established CVD and at least one lifestyle-related risk factor were recruited from the vascular and cardiology outpatient departments of the university hospital. Blocked randomisation was used to allocate patients to the intervention (n = 71 or control group (n = 75 using an on-site computer system combined with allocations in computer-generated tables of random numbers kept in a locked computer file. The intervention group received the comprehensive lifestyle intervention offered in a specialised outpatient clinic in addition to usual care. The control group continued to receive usual care. Outcome measures were the lifestyle-related cardiovascular risk factors: smoking, physical activity, physical fitness, diet, blood pressure, plasma total/HDL/LDL cholesterol concentrations, BMI, waist circumference, and changes in medication. Results The intervention led to increased physical activity/fitness levels and an improved cardiovascular risk factor profile (reduced BMI and waist circumference. In this setting, cardiovascular risk management for blood pressure and lipid levels by prophylactic treatment for CVD in usual care was already close to optimal as reflected in baseline levels. There was no significant improvement in any other risk factor. Conclusions Even in CVD patients receiving good clinical care and using cardioprotective drug treatment, a comprehensive

  20. Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise: Research in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Maschke

    2011-01-01

    Research on systematic noise effects started in Germany back in the fifties with basic experimental studies on humans. As a result, noise was classified as a non-specific stressor, which could cause an ergotropic activation of the complete organism. In the light of this background research a hypothesis was proposed that long-term noise exposure could have an adverse effect on health. This hypothesis was further supported by animal studies. Since the sixties, the adverse effects of chronic roa...

  1. Cardiovascular effects of MnDPDP and MnCl2 in dogs with acute ischaemic heart failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To examine the cardiovascular effects of MnDPDP in a model of acute heart failure in the dog, and to compare these effects with those of MnCl2. Material and Methods: The study involved slow i.v. infusion of either 10, 60 and 300 μmol/kg of MnDPDP, or 1, 6 and 30 μmol/kg MnCl2, in increasing doses to groups of 5 dogs. Acute ischaemic heart failure was first induced by injection of polystyrene microspheres (50±10 μm) into the left coronary artery until a stable left ventricular end-diastolic pressure of approximately 20 mm Hg was achieved. The following test parameters were measured: Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure; the first derivatives of maximum rate of left ventricular contraction and relaxation; mean aortic pressure; pulmonary artery pressure; right atrial pressure; cardiac ouput; heart rate; QT-time; PQ-time; QRS-width; and plasma catecholamines. Results: Slow infusion of MnDPDP at doses up to and including 12 times the clinical dose was well tolerated in dogs without further depression of cardiovascular function during acute ischaemic heart failure. At 300 μmol/kg, i.e. 60 times the human dose, only minor haemodynamic and electrophysiological effects were seen, and these were similar to those seen after administration of 30 μmol/kg MnCl2. (orig./AJ)

  2. Extreme weather and air pollution effects on cardiovascular and respiratory hospital admissions in Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsangari, H; Paschalidou, A K; Kassomenos, A P; Vardoulakis, S; Heaviside, C; Georgiou, K E; Yamasaki, E N

    2016-01-15

    In many regions of the world, climatic change is associated with increased extreme temperatures, which can have severe effects on mortality and morbidity. In this study, we examine the effect of extreme weather on hospital admissions in Cyprus, for inland and coastal areas, through the use of synoptic weather classifications (air mass types). In addition, the effect of particulate air pollution (PM10) on morbidity is examined. Our results show that two air mass types, namely (a) warm, rainy days with increased levels of water vapour in the atmosphere and (b) cold, cloudy days with increased levels of precipitation, were associated with increased morbidity in the form of hospital admissions. This was true both for cardiovascular and respiratory conditions, for all age groups, but particularly for the elderly, aged over 65. Particulate air pollution was also associated with increased morbidity in Cyprus, where the effect was more pronounced for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26519584

  3. Effects of customized risk reduction program on cardiovascular risk in males with spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Myers, PhD; Ramya Gopalan, MS, MPH; Troy Shahoumian, MPH; Jenny Kiratli, PhD

    2012-01-01

    Persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) have heightened risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Multidisciplinary risk reduction programs using case management models have been effective in reducing CVD risk in nondisabled persons, but little is known regarding the effects of such programs in SCI. Twenty-six persons with SCI underwent a pilot 2 yr risk intervention program including frequent telephone contact by a case manager and in-person visits by a dietitian, physical therapist, and exercise...

  4. Cardiovascular and ride time-to-exhaustion effects of an energy drink

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Michael T.; Biltz, George R; Dengel, Donald R

    2014-01-01

    Background Currently, there are few studies on the cardiovascular and fatigue effects of commercially available energy drinks. This study investigated the effects of Monster energy drink (Monster Beverage Corporation, Corona, California), on resting heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), ride time-to-exhaustion, peak exercise HR, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and peak rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Methods The study used a double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled, crossov...

  5. Effect of cold spells and their modifiers on cardiovascular disease events: evidence from two prospective studies

    OpenAIRE

    Sartini, Claudio; Barry, Sarah J. E.; Wannamethee, S Goya; Whincup, Peter H.; Lennon, Lucy; Ford, Ian; Morris, Richard W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate effects of cold weather spells on incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and potential effect modification of socio-demographic, clinical, behavioural and environmental exposures. Methods: Data from two prospective studies were analysed: the British Regional Heart Study (BRHS), a population-based study of British men aged 60–79 years, followed for CVD incidence from 1998–2000 to 2012; and the PROSPER study of men and women aged 70–82 recruited to a tr...

  6. Effect of cold spells and their modifiers on cardiovascular disease events: evidence from two prospective studies

    OpenAIRE

    Sartini, C.; Barry, S.J.E.; Wannamethee, S. G.; Whincup, P H; Lennon, L; Ford, I; Morris, R W

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate effects of cold weather spells on incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and potential effect modification of socio-demographic, clinical, behavioural and environmental exposures. / Methods: Data from two prospective studies were analysed: the British Regional Heart Study (BRHS), a population-based study of British men aged 60–79 years, followed for CVD incidence from 1998–2000 to 2012; and the PROSPER study of men and women aged 70–82 recruited to a trial of pra...

  7. Effect of Crataegus Usage in Cardiovascular Disease Prevention: An Evidence-Based Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Wang; Xingjiang Xiong; Bo Feng

    2013-01-01

    Hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha) is a widely used Chinese herb for treatment of gastrointestinal ailments and heart problems and consumed as food. In North America, the role of treatment for heart problems dates back to 1800. Currently, evidence is accumulating from various in vivo and in vitro studies that hawthorn extracts exert a wide range of cardiovascular pharmacological properties, including antioxidant activity, positive inotropic effect, anti-inflammatory effect, anticardiac remodelin...

  8. Analysis of Cardiovascular Diseases Costs and Their Effective Factors in Tabriz Hospitalized Patients, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Cardiovascular diseases are the most important chronic diseases with significant negative effects on the individuals’ quality of life and communities’ economic productivity. Objectives The present study aimed to analyze the costs of cardiovascular diseases and identify the related factors in hospitalized patients of Tabriz Shahid Madani hospital in 2015. Patients and Methods This paper was a cross-sectional study. Cost information was obtained by a bottom-up approach from the patients and their families’ perspective. A number of 285 patients were randomly selected to participate in the study. For data collection, the study deployed a researcher-made questionnaire whose validity and reliability were confirmed by statistical tests. First, the collected data were analyzed using descriptive methods. And then, the researchers used t-test and ANOVA to analyze the relationship between demographic variables and the different types of cost. Tukey test was used to compare differences between groups groups, the researchers used. Results The Study findings showed that the total cost of cardiovascular diseases was 13,074,700 Rials (US$462 per patient. The details of the costs of cardiovascular diseases also showed that direct medical costs, direct non-medical costs, and indirect costs were 10,909,100 Rials (US$386, 109’940 Rials (US$38.90, and 1,066,200 Rials (37.73 US$ which were 83.4%, 8.4% and 8.2% of the total costs, respectively. Statistical analyses indicated a significant relationship between gender, marital status, education, job status, location, type of disease, type of admission, and the reason for hospitalization and some types of assessed costs (P < 0.05. Conclusions The study showed that the costs associated with cardiovascular diseases were not reasonable for many of these patients and their families. This certainly requires more consideration by managers and policy makers in the health care sector and the implementation of

  9. Effect of short-term pranayama and meditation on cardiovascular functions in healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roopa B Ankad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Asana, pranayama, and meditation are three main techniques of yoga practiced in India over thousands of years to attain functional harmony between the body and mind. Recent studies on long-term yogic practices have shown improvements in cardiovascular functions. Aim: The present study was conducted to ascertain if a short-term practice of pranayama and meditation had improvements in cardiovascular functions in healthy individuals with respect to age, gender, and body mass index (BMI. Settings and Design: This interventional study was conducted in the Department of physiology of S.N. Medical College, Bagalkot. Patients and Methods: Fifty healthy subjects (24 males and 26 females of 20−60 years age group, fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria underwent two hours daily yoga program for 15 days taught by a certified yoga teacher. Pre and post yoga cardiovascular functions were assessed by recording pulse rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and mean blood pressure. Statistical analysis used: The parameters were analyzed by Student′s t test. Results: There was significant reduction in resting pulse rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and mean arterial blood pressure after practicing pranayama and meditation for 15 days. The response was similar in both the genders, both the age groups, 40 yrs and both the groups with BMI, 25 kg/m2 . Conclusion: This study showed beneficial effects of short term (15 days regular pranayama and meditation practice on cardiovascular functions irrespective of age, gender, and BMI in normal healthy individuals.

  10. Propionyl-L-carnitine corrects metabolic and cardiovascular alterations in diet-induced obese mice and improves liver respiratory chain activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Mingorance

    Full Text Available AIMS: Obesity is a primary contributor to acquired insulin resistance leading to the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular alterations. The carnitine derivate, propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC, plays a key role in energy control. Our aim was to evaluate metabolic and cardiovascular effects of PLC in diet-induced obese mice. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet for 9 weeks and then divided into two groups, receiving either free- (vehicle-HF or PLC-supplemented water (200 mg/kg/day during 4 additional weeks. Standard diet-fed animals were used as lean controls (vehicle-ST. Body weight and food intake were monitored. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests were assessed, as well as the HOMA(IR, the serum lipid profile, the hepatic and muscular mitochondrial activity and the tissue nitric oxide (NO liberation. Systolic blood pressure, cardiac and endothelial functions were also evaluated. RESULTS: Vehicle-HF displayed a greater increase of body weight compared to vehicle-ST that was completely reversed by PLC treatment without affecting food intake. PLC improved the insulin-resistant state and reversed the increased total cholesterol but not the increase in free fatty acid, triglyceride and HDL/LDL ratio induced by high-fat diet. Vehicle-HF exhibited a reduced cardiac output/body weight ratio, endothelial dysfunction and tissue decrease of NO production, all of them being improved by PLC treatment. Finally, the decrease of hepatic mitochondrial activity by high-fat diet was reversed by PLC. CONCLUSIONS: Oral administration of PLC improves the insulin-resistant state developed by obese animals and decreases the cardiovascular risk associated to this metabolic alteration probably via correction of mitochondrial function.

  11. Cardiovascular effects of simulated zero-gravity in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonde-Petersen, F.; Suzuki, Y.; Sadámoto, T.; Juel Christensen, N.

    Head-down and heat-up tilted bedrest (5 degrees) and head out water immersion (HOWI) for 6 hr were compared. Parameters: Cardiac output (rebreathing method), blood pressure (arm cuff), forearm blood flow (venous occlusion plethysmography), total peripheral (TPR), and forearm vascular (FVR) resistances, Hct, Hb, relativē plasma volume (PV) changes, and plasma catecholamines (single-isotope assay). During HOWI there was as expected a decrement in TPR, FVR, Mean arterial pressure (MAP, from 100 to 80 mmHg), Hct, and PV, and—as a new finding—catecholamines, which were 30-50% lower compared with both + 5 and - 5 degrees bedrest. During head down tilt, MAP was elevated (to 100-110 mmHg) and catecholamines did not fall, while TPR and FVR slowly decreased over 6 hr. HOWI is a stronger stimulus than - 5 degrees bedrest, probably because HOWI elevates central venous pressure more markedly emptying the peripheral veins, while bedrest permits a distension of veins, which induces an increase in sympathetic nervous activity.

  12. Effects of ramadan fasting on cardiovascular and biochemical parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Gupta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Muslims abstain from food and drink from dawn to sunset every day during Ramadan - the holiest month in Islamic lunar calendar.  Methods: The effect of Ramadan fast on body mass index (BMI, blood pressure (BP, fasting blood glucose (FBG and lipid profile were studied on 100 healthy male, adult Muslim volunteers. All parameters were recorded one week before the onset and then in the last week of Ramadan month and compared.  Results: There was no statistically significant effect on BMI, and systolic or diastolic blood pressures (p>0.05. However, fasting blood glucose (FBG, serum total cholesterol (TC, serum triglycerides (TG were significantly decreased (p = 0.000 and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C level was significantly (p=0.000 increased in last week of Ramadan fasting compared to pre fasting levels. Conclusion: Our results show beneficial effects of Ramadan fasting on FBG and serum lipid profile. 

  13. On the track of syncope induced by orthostatic stress - feedback mechanisms regulating the cardiovascular system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Johnny T.

    2009-01-01

    A physiological realistic model of the controlled cardiovascular system is constructed and validated against clinical data. Special attention is paid to the heart rate control. Both sit-to-stand and head-up-tilt experiments are encapsulated by the model. The model may be used in studies of syncop...

  14. Does water hardness have preventive effect on cardiovascular disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Momeni

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Our study suggests favorable protective effects of water hardness, mainly water magnesium content, on CVDs. Water hardness, as well as calcium and magnesium content of drinking water may have a protective role against CVDs. Further experimental studies are necessary to determine the underlying mechanisms and longitudinal studies are required to study the clinical impacts of the current findings.

  15. Effect of acute exercise and cardiovascular fitness on cognitive function: an event-related cortical desynchronization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Chu, Chien-Heng; Wang, Chun-Chih; Song, Tai-Fen; Wei, Gao-Xia

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to clarify the effects of acute exercise and cardiovascular fitness on cognitive function using the Stroop test and event-related desynchronization (ERD) in an aged population. Old adults (63.10 ± 2.89 years) were first assigned to either a high-fitness or a low-fitness group, and they were then subjected to an acute exercise treatment and a reading control treatment in a counterbalanced order. Alpha ERD was recorded during the Stroop test, which was administered after both treatments. Acute exercise improved cognitive performance regardless of the level of cognition, and old adults with higher fitness levels received greater benefits from acute exercise. Additionally, acute exercise, rather than overall fitness, elicited greater lower and upper alpha ERDs relative to the control condition. These findings indirectly suggest that the beneficial effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance may result from exercise-induced attentional control observed during frontal neural excitation. PMID:25308605

  16. The effect of liver disease on the cardiovascular system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Møller, Søren

    2007-01-01

    the practical applications to benefit people).Edited by ten leading experts in the liver and biliary tract and their diseases, along with outstanding contributions from over 200 international clinicians, this text has global references, evidence and extensive subject matter - giving you the best...... science and clinical practice discussed by the best authors.It includes unique sections on: Symptoms and signs in liver diseaseIndustrial diseases affecting the liverThe effects of diseases of other systems on the liverThe effects of liver diseases on other systemsIt 's bigger and more extensive than...... other books and discusses new areas in more depth such as stem cells, genetics, genomics, proteomics, transplantation, mathematics and much more.Plus, it comes with a fully searchable CD ROM of the entire content....

  17. Cardiovascular effects of calcium-channel blocker with radionuclide ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemodynamic parameters were assessed before and 0.5h after the p.o. of 20 mg of nifedipine (NIF) in 31 patients and 60 mg of dilitiazem (DIL) in 24 patients with radionuclide ventriculography. After oraltherapy, NIF improved the LV pumping function, LVEF increased from 0.56 to 0.63 (P 2 (P 2), respectively, P 2, respectively, P > 0.05. In the group of patients with old myocardial infarction, both negative effect were observed

  18. EFFECTS OF EXERCISE TRAINING ON CARDIOVASCULAR ADRENERGIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario eLeosco

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In heart failure (HF, exercise has been shown to modulate cardiac sympathetic hyperactivation which is one of the earliest features of neurohormonal derangement in this syndrome and correlates with adverse outcome. An important molecular alteration related to chronic sympathetic overstimulation in HF is represented by cardiac β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR dysfunction . It has been demonstrated that exercise reverses β-AR dysfunction by restoring cardiac receptor membrane density and G-protein-dependent adenylyl cyclase activation. In particular, several evidence indicate that exercise reduces levels of cardiac G-protein coupled receptor kinase-2 (GRK2 which is known to be involved in both β1-AR and β2-AR dysregulation in HF. Similar alterations of β-AR system have been described also in the senescent heart. It has also been demonstrated that exercise training restores adrenal GRK2/α-2AR/cathecolamine (CA production axis. At vascular level, exercise shows a therapeutic effect on age-related impairment of vascular reactivity to adrenergic stimulation and restores β-AR-dependent vasodilatation by increasing vascular β-AR responsiveness and reducing endothelial GRK2 activity. Sympathetic nervous system overdrive is thought to account for >50 % of all cases of hypertension and a lack of balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic modulation has been observed in hypertensive subjects. Non-pharmacological, lifestyle interventions have been associated with reductions in SNS overactivity and blood pressure in hypertension. Several evidence have highlighted the blood pressure lowering effects of aerobic endurance exercise in patients with hypertension and the significant reduction in sympathetic neural activity has been reported as one of the main mechanisms explaining the favourable effects of exercise on blood pressure control.

  19. Cardiovascular, endocrine and renal effects of urodilatin in normal humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bestle, M.H.; Olsen, N.V.; Christensen, P.; Jensen, B.V.; Bie, P.

    remained below 0.1%. The results indicate that even moderately natriuretic doses of urodilatin exert protracted effects on systemic hemodynamic, endocrine, and renal functions, including decreases in cardiac output and renal blood flow, without changes in arterial pressure or glomerular filtration rate...... highest doses. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system was inhibited by the three lowest doses but activated by the hypotensive dose of 40 ng. kg-1. min-1. Plasma vasopressin increased by factors of up to 5 during infusion of the three highest doses. Atrial natriuretic peptide immunoreactivity (including...

  20. Vascular effects of phytoestrogens and alternative menopausal hormone therapy in cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gencel, V B; Benjamin, M M; Bahou, S N; Khalil, R A

    2012-02-01

    Phytoestrogens are estrogenic compounds of plant origin classified into different groups including isoflavones, lignans, coumestans and stilbenes. Isoflavones such as genistein and daidzein are the most studied and most potent phytoestrogens, and are found mainly in soy based foods. The effects of phytoestrogens are partly mediated via estrogen receptors (ERs): ERα, ERβ and possibly GPER. The interaction of phytoestrogens with ERs is thought to induce both genomic and non-genomic effects in many tissues including the vasculature. Some phytoestrogens such as genistein have additional non-ER-mediated effects involving signaling pathways such as tyrosine kinase. Experimental studies have shown beneficial effects of phytoestrogens on endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle, and extracellular matrix. Phytoestrogens may also affect other pathophysiologic vascular processes such as lipid profile, angiogenesis, inflammation, tissue damage by reactive oxygen species, and these effects could delay the progression of atherosclerosis. As recent clinical trials showed no vascular benefits or even increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and CV events with conventional menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), phytoestrogens are being considered as alternatives to pharmacologic MHT. Epidemiological studies in the Far East population suggest that dietary intake of phytoestrogens may contribute to the decreased incidence of postmenopausal CVD and thromboembolic events. Also, the WHO-CARDIAC study supported that consumption of high soybean diet is associated with lower mortalities from coronary artery disease. However, as with estrogen, there has been some discrepancy between the experimental studies demonstrating the vascular benefits of phytoestrogens and the data from clinical trials. This is likely because the phytoestrogens clinical trials have been limited in many aspects including the number of participants enrolled, the clinical end points investigated, and the lack of

  1. Effects of Vitamin D3 and Paricalcitol on Immature Cardiomyocytes: A Novel Role for Vitamin D Analogs in the Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacini, Stefania; Morucci, Gabriele; Branca, Jacopo J. V.; Aterini, Stefano; Amato, Marcello; Gulisano, Massimo; Ruggiero, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are more prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease than in the general population and they are considered the leading cause of death in patients with end-stage renal disease. The discovery that vitamin D3 plays a considerable role in cardiovascular protection has led, in recent years, to an increase in the administration of therapies based on the use of this molecule; nevertheless, several studies warned that an excess of vitamin D3 may increase the risk of hypercalcemia and vascular calcifications. In this study we evaluated the effects of vitamin D3, and of its selective analog paricalcitol, on immature cardiomyocytes. Results show that vitamin D3 induces cAMP-mediated cell proliferation and significant intracellular calcification. Paricalcitol, however, induces cell differentiation, morphological modifications in cell shape and size, and no intracellular calcification. Furthermore, vitamin D3 and paricalcitol differently affect cardiomyoblasts responses to acetylcholine treatment. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the effects of vitamin D3 and paricalcitol on cardiomyoblasts are different and, if these in vitro observations could be extrapolated in vivo, they suggest that paricalcitol has the potential for cardiovascular protection without the risk of inducing intracellular calcification. PMID:23749205

  2. Effects of Vitamin D3 and Paricalcitol on Immature Cardiomyocytes: A Novel Role for Vitamin D Analogs in the Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ruggiero

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are more prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease than in the general population and they are considered the leading cause of death in patients with end-stage renal disease. The discovery that vitamin D3 plays a considerable role in cardiovascular protection has led, in recent years, to an increase in the administration of therapies based on the use of this molecule; nevertheless, several studies warned that an excess of vitamin D3 may increase the risk of hypercalcemia and vascular calcifications. In this study we evaluated the effects of vitamin D3, and of its selective analog paricalcitol, on immature cardiomyocytes. Results show that vitamin D3 induces cAMP-mediated cell proliferation and significant intracellular calcification. Paricalcitol, however, induces cell differentiation, morphological modifications in cell shape and size, and no intracellular calcification. Furthermore, vitamin D3 and paricalcitol differently affect cardiomyoblasts responses to acetylcholine treatment. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the effects of vitamin D3 and paricalcitol on cardiomyoblasts are different and, if these in vitro observations could be extrapolated in vivo, they suggest that paricalcitol has the potential for cardiovascular protection without the risk of inducing intracellular calcification.

  3. Methylmercury exposure and adverse cardiovascular effects in Faroese whalingmen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Anna L; Weihe, Pál; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben;

    2009-01-01

    consumption of pilot whale meat. METHODS: We assessed exposure levels from mercury analysis of toenails and whole blood (obtained at the time of clinical examination), and a hair sample collected 7 years previously. Outcome measures included heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure (BP), common carotid...... intima-media thickness (IMT), and brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP). We carried out multiple regression and structural equation model (SEM) analyses to determine the confounder-adjusted effect of mercury exposure. Taking into account correlations among related measures, we categorized exposure...... and outcomes in groups to derive latent exposure and response variables in SEMs. We used multiple regression analysis to compare the predictive validity of individual exposure biomarkers and the latent exposure variable on individual and latent outcomes. RESULTS: The toenail mercury concentrations...

  4. Cardiovascular safety of antipsychotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polcwiartek, Christoffer; Sørensen, Kristian Dahl Kragholm; Schjerning, Ole; Graff, Claus; Nielsen, Jimmi

    2016-01-01

    cardiovascular risk factors. Areas covered: This clinical overview summarizes the cardiovascular safety of antipsychotics by focusing on the wide range of associated adverse effects. In addition, we also discuss current guidelines regarding routine electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring. Expert opinion: As SCD in......, as this may increase risk of Torsades de Pointes and eventually SCD. However, other serious cardiovascular complications of antipsychotics also include Brugada syndrome phenotype, myocardial infarction, and myocarditis. Increased awareness of the cardiovascular safety of antipsychotics can allow...

  5. Kilimanjaro Abruzzo expedition: effects of high-altitude trekking on anthropometric, cardiovascular and blood biochemical parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Verratti, Vittore; Falone, S.; Doria, C.; Pietrangelo, T.; Di Giulio, C.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of the combination of trekking and balanced appropriated diet were studied in mountaineers who spent 6 days at an altitude ranging from 900 to 5895 m above sea level (a.s.l.), during the Kilimanjaro Abruzzo Expedition. This study explored whether anthropometric, cardiovascular and blood biochemical parameters were significantly changed by a regular trekking performed at high altitude, with reduced oxygen levels, together with a macronutrient-containing balanced diet (total daily ca...

  6. Effects of Sex and Gender on Adaptation to Space: Cardiovascular Alterations

    OpenAIRE

    Platts, Steven H.; Bairey Merz, C. Noel; Barr, Yael; Fu, Qi; Gulati, Martha; Hughson, Richard,; Levine, Benjamin D.; Mehran, Roxana; Stachenfeld, Nina; Wenger, Nanette K

    2014-01-01

    Sex and gender differences in the cardiovascular adaptation to spaceflight were examined with the goal of optimizing the health and safety of male and female astronauts at the forefront of space exploration. Female astronauts are more susceptible to orthostatic intolerance after space flight; the visual impairment intracranial pressure syndrome predominates slightly in males. Since spaceflight simulates vascular aging, sex-specific effects on vascular endothelium and thrombotic risk warrant e...

  7. Healthy Satiety Effects of Paleolithic diet on Satiety and Risk factors for Cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jönsson, Tommy

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) exhibits considerable variation across agrarian societies, whereas they are virtually absent in non-agrarian societies such as hunter-gatherer and horticultural societies. When looking for lifestyle factors which could promote CVD, it therefore seems logical to focus on the agrarian lifestyle and ways in which it departs from a non-agrarian lifestyle. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the effect of a hunter-gatherer diet (also called Paleol...

  8. The Effect of Widowhood on Husbands’ and Wives’ Physical Activity: The Cardiovascular Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Stahl, Sarah T.; Schulz, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This prospective study examined the effect of widowhood on physical activity by comparing widowed elders to health status-, age-, and sex-matched married controls. Participants included 396 married controls and 396 widows/widowers age 64 to 91 (M age = 72.7 years) who experienced the death of their spouse while participating in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS). Compared to married controls, widowed men, but not women, were more likely to increase their physical activity...

  9. Effect of air pollution on diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    M.A. Pereira Filho; L.A.A. Pereira; F.F. Arbex; M. Arbex; G.M. Conceição; U.P. Santos; A.C. Lopes; Saldiva, P H N; A.L.F. Braga; S. Cendon

    2008-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes increases the risk of cardiovascular mortality and these patients, even without previous myocardial infarction, run the risk of fatal coronary heart disease similar to non-diabetic patients surviving myocardial infarction. There is evidence showing that particulate matter air pollution is associated with increases in cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of diabetes mellitus on the association of air pollution with ca...

  10. Protective Effects of Panax Notoginseng Saponins on Cardiovascular Diseases: A Comprehensive Overview of Experimental Studies

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) are one of the most important compounds derived from roots of the herb Panax notoginseng which are traditionally used as a hemostatic medicine to control internal and external bleeding in China for thousands of years. To date, at least twenty saponins were identified and some of them including notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rb1, and ginsenoside Rg1 were researched frequently in the area of cardiovascular protection. However, the protective effects of PNS on c...

  11. Use of pioglitazone in the treatment of diabetes: effect on cardiovascular risk

    OpenAIRE

    Zou C; Hu H

    2013-01-01

    Cong Zou,1 Honglin Hu2 1Department of Endocrinology, Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Urology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, People's Republic of China Abstract: Pioglitazone and other thiazolidinediones (TZDs) initially showed great promise as unique receptor-mediated oral therapy for type 2 diabetes, but a host of serious side effects, primarily cardiovascular, have limited...

  12. Effects of Probiotic Yogurt Consumption on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    F. Mohammadi; M Veissi; Haidari, F; Shahbazian, H.; M mohammad shahi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiovascular disease is more prevalent in patients with type 2 diabetes. Regarding the role of probiotics in control of inflammation and modulating the lipid profile, this study assess the effect of probiotic and conventional yogurt on inflammatory markers and lipid profile in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: Forty- four subjects with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to two intervention and control groups. The intervention group consumed 300 g/d probiotic yogurt (e...

  13. Cross sectional study of effects of drinking green tea on cardiovascular and liver diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    Imai, K; Nakachi, K

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the association between consumption of green tea and various serum markers in a Japanese population, with special reference to preventive effects of green tea against cardiovascular disease and disorders of the liver. DESIGN--Cross sectional study. SETTING--Yoshimi, Japan. SUBJECTS--1371 men aged over 40 years resident in Yoshimi and surveyed on their living habits including daily consumption of green tea. Their peripheral blood samples were subjected to several bioc...

  14. Effect of low calorie diet with rice bran oil on cardiovascular risk factors in hyperlipidemic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Zavoshy; Mostafa Noroozi; Hassan Jahanihashemi

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death and disability in industrialized and developing countries. The aim of this research was to determine the effect of rice bran oil, with a low-calorie diet, on lipid profiles, in hyperlipidemic patients. Materials and Methods: This study was a parallel groups′ randomized clinical trial with a pre- and post-test design. Fifty hyperlipidemic patients of both sexes and age range of 25 - 65 years had participated. The patients re...

  15. Instillation rate effects of Exosurf on cerebral and cardiovascular haemodynamics in preterm neonates.

    OpenAIRE

    Saliba, E; Nashashibi, M; Vaillant, M C; Nasr, C; Laugier, J

    1994-01-01

    The acute effects of surfactant instillation rate on the cerebral and cardiovascular haemodynamics were studied in a randomised trial of 27 preterm neonates with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV), mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), blood gases and electroencephalogram (EEG) were continuously recorded before, during, and for at least 10 minutes after the administration of surfactant. The measurements were repeated one, three, and six hours later. Left v...

  16. Study of cardiovascular disease biomarkers among tobacco consumers, part 2: biomarkers of biological effect

    OpenAIRE

    Nordskog, Brian K.; Brown, Buddy G.; Marano, Kristin M.; Campell, Leanne R.; Jones, Bobbette A.; Borgerding, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An age-stratified, cross-sectional study was conducted in the US among healthy adult male cigarette smokers, moist snuff consumers, and non-tobacco consumers to evaluate cardiovascular biomarkers of biological effect (BoBE). Physiological assessments included flow-mediated dilation, ankle-brachial index, carotid intima-media thickness and expired carbon monoxide. Approximately one-half of the measured serum BoBE showed statistically significant differences; IL-12(p70), sICAM-1 and IL...

  17. Cystathionine-γ lyase-derived hydrogen sulfide mediates the cardiovascular protective effects of moxonidine in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Shaimaa S; Zakaria, Mohamed N M; Abdel-Ghany, Rasha H; Abdel-Rahman, Abdel A

    2016-07-15

    Blunted cystathionine-γ lyase (CSE) activity (reduced endogenous H2S-level) is implicated in hypertension and myocardial dysfunction in diabetes. Here, we tested the hypothesis that CSE derived H2S mediates the cardiovascular protection conferred by the imidazoline I1 receptor agonist moxonidine in a diabetic rat model. We utilized streptozotocin (STZ; 55mg/kg i.p) to induce diabetes in male Wistar rats. Four weeks later, STZ-treated rats received vehicle, moxonidine (2 or 6mg/kg; gavage), CSE inhibitor DL-propargylglycine, (37.5mg/kg i.p) or DL-propargylglycine with moxonidine (6mg/kg) for 3 weeks. Moxonidine improved the glycemic state, and reversed myocardial hypertrophy, hypertension and baroreflex dysfunction in STZ-treated rats. Ex vivo studies revealed that STZ caused reductions in CSE expression/activity, H2S and nitric oxide (NO) levels and serum adiponectin and elevations in myocardial imidazoline I1 receptor expression, p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase, ERK1/2, phosphorylation and lipid peroxidation (expressed as malondialdehyde). Moxonidine reversed these biochemical responses, and suppressed the expression of death associated protein kinase-3. Finally, pharmacologic CSE inhibition (DL-propargylglycine) abrogated the favorable cardiovascular, glycemic and biochemical responses elicited by moxonidine. These findings present the first evidence for a mechanistic role for CSE derived H2S in the glycemic control and in the favorable cardiovascular effects conferred by imidazoline I1 receptor activation (moxonidine) in a diabetic rat model. PMID:27138707

  18. Effect of rosiglitazone on progression of atherosclerosis: insights using 3D carotid cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Cheuk F

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is recent evidence suggesting that rosiglitazone increases death from cardiovascular causes. We investigated the direct effect of this drug on atheroma using 3D carotid cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Results A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study was performed to evaluate the effect of rosiglitazone treatment on carotid atherosclerosis in subjects with type 2 diabetes and coexisting vascular disease or hypertension. The primary endpoint of the study was the change from baseline to 52 weeks of carotid arterial wall volume, reflecting plaque burden, as measured by carotid cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Rosiglitazone or placebo was allocated to 28 and 29 patients respectively. Patients were managed to have equivalent glycemic control over the study period, but in fact the rosiglitazone group lowered their HbA1c by 0.88% relative to placebo (P 3 and in the rosiglitazone group was 1354 ± 532 mm3. After 52 weeks, the respective volumes were 1134 ± 523 mm3 and 1348 ± 531 mm3. These changes (-12.1 mm3 and -5.7 mm3 in the placebo and rosiglitazone groups, respectively were not statistically significant between groups (P = 0.57. Conclusion Treatment with rosiglitazone over 1 year had no effect on progression of carotid atheroma in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus compared to placebo.

  19. Cardiovascular effects of edible oils: a comparison between four popular edible oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bester, D; Esterhuyse, A J; Truter, E J; van Rooyen, J

    2010-12-01

    Edible oils form an essential part of the modern diet. These oils play a role as an energy source, and provide the diet with many beneficial micronutrients. Although a popular conception may be that fat should be avoided, certain edible oils as a dietary supplement may play an important role in the improvement of cardiovascular health. CVD has become one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Dietary supplementation with different oils may have beneficial effects on cardiovascular health. While olive oil and sunflower-seed oil are known to reduce serum cholesterol, fish oil has become well known for reducing potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmias. Recently, red palm oil research has shown beneficial effects on cardiac recovery from ischaemia-reperfusion injury. It is clear that dietary supplementation with edible oils may play a vital role in reducing the mortality rate due to heart disease. The specific benefits and disadvantages of these oils should, however, be explored in greater depth. The present review will attempt to identify the benefits and shortcomings of four popular edible oils, namely olive oil, sunflower-seed oil, fish oil and palm oil. Additionally the present review will aim to reveal potential areas of research which could further enhance our understanding of the effects of edible oils on cardiovascular health. PMID:20849681

  20. Protective role of Kalpaamruthaa in type II diabetes mellitus-induced cardiovascular disease through the modulation of protease-activated receptor-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Latha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kalpaamruthaa (KA is a formulatory herbal preparation has beneficial antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties against cardiovascular damage (CVD. Objective: The present study was undertaken to investigate the protective role of KA in type II diabetes mellitus-induced CVD through the modulation of protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1. Materials and Methods: CVD was developed in 8 weeks after type II diabetes mellitus induction with high fat diet (2 weeks and low dose of streptozotocin (2 × 35 mg/kg b.w. i.p. in 24 h interval. CVD-induced rats treated with KA (200 mg/kg b.w. in 0.5 ml of olive oil orally for 4 weeks. Results: KA increased the activities of enzymatic antioxidants and the levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants in pancreas of CVD-induced rats. KA effectively reduced the lipid peroxides and carbonyl content in the pancreas of CVD-induced rats. KA reduced cellular damage by ameliorating the activities of marker enzymes in plasma, heart and liver. The protective nature of KA was further evidenced by histological observation in pancreas. Further, KA reduced CVD by decreasing the expression of PAR1 in heart. Conclusion: This study exhibits the defending role of KA in type II diabetes mellitus-induced CVD through altering PAR1.

  1. The effects of age on the spontaneous low-frequency oscillations in cerebral and systemic cardiovascular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the effects of ageing on cardiovascular control and particularly the response to orthostatic stress have been the subject of many studies, the interaction between the cardiovascular and cerebral regulation mechanisms is still not fully understood. Wavelet cross-correlation is used here to assess the coupling and synchronization between low-frequency oscillations (LFOs) observed in cerebral hemodynamics, as measured using cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) and cerebral oxygenation (O2Hb), and systemic cardiovascular dynamics, as measured using heart rate (HR) and arterial blood pressure (ABP), in both old and young healthy subjects undergoing head-up tilt table testing. Statistically significant increases in correlation values are found in the interaction of cerebral and cardiovascular LFOs for young subjects (P 2Hb and ABP–O2Hb), but not in old subjects under orthostatic stress. The coupling between the cerebrovascular and wider cardiovascular systems in response to orthostatic stress thus appears to be impaired with ageing

  2. Fish oil and olive oil supplements attenuate the adverse cardiovascular effects of concentrated ambient air pollution particles exposure in healthy middle-aged adult human volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to ambient levels of air pollution increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Advanced age is among the factors associated with susceptibility to the adverse effects of air pollution. Dietary fatty acid supplementation has been shown to decrease cardiovascular ris...

  3. Beneficial cardiovascular effects of reducing exposure to particulate air pollution with a simple facemask

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jing

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to air pollution is an important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and is associated with increased blood pressure, reduced heart rate variability, endothelial dysfunction and myocardial ischaemia. Our objectives were to assess the cardiovascular effects of reducing air pollution exposure by wearing a facemask. Methods In an open-label cross-over randomised controlled trial, 15 healthy volunteers (median age 28 years walked on a predefined city centre route in Beijing in the presence and absence of a highly efficient facemask. Personal exposure to ambient air pollution and exercise was assessed continuously using portable real-time monitors and global positional system tracking respectively. Cardiovascular effects were assessed by continuous 12-lead electrocardiographic and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Results Ambient exposure (PM2.5 86 ± 61 vs 140 ± 113 μg/m3; particle number 2.4 ± 0.4 vs 2.3 ± 0.4 × 104 particles/cm3, temperature (29 ± 1 vs 28 ± 3°C and relative humidity (63 ± 10 vs 64 ± 19% were similar (P > 0.05 for all on both study days. During the 2-hour city walk, systolic blood pressure was lower (114 ± 10 vs 121 ± 11 mmHg, P vs 88 ± 11/min; P > 0.05. Over the 24-hour period heart rate variability increased (SDNN 65.6 ± 11.5 vs 61.2 ± 11.4 ms, P vs 816 ± 340 ms2, P Conclusion Wearing a facemask appears to abrogate the adverse effects of air pollution on blood pressure and heart rate variability. This simple intervention has the potential to protect susceptible individuals and prevent cardiovascular events in cities with high concentrations of ambient air pollution.

  4. The effect of a worksite based walking programme on cardiovascular risk in previously sedentary civil servants [NCT00284479

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hare Lesley G

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A significant proportion of Europeans do not meet the recommendations for 30 mins of physical activity 5 times per week. Whether lower frequency, moderate intensity exercise alters cardiovascular disease (CVD risk has received little attention. This study examined the effects of 45 minutes self-paced walking, 2 d· wk-1 on aerobic fitness, blood pressure (BP, body composition, lipids and C-Reactive Protein (CRP in previously sedentary civil servants. Methods 37 subjects (24 women aged 41.5 ± 9.3 years were randomly assigned to either two 45 minute walks per week (walking group or no training (control group. Aerobic fitness, body composition, blood pressure (BP, CRP and lipoprotein variables were measured at baseline and following 8 weeks. Steps counts were measured at baseline and during weeks 4 and 8 of the intervention. Results Compared to the control group, the walking group showed a significant reduction in systolic BP and maintained body fat levels (P P Conclusion These findings suggest that walking twice per week for 45 minutes at ~ 62% HRmax, improves activity levels, reduces systolic BP and prevents an increase in body fat in previously sedentary adults. This walking prescription, however, failed to induce significant improvements in other markers of cardiovascular disease risk following eight weeks of training.

  5. Stress-induced growth-differentiation factor 15 plays an intriguing role in cardiovascular diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hai-tao; WANG Hai-chang; TAO Ling; LI Cheng-xiang; LI Fei; ZHANG Yu-yang; LIU Bo-wu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To provide an overview of the current knowledge of growth-differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) in heart disease.Data sources To identify relevant publications,we searched PubMED database combining the textual terms of heart,cardiac,cardiovascular disease with GDF-15.Study selection Well-controlled,relatively large-scale,retrospective studies as well as meaningful individual cases were all selected as materials.Results GDF-15 is a distant member of the transforming growth factor-β cytokine superfamily.In myocardium,GDF-15 is weakly expressed under physiological conditions.However,its expression level is increased in response to pathological stress.Growing evidence indicate that elevated levels of GDF-15 is a promising prognostic biomarker in cardiovascular diseases.Moreover,GDF-15 exhibits the properties of endogenous anti-hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes and protecting the heart suffering from ischemia and reperfusion insult.Conclusion Ve GDF-15 may be a promising biomarker for evaluation and management of patient with cardiovascular diseases,and have potential protective properties on myocardium.

  6. Effect of crataegus usage in cardiovascular disease prevention: an evidence-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Xiong, Xingjiang; Feng, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha) is a widely used Chinese herb for treatment of gastrointestinal ailments and heart problems and consumed as food. In North America, the role of treatment for heart problems dates back to 1800. Currently, evidence is accumulating from various in vivo and in vitro studies that hawthorn extracts exert a wide range of cardiovascular pharmacological properties, including antioxidant activity, positive inotropic effect, anti-inflammatory effect, anticardiac remodeling effect, antiplatelet aggregation effect, vasodilating effect, endothelial protective effect, reduction of smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation, protective effect against ischemia/reperfusion injury, antiarrhythmic effect, lipid-lowering effect and decrease of arterial blood pressure effect. On the other hand, reviews of placebo-controlled trials have reported both subjective and objective improvement in patients with mild forms of heart failure (NYHA I-III), hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. This paper discussed the underlying pharmacology mechanisms in potential cardioprotective effects and elucidated the clinical applications of Crataegus and its various extracts. PMID:24459528

  7. Cardiovascular reactivity and adaptation to recurrent psychological stress: effects of prior task exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, R M; Blascovich, J; Tomaka, J; Leitten, C L; Schneider, T R; Wiens, S

    1999-11-01

    The effects of prior task exposure on cardiovascular reactivity to stress were examined in two experiments by randomly assigning participants to repeated exposure groups that performed mental arithmetic pretest and test tasks versus delayed exposure groups that performed only the test task after prolonged rest. Impedance cardiographic and blood pressure measures were recorded continuously from 60 undergraduate men in Experiment 1 and 112 undergraduate men and women in Experiment 2. Task repetition attenuated cardiovascular reactivity and improved task performance in repeated exposure groups (p < .001), suggesting an integrated process of behavioral adaptation. During the test task, delayed exposure groups showed greater cardiac reactivity (p < .01), but not vascular reactivity, than repeated exposure groups. Thus, cardiac reactivity varied as a specific function of prior task exposure, whereas vascular reactivity varied as a general function of time. PMID:10554594

  8. Short-Term Effects of Isotonic Handgrip Exercise on Cardiovascular Autonomic Reactivity in Healthy Young Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nileshkumar H Patel, Hasmukh D Shah, Wasim A Shaikh, Sushil K Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available "Background: Exercise is a potent stimulus for sympathetic nervous system activation. But the compliance of people for routine form of exercise for BP control has not been very encouraging. Objective of the study was to determine the short-term effects of isotonic handgrip exercise on cardiovascular autonomic reactivity in healthy adolescents and to find a user friendly exercise which help in reducing blood pressure. Method and Materials: Present study was conducted on 50 young healthy adolescents in the age group of 17–19 years. Isotonic handgrip exercise was performed for 20 minutes at the rate 12 contractions per minute (2 sec contraction/3 sec relaxation at an intensity of 30%MVC using Ball-Squeeze Dynamometer. Vascular sympathetic reactivity and cardiac parasympathetic reactivity were tested at baseline and during recovery period (Immediate- post-exercise and 1 hour–post-exercise. Result: There were no changes in the parameters (Expiration: Inspiration ratio and Valsalva Ratio measuring parasympathetic reactivity. Sympathetic reactivity as evaluated by diastolic blood pressure responses to isometric handgrip test (HGT and cold pressor test (CPT showed no significant decreases. No significant difference was observed in cardiovascular autonomic reactivity during immediate and 1 hr post-exercise recovery in both boys and girls. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the exercise regime under consideration could not produce any short-term beneficial effects with respect to cardiovascular autonomic reactivity."

  9. Effect of an extruded pea or rice diet on postprandial insulin and cardiovascular responses in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolphe, J L; Drew, M D; Silver, T I; Fouhse, J; Childs, H; Weber, L P

    2015-08-01

    Peas are increasing in popularity as a source of carbohydrate, protein and fibre in extruded canine diets. The aim of this study was to test the health effects of two canine diets with identical macronutrient profiles, but containing either yellow field peas or white rice as the carbohydrate source on metabolism, cardiovascular outcomes and adiposity. First, the acute glycemic, insulinemic and cardiovascular responses to the pea- or rice-based diets were determined in normal weight beagles (n = 7 dogs). The glycemic index did not differ between the pea diet (56 ± 12) and rice diet (63 ± 9). Next, obese beagles (n = 9) were fed the yellow field pea diet or white rice diet ad libitum for 12 weeks in a crossover study. Adiposity (measured using computed tomography), metabolic (oral glucose tolerance test, plasma leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein) and cardiovascular assessments (echocardiography and blood pressure) were performed before and after each crossover study period. After 12 weeks on each diet, peak insulin (p = 0.05) and area under the curve (AUC) for insulin after a 10 g oral glucose tolerance test (p = 0.05) were lower with the pea than the rice diet. Diet did not show a significant effect on body weight, fat distribution, cardiovascular variables, adiponectin or leptin. In conclusion, a diet containing yellow field peas reduced the postprandial insulin response after glucose challenge in dogs despite continued obesity, indicating improved metabolic health. PMID:25475789

  10. Effect of fast and slow pranayama on perceived stress and cardiovascular parameters in young health-care students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrates that both types of pranayama practice are beneficial in reducing PSS in the healthy subjects but beneficial effect on cardiovascular parameters occurred only after practicing slow pranayama.

  11. Effect of spinal cord injury on the heart and cardiovascular fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, W T; Kiratli, B J; Sarkarati, M; Weraarchakul, G; Myers, J; Franklin, B A; Parkash, I; Froelicher, V

    1998-11-01

    increasing number of SCI patients becoming aged. Currently 71,000 (40%) of the total 179,000 patients with SCI living in the United States are older than 40 years, and 45,000 have injuries sustained more than 20 years earlier. In addition, new injuries in the older population are increasing (currently 11% of all injuries), and some of these new patients with SCI already have pre-existing cardiac disease. Studies have demonstrated that improved lifestyle, physical activity, lipid management, and dietary restrictions can affect major risk factors for coronary artery disease. Therefore an aggressive cardiac prevention program is appropriate for patients with SCI as part of their rehabilitation. At a given submaximal workload, arm exercise is performed at a greater physiologic cost than is leg exercise. At maximal effort, however, physiologic responses are generally greater in leg exercise than arm exercise. Arm exercise is less efficient and less effective than lower body exercise in developing and maintaining both central and peripheral aspects of cardiovascular fitness. The situation is further compounded in SCI because of poor venous return as a result of lower-limb blood pooling, as a result of lack of sympathetic tone, and a diminished or absent venous "muscle pump" in the legs. This latter mechanism perhaps contributes the greatest diminution in the potential for aerobic performance in the SCI population. Obtaining a cardiopulmonary training effect in individuals with SCI is quite possible. Current studies indicate decreases in submaximal HR, respiratory quotient, minute ventilation, and oxygen uptake, with increases in maximal power output, oxygen uptake, minute ventilation, and lactic acid. Individuals with SCI have been shown to benefit from lower limb functional electrical stimulation (FES)-induced exercise. Studies have consistently reported increases in lower limb strength and cycle endurance performance with these protocols, as well as improvements in metabolic and

  12. Effects of slow breathing exercise on cardiovascular functions, pulmonary functions & galvanic skin resistance in healthy human volunteers - a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Turankar, A.V.; Jain, S.; Patel, S.B.; Sinha, S.R.; A. D. Joshi; B N Vallish; Mane, P.R.; Turankar, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Regular practice of slow breathing has been shown to improve cardiovascular and respiratory functions and to decrease the effects of stress. This pilot study was planned to evaluate the short term effects of pranayama on cardiovascular functions, pulmonary functions and galvanic skin resistance (GSR) which mirrors sympathetic tone, and to evaluate the changes that appear within a short span of one week following slow breathing techniques. Methods: Eleven normal health...

  13. Anti-inflamatórios não esteroides: Efeitos cardiovasculares, cérebro-vasculares e renais Antiinflamatorios no esteroides: efectos cardiovasculares, cerebrovasculares y renales Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and renal effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Batlouni

    2010-04-01

    inhibitors. In recent years, the safety of NSAID use in clinical practice has been questioned, especially that of the selective COX-2 inhibitors. The evidence on the increase in cardiovascular risk with the use of NSAIDs is still scarce, due to the lack of randomized and controlled studies with the capacity of evaluating relevant cardiovascular outcomes. However, the results of prospective clinical trials and meta-analyses indicate that the selective COX-2 inhibitors present important adverse cardiovascular effects, which include increased risk of myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident, heart failure, kidney failure and arterial hypertension. The risk of these adverse effects is higher among patients with a previous history of cardiovascular disease or those at high risk to develop it. In these patients, the use of COX-2 inhibitors must be limited to those for which there is no appropriate alternative and, even in these cases, only at low doses and for as little time as possible. Although the most frequent adverse effects have been related to the selective COX-2 inhibition, the absence of selectiveness for this isoenzyme does not completely eliminate the risk of cardiovascular events; therefore, all drugs belonging to the large spectrum of NSAIDs should only be prescribed after consideration of the risk/benefit balance.

  14. Cardiovascular and inflammatory effects of intratracheally instilled ambient dust from Augsburg, Germany, in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs

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    Peters Annette

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rationale Several epidemiological studies associated exposure to increased levels of particulate matter in Augsburg, Germany with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. To elucidate the mechanisms of cardiovascular impairments we investigated the cardiopulmonary responses in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, a model for human cardiovascular diseases, following intratracheal instillation of dust samples from Augsburg. Methods 250 μg, 500 μg and 1000 μg of fine ambient particles (aerodynamic diameter 2.5-AB collected from an urban background site in Augsburg during September and October 2006 (PM2.5 18.2 μg/m3, 10,802 particles/cm3 were instilled in 12 months old SHRs to assess the inflammatory response in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, blood, lung and heart tissues 1 and 3 days post instillation. Radio-telemetric analysis was performed to investigate the cardiovascular responses following instillation of particles at the highest dosage based on the inflammatory response observed. Results Exposure to 1000 μg of PM2.5-AB was associated with a delayed increase in delta mean blood pressure (ΔmBP during 2nd-4th day after instillation (10.0 ± 4.0 vs. -3.9 ± 2.6 mmHg and reduced heart rate (HR on the 3rd day post instillation (325.1 ± 8.8 vs. 348.9 ± 12.5 bpm. BALF cell differential and inflammatory markers (osteopontin, interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 from pulmonary and systemic level were significantly induced, mostly in a dose-dependent way. Protein analysis of various markers indicate that PM2.5-AB instillation results in an activation of endothelin system (endothelin1, renin-angiotensin system (angiotensin converting enzyme and also coagulation system (tissue factor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in pulmonary and cardiac tissues during the same time period when alternation in ΔmBP and HR have been detected. Conclusions Our data suggests that high concentrations of PM2.5-AB

  15. Acute effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate, on cardiovascular parameters in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The organophosphorus compound sarin irreversibly inhibits acetylcholinesterase. We examined the acute cardiovascular effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate (BIMP), in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats. Intravenous administration of BIMP (0.8 mg/kg; the LD50 value) induced a long-lasting increase in blood pressure and tended to increase heart rate. In rats pretreated with the non-selective muscarinic-receptor antagonist atropine, BIMP significantly increased both heart rate and blood pressure. In atropine-treated rats, hexamethonium (antagonist of ganglionic nicotinic receptors) greatly attenuated the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure without changing the BIMP-induced increase in heart rate. In rats treated with atropine plus hexamethonium, intravenous phentolamine (non-selective α-adrenergic receptor antagonist) plus propranolol (non-selective β-adrenergic receptor antagonist) completely blocked the BIMP-induced increases in blood pressure and heart rate. In atropine-treated rats, the reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine (1 mg/kg) induced a transient increase in blood pressure, but had no effect on heart rate. These results suggest that in anaesthetized rats, BIMP induces powerful stimulation of sympathetic as well as parasympathetic nerves and thereby modulates heart rate and blood pressure. They may also indicate that an action independent of acetylcholinesterase inhibition contributes to the acute cardiovascular responses induced by BIMP. - Highlights: • A sarin-like agent BIMP markedly increased blood pressure in anaesthetized rats. • Muscarinic receptor blockade enhanced the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure. • Ganglionic nicotinic receptor blockade attenuated the BIMP-induced response. • Blockade of α- as well as β-receptors attenuated the BIMP-induced response

  16. Acute effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate, on cardiovascular parameters in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Yoshimasa [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Itoh, Takeo, E-mail: titoh@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Shiraishi, Hiroaki [Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Maeno, Yoshitaka [Department of Forensic Medical Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Arima, Yosuke; Torikoshi, Aiko; Namera, Akira [Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Makita, Ryosuke [Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hiroshima Cosmopolitan University, Hiroshima (Japan); Yoshizumi, Masao [Department of Cardiovascular Physiology and Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Nagao, Masataka [Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2013-10-01

    The organophosphorus compound sarin irreversibly inhibits acetylcholinesterase. We examined the acute cardiovascular effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate (BIMP), in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats. Intravenous administration of BIMP (0.8 mg/kg; the LD50 value) induced a long-lasting increase in blood pressure and tended to increase heart rate. In rats pretreated with the non-selective muscarinic-receptor antagonist atropine, BIMP significantly increased both heart rate and blood pressure. In atropine-treated rats, hexamethonium (antagonist of ganglionic nicotinic receptors) greatly attenuated the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure without changing the BIMP-induced increase in heart rate. In rats treated with atropine plus hexamethonium, intravenous phentolamine (non-selective α-adrenergic receptor antagonist) plus propranolol (non-selective β-adrenergic receptor antagonist) completely blocked the BIMP-induced increases in blood pressure and heart rate. In atropine-treated rats, the reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine (1 mg/kg) induced a transient increase in blood pressure, but had no effect on heart rate. These results suggest that in anaesthetized rats, BIMP induces powerful stimulation of sympathetic as well as parasympathetic nerves and thereby modulates heart rate and blood pressure. They may also indicate that an action independent of acetylcholinesterase inhibition contributes to the acute cardiovascular responses induced by BIMP. - Highlights: • A sarin-like agent BIMP markedly increased blood pressure in anaesthetized rats. • Muscarinic receptor blockade enhanced the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure. • Ganglionic nicotinic receptor blockade attenuated the BIMP-induced response. • Blockade of α- as well as β-receptors attenuated the BIMP-induced response.

  17. Effect of androgen deprivation therapy on cardiovascular risk factors in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Roayaei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Androgen deprivation is the basis of treatment for advanced stages of prostate cancer. Cardiovascular disease may be a risk factor for mortality in prostate cancer. Therefore, we decided to evaluate the effect of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT on the cardiovascular risk factors in patients with prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study on 2011, 35 patients suffering from metastatic prostate cancer as candidates for ADT were enrolled. Serum levels of fasting blood sugar (FBS, triglyceride (TG and total cholesterol (TC were measured at the beginning and after the 5 th month of ADT. Results: The mean level of TG increased significantly from 130.82 ± 41.57 mg/dl to 150.05 ± 48.29 mg/dl (P < 0.012. Furthermore, serum level of TC increased from 197.62 ± 40.71 mg/dl to 212.54 ± 38.25 mg/dl, which is statistically significant (P < 0.001. A non-significant increase in the serum level of FBS from 96.74 ± 14.04 mg/dl to 99.17 ± 15.23 mg/dl was also seen (P = 0.27. Conclusion: ADT in prostate cancer may lead to an increase in TG and TC levels. In patients with a high risk of cardiovascular disease patient′s lipid profile should be considered during ADT.

  18. Prophylactic Treatment by serotonin/imidazole combination against radiation induced cardiovascular and respiratory dysfunction in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, combined treatment with serotonin (15 mg kg-1) and imidazole(175 mg kg-1) has been evaluated for the control of radiation disorders in the cardiovascular and respiratory functions of whole body gamma-irradiated male rats. Studies encountered rate of blood pressure, rate of beat and respiratory rate. The results proved more effective radiation protection of the combined treatment as compared to independent serotonin administration. The concentration dose level used for imidazole in the combined treatment was half its concentration level reported in the literature as the optimal dose exerting its effective chemical radiation protection. 3 tabs

  19. Effect of Sustained Human Centrifugation on Autonomic Cardiovascular and Vestibular Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; Wood, Scott J.; Brown, Troy E.; Benavides, Edgar W.; Harm, Deborah L.; Rupert, A. H.

    2002-01-01

    Repeated exposure to +Gz enhances human baroreflex responsiveness and improves tolerance to cardiovascular stress. However, both sustained exposure to +Gx and changes in otolith function resulting from the gravitational changes of space flight and parabolic flight may adversely affect autonomic cardiovascular function and orthostatic tolerance. HYPOTHESES: Baroreflex function and orthostatic tolerance are acutely improved by a single sustained (30 min) exposure to +3Gz but not +3Gx. Moreover, after 30 min of +3Gx, any changes that occur in autonomic cardiovascular function will relate commensurately to changes in otolith function. METHODS: Twenty-two healthy human subjects were first exposed to 5 min of +3 Gz centrifugation and then subsequently up to a total of30 min of either +3Gz (n = 15) or +3Gx (n = 7) centrifugation. Tests of autonomic cardiovascular function both before and after both types of centrifugation included: (a) power spectral determinations of beat-to-beat R-R intervals and arterial pressures; (b) carotid-cardiac baroreflex tests; ( c) Valsalva tests; and (d) 30-min head-up tilt (HUT) tests. Otolith function was assessed during centrifugation by the linear vestibulo-ocular reflex and both before and after centrifugation by measurements of ocular counter-rolling and dynamic posturography. RESULTS: All four +3Gz subjects who were intolerant to HUT before centrifugation became tolerant to HUT after centrifugation. The operational point of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex and the Valsalva-related baroreflex were also enhanced in the +3Gz group but not in the +3Gx group. No significant vestibular-autonomic relationships were detected, other than a significant vestibular-cerebrovascular interaction reported previously. CONCLUSIONS: A single, sustained exposure to +3 Gz centrifugation acutely improves baroreflex function and orthostatic tolerance whereas a similar exposure to +3 Gx centrifugation appears to have less effect.

  20. The Cardiovascular Changes Induced by Inspired Oxygen Fraction in Patients Undergoing on-pump Coronary Artery Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Safavi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increased inspired oxygen fractions (FiO2 have significant hemodynamic effects on consciousvolunteers. These changes may be of great importance in cardiac surgery. The inspiratory gas during open heartsurgery with on-pump technique usually consists of 100% oxygen without any N2O because the risks of bubbleembolism during these procedures. We sought to establish whether the cardiovascular effects of increased FiO2are also present in cardiac surgery patients.Patients and Methods: The present study was a randomized double- blind clinical trial on sixty adult patients(40-70 years with the cardiac ejection fraction (EF of more than 40% and ASA II or III undergoing elective onpumpcoronary artery bypass. They received either a mixture of 50% O2 with 50% air (case group=30 or 100%oxygen (control group=30 throughout the anesthesia. Cardiac index (CI was measured by non- invasive cardiacoutput (NICO technique using end tidal PCO2. Measurements of systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure aswell as heart rate (HR and central venous pressure (CVP, PaO2, arterial PH and CI were obtained at pre-bypass,post bypass, end of surgery and 2 hours after ICU admission. Intra- operative requirements for inotropic drugswere also evaluated. Data were analyzed by SPSS software using t-test and Q-square as well as non parametrictests wherever appropriate.Results: No differences were found between the two groups with regard to age, gender, pump time, operationtime and body mass index and preoperative EF. The mean values of systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressureas well as HR and CI were similar in the case and control groups (p>0.05 at all times of measurement. The meanPaO2 was significantly higher in the control group (p<0.05. The mean pH was statistically higher in the controlgroup but not clinically noticeable. The control group required more inotropic drug support than the case group(16 vs. 8 patients respectively; P < 0.05. Likewise, the mean CVP was

  1. Effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Rosa damascena on cardiovascular responses in normotensive rat

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    Mohammad Naser Shafei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Rosa damascena mill L. (R. damascena is a well-known plant with fragrant effects. Several therapeutic effects of this plant on respiratory, gastrointestinal and nervous systems have been reported. It is also suggested to have beneficial effect on cardiovascular system especially blood pressure regulation. The present study was carried out to evaluate acute cardiovascular effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n= 8 for each group. After anesthesia, a catheter was inserted into the femoral artery and blood pressure and heart rate (HR were continuously recorded by a power lab system. Animals received three doses of hydro-alcoholic extract (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg via peritoneal (i.p. After 30 min, systolic blood pressure (SBP, mean arterial pressure (MAP and HR were recorded and maximal changes were compared to control group. Results: Injection of all doses of the extract did not significantly change HR compare to control group. The SBP, dose dependently, was decreased by all doses of the extract and the maximal response was significant compared to saline group (p Conclusion: This study provides evidence of a hypotensive effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena with no significant effect on HR. Therefore, R. damascena is suggested to have beneficial effect to control blood pressure. However, it needs to be more investigated.

  2. No significant effect of angiotensin II receptor blockade on intermediate cardiovascular end points in hemodialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Christian D; Kjaergaard, Krista D; Jensen, Jens D;

    2014-01-01

    patients in a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled 1-year intervention trial using a predefined systolic blood pressure target of 140 mm Hg (SAFIR study). Each group of 41 patients did not differ in terms of age, blood pressure, comorbidity, antihypertensive treatment, dialysis parameters, and......Agents blocking the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system are frequently used in patients with end-stage renal disease, but whether they exert beneficial cardiovascular effects is unclear. Here the long-term effects of the angiotensin II receptor blocker, irbesartan, were studied in hemodialysis...

  3. Anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol: possible role in prevention of age-related cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Csiszar, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the most common cause of death among the elderly in the Western world. Resveratrol (3,5,4´-trihydroxystilbene) is a plant-derived polyphenol that was shown to exert diverse anti-aging activity mimicking some of the molecular and functional effects of caloric restriction. This mini-review focuses on the molecular and cellular mechanisms activated by resveratrol in the vascular system, and explores the links between its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects, w...

  4. Effect of 30-min +3 Gz centrifugation on vestibular and autonomic cardiovascular function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; Wood, Scott J.; Brown, Troy E.; Harm, Deborah L.; Rupert, A. H.

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Repeated exposure to increased +Gz enhances human baroreflex responsiveness and improves tolerance to cardiovascular stress. However, it is not known whether such enhancements might also result from a single, more prolonged exposure to increased +Gz. Our study was designed to investigate whether baroreflex function and orthostatic tolerance are acutely improved by a single prolonged exposure to +3 Gz, and moreover, whether changes in autonomic cardiovascular function resulting from exposure to increased +Gz are correlated with changes in otolith function. METHODS: We exposed 15 healthy human subjects to +3 Gz centrifugation for up to 30 min or until symptoms of incipient G-induced loss of consciousness (G-LOC) ensued. Tests of autonomic cardiovascular function both before and after centrifugation included: 1) power spectral determinations of beat-to-beat R-R intervals and arterial pressures; 2) carotid-cardiac baroreflex tests; 3) Valsalva tests; and 4) 30-min head-up tilt tests. Otolith function was assessed during centrifugation by the linear vestibulo-ocular reflex and both before and after centrifugation by measurements of ocular counter-rolling and dynamic posturography. RESULTS: Of the 15 subjects who underwent prolonged +3 Gz, 4 were intolerant to 30 min of head-up tilt before centrifugation but became tolerant to such tilt after centrifugation. The Valsalva-related baroreflex as well as a measure of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex were also enhanced after centrifugation. No significant vestibular-autonomic relationships were detected beyond a vestibular-cerebrovascular interaction reported earlier in a subset of seven participants. CONCLUSIONS: A single prolonged exposure to +3 Gz centrifugation acutely improves baroreflex function and orthostatic tolerance.

  5. The heart of the matter: the effects of humor on well-being during recovery from cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Nicholas L; Yoshimura, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the uses of humor among cardiovascular patients to test the associations between humor use, satisfaction with companion relationships, and health during recovery. Self-report data were collected from members of two national support groups for patients recovering from cardiovascular disease. As expected, general humorousness associated with social and psychological well-being. Several specific functions of humor in cardiovascular recovery were identified and linked with health perceptions. Antidote humor increased social and psychological health perceptions, whereas conversation regulation humor and distancing humor were negatively related to perceived social and psychological health. Relationship satisfaction mediated most effects. The findings offer new insight into the variability of humor effects, particularly following cardiovascular treatment. PMID:23829386

  6. The Effect of Music on Anxiety and Cardiovascular Indices in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft: A Randomized Controlled Trial

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    Heidari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background The instability of cardiovascular indices and anxiety disorders are common among patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG and could interfere with their recovery. Therefore, improving the cardiovascular indices and anxiety is essential. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the effect of music therapy on anxiety and cardiovascular indices in patients undergoing CABG. Patients and Methods In this randomized controlled trial, 60 patients hospitalized in the cardiovascular surgical intensive care unit of Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Qom city, Iran, in 2013 were selected using a consecutive sampling method and randomly allocated into the experimental and control groups. In the experimental group, patients received 30 minutes of light music, whereas in the control group, patients had 30 minutes of rest in bed. The cardiovascular indices and anxiety were measured immediately before, immediately after and half an hour after the study. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test and repeated measures analysis of variance. Results Compared to the immediately before intervention, the mean anxiety scores immediately after and 30 minutes after the intervention were significantly lower in the experimental group (P 0.05. Conclusions Music therapy is effective in decreasing anxiety among patients undergoing CABG. However, the intervention was not effective on cardiovascular indices. Music can effectively be used as a non-pharmacological method to manage anxiety after CABG.

  7. Acute effect of weight loss on levels of total bilirubin in obese, cardiovascular high-risk patients: an analysis from the lead-in period of the Sibutramine Cardiovascular Outcome trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Charlotte; Weeke, Peter; Fosbøl, Emil Loldrup;

    2009-01-01

    Low levels of bilirubin are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular adverse events. Weight reduction is known to reduce several cardiovascular risk factors, but effects on bilirubin levels have not been reported. We studied the response of weight loss therapy with sibutramine and life...

  8. High intake of dietary tyramine does not deteriorate glucose handling and does not cause adverse cardiovascular effects in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpéné, Christian; Schaak, Stéphane; Guilbeau-Frugier, Céline; Mercader, Josep; Mialet-Perez, Jeanne

    2016-09-01

    Tyramine is naturally occurring in food and induces pressor responses. Low-tyramine diets are recommended for patients treated with MAO inhibitors to avoid the fatal hypertensive crisis sadly known as "cheese effect". Hence, tyramine intake is suspected to have toxicological consequences in humans, while its administration to type 1 diabetic rodents has been reported to improve glucose tolerance. We investigated in mice whether prolonged tyramine ingestion could alter glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, adipose tissue physiology or cardiovascular functions. Tyramine was added at 0.04 or 0.14 % in the drinking water since this was estimated to increase by 10- to 40-fold the spontaneous tyramine intake of control mice fed a standard diet. Ten to 12 weeks of such tyramine supplementation did not influence body weight gain, adiposity or food consumption. Both doses (reaching approx. 300 and 1100 μmol tyramine/kg bw/day) decreased nonfasting blood glucose but did not modify glucose tolerance or fasting levels of glucose, insulin or circulating lipids. Blood pressure was not increased in tyramine-drinking mice, while only the higher tested dose moderately increased heart rate without change in its variability. Markers of cardiac tissue injury or oxidative stress remained unaltered, except an increased hydrogen peroxide production in heart preparations. In isolated adipocytes, tyramine inhibited lipolysis similarly in treated and control groups, as did insulin. The lack of serious adverse cardiovascular effects of prolonged tyramine supplementation in normoglycemic mice together with the somewhat insulin-like effects found on adipose cells should lead to reconsider favourably the risk/benefit ratio of the intake of this dietary amine. PMID:26634369

  9. Effect of hindlimb suspension on cardiovascular responses to sympathomimetics and lower body negative pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, J. Michael; Tipton, Charles M.

    1990-01-01

    To determine whether hindlimb suspension is associated with the development of cardiovascular deconditioning, male rats were studied before and after undergoing one of three treatment conditions for 9 days: (1) cage control (n = 15, CON), (2) horizontal suspension (n = 15, HOZ), and (3) head-down suspension (n = 18, HDS). Testing included lower body negative pressure administered during chloralose-urethan anesthesia and graded doses of sympathomimetic agents (norepinephrine, phenylephrine, and tyramine) administered to conscious unrestrained animals. Both HDS and HOZ were associated with a small decrease in the hypotensive response to lower body negative pressure. The HOZ group, but not the HDS group, exhibited augmented reflex tachycardia. Furthermore, both HDS and HOZ groups manifested reduced pressor responses to phenylephrine after treatment. These reductions were associated with significantly attenuated increases in mesenteric vascular resistance. However, baroreflex control of heart rate was not altered by the treatment conditions. Collectively, these results indicate that 9 days of HDS in rats does not elicit hemodynamic response patterns generally associated with cardiovascular deconditioning induced by hypogravic conditions.

  10. Effect of fast and slow pranayama on perceived stress and cardiovascular parameters in young health-care students

    OpenAIRE

    Vivek Kumar Sharma; Madanmohan Trakroo,; Velkumary Subramaniam; Rajajeyakumar, M.; Bhavanani, Anand B; Ajit Sahai

    2013-01-01

    Context: Perceived stress is higher for students in various healthcare courses. Previous studies have shown that pranayama practice is beneficial for combating stress and improve cardiovascular functions but both fast and slow pranayama practice produce different physiological responses. Aim: Present study was conducted to compare the effects of commonly practiced slow and fast pranayama on perceived stress and cardiovascular functions in young health-care students. Materials and Method...

  11. Adverse Cardiovascular Effects of Nitrous Oxide: It is not all about Hyperhomocysteinaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ata Mahmoodpoor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Once admired for its supposed safety, nitrous oxide is presently blamed to increase adverse cardiovascular effects through augmenting plasma homocysteine concentrations (1, 2. Hemodynamic alterations following the administration of nitrous oxide are extremely complicated and sometimes contradictory. Enhanced venous return, arterial pressure, pulmonary and systemic vascular resistance, cardiac output, pupillary dilation and diaphoresis occur under nitrous oxide administration consistent with sympathomimetic properties of nitrous oxide (3. Conversely, reductions in arterial pressure are also probable, especially in patients with coronary artery disease. Nitrous oxide can also depress myocardial contractility due to decreased availability of Ca2+ for contractile activation; yet, myocardial relaxation kinetics remains intact (4. In the presence of a volatile anesthetic, nitrous oxide decreases MVO2 (Myocardial oxygen consumption and myocardial O2 extraction which may exacerbate myocardial ischemia during concomitant reductions in arterial pressure in patients with coronary artery disease. Consequently, it could be conjectured that probable adverse cardiovascular effects following nitrous oxide administration are variable and consequent of a multi-variable phenomenon rather than a single variable such as increased levels of homocysteine. Studied purely focusing on the effects of nitrous oxide are difficult to conduct due to the numerous confounding factors.In a study by Myles et al., hyperhomocysteinemia has been introduced as the source of the adverse cardiovascular effects of nitrous oxide. However, in this study, increased inspired oxygen concentrations were used to overcome arterial desaturation (1. Given the fact that a constant volume and flow rates are used throughout the anesthesia in a particular patient, increasing the concentrations of oxygen would be associated with decreased delivered nitrous oxide and volatile anesthetic concentrations

  12. Effects of Smokeless Tobacco “Maras Powder” Use on Nitric Oxide and Cardiovascular Risk Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytekin Guven, Fatma Tolun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smokeless tobacco use is common in various parts of the world. In Turkey a type of smokeless tobacco called “Maras powder” is widely used in southeastern region. Smoking is known to have an adverse effect on nitric oxide and cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there is difference between the effects of Maras powder and cigarette smoking on the cardiovascular risk factors and nitric oxide levels.Methods: In the study, participants were 48 Maras powder users, 50 cigarette smokers and 45 nontobacco user subjects. Blood samples were collected and hematological parameters and lipid parameters were measured. Plasma Nitric oxide level was also detected by using the Griess method.Results: Plasma total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride levels were significantly higher in Maras powder and cigarette smokers group than in the nontobacco user group (p<0.001. Plasma HDL-cholesterol levels were significantly lower in Maras powder and cigarette smokers group than in the nontobacco user group (p<0.001. Plasma Nitric oxide levels were found significantly lower in Maras powder and cigarette smokers group compared to the nontobacco user group (4.9±0.9 µmol/l, 4.8±1 µmol/l, 9.4±3.4 µmol/l, respectively, p<0.001 whereas there was no significant difference between the Maras powder and cigarette smokers group. In multivariate logistic regression model, cigarette smoking (Odds ratio=17.832, p<0.001, Maras powder usage (Odds ratio=12.311, p=0.002 and mean platelet volume (Odds ratio=1.425, p=0.030 remained independently associated with lower Nitric oxide levels.Conclusion: We conclude that Maras powder has similar adverse effects on nitric oxide level and cardiovascular risk parameters and thereby it appears to be harmful as cigarette smoking.

  13. Immediate effect of ice bag application to head and spine on cardiovascular changes in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mooventhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objectives: Ice application is one of the treatment procedures used in hydrotherapy. Though its various physiological/therapeutic effects were reported, ice bag application (IBA to head and spine on cardiovascular changes were not reported. Hence, this study aims at evaluating the immediate effect of IBA to head and spine on cardiovascular changes in healthy volunteers. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight subjects were randomized into three sessions ([i] IBA [ii] tap water bag application [TWBA] and [iii] control and intervention was given in one of the 3-different orders. Systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, and pulse rate (PR was assessed before and after 20-min of each intervention. Pulse pressure, mean pressure (MP, rate pressure product (RPP, and double product (Do-P were derived by standard formula. Statistical analysis was performed by repeated measures of analysis of variance and post-hoc analysis with Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons with the use of Statistical Package for Social Sciences version-16. Results: The results showed no significant difference between sessions in all variables. Within-group analysis showed significant reductions in SBP, PR, RPP, Do-P in IBA and TWBA sessions; Significant reduction in DBP, MP in IBA unlike TWBA; and no significant changes in all the variables of control session. Conclusions: Result of our study suggest that though both IBA and TWBA to head and spine might be considered as having effect on improving cardiovascular function in healthy volunteers, IBA to head and spine could be considered as a better choice than TWBA.

  14. Acute effects of a work-related rehabilitation program on cardiovascular fitness, pain, and sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Nordstoga, Anne Lovise

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the short-term effects of a work-related rehabilitation program on cardiovascular fitness, musculoskeletal symptoms, and cardiac autonomic regulation during sleep, by comparing a group receiving long-stay rehabilitation (3.5 weeks) vs., a group receiving short-stay rehabilitation (4+4 days).Method: Three tests were performed on the patients enrolled for the work-related rehabilitation program: 1) Åstrand/Ryhming cycle test, 2) pressure pain threshold (...

  15. The effect of glucagon-like peptide 1 on cardiovascular risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivertsen, Jacob; Rosenmeier, Jaya; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2012-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone responsible for amplification of insulin secretion when nutrients are given orally, as opposed to intravenously, and it retains its insulinotropic activity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. GLP-1-based therapies, such as GLP-1 receptor...... on cardiovascular parameters. These effects, possibly independent of the glucose-lowering activity, include changes in blood pressure, endothelial function, body weight, cardiac metabolism, lipid metabolism, left ventricular function, atherosclerosis, and the response to ischemia-reperfusion injury...

  16. Measuring the acute cardiovascular effects of shisha smoking: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Kadhum, Murtaza; Jaffery, Ali; Haq, Adnaan; Bacon, Jenny; Madden, Brendan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the acute cardiovascular effects of smoking shisha. Design A cross-sectional study was carried out in six shisha cafes. Participants smoked shisha for a period between 45 min (minimum) and 90 min (maximum). The same brand of tobacco and coal was used. Setting London, UK. Participants Participants were those who had ordered a shisha to smoke and consented to have their blood pressure, heart rate and carbon monoxide levels measured. Excluded subjects were those who had...

  17. Evidence Report: Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Other Degenerative Tissue Effects from Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Zarana; Huff, Janice; Saha, Janapriya; Wang, Minli; Blattnig, Steve; Wu, Honglu; Cucinotta, Francis

    2015-01-01

    Occupational radiation exposure from the space environment may result in non-cancer or non-CNS degenerative tissue diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, cataracts, and respiratory or digestive diseases. However, the magnitude of influence and mechanisms of action of radiation leading to these diseases are not well characterized. Radiation and synergistic effects of radiation cause DNA damage, persistent oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and accelerated tissue aging and degeneration, which may lead to acute or chronic disease of susceptible organ tissues. In particular, cardiovascular pathologies such as atherosclerosis are of major concern following gamma-ray exposure. This provides evidence for possible degenerative tissue effects following exposures to ionizing radiation in the form of the GCR or SPEs expected during long-duration spaceflight. However, the existence of low dose thresholds and dose-rate and radiation quality effects, as well as mechanisms and major risk pathways, are not well-characterized. Degenerative disease risks are difficult to assess because multiple factors, including radiation, are believed to play a role in the etiology of the diseases. As additional evidence is pointing to lower, space-relevant thresholds for these degenerative effects, particularly for cardiovascular disease, additional research with cell and animal studies is required to quantify the magnitude of this risk, understand mechanisms, and determine if additional protection strategies are required.The NASA PEL (Permissive Exposure Limit)s for cataract and cardiovascular risks are based on existing human epidemiology data. Although animal and clinical astronaut data show a significant increase in cataracts following exposure and a reassessment of atomic bomb (A-bomb) data suggests an increase in cardiovascular disease from radiation exposure, additional research is required to fully understand and quantify these adverse outcomes at lower doses (less than 0.5 gray

  18. An analysis of the effects of smoking and other cardiovascular risk factors on obliteration rates after arteriovenous malformation radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the relationships of smoking and other cardiovascular disease risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and gender) to rates of radiosurgery-induced obliteration of arteriovenous malformations (AVM). Methods and Materials: We evaluated follow-up imaging and clinical data in 329 AVM patients who received gamma knife radiosurgery at the University of Pittsburgh between 1987 and 1994. There were 113 smokers, 29 hypertensives, 5 diabetics, 4 hypercholesterolemics, 159 male patients, and 170 female patients. All patients had regular clinical or imaging follow-up for a minimum of 3 years after radiosurgery. Results: Multivariate analysis showed that smoking had no effect on AVM obliteration (p>0.43). Hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia had no discernible effect on AVM obliteration in this study (p>0.78). However, females aged 12-49 had a statistically significant lower in-field obliteration rate than males (78% vs. 89%, p=0.0102). Conclusion: Smoking has no effect on AVM obliteration. Hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia had no discernible effect in this study. Further study is needed to establish whether estrogen has a vascular protective effect that could partially limit radiosurgical AVM obliteration, as suggested by this study

  19. A Cross-Sectional Study of the Cardiovascular Effects of Welding Fumes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiqi Li

    Full Text Available Occupational exposure to particulate air pollution has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the risk to welders working today remains unclear. We aimed to elucidate the cardiovascular effects of exposure to welding fumes.In a cross-sectional study, structured interviews and biological sampling were conducted for 101 welders and 127 controls (all non-smoking males from southern Sweden. Personal breathing zone sampling of respirable dust was performed. Blood pressure (BP and endothelial function (using peripheral arterial tonometry were measured. Plasma and serum samples were collected from peripheral blood for measurement of C-reactive protein, low-density lipoprotein, homocysteine, serum amyloid A, and cytokines.Welders were exposed to 10-fold higher levels of particles than controls. Welders had significantly higher BP compared to controls, an average of 5 mm Hg higher systolic and diastolic BP (P ≤ 0.001. IL-8 was 3.4 ng/L higher in welders (P=0.010. Years working as a welder were significantly associated with increased BP (β=0.35, 95%CI 0.13 - 0.58, P=0.0024 for systolic BP; β=0.32, 95%CI 0.16 - 0.48, P<0.001 for diastolic BP, adjusted for BMI but exposure to respirable dust was not associated with BP. No clear associations occurred between welding and endothelial function, or other effect markers.A modest increase in BP was found among welders compared to controls suggesting that low-to-moderate exposure to welding fumes remains a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

  20. An experimental ovine Theileriosis: The effect of Theileria lestoquardi infection on cardiovascular system in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghfoori, Saeed; Razmi, Gholam Reza; Mohri, Mehrdad; Razavizadeh, Ali Reza Taghavi; Movassaghi, Ahmad Reza

    2016-09-01

    The malignant ovine theileriosis is caused by Theileria lestoquardi, which is highly pathogenic in sheep. Theileriosis involves different organs in ruminants, but the effect of the disease on the cardiovascular system is unclear. To understand the pathogenesis of T. lestoquardi on the cardiovascular system, Baluchi breed sheep were infected with the mentioned parasite by releasing unfed adults of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, which were infected with T. lestoquardi. The infected sheep were clinically examined on days 0, 2, 5, 7, 10, 12, 14, 17, and 21, and the blood samples were collected for biochemical parameters measurement. At termination of the experiment, the infected sheep were euthanized and pathological examinations of heart tissue were conducted. During experimental infection of sheep with T. lestoquardi, activities of cardiac troponin I (cTnI), lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase, were significantly increased (P˂0.05), while a conspicuous decrease (P˂0.05) was observed in creatine phosphokinase activities. Alterations made in biochemical factors almost coincided with the presence of piroplasm in the blood and schizont in lymph nodes. Maximum and minimum of parasitemia in the sheep stood between 3.3% and 0.28%, respectively. In addition, electrocardiography revealed sinus tachycardia, sinus arrhythmia, sino-atrial block and ST-elevation, atrial premature beat, and alteration in QRS and in T waves' amplitude. Heart histopathological examination showed hyperemia, infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells into interstitial tissue, endocarditis, and focal necrosis of cardiac muscle cells. In addition, in one of the sheep, definite occurrence of infarction was observed. The results indicate that T. lestoquardi infection has devastating pathological impacts on the cardiovascular system of sheep. Furthermore, measurement of the cTnI amount is a useful biochemical factor for diagnosis and for better understanding of the severity and

  1. Generating induced pluripotent stem cell derived endothelial cells and induced endothelial cells for cardiovascular disease modelling and therapeutic angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Z E; Sadeghipour, S; Patel, S

    2015-10-15

    Standard therapy for atherosclerotic coronary and peripheral arterial disease is insufficient in a significant number of patients because extensive disease often precludes effective revascularization. Stem cell therapy holds promise as a supplementary treatment for these patients, as pre-clinical and clinical research has shown transplanted cells can promote angiogenesis via direct and paracrine mechanisms. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a novel cell type obtained by reprogramming somatic cells using exogenous transcription factor cocktails, which have been introduced to somatic cells via viral or plasmid constructs, modified mRNA or small molecules. IPSCs are now being used in disease modelling and drug testing and are undergoing their first clinical trial, but despite recent advances, the inefficiency of the reprogramming process remains a major limitation, as does the lack of consensus regarding the optimum transcription factor combination and delivery method and the uncertainty surrounding the genetic and epigenetic stability of iPSCs. IPSCs have been successfully differentiated into vascular endothelial cells (iPSC-ECs) and, more recently, induced endothelial cells (iECs) have also been generated by direct differentiation, which bypasses the pluripotent intermediate. IPSC-ECs and iECs demonstrate endothelial functionality in vitro and have been shown to promote neovessel growth and enhance blood flow recovery in animal models of myocardial infarction and peripheral arterial disease. Challenges remain in optimising the efficiency, safety and fidelity of the reprogramming and endothelial differentiation processes and establishing protocols for large-scale production of clinical-grade, patient-derived cells. PMID:26123569

  2. Adolescent vulnerability to cardiovascular consequences of chronic social stress: Immediate and long-term effects of social isolation during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Fábio C; Duarte, Josiane O; Leão, Rodrigo M; Hummel, Luiz F V; Planeta, Cleopatra S; Crestani, Carlos C

    2016-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that disruption of social bonds and perceived isolation (loneliness) are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Adolescence is proposed as a period of vulnerability to stress. Nevertheless, the impact of chronic social stress during this ontogenic period in cardiovascular function is poorly understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the impact in cardiovascular function of social isolation for 3 weeks in adolescent and adult male rats. Also, the long-term effects of social isolation during adolescence were investigated longitudinally. Social isolation reduced body weight in adolescent, but not in adult animals. Disruption of social bonds during adolescence increased arterial pressure without affecting heart rate and pulse pressure (PP). Nevertheless, social isolation in adulthood reduced systolic arterial pressure and increased diastolic arterial pressure, which in turn decreased PP without affecting mean arterial pressure. Cardiovascular changes in adolescents, but not adults, were followed by facilitation of both baroreflex sensitivity and vascular reactivity to the vasodilator agent acetylcholine. Vascular responsiveness to either the vasodilator agent sodium nitroprusside or the vasoconstrictor agent phenylephrine was not affected by social isolation. Except for the changes in body weight and baroreflex sensitivity, all alterations evoked by social isolation during adolescence were reversed in adulthood after moving animals from isolated to collective housing. These findings suggest a vulnerability of adolescents to the effects of chronic social isolation in cardiovascular function. However, results indicate minimal cardiovascular consequences in adulthood of disruption of social bonds during adolescence. PMID:25914339

  3. Modulatory effect of semelil (ANGIPARS™) on isoproterenol induced cardiac injury

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadi, Mahboubeh Yeganeh Haj; Badinloo, Marziyeh; Joukar, Siyavash; Mirzaeipour, Fateme; Najafipour, Hamid; Nasri, Hamidreza

    2013-01-01

    Administration of semelil (ANGIPARS™) has been successful in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcer. Considering the improvement of blood flow and anti-inflammatory effect that are attributed to this drug, we investigated its effect on cardiovascular performance in rabbits with isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial injury. Animal groups included: control group; ISO group, received ISO 50 mg/kg s.c. for two consecutive days; S1+ISO, S5+ISO and S10+ISO groups, received semelil 1, 5, and 10 mg...

  4. Marathon run: cardiovascular adaptation and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predel, Hans-Georg

    2014-11-21

    The first marathon run as an athletic event took place in the context of the Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens, Greece. Today, participation in a 'marathon run' has become a global phenomenon attracting young professional athletes as well as millions of mainly middle-aged amateur athletes worldwide each year. One of the main motives for these amateur marathon runners is the expectation that endurance exercise (EE) delivers profound beneficial health effects. However, with respect to the cardiovascular system, a controversial debate has emerged whether the marathon run itself is healthy or potentially harmful to the cardiovascular system, especially in middle-aged non-elite male amateur runners. In this cohort, exercise-induced increases in cardiac biomarkers-troponin and brain natriuretic peptide-and acute functional cardiac alterations have been observed and interpreted as potential cardiac damage. Furthermore, in the cohort of 40- to 65-year-old males engaged in intensive EE, a significant risk for the development of atrial fibrillation has been identified. Fortunately, recent studies demonstrated a normalization of the cardiac biomarkers and the functional alterations within a short time frame. Therefore, these alterations may be perceived as physiological myocardial reactions to the strenuous exercise and the term 'cardiac fatigue' has been coined. This interpretation is supported by a recent analysis of 10.9 million marathon runners demonstrating that there was no significantly increased overall risk of cardiac arrest during long-distance running races. In conclusion, intensive and long-lasting EE, e.g. running a full-distance Marathon, results in high cardiovascular strain whose clinical relevance especially for middle-aged and older athletes is unclear and remains a matter of controversy. Furthermore, there is a need for evidence-based recommendations with respect to medical screening and training strategies especially in male amateur runners over the age of

  5. Effect of Weight Reduction on Cardiovascular Risk Factors and CD34-positive Cells in Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina A Mikirova, Joseph J Casciari, Ronald E Hunninghake, Margaret M Beezley

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Being overweight or obese is associated with an increased risk for the development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Dyslipidemia of obesity is characterized by elevated fasting triglycerides and decreased high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations. Endothelial damage and dysfunction is considered to be a major underlying mechanism for the elevated cardiovascular risk associated with increased adiposity. Alterations in endothelial cells and stem/endothelial progenitor cell function associated with overweight and obesity predispose to atherosclerosis and thrombosis.In our study, we analyzed the effect of a low calorie diet in combination with oral supplementation by vitamins, minerals, probiotics and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, 125-180 IUs on the body composition, lipid profile and CD34-positive cells in circulation.During this dieting program, the following parameters were assessed weekly for all participants: fat free mass, body fat, BMI, extracellular/intracellular water, total body water and basal metabolic rate. For part of participants blood chemistry parameters and circulating CD34-positive cells were determined before and after dieting.The data indicated that the treatments not only reduced body fat mass and total mass but also improved the lipid profile. The changes in body composition correlated with the level of lipoproteins responsible for the increased cardiovascular risk factors. These changes in body composition and lipid profile parameters coincided with the improvement of circulatory progenitor cell numbers.As the result of our study, we concluded that the improvement of body composition affects the number of stem/progenitor cells in circulation.

  6. Nutritional Genomics and the Mediterranean Diet’s Effects on Human Cardiovascular Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitó, Montserrat; Konstantinidou, Valentini

    2016-01-01

    The synergies and cumulative effects among different foods and nutrients are what produce the benefits of a healthy dietary pattern. Diets and dietary patterns are a major environmental factor that we are exposed to several times a day. People can learn how to control this behavior in order to promote healthy living and aging, and to prevent diet-related diseases. To date, the traditional Mediterranean diet has been the only well-studied pattern. Stroke incidence, a number of classical risk factors including lipid profile and glycaemia, emergent risk factors such as the length of telomeres, and emotional eating behavior can be affected by genetic predisposition. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet could exert beneficial effects on these risk factors. Our individual genetic make-up should be taken into account to better prevent these traits and their subsequent consequences in cardiovascular disease development. In the present work, we review the results of nutritional genomics explaining the role of the Mediterranean diet in human cardiovascular disease. A multidisciplinary approach is necessary to extract knowledge from large-scale data. PMID:27089360

  7. Effects of Forest Bathing on Cardiovascular and Metabolic Parameters in Middle-Aged Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the effects of a forest bathing on cardiovascular and metabolic parameters. Nineteen middle-aged male subjects were selected after they provided informed consent. These subjects took day trips to a forest park in Agematsu, Nagano Prefecture, and to an urban area of Nagano Prefecture as control in August 2015. On both trips, they walked 2.6 km for 80 min each in the morning and afternoon on Saturdays. Blood and urine were sampled before and after each trip. Cardiovascular and metabolic parameters were measured. Blood pressure and pulse rate were measured during the trips. The Japanese version of the profile of mood states (POMS test was conducted before, during, and after the trips. Ambient temperature and humidity were monitored during the trips. The forest bathing program significantly reduced pulse rate and significantly increased the score for vigor and decreased the scores for depression, fatigue, anxiety, and confusion. Urinary adrenaline after forest bathing showed a tendency toward decrease. Urinary dopamine after forest bathing was significantly lower than that after urban area walking, suggesting the relaxing effect of the forest bathing. Serum adiponectin after the forest bathing was significantly greater than that after urban area walking.

  8. Nutritional Genomics and the Mediterranean Diet's Effects on Human Cardiovascular Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitó, Montserrat; Konstantinidou, Valentini

    2016-01-01

    The synergies and cumulative effects among different foods and nutrients are what produce the benefits of a healthy dietary pattern. Diets and dietary patterns are a major environmental factor that we are exposed to several times a day. People can learn how to control this behavior in order to promote healthy living and aging, and to prevent diet-related diseases. To date, the traditional Mediterranean diet has been the only well-studied pattern. Stroke incidence, a number of classical risk factors including lipid profile and glycaemia, emergent risk factors such as the length of telomeres, and emotional eating behavior can be affected by genetic predisposition. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet could exert beneficial effects on these risk factors. Our individual genetic make-up should be taken into account to better prevent these traits and their subsequent consequences in cardiovascular disease development. In the present work, we review the results of nutritional genomics explaining the role of the Mediterranean diet in human cardiovascular disease. A multidisciplinary approach is necessary to extract knowledge from large-scale data. PMID:27089360

  9. Oxidative Stress: An Effective Prognostic Tool for an Early Detection of Cardiovascular Disease in Menopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Mridula; Mohan, Gurinder

    2016-01-01

    Background. Menopause, a form of reproductive aging, is marked by many hormonal variations which cause imbalance in the oxidative processes resulting in onset of endothelial dysfunction leading to cardiovascular disease (CVD). We aimed to analyze the effect of oxidative stress in an early detection of CVD in all menopausal women both normolipidemic and hyperlipidemic. Methods and Results. Study included 523 menopausal women (265 CVD and 258 non-CVD). They were screened for lipid profile, serum malondialdehyde (MDA), serum LDL carbonyl protein, and serum superoxide dismutase (SOD). Pearson's correlation was observed between MDA and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) in both normolipidemic (r = 0.650; p < 0.001) and hyperlipidemic (r = 0.207; p < 0.01) CVD group as compared to non-CVD menopausal women. Significant correlation was also observed between LDL carbonyl content and AIP in normolipidemic (r = 0.650; p < 0.001) and hyperlipidemic (r = 0.248; p < 0.01) CVD menopausal women as compared to non-CVD ones. Conclusion. Strong correlation between atherogenic index of plasma and oxidative stress in CVD menopausal women reveals oxidative stress as an effective prognostic tool for an early detection of cardiovascular risk. PMID:27069688

  10. Nutritional Genomics and the Mediterranean Diet’s Effects on Human Cardiovascular Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Fitó

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The synergies and cumulative effects among different foods and nutrients are what produce the benefits of a healthy dietary pattern. Diets and dietary patterns are a major environmental factor that we are exposed to several times a day. People can learn how to control this behavior in order to promote healthy living and aging, and to prevent diet-related diseases. To date, the traditional Mediterranean diet has been the only well-studied pattern. Stroke incidence, a number of classical risk factors including lipid profile and glycaemia, emergent risk factors such as the length of telomeres, and emotional eating behavior can be affected by genetic predisposition. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet could exert beneficial effects on these risk factors. Our individual genetic make-up should be taken into account to better prevent these traits and their subsequent consequences in cardiovascular disease development. In the present work, we review the results of nutritional genomics explaining the role of the Mediterranean diet in human cardiovascular disease. A multidisciplinary approach is necessary to extract knowledge from large-scale data.

  11. The effects of air pollution on cardiovascular diseases: lag structures Efeitos da poluição do ar nas doenças cardiovasculares: estruturas de defasagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Conceição Martins

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the lag structure between air pollution exposure and elderly cardiovascular diseases hospital admissions, by gender. METHODS: Health data of people aged 64 years or older was stratified by gender in São Paulo city, Southeastern Brazil, from 1996 to 2001. Daily levels of air pollutants (CO, PM10, O3, NO2, and SO2 , minimum temperature, and relative humidity were also analyzed. It were fitted generalized additive Poisson regressions and used constrained distributed lag models adjusted for long time trend, weekdays, weather and holidays to assess the lagged effects of air pollutants on hospital admissions up to 20 days after exposure. RESULTS: Interquartile range increases in PM10 (26.21 mug/m³ and SO2 (10.73 mug/m³ were associated with 3.17% (95% CI: 2.09-4.25 increase in congestive heart failure and 0.89% (95% CI: 0.18-1.61 increase in total cardiovascular diseases at lag 0, respectively. Effects were higher among female group for most of the analyzed outcomes. Effects of air pollutants for different outcomes and gender groups were predominately acute and some "harvesting" were found. CONLUSIONS: The results show that cardiovascular diseases in São Paulo are strongly affected by air pollution.OBJETIVO: Investigar a estrutura de defasagem entre exposição à poluição do ar e internações hospitalares por doenças cardiovasculares em idosos, separada por gênero. MÉTODOS: Os dados de saúde de pessoas com mais de 64 anos de idade foram estratificados por gênero, na cidade de São Paulo, entre 1996 e 2001. Os níveis diários de poluentes do ar (CO, PM10, O3, NO2, SO2 e os dados de temperatura mínima e umidade relativa do ar foram também foram analisados. Foram utilizados modelos restritos de distribuição polinomial em modelos aditivos generalizados de regressão de Poisson para estimar os efeitos dos poluentes no dia da exposição e até 20 dias após, controlando-se para sazonalidades de longa e curta dura

  12. The Biological Relevance of Direct Antioxidant Effects of Polyphenols for Cardiovascular Health in Humans Is Not Established

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollman, P.C.H.; Cassidy, A.; Comte, B.; Heinonen, M.; Richelle, M.; Richling, E.; Serafini, M.; Scalbert, A.; Sies, H.; Vidry, S.

    2011-01-01

    Human studies provide evidence for beneficial effects of polyphenol-rich foods on cardiovascular health. The antioxidant activity of polyphenols potentially explains these effects, but is the antioxidant activity a reliable predictor for these effects? An International Life Sciences Institute Europe

  13. Cardiovascular adjustments induced by training evaluated during semisupine isotonic exercise and recovery period: an echocardiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bello, V; Santoro, G; Cini, G; Pentimone, F; Ginanni, A; Romano, M F; Giusti, C

    1987-12-01

    Two groups of subjects were examined: trained athletes (group A) and a sedentary control group (group B). The subjects performed submaximal bicycle exercise in the semisupine position to evaluate the differences between the two groups with regard to cardiovascular response during exercise and recovery and to point out all the changes due to training. During the first part of exercise, cardiac output increased contemporary with heart rate and myocardial contractility as shown by the trend of the ejection fraction, higher in group A, under the same level of total vascular peripheral resistances. Later there was an increase of cardiac output for a further increase of heart rate and cardiac inotropism due to the homeometric mechanism. During recovery the heart rate and peripheral vascular resistance reduction led to an increase of venous return which set up the Frank-Starling mechanism via an increase of left ventricular dimensions. These adjustments were more efficient in group A. During exercise and recovery the heart rate-pressure product was constantly lower in group A with a significant difference to group B. Therefore, trained athletes' myocardium is more efficient than that of the sedentary group because it performs an external work load with a lower oxygen consumption. PMID:3429087

  14. Sympathomimetic Activity of a Hoodia gordonii Product: A Possible Mechanism of Cardiovascular Side Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orsolya Roza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hoodia gordonii, a popular appetite suppressant, is widely used as an ingredient in many food supplements despite the fact that supporting scientific evidence is scarce. Recently alarming side effects of H. gordonii products (increased blood pressure and elevated pulse rate have been reported. The aim of our study was to elucidate the underlying mechanism of these symptoms. A H. gordonii-containing product was tested for sympathomimetic activity. Isolated organ experiments on rat uterine rings revealed smooth muscle relaxant effect with a substantial component mediated through β-adrenergic receptors. Chromatographic comparison of the analyzed product and authentic plant material confirmed that the herbal product contained Hoodia spp. extract, and its cardiovascular effects may be linked to the compounds of the plant.

  15. Cardiovascular Side Effects of Atomoxetine and Its Interactions with Inhibitors of the Cytochrome P450 System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pashtoon Murtaza Kasi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders of childhood and adolescence. Classically, stimulants have been used in the treatment of this condition. Atomoxetine (Strattera; Eli Lilly and Company is a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI, one of the first medications in the nonstimulant class of medications that has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of ADHD. Atomoxetine is a phenoxypropylamine derivative and is structurally related to the antidepressant fluoxetine. The common side effects reported with the use of atomoxetine include mainly GI disturbances. Cardiovascular side effects are less commonly reported. The increase in the noradrenergic tone may explain some of the side effects noted with the use of this medication. Here, we present a case of a patient who presented with syncope, orthostatic hypotension, and tachycardia and discuss the various clinical implications based on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the drug.

  16. Effects of High Dietary HEME Iron and Radiation on Cardiovascular Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westby, Christian M.; Brown, A. K.; Platts, S. H.

    2012-01-01

    The radiation related health risks to astronauts is of particular concern to NASA. Data support that exposure to radiation is associated with a number of disorders including a heightened risk for cardiovascular diseases. Independent of radiation, altered nutrient status (e.g. high dietary iron) also increases ones risk for cardiovascular disease. However, it is unknown whether exposure to radiation in combination with high dietary iron further increases ones cardiovascular risk. The intent of our proposal is to generate compulsory data examining the combined effect of radiation exposure and iron overload on sensitivity to radiation injury to address HRP risks: 1) Risk Factor of Inadequate Nutrition; 2) Risk of Cardiac Rhythm Problems; and 3) Risk of Degenerative Tissue or other Health Effects from Space Radiation. Towards our goal we propose two distinct pilot studies using the following specific aims: Vascular Aim 1: To determine the short-term consequences of the independent and combined effects of exposure to gamma radiation and elevated body iron stores on measures of endothelial function and cell viability and integrity. We hypothesize that animals that have high body iron stores and are exposed to gamma radiation will show a greater reduction in endothelial dependent nitric oxid production and larger pathological changes in endothelial integrity than animals that have only 1 of those treatments (either high iron stores or exposure to gamma radiation). Vascular Aim 2: Identify and compare the effects of gamma radiation and elevated body iron stores on the genetic and epigenetic regulation of proteins associated with endothelial cell function. We hypothesize that modifications of epigenetic control and posttranslational expression of proteins associated with endothelial cell function will be differentially altered in rats with high body iron stores and exposed to gamma radiation compared to rats with only 1 type of treatment. Cardiac Aim 1: To determine the

  17. Effect of hormone replacement therapy on cardiovascular outcomes: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dicheng Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hormone replacement therapy (HRT is widely used to controlling menopausal symptoms and prevent adverse cardiovascular events. However, the benefit and risk of HRT on cardiovascular outcomes remains controversial. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We systematically searched the PubMed, EmBase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases for obtaining relevant literature. All eligible trials reported on the effects of HRT on cardiovascular outcomes. We did a random effects meta-analysis to obtain summary effect estimates for the clinical outcomes with use of relative risks calculated from the raw data of included trials. Of 1903 identified studies, we included 10 trials reporting data on 38908 postmenopausal women. Overall, we noted that estrogen combined with medroxyprogesterone acetate therapy as compared to placebo had no effect on coronary events (RR, 1.07; 95%CI: 0.91-1.26; P = 0.41, myocardial infarction (RR, 1.09; 95%CI: 0.85-1.41; P = 0.48, stroke (RR, 1.21; 95%CI: 1.00-1.46; P = 0.06, cardiac death (RR, 1.19; 95%CI: 0.91-1.56; P = 0.21, total death (RR, 1.06; 95%CI: 0.81-1.39; P = 0.66, and revascularization (RR, 0.95; 95%CI: 0.83-1.08; P = 0.43. In addition, estrogen therapy alone had no effect on coronary events (RR, 0.93; 95%CI: 0.80-1.08; P = 0.33, myocardial infarction (RR, 0.95; 95%CI: 0.78-1.15; P = 0.57, cardiac death (RR, 0.86; 95%CI: 0.65-1.13; P = 0.27, total mortality (RR, 1.02; 95%CI: 0.89-1.18; P = 0.73, and revascularization (RR, 0.77; 95%CI: 0.45-1.31; P = 0.34, but associated with a 27% increased risk for incident stroke (RR, 1.27; 95%CI: 1.06-1.53; P = 0.01. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Hormone replacement therapy does not effect on the incidence of coronary events, myocardial infarction, cardiac death, total mortality or revascularization. However, it might contributed an important role on the risk of incident stroke.

  18. Effect of Crataegus Usage in Cardiovascular Disease Prevention: An Evidence-Based Approach

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    Jie Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha is a widely used Chinese herb for treatment of gastrointestinal ailments and heart problems and consumed as food. In North America, the role of treatment for heart problems dates back to 1800. Currently, evidence is accumulating from various in vivo and in vitro studies that hawthorn extracts exert a wide range of cardiovascular pharmacological properties, including antioxidant activity, positive inotropic effect, anti-inflammatory effect, anticardiac remodeling effect, antiplatelet aggregation effect, vasodilating effect, endothelial protective effect, reduction of smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation, protective effect against ischemia/reperfusion injury, antiarrhythmic effect, lipid-lowering effect and decrease of arterial blood pressure effect. On the other hand, reviews of placebo-controlled trials have reported both subjective and objective improvement in patients with mild forms of heart failure (NYHA I–III, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. This paper discussed the underlying pharmacology mechanisms in potential cardioprotective effects and elucidated the clinical applications of Crataegus and its various extracts.

  19. Effect of Intensive Blood Pressure Control on Cardiovascular Remodeling in Hypertensive Patients with Nephrosclerosis

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    Otelio Randall

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulse pressure (PP, a marker of arterial system properties, has been linked to cardiovascular (CV complications. We examined (a association between unit changes of PP and (i composite CV outcomes and (ii development of left-ventricular hypertrophy (LVH and (b effect of mean arterial pressure (MAP control on rate of change in PP. We studied 1094 nondiabetics with nephrosclerosis in the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension. Subjects were randomly assigned to usual MAP goal (102–107 mmHg or a lower MAP goal (≤92 mmHg and randomized to beta-blocker, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, or calcium channel blocker. After covariate adjustment, a higher PP was associated with increased risk of CV outcome (RR = 1.28, CI = 1.11–1.47, P<0.01 and new LVH (RR = 1.26, CI = 1.04–1.54, P=0.02. PP increased at a greater rate in the usual than in lower MAP groups (slope ± SE: 1.08 ± 0.15 versus 0.42 ± 0.15 mmHg/year, P=0.002, but not by the antihypertensive treatment assignment. Observations indicate that control to a lower MAP slows the progression of PP, a correlate of cardiovascular remodeling and complications, and may be beneficial to CV health.

  20. Venous return curve and its application to assessment of the effect of cardiovascular drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagashima, Kenshi; Gotoh, Kohshi; Yagi, Yasuo (Gifu Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine) (and others)

    1990-01-01

    In an effort to obtain a venous return curve, occlusion plethysmography with radionuclide was performed in the forearm of 24 patients with various heart diseases. Radionuclide angiocardiography was performed and during the equilibrium phase the region of interest was created over the forearm for repeated venous occlusions. Specific compliance in the vein of the forearm was obtained by drawing the radionuclide count-venous pressure curve from changes in venous pressure and radioactivity of the forearm. Compliance of human systemic veins was then obtained based on some hypotheses. Mean systemic pressure (Pms) was estimated. In addition, right auricular pressure and cardiac output were obtained for drawing part of the venous return curve. In a study of the effect of cardiovascular drugs on the venous return curve, Pms was found to be significantly decreased by the administration of nitroglycerin. Furthermore, systemic venous return curve moved to the leftward. In contrast, nifedipine did not have any influence on Pms in Class I of cardiovascular function; and systemic venous return curve moved clockwise by the administration of the drug. In the case of Class II or III, nifedipine caused the systemic venous return curve to move clockwise with decreasing Pms. (N.K.).

  1. Venous return curve and its application to assessment of the effect of cardiovascular drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an effort to obtain a venous return curve, occlusion plethysmography with radionuclide was performed in the forearm of 24 patients with various heart diseases. Radionuclide angiocardiography was performed and during the equilibrium phase the region of interest was created over the forearm for repeated venous occlusions. Specific compliance in the vein of the forearm was obtained by drawing the radionuclide count-venous pressure curve from changes in venous pressure and radioactivity of the forearm. Compliance of human systemic veins was then obtained based on some hypotheses. Mean systemic pressure (Pms) was estimated. In addition, right auricular pressure and cardiac output were obtained for drawing part of the venous return curve. In a study of the effect of cardiovascular drugs on the venous return curve, Pms was found to be significantly decreased by the administration of nitroglycerin. Furthermore, systemic venous return curve moved to the leftward. In contrast, nifedipine did not have any influence on Pms in Class I of cardiovascular function; and systemic venous return curve moved clockwise by the administration of the drug. In the case of Class II or III, nifedipine caused the systemic venous return curve to move clockwise with decreasing Pms. (N.K.)

  2. EFFECT OF SUKHA PRANAYAMA AND BHASTRIKA PRANAYAMA ON CARDIOVASCULAR AUTONOMIC FUNCTIONS AMONG YOUNG HEALTHY INDIVIDUALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghouse

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Practice of Yoga causes several changes in normal physiology. Meditation has positive short and longterm rewards which include a balance of the parasympathetic and sympathetic functions. Cardiovascular autonomic functions are quantified by changes in the heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP in response to some of the physiological stimuli and different types of Pranayamas is known to alter the autonomic function. OBJECTIVES To assess the effects of Sukha Pranayama and Bhastrika Pranayama on cardiovascular autonomic functions in normal healthy medical students. MATERIALS AND METHODS 50 male and female young healthy volunteers studying at PES Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Kuppam belonging to age group of 17-22 years were included for the study. Parasympathetic activity was assessed by observing the heart rate changes to immediate standing from lying down position, heart rate changes during deep breathing and heart rate changes during Valsalva manoeuvre using Biopac Student Lab MP30 device. Sympathetic activity was assessed by observing blood pressure changes on immediate standing from lying down position and blood pressure changes during sustained hand grip using sphygmomanometer before and after yoga. RESULTS & CONCLUSION The baseline heart rate and blood pressure response to immediate standing showed a tendency to decrease possibly due to increased vagal tone and decreased sympathetic discharge thereby indicating practice of yogasanas and pranayamas would benefit the young population as it would prepare them in overcoming stress by modulating and optimising sympathetic activities in stressful situations.

  3. The Effects of Cold and Lower Body Negative Pressure on Cardiovascular Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kean, David J.; Peacock, Corey A.; Sanders, Gabriel J.; McDaniel, John; Colvin, Lisa A. C.; Glickman, Ellen L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study is to determine how cold exposure and lower body negative pressure effected cardiovascular variables. Methods. Eleven males (20.3 years ± 2.7) underwent two 20-minute exposures to LBNP. During the 2 trials, the subjects were exposed to cold air (10°C) (COLD) and to ambient temperature (23°C) (AMB). The trials consisted of a 100-minute pre-LBNP period followed by a 20-minute exposure to LBNP and then a 15-minute recovery period. Cardiovascular variables were recorded every 30 minutes using bioimpedance. Results. When LBNP was applied during the AMB trials, stroke volume immediately decreased. During the COLD trial, there was a five-minute delay before the decrease in stroke volume. Heart rate increased immediately after LBNP initiation during the AMB trials but there was a delay in the increase during the COLD trials. That same pattern was followed with mean arterial blood pressures. Cerebral oxygenation was significantly lower throughout the COLD trial as compared to the AMB trials. Six subjects reported symptoms of syncope or presyncope during the AMB trials but there were no reports of symptoms during the COLD trials. Conclusion. From analysis of this data, cold improved the subject's tolerance to LBNP. PMID:25866805

  4. The Effects of Cold and Lower Body Negative Pressure on Cardiovascular Homeostasis

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    David J. Kean

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study is to determine how cold exposure and lower body negative pressure effected cardiovascular variables. Methods. Eleven males (20.3 years ± 2.7 underwent two 20-minute exposures to LBNP. During the 2 trials, the subjects were exposed to cold air (10°C (COLD and to ambient temperature (23°C (AMB. The trials consisted of a 100-minute pre-LBNP period followed by a 20-minute exposure to LBNP and then a 15-minute recovery period. Cardiovascular variables were recorded every 30 minutes using bioimpedance. Results. When LBNP was applied during the AMB trials, stroke volume immediately decreased. During the COLD trial, there was a five-minute delay before the decrease in stroke volume. Heart rate increased immediately after LBNP initiation during the AMB trials but there was a delay in the increase during the COLD trials. That same pattern was followed with mean arterial blood pressures. Cerebral oxygenation was significantly lower throughout the COLD trial as compared to the AMB trials. Six subjects reported symptoms of syncope or presyncope during the AMB trials but there were no reports of symptoms during the COLD trials. Conclusion. From analysis of this data, cold improved the subject’s tolerance to LBNP.

  5. Static magnetic field effect on the arterial baroreflex-mediated control of microcirculation: implications for cardiovascular effects due to environmental magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmitrov, Juraj

    2007-08-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that time-varying and static magnetic fields in the environment might affect the cardiovascular system. To explore the underlying physiology, the effect of static magnetic fields (SMFs) on the carotid baroreflex control of microcirculation was studied. Twenty-four hemodynamic monitorings were performed in rabbits sedated by pentobarbital infusion (5 mg/kg/h) during experiments that lasted 120 min. Mean femoral artery blood pressure, heart rate, and ear lobe skin microcirculatory blood flow, measured by microphotoelectric plethysmogram (MPPG), were simultaneously recorded before and after a 40 min exposure of the sinocarotid baroreceptors to Nd(2)-Fe(14)-B alloy magnets (n = 14) or sham magnets (n = 10, control series). The local SMF field was 350 mT, at the baroreceptors' site. Arterial baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was estimated from heart rate/blood pressure response to intravenous bolus injections of nitroprusside and phenylephrine. A significant positive correlation was found between the SMF-induced increase in BRS (DeltaBRS = BRS(afterSMF) - BRS(priorSMF)) and the increment in microvascular blood flow (DeltaMPPG = MPPG(afterSMF) - MPPG(priorSMF)) (r = 0.66, p < 0.009). The SMF probably modulated the arterial baroreflex-mediated microcirculatory control. This could represent one possible mechanism how environmental magnetic fields act on the cardiovascular system, and a method how to complexly adjust macro- and microcirculation with potential clinical implementation. PMID:17530271

  6. The PI3K signaling-mediated nitric oxide contributes to cardiovascular effects of angiotensin-(1-7) in the nucleus tractus solitarii of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhao-Tang; Ren, Chang-Zhen; Yang, Ya-Hong; Zhang, Ru-Wen; Sun, Jia-Cen; Wang, Yang-Kai; Su, Ding-Feng; Wang, Wei-Zhong

    2016-01-30

    Angiotensin-1-7 [Ang-(1-7)], acting via the Mas receptor in the central nervous system, is involved in the regulation of cardiovascular activity. Nitric oxide (NO) is implicated as an important modulator in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS), a key region involved in control of cardiovascular activity. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling in mediating the effect of Ang-(1-7) on NO generation in the NTS. In Sprague-Dawley rats, acute injection of Ang-(1-7) into the NTS significantly increased NO generation and neuronal/endothelial NO synthase (n/eNOS) activity, which were abolished by the selective Mas receptor antagonist d-Alanine-[Ang-(1-7)] (A-779), the PI3K inhibitor LY294002, or the Akt inhibitor triciribine (TCN). Western blotting analysis further demonstrated that Ang-(1-7) significantly increased levels of Akt/NOS phosphorylation in the NTS, and Ang-(1-7)-induced e/nNOS phosphorylation was antagonized by LY294002 or TCN. Furthermore, gene knockdown of PI3K by lentivirus containing small hairpin RNA in the NTS prevented the Ang-(1-7)-induced increases in NOS/Akt phosphorylation and NO production. The physiological (in vivo) experiments showed that pretreatment with the NOS inhibitor l-NAME, LY294002, or TCN abolished the decreases in blood pressure, heart rate, and renal sympathetic nerve activity induced by Ang-(1-7) injected into the NTS. Our findings suggest that nitric oxide release meditated by the Mas-PI3K-NOS signaling pathway is involved in the cardiovascular effects of Ang-(1-7) in the NTS. PMID:26686278

  7. Gravitationally induced CP effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the gravitational analogues of CP violating effects in quantum chromodynamics. These arise through the addition to the action of terms THETA ∫Rsup(ab*)sub(μν)Rsup(μν)sub(ab) and THETA' ∫fsub(μν) *fsup(μν) where Rsup(ab)sub(μν) and fsub(μν) are respectively the curvature tensor and Maxwell field tensor. Both terms can be non-trivial in spacetimes with sufficiently complicated topology. The QCD plus QED plus QGD (quantum gravidynamics) contributions may be combined in a manner which leaves the QCD quark sector as before but the presence of massless neutrinos (or spin 3/2 gravitinos) removes the pure QGD CP violation. The dominant new effect thus arises in the charged leptonic sector from THETA' ∫fsub(μν)*fsup(μν) and is formally independent of the gravitational constant. (orig.)

  8. Cardiovascular disease mortality of A-bomb survivors and the healthy survivor selection effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöllnberger, H; Ozasa, K; Neff, F; Kaiser, J C

    2015-09-01

    The latest A-bomb survivor data for cardiovascular diseases are analysed to investigate whether in the first years after the bombings the baseline rates of proximal survivors were markedly different compared with those of the distal survivors. This phenomenon relates to a healthy survivor selection effect. This question is important for the decision whether to include or exclude the early years of follow-up when analysing the biological effects from acute low and high dose exposures following the nuclear weapons explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The present study shows that for cerebrovascular diseases and heart diseases the baseline rates are not significantly different in the first two decades of follow-up. Thus, for these two detrimental health outcomes, there is no need to exclude distal survivors and the first decades of follow-up time when investigating the shapes of the related dose-responses. PMID:25948837

  9. Cardiovascular disease mortality of A-bomb survivors and the healthy survivor selection effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The latest A-bomb survivor data for cardiovascular diseases are analysed to investigate whether in the first years after the bombings the baseline rates of proximal survivors were markedly different compared with those of the distal survivors. This phenomenon relates to a healthy survivor selection effect. This question is important for the decision whether to include or exclude the early years of follow-up when analysing the biological effects from acute low and high dose exposures following the nuclear weapons explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The present study shows that for cerebrovascular diseases and heart diseases the baseline rates are not significantly different in the first two decades of follow-up. Thus, for these two detrimental health outcomes, there is no need to exclude distal survivors and the first decades of follow-up time when investigating the shapes of the related dose- responses. (authors)

  10. Study of cardiovascular disease biomarkers among tobacco consumers, part 2: biomarkers of biological effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordskog, Brian K; Brown, Buddy G; Marano, Kristin M; Campell, Leanne R; Jones, Bobbette A; Borgerding, Michael F

    2015-02-01

    An age-stratified, cross-sectional study was conducted in the US among healthy adult male cigarette smokers, moist snuff consumers, and non-tobacco consumers to evaluate cardiovascular biomarkers of biological effect (BoBE). Physiological assessments included flow-mediated dilation, ankle-brachial index, carotid intima-media thickness and expired carbon monoxide. Approximately one-half of the measured serum BoBE showed statistically significant differences; IL-12(p70), sICAM-1 and IL-8 were the BoBE that best differentiated among the three groups. A significant difference in ABI was observed between the cigarette smokers and non-tobacco consumer groups. Significant group and age effect differences in select biomarkers were identified. PMID:25787701

  11. Study of cardiovascular disease biomarkers among tobacco consumers, part 2: biomarkers of biological effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordskog, Brian K.; Brown, Buddy G.; Marano, Kristin M.; Campell, Leanne R.; Jones, Bobbette A.; Borgerding, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An age-stratified, cross-sectional study was conducted in the US among healthy adult male cigarette smokers, moist snuff consumers, and non-tobacco consumers to evaluate cardiovascular biomarkers of biological effect (BoBE). Physiological assessments included flow-mediated dilation, ankle-brachial index, carotid intima-media thickness and expired carbon monoxide. Approximately one-half of the measured serum BoBE showed statistically significant differences; IL-12(p70), sICAM-1 and IL-8 were the BoBE that best differentiated among the three groups. A significant difference in ABI was observed between the cigarette smokers and non-tobacco consumer groups. Significant group and age effect differences in select biomarkers were identified. PMID:25787701

  12. Effects of intrauterine growth restriction on sleep and the cardiovascular system: The use of melatonin as a potential therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiallourou, Stephanie R; Wallace, Euan M; Miller, Suzanne L; Horne, Rosemary Sc

    2016-04-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) complicates 5-10% of pregnancies and is associated with increased risk of preterm birth, mortality and neurodevelopmental delay. The development of sleep and cardiovascular control are closely coupled and IUGR is known to alter this development. In the long-term, IUGR is associated with altered sleep and an increased risk of hypertension in adulthood. Melatonin plays an important role in the sleep-wake cycle. Experimental animal studies have shown that melatonin therapy has neuroprotective and cardioprotective effects in the IUGR fetus. Consequently, clinical trials are currently underway to assess the short and long term effects of antenatal melatonin therapy in IUGR pregnancies. Given melatonin's role in sleep regulation, this hormone could affect the developing infants' sleep-wake cycle and cardiovascular function after birth. In this review, we will 1) examine the role of melatonin as a therapy for IUGR pregnancies and the potential implications on sleep and the cardiovascular system; 2) examine the development of sleep-wake cycle in fetal and neonatal life; 3) discuss the development of cardiovascular control during sleep; 4) discuss the effect of IUGR on sleep and the cardiovascular system and 5) discuss the future implications of melatonin therapy in IUGR pregnancies. PMID:26140865

  13. Preventive effect of fermented Maillard reaction products from milk proteins in cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, N S; Kwon, H S; Lee, H A; Joung, J Y; Lee, J Y; Lee, K B; Shin, Y K; Baick, S C; Park, M R; Kim, Y; Lee, K W; Kim, S H

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the dual effect of Maillard reaction and fermentation on the preventive cardiovascular effects of milk proteins. Maillard reaction products (MRP) were prepared from the reaction between milk proteins, such as whey protein concentrates (WPC) and sodium caseinate (SC), and lactose. The hydrolysates of MRP were obtained from fermentation by lactic acid bacteria (LAB; i.e., Lactobacillus gasseri H10, L. gasseri H11, Lactobacillus fermentum H4, and L. fermentum H9, where human-isolated strains were designated H1 to H15), which had excellent proteolytic and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities (>20%). The antioxidant activity of MRP was greater than that of intact proteins in assays of the reaction with 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt and trivalent ferric ions; moreover, the effect of MRP was synergistically improved by fermentation. The Maillard reaction dramatically increased the level of antithrombotic activity and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) inhibitory effect of milk proteins, but did not change the level of activity for micellar cholesterol solubility. Furthermore, specific biological properties were enhanced by fermentation. Lactobacillus gasseri H11 demonstrated the greatest activity for thrombin and HMGR inhibition in Maillard-reacted WPC, by 42 and 33%, respectively, whereas hydrolysates of Maillard-reacted SC fermented by L. fermentum H9 demonstrated the highest reduction rate for micellar cholesterol solubility, at 52%. In addition, the small compounds that were likely released by fermentation of MRP were identified by size-exclusion chromatography. Therefore, MRP and hydrolysates of fermented MRP could be used to reduce cardiovascular risks. PMID:24731635

  14. Effectiveness and safety of phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors in patients with cardiovascular disease and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysant, Steven G

    2013-10-01

    Phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE 5) inhibitors are selective inhibitors of the enzyme PDE 5, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), a potent vasodilator and nitric oxide (NO) donor, to its corresponding metabolites (monophosphates). The enzyme PDE 5 is widely distributed in the body, including the heart and blood vessels. Because of its distribution, it was hypothesized that its inhibition could lead to significant coronary vasodilation, which would benefit patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). This hypothesis led to the development of PDE 5 inhibitors with the first being sildenafil citrate. Subsequent studies with sildenafil in patients with CAD demonstrated a modest cardiovascular effect, but a potent action on penile erection in men, resulting in sildenafil becoming a first-line therapy of erectile dysfunction (ED). Subsequently, two more PDE 5 inhibitors (vardenafil and tadalafil) were developed and approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of ED. Recent studies have shown several pleiotropic beneficial effects of PDE 5 inhibitors in patients with CAD, hypertension, heart failure, pulmonary arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus and Raynaud's phenomenon. Side effects and interactions of PDE 5 inhibitors with other drugs have been minimal, with the exception of their coadministration with nitrates, which could lead to severe vasodilation and hypotension and therefore, their coadministration is prohibited. All these pleiotropic cardiovascular effects of PDE 5 inhibitors and their drug interactions will be discussed in this concise review in the context of the American College of Cardiology / American Heart Association guidelines and the recent developments in this field. PMID:23917809

  15. Cardiovascular effects of Tacca integrifolia Ker-Gawl. extract in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakart Sawangchote

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Rhizome of Tacca integrifolia, a Thai folk medicinal herb, has been used for controlling blood pressure and improving sexual function in humans. However, the biological activities of this herb on the cardiovascular system have not yet been documented. In the present study, we investigated the cardiovascular effects of methanolic extract from the rhizome of this herb (Tacca extract. In the in vivo study, intravenous injection of the Tacca extract (0.04-40 mg/kg caused a decrease in both mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate of anesthetized rats (Nembutal sodium, 60 mg/kg, i.p. in a dose dependent manner. Pretreatment of the animals with muscarinic receptor antagonist, atropine (1 mg/kg, i.v., significantly reduced the hypotensive and the negative chronotropic activities of the Tacca extract. In the in vitro preparation, the Tacca extract (0.001-3 mg/ml caused a decrease in both force and rate of spontaneous contraction of isolated atria in a dose dependent manner. These effects were reduced by preincubation of the atria with atropine (10-7 or 10-6 M. For isolated blood vessels, the Tacca extract (0.003-3 mg/ ml caused vasodilation of endothelium-intact thoracic aortic rings pre-constricted with phenylephrine (3× 10-6 M. This effect disappeared after pre-incubation of blood vessels with atropine (10-6 M or with Nω-nitro- L-arginine (3×10-4 M, or by removing the vascular endothelium. The results obtained suggest that the hypotensive and negative chronotropic effects of the Tacca extract in the rat are due to the active components acting via the muscarinic receptors at the blood vessel to cause vasodilatation by stimulating the release of nitric oxide, as well as on the muscarinic receptors at the atria to cause the decrease of both rate and force of the atrial contraction.

  16. Comparison of effects of thiopental, propofol or ketamine on the cardiovascular responses of the oculocardiac reflex during strabismus surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Safavi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The oculocardiac reflex (OCR, which is most often encountered during strabismus surgery in children,
    may cause bradycardia, arrhythmias and cardiac arrest following a variety of stimuli arising in or near the eyeball. The
    main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of various anesthetic regimens on modulation of the cardiovascular
    effects of the OCR during strabismus surgery.
    METHODS: Three hundred ASA physical status I-II patients, scheduled for elective strabismus surgery under general
    anesthesia, randomly allocated in a double blind fashion to one of the three anesthetic regimens: group P: propofol (2
    mg/kg, alfentanil 0.02 mg/kg and atracurium 0.5 mg/kg at induction; group K: ketamine racemate (2 mg/kg, alfentanil
    0.02 mg/kg and atracurium 0.5 mg/kg at induction; group T: thiopental (5 mg/kg, alfentanil 0.02 mg/kg, and atracurium
    0.5 mg/kg at induction. Mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart rate (HR were recorded just before induction, at
    1, 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes after induction. OCR was defined as a 20 beats/minute change in HR induced by traction
    compared with basal value.
    RESULTS: Mean HR (± SD during total period of surgery in group P was significantly slower than that in group K
    (111.90 ± 1.10 vs. 116.7 ± 0.70, respectively; P<0.05. Mean HR changes (± SD in group K was significantly higher
    than that in group P (11.2 ± 1.44 vs. 8.7 ± 1.50 respectively, P<0.05. MAP changes (± SD was significantly lower in
    patients in group P compared with patients in group K or T (12.5 ± 1.13 vs. 19.3 ± 0.80 or 18.9 ± 0.91, respectively;
    P<0.05. Incidence of OCR was significantly lower in patients in group K compared with patients in group T or P (9%
    vs. 16% and 13%. Respectively; P<0.05.
    CONCLUSIONS: Induction of anesthesia with ketamine is associated with the least

  17. (n-3) Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Health: Are Effects of EPA and DHA Shared or Complementary?123

    OpenAIRE

    Mozaffarian, Dariush; Wu, Jason H Y

    2012-01-01

    Considerable research supports cardiovascular benefits of consuming omega-3 PUFA, also known as (n-3) PUFA, from fish or fish oil. Whether individual long-chain (n-3) PUFA have shared or complementary effects is not well established. We reviewed evidence for dietary and endogenous sources and cardiovascular effects on biologic pathways, physiologic risk factors, and clinical endpoints of EPA [20:5(n-3)], docosapentaenoic acid [DPA, 22:5(n-3)], and DHA [22:6(n-3)]. DHA requires direct dietary ...

  18. THE ROLE OF ACTIVE MUSCLE MASS ON EXERCISE-INDUCED CARDIOVASCULAR DRIFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stylianos N. Kounalakis

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the role of active muscle mass on cardiovascular drift (CVdrift during prolonged exercise. Twelve subjects with peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak of 3.52 ± 0.52 L·min-1 (mean ± SD cycled for 55 min with 80 revolutions per minute with either two legs (2-legged or one leg (1-legged. Oxygen uptake was at 60% of VO2peak throughout the 2-legged trial and at half of this value in 1- legged condition. Cardiac output (CO-CO2 rebreathing, heart rate (HR and quadriceps integrated electromyographic activity (iEMG were higher (p < 0.01 during 2-legged than 1- legged exercise. Changes in stroke volume from 20 to 50 min of exercise were greater in 2-legged than in 1-legged (∆SV: -20.8 ± 0.8 vs. -13.3 ± 1.3 ml·beat-1, p < 0.05. Similarly, changes in heart rate (∆HR were +18.5 ± 0.8 and +10.7 ± 1.0 beats·min-1, in 2-legged and 1-legged, respectively (p < 0.01. Calculated blood volume changes declined significantly in 2-legged exercise (∆BV: -4.25 ± 0.43%, p < 0.05. Sympathetic activation as indicated by the ratio of low and high frequency in spectral analysis of HR (LF HF-1 ratio was higher in 2-legged than in 1- legged trial (p < 0.05. At the end of exercise, CO had a tendency to decrease from 20th min in 2-legged (changes in CO = -0.92 ± 0.3 L·min-1, p = 0.07, whereas it was maintained in 1- legged cycling (∆CO = -0.15 ± 0.2 L·min-1, p = 0.86. Multiple regression analysis showed that HR rise and blood volume decline were predictors of SV drop whereas heart rate increase was explained by rectal temperature and magnitude of muscle mass activation, as indicated by iEMG (p < 0.05 in 2-legged cycling. In conclusion, apart from the well-known factors of thermal status and blood volume decline, it seems that muscle mass involved plays also a role on the development of CVdrift

  19. Safe Oral Triiodo-L-Thyronine Therapy Protects from Post-Infarct Cardiac Dysfunction and Arrhythmias without Cardiovascular Adverse Effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viswanathan Rajagopalan

    Full Text Available A large body of evidence suggests that thyroid hormones (THs are beneficial for the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. We have shown that 3 days of triiodo-L-thyronine (T3 treatment in myocardial infarction (MI rats increased left ventricular (LV contractility and decreased myocyte apoptosis. However, no clinically translatable protocol is established for T3 treatment of ischemic heart disease. We hypothesized that low-dose oral T3 will offer safe therapeutic benefits in MI.Adult female rats underwent left coronary artery ligation or sham surgeries. T3 (~6 μg/kg/day was available in drinking water ad libitum immediately following MI and continuing for 2 month(s (mo. Compared to vehicle-treated MI, the oral T3-treated MI group at 2 mo had markedly improved anesthetized Magnetic Resonance Imaging-based LV ejection fraction and volumes without significant negative changes in heart rate, serum TH levels or heart weight, indicating safe therapy. Remarkably, T3 decreased the incidence of inducible atrial tachyarrhythmias by 88% and improved remodeling. These were accompanied by restoration of gene expression involving several key pathways including thyroid, ion channels, fibrosis, sympathetic, mitochondria and autophagy.Low-dose oral T3 dramatically improved post-MI cardiac performance, decreased atrial arrhythmias and cardiac remodeling, and reversed many adverse changes in gene expression with no observable negative effects. This study also provides a safe and effective treatment/monitoring protocol that should readily translate to humans.

  20. Short-term effects of black smoke on cardiovascular hospitalization in elderly in Niš, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In past few years numerous epidemiological studies bring new evidence on the effects of particle air pollution on cardiovascular hospitalizations. The aim of our paper was to investigate the association between ambient concentrations of black smoke (BS and daily total non-accidental cardiovascular hospitalizations in elderly in Niš. The daily mean number of all age cardiovascular hospitalizations was 12.46±6.26 (0 to 38 and 5.92±3.29 (0 to 20 among person ≥ 65 yrs. Daily measurements for black smoke (BS and SO2, as well as the daily number of cardiovascular hospitalization among person ≥ 65 yrs of age, have been collected. BS (μg/m3 was measured by the refractometry method and SO2 (μg/m3 by spectrophotometer. Generalized linear model extending Poisson regression was applied. The effects of time trend, seasonal variations, day of week, temperature, relative humidity and barometric pressure were adjusted. Estimated OR of unipolutant regression model for among person ≥ 65 yrs was 1.00135 (95% CI: 0,97835 to 1,02489, and estimated OR of bipolutant model was 1,00975 (95% CI: 0,99457 to 1,02394 per 10μg/m3. The results do not support findings from previous studies that had shown an increase in the number of cardiovascular hospitalization in elderly in association with black smoke. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 42008 i br. 43014

  1. The role of adenosine receptors and endogenous adenosine in citalopram-induced cardiovascular toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Kubilay Oransay; Nil Hocaoglu; Mujgan Buyukdeligoz; Yesim Tuncok; Sule Kalkan

    2014-01-01

    Aim: We investigated the role of adenosine in citalopram-induced cardiotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Protocol 1: Rats were randomized into four groups. Sodium cromoglycate was administered to rats. Citalopram was infused after the 5% dextrose, 8-Cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX; A 1 receptor antagonist), 8-(-3-chlorostyryl)-caffeine (CSC; A 2a receptor antagonist), or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) administrations. Protocol 2: First group received 5% dextrose intraperitoneally 1 hour...

  2. Influence of endometriosis on visceromotor and cardiovascular responses induced by vaginal distention in the rat

    OpenAIRE

    Nagabukuro, Hiroshi; Berkley, Karen J.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined pseudoaffective responses elicited by vaginal distention in urethane-anesthetized rats, and tested hypotheses that responses would be increased by endometriosis (ENDO) and vary with the estrous cycle. Three groups were studied: ENDO, shamENDO, and Naïve. ENDO was induced by autotransplantating small pieces of uterine horn (or, for shamENDO, fat) on mesenteric arteries. Ten weeks later, rats in proestrus or metestrus were anesthetized with urethane. Distendable latex balloo...

  3. The effectiveness and cost effectiveness of dark chocolate consumption as prevention therapy in people at high risk of cardiovascular disease: best case scenario analysis using a Markov model

    OpenAIRE

    Zomer, Ella; Owen, Alice; Magliano, Dianna J; Liew, Danny; Reid, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To model the long term effectiveness and cost effectiveness of daily dark chocolate consumption in a population with metabolic syndrome at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Design Best case scenario analysis using a Markov model. Setting Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle study. Participants 2013 people with hypertension who met the criteria for metabolic syndrome, with no history of cardiovascular disease and not receiving antihypertensive therapy. Main outcome measures ...

  4. Space radiation and cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerma, Marjan; Nelson, Gregory A; Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Mao, Xiao-Wen; Koturbash, Igor; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2015-12-26

    Future long-distance space missions will be associated with significant exposures to ionizing radiation, and the health risks of these radiation exposures during manned missions need to be assessed. Recent Earth-based epidemiological studies in survivors of atomic bombs and after occupational and medical low dose radiation exposures have indicated that the cardiovascular system may be more sensitive to ionizing radiation than was previously thought. This has raised the concern of a cardiovascular disease risk from exposure to space radiation during long-distance space travel. Ground-based studies with animal and cell culture models play an important role in estimating health risks from space radiation exposure. Charged particle space radiation has dense ionization characteristics and may induce unique biological responses, appropriate simulation of the space radiation environment and careful consideration of the choice of the experimental model are critical. Recent studies have addressed cardiovascular effects of space radiation using such models and provided first results that aid in estimating cardiovascular disease risk, and several other studies are ongoing. Moreover, astronauts could potentially be administered pharmacological countermeasures against adverse effects of space radiation, and research is focused on the development of such compounds. Because the cardiovascular response to space radiation has not yet been clearly defined, the identification of potential pharmacological countermeasures against cardiovascular effects is still in its infancy. PMID:26730293

  5. Cardiovascular reactivity and adaptation to recurrent psychological stress: the moderating effects of evaluative observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, R M; Blascovich, J; Leitten, C L; Schneider, T R; Tomaka, J; Wiens, S

    2000-11-01

    The impact of evaluative observation on cardiovascular reactivity and adaptation to recurrent psychological stress was evaluated in 162 undergraduate men and women. All participants performed three mental arithmetic tasks with or without evaluative observation. Impedance cardiographic, blood pressure, task performance, and stress appraisal measures were recorded for each task. Evaluative observation moderated the effects of task repetition on cardiac reactivity but not vascular reactivity. The introduction of evaluative observation disrupted cardiac adaptation, resulting in a resurgence of beta-adrenergic cardiac reactivity (p < .005), whereas the removal of evaluative observation promoted cardiac adaptation. Evaluative observation also increased stress appraisals and slowed task performance. The results support the dual process theory of habituation, rather than stimulus comparator theory, but only partially support cognitive appraisal theory. PMID:11117455

  6. Effects of sex and gender on adaptation to space: cardiovascular alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platts, Steven H; Bairey Merz, C Noel; Barr, Yael; Fu, Qi; Gulati, Martha; Hughson, Richard; Levine, Benjamin D; Mehran, Roxana; Stachenfeld, Nina; Wenger, Nanette K

    2014-11-01

    Sex and gender differences in the cardiovascular adaptation to spaceflight were examined with the goal of optimizing the health and safety of male and female astronauts at the forefront of space exploration. Female astronauts are more susceptible to orthostatic intolerance after space flight; the visual impairment intracranial pressure syndrome predominates slightly in males. Since spaceflight simulates vascular aging, sex-specific effects on vascular endothelium and thrombotic risk warrant examination as predisposing factors to atherosclerosis, important as the current cohort of astronauts ages. Currently, 20% of astronauts are women, and the recently selected astronaut recruits are 50% women. Thus there should be expectation that future research will reflect the composition of the overall population to determine potential benefits or risks. This should apply both to clinical studies and to basic science research. PMID:25401939

  7. The Effect of Widowhood on Husbands’ and Wives’ Physical Activity: The Cardiovascular Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Sarah T.; Schulz, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This prospective study examined the effect of widowhood on physical activity by comparing widowed elders to health status-, age-, and sex-matched married controls. Participants included 396 married controls and 396 widows/widowers age 64 to 91 (M age = 72.7 years) who experienced the death of their spouse while participating in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS). Compared to married controls, widowed men, but not women, were more likely to increase their physical activity following the death of their spouse. However, this increased level of activity was not sustained and declines as time since spousal death passes. Moreover, during the year before spousal death, soon-to-be widowed men, but not women, increase their physical activity. Our results suggest that widowed men experience significant changes in physical activity and that the transition to widowhood contribute to these changes. PMID:23975417

  8. The PPAR-Platelet Connection: Modulators of Inflammation and Potential Cardiovascular Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Spinelli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically, platelets were viewed as simple anucleate cells responsible for initiating thrombosis and maintaining hemostasis, but clearly they are also key mediators of inflammation and immune cell activation. An emerging body of evidence links platelet function and thrombosis to vascular inflammation. peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs play a major role in modulating inflammation and, interestingly, PPARs (PPARβ/δ and PPARγ were recently identified in platelets. Additionally, PPAR agonists attenuate platelet activation; an important discovery for two reasons. First, activated platelets are formidable antagonists that initiate and prolong a cascade of events that contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD progression. Dampening platelet release of proinflammatory mediators, including CD40 ligand (CD40L, CD154, is essential to hinder this cascade. Second, understanding the biologic importance of platelet PPARs and the mechanism(s by which PPARs regulate platelet activation will be imperative in designing therapeutic strategies lacking the deleterious or unwanted side effects of current treatment options.

  9. Psychological and cumulative cardiovascular effects of repeated angry rumination and visuospatial suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Andrew B; Jones, Kenneth V; Douglas Gregg, M Elizabeth

    2009-11-01

    Brooding rumination is associated with depressed mood, increased negative affect, prolonged anger and inhibited cardiovascular (CV) recovery. Distraction from rumination on a stressful interpersonal encounter is associated with faster CV recovery and decreased negative affect. Studies have suggested that a concurrent visuospatial (VS) task inhibits the maintenance of imagery associated with the perseveration of intrusive negative memories. 120 healthy participants were recruited for the study. As an analogue of repeated angry rumination, the authors explored the effects of repeated visual recall of a provocative confederate and the subsequent impact of two visuospatial (VS) distraction tasks on negative affect, blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). Repeated recall of the provocation generated repeatedly elevated HR with a cumulative trend that may have CV disease risk implications for chronic ruminators. VS distraction did not aid recovery compared with the Control task. PMID:19732797

  10. Effect of surgery on cardiovascular risk factors in mild primary hyperparathyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Jens; Rosen, Thord; Mollerup, Charlotte;

    2009-01-01

    : Calcium and PTH levels were normalized after surgery, and biochemical markers of bone turnover decreased by 35%, followed by a significant increase in BMD in the spine (2.7%; P < 0.01) and femoral neck (1.1%; P < 0.02) compared with the observation group. No significant differences were observed between......CONTEXT: Mild primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) seems to have a good prognosis, and indications for active treatment (surgery) are widely discussed. The extraskeletal effects of PTH, such as insulin resistance, arterial hypertension, and cardiovascular (CV) risk, may however be reversible by...... operation. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to study biochemical markers of bone turnover, indices of the metabolic syndrome, and various risk markers for CV disease in patients with mild pHPT randomized to observation without surgery or operative treatment and followed for 2 yr. DESIGN/SETTING/PATIENTS: A total of...

  11. Immediate Effects of Bhramari Pranayama on Resting Cardiovascular Parameters in Healthy Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaldeen, Dilara; Pitani, Ravishankar; Amaldas, Julius

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In yoga, Pranayama has a very important role in maintaining sound health. There is some strong scientific basis on constant physiological changes produced when pranayama is practiced for long duration. Still, there exists a dearth of literature on the effect of Bhramari pranayama (Bhr.p) on physiological systems. Aim To assess the immediate effect of Bhramari pranayama (Bhr.P) practice on the resting cardiovascular parameters in healthy adolescents. Materials and Methods Sixty apparently healthy adolescents of both sex participated in the study. They were randomly divided into Bhr.P (n-30) and control (n-30) group. Informed consent was obtained after explaining the detailed procedure of the study. Bhr.P group practiced Bhramari pranayama for 45 min (5 cycles) and control group was allowed to do normal breathing (12-16 breath /min). Heart rate (HR) was assessed by radial artery palpation method and blood pressure was recorded in supine position after 5 minutes of rest by sphygmomanometer. Results The HR reduced significantly (p-0.001) in Bhr.P group. BP indices, Pulse Pressure (PP), Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP), Rate Pressure Product (RPP) and Double Product (DoP) significantly decreased after Bhr.p practice compared with control. Pre and Post inter group analysis also showed that significant reduction in HR and BP indices in Bhr.P group. Conclusion Present study showed that Bhr.P practice produces relaxed state and in this state parasympathetic activity overrides the sympathetic activity. It suggests that Bhramari pranayama improves the resting cardiovascular parameters in healthy adolescents.

  12. No effect of creatine supplementation on oxidative stress and cardiovascular parameters in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Christiano RR

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exacerbated oxidative stress is thought to be a mediator of arterial hypertension. It has been postulated that creatine (Cr could act as an antioxidant agent preventing increased oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of nine weeks of Cr or placebo supplementation on oxidative stress and cardiovascular parameters in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. Findings Lipid hydroperoxidation, one important oxidative stress marker, remained unchanged in the coronary artery (Cr: 12.6 ± 1.5 vs. Pl: 12.2 ± 1.7 nmol·mg-1; p = 0.87, heart (Cr: 11.5 ± 1.8 vs. Pl: 14.6 ± 1.1 nmol·mg-1; p = 0.15, plasma (Cr: 67.7 ± 9.1 vs. Pl: 56.0 ± 3.2 nmol·mg-1; p = 0.19, plantaris (Cr: 10.0 ± 0.8 vs. Pl: 9.0 ± 0.8 nmol·mg-1; p = 0.40, and EDL muscle (Cr: 14.9 ± 1.4 vs. Pl: 17.2 ± 1.5 nmol·mg-1; p = 0.30. Additionally, Cr supplementation affected neither arterial blood pressure nor heart structure in SHR (p > 0.05. Conclusions Using a well-known experimental model of systemic arterial hypertension, this study did not confirm the possible therapeutic effects of Cr supplementation on oxidative stress and cardiovascular dysfunction associated with arterial hypertension.

  13. Effect of low calorie diet with rice bran oil on cardiovascular risk factors in hyperlipidemic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Zavoshy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death and disability in industrialized and developing countries. The aim of this research was to determine the effect of rice bran oil, with a low-calorie diet, on lipid profiles, in hyperlipidemic patients. Materials and Methods: This study was a parallel groups′ randomized clinical trial with a pre- and post-test design. Fifty hyperlipidemic patients of both sexes and age range of 25 - 65 years had participated. The patients received a low-calorie diet based on 1400 kcal energy, 17% protein, 26% fat, and 57% carbohydrate per day for four weeks. The treatment group received a low-calorie diet including rice bran oil (30 g / day. Blood samples were obtained after an overnight (12 hours fasting period before the study and on the last day of the intervention period. Anthropometric indices and levels of serum triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein were measured before and after the intervention. Results: In both groups, weight, body mass index, waist, and hip circumferences were significantly reduced (P < 0.05 after four weeks. In comparison with the control group, the results of treatment with rice bran oil, with a low-calorie diet, showed that at the end of the fourth week, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and atherogenic ratio of total cholesterol / high-density lipoprotein were significantly decreased (P < 0.05. Conclusions: The results confirm that rice bran oil, when consumed as part of a healthy diet, is effective in improving risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

  14. Adrenergic and cholinergic activity contributes to the cardiovascular effects of lionfish (Pterois volitans) venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Jarrod E; Hodgson, Wayne C

    2002-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to further investigate the cardiovascular activity of Pterois volitans crude venom. Venom (0.6-18 microg protein/ml) produced dose- and endothelium-dependent relaxation in porcine coronary arteries that was potentiated by atropine (10nM), but significantly attenuated by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine (NOLA; 0.1mM), by prior exposure of the tissue to stonefish antivenom (SFAV, 3 units/ml, 10 min), or by removal of extracellular Ca(2+). In rat paced left atria, venom (10 microg protein/ml) produced a decrease, followed by an increase, in contractile force. Atropine (0.5 microM) abolished the decrease in force and potentiated the increase. Propranolol (5 microM) did not affect the decrease in force but significantly attenuated the increase. In spontaneously beating right atria, venom (10 microg protein/ml) produced an increase in rate that was significantly attenuated by propranolol (5 microM). Prior incubation with SFAV (0.3 units/microg protein, 10 min) abolished both the inotropic and chronotropic responses to venom. In the anaesthetised rat, venom (100 micro protein/kg, i.v.) produced a pressor response, followed by a sustained depressor response. Atropine (1mg/kg, i.v.) potentiated the pressor response. The further addition of prazosin (50 microg/kg, i.v.) restored the original response to venom. Prior administration of SFAV (100 units/kg, i.v., 10 min) significantly attenuated the in vivo response to venom. It is concluded that P. volitans venom produces its cardiovascular effects primarily by acting on muscarinic cholinergic receptors and adrenoceptors. As SFAV neutralised many of the effects of P. volitans venom, we suggest that the two venoms share a similar component(s). PMID:12175616

  15. Simulated Microgravity Exerts an Age-Dependent Effect on the Differentiation of Cardiovascular Progenitors Isolated from the Human Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Tania I.; Appleby, Nancy; Raya, Michael; Bailey, Leonard; Hasaniya, Nahidh; Stodieck, Louis; Kearns-Jonker, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Microgravity has a profound effect on cardiovascular function, however, little is known about the impact of microgravity on progenitors that reside within the heart. We investigated the effect of simulated microgravity exposure on progenitors isolated from the neonatal and adult human heart by quantifying changes in functional parameters, gene expression and protein levels after 6-7 days of 2D clinorotation. Utilization of neonatal and adult cardiovascular progenitors in ground-based studies has provided novel insight into how microgravity may affect cells differently depending on age. Simulated microgravity exposure did not impact AKT or ERK phosphorylation levels and did not influence cell migration, but elevated transcripts for paracrine factors were identified in neonatal and adult cardiovascular progenitors. Age-dependent responses surfaced when comparing the impact of microgravity on differentiation. Endothelial cell tube formation was unchanged or increased in progenitors from adults whereas neonatal cardiovascular progenitors showed a decline in tube formation (p<0.05). Von Willebrand Factor, an endothelial differentiation marker, and MLC2v and Troponin T, markers for cardiomyogenic differentiation, were elevated in expression in adult progenitors after simulated microgravity. DNA repair genes and telomerase reverse transcriptase which are highly expressed in early stem cells were increased in expression in neonatal but not adult cardiac progenitors after growth under simulated microgravity conditions. Neonatal cardiac progenitors demonstrated higher levels of MESP1, OCT4, and brachyury, markers for early stem cells. MicroRNA profiling was used to further investigate the impact of simulated microgravity on cardiovascular progenitors. Fifteen microRNAs were significantly altered in expression, including microRNAs-99a and 100 (which play a critical role in cell dedifferentiation). These microRNAs were unchanged in adult cardiac progenitors. The effect of

  16. Effects of an inverted seated position on single and sustained isometric contractions and cardiovascular parameters of trained individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neary, J Patrick; Salmon, D M; Dahlstrom, Barclay K; Casey, Erica J; Behm, David G

    2015-04-01

    Previous research demonstrated higher maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force with upright vs. inverted positions in untrained individuals. The purpose was to determine the effects of inversion on force, activation, and cardiovascular responses before and following fatigue in trained individuals. Twelve male athletes completed two trials: upright and inverted seated positions. At baseline (upright), either leg extension (LE) or elbow flexion (EF) evoked contractile properties and MVCs were performed. LE and EF contractions were randomly allocated and performed in separate sessions. The subject was then positioned for 150s in each posture, followed by a 30s MVC (MVC30). During each trial, stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (Q), heart rate (HR), time and frequency domain HR variability measures and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) measurements were recorded. ANOVA showed no statistical differences in EF MVC force, but a tendency (p=.12) for LE MVC decline with inversion vs. upright. Evoked resting (p=.1) and potentiated peak twitch (p=.04) force were increased with inverted LE but tended to diminish with inverted EF (p=.06 and p=.1). Force-fatigue, electromyography-fatigue relationships and HR variability during MVC30 fatigue were not affected. HR and Q were significantly (p=.01) lower with inversion following both LE and EF fatigue. Compared to the significant inversion-induced changes associated with untrained individuals in previously published studies, the lack of postural changes in resting force and CV measures may demonstrate that highly trained individuals adapt better to inversion. PMID:25553559

  17. Apollo Lunar Astronauts Show Higher Cardiovascular Disease Mortality: Possible Deep Space Radiation Effects on the Vascular Endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delp, Michael D; Charvat, Jacqueline M; Limoli, Charles L; Globus, Ruth K; Ghosh, Payal

    2016-01-01

    As multiple spacefaring nations contemplate extended manned missions to Mars and the Moon, health risks could be elevated as travel goes beyond the Earth's protective magnetosphere into the more intense deep space radiation environment. The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether mortality rates due to cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, accidents and all other causes of death differ in (1) astronauts who never flew orbital missions in space, (2) astronauts who flew only in low Earth orbit (LEO), and (3) Apollo lunar astronauts, the only humans to have traveled beyond Earth's magnetosphere. Results show there were no differences in CVD mortality rate between non-flight (9%) and LEO (11%) astronauts. However, the CVD mortality rate among Apollo lunar astronauts (43%) was 4-5 times higher than in non-flight and LEO astronauts. To test a possible mechanistic basis for these findings, a secondary purpose was to determine the long-term effects of simulated weightlessness and space-relevant total-body irradiation on vascular responsiveness in mice. The results demonstrate that space-relevant irradiation induces a sustained vascular endothelial cell dysfunction. Such impairment is known to lead to occlusive artery disease, and may be an important risk factor for CVD among astronauts exposed to deep space radiation. PMID:27467019

  18. Apollo Lunar Astronauts Show Higher Cardiovascular Disease Mortality: Possible Deep Space Radiation Effects on the Vascular Endothelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delp, Michael D.; Charvat, Jacqueline M.; Limoli, Charles L.; Globus, Ruth K.; Ghosh, Payal

    2016-01-01

    As multiple spacefaring nations contemplate extended manned missions to Mars and the Moon, health risks could be elevated as travel goes beyond the Earth’s protective magnetosphere into the more intense deep space radiation environment. The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether mortality rates due to cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, accidents and all other causes of death differ in (1) astronauts who never flew orbital missions in space, (2) astronauts who flew only in low Earth orbit (LEO), and (3) Apollo lunar astronauts, the only humans to have traveled beyond Earth’s magnetosphere. Results show there were no differences in CVD mortality rate between non-flight (9%) and LEO (11%) astronauts. However, the CVD mortality rate among Apollo lunar astronauts (43%) was 4–5 times higher than in non-flight and LEO astronauts. To test a possible mechanistic basis for these findings, a secondary purpose was to determine the long-term effects of simulated weightlessness and space-relevant total-body irradiation on vascular responsiveness in mice. The results demonstrate that space-relevant irradiation induces a sustained vascular endothelial cell dysfunction. Such impairment is known to lead to occlusive artery disease, and may be an important risk factor for CVD among astronauts exposed to deep space radiation. PMID:27467019

  19. Does respiratory health contribute to the effects of long-term air pollution exposure on cardiovascular mortality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Joachim

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing epidemiological evidence that short-term and long-term exposure to high levels of air pollution may increase cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In addition, epidemiological studies have shown an association between air pollution exposure and respiratory health. To what extent the association between cardiovascular mortality and air pollution is driven by the impact of air pollution on respiratory health is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether respiratory health at baseline contributes to the effects of long-term exposure to high levels of air pollution on cardiovascular mortality in a cohort of elderly women. Method We analyzed data from 4750 women, aged 55 at the baseline investigation in the years 1985–1994. 2593 of these women had their lung function tested by spirometry. Respiratory diseases and symptoms were asked by questionnaire. Ambient air pollution exposure was assessed by the concentrations of NO2 and total suspended particles at fixed monitoring sites and by the distance of residency to a major road. A mortality follow-up of these women was conducted between 2001 and 2003. For the statistical analysis, Cox' regression was used. Results Women with impaired lung function or pre-existing respiratory diseases had a higher risk of dying from cardiovascular causes. The impact of impaired lung function declined over time. The risk ratio (RR of women with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 of less than 80% predicted to die from cardiovascular causes was RR = 3.79 (95%CI: 1.64–8.74 at 5 years survival time and RR = 1.35 (95%CI: 0.66–2.77 at 12 years. The association between air pollution levels and cardiovascular death rate was strong and statistically significant. However, this association did only change marginally when including indicators of respiratory health into the regression analysis. Furthermore, no interaction between air pollution and respiratory health

  20. Effects of deep sedation or general anesthesia on cardiac function in mice undergoing cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutschke William

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetically engineered mouse models of human cardiovascular disease provide an opportunity to understand critical pathophysiological mechanisms. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR provides precise reproducible assessment of cardiac structure and function, but, in contrast to echocardiography, requires that the animal be immobilized during image acquisition. General anesthetic regimens yield satisfactory images, but have the potential to significantly perturb cardiac function. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of general anesthesia and a new deep sedation regimen, respectively, on cardiac function in mice as determined by CMR, and to compare them to results obtained in mildly sedated conscious mice by echocardiography. Results In 6 mildly sedated normal conscious mice assessed by echo, heart rate was 615 ± 25 min-1 (mean ± SE and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF was 0.94 ± 0.01. In the CMR studies of normal mice, heart rate was slightly lower during deep sedation with morphine/midazolam (583 ± 30 min-1, but the difference was not statistically significant. General anesthesia with 1% inhaled isoflurane significantly depressed heart rate (468 ± 7 min-1, p In mice with ischemic LV failure, ejection fraction measurements were comparable when performed during light sedation, deep sedation, and general anesthesia, respectively. Contrast-to-noise ratios were similar during deep sedation and during general anesthesia, indicating comparable image quality. Left ventricular mass measurements made by CMR during deep sedation were nearly identical to those made during general anesthesia (r2 = 0.99, mean absolute difference Conclusion In mice with normal cardiac function, CMR during deep sedation causes significantly less depression of heart rate and ejection fraction than imaging during general anesthesia with isoflurane. In mice with heart failure, the sedation/anesthesia regimen had no clear impact on

  1. Effectiveness of exercise intervention and health promotion on cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged men: a protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    From, Svetlana; Liira, Helena; Leppävuori, Jenni; Remes-Lyly, Taina; Tikkanen, Heikki; Pitkälä, Kaisu

    2013-01-01

    Background Although cardiovascular disease has decreased, there is still potential for prevention as obesity and diabetes increase. Exercise has a positive effect on many cardiovascular risk factors, and it can significantly reduce the components of metabolic syndrome. The main challenge with exercise in primary care is how to succeed in motivating the patients at risk to change and increase their exercise habits. The objective of this study is to modify the cardiovascular risk in middle-aged...

  2. Cost-effectiveness of the diabetes care protocol, a multifaceted computerized decision support diabetes management intervention that reduces cardiovascular risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.G.W. Cleveringa (Frits G.); P.M.J. Welsing (Paco); M. van den Donk (Maureen); K.J. Gorter; L.W. Niessen (Louis Wilhelmus); G.E.H.M. Rutten (Guy); W.K. Redekop (Ken)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE- The Diabetes Care Protocol (DCP), a multifaceted computerized decision support diabetes management intervention, reduces cardiovascular risk of type 2 diabetic patients. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis of DCP from a Dutch health care perspective. RESEARCH DESIGN AND

  3. Cost-Effectiveness of the Diabetes Care Protocol, a Multifaceted Computerized Decision Support Diabetes Management Intervention That Reduces Cardiovascular Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleveringa, Frits G. W.; Welsing, Paco M. J.; van den Donk, Maureen; Gorter, Kees J.; Niessen, Louis W.; Rutten, Guy E. H. M.; Redekop, William K.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - The Diabetes Care Protocol (DCP), a multifaceted Computerized decision support diabetes management intervention, reduces cardiovascular risk Of type 2 diabetic patients. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis of DCP from a Dutch health care perspective. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS -

  4. Effects of oxidative stress on fatty acid- and one-carbon-metabolism in psychiatric and cardiovascular disease comorbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assies, J.; Mocking, R.J.; Lok, A.; Ruhe, H.G.; Pouwer, F.; Schene, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in severe psychiatric disorders (depression, schizophrenia). Here, we provide evidence of how the effects of oxidative stress on fatty acid (FA) and one-carbon (1-C) cycle metabolism, which may initially represent adaptive respons

  5. Effects of oxidative stress on fatty acid- and one-carbon-metabolism in psychiatric and cardiovascular disease comorbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assies, J.; Mocking, R. J. T.; Lok, A.; Ruhe, H. G.; Pouwer, F.; Schene, A. H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in severe psychiatric disorders (depression, schizophrenia). Here, we provide evidence of how the effects of oxidative stress on fatty acid (FA) and one-carbon (1-C) cycle metabolism, which may initially represent adaptive respons

  6. Effects of chocolate supplementation on metabolic and cardiovascular parameters in ApoE3L mice fed a high-cholesterol atherogenic diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakala, G.K.; Wielinga, P.Y.; Suarez, M.; Bunschoten, A.; Golde, J.M. van; Arola, L.; Keijer, J.; Kleemann, R.; Kooistra, T.; Heeringa, P.

    2013-01-01

    Scope: Dietary intake of cocoa and/or chocolate has been suggested to exhibit protective cardiovascular effects although this is still controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chocolate supplementation on metabolic and cardiovascular parameters. Methods and results: Fou

  7. Effects of chocolate supplementation on metabolic and cardiovascular parameters in ApoE3L mice fed a high-cholesterol atherogenic diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakala, G.K.; Wielinga, P.Y.; Suarez, M.; Bunschoten, A.; Golde, J.M.; Arola, L.; Keijer, J.; Kleemann, R.; Kooistra, T.; Heeringa, P.

    2013-01-01

    SCOPE: Dietary intake of cocoa and/or chocolate has been suggested to exhibit protective cardiovascular effects although this is still controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chocolate supplementation on metabolic and cardiovascular parameters. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fou

  8. Effects of chocolate supplementation on metabolic and cardiovascular parameters in ApoE3L mice fed a high-cholesterol atherogenic diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakala, Gopala K.; Wielinga, Peter Y.; Suarez, Manuel; Bunschoten, Annelies; van Golde, Jolanda M.; Arola, Lluis; Keijer, Jaap; Kleemann, Robert; Kooistra, Teake; Heeringa, Peter

    2013-01-01

    ScopeDietary intake of cocoa and/or chocolate has been suggested to exhibit protective cardiovascular effects although this is still controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chocolate supplementation on metabolic and cardiovascular parameters. Methods and resultsFour gr

  9. Effect of a group-based rehabilitation programme on glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes patients: The Copenhagen Type 2 Diabetes Rehabilitation Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadstrup, Eva Soelberg; Frølich, Anne; Perrild, Hans Jørgen Duckert;

    2011-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of a group-based rehabilitation programme with an individual counselling programme at improving glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk factors among patients with type 2 diabetes.......To compare the effectiveness of a group-based rehabilitation programme with an individual counselling programme at improving glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk factors among patients with type 2 diabetes....

  10. The importance of short-term off-target effects in estimating the long-term renal and cardiovascular protection of angiotensin receptor blockers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smink, P A; Miao, Y; Eijkemans, M J C;

    2014-01-01

    Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have multiple effects that may contribute to their efficacy on renal/cardiovascular outcomes. We developed and validated a risk score that incorporated short-term changes in multiple risk markers to predict the ARB effect on renal/cardiovascular outcomes. The ...

  11. THE CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS OF MIDAZOLAM CO-INDUCTION TO PROPOFOL FOR INDUCTION IN GERIATRIC PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available : BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to investigate whether a small dose of midazolam and lessening the propofol dosage could prevent the cardiovascular change at tracheal intubation for induction in geriatric patients. METHODS: ninety patients over 65 (ASA physical status 1, 2 scheduled for elective surgery received general anaesthesia with fentanyl and propofol or midazolam. Patients in group P (n= 45 were induced with 0.9% NaCl 0.03 ml /kg, propofol 1.2 mg/kg and fentanyl. Patients in group MP (n= 45 were induced with midazolam 0.03 mg/ kg, propofol 0.8 mg/kg and fentanyl. The time taken to reach loss of consciousness (LOC. After LOC 0.5 mg/kg of atracurium was given and tracheal intubation was performed. The mean blood pressure (MBP and heart rate (HR were recorded were induction as the base value, before intubation, immediately post intubation and 3 minutes after intubation. RESULT: compared with the base values, MBP at before intubation and # minutes after intubation was significantly decreased in group P and group MP (P <0.05. compared with group P, the decrease of MBP was significantly less at before intubation, immediately after intubation and 3 minutes after intubation in group MP (P<0.05. The time taken to reach LOC was significantly decreased in group MP compared with that in group P (P<0.05. There was no significant difference of HR at any time between the two groups. CONCLUSION: co-induction with midazolam and propofol could prevent a marked BP decrease at tracheal intubation for induction in geriatric patients.

  12. Effect of fluid countermeasures of varying osmolarity on cardiovascular responses to orthostatic stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, John E.

    1989-01-01

    Current operational procedures for shuttle crewmembers include the ingestion of a fluid countermeasure approximately 2 hours before reentry into the earth's gravitational field. The ingestion of the fluid countermeasure is thought to restore plasma volume and improve orthostatic responses upon reentry. The present countermeasure consists of ingesting salt tablets and water to achieve an isotonic solution. It has yet to be determined whether this is the optimal drink to restore orthostatic tolerance. It is also not known whether the drink solution is effective in increasing plasma volume. The purpose here is to evaluate the effectiveness of drink solutions of different osmolarity on restoring plasma volume and orthostatic responses. A hypertonic drink solution was more effective in restoring plasma volume after dehydration than an isotonic solution. However, there were no differences in their effects on an orthostatic challenge. These data suggest that the plasma volume differences produced in this study were not sufficient to produce differences in the cardiovascular responses to an orthostatic challenge, or there are other changes that occur during space flight that are more important in determining orthostatic intolerance.

  13. Protective role of Kalpaamruthaa in type II diabetes mellitus-induced cardiovascular disease through the modulation of protease-activated receptor-1

    OpenAIRE

    Raja Latha; Palanivelu Shanthi; Panchanadham Sachdanandam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Kalpaamruthaa (KA) is a formulatory herbal preparation has beneficial antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties against cardiovascular damage (CVD). Objective: The present study was undertaken to investigate the protective role of KA in type II diabetes mellitus-induced CVD through the modulation of protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1). Materials and Methods: CVD was developed in 8 weeks after type II diabetes mellitus induction with high fat diet (2 weeks) and ...

  14. Effect of a botanical composition, UP446, on respiratory, cardiovascular and central nervous systems in beagle dogs and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimam, Mesfin; Lee, Young Chul; Jia, Qi

    2016-06-01

    Extensive safety evaluation of UP446, a botanical composition comprised of standardized extracts from roots of Scutellaria baicalensis and heartwoods of Acacia catechu, has been reported previously. Here we carried out additional studies to assess the effect of UP446 on respiratory, cardiovascular and central nervous (CNS) systems. A Functional observational battery (FOB) and whole body plethysmography system in rats and implanted telemetry in dogs were utilized to evaluate the potential CNS, respiratory and cardiovascular toxicity, respectively. UP446 was administered orally at dose levels of 800, 2000 and 5000 mg/kg to SpragueDawley rats and at 4 ascending dose levels (0, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg) to beagle dogs. No abnormal effects were observed on the cage side, open field, hand held, and sensori-motor observations suggestive of toxicity in respiratory, cardiovascular and central nervous (CNS) systems. Rectal temperatures were comparable for each treatment groups. Similarly, respiratory rate, tidal volume and minute volume were unaffected by any of the treatment groups. No UP446 related changes were observed on blood pressure, heart rate and electrocardiogram in beagle dogs at dose levels of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg. Some minor incidental, non-dose correlated changes were observed in the FOB assessment. These data suggest that UP446 has minimal or no pharmaco-toxicological effect on the respiratory, cardiovascular and central nervous systems. PMID:27012374

  15. The Age-Specific Quantitative Effects of Metabolic Risk Factors on Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes: A Pooled Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gitanjali M Singh; Goodarz Danaei; Farshad Farzadfar; Stevens, Gretchen A; Mark Woodward; David Wormser; Stephen Kaptoge; Gary Whitlock; Qing Qiao; Sarah Lewington; Emanuele Di Angelantonio; Stephen Vander Hoorn; Lawes, Carlene M. M.; Ali, Mohammed K; Dariush Mozaffarian

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effects of systolic blood pressure (SBP), serum total cholesterol (TC), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and body mass index (BMI) on the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have been established in epidemiological studies, but consistent estimates of effect sizes by age and sex are not available. METHODS: We reviewed large cohort pooling projects, evaluating effects of baseline or usual exposure to metabolic risks on ischemic heart disease (IHD), hypertensive heart disease (HH...

  16. Effects of Metformin Versus Glipizide on Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Coronary Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jie; Zhang, Yifei; Lai, Shenghan; Lv, Ankang; Su, Qing; Dong, Yan; Zhou, Zhiguang; Tang, Weili; Zhao, Jiajun; Cui, Lianqun; Zou, Dajin; Wang, Dawang; Li, Hong; Liu, Chao; Wu, Guoting; Shen, Jie; Zhu, Dalong; Wang, Weiqing; Shen, Weifeng; Ning, Guang

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The two major classes of antidiabetic drugs, sulfonylureas and metformin, may differentially affect macrovascular complications and mortality in diabetic patients. We compared the long-term effects of glipizide and metformin on the major cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetic patients who had a history of coronary artery disease (CAD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This study is a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. A total of 304 type 2 diabetic patients with CAD, mean age = 63.3 years (range, 36–80 years), were enrolled. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either glipizide (30 mg daily) or metformin (1.5 g daily) for 3 years. The primary end points were times to the composite of recurrent cardiovascular events, including death from a cardiovascular cause, death from any cause, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or arterial revascularization. RESULTS At the end of study drug administration, both groups achieved a significant decrease in the level of glycated hemoglobin (7.1% in the glipizide group and 7.0% in the metformin group). At a median follow-up of 5.0 years, 91 participants had developed 103 primary end points. Intention-to-treat analysis showed an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 0.54 (95% CI 0.30–0.90; P = 0.026) for the composites of cardiovascular events among the patients that received metformin, compared with glipizide. The secondary end points and adverse events were not significantly different between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS Treatment with metformin for 3 years substantially reduced major cardiovascular events in a median follow-up of 5.0 years compared with glipizide. Our results indicated a potential benefit of metformin therapy on cardiovascular outcomes in high-risk patients. PMID:23230096

  17. Cardiovascular, Antinociceptive and Sedative Effects of Medetomidine Infusion in Sevoflurane Anesthesia in Puppies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Morgaz*, JM Domínguez, R Navarrete, JA Fernández-Sarmiento, P Muñoz-Rascón, RJ Gómez-Villamandos and MM Granados

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a constant rate infusion of medetomidine in the cortical brain activity and hemodynamic parameters in sevoflurane anesthetized puppies. Six puppies of the age of two weeks old were included in the study and were anaesthetized three times with sevoflurane. On the first anesthesia, each dog’s minimum alveolar concentration (MAC for sevoflurane was determined by the use of the tail clamp method. On the second anesthesia (sevoflurane, the puppies were anesthetized at each of five multiples of their individual’s MAC, 0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.5 and 1.75 MAC, and bispectral index and cardiorespiratory parameters were registered. On the third anesthesia (sevoflurane+ medetomidine, puppies were anesthetized at each of five multiples of their individual’s MAC, and medetomidine (5 µg/kg+2µg/kg/h was administered. Mild cardiovascular depression was observed in sevoflurane+medetomidine in comparison with sevoflurane. Cortical and antinociceptive effects were not observed with medetomidine infusion although a mature EEG response to noxious stimulation would not have developed in puppies. Central alpha-2 adrenoreceptors would be immature in puppies during the first two weeks of life, and for this reason, medetomidine would not produce sedative and analgesic effects in young puppies. More studies have to be performed to support this statement.

  18. [Cardiovascular disease in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilfiker-Kleiner, Denise; Bauersachs, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are among the most frequent complications in pregnancies. Among them preexisting heart diseases including congenital heart disease, genetic cardiomyopathies, myocardial infarction and chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathies display a special challenge for the mother and her physicians. Moreover, the incidence of cardiovascular disease induced by or associated with pregnancy, i.e. hypertensive disorders and peripartum cardiomyopathies, has increased over the past decades. In the present overview we explain why pregnancy is a stress model for the maternal heart and summarize the current knowledge on the influence of pregnancy on preexisting cardiomyopathies. We highlight recent advances in research with regard to hypertensive complications in pregnancy and peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM). Moreover, we summarize etiologies, risk factors, pathomechanisms, diagnosis, treatment, management and prognosis. Finally, interdisciplinarity between different clinical fields and basic science is a key requirement to avoid longterm damage to the cardiovascular system induced by pregnancy associated impacts and with this improve women's health in general. PMID:26800071

  19. Sex steroids and cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bu Beng Yeap

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As men grow older, testosterone (T levels decline and the significance of this change is debated. The evidence supporting a causal role for lower circulating T, or its metabolites dihydrotestosterone (DHT and estradiol, in the genesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD in men is limited. Observational studies associate low baseline T levels with carotid atherosclerosis, aortic and peripheral vascular disease, and with the incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality. Studies using mass spectrometry suggest that when total T is assayed optimally, calculation of free T might not necessarily improve risk stratification. There is limited evidence to support an association of estradiol with CVD. Interventional studies of T therapy in men with coronary artery disease have shown beneficial effects on exercise-induced myocardial ischemia. However, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials (RCTs of T therapy in men with the prespecified outcomes of cardiovascular events or deaths are lacking. Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials of T published up to 2010 found no increase in cardiovascular events, mortality, or prostate cancer with therapy. Recently, in a trial of older men with mobility limitations, men randomized to receive a substantial dose of T reported cardiovascular adverse effects. This phenomenon was not reported from a comparable trial where men received a more conservative dose of T, suggesting a prudent approach should be adopted when considering therapy in frail older men with existing CVD. Adequately powered RCTs of T in middle-aged and older men are needed to clarify whether or not hormonal intervention would reduce the incidence of CVD.

  20. Are the beneficial cardiovascular effects of simvastatin and metformin also associated with a hormone-dependent mechanism improving insulin sensitivity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bulcão

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In addition to lipid-lowering and cardiovascular protective actions, statins may have beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of simvastatin therapy on insulin resistance and on leptin, adiponectin, and C-reactive protein (CRP levels, as compared to metformin, in overweight pre-diabetic subjects. Forty-one subjects with BMI >25 kg/m² and impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance were randomized to take simvastatin, 20 mg/day (N = 20 or metformin, 1.7 g/day (N = 21 for 16 weeks. Blood samples for the determination of metabolic, hormonal, and inflammatory parameters were obtained at baseline and after each treatment. After metformin therapy, significant reductions in mean BMI and waist circumference were observed, and after simvastatin treatment LDL and triglyceride levels were significantly reduced. Insulin resistance determined by the homeostasis model assessment decreased only with metformin. Independently of the type of medication, a significant decrease in CRP levels was detected from baseline to the end of the study. CRP showed a mean reduction of 0.12 ± 0.04 mg/dL (P = 0.002 over time. No change in leptin or adiponectin levels was induced by any therapy. The data suggest that a low dose of simvastatin does not affect insulin resistance in overweight pre-diabetic subjects and has no effect on leptin or adiponectin levels. Further studies including a larger sample size, higher doses of statins, and a placebo control group are necessary to confirm the present data.

  1. Effect of atorvastatin combine with aspirin on flammatory factors, endothelial function and the cardiovascular complications with diabetic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Wang; Ping Gong

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of atorvastatin combine with aspirin on flammatory factors, endothelial function and the cardiovascular complications with diabetic patients.Methods:A total of 85 type 2 diabetic patients were randomly divided into observation group (43 cases) and control group (42 cases). All patients recieved routine treatment of hypoglycemic drug, while patients in observation group also received atorvastatin and aspirin. Levels of blood lipid, flammatory factors (hs-CRP, TNF-α, IL-6) endothelial function(ET-1,NO), and incidence of cardiovascular complications were tested and compared.Results:Blood lipid have statistical significance after treatment between two groups, TC, TG, LDL-C were significantly lower in observation group, HDL-C was significantly higher in observation group (P <0.05). Observation group flammatory factors (hs-CRP, TNF-α, IL-6) levels decreased significantly after treatment (P<0.05); Observation group ET-1 level decreased significantly, NO level increased significantly after treatment (P<0.05); Incidence of cardiovascular complications was lower than control group in observation group.Conclusions:Atorvastatin combine with aspirin treatment has reliable curative effect in diabetic patients, which can regulate flammatory factors, endothelial function and incidence of cardiovascular complications.

  2. Resveratrol and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Bonnefont-Rousselot

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs has stimulated research for substances that could improve cardiovascular health. Among them, resveratrol (RES, a polyphenolic compound notably present in grapes and red wine, has been involved in the “French paradox”. RES is known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and for its ability to upregulate endothelial NO synthase (eNOS. RES was able to scavenge •OH/O2•− and peroxyl radicals, which can limit the lipid peroxidation processes. Moreover, in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC under glucose-induced oxidative stress, RES restored the activity of dimethylargininedimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH, an enzyme that degrades an endogenous inhibitor of eNOS named asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA. Thus, RES could improve •NO availability and decrease the endothelial dysfunction observed in diabetes. Preclinical studies have made it possible to identify molecular targets (SIRT-1, AMPK, Nrf2, NFκB…; however, there are limited human clinical trials, and difficulties in the interpretation of results arise from the use of high-dose RES supplements in research studies, whereas low RES concentrations are present in red wine. The discussions on potential beneficial effects of RES in CVDs (atherosclerosis, hypertension, stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure should compare the results of preclinical studies with those of clinical trials.

  3. Effects of customized risk reduction program on cardiovascular risk in males with spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Myers, PhD

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Persons with spinal cord injury (SCI have heightened risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD. Multidisciplinary risk reduction programs using case management models have been effective in reducing CVD risk in nondisabled persons, but little is known regarding the effects of such programs in SCI. Twenty-six persons with SCI underwent a pilot 2 yr risk intervention program including frequent telephone contact by a case manager and in-person visits by a dietitian, physical therapist, and exercise physiologist. At 6 mo intervals, measurements were made of dietary intake, glucose and lipids, physical activity patterns, and exercise capacity. Of the 26 participants, 10 remained in the program for the full 2 yr; medical issues unrelated to the program were the major reasons for dropping out. Significant improvements were observed in weight, plasma insulin, homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance, and total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein ratio, although these changes were not consistent across visits. No differences in estimates of physical activity patterns were demonstrated, nor were differences in dietary macronutrient intake observed. Thus, modest changes in some CVD risk markers can be achieved by a multidisciplinary risk reduction program in SCI. Such programs present more challenges than in ambulatory persons, and more intensive risk intervention may be required to appreciably reduce CVD risk in SCI.

  4. Joint Effect of Early Microvascular Damage in the Eye &Kidney on Risk of Cardiovascular Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Wanfen; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Ong, Peng Guan; Patel, Uptal D; Chow, Khuan Yew; Tai, E Shyong; Ling, Lieng H; Wong, Tien Yin; Cheung, Carol Yim-Lui

    2016-01-01

    Microalbuminuria is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but not all individuals require treatment. Retinal microvascular abnormalities and microalbuminuria reflect early systemic microvascular changes. We examined the joint effect of retinal abnormalities and microalbuminuria on CVD risk in an Asian cohort. We conducted a prospective, population-based study. Retinal abnormalities were defined as presence of retinopathy and/or retinal venular widening. Microalbuminuria was defined as urinary albumin: creatinine ratio between 30-300 mg/g. Incident CVD was defined as newly diagnosed clinical stroke, acute myocardial infarction or CVD death. Cox regression models were performed to determine the associations between retinal abnormalities and microalbuminuria with risk of CVD, while controlling for established risk factors. 3,496 participants (aged ≥ 40) were free of prevalent CVD. During the follow-up (5.8 years), 126 (3.60%) participants developed CVD. Persons presenting with both retinal abnormalities and microalbuminuria were 6.71 times (95% CI, 2.68, 16.79) as likely to have incident CVD compared with those without either abnormalities. There was a significant interaction effect between retinal abnormalities and microalbuminuria on incident CVD. Assessment of retinal abnormalities in patients with microalbuminuria may provide additional value in identifying persons at risk of developing CVD. PMID:27273133

  5. Investigation of Toxic Effects of Mushroom Poisoning on the Cardiovascular System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erenler, Ali Kemal; Doğan, Tolga; Koçak, Cem; Ece, Yasemin

    2016-09-01

    Mushroom poisoning (MP) is a public health problem in many countries. It is well known that consumption of wild mushrooms may cause serious toxicity on renal, hepatic and brain functions. In the literature, however, studies investigating cardiotoxic effects of MP are rare. In this study, we evaluated laboratory and ECG findings of patients and sought for possible toxic effects of MP on the cardiovascular system. During a 2-year period, 175 patients with MP were included in the study. The majority of the poisonings occurred in early summertime. The most common complaint was found to be nausea and vomiting followed by mental status alterations. Methods of treatment were mainly based on gastric lavage, activated charcoal and supportive therapy. The most common ECG abnormalities in the patients with MP were sinus tachycardia, sinus arrhythmia, ST/T inversion, 1st degree AV block and QT prolongation, respectively. Cardiac markers of the patients were found to be normal. Then, patients were divided into two subgroups according to symptom onset after consumption (less than 6 hr and more than 6 hr). When the two groups were compared, prevalence of tachycardia was significantly higher in Group II. Additionally, the interval between mushroom consumption and onset of symptoms was strongly correlated with blood pressure (BP). As this interval prolonged, BP of the patients tended to increase. In conclusion, according to our results, although mechanisms need to be clarified, MP causes hypertension and ECG alterations, particularly tachycardia in patients with late-onset symptoms. PMID:26879235

  6. Joint Effect of Early Microvascular Damage in the Eye & Kidney on Risk of Cardiovascular Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Wanfen; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Ong, Peng Guan; Patel, Uptal D; Chow, Khuan Yew; Tai, E Shyong; Ling, Lieng H; Wong, Tien Yin; Cheung, Carol Yim-lui

    2016-01-01

    Microalbuminuria is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but not all individuals require treatment. Retinal microvascular abnormalities and microalbuminuria reflect early systemic microvascular changes. We examined the joint effect of retinal abnormalities and microalbuminuria on CVD risk in an Asian cohort. We conducted a prospective, population-based study. Retinal abnormalities were defined as presence of retinopathy and/or retinal venular widening. Microalbuminuria was defined as urinary albumin: creatinine ratio between 30–300 mg/g. Incident CVD was defined as newly diagnosed clinical stroke, acute myocardial infarction or CVD death. Cox regression models were performed to determine the associations between retinal abnormalities and microalbuminuria with risk of CVD, while controlling for established risk factors. 3,496 participants (aged ≥ 40) were free of prevalent CVD. During the follow-up (5.8 years), 126 (3.60%) participants developed CVD. Persons presenting with both retinal abnormalities and microalbuminuria were 6.71 times (95% CI, 2.68, 16.79) as likely to have incident CVD compared with those without either abnormalities. There was a significant interaction effect between retinal abnormalities and microalbuminuria on incident CVD. Assessment of retinal abnormalities in patients with microalbuminuria may provide additional value in identifying persons at risk of developing CVD. PMID:27273133

  7. Effects of contraceptive steroids on cardiovascular risk factors in women with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, K R; Skouby, S O; Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen;

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We evaluated established cardiovascular risk factors within lipoprotein metabolism, hemostasis, and endothelial function in women with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus who were using oral contraceptives. STUDY DESIGN: Twenty-five women with uncomplicated insulin-dependent diabetes m...

  8. Effect of Weight Reduction on Cardiovascular Risk Factors and CD34-positive Cells in Circulation

    OpenAIRE

    Nina A Mikirova, Joseph J Casciari, Ronald E Hunninghake, Margaret M Beezley

    2011-01-01

    Being overweight or obese is associated with an increased risk for the development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Dyslipidemia of obesity is characterized by elevated fasting triglycerides and decreased high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations. Endothelial damage and dysfunction is considered to be a major underlying mechanism for the elevated cardiovascular risk associated with increased adiposity. Alterations in endothelial c...

  9. Finding Optimal Set of Genes effective Diagnostics and Prognosis of Cardiovascular Diseases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Faltus, Václav; Adášková, Jana; Zvárová, Jana

    Brno : Masaryk University, 2007 - (Horová, I.; Hřebíček, J.). s. 36-36 ISBN 978-80-210-4333-6. [TIES 2007. Annual Meeting of the International Environmental Society /18./. 16.08.2007-20.08.2007, Mikulov] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : data model * cardiovascular diseases * DNA Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery

  10. Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Effects of New and Emerging Antidiabetic Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Balfour, Pelbreton C.; Rodriguez, Carlos J.; Ferdinand, Keith C.

    2014-01-01

    Despite remarkable declines in US cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality over the last several decades, the prevalence of risk factors such as type 2 diabetes and hypertension remains high, associated with increasing obesity rates. Although optimal glycemic control remains a primary focus to decrease the disease burden, the FDA has issued guidance recommendations for documenting cardiovascular disease-related safety with research trials on new antidiabetic agents with more demanding r...

  11. Effect of Voluntary Ethanol Consumption Combined with Testosterone Treatment on Cardiovascular Function in Rats: Influence of Exercise Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engi, Sheila A; Planeta, Cleopatra S; Crestani, Carlos C

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of voluntary ethanol consumption combined with testosterone treatment on cardiovascular function in rats. Moreover, we investigated the influence of exercise training on these effects. To this end, male rats were submitted to low-intensity training on a treadmill or kept sedentary while concurrently being treated with ethanol for 6 weeks. For voluntary ethanol intake, rats were given access to two bottles, one containing ethanol and other containing water, three 24-hour sessions per week. In the last two weeks (weeks 5 and 6), animals underwent testosterone treatment concurrently with exercise training and exposure to ethanol. Ethanol consumption was not affected by either testosterone treatment or exercise training. Also, drug treatments did not influence the treadmill performance improvement evoked by training. However, testosterone alone, but not in combination with ethanol, reduced resting heart rate. Moreover, combined treatment with testosterone and ethanol reduced the pressor response to the selective α1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine. Treatment with either testosterone or ethanol alone also affected baroreflex activity and enhanced depressor response to acetylcholine, but these effects were inhibited when drugs were coadministrated. Exercise training restored most cardiovascular effects evoked by drug treatments. Furthermore, both drugs administrated alone increased pressor response to phenylephrine in trained animals. Also, drug treatments inhibited the beneficial effects of training on baroreflex function. In conclusion, the present results suggest a potential interaction between toxic effects of testosterone and ethanol on cardiovascular function. Data also indicate that exercise training is an important factor influencing the effects of these substances. PMID:26760038

  12. Risk of cardiovascular disease following radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excess radiation-induced cardiac mortalities have been reported among radiotherapy patients. Many case reports describe the occurrence of atherosclerosis following radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease and breast cancer. Some case reports describe the cerebral infarction following radiotherapy to neck region, and of peripheral vascular disease of the lower extremities following radiotherapy to the pelvic region. The association of atomic bomb radiation and cardiovascular disease has been examined recently by incidence studies and prevalence studies of various endpoints of atherosclerosis; all endpoints indicated an increase of cardiovascular disease in the exposed group. It is almost certain that the cardiovascular disease is higher among atomic bomb survivors. However, since a heavy exposure of 10-40 Gy is delivered in radiotherapy and the bomb survivors were exposed to radiation at high dose and dose-rate, the question is whether the results can be extrapolated to individuals exposed to lower levels of radiation. Some recent epidemiological studies on occupationally exposed workers and population living near Chernobyl have provided the evidence for cardiovascular disease being a significant late effect at relatively low doses of radiation. However, the issue of non-cancer mortality from radiation is complicated by lack of adequate information on doses, and many other confounding factors (e.g., smoking habits or socio-economic status). This presentation will evaluate possible radiobiological mechanisms for radiation-induced cardiovascular disease, and will address its relevance to radiation protection management at low doses and what the impact might be on future radiation risk assessments. (authors)

  13. Morphine and clonidine combination therapy improves therapeutic window in mice: synergy in antinociceptive but not in sedative or cardiovascular effects.

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    Laura S Stone

    Full Text Available Opioids are used to manage all types of pain including acute, cancer, chronic neuropathic and inflammatory pain. Unfortunately, opioid-related adverse effects such as respiratory depression, tolerance, physical dependence and addiction have led to an underutilization of these compounds for adequate pain relief. One strategy to improve the therapeutic utility of opioids is to co-administer them with other analgesic agents such as agonists acting at α2-adrenergic receptors (α2ARs. Analgesics acting at α2ARs and opioid receptors (ORs frequently synergize when co-administered in vivo. Multimodal analgesic techniques offer advantages over single drug treatments as synergistic combination therapies produce analgesia at lower doses, thus reducing undesired side effects. This inference presumes, however, that the synergistic interaction is limited to the analgesic effects. In order to test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of α2AR/OR combination therapy in acute antinociception and in the often-undesired side effects of sedation and cardiovascular depression in awake unrestrained mice. Morphine, clonidine or their combination was administered by spinal or systemic injection in awake mice. Antinociception was determined using the warm water tail flick assay (52.5°C. Sedation/motor impairment was evaluated using the accelerating rotarod assay and cardiovascular function was monitored by pulse oximetry. Data were converted to percent maximum possible effect and isobolographic analysis was performed to determine if an interaction was subadditive, additive or synergistic. Synergistic interactions between morphine and clonidine were observed in the antinociceptive but not in the sedative/motor or cardiovascular effects. As a result, the therapeutic window was improved ∼200-fold and antinociception was achieved at non-sedating doses with little to no cardiovascular depression. In addition, combination therapy resulted in greater maximum analgesic

  14. The role of self-efficacy in cardiovascular disease self-management: a review of effective programs

    OpenAIRE

    Hannah Katch; Holly Mead

    2010-01-01

    Hannah Katch, Holly MeadThe George Washington University, Department of Health Policy, Washington DC, USAResearch objective: To conduct a comprehensive, systematic review of disease self-management programs for patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD), looking specifically at those with self-efficacy as a key component to the effectiveness of such programs on CVD management and outcomes.Study design: We conducted a review of effective strategies promoting patient involvement and engagement ...

  15. Advances in Integrating Traditional and Omic Biomarkers When Analyzing the Effects of the Mediterranean Diet Intervention in Cardiovascular Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitó, Montserrat; Melander, Olle; Martínez, José Alfredo; Toledo, Estefanía; Carpéné, Christian; Corella, Dolores

    2016-01-01

    Intervention with Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) has provided a high level of evidence in primary prevention of cardiovascular events. Besides enhancing protection from classical risk factors, an improvement has also been described in a number of non-classical ones. Benefits have been reported on biomarkers of oxidation, inflammation, cellular adhesion, adipokine production, and pro-thrombotic state. Although the benefits of the MedDiet have been attributed to its richness in antioxidants, the mechanisms by which it exercises its beneficial effects are not well known. It is thought that the integration of omics including genomics, transcriptomics, epigenomics, and metabolomics, into studies analyzing nutrition and cardiovascular diseases will provide new clues regarding these mechanisms. However, omics integration is still in its infancy. Currently, some single-omics analyses have provided valuable data, mostly in the field of genomics. Thus, several gene-diet interactions in determining both intermediate (plasma lipids, etc.) and final cardiovascular phenotypes (stroke, myocardial infarction, etc.) have been reported. However, few studies have analyzed changes in gene expression and, moreover very few have focused on epigenomic or metabolomic biomarkers related to the MedDiet. Nevertheless, these preliminary results can help to better understand the inter-individual differences in cardiovascular risk and dietary response for further applications in personalized nutrition. PMID:27598147

  16. Effects of Sweet Bee Venom on cardiovascular system in the conscious telemetered Beagle Dogs

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    Lim Chung-San

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:This study was performed to analyse the effects of Sweet Bee Venom(Sweet BV on cardiovascular system in the conscious telemetered Beagle Dogs. Methods:All experiments were conducted at Biotoxtech Company, a non-clinical studies authorized institution, under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP. Male Beagle dogs of 13-19 months old were chosen for the pilot study and surgical implantation was performed for conscious telemetered Beagle dogs. And after confirming condition of Beagle dogs was stable, Sweet BV was administered 4 times(first: 0.0 ㎎/㎏, 2nd: 0.01 ㎎/㎏, 3rd: 0.1 ㎎/㎏, and forth: 0.5 ㎎/㎏, one time/week in thigh muscle of Beagle dogs. And blood pressure, heart rate, electrocardiography and clinical responses were measured. Equal amount of normal saline to the Sweet BV experiment groups was administered to the control group. 1. In the analysis of body weight and taking amount, Beagle dogs did not show significant changes. 2. In the clinical observation, responses of pain and edema were showed depend on dosage of Sweet BV. 3. In the analysis of blood pressure, treatment with Sweet BV did not show significant changes in the dosage of 0.01 ㎎/㎏, but in the dosage of 0.1 ㎎/㎏ and 0.5 ㎎/㎏, treatment with Sweet BV increased blood pressure significantly. 4. In the analysis of heart rate, treatment of Sweet BV did not show significant changes in all dosage and period. 5. In the analysis of electrocardiography, treatment of Sweet BV was not showed significant changes in all dosage and period. Conclusion:Above findings suggest that Sweet BV is relatively safe treatment in the cardiovascular system. But in the using of over dosage, Sweet BV may the cause of increasing blood pressure. Further studies on the subject should be conducted to yield more concrete evidences.

  17. Effects of irregular-shift work and physical activity on cardiovascular risk factors in truck drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cristina Marqueze

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the putative effect of type of shift and its interaction with leisure-time physical activity on cardiovascular risk factors in truck drivers. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken on 57 male truck drivers working at a transportation company, of whom 31 worked irregular shifts and 26 worked on the day-shift. Participants recorded their physical activity using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire along with measurements of blood pressure, body mass index and waist-hip ratio. Participants also provided a fasting blood sample for analysis of lipid-related outcomes. Data were analyzed using a factorial model which was covariate-controlled for age, smoking, work demand, control at work and social support. RESULTS: Most of the irregular-shift and day-shift workers worked more than 8 hours per day (67.7% and 73.1%, respectively. The mean duration of experience working the irregular schedule was 15.7 years. Day-shift workers had never engaged in irregular-shift work and had been working as a truck driver for 10.8 years on average. The irregular-shift drivers had lower work demand but less control compared to day-shift drivers (p < 0.05. Moderately-active irregular-shift workers had higher systolic and diastolic arterial pressures (143.7 and 93.2 mmHg, respectively than moderately-active day-shift workers (116 and 73.3 mmHg, respectively (p < 0.05 as well as higher total cholesterol concentrations (232.1 and 145 mg/dl, respectively (p = 0.01. Irrespective of their physical activity, irregular-shift drivers had higher total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations (211.8 and 135.7 mg/dl, respectively than day-shift workers (161.9 and 96.7 mg/dl, respectively (ANCOVA, p < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Truck drivers are exposed to cardiovascular risk factors due to the characteristics of the job, such as high work demand, long working hours and time in this profession, regardless of shift type or leisure-time physical

  18. Human pharmacology of ayahuasca: subjective and cardiovascular effects, monoamine metabolite excretion, and pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riba, Jordi; Valle, Marta; Urbano, Gloria; Yritia, Mercedes; Morte, Adelaida; Barbanoj, Manel J

    2003-07-01

    The effects of the South American psychotropic beverage ayahuasca on subjective and cardiovascular variables and urine monoamine metabolite excretion were evaluated, together with the drug's pharmacokinetic profile, in a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. This pharmacologically complex tea, commonly obtained from Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis, combines N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), an orally labile psychedelic agent showing 5-hydroxytryptamine2A agonist activity, with monoamine oxidase (MAO)-inhibiting beta-carboline alkaloids (harmine, harmaline, and tetrahydroharmine). Eighteen volunteers with prior experience in the use of psychedelics received single oral doses of encapsulated freeze-dried ayahuasca (0.6 and 0.85 mg of DMT/kg of body weight) and placebo. Ayahuasca produced significant subjective effects, peaking between 1.5 and 2 h, involving perceptual modifications and increases in ratings of positive mood and activation. Diastolic blood pressure showed a significant increase at the high dose (9 mm Hg at 75 min), whereas systolic blood pressure and heart rate were moderately and nonsignificantly increased. Cmax values for DMT after the low and high ayahuasca doses were 12.14 ng/ml and 17.44 ng/ml, respectively. Tmax (median) was observed at 1.5 h after both doses. The Tmax for DMT coincided with the peak of subjective effects. Drug administration increased urinary normetanephrine excretion, but, contrary to the typical MAO-inhibitor effect profile, deaminated monoamine metabolite levels were not decreased. This and the negligible harmine plasma levels found suggest a predominantly peripheral (gastrointestinal and liver) site of action for harmine. MAO inhibition at this level would suffice to prevent first-pass metabolism of DMT and allow its access to systemic circulation and the central nervous system. PMID:12660312

  19. Effects of habitual coffee consumption on cardiometabolic disease, cardiovascular health, and all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, James H; Bhatti, Salman K; Patil, Harshal R; DiNicolantonio, James J; Lucan, Sean C; Lavie, Carl J

    2013-09-17

    Coffee, after water, is the most widely consumed beverage in the United States, and is the principal source of caffeine intake among adults. The biological effects of coffee may be substantial and are not limited to the actions of caffeine. Coffee is a complex beverage containing hundreds of biologically active compounds, and the health effects of chronic coffee intake are wide ranging. From a cardiovascular (CV) standpoint, coffee consumption may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension, as well as other conditions associated with CV risk such as obesity and depression; but it may adversely affect lipid profiles depending on how the beverage is prepared. Regardless, a growing body of data suggests that habitual coffee consumption is neutral to beneficial regarding the risks of a variety of adverse CV outcomes including coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure, arrhythmias, and stroke. Moreover, large epidemiological studies suggest that regular coffee drinkers have reduced risks of mortality, both CV and all-cause. The potential benefits also include protection against neurodegenerative diseases, improved asthma control, and lower risk of select gastrointestinal diseases. A daily intake of ∼2 to 3 cups of coffee appears to be safe and is associated with neutral to beneficial effects for most of the studied health outcomes. However, most of the data on coffee's health effects are based on observational data, with very few randomized, controlled studies, and association does not prove causation. Additionally, the possible advantages of regular coffee consumption have to be weighed against potential risks (which are mostly related to its high caffeine content) including anxiety, insomnia, tremulousness, and palpitations, as well as bone loss and possibly increased risk of fractures. PMID:23871889

  20. Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training versus Continuous Training on Physical Fitness, Cardiovascular Function and Quality of Life in Heart Failure Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie M M Benda

    Full Text Available Physical fitness is an important prognostic factor in heart failure (HF. To improve fitness, different types of exercise have been explored, with recent focus on high-intensity interval training (HIT. We comprehensively compared effects of HIT versus continuous training (CT in HF patients NYHA II-III on physical fitness, cardiovascular function and structure, and quality of life, and hypothesize that HIT leads to superior improvements compared to CT.Twenty HF patients (male:female 19:1, 64±8 yrs, ejection fraction 38±6% were allocated to 12-weeks of HIT (10*1-minute at 90% maximal workload-alternated by 2.5 minutes at 30% maximal workload or CT (30 minutes at 60-75% of maximal workload. Before and after intervention, we examined physical fitness (incremental cycling test, cardiac function and structure (echocardiography, vascular function and structure (ultrasound and quality of life (SF-36, Minnesota living with HF questionnaire (MLHFQ.Training improved maximal workload, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak related to the predicted VO2peak, oxygen uptake at the anaerobic threshold, and maximal oxygen pulse (all P<0.05, whilst no differences were present between HIT and CT (N.S.. We found no major changes in resting cardiovascular function and structure. SF-36 physical function score improved after training (P<0.05, whilst SF-36 total score and MLHFQ did not change after training (N.S..Training induced significant improvements in parameters of physical fitness, although no evidence for superiority of HIT over CT was demonstrated. No major effect of training was found on cardiovascular structure and function or quality of life in HF patients NYHA II-III.Nederlands Trial Register NTR3671.

  1. Cardiovascular Effects of Allium Sativum (Garlic: An Evidence-Based Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Akhondzadeh

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Garlic has been used since time immemorial as a culinary spice and medicinal herb. Garlic has been cultivated in the Middle East for more than 5,000 years and has been an important part of traditional Chinese medicine. The region with the largest commercial garlic production is central California. China is also a supplier of commercial garlic. The bulb is used medicinally. Garlic has been touted as an herb with numerous health benefits, from treating the common cold to serving as an anticancer agent. Research has proven that garlic is beneficial for those with hypertension. By thinning the blood garlic can lower blood pressure by 5 to 10 percent. It can also lower cholesterol and discourage clot formation. The sulfur compound allicin, produced by crushing or chewing fresh garlic or by taking powdered garlic products with allicin potential, in turn produces other sulfur compounds: ajoene, allyl sulfides, and vinyldithiins. Aged garlic products lack allicin, but may have activity due to the presence of S-allylcysteine. In this review, we focused on the cardiovascular effects of garlic.

  2. System identification of closed-loop cardiovascular control: effects of posture and autonomic blockade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, T. J.; Appel, M. L.; Mukkamala, R.; Mathias, J. M.; Cohen, R. J.

    1997-01-01

    We applied system identification to the analysis of fluctuations in heart rate (HR), arterial blood pressure (ABP), and instantaneous lung volume (ILV) to characterize quantitatively the physiological mechanisms responsible for the couplings between these variables. We characterized two autonomically mediated coupling mechanisms [the heart rate baroreflex (HR baroreflex) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (ILV-HR)] and two mechanically mediated coupling mechanisms [the blood pressure wavelet generated with each cardiac contraction (circulatory mechanics) and the direct mechanical effects of respiration on blood pressure (ILV-->ABP)]. We evaluated the method in humans studied in the supine and standing postures under control conditions and under conditions of beta-sympathetic and parasympathetic pharmacological blockades. Combined beta-sympathetic and parasympathetic blockade abolished the autonomically mediated couplings while preserving the mechanically mediated coupling. Selective autonomic blockade and postural changes also altered the couplings in a manner consistent with known physiological mechanisms. System identification is an "inverse-modeling" technique that provides a means for creating a closed-loop model of cardiovascular regulation for an individual subject without altering the underlying physiological control mechanisms.

  3. Evaluation of the nutritional effects of fasting on cardiovascular diseases, using fuzzy data mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Abbasi Joshaghan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Advances in information technology and data collection methods have enabled high-speed collection and storage of huge amounts of data. Data mining can be used to derive laws from large data volumes and their characteristics. Similarly, fuzzy logic by facilitating the understanding of events is considered a suitable complement to scientific data mining. Materials and Methods: The present study used clustering to identify the independent characteristics of data. Related fuzzy sets, linguistic variables, and data classifications were defined, and the index was introduced based on the characteristics extracted from useful results. By considering the disease risk factors, the results were analyzed. Results: Two factors contributing to the health improvement or deterioration were defined: ‘age’ and ‘the appropriateness or inappropriateness between insulin level and blood sugar’. In addition, according to the results, fasting had a positive effect on fatty substances of the blood (cholesterol and triglycerides. Conclusion: The results can help us determine whether or not an individual with a cardiovascular disease should fast in the month of Ramadan. However, due to variations in some features such as blood pressure throughout the day, there are uncertainties in some input data; therefore, the results could be far from reality. If it is possible to generate fuzzy data, then we can obtain more accurate results.

  4. EFFECT OF SPECIFIC “YOGASANAS” ON CARDIOVASCULAR AUTONOMIC FUNCTION TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahoo J K

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of cardiovascular autonomic functions before and after four yogasanas viz. “Vajrasana” with “Yogamudra”, “Paschimmotanasana”, “Dwipad sahajhasta Bhujangasana”, “Padmasana Yogasana” was carried out. Seventy healthy adults (30 males and 40 females in the age group of 16-20years were studied. They were trained for 15 days by a certified yoga teacher. Autonomic function tests were carried out before and after 2 and 4 months of yoga practice. Resting heart rate (HR, BloodPressure (BP, heart rate and blood pressure response to standing, deep breathing and valsalva maneuver and pressure response to cold pressor test were studied. A statisticaly significant decrease in resting heart rate, systolic blood pressure after 2 and 4 months of yoga training in both males and females was found. There was also statistical significant increase in heart response to deep breathing (E:I ratio from 1.4 (mean to 1.56 in males and 1.4 to 1.49 in females. Valsalva ratio also increased from 1.09 to 1.17 in males and 1.09 to 1.21 in females after 4 months training. Our results indicate that the effects of these asanas is to increase vagal modulation of R:R intervals and reduce sympathovagal balance. However, the study is limited by the facts that it is not controlled.

  5. Unintended effects of cardiovascular drugs on the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is rapidly becoming one of the leading causes of disability and mortality in the elderly. As life-expectancy increases, an increasing number of people will rely on modern medicines to treat age-associated disorders. Among these medications, some might benefit, while others might exacerbate, the pathogenesis of AD. We screened 1,600 FDA approved drugs for β-amyloid (Aβ-modifying activity and identified drugs that can potentially influence amyloid precursor protein processing. In this study, we focused on cardiovascular drugs and demonstrated that some hypertensive medication can differentially modulate Aβ, both in vitro and in vivo. Our study suggests that some commonly prescribed drugs might exert unintended effects and modulate AD and provides the basis for continuing investigation of the role of individual drugs on a case-by-case basis. This line of investigation will lead to the identification of common medications that are potentially beneficial or detrimental to AD as a reference for physicians to consider when prescribing the most appropriate drugs for their patients, particularly for treating chronic disorders among the growing geriatric population.

  6. Androgens exert sexually dimorphic effects on angiogenesis: novel insight into the relationship between androgens and cardiovascular disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katya B Rubinow; John K Amory; Stephanie T Page

    2011-01-01

    @@ The effects of androgen exposure on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in men remain poorly understood.Given the earlier incidence of CVD among men relative to women, androgens historically have been assumed to potentiate CVD in men.However,mounting clinical data challenge this assumption and increasingly implicate low levels of circulating testosterone as a risk factor for CVD and mortality.1,2 In their recenfly published report 'A sex-specific role for androgens in angiogenesis',3 Sieveking and colleagues make striking observations regarding the impact of androgens on angiogenesis and recovery from ischemic injury, important components of vascular repair which might provide a mechanism whereby androgens could exert protective cardiovascular effects.Moreover, these findings were sex-specific in both in vitro and in vivo model systems, suggesting a sexually dimorphic effect of androgens in modulating CVD.

  7. Antenatal Steroids and the IUGR Fetus: Are Exposure and Physiological Effects on the Lung and Cardiovascular System the Same as in Normally Grown Fetuses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna L. Morrison

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids are administered to pregnant women at risk of preterm labour to promote fetal lung surfactant maturation. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR is associated with an increased risk of preterm labour. Hence, IUGR babies may be exposed to antenatal glucocorticoids. The ability of the placenta or blood brain barrier to remove glucocorticoids from the fetal compartment or the brain is compromised in the IUGR fetus, which may have implications for lung, brain, and heart development. There is conflicting evidence on the effect of exogenous glucocorticoids on surfactant protein expression in different animal models of IUGR. Furthermore, the IUGR fetus undergoes significant cardiovascular adaptations, including altered blood pressure regulation, which is in conflict with glucocorticoid-induced alterations in blood pressure and flow. Hence, antenatal glucocorticoid therapy in the IUGR fetus may compromise regulation of cardiovascular development. The role of cortisol in cardiomyocyte development is not clear with conflicting evidence in different species and models of IUGR. Further studies are required to study the effects of antenatal glucocorticoids on lung, brain, and heart development in the IUGR fetus. Of specific interest are the aetiology of IUGR and the resultant degree, duration, and severity of hypoxemia.

  8. Effects of Salacia oblonga on cardiovascular risk factors in chronic kidney disease patients: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Gopal Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is aimed to evaluate the effect of the herbal drug Salacia oblonga on reduction of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Sixty patients were randomized in four groups; group A1 = non-diabetic CKD given trial drug Salacia oblonga for six months, group A 2 = non-diabetic CKD intended to receive placebo, group B1 = diabetic CKD treated with Salacia oblonga for six months and group B 2 = diabetic CKD patients intended to receive placebo. Estimation of renal function tests including blood urea, serum creatinine and creatinine clearance was performed at baseline and after that at monthly intervals. Lipid profile, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP were measured at baseline and were repeated at three months and six months. After six months of treatment, Salacia oblonga could reduce the triglyceride levels by 23.66% (P = 0.008 in non-diabetic and by 17.45% (P = 0.01 in diabetic CKD patients. In comparison with placebo, both non-diabetic and diabetic CKD patients treated with Salacia oblonga showed significant reduction in CRP levels (P = 0.002 and 0.03, respectively, while significant reduction in IL-6 (P-value = 0.0003 and serum cholesterol levels (P-value = 0.0001 was seen only in diabetic CKD patients treated with Salacia oblonga. Stabilization of creatinine clearance with Salacia oblonga was observed in both non-diabetic (P = 0.05 and diabetic CKD (P = 0.04 patients in comparison with placebo. Salacia oblonga has significant beneficial effects on lipid profile and markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in CKD patients. Salacia oblonga also seems to have a reno-protective effect, as reflected by stabilization of creatinine clearance at six months in this study.

  9. Effects of different cold-air exposure intensities on the risk of cardiovascular disease in healthy and hypertensive rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Bin; Zhang, Shuyu; Ma, Shoucun; Zhou, Ji; Wang, Baojian

    2014-03-01

    Ten-week-old male Wistar rats (systolic blood pressure, 106-116 mmHg; body weight, 300-320 g) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (systolic blood pressure, 160-176 mmHg; body weight, 210.9-244.9 g) were used as healthy and hypertensive subjects to determine the effects of varying degrees of cold-air exposure in a climate chamber box. The three cold-air ranks were cold air I [minimum temperature (TMIN) 6.4 °C, ↓∆T48 8.6 °C], cold air II (TMIN 3.8 °C, ↓∆T48 11.2 °C), and cold air III (TMIN -0.3 °C, ↓∆T48 15.3 °C), as established from the cold-air data of Zhangye City, China. Each cold-air rank consisted of a temperature drop and a temperature increase with the same initial and terminal temperatures (15 °C). After cold-air exposure, the risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) such as systolic blood pressure, whole blood viscosity (10/s and 150/s), plasma fibrinogen, and blood lipids of the rats were determined. The results indicated that the CVD risk factors of the healthy and hypertensive rats increased significantly with cold-air exposure intensities. The increase in systolic blood pressure was greater during temperature drops, whereas the increases in whole blood viscosity and plasma fibrinogen were greater after cold-air exposure. The effects of cold-air exposure on the CVD risk factors of healthy rats, particularly the systolic blood pressure, whole blood viscosity (150/s), and LDL/HDL, were greater than those in hypertensive rats. In conclusion, CVD risk may increase with cold-air ranks. Blood pressure-induced CVD risk may be greater during cold-air temperature drop, whereas atherosclerosis-induced CVD risk may be greater after cold-air exposure. The effect of cold air on the CVD risk factors in healthy subjects may be more significant than those in hypertensive subjects.

  10. The Lag Effects and Vulnerabilities of Temperature Effects on Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in a Subtropical Climate Zone in China

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    Jixia Huang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This research quantifies the lag effects and vulnerabilities of temperature effects on cardiovascular disease in Changsha—a subtropical climate zone of China. A Poisson regression model within a distributed lag nonlinear models framework was used to examine the lag effects of cold- and heat-related CVD mortality. The lag effect for heat-related CVD mortality was just 0–3 days. In contrast, we observed a statistically significant association with 10–25 lag days for cold-related CVD mortality. Low temperatures with 0–2 lag days increased the mortality risk for those ≥65 years and females. For all ages, the cumulative effects of cold-related CVD mortality was 6.6% (95% CI: 5.2%–8.2% for 30 lag days while that of heat-related CVD mortality was 4.9% (95% CI: 2.0%–7.9% for 3 lag days. We found that in Changsha city, the lag effect of hot temperatures is short while the lag effect of cold temperatures is long. Females and older people were more sensitive to extreme hot and cold temperatures than males and younger people.

  11. Effects of interacting networks of cardiovascular risk genes on the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (the CODAM study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feskens Edith JM

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Genetic dissection of complex diseases requires innovative approaches for identification of disease-predisposing genes. A well-known example of a human complex disease with a strong genetic component is Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM. Methods: We genotyped normal-glucose-tolerant subjects (NGT; n = 54, subjects with an impaired glucose metabolism (IGM; n = 111 and T2DM (n = 142 subjects, in an assay (designed by Roche Molecular Systems for detection of 68 polymorphisms in 36 cardiovascular risk genes. Using the single-locus logistic regression and the so-called haplotype entropy, we explored the possibility that (1 common pathways underlie development of T2DM and cardiovascular disease -which would imply enrichment of cardiovascular risk polymorphisms in "pre-diabetic" (IGM and diabetic (T2DM populations- and (2 that gene-gene interactions are relevant for the effects of risk polymorphisms. Results: In single-locus analyses, we showed suggestive association with disturbed glucose metabolism (i.e. subjects who were either IGM or had T2DM, or with T2DM only. Moreover, in the haplotype entropy analysis, we identified a total of 14 pairs of polymorphisms (with a false discovery rate of 0.125 that may confer risk of disturbed glucose metabolism, or T2DM only, as members of interacting networks of genes. We substantiated gene-gene interactions by showing that these interacting networks can indeed identify potential "disease-predisposing allele-combinations". Conclusion: Gene-gene interactions of cardiovascular risk polymorphisms can be detected in prediabetes and T2DM, supporting the hypothesis that common pathways may underlie development of T2DM and cardiovascular disease. Thus, a specific set of risk polymorphisms, when simultaneously present, increases the risk of disease and hence is indeed relevant in the transfer of risk.

  12. Effects of heart rate variability biofeedback on cardiovascular responses and autonomic sympathovagal modulation following stressor tasks in prehypertensives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S; Sun, P; Wang, S; Lin, G; Wang, T

    2016-02-01

    Autonomic dysfunction is implicated in prehypertension, and previous studies have suggested that therapies that improve modulation of sympathovagal balance, such as biofeedback and slow abdominal breathing, are effective in patients with prehypertension at rest. However, considering that psychophysiological stressors may be associated with greater cardiovascular risk in prehypertensives, it is important to investigate whether heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) results in equivalent effects on autonomic cardiovascular responses control during stressful conditions in prehypertensives. A total of 32 college students with prehypertension were enrolled and randomly assigned to HRV-BF (n=12), slow abdominal breathing (SAB, n=10) or no treatment (control, n=10) groups. Then, a training experiment consisting of 15 sessions was employed to compare the effect of each intervention on the following cardiovascular response indicators before and after intervention: heart rate (HR); heart rate variability (HRV) components; blood volume pulse amplitude (BVPamp); galvanic skin response; respiration rate (RSP); and blood pressure. In addition, the cold pressor test and the mental arithmetic challenge test were also performed over two successive days before and after the invention as well as after 3 months of follow-up. A significant decrease in HR and RSP and a significant increase in BVPamp were observed after the HRV-BF intervention (P<0.001). For the HRV analysis, HRV-BF significantly reduced the ratio of low-frequency power to high-frequency power (the LF/HF ratio, P<0.001) and increased the normalized high-frequency power (HFnm) (P<0.001) during the stress tests, and an added benefit over SAB by improving HRV was also observed. In the 3-month follow-up study, similar effects on RSP, BVPamp, LF/HF and HFnm were observed in the HRV-BF group compared with the SAB group. HRV-BF training contributes to the beneficial effect of reducing the stress-related cardiovascular

  13. Cardiovascular effects of epidural morphine or ropivacaine in isoflurane-anaesthetised pigs during surgical devascularisation of the liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.F. Stegmann

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular effects of non-abdominal and abdominal surgery during isoflurane anaesthesia (A-group or isoflurane anaesthesia supplemented with either epidural ropivacaine (AR-group; 0.75 % solution, 0.2 mℓ/kg or morphine (AM-group; 0.1 mg/kg diluted in saline to 0.2mℓ/kg were evaluated in 28 healthy pigs with a mean body weight of 30.3 kg SD ± 4.1 during surgical devascularisation of the liver. Anaesthesia was induced with the intramuscular injection of midazolam (0.3 mg/kg and ketamine (10 mg/kg. Anaesthesia was deepened with intravenous propofol to enable tracheal intubation and maintained with isoflurane on a circle rebreathing circuit. The vaporiser was set at 2.5% for the A-group and 1.5% for the AR- and AM-groups. Differences between treatment groups were not statistically significant (P>0.05 for any of the variables. Differences between AM- and AR-groups were marginally significant heart rate (HR (P = 0.06 and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP (P = 0.08. Within treatment groups, differences for the A-group were statistically significant (P<0.05 between non-abdominal and abdominal surgery for HR, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure (DIA and MAP. Within the AM-group differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05 for DIA and MAP, and within the AR group differences for all variables were not statistically significant (P > 0.05. It was concluded that in isoflurane-anaesthetised pigs, the epidural administration of ropivacaine decreased heart rate and improved arterial blood pressure during surgery.

  14. Comparison of the Effect of Fentanyl, Sufentanil, Alfentanil and Remifentanil on Cardiovascular Response to Tracheal Intubation in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad-Esmaeil Darabi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation may cause significant cerebral and systemic hemodynamic responses. Many drugs have been shown to be effective in modifying these hemodynamic responses, including fentanyl, sufentanil, alfentanil and remifentanil. The purpose of the current study was to compare the efficacy of fentanyl, sufentanil, alfentanil and remifentanil on blunting cardiovascular changes during laryngoscopy and intubation in children. Methods:Eighty children, 1-6 years old, classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I and II who were scheduled for elective surgery with general anesthesia and orotracheal intubation, were enrolled in this randomized and double-blinded study. Patients were randomly assigned into four groups of 20 patients. Group F received fentanyl 1µg/kg-1, group S received sufentanil 0.1 µg/kg-1, group A received alfentanil 10 µg/kg-1 and group R received remifentanil 1 µg/kg-1 intravenously. After establishment of neuromuscular blockade confirmed with a nerve stimulator, laryngoscopy and orotracheal intubation were performed 3 min after induction. Hemodynamic variables including systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SAP, DAP and heart rate (HR were recorded at base line (before opioid administration, before laryngoscopy and one minute after orotracheal intubation. Findings:The patients characteristics and laryngoscopy grade were similar in all groups. There was no significant difference in the mean values of SAP, DAP and HR at each measured time between the four groups. There was significant difference in the mean values of SAP, DAP and HR measured over time in each group. Conclusion:The intravenous fentanyl attenuated laryngoscopy-induced SAP, DAP and HR increases better than sufentanil, alfentanil or remifentanil and hemodynamic stability is better preserved with fentanyl.

  15. Effects of isotonic and isometric exercises with mist sauna bathing on cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, and metabolic functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwase, Satoshi; Kawahara, Yuko; Nishimura, Naoki; Nishimura, Rumiko; Sugenoya, Junichi; Miwa, Chihiro; Takada, Masumi

    2014-08-01

    To clarify the effects of isometric and isotonic exercise during mist sauna bathing on the cardiovascular function, thermoregulatory function, and metabolism, six healthy young men (22 ± 1 years old, height 173 ± 4 cm, weight 65.0 ± 5.0 kg) were exposed to a mist sauna for 10 min at a temperature of 40 °C, and relative humidity of 100 % while performing or not performing ˜30 W of isometric or isotonic exercise. The effect of the exercise was assessed by measuring tympanic temperature, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, chest sweat rate, chest skin blood flow, and plasma catecholamine and cortisol, glucose, lactate, and free fatty acid levels. Repeated measures ANOVA showed no significant differences in blood pressure, skin blood flow, sweat rate, and total amount of sweating. Tympanic temperature increased more during isotonic exercise, and heart rate increase was more marked during isotonic exercise. The changes in lactate indicated that fatigue was not very great during isometric exercise. The glucose level indicated greater energy expenditure during isometric exercise. The free fatty acid and catecholamine levels indicated that isometric exercise did not result in very great energy expenditure and stress, respectively. The results for isotonic exercise of a decrease in lactate level and an increase in plasma free fatty acid level indicated that fatigue and energy expenditure were rather large while the perceived stress was comparatively low. We concluded that isotonic exercise may be a more desirable form of exercise during mist sauna bathing given the changes in glucose and free fatty acid levels.

  16. Cardiovascular and Renal Effects of Bromocriptine in Diabetic Patients with Stage 4 Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-Rodríguez, Oliva; Herrera-Abarca, Jorge E.; Ceballos-Reyes, Guillermo; Avila-Diaz, Marcela; Prado-Uribe, Carmen; Belio-Caro, Francisco; Salinas-González, Antonio; Vega-Gomez, Helios; Alvarez-Aguilar, Cleto; Lindholm, Bengt; García-López, Elvia; Paniagua, Ramón

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of bromocriptine (BEC) on left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and residual renal function (RRF) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Research Design and Methods. A 6-month double-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted in 28 patients with T2D and stage 4 CKD with increased LVMI. Fourteen patients received BEC (2.5 mg, initially 1 tablet with subsequent increase to three times a day) and 14 received a placebo (PBO; initially 1 tablet with subsequent increase to three times a day). Cardiovascular changes were assessed by monitoring 24 h ambulatory blood pressure, two-dimensional-guided M-mode echocardiography, and N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) plasma levels. RRF was evaluated by creatinine clearance and cystatin-C plasma levels. Results. Both BEC and PBO groups decreased blood pressure—but the effect was more pronounced in the BEC group. Average 24 h, diurnal and nocturnal blood pressures, and circadian profile showed improved values compared to the PBO group; LVMI decreased by 14% in BEC and increased by 8% in PBO group. NT-proBNP decreased in BEC (0.54 ± 0.15 to 0.32 ± 0.17 pg/mL) and increased in PBO (0.37 ± 0.15 to 0.64 ± 0.17 pg/mL). Creatinine clearance did not change in the BEC group and decreased in the PBO group. Conclusions. BEC resulted in a decrease on blood pressure and LVMI. BEC also prevented the progression of CKD while maintaining the creatinine clearance unchanged. PMID:23984312

  17. Effects of Metformin Versus Glipizide on Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Coronary Artery Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Jie; Zhang, Yifei; Lai, Shenghan; Lv, Ankang; Su, Qing; Dong, Yan; Zhou, Zhiguang; Tang, Weili; Zhao, Jiajun; CUI, LIANQUN; Zou, Dajin; Wang, Dawang; Li, Hong; Liu, Chao; Wu, Guoting

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The two major classes of antidiabetic drugs, sulfonylureas and metformin, may differentially affect macrovascular complications and mortality in diabetic patients. We compared the long-term effects of glipizide and metformin on the major cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetic patients who had a history of coronary artery disease (CAD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This study is a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. A total of 304 type 2 diabeti...

  18. The reinforcing, subject-rated, performance, and cardiovascular effects of d-amphetamine: Influence of sensation-seeking status

    OpenAIRE

    Stoops, William W.; Lile, Joshua A.; Robbins, C. Glenn; Martin, Catherine A.; Rush, Craig R.; Kelly, Thomas H.

    2006-01-01

    Individual differences that may contribute to vulnerability to abuse drugs have been identified. Sensation-seeking status has been shown to influence both vulnerability to drug use and response to acute drug administration. The purpose of the present experiment was to examine the reinforcing effects of d-amphetamine in high and low sensation-seeking subjects using a modified progressive-ratio procedure. A battery of subject-rated, performance, and cardiovascular measures was also included to ...

  19. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and atherogenic dyslipidemia: Which statin is most effective in the primary prevention of cardiovascular events?

    OpenAIRE

    Figg, Gemma

    2012-01-01

    Background: Type 2 diabetics are at high risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular (CV) events due to their associated dyslipidemic profile. Adverse levels of the lipid triad: low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides (TGs), have been shown to be major contributing factors. Statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) are recommended as first-line lipid therapy as evidence has shown their effectiveness in primary and secondary preve...

  20. A computational physiology approach to personalized treatment models: the beneficial effects of slow breathing on the human cardiovascular system

    OpenAIRE

    FONOBEROVA, MARIA; Mezić, Igor; Buckman, Jennifer F.; Fonoberov, Vladimir A.; Mezić, Adriana; Vaschillo, Evgeny G.; Mun, Eun-Young; Vaschillo, Bronya; Bates, Marsha E.

    2014-01-01

    Heart rate variability biofeedback intervention involves slow breathing at a rate of ∼6 breaths/min (resonance breathing) to maximize respiratory and baroreflex effects on heart period oscillations. This intervention has wide-ranging clinical benefits and is gaining empirical support as an adjunct therapy for biobehavioral disorders, including asthma and depression. Yet, little is known about the system-level cardiovascular changes that occur during resonance breathing or the extent to which ...

  1. The effect of isoflavone supplementation on cardiovascular disease parameters in men undergoing 80% VO2pk exercise.

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, Vanessa Lynn Rogowsky

    2002-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, one of the major causative factors of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), is thought to be initiated by oxidative stress. Particular attention has been paid to the atherogenic effects of oxidative damage on low density lipoproteins (LDL). Current research shows that dietary antioxidant supplementation protects against oxidative stress, and therefore may present preventative measures and treatments for patients with diseases influenced by oxidative stress. Isoflavones found in s...

  2. Effective management of hypertension with dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker-based combination therapy in patients at high cardiovascular risk

    OpenAIRE

    Haller, H

    2008-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of hypertension, owing to modern lifestyles and the increasing elderly population, is contributing to the global burden of cardiovascular (CV) disease. Although effective antihypertensive therapies are available, blood pressure (BP) is generally poorly controlled. In addition, the full benefits of antihypertensive therapy can only be realised when target BP is achieved. International guidelines and clinical trial evidence support the use of combination therapy to man...

  3. No Relation Between Therapeutic Response to Methylphenidate and its Cardiovascular Side Effects in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Venkataramana Bhat; Natalie Grizenko; Steven Sanche; Ridha Joober

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the relation between therapeutic response to methylphenidate (MPH) and its associated short term cardiovascular side effects (Systolic Blood Pressure-SBP, Diastolic Blood Pressure-DBP and Heart Rate-HR changes) in children with ADHD, based on the hypothesis that these parameters share common underlying mechanisms.Method: A double-blind placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial of children 6 to 12 years old diagnosed with ADHD was done. The chi...

  4. Hypoxia Stress Test Reveals Exaggerated Cardiovascular Effects in Hypertensive Rats After Exposure to the Air Pollutant Acrolein

    OpenAIRE

    Perez, Christina M.; Ledbetter, Allen D.; Hazari, Mehdi S.; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Carll, Alex P.; Winsett, Darrell W.; Costa, Daniel L.; Farraj, Aimen K.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in susceptible populations. Despite increased risk, adverse responses are often delayed and require additional stress tests to reveal latent effects of exposure. The goal of this study was to use an episode of “transient hypoxia” as an extrinsic stressor to uncover latent susceptibility to environmental pollutants in a rodent model of hypertension. We hypothesized that exposure to acrolein, an u...

  5. Effect of a 21 day Daniel Fast on metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk factors in men and women

    OpenAIRE

    Bloomer Richard J; Kabir Mohammad M; Canale Robert E; Trepanowski John F; Marshall Kate E; Farney Tyler M; Hammond Kelley G

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Dietary modification via caloric restriction is associated with multiple effects related to improved metabolic and cardiovascular health. However, a mandated reduction in kilocalories is not well-tolerated by many individuals, limiting the long-term application of such a plan. The Daniel Fast is a widely utilized fast based on the Biblical book of Daniel. It involves a 21 day ad libitum food intake period, devoid of animal products and preservatives, and inclusive of fruit...

  6. Cardiovascular adaptation in pregnancy - Effects of angiotensin II, transverse aorta constriction and high-intensity interval training on pregnant rats

    OpenAIRE

    Songstad, Nils Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate how cardiac function, remodeling and gene expression are affected in pregnancy in response to cardiovascular stress, to detect possible adverse effects on the fetus, and to evaluate if coronary endothelial function is influenced by pregnancy and increased cardiac afterload. Methods: Pregnant and non-pregnant rats were subjected to chronic AngII-infusion, transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in three separate studies. Ech...

  7. Effects of Music on Cardiovascular Responses in Men with Essential Hypertension Compared with Healthy Men Based on Introversion and Extraversion

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Namdar; Mohammadreza Taban Sadeghi; Hassan Sabourimoghaddam; Babak Sadeghi; Davoud Ezzati

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The present research investigated the effects of two different types of music on cardiovascular responses in essential hypertensive men in comparison with healthy men based on introversion and extraversion. Methods: One hundred and thirteen hypertensive men referred to Madani Heart Hospital in Tabriz completed the NEO-FFI Questionnaire and after obtaining acceptable scores were classified in four groups: introvert patients, extravert patients, introvert healthy subjects, and ext...

  8. Effects of oxidative stress on fatty acid- and one-carbon-metabolism in psychiatric and cardiovascular disease comorbidity

    OpenAIRE

    Assies, J.; Mocking, R J T; Lok, A; Ruhé, H.G.; Pouwer, F.; Schene, A. H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in severe psychiatric disorders (depression, schizophrenia). Here, we provide evidence of how the effects of oxidative stress on fatty acid (FA) and one-carbon (1-C) cycle metabolism, which may initially represent adaptive responses, might underlie comorbidity between CVD and psychiatric disorders. Method We conducted a literature search and integrated data in a narrative review. Results Oxidative stress, mainly generated in...

  9. The effect of sitagliptin on cardiovascular risk profile in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Shin S; Kim H

    2016-01-01

    Sooyoung Shin,1 Hyunah Kim2 1College of Pharmacy, Ajou University, Suwon, 2College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women’s University, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: A 2013 postmarketing study suggested a possible link between saxagliptin use and hospital admission for heart failure. Cardiovascular (CV) effects of sitagliptin, the most commonly prescribed antidiabetic in the same class as saxagliptin, have not been evaluated much in Asian patients with type 2 diabetes. This study sou...

  10. Effects of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Communication for Patients With Type 2 Diabetes on Risk Perception in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Welschen, Laura M. C.; Bot, Sandra D M; Kostense, Piet J.; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Timmermans, Daniëlle R.M.; van der Weijden, Trudy; Nijpels, Giel

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) underestimate their risk of developing severe complications, and they do not always understand the risk communication by their caregivers. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an intervention focused on the communication of the absolute 10-year risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with T2DM. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A randomized controlled trial was performed in T2DM patients newly referred to...

  11. Traffic noise and cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Selander, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Traffic noise is an increasing problem in urban areas worldwide, but health effects in relation to traffic noise exposure are not well understood. Several studies show that noise may give rise to acute stress reactions, possibly leading to cardiovascular effects, but the evidence is limited on cardiovascular risks associated with traffic noise exposure. Cardiovascular effects have been indicated for other environmental stressors such as occupational noise exposure and job ...

  12. Does a Nephron Deficit Exacerbate the Renal and Cardiovascular Effects of Obesity?

    OpenAIRE

    Seshini Gurusinghe; Brown, Russell D.; Xiaochu Cai; Samuel, Chrishan S.; Ricardo, Sharon D.; Thomas, Merlin C.; Kett, Michelle M

    2013-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that a reduced nephron endowment exacerbates the hypertensive and renal effects of obesity. We therefore examined the impact of diet-induced obesity on renal structure and function, and arterial pressure in a genetic model of reduced nephron endowment, the GDNF Heterozygous (HET) mouse. 6 wk-old male GDNF WT and HET mice were placed on control or high fat (HFF) diet for 20 weeks. 24 hr arterial pressure, heart rate and activity (radiotelemetry), creatinine clearance a...

  13. Disentangling the effects of insomnia and night work on cardiovascular diseases: a study in nursing professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Silva-Costa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are known to be associated with poor sleep quality in general populations, but they have not been consistently associated with specific work schedules. Studies of CVD generally do not simultaneously consider sleep and work schedules, but that approach could help to disentangle their effects. We investigated the association between insomnia and a self-reported physician diagnosis of CVD in day and night workers, considering all sleep episodes during nocturnal and diurnal sleep. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1307 female nursing professionals from 3 public hospitals, using baseline data from the “Health and Work in Nursing - a Cohort Study.” Participants were divided into two groups: i day workers with no previous experience in night shifts (n=281 and whose data on insomnia were related to nocturnal sleep and ii those who worked exclusively at night (n=340 and had data on both nocturnal and diurnal sleep episodes, as they often sleep at daytime. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed. Among day workers, insomnia complaints increased the odds of CVD 2.79-fold (95% CI=1.01-6.71 compared with workers who had no complaints. Among night workers, reports of insomnia during both nocturnal and diurnal sleep increased the odds of reported CVD 3.07-fold (95% CI=1.30-7.24. Workers with insomnia had similar probabilities of reporting CVD regardless of their work schedule, suggesting a relationship to insomnia and not to night work per se. The results also highlighted the importance of including evaluation of all sleep episodes (diurnal plus nocturnal sleep for night workers.

  14. Disentangling the effects of insomnia and night work on cardiovascular diseases: a study in nursing professionals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva-Costa, A. [Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Griep, R.H.; Rotenberg, L. [Laboratório de Educação em Ambiente e Saúde, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-11-21

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are known to be associated with poor sleep quality in general populations, but they have not been consistently associated with specific work schedules. Studies of CVD generally do not simultaneously consider sleep and work schedules, but that approach could help to disentangle their effects. We investigated the association between insomnia and a self-reported physician diagnosis of CVD in day and night workers, considering all sleep episodes during nocturnal and diurnal sleep. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1307 female nursing professionals from 3 public hospitals, using baseline data from the “Health and Work in Nursing - a Cohort Study.” Participants were divided into two groups: i) day workers with no previous experience in night shifts (n=281) and whose data on insomnia were related to nocturnal sleep and ii) those who worked exclusively at night (n=340) and had data on both nocturnal and diurnal sleep episodes, as they often sleep at daytime. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed. Among day workers, insomnia complaints increased the odds of CVD 2.79-fold (95% CI=1.01-6.71) compared with workers who had no complaints. Among night workers, reports of insomnia during both nocturnal and diurnal sleep increased the odds of reported CVD 3.07-fold (95% CI=1.30-7.24). Workers with insomnia had similar probabilities of reporting CVD regardless of their work schedule, suggesting a relationship to insomnia and not to night work per se. The results also highlighted the importance of including evaluation of all sleep episodes (diurnal plus nocturnal sleep) for night workers.

  15. Effects of Soy on Metabolic Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Disease in Elderly Women with the Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Bakhtiary

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To ascertain the effects of soy [in the forms of Textured Soy Protein (TSP and soy-nut] onlipid profiles, apolipoproteins, inflammatory and prothrombotic markers and blood pressure in elderlywomen with the metabolic syndrome.Materials and methods: The study is a 12-week parallel randomized controlled trial that was conductedin rural health centres of Babol, Iran. The participants were 75 women 60-70 years old with the metabolicsyndrome who were randomized to one of the three groups of soy-nut (35g/d, TSP (35g/d and control.Blood pressure and blood biochemical markers were measured at baseline and at the end of the studyincluding, triglyceride, cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, VLDL-C, ApoB100, ApoAI, CRP and fibrinogen.Results: The soy-nut improved significantly LDL-C, VLDL-C and Apo B100 (P<0.05 while fewer improvementsbut significant were observed in these variables in the TSP group only when compared with themean changes from the baseline (P<0.001. Similar result was found for Apo AI in the treatment groups(P<0.01. Serum total cholesterol decreased significantly in the treatment groups compared with controlgroup (P<0.005. The differences from control for triglyceride, HDL-C, fibrinogen, CRP and bloodpressure were not significant.Conclusion: Both forms of soy while improved lipids profiles the soy-nut contribution was more to thisimprovement than the TSP. Therefore, moderate daily intake of soy may be a safe, cheap and practicalmethod to improve cardiovascular disease risk and also reduce the need for medical treatment.

  16. Disentangling the effects of insomnia and night work on cardiovascular diseases: a study in nursing professionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are known to be associated with poor sleep quality in general populations, but they have not been consistently associated with specific work schedules. Studies of CVD generally do not simultaneously consider sleep and work schedules, but that approach could help to disentangle their effects. We investigated the association between insomnia and a self-reported physician diagnosis of CVD in day and night workers, considering all sleep episodes during nocturnal and diurnal sleep. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1307 female nursing professionals from 3 public hospitals, using baseline data from the “Health and Work in Nursing - a Cohort Study.” Participants were divided into two groups: i) day workers with no previous experience in night shifts (n=281) and whose data on insomnia were related to nocturnal sleep and ii) those who worked exclusively at night (n=340) and had data on both nocturnal and diurnal sleep episodes, as they often sleep at daytime. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed. Among day workers, insomnia complaints increased the odds of CVD 2.79-fold (95% CI=1.01-6.71) compared with workers who had no complaints. Among night workers, reports of insomnia during both nocturnal and diurnal sleep increased the odds of reported CVD 3.07-fold (95% CI=1.30-7.24). Workers with insomnia had similar probabilities of reporting CVD regardless of their work schedule, suggesting a relationship to insomnia and not to night work per se. The results also highlighted the importance of including evaluation of all sleep episodes (diurnal plus nocturnal sleep) for night workers

  17. Cardiovascular risk during hormonal treatment in patients with prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this review is to provide information on cardiovascular risk following androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) in prostate cancer patients and to suggest potential prevention and management strategies. Androgen deprivation therapy can cause peripheral insulin resistance, increase fat mass and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and induce type 2 diabetes. While recent studies have reported an association in patients with prostate cancer between ADT and increased risk of cardiovascular events, other studies have not detected the association. However, at this time, it is plausible that ADT could increase cardiovascular risk because of the adverse effect of ADT on risk factors for cardiovascular disease. It is advisable that prostate cancer patients in whom ADT is initiated be referred to their physician, who will carefully monitor them for potential metabolic effects. Therefore, physicians should be informed about these potential side effects. This especially applies to men aged >65 years and those with pre-existing cardiovascular comorbidities. Adopting a healthy lifestyle including a balanced diet and regular physical activity is recommended. Patients with cardiovascular disease should receive appropriate preventive therapies, including lipid-lowering, antihypertensive, glucose-lowering, and antiplatelet therapy. ADT should preferably not be unnecessarily administered to prostate cancer patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease, certainly not to those in whom the risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality is low. The physician should carefully weigh the potential benefits of ADT against the possible risks in individual patients with prostate cancer

  18. Anaesthetic, cardiovascular and respiratory effects of a new steroidal agent CT 1341: a comparison with other intravenous anaesthetic drugs in the unrestrained cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, K J; Davis, B; Dodds, M G; Twissell, D J

    1972-10-01

    1. The anaesthetic, cardiovascular, respiratory and adverse effects produced by the intravenous injection of CT 1341, thiopentone, methohexitone, pentobarbitone, propanidid and ketamine have been compared in unrestrained cats prepared with chronically implanted venous and arterial cannulae. Aortic blood pressure and heart rates were monitored before, during and after loss of consciousness.2. CT 1341 produced rapid induction of anaesthesia followed by moderately rapid recovery, was active over a wide range of doses and caused minimal respiratory depression and few adverse effects. It caused an initial short-lasting tachycardia and fall in aortic blood pressure succeeded by a secondary depressor response.3. The safety margin was narrower with the barbiturate drugs than with CT 1341, and large doses induced apnoea and respiratory depression. Small doses of methohexitone elicited excitatory effects and large doses caused severe respiratory and circulatory depression, and recovery from anaesthesia was protracted.4. Propanidid induced short-lasting light anaesthesia. The safety margin was narrowest with this drug and induction was associated with adverse circulatory, respiratory and other effects.5. Ketamine was active over a wide range of doses but exhibited qualitatively different properties from the other anaesthetics. Induction was slower after small doses and these produced circulatory stimulation, catatonia and bizarre behavioural effects. Large doses caused respiratory and circulatory depression and recovery was protracted.6. It is concluded that CT 1341 has a wider therapeutic latitude, produces less respiratory depression and has other advantages over the currently used intravenous anaesthetics. PMID:4651769

  19. Efeitos hemodinâmicos e vasculares do treinamento resistido: implicações na doença cardiovascular Hemodynamic and vascular effects of resistance training: implications for cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Umpierre

    2007-10-01

    ções vasculares.Resistance training has been proposed as a possible strategy for cardiovascular prevention and rehabilitation, and in this context, this review describes the cardiovascular effects mediated by this type of intervention. Increments in both muscular strength and capacity to perform daily tasks are well-characterized benefits of this type of training. More recently, studies using hemodynamic evaluation have shown cardiovascular stability in patients with coronary disease or heart failure during the performance of resistance exercise, with no apparent detriment to ventricular function or exacerbated increase in exercise blood pressure. Additionally, resting blood pressure also seems to be influenced by chronic resistance training, with a slight reduction in both systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP. The measurement of pressure levels after a single resistance exercise session shows the occurrence of post-exercise hypotension in normal and hypertensive individuals; however, there is controversy as to the intensity of the effort necessary to induce this effect. Recently, intervention studies have investigated resistance exercise effects on vascular variables as arterial compliance and endothelial function. Despite the small number of experiments available, evidence has shown a potential influence of resistance training on the reduction of arterial compliance. On the other hand, peripheral blood flow is increased after resistance training, whereas the endothelial function seems to be improved especially after combined aerobic and resistance training. Additional research is necessary for an analysis of the efficacy of this intervention on validated outcomes, and for a greater understanding of the physiological mechanisms responsible for vascular adaptations.

  20. Effects of Family Meal Frequency on Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in Korean Elderly Males and Females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tchae-Won Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the case of the elderly who highly depend on family, serious health problems can be caused due to the reduction of family meals. Therefore, this study aims to suggest the fundamental data for management of cardiovascular disease, one of the major causes of death in elderly Koreans, by investigating the effects of family meal frequency on the risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Korean elderly males and females.The raw data of the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES III were utilized. Data of 1,236 respondents were extracted for analysis regarding anthropometry, blood, blood pressure, nutrients and total energy intake. For collected data, using SPSS 18.0 and Amos 18.0, the mean and standard deviation, and the path coefficient between groups through a multi-group analysis by structural equation model were checked.As family meal frequency increased, triglyceride and fasting blood glucose in Korean elderly males were likely to decrease, which led to conflicting results with those of Korean elderly females.Frequent family meal makes a positive effect on reducing several risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Korean elderly.

  1. The effects of short-chain fatty acids on the cardiovascular system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, L.B.; Li, M.; van Esch, B.C.A.M.; Garssen, J.; Folkerts, G.

    2016-01-01

    The development of cardiovascular diseases is often attributable to loss of endothelial functions of the vascular tissue or to decreased contractile function of the heart muscle. These disturbances are often caused by imbalances in lipid and glucose metabolism. For instance, these imbalances can res

  2. LACK OF EFFECT OF DRINKING WATER BARIUM ON CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher cardiovascular mortality has been associated in a single epidemiological study with higher levels of barium in drinking water. he purpose of this study was to determine whether drinking water barium at levels found in some U.S. communities alters the known risk factors for...

  3. Effects of supine, prone, and lateral positions on cardiovascular and renal variables in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pump, Bettina; Talleruphuus, Ulrik; Christensen, Niels Juel;

    2002-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that changing the direction of the transverse gravitational stress in horizontal humans modulates cardiovascular and renal variables. On different study days, 14 healthy males were placed for 6 h in either the horizontal supine or prone position following 3 h of being su...

  4. Effect of Nateglinide on the Incidence of Diabetes and Cardiovascular Events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holman, Rury R.; Haffner, Steven M.; McMurray, John J.; Bethel, M. Angelyn; Holzhauer, Bjoern; Hua, Tsushung A.; Belenkov, Yuri; Boolell, Mitradev; Buse, John B.; Buckley, Brendan M.; Chacra, Antonio R.; Chiang, Fu-Tien; Charbonnel, Bernard; Chow, Chun-Chung; Davies, Melanie J.; Deedwania, Prakash; Diem, Peter; Einhorn, Daniel; Fonseca, Vivian; Fulcher, Gregory R.; Gaciong, Zbigniew; Gaztambide, Sonia; Giles, Thomas; Horton, Edward; Ilkova, Hasan; Jenssen, Trond; Kahn, Steven E.; Krum, Henry; Laakso, Markku; Leiter, Lawrence A.; Levitt, Naomi S.; Mareev, Viacheslav; Martinez, Felipe; Masson, Chantal; Mazzone, Theodore; Meaney, Eduardo; Nesto, Richard; Pan, Changyu; Prager, Rudolf; Raptis, Sotirios A.; Rutten, Guy E. H. M.; Sandstroem, Herbert; Schaper, Frank; Scheen, Andre; Schmitz, Ole; Sinay, Isaac; Soska, Vladimir; Stender, Steen; Tamas, Gyula; Tognoni, Gianni; Tuomilehto, Jaako; Villamil, Alberto S.; Vozar, Juraj; Califf, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND The ability of short-acting insulin secretagogues to reduce the risk of diabetes or cardiovascular events in people with impaired glucose tolerance is unknown. METHODS In a double-blind, randomized clinical trial, we assigned 9306 participants with impaired glucose tolerance and either ca

  5. The Effects of Cardiovascular Exercise on College Students' Learning, Recall, and Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salis, Andrea S.

    2010-01-01

    Research on physical activity and cognition is based on the existing theoretical and empirical evidence which indicates that engaging in cardiovascular exercise improves cognitive capabilities, by increasing neural functioning which improves learning (cognitive development). The question this research sought to answer was to determine whether or…

  6. Mortal Kombat: The Effects of Violent Video Technology on Males' Hostility and Cardiovascular Responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Mary E.; Wiest, J. Rose

    A study examined differences in cardiovascular (CV) reactions and hostility following non-violent play and violent video game play. Subjects were 30 male college undergraduate students. Only male subjects were used because most video games are male oriented, males frequent videogame arcades more often than females, and the gender gap in video game…

  7. Medication effectiveness may not be the major reason for accepting cardiovascular preventive medication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Charlotte Gry; Støvring, Henrik; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg; Nexøe, Jørgen; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Edwards, Adrian; Kristiansen, Ivar Sønbø

    2012-01-01

    cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is prevalent. A better understanding of patients' medication-taking behavior is needed and may be reached by studying the reasons why people accept or decline medication recommendations. The aim of this paper was to identify factors that may influence people's decisions and...

  8. Characteristics and popular topics of latest researches into the effects of air particulate matter on cardiovascular system by bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaofeng; Guo, Xinbiao; Li, Haicun; An, Xinying; Zhao, Yingguang

    2013-03-01

    In recent years, many epidemiological and toxicological studies have investigated the adverse effects of air particulate matter (PM) on the cardiovascular system. However, it is difficult for the researchers to have a timely and effective overall command of the latest characteristics and popular topics in such a wide field. Different from the previous reviews, in which the research characteristics and trends are empirically concluded by experts, we try to have a comprehensive evaluation of the above topics for the first time by bibliometric analysis, a quantitative tool in information exploration. This study aims to introduce the bibliometric method into the field of PM and cardiovascular system. The articles were selected by searching PubMed/MEDLINE (from 2007 to 2012) using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms "particulate matter" and "cardiovascular system". A total of 935 eligible articles and 1895 MeSH terms were retrieved and processed by the software Thomson Data Analyzer (TDA). The bibliographic information and the MeSH terms of these articles were classified and analyzed to summarize the research characteristics. The top 200 high-frequency MeSH terms (the cumulative frequency percentage was 74.2%) were clustered for popular-topic conclusion. We summarized the characteristics of published articles, of researcher collaborations and of the contents. Ten clusters of MeSH terms are presented. Six popular topics are concluded and elaborated for reference. Our study presents an overview of the characteristics and popular topics in the field of PM and cardiovascular system in the past five years by bibliometric tools, which may provide a new perspective for future researchers. PMID:23480197

  9. Effect of early intensive multifactorial therapy on 5-year cardiovascular outcomes in individuals with type 2 diabetes detected by screening (ADDITION-Europe)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griffin, Simon J; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Davies, Melanie J;

    2011-01-01

    Intensive treatment of multiple cardiovascular risk factors can halve mortality among people with established type 2 diabetes. We investigated the effect of early multifactorial treatment after diagnosis by screening....

  10. Advancing cardiovascular tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truskey, George A.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular tissue engineering offers the promise of biologically based repair of injured and damaged blood vessels, valves, and cardiac tissue. Major advances in cardiovascular tissue engineering over the past few years involve improved methods to promote the establishment and differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), scaffolds from decellularized tissue that may produce more highly differentiated tissues and advance clinical translation, improved methods to promote vascularization, and novel in vitro microphysiological systems to model normal and diseased tissue function. iPSC technology holds great promise, but robust methods are needed to further promote differentiation. Differentiation can be further enhanced with chemical, electrical, or mechanical stimuli. PMID:27303643

  11. Comparison of the bronchoconstrictor and cardiovascular effects of some tachykinins in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, V; Biggs, D F

    1987-03-01

    The effects of three tachykinins [substance P (SP), physalaemin (PH), and eledoisin-related peptide (ERP)] were investigated in anesthetized paralyzed guinea pigs. We measured airway resistance (R) and dynamic thoracic elastance (E) with a computerized technique, and blood pressure via a carotid artery. Tachykinins injected iv or intra-aortically (ia) induced dose-dependent increases in R and E, 4 times greater on iv than ia injection. They did not give rise to tachyphylaxis. As a bronchoconstrictor, PH was 5.0X and ERP 1.8X more potent than SP; time to peak response was longer for PH than for ERP and SP; and hypotensive responses, which were of similar magnitude for all three substances, lasted longest after PH. Bronchoconstrictor responses were unaltered by bilateral vagotomy, atropine, mecamylamine, and mepyramine. Morphine reduced PH-induced increases in R (P less than 0.01) and E (P less than 0.05), which were not reversed by naloxone, and capsaicin treatment 1 week before the experiments reduced both SP- and PH-induced increases in E (P less than 0.05). [D-Pro2,D-Trp7,9]-SP reduced ERP-induced increases in R and E, and [D-Arg1,D-Pro2,D-Trp7,9,Leu11]-SP reduced both SP- and PH-induced increases in R and E. We conclude that PH is the most potent bronchoconstrictor of the tachykinins tested. Tachykinin-induced bronchospasm is 'non-reflex' arising via a direct effect on airway smooth muscle; the release of histamine, acetylcholine, or other tachykinins is not involved in the responses. [D-Pro2,D-Trp7,9]-SP is more effective at SP-E receptors, and [D-Arg1,D-Pro2,D-Trp7,9,Leu11]-SP at SP-P receptors; both types of receptor are located all along the airways. PMID:2434817

  12. Effects of a carbohydrate-restricted diet on emerging plasma markers for cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dell'Ova Carly

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing evidence supports carbohydrate restricted diets (CRD for weight loss and improvement in traditional markers for cardiovascular disease (CVD; less is known regarding emerging CVD risk factors. We previously reported that a weight loss intervention based on a CRD (% carbohydrate:fat:protein = 13:60:27 led to a mean weight loss of 7.5 kg and a 20% reduction of abdominal fat in 29 overweight men. This group showed reduction in plasma LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides and elevations in HDL-cholesterol as well as reductions in large and medium VLDL particles and increases in LDL particle size. In this study we report on the effect of this intervention with and without fiber supplementation on plasma homocysteine, lipoprotein (a [Lp(a], C-reactive protein (CRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α. Methods Twenty nine overweight men [body mass index (BMI 25–35 kg/m2] aged 20–69 years consumed an ad libitum CRD (% carbohydrate:fat:protein = 13:60:27 including a standard multivitamin every other day for 12 wk. Subjects were matched by age and BMI and randomly assigned to consume 3 g/d of either a soluble fiber supplement (n = 14 or placebo (n = 15. Results There were no group or interaction (fiber × time main effects, but significant time effects were observed for several variables. Energy intake was spontaneously reduced (-30.5%. This was accompanied by an increase in protein intake (96.2 ± 29.8 g/d to 107.3 ± 29.7 g/d and methionine intake (2.25 ± 0.7 g/d, to 2.71 ± 0.78 g/d; P P P P Conclusion A diet based on restricting carbohydrates leads to spontaneous caloric reduction and subsequent improvement in emerging markers of CVD in overweight/obese men who are otherwise healthy.

  13. Depression and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Steven M; Rumsfeld, John S

    2015-10-01

    There is a wealth of evidence linking depression to increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and worse outcomes among patients with known CVD. In addition, there are safe and effective treatments for depression. Despite this, depression remains under-recognized and undertreated in patients at risk for or living with CVD. In this review, we first summarize the evidence linking depression to increased risk of CVD and worse patient outcomes. We then review the mechanisms by which depression may contribute to cardiovascular risk and poor cardiovascular outcomes. We then summarize prior studies of depression treatment on cardiovascular outcomes. Finally, we offer guidance in the identification and management of depression among CVD populations. Given that 1 in 4 CVD patients has concurrent depression, application of these best-practices will assist providers in achieving optimal outcomes for their CVD patients. PMID:25850976

  14. The effectiveness of screening for diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk factors in a community pharmacy setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Willis

    Full Text Available Risk factors for cardiovascular disease including diabetes have seen a large rise in prevalence in recent years. This has prompted interest in prevention through the identifying individuals at risk of both diabetes and cardiovascular disease and has seen increased investment in screening interventions taking place in primary care. Community pharmacies have become increasingly involved in the provision of such interventions and this systematic review and meta-analysis aims to gather and analyse the existing literature assessing community pharmacy based screening for risk factors for diabetes and those with a high cardiovascular disease risk.We conducted systematic searches of electronic databases using MeSH and free text terms from 1950 to March 2012. For our analysis two outcomes were assessed. They were the percentage of those screened who were referred for further assessment by primary care and the uptake of this referral.Sixteen studies fulfilled our inclusion criteria comprising 108,414 participants screened. There was significant heterogeneity for all included outcomes. Consequently we have not presented summary statistics and present forest plots with I2 and p values to describe heterogeneity. We found that all included studies suffered from high rates of attrition between pharmacy screening and follow up. We have also identified a strong trend towards higher rates for referral in more recent studies.Our results show that pharmacies are feasible sites for screening for diabetes and those at risk of cardiovascular disease. A significant number of previously unknown cases of cardiovascular disease risk factors such as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes are identified, however a significant number of referred participants at high risk do not attend their practitioner for follow up. Research priorities should include methods of increasing uptake to follow up testing and early intervention, to maximise the efficacy of screening

  15. Modulatory effect of semelil (ANGIPARS™) on isoproterenol induced cardiac injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joukar, Siyavash; Najafipour, Hamid; Mirzaeipour, Fateme; Nasri, Hamidreza; Ahmadi, Mahboubeh Yeganeh Haj; Badinloo, Marziyeh

    2013-01-01

    Administration of semelil (ANGIPARS™) has been successful in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcer. Considering the improvement of blood flow and anti-inflammatory effect that are attributed to this drug, we investigated its effect on cardiovascular performance in rabbits with isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial injury. Animal groups included: control group; ISO group, received ISO 50 mg/kg s.c. for two consecutive days; S1+ISO, S5+ISO and S10+ISO groups, received semelil 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg/day i.p. respectively, 30 min before ISO. On the 3(rd) day, electrocardiogram (ECG) and hemodynamic parameters were recorded; blood samples were taken and hearts were removed for lab investigations. ISO induced heart injury, ECG disturbance, raise of cardiac troponin I and significant decrease in LVSP (p<0.05), +dp/dt max (p<0.01), -dp/dt max (p<0.05) along with increase of LVEDP (p<0.01). Semelil had no significant effects on ECG and plasma cardiac troponin I. Impairment of +dp/dt max and -dp/dt max was significantly improved in S5+ISO and S10+ISO groups (P<0.05 versus ISO). In addition, LVSP and LVEDP was somewhat recovered in these groups, although semelil (1 mg/kg/day) to some extent exacerbated the myocardial lesions induced by ISO (P<0.05). Therefore, in stressful conditions, semelil may improve myocardial contractility; however, it may aggravate the severity of injury. PMID:26417221

  16. Modelos experimentales de enfermedad cardiovascular Experimental models of cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gil Hernández

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo describe los modelos experimentales de utilidad clínica en el estudio de las enfermedades cardiovasculares y hace énfasis en los modelos usados para determinar los mecanismos fisiopatológicos de la aterosclerosis, así como para evaluar los efectos de productos nutricionales y farmacológicos sobre el desarrollo de este proceso inflamatorio complejo común a muchas enfermedades cardiovasculares. Se revisan los modelos animales en los que se puede inducir aterosclerosis por cambios en la composición de la dieta y los modelos animales en los que la alteración de uno o más genes (animales knock-out y knock-in, o la incorporación de genes foráneos de otras especies, da lugar a la aparición de hiperlipidemia con riesgo asociado de aparición de enfermedad cardiovascular temprana. Por otra parte, se consideran algunas de las líneas celulares más utilizadas en el estudio de los mecanismos moleculares de la aterogénesis y de evaluación de sustancias con interés nutricional o farmacológico.The present work describes clinically useful experimental models for the study of cardiovascular disease and emphasites the models used to determine the pathophysiologic mechanisms of atherosclerosis, as well as to evaluate the effects of nutritional and pharmacological products on the development of this complex inflammatory process present in many cardiovascular diseases. Animal models in which ahterosclerosis may be induced by dietary changes are reviewed, as well as those in which modification in one or more genes (knock-out and knock-in animals, or the incorporation of foreign genes from other species lead to early cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, some of the cell lines most frequently used in studying molecular mechanisms of atherosclerosis and assessment of substances with nutritional or pharmacological interest are considered.

  17. Effects of the angiotensin-receptor blocker telmisartan on cardiovascular events in high-risk patients intolerant to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: a randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NN, NN; Yusuf, S; Teo, K;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors reduce major cardiovascular events, but are not tolerated by about 20% of patients. We therefore assessed whether the angiotensin-receptor blocker telmisartan would be effective in patients intolerant to ACE inhibitors with cardiovascular...... group). INTERPRETATION: Telmisartan was well tolerated in patients unable to tolerate ACE inhibitors. Although the drug had no significant effect on the primary outcome of this study, which included hospitalisations for heart failure, it modestly reduced the risk of the composite outcome...

  18. Effectiveness of programmes as part of primary prevention demonstrated on the example of cardiovascular diseases and the metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korczak, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The HTA-report (HTA = Health Technology Assessment deals with the primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus type 2. In 2009 approximately 356,000 people died in Germany due to cardiovascular diseases. According to estimations about 6.3 million people are suffering from diabetes mellitus type 2. The interventions that are subsidized by the public health insurance are mainly focused on sufficient physical activities, healthy nutrition, stress management and the reduction of the consumption of addictive drugs and luxury food. Objectives: Which lifestyle-related measures and/or programmes for primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases and of the metabolic syndrome are effective? To what extent will the health status be improved by these offers? To what extent will existing health resources and skills be strengthened by these offers? Are there any differences regarding the effectiveness among the interventions with respect to different settings or subgroups? Which lifestyle-related interventions and/or programmes for primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases and of the metabolic syndrome are sustainable and cost-effective? Which outcome parameters are in the view of the contributors decisive for the evaluation of the effectiveness? In the view of the contributor are there different values between the outcome parameters? In the view of the payers and other actors are there different values between the outcome parameters? Which ethical and juridical factors have to be considered? Which social and/or socio-economic parameters influence the use of the services and effectiveness? Methods: A systematic literature research is done in 35 databases. For the period 2005 to 2010, reviews, epidemiological and clinical studies as well as economical evaluations which deal with primary prevention programmes regarding cardiovascular diseases or the metabolic syndrome are included. Results: 44 publications meet the

  19. Effect of Voluntary Ethanol Consumption Combined with Testosterone Treatment on Cardiovascular Function in Rats: Influence of Exercise Training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila A Engi

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of voluntary ethanol consumption combined with testosterone treatment on cardiovascular function in rats. Moreover, we investigated the influence of exercise training on these effects. To this end, male rats were submitted to low-intensity training on a treadmill or kept sedentary while concurrently being treated with ethanol for 6 weeks. For voluntary ethanol intake, rats were given access to two bottles, one containing ethanol and other containing water, three 24-hour sessions per week. In the last two weeks (weeks 5 and 6, animals underwent testosterone treatment concurrently with exercise training and exposure to ethanol. Ethanol consumption was not affected by either testosterone treatment or exercise training. Also, drug treatments did not influence the treadmill performance improvement evoked by training. However, testosterone alone, but not in combination with ethanol, reduced resting heart rate. Moreover, combined treatment with testosterone and ethanol reduced the pressor response to the selective α1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine. Treatment with either testosterone or ethanol alone also affected baroreflex activity and enhanced depressor response to acetylcholine, but these effects were inhibited when drugs were coadministrated. Exercise training restored most cardiovascular effects evoked by drug treatments. Furthermore, both drugs administrated alone increased pressor response to phenylephrine in trained animals. Also, drug treatments inhibited the beneficial effects of training on baroreflex function. In conclusion, the present results suggest a potential interaction between toxic effects of testosterone and ethanol on cardiovascular function. Data also indicate that exercise training is an important factor influencing the effects of these substances.

  20. Effect of L- Arginine On Electrocardiographic Changes Induced By Hypercholesterolemia And Isoproterenol In Rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Pradeep; Goyal, Manish; Agarwal, J L

    2009-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia, a well-known cardiovascular risk factor, is associated with prolonged action potential duration, longer QTc intervals (rate controlled QT interval), suggested that Hypercholesterolemia may have a direct effect on ventricular repolarization. Hypercholesterolemia was induced in rabbits and L-arginine was given orally to animals for sixteen weeks. The isoproterenol was injected in all the animals to produce electrocardiographic changes. ECG was recorded in lead II at start ...

  1. Evaluation of cardioprotective effect of silk cocoon (Abresham) on isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ritesh Kumar Srivastav; Hefazat Hussain Siddiqui; Tarique Mahmood; Farogh Ahsan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The study was conducted to evaluate cardioprotective effect of silk cocoon (Abresham) Bombyx mori (B. mori) on isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction. This study deals with the cocoons, which is called Abresham in the Unani system of medicine. It is one of the 64 drugs which Avicenna has mentioned in Avicenna’s tract on cardiac drugs and used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Abresham is a chief ingredient of the two very famous Unani formulation viz. Khamira Abresha...

  2. Acute effect of amiodarone on cardiovascular reflexes of normotensive and renal hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira P.F.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of amiodarone on mean arterial pressure (MAP, heart rate (HR, baroreflex, Bezold-Jarisch, and peripheral chemoreflex in normotensive and chronic one-kidney, one-clip (1K1C hypertensive rats (N = 9 to 11 rats in each group. Amiodarone (50 mg/kg, iv elicited hypotension and bradycardia in normotensive (-10 ± 1 mmHg, -57 ± 6 bpm and hypertensive rats (-37 ± 7 mmHg, -39 ± 19 bpm. The baroreflex index (deltaHR/deltaMAP was significantly attenuated by amiodarone in both normotensive (-0.61 ± 0.12 vs -1.47 ± 0.14 bpm/mmHg for reflex bradycardia and -1.15 ± 0.19 vs -2.63 ± 0.26 bpm/mmHg for reflex tachycardia and hypertensive rats (-0.26 ± 0.05 vs -0.72 ± 0.16 bpm/mmHg for reflex bradycardia and -0.92 ± 0.19 vs -1.51 ± 0.19 bpm/mmHg for reflex tachycardia. The slope of linear regression from deltapulse interval/deltaMAP was attenuated for both reflex bradycardia and tachycardia in normotensive rats (-0.47 ± 0.13 vs -0.94 ± 0.19 ms/mmHg and -0.80 ± 0.13 vs -1.11 ± 0.13 ms/mmHg, but only for reflex bradycardia in hypertensive rats (-0.15 ± 0.02 vs -0.23 ± 0.3 ms/mmHg. In addition, the MAP and HR responses to the Bezold-Jarisch reflex were 20-30% smaller in amiodarone-treated normotensive or hypertensive rats. The bradycardic response to peripheral chemoreflex activation with intravenous potassium cyanide was also attenuated by amiodarone in both normotensive (-30 ± 6 vs -49 ± 8 bpm and hypertensive rats (-34 ± 13 vs -42 ± 10 bpm. On the basis of the well-known electrophysiological effects of amiodarone, the sinus node might be the responsible for the attenuation of the cardiovascular reflexes found in the present study.

  3. The long-term effects of phase advance shifts of photoperiod on cardiovascular parameters as measured by radiotelemetry in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiovascular parameters, such as blood pressure and heart rate, exhibit both circadian and ultradian rhythms which are important for the adequate functioning of the system. For a better understanding of possible negative effects of chronodisruption on the cardiovascular system we studied circadian and ultradian rhythms of blood pressure and heart rate in rats exposed to repeated 8 h phase advance shifts of photoperiod. The experiment lasted 12 weeks, with three shifts per week. Spectral power as a function of frequency for both circadian and harmonic ultradian rhythms was expressed as the circadian–ultradian power ratio. The circadian rhythms of blood pressure, heart rate and locomotor activity were recorded during the control light:dark (LD) regimen with higher values during the D in comparison with the L. Phase advance shifts resulted in a diminished circadian–ultradian power ratio for blood pressure, heart rate and locomotor activity indicating suppressed circadian control of these traits greater in heart rate than blood pressure. In conclusion, rats kept under irregular LD conditions have suppressed circadian control of heart rate, blood pressure and locomotor activity and rely more on an acute response to the LD regime. Their ability to anticipate regular loads can be weakened and in this way chronodisruption can contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. (paper)

  4. Artificial sweeteners produce the counterintuitive effect of inducing metabolic derangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swithers, Susan E

    2013-09-01

    The negative impact of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages on weight and other health outcomes has been increasingly recognized; therefore, many people have turned to high-intensity sweeteners like aspartame, sucralose, and saccharin as a way to reduce the risk of these consequences. However, accumulating evidence suggests that frequent consumers of these sugar substitutes may also be at increased risk of excessive weight gain, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. This paper discusses these findings and considers the hypothesis that consuming sweet-tasting but noncaloric or reduced-calorie food and beverages interferes with learned responses that normally contribute to glucose and energy homeostasis. Because of this interference, frequent consumption of high-intensity sweeteners may have the counterintuitive effect of inducing metabolic derangements. PMID:23850261

  5. Central effects of the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55212-2 on respiratory and cardiovascular regulation in anaesthetised rats

    OpenAIRE

    Pfitzer, Torsten; Niederhoffer, Nathalie; Szabo, Bela

    2004-01-01

    The primary aim was to study the central respiratory effects of cannabinoids (CB). To this end, the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55212-2 was injected into the cisterna magna of urethane-anaesthetised rats and changes in respiratory parameters were observed. The secondary aim was to observe the centrally elicited cardiovascular actions of WIN55212-2. Involvement of opioid mechanisms in the central effects of WIN55212-2 was also studied.Intracisternal (i.c.) application of WIN55212-2 (1, 3, ...

  6. Cardiovascular Calcification and Bone : A Comparison of the Effects of Dietary and Serum Vitamin K and its Dependent Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoll, Rachel; McLaren Howard, John; Michael Y. Henein

    2015-01-01

    This review compares the effect of vitamin K on cardiovascular (CV) calcification and bone health and shows that, in principal, the γ-carboxylation of the vitamin K-dependent proteins matrix Gla protein (MGP) and its bone equivalent osteocalcin (OC), generally ensures that hydroxyapatite is kept out of the CV system and is deposited in bone. This is an important finding, since there is currently no reliable treatment for CV calcification.Vitamin K2 (menaquinone) may be more effective in the a...

  7. The effects of exercise on blood flow with reference to the human cardiovascular system: a finite element study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sud, V. K.; Srinivasan, R. S.; Charles, J. B.; Bungo, M. W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on a theoretical investigation into the effects of vasomotion on blood through the human cardiovascular system. The finite element method has been used to analyse the model. Vasoconstriction and vasodilation may be effected either through the action of the central nervous system or autoregulation. One of the conditions responsible for vasomotion is exercise. The proposed model has been solved and quantitative results of flows and pressures due to changing the conductances of specific networks of arterioles, capillaries and venules comprising the arms, legs, stomach and their combinations have been obtained.

  8. Effects of micronized progesterone added to non-oral estradiol on lipids and cardiovascular risk factors in early postmenopause: a clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casanova Gislaine

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much attention has been drawn to the deleterious effects of adding progestins to estrogen as hormone therapy (HT in postmenopausal women. Some widely prescribed progestins have been shown to partially oppose the beneficial effects of estrogens on surrogate markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. Progestins with higher androgenic activity may interfere with lipid profile and glucose tolerance, and could affect mechanisms of estrogen-induced C-reactive protein (CRP stimulation. Recent data have shown that norpregnane derivatives, but not micronized progesterone, increase the risk of venous thromboembolism among transdermal estrogens users. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of combining micronized progesterone with non-oral estrogen therapy on lipid profile and cardiovascular risk factors in a sample of early postmenopausal women. Methods Clinical trial including 40 women receiving intranasal 17β estradiol 3 mg/day for two months and 46 women receiving percutaneous 17β estradiol gel 1.5 mg/day for three months (E2. Both groups received an additional 200 mg/day of micronized progesterone by vaginal route 14 days/month (E2+P. Outcome measures included body weight, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI, lipid profile and ultra-sensitive C-reactive protein (usCRP at baseline and during the E2 or E2+P portions of treatment. Results Mean age was 51±3 years. Mean time since menopause was 22.2±10 months. Most participants were overweight; HT did not change BMI. E2 and E2+P did not affect waist circumference and weight. Menopausal symptoms improved after HT. The effects of intranasal and percutaneous estradiol were similar, regardless of the addition of progesterone. Similarly, for the overall group of 86 women, micronized progesterone did not alter the response to E2. Blood pressure, glucose, insulin, HDL-c, triglycerides, and usCRP remained constant with or without micronized progesterone. Total

  9. Effects of acupuncture on behavioral, cardiovascular and hormonal responses in restraint-stressed Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães C.M.; Pinge M.C.M.; Yamamura Y.; Mello L.E.A.M.

    1997-01-01

    Stress is a well-known entity and may be defined as a threat to the homeostasis of a being. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of acupuncture on the physiological responses induced by restraint stress. Acupuncture is an ancient therapeutic technique which is used in the treatment and prevention of diseases. Its proposed mechanisms of action are based on the principle of homeostasis. Adult male Wistar EPM-1 rats were divided into four groups: group I (N = 12), unrestrained rats wit...

  10. Syndrom-Pathogen Effect of Ozone Therapy and Nauheim Baths on Patients with Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena I. Sycheva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite different theories of atherogenesis, pathogenesis of this disease is, foremost, associated with the lipid storage disease, blood rheological properties, lipid peroxidation. Microcirculation disorders have significant role for pathogenesis of many illnesses, primarily, cardiovascular. Among possible reasons of increased risk of their pathway are the increase in the activity of sympathetic neurovegetative system, psychoemotional tension emergion. Application of ‘gas’ therapy methods, such as ozone therapy and carbon dioxide in the form of Nauheim baths is one of the prospect trends in preventive treatment. The obtained results of these methods application in the course of resort treatment showed positive dynamics for homeostasis indicants. They can serve as an indication for the use of carbon dioxide and, especially, ozone therapy for multifactor preventive treatment of patients with cardiovascular diseases.

  11. Effects of a beta-blocker on the cardiovascular response to MDMA (Ecstasy)

    OpenAIRE

    Hysek, C M; Vollenweider, F X; Liechti, M. E.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, 'Ecstasy') produces tachycardia and hypertension and is rarely associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications. In clinical practice, beta-blockers are often withheld in patients with stimulant intoxication because they may increase hypertension and coronary artery vasospasm due to loss of beta(2)-mediated vasodilation and unopposed alpha-receptor activation. However, it is unknown whether beta-blockers affect the cardiovas...

  12. The effect of soy isoflavone intake on cardiovascular disease risk factors - potential role of equol

    OpenAIRE

    Hazim, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Isoflavones, the subclass of flavonoids found in soybeans, may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the current evidence is inconsistent. The capability to produce the isoflavone metabolite equol in 20-60 % of the population might underlie the benefits of isoflavone intake on vascular health. In a retrospective analysis of a 12-month intervention containing isoflavones (100 mg isoflavones, as aglycones equivalents), postmenopausal women with Type 2 diabetes who were equol...

  13. Effects of Cold Air on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Luo; Shuyu Zhang; Shoucun Ma; Ji Zhou; Baojian Wang

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore possible potential implications of cold air in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in rats. Healthy Wistar rats were exposed to artificial cold air under laboratory conditions, and their systolic blood pressure, heart rate, vasoconstriction, CVD risk factors, and myocardial damage indicators after cold air exposure were determined and evaluated. Systolic blood pressure, whole blood viscosity, and plasma level of norepinephrine, angiot...

  14. Ginseng and Ginkgo Biloba Effects on Cognition as Modulated by Cardiovascular Reactivity: A Randomised Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ong Lai Teik, Derek; Lee, Xiao Shiang; Lim, Chu Jian; Low, Chia Mei; Muslima, Mariyam; Aquili, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Background There is some evidence to suggest that ginseng and Ginkgo biloba can improve cognitive performance, however, very little is known about the mechanisms associated with such improvement. Here, we tested whether cardiovascular reactivity to a task is associated with cognitive improvement. Methodology/Principal findings Using a double-blind, placebo controlled, crossover design, participants (N = 24) received two doses of Panax Ginseng (500, 1000 mg) or Ginkgo Biloba (120, 240 mg) (N =...

  15. The effects of breath-holding on pulmonary regurgitation measured by cardiovascular magnetic resonance velocity mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Babu-Narayan Sonya V; Johansson Bengt; Kilner Philip J

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Pulmonary regurgitation is a common and clinically important residual lesion after repair of tetralogy of Fallot. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) phase contrast velocity mapping is widely used for measurement of pulmonary regurgitant fraction. Breath-hold acquisitions, usually acquired during held expiration, are more convenient than the non-breath-hold approach, but we hypothesized that breath-holding might affect the amount of pulmonary regurgitation. Methods For...

  16. Cheese and cardiovascular disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Currently, the effect of dairy products on cardiovascular risk is a topic with much debate and conflicting results. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the existing literature regarding the effect of cheese intake and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies included...

  17. Cardiovascular toxicities of biological therapies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    effects. One serious adverse effect is the risk of cardiovascular dysfunction. Some targeted therapies, eg, treatment with monoclonal antibodies or angiogenesis inhibitors, have shown an increased risk of cardiac events. Their influence on the cardiovascular system, however, seems to be transient, but...

  18. Effect of Piper sarmentosum Extract on the Cardiovascular System of Diabetic Sprague-Dawley Rats: Electron Microscopic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zar Chi Thent

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Piper sarmentosum (PS is known to possess the antidiabetic properties, its efficacy towards diabetic cardiovascular tissues is still obscured. The present study aimed to observe the electron microscopic changes on the cardiac tissue and proximal aorta of experimental rats treated with PS extract. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: untreated control group (C, PS-treated control group (CTx, untreated diabetic group (D, and PS-treated diabetic group (DTx. Intramuscular injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 50 mg/kg body weight was given to induce diabetes. Following 28 days of diabetes induction, PS extract (0.125 g/kg body weight was administered orally for 28 days. Body weight, fasting blood glucose, and urine glucose levels were measured at 4-week interval. At the end of the study, cardiac tissues and the aorta were viewed under transmission electron microscope (TEM. DTx group showed increase in body weight and decrease in fasting blood glucose and urine glucose level compared to the D group. Under TEM study, DTx group showed lesser ultrastructural degenerative changes in the cardiac tissues and the proximal aorta compared to the D group. The results indicate that PS restores ultrastructural integrity in the diabetic cardiovascular tissues.

  19. Efeitos neuromusculares e cardiovasculares do pipecurônio: estudo comparativo entre diferentes doses Efectos neuromusculares y cardiovasculares del pipecuronio: estudio comparativo entre diferentes dosis Neuromuscular and cardiovascular effects of pipecuronium: a comparative study between different dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica de Fátima de Assunção Braga

    2008-12-01

    del pancuronio, pero desprovisto de efectos cardiovasculares. Se evaluaron los efectos neuromusculares, condiciones de intubación traqueal y las repercusiones hemodinámicas de de los diferentes dosis de pipecuronio. MÉTODO: Los pacientes fueron distribuidos en de los grupos de acuerdo a la dosis de pipecuronio: Grupo I (0,04 mg.kg-1 y Grupo II (0,05 mg.kg-1. La medicación preanestésica consistió en midazolam (0,1 mg.kg-1 por vía muscular, 30 minutos antes de la operación. La inducción anestésica se obtuvo con propofol (2,5 mg.kg-1 precedido del fentanil (5 µg.kg-1 y del pipecuronio en las dosis de 0,04 y 0,05 mg.kg-1 para los Grupos I y II, respectivamente. Los pacientes se ventilaron con O2 a 100% bajo máscara hasta la reducción de un 75% de la amplitud de la respuesta al estímulo aislado (1 Hz, cuando fueron realizadas la laringoscopía y la intubación traqueal. El isoflurano (0,5 a 1% en mezcla de O2 y N(20 a un 50% para el mantenimiento de la anestesia, fue introducido a continuación de la intubación traqueal. Los pacientes fueron ventilados mecánicamente para mantener el P ET CO2 entre 32 y 36 mmHg. La farmacodinámica del pipecuronio se evaluó por aceleromiografía. RESULTADOS: Los tiempos promedios y desviaciones estándar para el inicio de acción, duración clínica (T1(25% e índice de recuperación (T1(25-75% fueron los siguientes: Grupo I (122,10 ± 4,18 seg, 49,63 ± 9,54 min y 48,21 ± 6,72 min y Grupo II (95,78 ± 8,91 seg, 64,84 ± 13,13 min y 48,52 ± 4,95 min. El inicio de acción, la duración clínica y las condiciones de intubación traqueal fueron significativamente diferentes entre los grupos. CONCLUSIONES: El pipecuronio, en la dosis 0,05 mg.kg-1 puede ser usado en procedimientos de larga duración donde se desee evitar alteraciones cardiocirculatorias.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pipecuronium is a non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocker with similar properties to pancuronium, but without cardiovascular effects. Neuromuscular

  20. Hormone Replacement Therapy and cardiovascular disease: Differential effects of the regimes Medroxyprogesterone Acetate plus 17ß- estradiol and unopposed 17ß- estradiol

    OpenAIRE

    Arias-Loza, Anahi-Paula

    2008-01-01

    A rising percentage of women with risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) reach menopause and experience postmenopausal symptoms. In consequence they require assessment concerning the appropriate combination and safety of a hormone replacement therapy. Clinical trials using the combination of equine estrogens and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) reported an increased risk of thromboembolic events and no cardiovascular protective effects in women receiving this type of hormone replaceme...

  1. Cardiovascular effects of intravenous bolus administration and infusion of ketamine-midazolam in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, J D; Hartsfield, S M

    1993-10-01

    Cardiovascular effects of IV administered ketamine (10 mg/kg) and midazolam (0.5 mg/kg) were determined in 12 healthy isoflurane-anesthetized (1.7% end-tidal concentration) dogs. Six dogs received a ketamine-midazolam combination (K-M) as a bolus over 30 seconds and 6 dogs received K-M as an infusion over 15 minutes. Ketamine-midazolam combination as a bolus and an infusion caused early significant (P dogs of the infusion group and returned to the baseline value near the end of the study. One dog died after K-M bolus administration. Mean maximal decreases from baseline for systemic blood pressure, cardiac index, and stroke index were significantly (P dogs of the bolus group than in dogs of the infusion group; therefore, cardiovascular effects of K-M after infusion were less severe than those after bolus. Base excess and pHa decreased significantly (P infusion group, although similar changes occurred in both groups. Four dogs were maintained with 1.7% end-tidal isoflurane to determine temporal effects of isoflurane; these dogs did not receive K-M. Increases in heart rate, cardiac index, stroke index, and left and right ventricular stroke work indexes were significant (P < 0.05) at various sample collection intervals, particularly during the later stages of the study. Isoflurane anesthesia effectively blocked the cardiostimulatory properties of K-M.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8250398

  2. Replacement of salt by a novel potassium- and magnesium-enriched salt alternative improves the cardiovascular effects of ramipril.

    OpenAIRE

    Mervaala, E. M.; Paakkari, I.; Laakso, J; Nevala, R.; Teräväinen, T. M.; Fyhrquist, F; Vapaatalo, H.; Karppanen, H.

    1994-01-01

    1. The influence of salt (sodium chloride; NaCl) (an additional 6% in the diet) and that of a novel sodium-reduced, potassium-, magnesium-, and L-lysine-enriched salt alternative on the cardiovascular effects of ramipril was studied in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats in a 6-week study. The intake of sodium chloride was adjusted to the same level by adding the salt alternative at a 1.75 times higher amount than regular salt. 2. Salt produced a marked rise in blood pressure and ind...

  3. Diet and Exercise Interventions among Overweight and Obese Lactating Women: Randomized Trial of Effects on Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Brekke, Hilde K; Bertz, Fredrik; Rasmussen, Kathleen M.; Bosaeus, Ingvar; Ellegård, Lars; Winkvist, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the effects of Diet (D) and Exercise (E) interventions on cardiovascular fitness, waist circumference, blood lipids, glucose metabolism, inflammation markers, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and blood pressure in overweight and obese lactating women. Methods At 10–14 wk postpartum, 68 Swedish women with a self-reported pre-pregnancy BMI of 25–35 kg/m2 were randomized to a 12-wk behavior modification treatment with D, E, both or control using a 2×2 factorial design. T...

  4. The effects of time-released garlic powder tablets on multifunctional cardiovascular risk in patients with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabinovich Yevgeny A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The double-blinded placebo-controlled randomized study has been performed in 51 coronary heart disease (CHD patients to estimate the effects of time-released garlic powder tablets Allicor on the values of 10-year prognostic risk of acute myocardial infarction (fatal and non-fatal and sudden death, with the respect of secondary CHD prevention. It has been demonstrated that 12-month treatment with Allicor results in the significant decrease of cardiovascular risk by 1.5-fold in men (p

  5. A review of the epidemiologic literature on the role of environmental arsenic exposure and cardiovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Arsenic is a ubiquitous metalloid in the crust of the earth. Chronic arsenic poisoning is becoming an emerging epidemic in Asia. Epidemiological studies have shown that chronic arsenic poisoning through ingestion of arsenic-contaminated water is associated with various cardiovascular diseases in dose-response relationships. These cardiovascular disorders include carotid atherosclerosis detected by ultrasonography, impaired microcirculation, prolonged QT interval and increased QT dispersion in electrocardiography, and clinical outcomes such as hypertension, blackfoot disease (a unique peripheral vascular disease endemic in southwestern Taiwan), coronary artery disease and cerebral infarction. Chronic arsenic poisoning is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The adverse cardiovascular effects of long-term arsenic exposure may be persistent and/or irreversible. Arsenic-induced cardiovascular diseases in human population may result from the interaction among genetic, environment and nutritional factors. The major adverse cardiovascular effect of chronic arsenic poisoning has been established qualitatively and quantitatively in the high arsenic exposure areas, but the low-dose effect of arsenic on cardiovascular diseases remains to be explored. Cardiovascular death is the major cause of mortality worldwide, and a small increased risk may imply a large quantity of excess mortality

  6. Ozone and cardiovascular injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainaldi Giuseppe

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Air pollution is increasingly recognized as an important and modifiable determinant of cardiovascular diseases in urban communities. The potential detrimental effects are both acute and chronic having a strong impact on morbidity and mortality. The acute exposure to pollutants has been linked to adverse cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction, heart failure and life-threatening arrhythmias. The long-terms effects are related to the lifetime risk of death from cardiac causes. The WHO estimates that air pollution is responsible for 3 million premature deaths each year. The evidence supporting these data is very strong nonetheless, epidemiologic and observational data have the main limitation of imprecise measurements. Moreover, the lack of clinical experimental models makes it difficult to demonstrate the individual risk. The other limitation is related to the lack of a clear mechanism explaining the effects of pollution on cardiovascular mortality. In the present review we will explore the epidemiological, clinical and experimental evidence of the effects of ozone on cardiovascular diseases. The pathophysiologic consequences of air pollutant exposures have been extensively investigated in pulmonary systems, and it is clear that some of the major components of air pollution (e.g. ozone and particulate matter can initiate and exacerbate lung disease in humans 1. It is possible that pulmonary oxidant stress mediated by particulate matter and/or ozone (O3 exposure can result in downstream perturbations in the cardiovasculature, as the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems are intricately associated, and it is well documented that specific environmental toxins (such as tobacco smoke 2 introduced through the lungs can initiate and/or accelerate cardiovascular disease development. Indeed, several epidemiologic studies have proved that there is an association between PM and O3 and the increased incidence of cardiovascular morbidity

  7. The effects of ProAlgaZyme novel algae infusion on metabolic syndrome and markers of cardiovascular health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildreth DeWall J

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic Syndrome, or Syndrome X, is characterized by a set of metabolic and lipid imbalances that greatly increases the risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The syndrome is highly prevalent in the United States and worldwide, and treatments are in high demand. ProAlgaZyme, a novel and proprietary freshwater algae infusion in purified water, has been the subject of several animal studies and has demonstrated low toxicity even with chronic administration at elevated doses. The infusion has been used historically for the treatment of several inflammatory and immune disorders in humans and is considered well-tolerated. Here, the infusion is evaluated for its effects on the cardiovascular risk factors present in metabolic syndrome in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study involving 60 overweight and obese persons, ages 25–60. All participants received four daily oral doses (1 fl oz of ProAlgaZyme (N = 22 or water placebo (N = 30 for a total of 10 weeks, and were encouraged to maintain their normal levels of physical activity. Blood sampling and anthropometric measurements were taken at the beginning of the study period and after 4, 8 and 10 weeks of treatment. Eight participants did not complete the study. Results ProAlgaZyme brought about statistically significant (p Conclusion ProAlgaZyme (4 fl oz daily consumption resulted in significant reductions in weight and blood glucose levels, while significantly improving serum lipid profiles and reducing markers of inflammation, thus improving cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese subjects over a course of 10 weeks with an absence of adverse side effects. Trial Registration US ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00489333

  8. The effect of PVDF-TrFE scaffolds on stem cell derived cardiovascular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitscherich, Pamela; Wu, Siliang; Gordan, Richard; Xie, Lai-Hua; Arinzeh, Treena; Lee, Eun Jung

    2016-07-01

    Recently, electrospun polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and polyvinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene (PVDF-TrFE) scaffolds have been developed for tissue engineering applications. These materials have piezoelectric activity, wherein they can generate electric charge with minute mechanical deformations. Since the myocardium is an electroactive tissue, the unique feature of a piezoelectric scaffold is attractive for cardiovascular tissue engineering applications. In this study, we examined the cytocompatibility and function of pluripotent stem cell derived cardiovascular cells including mouse embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (mES-CM) and endothelial cells (mES-EC) on PVDF-TrFE scaffolds. MES-CM and mES-EC adhered well to PVDF-TrFE and became highly aligned along the fibers. When cultured on scaffolds, mES-CM spontaneously contracted, exhibited well-registered sarcomeres and expressed classic cardiac specific markers such as myosin heavy chain, cardiac troponin T, and connexin43. Moreover, mES-CM cultured on PVDF-TrFE scaffolds responded to exogenous electrical pacing and exhibited intracellular calcium handling behavior similar to that of mES-CM cultured in 2D. Similar to cardiomyocytes, mES-EC also demonstrated high viability and maintained a mature phenotype through uptake of low-density lipoprotein and expression of classic endothelial cell markers including platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and the arterial specific marker, Notch-1. This study demonstrates the feasibility of PVDF-TrFE scaffold as a candidate material for developing engineered cardiovascular tissues utilizing stem cell-derived cells. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1577-1585. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26705272

  9. Neuromedin U causes biphasic cardiovascular effects and impairs baroreflex function in rostral ventrolateral medulla of spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ahmed A; Shahid, Israt Z; Pilowsky, Paul M

    2013-06-01

    Neuromedin U (NMU) causes biphasic cardiovascular and sympathetic responses and attenuates adaptive reflexes in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) and spinal cord in normotensive animal. However, the role of NMU in the pathogenesis of hypertension is unknown. The effect of NMU on baseline cardiorespiratory variables in the RVLM and spinal cord were investigated in urethane-anaesthetized, vagotomized and artificially ventilated male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). Experiments were also conducted to determine the effects of NMU on somatosympathetic and baroreceptor reflexes in the RVLM of SHR and WKY. NMU injected into the RVLM and spinal cord elicited biphasic response, a brief pressor and sympathoexcitatory response followed by a prolonged depressor and sympathoinhibitory response in both hypertensive and normotensive rat models. The pressor, sympathoexcitatory and sympathoinhibitory responses evoked by NMU were exaggerated in SHR. Phrenic nerve amplitude was also increased following intrathecal or microinjection of NMU into the RVLM of both strains. NMU injection into the RVLM attenuated the somatosympathetic reflex in both SHR and WKY. Baroreflex sensitivity was impaired in SHR at baseline and further impaired following NMU injection into the RVLM. NMU did not affect baroreflex activity in WKY. The present study provides functional evidence that NMU can have an important effect on the cardiovascular and reflex responses that are integrated in the RVLM and spinal cord. A role for NMU in the development and maintenance of essential hypertension remains to be determined. PMID:23538213

  10. Effect of Losmapimod on Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients Hospitalized With Acute Myocardial Infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donoghue, Michelle L; Glaser, Ruchira; Cavender, Matthew A;

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: p38 Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-stimulated inflammation is implicated in atherogenesis, plaque destabilization, and maladaptive processes in myocardial infarction (MI). Pilot data in a phase 2 trial in non-ST elevation MI indicated that the p38 MAPK inhibitor losmapimod...... potentially eligible for enrollment if they had been hospitalized with an acute MI and had at least 1 additional predictor of cardiovascular risk. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomized to either twice-daily losmapimod (7.5 mg; n = 1738) or matching placebo (n = 1765) on a background of guideline-recommended...

  11. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance evaluation of aortic stenosis severity using single plane measurement of effective orifice area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Julio

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE is the standard method for the evaluation of the severity of aortic stenosis (AS. Valve effective orifice area (EOA measured by the continuity equation is one of the most frequently used stenotic indices. However, TTE measurement of aortic valve EOA is not feasible or not reliable in a significant proportion of patients. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR has emerged as a non-invasive alternative to evaluate EOA using velocity measurements. The objectives of this study were: 1 to validate a new CMR method using jet shear layer detection (JSLD based on acoustical source term (AST concept to estimate the valve EOA; 2 to introduce a simplified JSLD method not requiring vorticity field derivation. Methods and results We performed an in vitro study where EOA was measured by CMR in 4 fixed stenoses (EOA = 0.48, 1.00, 1.38 and 2.11 cm2 under the same steady flow conditions (4-20 L/min. The in vivo study included eight (8 healthy subjects and 37 patients with mild to severe AS (0.72 cm2 ≤ EOA ≤ 1.71 cm2. All subjects underwent TTE and CMR examinations. EOA was determinated by TTE with the use of continuity equation method (TTECONT. For CMR estimation of EOA, we used 3 methods: 1 Continuity equation (CMRCONT; 2 Shear layer detection (CMRJSLD, which was computed from the velocity field of a single CMR velocity profile at the peak systolic phase; 3 Single plane velocity truncation (CMRSPVT, which is a simplified version of CMRJSLD method. There was a good agreement between the EOAs obtained in vitro by the different CMR methods and the EOA predicted from the potential flow theory. In the in vivo study, there was good correlation and concordance between the EOA measured by the TTECONT method versus those measured by each of the CMR methods: CMRCONT (r = 0.88, CMRJSLD (r = 0.93 and CMRSPVT (r = 0.93. The intra- and inter- observer variability of EOA measurements was 5 ± 5% and 9 ± 5% for

  12. Physical activity, obesity and cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakka, T A; Bouchard, C

    2005-01-01

    Sedentary lifestyle and overweight are major public health, clinical, and economical problems in modern societies. The worldwide epidemic of excess weight is due to imbalance between physical activity and dietary energy intake. Sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy diet, and consequent overweight and obesity markedly increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Regular physical activity 45-60 min per day prevents unhealthy weight gain and obesity, whereas sedentary behaviors such as watching television promote them. Regular exercise can markedly reduce body weight and fat mass without dietary caloric restriction in overweight individuals. An increase in total energy expenditure appears to be the most important determinant of successful exercise-induced weight loss. The best long-term results may be achieved when physical activity produces an energy expenditure of at least 2,500 kcal/week. Yet, the optimal approach in weight reduction programs appears to be a combination of regular physical activity and caloric restriction. A minimum of 60 min, but most likely 80-90 min of moderate-intensity physical activity per day may be needed to avoid or limit weight regain in formerly overweight or obese individuals. Regular moderate intensity physical activity, a healthy diet, and avoiding unhealthy weight gain are effective and safe ways to prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases and to reduce premature mortality in all population groups. Although the efforts to promote cardiovascular health concern the whole population, particular attention should be paid to individuals who are physically inactive, have unhealthy diets or are prone to weight gain. They have the highest risk for worsening of the cardiovascular risk factor profile and for cardiovascular disease. To combat the epidemic of overweight and to improve cardiovascular health at a population level, it is important to develop strategies to increase habitual physical activity and to prevent overweight and obesity in

  13. Efecto del bypass gástrico en el síndrome metabólico y en el riesgo cardiovascular Effect of gastric bypass on the metabolic syndrome and on cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ocón

    2010-02-01

    are a high risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the MS in morbidly obese patients enrolling in a bariatric surgery program and to evaluate the impact of weigh loss induced by gastric bypass on the MS and on the predicted 10-year cardiovascular risk. Material and methods: We studied 46 morbidly obese patients who underwent laparoscopic gastric bypass and were followed for 2 years. MS was defined following the IDF 2005 criteria and the insulin resistance (IR was calculated by using HOMA index. Risk assessment for estimating 10-year ECV risk was carried out according to Framingham score. Results: Before surgery, 67.2% of patients had IR and 60,9% met the definition of the MS. 17.3% of patients had an elevated cardiovascular risk category. 2 years after gastric bypass, the percentage of excess body weight lost was 72%. All patients restored their HOMA index and only 1 patient (3.6% had MS. Resolution of hypertension, disglucemia and dislipemia has been observed in 85%, 93.8% and 95.6% of patients. Estimated cardiovascular risk decreased from 4.5% at baseline to 1% at 2 years after surgery. Conclusions: SM is common in morbidly obese patients. Bypass gastric is associated with an improvement or resolution in cardiovascular risk factors and IR and result in a significant reduction in MS prevalence and of predicted 10-year cardiovascular risk.

  14. Effect of the Postural Challenge on the Dependence of the Cardiovascular Control Complexity on Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida M. Catai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Short-term complexity of heart period (HP and systolic arterial pressure (SAP was computed to detect age and gender influences over cardiovascular control in resting supine condition (REST and during standing (STAND. Healthy subjects (n = 110, men = 55 were equally divided into five groups (21–30; 31–40; 41–50; 51–60; and 61–70 years of age. HP and SAP series were recorded for 15 min at REST and during STAND. A normalized complexity index (NCI based on conditional entropy was assessed. At REST we found that both NCIHP and NCISAP decreased with age in the overall population, but only women were responsible for this trend. During STAND we observed that both NCIHP and NCISAP were unrelated to age in the overall population, even when divided by gender. When the variation of NCI in response to STAND (ΔNCI = NCI at REST-NCI during STAND was computed individually, we found that ΔNCIHP progressively decreased with age in the overall population, and women were again responsible for this trend. Conversely, ΔNCISAP was unrelated to age and gender. This study stresses that the complexity of cardiovascular control and its ability to respond to stressors are more importantly lost with age in women than in men.

  15. Efficacy, effectiveness and real life goal attainment of statins in managing cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naila Goldenberg

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Naila Goldenberg1,2, Charles Glueck11Cholesterol and Metabolism Center of Jewish Hospital, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA; 2University of Cincinnati, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Cincinnati, Ohio, USAAbstract: Statins became available for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia in 1987. Multiple, well-designed, placebo-controlled, double-blind studies revealed that each 1% reduction in serum cholesterol level was associated with about 1% reduction in risk of cardiovascular events. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol reduction to less than 78 mg/dL may be associated with reduction of atheroma burden. Patients with high levels of high specificity C-reactive protein and having LDL cholesterol less than 3.4 mmol/L (130 mg/dL in primary prevention settings benefited from aggressive LDL cholesterol reduction with rosuvastatin over a 2-year period. However, in real life practice, about half of patients who are prescribed statins discontinue the medication by the end of the year. Medication adherence is lower in younger patients, women, and absence of known coronary heart disease. Personal features of the prescribing physician and dispensing pharmacies also affect patients’ compliance. More studies are needed to evaluate if “compliance packets” would benefit patients in a real life situation.Keywords: cardiovascular risk, statin, goal attainment, primary prevention, secondary prevention

  16. Cardiovascular and Postural Control Interactions during Hypergravity: Effects on Cerebral Autoregulation in Males and Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Nandu; Blaber, Andrew; Bareille, Marie-Pierre; Beck, Arnaud; Avan, Paul; Bruner, Michelle; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut

    2012-07-01

    Orthostatic intolerance remains a problem upon return to Earth from the microgravity environment of spaceflight. A variety of conditions including hypovolemia, cerebral vasoconstriction, cerebral or peripheral vascular disease, or cardiac arrhythmias may result in syncope if the person remains upright. Current research indicates that there is a greater dependence on visual and somatosensory information at the beginning of space flight with a decreased otolith gain during prolonged space flight (Herault et al., 2002). The goal of the research is to further our understanding of the fundamental adaptive homeostatic mechanisms involved in gravity related changes in cardiovascular and postural function. Cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and postural sensory motor control systems in male and female participants before, during, and after exposure to graded levels of hyper-G were investigated. Hypotheses: 1) Activation of skeletal muscle pump will be directly related to the degree of orthostatic stress. 2) Simultaneous measurement of heart rate, blood pressure and postural sway will predict cardio-postural stability. Blood pressure and heart rate (means and variability), postural sway, center of pressure (COP), baroreflex function, calf blood flow, middle cerebral artery blood flow, non-invasive intracranial pressure measurements, and two-breath CO2 were measured. Results from the study will be used to provide an integrated insight into mechanisms of cardio-postural control and cerebral autoregulation, which are important aspects of human health in flights to Moon, Mars and distant planets.

  17. Effects of whole-body cryotherapy duration on thermal and cardio-vascular response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonda, Borut; De Nardi, Massimo; Sarabon, Nejc

    2014-05-01

    Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) is the exposure of minimally dressed participants to very cold air, either in a specially designed chamber (cryo-chamber) or cabin (cryo-cabin), for a short period of time. Practitioners are vague when it comes to recommendations on the duration of a single session. Recommended exposure for cryo-chamber is 150s, but no empirically based recommendations are available for a cryo-cabin. Therefore the aim of this study was to examine thermal and cardio-vascular responses after 90, 120, 150 and 180s of WBC in a cryo-cabin. Our hypothesis was that skin temperature would be significantly lower after longer exposers. Twelve male participants (age 23.9±4.2 years) completed four WBC of different durations (90, 120, 150 and 180s) in a cryo-cabin. Thermal response, heart rate and blood pressure were measured prior, immediately after, 5min after and 30min after the session. Skin temperature differed significantly among different durations, except between 150 and 180s. There was no significant difference in heart rate and blood pressure. Thermal discomfort during a single session displayed a linear increase throughout the whole session. Our results indicate that practitioners and clinicians using cryo-cabin for WBC do not need to perform sessions longer than 150s. We have shown that longer sessions do not substantially affect thermal and cardio-vascular response, but do increase thermal discomfort. PMID:24802149

  18. Cardiovascular effects of Zumba® performed in a virtual environment using XBOX Kinect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Luceli Eunice Da Silva; Cerávolo, Mariza Paver Da Silva; Silva, Elisangela; De Freitas, Wagner Zeferino; Da Silva, Fabiano Fernandes; Higino, Wonder Passoni; Carvalho, Wellington Roberto Gomes; De Souza, Renato Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the acute cardiovascular responses during a session of Zumba® Fitness in a virtual reality environment. [Subjects] Eighteen healthy volunteers were recruited. [Methods] The following cardiovascular variables: heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and double product were assessed before and after the practice of virtual Zumba®, which was performed as a continuous sequence of five choreographed movements lasting for 22 min. The game Zumba Fitness Core®, with the Kinect-based virtual reality system for the XBOX 360, was used to create the virtual environment. Comparisons were made among mean delta values (delta=post-Zumba® minus pre-Zumba® values) for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, and double product using Student’s t-test for paired samples. [Results] After a single session, a significant increase was noted in all the analyzed parameters (Systolic blood pressure=18%; Diastolic blood pressure=13%; Heart rate=67%; and Double product=97%). [Conclusion] The results support the feasibility of the use of Zumba Fitness Core® with the Kinect-based virtual reality system for the XBOX 360 in physical activity programs and further favor its indication for this purpose. PMID:26504312

  19. Marijuana Use and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Christopher A; Frishman, William H

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is currently the most used illicit substance in the world. With the current trend of decriminalization and legalization of marijuana in the US, physicians in the US will encounter more patients using marijuana recreationally over a diverse range of ages and health states. Therefore, it is relevant to review marijuana's effects on human cardiovascular physiology and disease. Compared with placebo, marijuana cigarettes cause increases in heart rate, supine systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and forearm blood flow via increased sympathetic nervous system activity. These actions increase myocardial oxygen demand to a degree that they can decrease the time to exercise-induced angina in patients with a history of stable angina. In addition, marijuana has been associated with triggering myocardial infarctions (MIs) in young male patients. Smoking marijuana has been shown to increase the risk of MI onset by a factor of 4.8 for the 60 minutes after marijuana consumption, and to increase the annual risk of MI in the daily cannabis user from 1.5% to 3% per year. Human and animal models suggest that this effect may be due to coronary arterial vasospasm. However, longitudinal studies have indicated that marijuana use may not have a significant effect on long-term mortality. While further research is required to definitively determine the impact of marijuana on cardiovascular disease, it is reasonable to recommend against recreational marijuana use, especially in individuals with a history of coronary artery disorders. PMID:26886465

  20. The Effect of Ambient Temperature on the Cardiovascular Responses to Microgravity as Simulated by six Degrees Head Down Tilt (HDT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangalia, Vishal; Ernsting, John

    Background: To determine the effect of ambient temperature on the thermoregulatory and cardiovascular responses to microgravity as simulated by six degrees head down tilt (HDT). Hypothesis: The thermoregulatory and cardiovascular responses to 6°HDT are unaffected by ambient temperatures between 12° and 32°C. Method: Each of five volunteer subjects (18-24 y.) underwent three separate 6 h exposures in a climatic chamber whilst lying supine with 6°HDT. The ambient temperatures for the first 5 h of the exposure were 12°, 22° and 32°C. At the beginning of the sixth hour, the ambient temperature was either increased or decreased by 10°C depending on the initial temperature. Heart rate, blood pressure, forearm bloodflow, core and skin temperatures, urine output and body weight were measured before, during and after each exposure. Results: Mean arterial pressure was increased in all exposures, though the increase varied with the ambient temperature. Pulse pressure after 5 h HDT increased in the 32°C exposure, remained unchanged at 22°C and decreased at 12°C. The threshold for thermoregulatory increases in forearm vascular conductance was lowered. Core temperature of the body increased in the exposures to 32°C and 22°C. The reduction in body weight (mean 1 kg.) was identical in all exposures whilst the urine output varied with ambient temperature. No significant changes occurred in any variable when the ambient temperature was changed by 10°C at the end of the fifth hour. Conclusions: The cardiovascular responses to 6 h exposure to 6° HDT, are affected by the ambient temperature.

  1. Evaluation of effectiveness of sojourn in a health center of miners with cardiovascular pathology and residual manifestation of craniocerebral trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davydova, N.N.; Nirenburg, K.G.; Kokorina, N.P.; Dyatlova, L.A.; Anikin, B.S.; Pokhlenko, V.B.; Belyaeva, N.G. (Meditsinskii Institut, Kemerovo (USSR))

    1989-02-01

    Evaluates effectiveness of the sojourn in a health center using standard methods of treatment and diet therapy of underground miners of the Kuzbass with early forms of arterial hypertension and manifestations of craniocerebral trauma. Miners were divided into three groups: (1) with hypertension; (2) with neuro-circulatory dystonia; and (3) with craniocerebral trauma. During 24 days at health center, groups 1 and 2 received sedatives, hypertensive medicines and physiotherapy, group 3 biostimulators and dehydrogenating preparations. Changes in conditions of patients were observed. Using the mathematical approach of Markov chains and the method of discrimination of samples to evaluate changes in arterial pressure, stroke volume of blood, pulse, latent period of visual-motor reactions, stability of understanding, and other tests of physiologic status of miners before and after treatment, investigators concluded that a stay in a health center is effective for miners suffering from cardiovascular pathology and mild cerebrocranil trauma under 40 years of age and with an underground work period of less than 10 years. For underground miners suffering cardiovascular pathology and cerebral trauma over 40 years of age and more than 10 years working underground, treatment in a health center at least twice a year is necessary. 5 refs.

  2. CD40L induces inflammation and adipogenesis in adipose cells--a potential link between metabolic and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missiou, Anna; Wolf, Dennis; Platzer, Isabel; Ernst, Sandra; Walter, Carina; Rudolf, Philipp; Zirlik, Katja; Köstlin, Natascha; Willecke, Florian K; Münkel, Christian; Schönbeck, Uwe; Libby, Peter; Bode, Christoph; Varo, Nerea; Zirlik, Andreas

    2010-04-01

    CD40L figures prominently in atherogenesis. Recent data demonstrate elevated levels of sCD40L in the serum of patients with the metabolic syndrome (MS). This study investigated the role of CD40L in pro-inflammatory gene expression and cellular differentiation in adipose tissue to obtain insight into mechanisms linking the MS with atherosclerosis. Human adipocytes and preadipocytes expressed CD40 but not CD40L. Stimulation with recombinant CD40L or membranes over-expressing CD40L induced a time- and dose-dependent expression of IL-6, MCP-1, IL-8, and PAI-1. Supernatants of CD40L-stimulated adipose cells activated endothelial cells, suggesting a systemic functional relevance of our findings. Neutralising antibodies against CD40L attenuated these effects substantially. Signalling studies revealed the involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinases and NFkB. Furthermore, stimulation with CD40L resulted in enhanced activation of C/EBPa and PPARg and promoted adipogenesis of preadipose cells in the presence and absence of standard adipogenic conditions. Finally, patients suffering from the metabolic syndrome with high levels of sCD40L also displayed high levels of IL-6, in line with the concept that CD40L may induce the expression of inflammatory cytokines in vivo in this population. Our data reveal potent metabolic functions of CD40L aside from its known pivotal pro-inflammatory role within plaques. Our data suggest that CD40L may mediate risk at the interface of metabolic and atherothrombotic disease. PMID:20174757

  3. Exercise and the Cardiovascular System

    OpenAIRE

    Saeid Golbidi; Ismail Laher

    2012-01-01

    There are alarming increases in the incidence of obesity, insulin resistance, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The risk of these diseases is significantly reduced by appropriate lifestyle modifications such as increased physical activity. However, the exact mechanisms by which exercise influences the development and progression of cardiovascular disease are unclear. In this paper we review some important exercise-induced changes in cardiac, vascular, and blood tissues and discuss...

  4. Immediate effect of chandra nadi pranayama (left unilateral forced nostril breathing on cardiovascular parameters in hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Recent studies have reported differential physiological and psychological effects produced by exclusive right and left nostril breathing and clinical research is required to prove immediate and sustained efficacy of these techniques in various psychosomatic conditions such as hypertension (HT. The present study was designed to determine immediate effects of 27 rounds of exclusive left nostril breathing, a yogic pranayama technique known as chandra nadi pranayama (CNP on cardiovascular parameters in patients of essential HT. Materials and Methods : Twenty two patients of essential HT under regular standard medical management were individually taught to perform CNP by a qualified yoga instructor with a regularity of 6 breaths/min throughout a performance of 27 rounds of CNP. Pre and post intervention heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP measurements were recorded using non-invasive semi-automatic BP monitor and Students t test for paired data used to determine significant differences. Results : Twenty seven rounds of CNP produced an immediate decrease in all the measured cardiovascular parameters with the decrease in HR, systolic pressure (SP, pulse pressure, rate-pressure product and double product being statistically significant. Further, gender-based sub-analysis of our data revealed that our male participants evidenced significant reductions in HR and SP with an insignificant decrease in diastolic pressure, while in female participants only HR decreased significantly with an insignificant decrease in SP. Discussion and Conclusion : It is concluded that CNP is effective in reducing HR and SP in hypertensive patients on regular standard medical management. To the best of our knowledge, there are no previously published reports on immediate effects of left UFNB in patients of HT and ours is the first to report on this beneficial clinical effect. This may be due to a normalization of autonomic cardiovascular rhythms with increased

  5. In Vitro Cardiovascular Effects of Dihydroartemisin-Piperaquine Combination Compared with Other Antimalarials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumb, William; Pace, Silvia; Ubben, David; Wible, Barb; Yan, Gan-Xin; Funck-Brentano, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The in vitro cardiac properties of dihydroartemisinin (DHA) plus piperaquine phosphate (PQP) were compared with those of other antimalarial compounds. Results with antimalarial drugs, chosen on the basis of their free therapeutic maximum concentration in plasma (Cmax), were expressed as the fold of that particular effect with respect to their Cmax. The following tests were used at 37°C: hERG (human ether-à-go-go-related gene) blockade and trafficking, rabbit heart ventricular preparations, and sodium and slow potassium ion current interference (INa and IKs, respectively). Chloroquine, halofantrine, mefloquine, and lumefantrine were tested in the hERG studies, but only chloroquine, dofetilide, lumefantrine, and the combination of artemether-lumefantrine were used in the rabbit heart ventricular preparations, hERG trafficking studies, and INa and IKs analyses. A proper reference was used in each test. In hERG studies, the high 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of halofantrine, which was lower than its Cmax, was confirmed. All the other compounds blocked hERG, with IC50s ranging from 3- to 30-fold their Cmaxs. In hERG trafficking studies, the facilitative effects of chloroquine at about 30-fold its Cmax were confirmed and DHA blocked it at a concentration about 300-fold its Cmax. In rabbit heart ventricular preparations, dofetilide, used as a positive control, revealed a high risk of torsades de pointes, whereas chloroquine showed a medium risk. Neither DHA-PQP nor artemether-lumefantrine displayed an in vitro signal for a significant proarrhythmic risk. Only chloroquine blocked the INa ion current and did so at about 30-fold its Cmax. No effect on IKs was detected. In conclusion, despite significant hERG blockade, DHA-PQP and artemether-lumefantrine do not appear to induce potential torsadogenic effects in vitro, affect hERG trafficking, or block sodium and slow potassium ion currents. PMID:22391528

  6. Effects of Astaxanthin from Litopenaeus Vannamei on Carrageenan-Induced Edema and Pain Behavior in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkiflee Kuedo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Carrageenan produces both inflammation and pain when injected in mouse paws via enhancement of reactive oxygen species formation. We have investigated an effect of astaxanthin extracted from Litopenaeus vannamei in carrageenan-induced mice paw edema and pain. The current study demonstrates interesting effects from astaxanthin treatment in mice: an inhibition of paw edema induced in hind paw, an increase in mechanical paw withdrawal threshold and thermal paw withdrawal latency, and a reduction in the amount of myeloperoxidase enzyme and lipid peroxidation products in the paw. Furthermore the effect was comparable to indomethacin, a standard treatment for inflammation symptoms. Due to adverse effects of indomethacin on cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems, our study suggests promising prospect of astaxanthin extract as an anti-inflammatory alternative against carrageenan-induced paw edema and pain behavior.

  7. Effects of Astaxanthin from Litopenaeus Vannamei on Carrageenan-Induced Edema and Pain Behavior in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuedo, Zulkiflee; Sangsuriyawong, Anantita; Klaypradit, Wanwimol; Tipmanee, Varomyalin; Chonpathompikunlert, Pennapa

    2016-01-01

    Carrageenan produces both inflammation and pain when injected in mouse paws via enhancement of reactive oxygen species formation. We have investigated an effect of astaxanthin extracted from Litopenaeus vannamei in carrageenan-induced mice paw edema and pain. The current study demonstrates interesting effects from astaxanthin treatment in mice: an inhibition of paw edema induced in hind paw, an increase in mechanical paw withdrawal threshold and thermal paw withdrawal latency, and a reduction in the amount of myeloperoxidase enzyme and lipid peroxidation products in the paw. Furthermore the effect was comparable to indomethacin, a standard treatment for inflammation symptoms. Due to adverse effects of indomethacin on cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems, our study suggests promising prospect of astaxanthin extract as an anti-inflammatory alternative against carrageenan-induced paw edema and pain behavior. PMID:27007359

  8. Progestins and cardiovascular risk markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitruk-Ware, R

    2000-01-01

    Several risks are attributed to progestins as a class-effect; however, the progestins used in hormone replacement therapy (HRT) have varying pharmacologic properties and do not induce the same side effects. Natural progesterone (P) and some of its derivatives, such as the 19-norprogesterones, do not exert any androgenic effect and, hence, have no negative effect on the lipids. On the other hand, the 19-nortestosterone derivatives and even some 17-hydroxyprogesterones have a partial androgenic effect, which may explain some of the negative effects observed on surrogate markers of cardiovascular risk. The relevance of the lipid changes induced by sex steroids has been questioned, and studies in the female cynomolgous monkey have not shown a direct relationship to atherosclerosis. Results suggest that estrogens (E) have antiatherogenic effects and that P does not reverse the beneficial effect of estradiol. Also, sex hormones modulate the vasomotor response of the main arteries. E preserves the normal endothelium-mediated dilation of coronary arteries, and P does not reverse this potential cardioprotective mechanism. In the same animal model, the addition of cyclic or continuous medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) to E inhibited vasodilatation by 50%, while nomegestrol acetate did not diminish the E-induced vasodilatation. Not all progestins act similarly on vasomotion or affect cardiovascular risk factors in the same way. Progestins, such as MPA or norethisterone acetate (NETA), exert a partial detrimental effect on the beneficial actions of estrogens with regard to lipid changes, atheroma development, or vasomotion. In contrast, progesterone itself does not have this inhibitory effect on lipid changes and vascular reactivity in animal models or on exercise-induced myocardial ischemia in humans. Nonandrogenic molecules of P itself and of derivatives, such as 19-norprogesterones, would appear neutral on the vessels. Several ongoing randomized controlled trials of HRT are

  9. Ambient temperature enhanced acute cardiovascular-respiratory mortality effects of PM2.5 in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Ma, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Canjun; Shang, Yu

    2015-12-01

    Studies have shown that temperature could modify the effect of ambient fine particles on mortality risk. In assessing air pollution effects, temperature is usually considered as a confounder. However, ambient temperature can alter people's physiological response to air pollution and might "modify" the impact of air pollution on health outcomes. This study investigated the interaction between daily PM2.5 and daily mean temperature in Beijing, China, using data for the period 2005-2009. Bivariate PM2.5-temperature response surfaces and temperature-stratified generalized additive model (GAM) were applied to study the effect of PM2.5 on cardiovascular, respiratory mortality, and total non-accidental mortality across different temperature levels. We found that low temperature could significantly enhance the effect of PM2.5 on cardiovascular mortality. For an increase of 10 μg/m3 in PM2.5 concentration in the lowest temperature range (-9.7˜2.6 °C), the relative risk (RR) of cardiovascular mortality increased 1.27 % (95 % CI 0.38˜2.17 %), which was higher than that of the whole temperature range (0.59 %, 95 % CI 0.22-1.16 %). The largest effect of PM2.5 on respiratory mortality appeared in the high temperature range. For an increase of 10 μg/m3 in PM2.5 concentration, RR of respiratory mortality increased 1.70 % (95 % CI 0.92˜3.33 %) in the highest level (23.50˜31.80 °C). For the total non-accidental mortality, significant associations appeared only in low temperature levels (-9.7˜2.6 °C): for an increase of 10 μg/m3 in current day PM2.5 concentration, RR increased 1.27 % (95 % CI 0.46˜2.00 %) in the lowest temperature level. No lag effect was observed. The results suggest that in air pollution mortality time series studies, the possibility of an interaction between air pollution and temperature should be considered.

  10. Comparison of the effects of remifentanil andalfentanil on cardiovascular response to nasotracheal intubation: A prospective, randomized, double-blind study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmez, Gonul; Ali Ozyilmaz, Mehmet; Menekse, Ali

    2005-01-01

    Background: Nasotracheal intubation is often necessary in patients undergoingelective or emergency maxillofacial surgery. Previous studies have suggested that the increase in blood pressure after nasotracheal intubation is significantly greater than the increase after orotracheal intubation. Many drugs, including narcotic analgesics, are effective in modifying cardiovascular responses to orotracheal intubation. Objective: The effects of remifentanil and alfentanil on the cardiovascularresponses to nasotracheal intubation were compared in healthy patients scheduled to undergo surgery. Methods: This prospective, randomized, double-blind study was conductedat the Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation, Faculty of Medicine, Dicle University, Diyarbakir, Turkey. Patients aged 16 to 65 years scheduled to undergo elective maxillofacial surgery and who were American Society of Anesthesiologists status I or 11 were randomly assigned to receive remifentanil 1 μg/kg in 10 mL saline over 30 seconds followed by an infusion of 0.5 μg/kg · min, or alfentanil 10 μg/kg in 10 mL saline over 30 seconds followed by an infusion of saline. Anesthesia was then induced with propofol, cisatracurium, and 1% isoflurane with 66% nitrous oxide in oxygen. Heart rate (HR) and systolic and diastolic arterial pressures (SAP and DAP, respectively) were measured noninvasively at 2 minutes before general anesthesia induction (baseline); 2 minutes after induction; and 1, 3, and 5 minutes after nasotracheal intubation. Patients were monitored for cardiac changes using electrocardiography. Results: Forty consecutive patients were enrolled in the study. Twenty patients (11 males, 9 females; mean [SD] age, 27.7 [12.6] years) received remifentanil, and 20 patients (12 males, 8 females; mean [SD] age, 31.5 [17.2] years) received alfentanil. Two minutes after anesthesia induction, mean (SD) arterial pressures decreased significantly from baseline in the remifentanil group (changes, 22 [8]/11 [6] mm

  11. Effects of cold air on cardiovascular disease risk factors in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Bin; Zhang, Shuyu; Ma, Shoucun; Zhou, Ji; Wang, Baojian

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore possible potential implications of cold air in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in rats. Healthy Wistar rats were exposed to artificial cold air under laboratory conditions, and their systolic blood pressure, heart rate, vasoconstriction, CVD risk factors, and myocardial damage indicators after cold air exposure were determined and evaluated. Systolic blood pressure, whole blood viscosity, and plasma level of norepinephrine, angiotensinⅡ, low density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, and fibrinogen in treatment groups increased significantly compared with control groups. No significant variations were found in plasma Mb and cTnT and myocardial tissue between the treatment and control groups. Results indicate that: (1) higher levels of SBP, WBV and LDL/HDL, total cholesterol (TC), and FG in blood may indicate higher CVD risks during cold air exposure; (2) cold air may exert continuous impacts on SBP and other CVD risk factors. PMID:22851943

  12. Effects of Cold Air on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Luo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore possible potential implications of cold air in cardiovascular disease (CVD risk in rats. Healthy Wistar rats were exposed to artificial cold air under laboratory conditions, and their systolic blood pressure, heart rate, vasoconstriction, CVD risk factors, and myocardial damage indicators after cold air exposure were determined and evaluated. Systolic blood pressure, whole blood viscosity, and plasma level of norepinephrine, angiotensinⅡ, low density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, and fibrinogen in treatment groups increased significantly compared with control groups. No significant variations were found in plasma Mb and cTnT and myocardial tissue between the treatment and control groups. Results indicate that: (1 higher levels of SBP, WBV and LDL/HDL, total cholesterol (TC, and FG in blood may indicate higher CVD risks during cold air exposure; (2 cold air may exert continuous impacts on SBP and other CVD risk factors.

  13. Effects of Running on Chronic Diseases and Cardiovascular and All-Cause Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavie, Carl J; Lee, Duck-chul; Sui, Xuemei; Arena, Ross; O'Keefe, James H; Church, Timothy S; Milani, Richard V; Blair, Steven N

    2015-11-01

    Considerable evidence has established the link between high levels of physical activity (PA) and all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD)-specific mortality. Running is a popular form of vigorous PA that has been associated with better overall survival, but there is debate about the dose-response relationship between running and CVD and all-cause survival. In this review, we specifically reviewed studies published in PubMed since 2000 that included at least 500 runners and 5-year follow-up so as to analyze the relationship between vigorous aerobic PA, specifically running, and major health consequences, especially CVD and all-cause mortality. We also made recommendations on the optimal dose of running associated with protection against CVD and premature mortality, as well as briefly discuss the potential cardiotoxicity of a high dose of aerobic exercise, including running (eg, marathons). PMID:26362561

  14. Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.L. Nijhuis (Rogier)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWhereas secondary prevention of cardiovascular events through risk factor modification in patients with known coronary and carotid artery disease is recognised as cost-effective, CVD prevention by drug therapy in asymptomatic individuals has shown only modest benefits and to be relativel

  15. Effects of incremental increases in silt load on the cardiovascular performance of riverine and lacustrine rock bass, Ambloplites rupestris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris) are a widespread centrarchid species with both riverine and lacustrine populations. After precipitation events, rivers often carry elevated silt loads, where as lakes generally remain free from suspended silt and sediment. To examine the physiological effects of silt on rock bass, we conducted a series of experiments using fish from Lake Opinicon and the Grand River in Ontario. Ultrasonic Doppler flow probes were surgically affixed around the ventral aorta to monitor cardiovascular performance. After recovery from surgery replicated treatment groups were exposed to incremental increases in silt load (made from bentonite slurry), while cardiac output and its two components, heart rate and stroke volume, were measured simultaneously. Although both groups of rock bass responded significantly to low concentrations of silt (10 NTU), the response by riverine rock bass was rapidly extinguished by acclimation or physiological adjustment. Compensatory mechanisms to minimize cardiac (and respiratory) disruption attributable to increases in suspended silt appear to be inherent in rock bass of riverine origin. These fish appear to fully compensate for interference in gas exchange at the gill surfaces 60 min after initial exposure. In contrast, individual lacustrine rock bass were highly variable in their response to elevated silt concentrations. Changes in stroke volume and cardiac output suggested no clear compensatory mechanism or strategy to cope with increased silt levels. - Cardiovascular compensation in fish exposed to elevated levels of silt

  16. The effect of a smoking ban on hospitalization rates for cardiovascular and respiratory conditions in Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Gaudreau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This is the first study to have examined the effect of smoking bans on hospitalizations in the Atlantic Canadian socio-economic, cultural and climatic context. On June 1, 2003 Prince Edward Island (PEI enacted a province-wide smoking ban in public places and workplaces. Changes in hospital admission rates for cardiovascular (acute myocardial infarction, angina, and stroke and respiratory (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma conditions were examined before and after the smoking ban. METHODS: Crude annual and monthly admission rates for the above conditions were calculated from April 1, 1995 to December 31, 2008 in all PEI acute care hospitals. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average time series models were used to test for changes in mean and trend of monthly admission rates for study conditions, control conditions and a control province after the comprehensive smoking ban. Age- and sex-based analyses were completed. RESULTS: The mean rate of acute myocardial infarctions was reduced by 5.92 cases per 100,000 person-months (P = 0.04 immediately after the smoking ban. The trend of monthly angina admissions in men was reduced by -0.44 cases per 100,000 person-months (P = 0.01 in the 67 months after the smoking ban. All other cardiovascular and respiratory admission changes were non-significant. CONCLUSIONS: A comprehensive smoking ban in PEI reduced the overall mean number of acute myocardial infarction admissions and the trend of angina hospital admissions.

  17. The effect of urinary cadmium on cardiovascular fitness as measured by VO2 max in white, black and Mexican Americans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: We explored potential effects of cadmium exposure on cardiovascular fitness measures, including gender and racial/ethnic differences. Methods: Data were from the 1999 to 2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); 1963 participating subjects were included in our analysis. Volume of oxygen consumed at sub-maximum activity (VO2 max) were recorded in a series of graded exercises; the goal was to elicit 75% of predetermined age-specific heart rates. Cadmium from urine samples was measured in the laboratory using standard methods. Multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to determine potential relationships. Results: Increased urinary cadmium concentrations were generally associated with decreased estimated VO2 max values. Gender and racial/ethnic differences were also observed. Specifically, associations were statistically significant for white males and Mexican American females. Conclusion: Inverse associations between urinary cadmium concentrations and estimated VO2 max values were observed, including racial and gender differences. The implications of such gender and racial/ethnic differences on long-term cardiovascular health and health disparities of present public health concern warrant further investigation

  18. Adverse effects of androgen deprivation therapy in men with prostate cancer: a focus on metabolic and cardiovascular complications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lauren Collins; Shehzad Basaria

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common malignancy in men.Prostate being an androgen responsive tissue,androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is used in the management of locally advanced (improves survival) and metastatic (improves pain and quality of life) PCa.Over the past two decades,the use of ADT has significantly increased as it is also being used in patients with localized disease and those experiencing biochemical recurrences,though without any evidence of survival advantage.Hypogonadism resulting from ADT is associated with decreased muscle mass and strength,increased fat mass,sexual dysfunction,vasomotor symptoms,decreased quality of life,anemia and bone loss.Insulin resistance,diabetes and cardiovascular disease have recently been added to the list of these complications.As the majority of men with PCa die of conditions other than their primary malignancy,recognition and management of these adverse effects is paramount.Here we review data evaluating metabolic and cardiovascular complications of ADT.

  19. The Impact of Escitalopram on Vagally Mediated Cardiovascular Function to Stress and the Moderating Effects of Vigorous Physical Activity: A Randomised Controlled Treatment Study in Healthy Participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla S Hanson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent concerns over the impact of antidepressant medications, including the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, on cardiovascular function highlight the importance of research on the moderating effects of specific lifestyle factors such as physical activity. Studies in affective neuroscience have demonstrated robust acute effects of SSRIs, yet the impact of SSRIs on cardiovascular stress responses and the moderating effects of physical activity remain to be determined. This was the goal of the present study, which involved a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial of a single-dose of escitalopram (20mg in 44 healthy females; outcomes were heart rate and its variability. Participants engaging in at least 30 minutes of vigorous physical activity at least 3 times per week (regular exercisers showed a more resilient cardiovascular stress response than irregular vigorous exercisers, a finding associated with a moderate effect size (Cohen’s d=0.48. Escitalopram attenuated the cardiovascular stress response in irregular exercisers only (heart rate decreased: Cohen’s d=0.80; heart rate variability increased: Cohen’s d=0.33. Heart rate during stress under escitalopram in the irregular exercisers was similar to that during stress under placebo in regular exercisers.. These findings highlight that the effects of regular vigorous exercise during stress are comparable to the effects of an acute dose of escitalopram, highlighting the beneficial effects of this particular antidepressant in irregular exercisers. Given that antidepressant drugs alone do not seem to protect patients from cardiovascular disease, longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate the impact of exercise on cardiovascular stress responses in patients receiving long-term antidepressant treatment.

  20. Effect of Nifedipine on Dichlorvos-Induced Seizure in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khayatnouri Mirhadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Dichlorvos a synthetic organophosphate poisons is the property of insecticide. These toxins as insecticides in agriculture and medicine for animals and the destruction of ectoparasites can be used. Studies have shown that Dichlorvos creation seizure effects in different animals. Nifedipine, dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, widely used for treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Studies have shown that the calcium channel blockers are anticonvulsant effects in different animal models. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of nifedipine on Dichlorvosinduced seizures in mice. Approach: In this experiment, the animals were received different doses of nifedipine (2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg kg-1 intraperitoneally 30 min before intraperitoneal injection of Dichlorvos (50 mg kg-1. After Dichlorvos injection, clonic and tonic seizures and death was investigated. Results: Results showed that nifedipine dose dependently reduced the severity of Dichlorvos-induced seizures, so that nifedipine dose 10 and 40 mg kg-1, respectively, the lowest (pConclusion: The anticonvulsant activity of nifedipine suggests that possibly due to antagonistic effect on voltage-dependent calcium channel.