WorldWideScience

Sample records for cardiovascular disease risk

  1. Risk of cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, Michael; Starup-Linde, Jakob; Scheel-Thomsen, Jan

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Type 2 diabetes (DM) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effects of antidiabetic drugs on the composite endpoint (CE) of ischemic heart disease, heart failure or stroke in DM patients. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study. Cases were DM patients who......% CI: 16.88-24.12), neuropathy (OR=1.39, 95% CI: 1.05-1.85) and peripheral artery disease (OR=1.31, 95% CI: 1.02-1.69) increased the risk of CE. Biguanides (OR=0.62 95% CI; 0.54-0.71) and liraglutide (OR=0.48 95% CI; 0.38-0.62) significantly decreased the risk of CE as did statin treatment (OR=0.63, 95...

  2. Genetic risks for cardiovascular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zafarmand, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), which involves the heart, brain, and peripheral circulation, is a major health problem world-wide. The development of atherosclerosis is a complex process, and several established risk factors are involved. Nevertheless, these established risk factors

  3. Cheese and cardiovascular disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Currently, the effect of dairy products on cardiovascular risk is a topic with much debate and conflicting results. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the existing literature regarding the effect of cheese intake and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies included...

  4. Vitamin D, cardiovascular disease and risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Thuesen, Betina H.; Linneberg, Allan

    2017-01-01

    of vitamin D effects from a cardiovascular health perspective. It focuses on vitamin D in relation to cardiovascular disease, i.e. ischemic heart disease, and stroke; the traditional cardiovascular risk factors hypertension, abnormal blood lipids, obesity; and the emerging risk factors hyperparathyroidism......, microalbuminuria, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Meta-analyses of observational studies have largely found vitamin D levels to be inversely associated with cardiovascular risk and disease. However, Mendelian randomization studies and randomized, controlled trials...... (RCTs) have not been able to consistently replicate the observational findings. Several RCTs are ongoing, and the results from these are needed to clarify whether vitamin D deficiency is a causal and reversible factor to prevent cardiovascular disease....

  5. Depression: risk factor for cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuehl, L.K.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Otte, C.

    2012-01-01

    Major depression is an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. In patients with existing cardiovascular disease, major depression has a large impact on the quality of life and is associated with a poor course and prognosis. Potential mechanisms responsible for this

  6. Total cardiovascular disease risk assessment: a review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2011-09-01

    The high risk strategy for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) requires an assessment of an individual\\'s total CVD risk so that the most intensive risk factor management can be directed towards those at highest risk. Here we review developments in the assessment and estimation of total CVD risk.

  7. Diabetes propels the risk for cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepen, van Janna A.; Thiem, Kathrin; Stienstra, Rinke; Riksen, Niels P.; Tack, Cees J.; Netea, Mihai G.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes strongly predisposes to cardiovascular disease (CVD), the leading cause of mortality in these patients, as well as in the entire population. Hyperglycemia is an important cardiovascular risk factor as shown by the observation that even transient periods of hyperglycemia, despite return

  8. Preeclampsia: at risk for remote cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harskamp, Ralf E.; Zeeman, Gerda G.

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiological data indicate that women with preeclampsia are more likely to develop cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life. Population-based studies relate preeclampsia to an increased risk of later chronic hypertension (RR, 2.00 to 8.00) and cardiovascular morbidity/mortality (RR, 1.3 to

  9. Preeclampsia : At risk for remote cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harskamp, Ralf E.; Zeeman, Gerda G.

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiological data indicate that women with preeclampsia are more likely to develop cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life. Population-based studies relate preeclampsia to an increased risk of later chronic hypertension (RR, 2.00 to 8.00) and cardiovascular morbidity/mortality (RR, 1.3 to

  10. Cardiovascular disease risk factors and cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, David T; Fillit, Howard

    2006-04-15

    The role of cardiovascular disease risk factors in the occurrence and progression of cognitive impairment has been the subject of a significant number of publications but has not achieved widespread recognition among many physicians and educated laymen. It is apparent that the active treatment of certain of these cardiovascular disease risk factors is accompanied by a reduced risk for cognitive impairment. Patients with hypertension who are treated experience fewer cardiovascular disease events as well as less cognitive impairment than similar untreated patients. Patients who exercise may present with less cognitive impairment, and obesity may increase the risk for cognitive impairment. Lipid abnormalities and genetic markers are associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease and cognitive impairment. Autopsy studies have demonstrated a correlation between elevated levels of cholesterol and amyloid deposition in the brain. Research has demonstrated a relation between atherosclerotic obstruction lesions in the circle of Willis and dementia. Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease and cognitive impairment. A number of nonpharmacologic factors have a role in reducing the risk for cognitive impairment. Antioxidants, fatty acids, and micronutrients may have a role, and diets rich in fruits and vegetables and other dietary approaches may improve the outlook for patients considered at risk for cognitive impairment.

  11. Cardiovascular risk factors and disease in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Sharon K

    2015-05-01

    Coronary artery disease and stroke predominantly affect older women as opposed to younger women, but the risk factors that contribute to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk often start in young women. Young women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), with migraine, and who use oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) have short-term increases in thrombotic complications that can result in coronary events or stroke. Attention should be focused on risk reduction in women of all ages. Screening for and discussing diabetes, hypertension, obesity, smoking, migraine, PCOS, and pregnancy complication history and discussing the pros and cons of hormone and statin medications are part of reducing cardiovascular risk for women. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Preventing Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors through Aerobic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focused on the reduction of cardiovascular disease risk factors, through aerobic exercises. The central argument here is that through exercise there is the tendency for increased strength of the heart muscles. When this is the case, what follows is a reduction in body weight and ultimately less risk on the ...

  13. Perceptions of risk: understanding cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Webster

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Ruth Webster1, Emma Heeley21Cardiovascular Division, 2Neurological and Mental Health Division, The George Institute for International Health, Camperdown, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is still the leading cause of death and disability worldwide despite the availability of well-established and effective preventive options. Accurate perception of a patient’s risk by both the patient and the doctors is important as this is one of the components that determine health-related behavior. Doctors tend to not use cardiovascular (CV risk calculators and underestimate the absolute CV risk of their patients. Patients show optimistic bias when considering their own risk and consistently underestimate it. Poor patient health literacy and numeracy must be considered when thinking about this problem. Patients must possess a reasonably high level of understanding of numerical processes when doctors discuss risk, a level that is not possessed by large numbers of the population. In order to overcome this barrier, doctors need to utilize various tools including the appropriate use of visual aids to accurately communicate risk with their patients. Any intervention has been shown to be better than nothing in improving health understanding. The simple process of repeatedly conveying risk information to a patient has been shown to improve accuracy of risk perception. Doctors need to take responsibility for the accurate assessment and effective communication of CV risk in their patients in order to improve patient uptake of cardioprotective lifestyle choices and preventive medications.Keywords: risk perception, cardiovascular disease, cardioprotective lifestyle

  14. Risk of cardiovascular disease following radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, A.; Vlahovich, S.; Cornett, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    Excess radiation-induced cardiac mortalities have been reported among radiotherapy patients. Many case reports describe the occurrence of atherosclerosis following radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease and breast cancer. Some case reports describe the cerebral infarction following radiotherapy to neck region, and of peripheral vascular disease of the lower extremities following radiotherapy to the pelvic region. The association of atomic bomb radiation and cardiovascular disease has been examined recently by incidence studies and prevalence studies of various endpoints of atherosclerosis; all endpoints indicated an increase of cardiovascular disease in the exposed group. It is almost certain that the cardiovascular disease is higher among atomic bomb survivors. However, since a heavy exposure of 10-40 Gy is delivered in radiotherapy and the bomb survivors were exposed to radiation at high dose and dose-rate, the question is whether the results can be extrapolated to individuals exposed to lower levels of radiation. Some recent epidemiological studies on occupationally exposed workers and population living near Chernobyl have provided the evidence for cardiovascular disease being a significant late effect at relatively low doses of radiation. However, the issue of non-cancer mortality from radiation is complicated by lack of adequate information on doses, and many other confounding factors (e.g., smoking habits or socio-economic status). This presentation will evaluate possible radiobiological mechanisms for radiation-induced cardiovascular disease, and will address its relevance to radiation protection management at low doses and what the impact might be on future radiation risk assessments. (authors)

  15. Cardiovascular risk and subclinical cardiovascular disease in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajuk Studen, Katica; Jensterle Sever, Mojca; Pfeifer, Marija

    2013-01-01

    In addition to its effects on reproductive health, it is now well recognized that polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a metabolic disorder, characterized by decreased insulin sensitivity which leads to an excess lifetime risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PCOS patients are often obese, hypertensive, dyslipidemic and insulin resistant; they have obstructive sleep apnea and have been reported to have higher aldosterone levels in comparison to normal healthy controls. These are all components of an adverse cardiovascular risk profile. Many studies exploring subclinical atherosclerosis using different methods (flow-mediated dilatation, intima media thickness, arterial stiffness, coronary artery calcification) as well as assessing circulating cardiovascular risk markers, point toward an increased cardiovascular risk and early atherogenesis in PCOS. The risk and early features of subclinical atherosclerosis can be reversed by non-medical (normalization of weight, healthy lifestyle) and medical (metformin, thiazolidinediones, spironolactone, and statins) interventions. However, the long-term risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality as well as the clinical significance of different interventions still need to be properly addressed in a large prospective study. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Lifestyle factors and risk of cardiovascular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoevenaar-Blom, M.P.

    2013-01-01

    Background

    Evidence is accumulating that lifestyle factors influence the incidence of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular diseases (CVD). A healthy diet, being physically active, moderate alcohol consumption and not smoking are associated with a lower CVD risk. In

  17. Cardiovascular disease risk factors: a childhood perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, Pradeep A; Roy, Ambuj; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2013-03-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide including in developing countries like India. Indians are known to be predisposed to CVD, which occur almost a decade earlier in them. Though these diseases manifest in the middle age and beyond, it is now clear that the roots of CVD lie in childhood and adolescence. Many of the conventional risk factors of CVD such as high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, tobacco use, unhealthy diet and obesity have their beginnings in childhood and then track overtime. It is thus important to screen and identify these risk factors early and treat them to prevent onset of CVD. Similarly community based strategies to prevent onset of these risk factors is imperative to tackle this burgeoning public health crisis especially in countries like ours with limited resources.

  18. 'Awareness and attitudes towards total cardiovascular disease risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microsoft account

    Corresponding author: Dr S Ofori, Department of Internal Medicine, ... regarding total CVD risk assessment in clinical practice among physicians in Port ..... cardiovascular risk for prevention and control of cardiovascular disease in low and.

  19. Sortilin and the risk of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Maria Francisca; Bourbon, Mafalda; Prata, Maria João; Alves, Sandra

    2013-10-01

    Plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are a key determinant of the risk of cardiovascular disease, which is why many studies have attempted to elucidate the pathways that regulate its metabolism. Novel latest-generation sequencing techniques have identified a strong association between the 1p13 locus and the risk of cardiovascular disease caused by changes in plasma LDL-C levels. As expected for a complex phenotype, the effects of variation in this locus are only moderate. Even so, knowledge of the association is of major importance, since it has unveiled a new metabolic pathway regulating plasma cholesterol levels. Crucial to this discovery was the work of three independent teams seeking to clarify the biological basis of this association, who succeeded in proving that SORT1, encoding sortilin, was the gene in the 1p13 locus involved in LDL metabolism. SORT1 was the first gene identified as determining plasma LDL levels to be mechanistically evaluated and, although the three teams used different, though appropriate, experimental methods, their results were in some ways contradictory. Here we review all the experiments that led to the identification of the new pathway connecting sortilin with plasma LDL levels and risk of myocardial infarction. The regulatory mechanism underlying this association remains unclear, but its discovery has paved the way for considering previously unsuspected therapeutic targets and approaches. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. 459 Preventing Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... injury. Risk factors may be considered as characteristic indicators ... by examining the cardiovascular risk factors that are related to various forms .... Cross country race, Handball, Jogging, Rope jumping, Running Soccer,.

  1. Lifestyle Decreases Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavíček, Jaroslav; Kittnar, Otomar; Fraser, Gary E.; Medová, Eva; Konečná, Jana; Žižka, Robert; Dohnalová, Alena; Novák, Vladimír

    2009-01-01

    Summary The morbidity and mortality of the cardiovascular diseases is high in the developed countries. The lifestyle changes are capable to decrease it by 50%. The aim of the present study was to measure the parameters of some risk factors before and after a one-week NEW START rehabilitative retreat. 1,349 volunteers, 320 men, 1,029 woman, mean age 51±14.5 (SD) years participated in 30 rehabilitative retreats from 1999–2006 in the Czech Republic, using a low-fat, low-energy, lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and exercise, in a stress-free environment. Body weight, height, BMI, blood pressure, heart rate, serum cholesterol and blood glucose were measured. Body weight decreased in 1,223 measured persons from 71.2±14.38 (SD) to 70.6±14.02 kg (pSeventh-day Adventists than in controls who never observed the diet and avail the lifestyle programs. The parameters were nonsignificantly changed one year after finishing the retreat in the sample of 68 persons showing the positive effect of retreats. Our results showed, that the intake of a low-fat, low-energy diet, over the course of one week in a stress-free environment, had positive impact on the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:19256282

  2. Improving risk stratification for cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, Diederik F.; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs

    2010-01-01

    Evaluation of: Heslop CL, Frohlich JJ, Hill JS. Myeloperoxidase and C-reactive protein have combined utility for long-term prediction of cardiovascular mortality after coronary angiography. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 55(11), 1102-1109 (2010). Identifying people at high risk of cardiovascular events is

  3. Patients with psoriasis have an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlehoff, Ole; Gislason, Gunnar; Lindhardsen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic immunoinflammatory disease that affects 2-3% of the population and shares pathophysiologic mechanisms and risk factors with cardiovascular diseases. Studies have suggested psoriasis as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and Danish guidelines...... on cardiovascular risk factor modification in patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis have recently been published. We provide a short review of the current evidence and the Danish guidelines....

  4. Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Force Recommendations Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index in Adults ... on Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) and Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index (ABI) ...

  5. Risk of bleeding related to antithrombotic treatment in cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rikke; Olesen, Jonas B; Charlot, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Antithrombotic therapy is a cornerstone of treatment in patients with cardiovascular disease with bleeding being the most feared complication. This review describes the risk of bleeding related to different combinations of antithrombotic drugs used for cardiovascular disease: acute coronary...... syndrome (ACS), atrial fibrillation (AF), cerebrovascular (CVD) and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Different risk assessment schemes and bleeding definitions are compared. The HAS-BLED risk score is recommended in patients with AF and in ACS patients with AF. In patients with ACS with or without...

  6. Management of Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardsen, Jesper; Kristensen, Søren Lund; Ahlehoff, Ole

    2016-01-01

    An increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been observed in a range of chronic inflammatory diseases (CID), including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriasis, inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The increased risk of CVDs and reduced life expectancy...... considerable interest in recent years. We briefly summarize the current level of evidence of the association between CIDs and CVD and cardiovascular risk management recommendations. Perspectives of ongoing and planned trials are discussed in consideration of potential ways to improve primary and secondary CVD...

  7. Insulin Resistance and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Postmenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, Michelle D; Hedlin, Haley; Stefanick, Marcia L

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance is associated with diabetes mellitus, but it is uncertain whether it improves cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction beyond traditional cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified 15,288 women from the Women's Health Initiative Biomarkers....../HDL-C, or impaired fasting glucose (serum glucose ≥110 mg/dL) to traditional risk factors in separate Cox multivariable analyses and assessed risk discrimination and reclassification. The study end point was major CVD events (nonfatal and fatal coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke) within 10 years, which...

  8. Credit scores, cardiovascular disease risk, and human capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Salomon; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W; Harrington, HonaLee; Hogan, Sean; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sanders, Seth; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2014-12-02

    Credit scores are the most widely used instruments to assess whether or not a person is a financial risk. Credit scoring has been so successful that it has expanded beyond lending and into our everyday lives, even to inform how insurers evaluate our health. The pervasive application of credit scoring has outpaced knowledge about why credit scores are such useful indicators of individual behavior. Here we test if the same factors that lead to poor credit scores also lead to poor health. Following the Dunedin (New Zealand) Longitudinal Study cohort of 1,037 study members, we examined the association between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and the underlying factors that account for this association. We find that credit scores are negatively correlated with cardiovascular disease risk. Variation in household income was not sufficient to account for this association. Rather, individual differences in human capital factors—educational attainment, cognitive ability, and self-control—predicted both credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and accounted for ∼45% of the correlation between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk. Tracing human capital factors back to their childhood antecedents revealed that the characteristic attitudes, behaviors, and competencies children develop in their first decade of life account for a significant portion (∼22%) of the link between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk at midlife. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy debates about data privacy, financial literacy, and early childhood interventions.

  9. A novel risk score to predict cardiovascular disease risk in national populations (Globorisk)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajifathalian, Kaveh; Ueda, Peter; Lu, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment of cardiovascular risk factors based on disease risk depends on valid risk prediction equations. We aimed to develop, and apply in example countries, a risk prediction equation for cardiovascular disease (consisting here of coronary heart disease and stroke) that can be reca...

  10. Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease: a Risk Factor or a Risk Marker?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandviwala, Taher; Khalid, Umair; Deswal, Anita

    2016-05-01

    In the USA, 69 % of adults are either overweight or obese and 35 % are obese. Obesity is associated with an increased incidence of various cardiovascular disorders. Obesity is a risk marker for cardiovascular disease, in that it is associated with a much higher prevalence of comorbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome, which then increase the risk for cardiovascular disease. However, in addition, obesity may also be an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, although obesity has been shown to be an independent risk factor for several cardiovascular diseases, it is often associated with improved survival once the diagnosis of the cardiovascular disease has been made, leading to the term "obesity paradox." Several pathways linking obesity and cardiovascular disease have been described. In this review, we attempt to summarize the complex relationship between obesity and cardiovascular disorders, in particular coronary atherosclerosis, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation.

  11. Physical activity and cardiovascular disease risk factors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk factors are increasing at an unprecedented rate in developing countries. However, fewer studies have evaluated the role of physical activity in preventing CVD in these countries. We assessed level physical activity and its relationship with CVD risk factors among young and ...

  12. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Emerging Adults in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, Demetrius Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to examine factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among emerging adults in college aged 18-25 years. CVD risks that develop during this period often persist into adulthood making it an ideal time to target CVD prevention. The specific aims of this dissertation were to 1) explore perceptions…

  13. Cardiovascular disease risk among professionals: A survey of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Teachers are often faced with repetitive work related stress, which has been associated with chronic diseases among professionals. Those living in the urban community may be at more risk due to unhealthy lifestyle exposure, but there is little information about their cardiovascular disease profile. Such data ...

  14. Cardiovascular Risks Associated with Incident and Prevalent Periodontal Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yau-Hua; Chasman, Daniel I; Buring, Julie E; Rose, Lynda; Ridker, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    Aim While prevalent periodontal disease associates with cardiovascular risk, little is known about how incident periodontal disease influences future vascular risk. We compared effects of incident versus prevalent periodontal disease in developing major cardiovascular diseases (CVD), myocardial infarction (MI), ischemic stroke and total CVD. Material and Methods In a prospective cohort of 39863 predominantly white women, age ≥ 45 years and free of cardiovascular disease at baseline were followed for an average of 15.7 years. Cox proportional hazard models with time-varying periodontal status (prevalent [18%], incident [7.3%] vs. never [74.7%]) were used to assess future cardiovascular risks. Results Incidence rates of all CVD outcomes were higher in women with prevalent or incident periodontal disease. For women with incident periodontal disease, risk factor adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were 1.42 (95% CI, 1.14–1.77) for major CVD, 1.72 (1.25–2.38) for MI, 1.41(1.02–1.95) for ischemic stroke, and 1.27(1.06–1.52) for total CVD. For women with prevalent periodontal disease, adjusted HRs were 1.14 (1.00–1.31) for major CVD, 1.27 (1.04–1.56) for MI, 1.12(0.91–1.37) for ischemic stroke, and 1.15(1.03–1.28) for total CVD. Conclusion New cases of periodontal disease, not just those that are pre-existing, place women at significantly elevated risks for future cardiovascular events. PMID:25385537

  15. Risk of bleeding related to antithrombotic treatment in cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rikke; Olesen, Jonas B; Charlot, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Antithrombotic therapy is a cornerstone of treatment in patients with cardiovascular disease with bleeding being the most feared complication. This review describes the risk of bleeding related to different combinations of antithrombotic drugs used for cardiovascular disease: acute coronary...... syndrome (ACS), atrial fibrillation (AF), cerebrovascular (CVD) and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Different risk assessment schemes and bleeding definitions are compared. The HAS-BLED risk score is recommended in patients with AF and in ACS patients with AF. In patients with ACS with or without...... a stent dual antiplatelet therapy with a P2Y12 receptor antagonist and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is recommended for 12 months, preferable with prasugrel or ticagrelor unless there is an additional indication of warfarin or increased risk of bleeding. In patients with AF, warfarin is recommended...

  16. Cardiometabolic markers to identify cardiovascular disease risk in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The prevalence of HIV is the highest in sub-Saharan Africa; South Africa (SA) is one of the most affected countries with the highest number of adults living with HIV infection in the world. Besides the traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population, in people living with HIV there ...

  17. Reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease in older women | Davey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in women older than 50 years. Risk factors for CVD differ in some aspects from those in men. The prevention of CVD in women has undergone a reappraisal with the publication of studies looking at the use of menopausal hormone therapy for both primary and ...

  18. RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE IN PRISON POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Soares de OliveiraI

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to make a reflection about the risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease in the prison population, as well as the performance of the health care team in these spaces. It is a reflective approach, literature that included e-journal articles, published in the year 2003 to 2011, indexed at LILACS, Scielo, MEDLINE, and available in full. Textbooks were also consulted and ordinances of Ministry of health and Justice of Brazil. Used the descriptors "risk factors," "cardiovascular disease" and "Prisoners". It was noted that the current situation of overcrowding in prisons is, with unhealthy environment, which imposes risks the health of prisoners. The living habits, such as use of alcohol and drugs (cocaine, marijuana, tranquillizers and tobacco, increases the risk for cardiovascular disease. In addition, the authors emphasize, a priori, the low level of schooling of the detainees. The performance of the health care team must be based on educational practices for promoting and monitoring the health, with multidisciplinary support. Further studies need to be done in order to investigate the incidence of cardiovascular diseases, as well as evidence of the effectiveness of health care for this population.

  19. Added Sugars and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Miriam B.; Kaar, Jill L.; Welsh, Jean A.; Van Horn, Linda V.; Feig, Daniel I.; Anderson, Cheryl A.M.; Patel, Mahesh J.; Munos, Jessica Cruz; Krebs, Nancy F.; Xanthakos, Stavra A.; Johnson, Rachel K.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Poor lifestyle behaviors are leading causes of preventable diseases globally. Added sugars contribute to a diet that is energy dense but nutrient poor and increase risk of developing obesity, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, obesity-related cancers, and dental caries. METHODS AND RESULTS For this American Heart Association scientific statement, the writing group reviewed and graded the current scientific evidence for studies examining the cardiovascular health effects of added sugars on children. The available literature was subdivided into 5 broad subareas: effects on blood pressure, lipids, insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and obesity. CONCLUSIONS Associations between added sugars and increased cardiovascular disease risk factors among US children are present at levels far below current consumption levels. Strong evidence supports the association of added sugars with increased cardiovascular disease risk in children through increased energy intake, increased adiposity, and dyslipidemia. The committee found that it is reasonable to recommend that children consume ≤25 g (100 cal or ≈6 teaspoons) of added sugars per day and to avoid added sugars for children added sugars most likely can be safely consumed in low amounts as part of a healthy diet, few children achieve such levels, making this an important public health target. PMID:27550974

  20. Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in an Aging HIV Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin-Iguacel, R; Llibre, J M; Friis-Moller, N

    2015-01-01

    With more effective and widespread antiretroviral treatment, the overall incidence of AIDS- or HIV-related death has decreased dramatically. Consequently, as patients are aging, cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the HIV population....... The incidence of CVD overall in HIV is relatively low, but it is approximately 1.5-2-fold higher than that seen in age-matched HIV-uninfected individuals. Multiple factors are believed to explain this excess in risk such as overrepresentation of traditional cardiovascular risk factors (particularly smoking...

  1. Cardiovascular risk prediction in chronic kidney disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Cedeño Mora

    2017-05-01

    Conclusion: The cardiovascular risk scores (FRS-CVD and ASCVD [AHA/ACC 2013] can estimate the probability of atherosclerotic cardiovascular events in patients with CKD regardless of renal function, albuminuria and previous cardiovascular events.

  2. Assessment of Cardiovascular Disease Risk in South Asian Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Monira Hussain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although South Asian populations have high cardiovascular disease (CVD burden in the world, their patterns of individual CVD risk factors have not been fully studied. None of the available algorithms/scores to assess CVD risk have originated from these populations. To explore the relevance of CVD risk scores for these populations, literature search and qualitative synthesis of available evidence were performed. South Asians usually have higher levels of both “classical” and nontraditional CVD risk factors and experience these at a younger age. There are marked variations in risk profiles between South Asian populations. More than 100 risk algorithms are currently available, with varying risk factors. However, no available algorithm has included all important risk factors that underlie CVD in these populations. The future challenge is either to appropriately calibrate current risk algorithms or ideally to develop new risk algorithms that include variables that provide an accurate estimate of CVD risk.

  3. CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. D. Bazdyrev

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to detect previously undiagnosed arterial hypertension in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD as a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality.Materials and methods. 43 patients with stage I–II of COPD and the absence of clinical signs of cardiovascular diseases were examined. Spirometry, body plethysmography and diffusing lung capacity (DLCO were included in the respiratory system assessment. The cardiovascular system was assessed with echocardiography and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM.Results. Despite the absence of obvious signs of cardiovascular lesions (an increase of office blood pressure, intracardiac hemodynamic changes, the following cardiovascular risk factors were identified: age (58.2 ± 2.0 years, male gender, smoking, hypercholesterolemia and dyslipidemia (total cholesterol 5.9 ± 0.9 mmol / l, low density lipoproteins 3.8 ± 0.5 mmol / l, triglycerides 1.8 ± 0.2 mmol / l. Correlation analysis has revealed the relation between several respiratory parameters and the severity of dyspnea and quality of life in patients with COPD, as well as its relation with lipid levels.Conclusion. The patients with COPD have a large number of risk factors for CVD. According to ABPM data, arterial hypertension was verified in 18 (41.9 % of 43 patients with COPD at normal level of office blood pressure; moreover, 51.2 % of patients demonstrated low reduction of blood pressure during the night-time that nowadays, is considered to be a predictor of cardiovascular disease and sudden death.

  4. Quantifying cardiovascular disease risk factors in patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, I M; Skaaby, T; Ellervik, C

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In a previous meta-analysis on categorical data we found an association between psoriasis and cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors. OBJECTIVES: To quantify the level of cardiovascular disease risk factors in order to provide additional data for the clinical management...... of the increased risk. METHODS: This was a meta-analysis of observational studies with continuous outcome using random-effects statistics. A systematic search of studies published before 25 October 2012 was conducted using the databases Medline, EMBASE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, PASCAL and BIOSIS......·65 mmol L(-1) )] and a higher HbA1c [1·09 mmol mol(-1) , 95% CI 0·87-1·31, P controls are significant, and therefore relevant to the clinical management of patients with psoriasis....

  5. Iron status and cardiovascular disease risk in black South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-03-29

    Mar 29, 2011 ... Keywords: iron status, cardiovascular disease, African women, PURE study. Iron status and .... sponsored Arlie Conference.20 Body circumferences of participants ...... cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice.

  6. Cardiovascular disease risk and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease among patients with low health literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, T M; Jørstad, H T; Twickler, T B; Peters, R J G; Tijssen, J P G; Essink-Bot, M L; Fransen, M P

    2017-07-01

    To explore the association between health literacy and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and to assess the differential effects by health literacy level of a nurse-coordinated secondary prevention program (NCPP) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Data were collected in two medical centres participating in the RESPONSE trial (Randomised Evaluation of Secondary Prevention by Outpatient Nurse SpEcialists). CVD risk profiles were assessed at baseline and 12-month follow-up using the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE). Health literacy was assessed by the short Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM-D) and the Newest Vital Sign (NVS-D); self-reported health literacy was evaluated by the Set of Brief Screening Questions (SBSQ-D). Among 201 CAD patients, 18% exhibited reading difficulties, 52% had difficulty understanding and applying written information, and 5% scored low on self-reported health literacy. Patients with low NVS-D scores had a higher CVD risk [mean SCORE 5.2 (SD 4.8) versus 3.3 (SD 4.1), p literacy levels without significant differences. Inadequate health literacy is prevalent in CAD patients in the Netherlands, and is associated with less favourable CVD risk profiles. Where many other forms of CVD prevention fail, nurse-coordinated care seems to be effective among patients with inadequate health literacy.

  7. Family history of premature death and risk of early onset cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranthe, Mattis Flyvholm; Carstensen, Lisbeth; Oyen, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a family history of premature death, cardiovascular death in particular, on the risk of early cardiovascular disease.......The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a family history of premature death, cardiovascular death in particular, on the risk of early cardiovascular disease....

  8. DETERMINING CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE RISK IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate E. Reed

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available At least 50% of children have one or more cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factor. We aimed to 1 determine the prevalence of CVD risk factors in a sample of Canadian children, and 2 create a Healthy Heart Score that could be used in a school setting, to identify children with a greater number and severity of CVD risk factors. Children (n = 242, 122M, 120F, aged 9-11 years were assessed for cardiovascular fitness, physical activity, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, and body mass index (BMI. Biological values were converted to age and sex specific percentiles and allocated a score. Healthy Heart Scores could range between 5 and 18, with lower scores suggesting a healthier cardiovascular profile. Seventy-seven children volunteered for blood samples in order to assess the relationship between the Healthy Heart Score and (total cholesterol (TC, high and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL, LDL and triglycerides (TG. Fifty eight percent of children had elevated scores for at least 1 risk factor. The group mean Healthy Heart Score was 8 (2.2. The mean score was significantly higher in boys (9 (2.2 compared with girls (8 (2.1, p < 0.01. A high score was significantly associated with a low serum HDL, a high TC:HDL and a high TG concentration. Our results support other studies showing a high prevalence of CVD risk factors in children. Our method of allocation of risk score, according to percentile, allows for creation of an age and sex specific CVD risk profile in children, which takes into account the severity of the elevated risk factor

  9. Standard cardiovascular disease risk algorithms underestimate the risk of cardiovascular disease in schizophrenia: evidence from a national primary care database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Gary; Martin, Julie Langan; Martin, Daniel J; Guthrie, Bruce; Mercer, Stewart W; Smith, Daniel J

    2014-10-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. Although cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction algorithms are widely in the general population, their utility for patients with schizophrenia is unknown. A primary care dataset was used to compare CVD risk scores (Joint British Societies (JBS) score), cardiovascular risk factors, rates of pre-existing CVD and age of first diagnosis of CVD for schizophrenia (n=1997) relative to population controls (n=215,165). Pre-existing rates of CVD and the recording of risk factors for those without CVD were higher in the schizophrenia cohort in the younger age groups, for both genders. Those with schizophrenia were more likely to have a first diagnosis of CVD at a younger age, with nearly half of men with schizophrenia plus CVD diagnosed under the age of 55 (schizophrenia men 46.1% vs. control men 34.8%, pschizophrenia women 28.9% vs. control women 23.8%, prisk factors within the schizophrenia group, only a very small percentage (3.2% of men and 7.5% of women) of those with schizophrenia under age 55 were correctly identified as high risk for CVD according to the JBS risk algorithm. The JBS2 risk score identified only a small proportion of individuals with schizophrenia under the age of 55 as being at high risk of CVD, despite high rates of risk factors and high rates of first diagnosis of CVD within this age group. The validity of CVD risk prediction algorithms for schizophrenia needs further research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Knowledge and awareness of risk factors for cardiovascular disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cardiovascular disease causes 30% of deaths globally. By comparison, infectious disease accounts for 10% of global mortality. As these statistics indicate, cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in the world. In South Africa, through urbanisation and changes in lifestyle and dietary habits, the prevalence ...

  11. Work Stress as a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivimäki, Mika; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-09-01

    The role of psychosocial work stress as a risk factor for chronic disease has been the subject of considerable debate. Many researchers argue in support of a causal connection while others remain skeptical and have argued that the effect on specific health conditions is either negligible or confounded. This review of evidence from over 600,000 men and women from 27 cohort studies in Europe, the USA and Japan suggests that work stressors, such as job strain and long working hours, are associated with a moderately elevated risk of incident coronary heart disease and stroke. The excess risk for exposed individuals is 10-40 % compared with those free of such stressors. Differences between men and women, younger versus older employees and workers from different socioeconomic backgrounds appear to be small, indicating that the association is robust. Meta-analyses of a wider range of health outcomes show additionally an association between work stress and type 2 diabetes, though not with common cancers or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, suggesting outcome specificity. Few studies have addressed whether mitigation of work stressors would reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. In view of the limited interventional evidence on benefits, harms and cost-effectiveness, definitive recommendations have not been made (e.g. by the US Preventive Services Taskforce) for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease via workplace stress reduction. Nevertheless, governments are already launching healthy workplace campaigns, and preventing excessive work stress is a legal obligation in several countries. Promoting awareness of the link between stress and health among both employers and workers is an important component of workplace health promotion.

  12. Dietary fruits and vegetables and cardiovascular diseases risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alissa, Eman M; Ferns, Gordon A

    2017-06-13

    Diet is likely to be an important determinant of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. In this article, we will review the evidence linking the consumption of fruit and vegetables and CVD risk. The initial evidence that fruit and vegetable consumption has a protective effect against CVD came from observational studies. However, uncertainty remains about the magnitude of the benefit of fruit and vegetable intake on the occurrence of CVD and whether the optimal intake is five portions or greater. Results from randomized controlled trials do not show conclusively that fruit and vegetable intake protects against CVD, in part because the dietary interventions have been of limited intensity to enable optimal analysis of their putative effects. The protective mechanisms of fruit and vegetables may not only include some of the known bioactive nutrient effects dependent on their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and electrolyte properties, but also include their functional properties, such as low glycemic load and energy density. Taken together, the totality of the evidence accumulated so far does appear to support the notion that increased intake of fruits and vegetables may reduce cardiovascular risk. It is clear that fruit and vegetables should be eaten as part of a balanced diet, as a source of vitamins, fiber, minerals, and phytochemicals. The evidence now suggests that a complicated set of several nutrients may interact with genetic factors to influence CVD risk. Therefore, it may be more important to focus on whole foods and dietary patterns rather than individual nutrients to successfully impact on CVD risk reduction. A clearer understanding of the relationship between fruit and vegetable intake and cardiovascular risk would provide health professionals with significant information in terms of public health and clinical practice.

  13. Riesgo cardiovascular, una herramienta útil para la prevención de las enfermedades cardiovasculares Cardiovascular risk, a useful tool for prevention of cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Vega Abascal

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available El riesgo cardiovascular se define como la probabilidad de padecer un evento cardiovascular en un determinado período. Mejorar la exactitud en la predicción del riesgo requiere la evaluación y el tratamiento de múltiples factores de riesgo cardiovascular, los que tienen un efecto sinérgico, más que aditivo, sobre el riesgo cardiovascular total. El cálculo utilizando métodos cuantitativos es más preciso que el obtenido con métodos cualitativos. La predicción del riesgo cardiovascular ha constituido, en los últimos años, la piedra angular en las guías clínicas de prevención cardiovascular, y deviene una herramienta útil del Médico de Familia para establecer prioridades en la atención primaria, mejorando la atención a los pacientes y eligiendo más eficazmente la terapéutica a seguir, con el objetivo de acercarnos más a la realidad multifactorial de las enfermedades cardiovasculares y a su prevención.The cardiovascular risk is defined like a probability of suffering a cardiovascular event in a determined period. To improve the accuracy in risk prediction requires the assessment and treatment of different cardiovascular risk factors, which have a synergistic effect more than additive on the total cardiovascular risk. The calculus using quantitative methods is more accurate than that obtained with qualitative methods. The prediction of cardiovascular risk has been in past years the cornerstone in clinical guidances of cardiovascular prevention and becomes an useful tool for Family Physician to establish priorities in the primary care, improving the patients care and selecting in a more effective way the therapy to be followed to bring closer more to multifactor reality of cardiovascular diseases and its prevention.

  14. Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases among Diabetic Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Studies on cardiovascular risk factors among diabetic persons in Ethiopia are lacking. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of the cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, obesity, physical inactivity, dyslipidemia and smoking) among diabetic patients at the diabetic clinic of Jimma ...

  15. Improvements on Cardiovascular Diseases Risk Factors in Obese Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes Silva, Humberto José; Andersen, Lars Bo; Lofrano-Prado, Mara Cristina

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unclear how different exercise intensities affect cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in obese adolescents. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of high intensity (HIT) vs. low intensity (LIT) aerobic training on CVD risk factors in obese adolescents. METHODS......: Forty-three obese adolescents (age: 15.7±1.3y, BMI: 34.3±4.1kg/m2) participated this study either HIT (corresponding to ventilatory threshold-I, VT1; N=20) or LIT (20% below VT1; N=23) for 12 weeks (12W). All sessions were isocaloric (350 kcal). All participants received the same nutritional......, psychological and clinical counseling. Subjects were assessed in fatness, fitness, lipid profile and glucose at baseline and after 12W. The CVD risk factors assessed were waist circumference (WC), total cholesterol (TC), HDL, glucose and fitness, which were single and clustered analyzed (Z-scores sum). RESULTS...

  16. Natriuretic peptides and integrated risk assessment for cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willeit, Peter; Kaptoge, S; Welsh, P.

    2016-01-01

    samples and collection of data from studies identified through a systematic search of the literature (PubMed, Scientific Citation Index Expanded, and Embase) for articles published up to Sept 4, 2014, using search terms related to natriuretic peptide family members and the primary outcomes......BACKGROUND: Guidelines for primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases focus on prediction of coronary heart disease and stroke. We assessed whether or not measurement of N-terminal-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentration could enable a more integrated approach than at present...... by predicting heart failure and enhancing coronary heart disease and stroke risk assessment. METHODS: In this individual-participant-data meta-analysis, we generated and harmonised individual-participant data from relevant prospective studies via both de-novo NT-proBNP concentration measurement of stored...

  17. Childhood cardiovascular risk factors in South Asians: A cause of concern for adult cardiovascular disease epidemic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Duggirala Sivaram; Kabir, Zubair; Dash, Ashok Kumar; Das, Bhagabati Charan

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors in children are increasing at an alarming rate in the western world. However, there is limited information regarding these in the South Asian children. This review attempts at summarizing such evidence. South Asians are remarkable for the earlier onset of adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) by almost a decade compared to the Caucasians. We identified published literature, mainly on PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library using specific search terms such as lipid abnormalities, high blood pressure, hyperglycemia, tobacco use, obesity, physical inactivity, and unhealthy dietary practices. Atherosclerotic CVD processes begin early in childhood and are influenced over the life course by genetic and potentially modifiable risk factors and environmental exposure. 80% of adult CVD burden will fall on the developing nations by 2020. The concept of primordial prevention is fast emerging as a necessary prevention tool to curb adult CVD epidemic. Established guidelines and proven preventive strategies on cardiovascular health exist; however, are always implemented half-heartedly. Composite screening and prediction tools for adults can be adapted and validated in children tailored to South Asian population. South Asian children could be at a greater risk of developing cardiovascular risk factors at an earlier stage, thus, timely interventions are imperative

  18. Benzene exposure is associated with cardiovascular disease risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Abplanalp

    Full Text Available Benzene is a ubiquitous, volatile pollutant present at high concentrations in toxins (e.g. tobacco smoke known to increase cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. Despite its prevalence, the cardiovascular effects of benzene have rarely been studied. Hence, we examined whether exposure to benzene is associated with increased CVD risk. The effects of benzene exposure in mice were assessed by direct inhalation, while the effects of benzene exposure in humans was assessed in 210 individuals with mild to high CVD risk by measuring urinary levels of the benzene metabolite trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA. Generalized linear models were used to assess the association between benzene exposure and CVD risk. Mice inhaling volatile benzene had significantly reduced levels of circulating angiogenic cells (Flk-1+/Sca-1+ as well as an increased levels of plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL compared with control mice breathing filtered air. In the human cohort, urinary levels of t,t-MA were inversely associated several populations of circulating angiogenic cells (CD31+/34+/45+, CD31+/34+/45+/AC133-, CD34+/45+/AC133+. Although t,t-MA was not associated with plasma markers of inflammation or thrombosis, t,t-MA levels were higher in smokers and in individuals with dyslipidemia. In smokers, t,t-MA levels were positively associated with urinary metabolites of nicotine (cotinine and acrolein (3-hydroxymercapturic acid. Levels of t,t-MA were also associated with CVD risk as assessed using the Framingham Risk Score and this association was independent of smoking. Thus, benzene exposure is associated with increased CVD risk and deficits in circulating angiogenic cells in both smokers and non-smokers.

  19. Impact of One Year of Shift Work on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amelsvoort, van L.G.P.M.; Schouten, E.G.; Kok, F.J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate whether the reported increased cardiovascular disease risk in shift workers could be explained by changes in cardiovascular risk factors. In a cohort of 239 shift and 157 daytime workers, 1-year changes in biological and lifestyle cardiovascular risk

  20. Effects of cocoa flavanols on risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, John W; Carson, LeaAnn; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine; Evans, Ellen M; Allen, Robin R

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiologic investigations support the hypothesis that regular consumption of flavonoid-containing foods can reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). While flavonoids are ubiquitous in plants, cocoa can be particularly rich in a sub-class of flavonoids known as flavanols. A number of human dietary intervention trials with flavanol-containing cocoa products have demonstrated improvements in endothelial and platelet function, as well as blood pressure. These studies provide direct evidence for the potential cardiovascular benefits of flavanol-containing foods and help to substantiate the epidemiological data. In this review, results from selective published trials with cocoa and chocolate focused on risk for CVD will be discussed along with a study we recently completed evaluating the effects of the daily consumption of flavanol-containing dark chocolate (CocoaVia?) with and without plant sterol esters on CVD markers in a normotensive population with mild hypercholesterolemia. In this study, the daily consumption of flavanol-containing dark chocolate was associated with a significant mean reduction of 5.8 mmHg in systolic blood pressure. Together the results of these human dietary intervention trials provide scientific evidence of the vascular effects of cocoa flavanols and suggest that the regular consumption of cocoa products containing flavanols may reduce risk of CVD.

  1. Prevalence of atherogenic dyslipidemia in primary care patients at moderate-very high risk of cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plana, Nuria; Ibarretxe, Daiana; Cabré, Anna; Ruiz, Emilio; Masana, Lluis

    2014-01-01

    Atherogenic dyslipidemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We aim to determine atherogenic dyslipidemia prevalence in primary care patients at moderate-very high cardiovascular risk and its associated cardiovascular risk perception in Spain. This cross-sectional study included 1137 primary care patients. Patients had previous cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, SCORE risk ≥ 3, severe hypertension or dyslipidemia. Atherogenic dyslipidemia was defined as low HDL-C (<40 mg/dL [males], <50 mg/dL [females]) and elevated triglycerides (≥ 150 mg/dL). A visual analog scale was used to define a perceived cardiovascular disease risk score. Mean age was 63.9 ± 9.7 years (64.6% males). The mean BMI was 29.1 ± 4.3 kg/m(2), and mean waist circumference 104.2 ± 12.7 cm (males), and 97.2 ± 14.0 cm (females). 29.4% were smokers, 76.4% had hypertension, 48.0% were diabetics, 24.7% had previous myocardial infarction, and 17.8% peripheral arterial disease. European guidelines classified 83.6% at very high cardiovascular risk. Recommended HDL-C levels were achieved by 50.1% of patients and 37.3% had triglycerides in the reference range. Target LDL-C was achieved by 8.8%. The overall atherogenic dyslipidemia prevalence was 27.1% (34.1% in diabetics). This prevalence in patients achieving target LDL-C was 21.4%. Cardiovascular risk perceived by patients was 4.3/10, while primary care physicians scored 5.7/10. When LDL-C levels are controlled, atherogenic dyslipidemia is more prevalent in those patients at highest cardiovascular risk and with diabetes. This highlights the importance of intervention strategies to prevent the residual vascular risk in this population. Both patients and physicians underestimated cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. Depression, anxiety and 6-year risk of cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seldenrijk, Adrie; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Batelaan, Neeltje M.; Wieman, Iris; van Schaik, Digna J. F.; Penninx, Brenda J. W. H.

    Objective: Depression and anxiety are considered etiological factors in cardiovascular disease (ND), though their relative contribution and differentiation by clinical characteristics have not been studied intensively. We examined 6-year associations between depressive and anxiety disorders,

  3. Cardiovascular diseases and risk factors among Chinese immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhizhong; Zhao, Dong

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and major CVD risk factors, including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and smoking among Chinese immigrants by a systematic review of studies from various countries. PubMed and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were searched for studies of the prevalence of major CVDs and risk factors, and of CVD mortality among Chinese immigrants. The search identified 386 papers, 16 of which met the inclusion criteria for this review. In mainland China, there is a pattern of high stroke prevalence but low coronary heart disease (CHD) prevalence. Among Chinese immigrants, there is a much lower prevalence and mortality of stroke, but a higher prevalence and mortality of CHD, even though these are lower than the rates in immigrants of other ethnicities in the host country. The prevalence of CVD risk factors is also markedly different in immigrants. Compared with mainland Chinese, Chinese immigrants have a higher prevalence of diabetes and hypertension, higher serum cholesterol, poorer dietary patterns, and higher prevalence of obesity and smoking. Thus, the epidemiological pattern of CVD among Chinese immigrants changes compared with resident mainland Chinese. The less healthy environmental factor after immigration may be a major trigger in the adverse CVD status of Chinese immigrants. It is important for policy-makers to pay more attention to specific minority immigrant groups, and to implement more effective preventive measures to improve the health of immigrant populations.

  4. Modifiable Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Indigenous Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam A. Lucero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify modifiable cardio-metabolic and lifestyle risk factors among indigenous populations from Australia (Aboriginal Australians/Torres Strait Islanders, New Zealand (Māori, and the United States (American Indians and Alaska Natives that contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD. Methods. National health surveys were identified where available. Electronic databases identified sources for filling missing data. The most relevant data were identified, organized, and synthesized. Results. Compared to their non-indigenous counterparts, indigenous populations exhibit lower life expectancies and a greater prevalence of CVD. All indigenous populations have higher rates of obesity and diabetes, hypertension is greater for Māori and Aboriginal Australians, and high cholesterol is greater only among American Indians/Alaska Natives. In turn, all indigenous groups exhibit higher rates of smoking and dangerous alcohol behaviour as well as consuming less fruits and vegetables. Aboriginal Australians and American Indians/Alaska Natives also exhibit greater rates of sedentary behaviour. Conclusion. Indigenous groups from Australia, New Zealand, and the United States have a lower life expectancy then their respective non-indigenous counterparts. A higher prevalence of CVD is a major driving force behind this discrepancy. A cluster of modifiable cardio-metabolic risk factors precede CVD, which, in turn, is linked to modifiable lifestyle risk factors.

  5. Cardiovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Kazunori

    1992-01-01

    This paper is aimed to discuss the involvement of delayed radiation effects of A-bomb exposure in cardiovascular diseases. First, the relationship between radiation and cardiovascular diseases is reviewed in the literature. Animal experiments have confirmed the relationship between ionizing radiation and vascular lesions. There are many reports which describe ischemic heart disease, cervical and cerebrovascular diseases, and peripheral disease occurring after radiation therapy. The previous A-bomb survivor cohort studies, i.e., the RERF Life Span Study and Adult Health Study, have dealt with the mortality rate from cardiovascular diseases, the prevalence or incidence of cardiovascular diseases, pathological findings, clinical observation of arteriosclerosis, ECG abnormality, blood pressure abnormality, and cardiac function. The following findings have been suggested: (1) A-bomb exposure is likely to be involved in the mortality rate and incidence of ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular diseases; (2) similarly, the involvement of A-bomb exposure is considered in the prevalence of the arch of aorta; (3) ECG abnormality corresponding to ischemic heart disease may reflect the involvement of A-bomb exposure. To confirm the above findings, further studies are required on the basis of more accurate information and the appropriate number of cohort samples. Little evidence has been presented for the correlation between A-bomb exposure and both rheumatic heart disease and congenital heart disease. (N.K.) 88 refs

  6. Effects of tea and coffee on cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøhn, Siv K; Ward, Natalie C; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Croft, Kevin D

    2012-06-01

    Tea and coffee have been associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), both positively and negatively. Epidemiological data suggest that black and green tea may reduce the risk of both coronary heart disease and stroke by between 10 and 20%. Experimental and clinical trial data generally indicate either neutral or beneficial effects on risk factors and pathways linked to the development of CVD. Controversy still exists regarding the effects of coffee, where there have been concerns regarding associations with hypercholesterolaemia, hypertension and myocardial infarction. However, long term moderate intake of coffee is not associated with detrimental effects in healthy individuals and may even protect against the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The detrimental effects of coffee may be associated with the acute pressor effects, most likely due to caffeine at high daily intakes, and lipids from boiled coffee can contribute to raised serum cholesterol. Genetic polymorphisms in enzymes involved in uptake, metabolism and excretion of tea and coffee compounds are also associated with differential biological effects. Potential mechanisms by which tea and coffee phytochemicals can exert effects for CVD protection include the regulation of vascular tone through effects on endothelial function, improved glucose metabolism, increased reverse cholesterol transport and inhibition of foam cell formation, inhibition of oxidative stress, immunomodulation and effects on platelet function (adhesion and activation, aggregation and clotting). The phytochemical compounds in tea and coffee and their metabolites are suggested to influence protective endogenous pathways by modulation of gene-expression. It is not known exactly which compounds are responsible for the suggestive protective effects of tea and coffee. Although many biologically active compounds have been identified with known biological effects, tea and coffee contain many unidentified compounds with potential

  7. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Older People with Intellectual Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.F. de Winter (Channa)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Chapter 1 General introduction There is an increasing group of older people with intellectual disability in The Netherlands, reaching almost the same life expectancy as the general population. Age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, cancer and dementia

  8. Acrolein exposure is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJarnett, Natasha; Conklin, Daniel J; Riggs, Daniel W; Myers, John A; O'Toole, Timothy E; Hamzeh, Ihab; Wagner, Stephen; Chugh, Atul; Ramos, Kenneth S; Srivastava, Sanjay; Higdon, Deirdre; Tollerud, David J; DeFilippis, Andrew; Becher, Carrie; Wyatt, Brad; McCracken, James; Abplanalp, Wes; Rai, Shesh N; Ciszewski, Tiffany; Xie, Zhengzhi; Yeager, Ray; Prabhu, Sumanth D; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2014-08-06

    Acrolein is a reactive aldehyde present in high amounts in coal, wood, paper, and tobacco smoke. It is also generated endogenously by lipid peroxidation and the oxidation of amino acids by myeloperoxidase. In animals, acrolein exposure is associated with the suppression of circulating progenitor cells and increases in thrombosis and atherogenesis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether acrolein exposure in humans is also associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Acrolein exposure was assessed in 211 participants of the Louisville Healthy Heart Study with moderate to high (CVD) risk by measuring the urinary levels of the major acrolein metabolite-3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (3-HPMA). Generalized linear models were used to assess the association between acrolein exposure and parameters of CVD risk, and adjusted for potential demographic confounders. Urinary 3-HPMA levels were higher in smokers than nonsmokers and were positively correlated with urinary cotinine levels. Urinary 3-HPMA levels were inversely related to levels of both early (AC133(+)) and late (AC133(-)) circulating angiogenic cells. In smokers as well as nonsmokers, 3-HPMA levels were positively associated with both increased levels of platelet-leukocyte aggregates and the Framingham Risk Score. No association was observed between 3-HPMA and plasma fibrinogen. Levels of C-reactive protein were associated with 3-HPMA levels in nonsmokers only. Regardless of its source, acrolein exposure is associated with platelet activation and suppression of circulating angiogenic cell levels, as well as increased CVD risk. © 2014 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  9. Hormone therapy and cardiovascular risk markers and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susan H; Lokkegaard, Ellen; Ottesen, Bent

    2006-01-01

    therapy (HT), although an underlying healthy-user effect may account for these observations. Progestagens are added to protect against an increased risk of endometrial cancer observed with unopposed estrogen treatment. The inclusion of progestagen in HT has been associated with possible adverse......Biological studies have demonstrated estrogen's beneficial effect on cardiovascular risk factors, including plasma lipoproteins, atherogenesis, vascular reactivity, inflammation and antioxidative activity. Additionally, observational studies have supported a cardioprotective effect of hormone...... cardiovascular outcomes. Recent, large-scale, randomized clinical studies did not confirm a beneficial cardiovascular effect of HT. On the contrary, an increased risk was found with continuous combined estrogen-progestagen regimens. The progestagen used in these trials was medroxyprogesterone acetate and other...

  10. Quantifying the benefits of achieving or maintaining long-term low risk profile for cardiovascular disease : The doetinchem cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsegge, Gerben; Smit, Henriëtte A.; Van Der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Verschuren, W. M Monique

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies investigating the relation between risk profiles and cardiovascular disease have measured risk at baseline only. We investigated maintenance and changes of risk profiles over time and their potential impact on incident cardiovascular disease. Design: Population-based cohort

  11. Quantifying the benefits of achieving or maintaining long-term low risk profile for cardiovascular disease: The Doetinchem Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsegge, G.; Smit, H.A.; van der Schouw, Y.T.; Daviglus, M.L.; Verschuren, W.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies investigating the relation between risk profiles and cardiovascular disease have measured risk at baseline only. We investigated maintenance and changes of risk profiles over time and their potential impact on incident cardiovascular disease. Design: Population-based cohort

  12. Care for patients with an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    Boheemen, C. van; Geffen, K. van; Philbert, D.; Bos, M.; Dis, I. van; Strijbis, A.; Bouvy, M.; Dijk, L. van

    2010-01-01

    Background: In 2009, a national standard of care for vascular risk management (VRM) was developed. This standard, which was sent to all general practitioners (GPs), contains requirements for optimal care. One requirement is the formulation of a written individual-care plan which contains an extended description of the patient’s cardiovascular risk factors and a plan to reduce the risk. The aim of our study is to describe to what extent current care meets the requirement posed in the care stan...

  13. The Association between Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Cardiovascular Risk in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Di Sessa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The rising prevalence of childhood obesity in the past decades has made Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD the most common cause of pediatric chronic liver disease worldwide. Currently, a growing body of evidence links NAFLD with cardiovascular disease (CVD even at an early age. Data on the pediatric population have shown that NAFLD could represent an independent risk factor not only for cardiovascular events but also for early subclinical abnormalities in myocardial structure and function. Briefly, we review the current knowledge regarding the relationship between pediatric NAFLD and cardiovascular risk in an attempt to clarify our understanding of NAFLD as a possible cardiovascular risk factor in childhood.

  14. Risk scoring for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmali, Kunal N; Persell, Stephen D; Perel, Pablo; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Berendsen, Mark A; Huffman, Mark D

    2017-03-14

    The current paradigm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) emphasises absolute risk assessment to guide treatment decisions in primary prevention. Although the derivation and validation of multivariable risk assessment tools, or CVD risk scores, have attracted considerable attention, their effect on clinical outcomes is uncertain. To assess the effects of evaluating and providing CVD risk scores in adults without prevalent CVD on cardiovascular outcomes, risk factor levels, preventive medication prescribing, and health behaviours. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library (2016, Issue 2), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to March week 1 2016), Embase (embase.com) (1974 to 15 March 2016), and Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science (CPCI-S) (1990 to 15 March 2016). We imposed no language restrictions. We searched clinical trial registers in March 2016 and handsearched reference lists of primary studies to identify additional reports. We included randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing the systematic provision of CVD risk scores by a clinician, healthcare professional, or healthcare system compared with usual care (i.e. no systematic provision of CVD risk scores) in adults without CVD. Three review authors independently selected studies, extracted data, and evaluated study quality. We used the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool to assess study limitations. The primary outcomes were: CVD events, change in CVD risk factor levels (total cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, and multivariable CVD risk), and adverse events. Secondary outcomes included: lipid-lowering and antihypertensive medication prescribing in higher-risk people. We calculated risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous data and mean differences (MD) or standardised mean differences (SMD) for continuous data using 95% confidence intervals. We used a fixed-effects model when heterogeneity (I²) was at least 50% and a random-effects model for substantial heterogeneity

  15. Cardiovascular risk factors and future risk of Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.F.A.G. de Bruijn (Renée); M.A. Ikram (Arfan)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractAlzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder in elderly people, but there are still no curative options. Senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are considered hallmarks of AD, but cerebrovascular pathology is also common. In this review, we summarize

  16. Phytosterols and blood lipid risk factors for cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ras, R.T.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Lifestyle improvements including dietary changes are important for CVD prevention. This thesis aimed to advance insights in the role of phytosterols, lipid-like compounds present in foods or plant origin, in

  17. Cardiovascular disease risk among breast cancer survivors: an evolutionary concept analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vo JB

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Jacqueline B Vo,1 Timiya S Nolan,1 David E Vance,1 Patricia A Patrician,2 Karen Meneses1 1Office of Research and Scholarship, 2Department of Family, Community Health, and Systems, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Nursing, Birmingham, AL, USA Background: More than 3.5 million breast cancer survivors are living in the US, and the overall five-year survival rate is approaching 90%. With increased survival and cancer treatment-related cardiotoxicities, there has been a rise in cardiovascular diseases among breast cancer survivors. Yet, cardiovascular disease risk among breast cancer survivors has not been well conceptualized. The purpose of this article was to analyze and define the concept of cardiovascular disease risk among breast cancer survivors. Methods: The databases CINAHL, EMBASE, and PubMed were used to identify articles that explored cardiovascular disease risk among breast cancer survivors. The search yielded 357 articles, which were reviewed for eligibility. Thirty articles were selected based on the inclusion/exclusion criteria. The concept of cardiovascular disease risk among breast cancer survivors was analyzed using Rodgers’ evolutionary concept analysis method. Results: The analysis suggests that cardiovascular disease risk among breast cancer survivors consists of several attributes: cancer treatment (chemotherapy, targeted therapies, radiation therapy, and endocrine therapy, modifiable risk factors (obesity, physical inactivity, poor diet, and smoking, and nonmodifiable risk factors (age, family history, and race. The antecedent identified includes breast cancer diagnosis and the consequence identified includes the development of cardiovascular disease. Conclusion: Findings suggest the need for increased education and understanding of ­cardiovascular disease risk among health care providers and patients. Survivorship care plans can incorporate cardiovascular disease risk monitoring and screening. Future research

  18. Risk predictive modelling for diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kengne, Andre Pascal; Masconi, Katya; Mbanya, Vivian Nchanchou; Lekoubou, Alain; Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin Basile; Matsha, Tandi E

    2014-02-01

    Absolute risk models or clinical prediction models have been incorporated in guidelines, and are increasingly advocated as tools to assist risk stratification and guide prevention and treatments decisions relating to common health conditions such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes mellitus. We have reviewed the historical development and principles of prediction research, including their statistical underpinning, as well as implications for routine practice, with a focus on predictive modelling for CVD and diabetes. Predictive modelling for CVD risk, which has developed over the last five decades, has been largely influenced by the Framingham Heart Study investigators, while it is only ∼20 years ago that similar efforts were started in the field of diabetes. Identification of predictive factors is an important preliminary step which provides the knowledge base on potential predictors to be tested for inclusion during the statistical derivation of the final model. The derived models must then be tested both on the development sample (internal validation) and on other populations in different settings (external validation). Updating procedures (e.g. recalibration) should be used to improve the performance of models that fail the tests of external validation. Ultimately, the effect of introducing validated models in routine practice on the process and outcomes of care as well as its cost-effectiveness should be tested in impact studies before wide dissemination of models beyond the research context. Several predictions models have been developed for CVD or diabetes, but very few have been externally validated or tested in impact studies, and their comparative performance has yet to be fully assessed. A shift of focus from developing new CVD or diabetes prediction models to validating the existing ones will improve their adoption in routine practice.

  19. Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Cambodian Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Grant N; Schell, Terry L; Wong, Eunice C; Berthold, S Megan; Hambarsoomian, Katrin; Elliott, Marc N; Bardenheier, Barbara H; Gregg, Edward W

    2016-02-01

    To determine rates of diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia in Cambodian refugees, and to assess the proportion whose conditions are satisfactorily managed in comparison to the general population. Self-report and laboratory/physical health assessment data obtained from a household probability sample of U.S.-residing Cambodian refugees (N = 331) in 2010-2011 were compared to a probability sample of the adult U.S. population (N = 6,360) from the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Prevalence of diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia in Cambodian refugees greatly exceeded rates found in the age- and gender-adjusted U.S. Cambodian refugees with diagnosed hypertension or hyperlipidemia were less likely than their counterparts in the general U.S. population to have blood pressure and total cholesterol within recommended levels. Increased attention should be paid to prevention and management of diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk factors in the Cambodian refugee community. Research is needed to determine whether this pattern extends to other refugee groups.

  20. Kidney Measures with Diabetes and Hypertension on Cardiovascular Disease : The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexander, Nadine; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Sang, Yingying; Ballew, Shoshana; Mahmoodi, Bakhtawar K.; Astor, Brad C.; Coresh, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Background: Whether the association of chronic kidney disease (CKD) with cardiovascular risk differs based on diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HTN) status remains unanswered. Methods: We investigated 11,050 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (fourth examination

  1. Cardiovascular disease risk in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Guleria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a common disorder in women of reproductive age group. Insulin resistance and the consequent hyperinsulinemia seem to be the central pathophysiological mechanism that links PCOS to its associated metabolic derangements. Women with PCOS exhibit a number of risk factors for coronary artery disease. We studied risk of CVD using two surrogate markers, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD. Aims and objectives: To study cardiovascular disease risk in young women (18-35 years age with PCOS using CIMT and FMD. Materials and Methods: Sixty women with PCOS (age: 23.8 ± 4.5 years; body mass index [BMI]: 23.5 ± 4.2 kg/m 2 were compared with 30 age- and BMI-matched healthy controls (age: 26.3 ± 5.4 years; BMI: 22.6 ± 3.8 kg/m 2 . Diagnosis of PCOS was made using the Rotterdam criteria. Fasting blood sample was analyzed for glucose, insulin, lipid profile, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP, high molecular weight adiponectin (HMWADP, and interleukin 6 (IL6. CIMT and FMD were performed. Results: PCOS patients had a higher waist to hip ratio (W/H [0.86 ± .07 vs. 0.80 ± .05] and free testosterone index (FTI [6.6 ± 6.5 vs. 2.0 ± 1.0] in comparison to controls. There was no difference in the two groups in lipid profile parameters and HOMA IR. CIMT was significantly higher (0.59 ± .1 mm vs. 0.50 ± .05 mm, P value <.001 and FMD lower (10.3 ± 3.9% vs. 15.2 ± 5.5%, P value < .001 in cases when compared to controls. FMD negatively correlated with W/H ratio (r: -0.257 and hsCRP (r: -0.347, while IMT showed positive correlation with IL6 (r: 0.325 and hsCRP (r: 0.303 and a negative correlation with high-density lipoprotein (HDL [r: -0.224], all P values < .05. Conclusions: Patients with PCOS have evidence for increased CVD risk as shown by endothelial dysfunction manifested by increased CIMT and a lower FMD.

  2. Chronic kidney disease and bleeding risk in patients at high cardiovascular risk: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocak, G; Rookmaaker, M B; Algra, A; de Borst, G J; Doevendans, P A; Kappelle, L J; Verhaar, M C; Visseren, F L

    2018-01-01

    Essentials The association between chronic kidney disease and bleeding is unknown. We followed 10 347 subjects at high cardiovascular risk for bleeding events. Chronic kidney disease was associated with a 1.5-fold increased bleeding risk. Especially albuminuria rather than decreased kidney function was associated with bleeding events. Background There are indications that patients with chronic kidney disease have an increased bleeding risk. Objectives To investigate the association between chronic kidney disease and bleeding in patients at high cardiovascular risk. Methods We included 10 347 subjects referred to the University Medical Center Utrecht (the Netherlands) from September 1996 to February 2015 for an outpatient visit with classic risk factors for arterial disease or with symptomatic arterial disease (Second Manifestation of Arterial disease [SMART] cohort). Patients were staged according to the KDIGO guidelines, on the basis of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria, and were followed for the occurrence of major hemorrhagic events until March 2015. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for bleeding were calculated with Cox proportional hazards analyses. Results The incidence rate for bleeding in subjects with chronic kidney disease was 8.0 per 1000 person-years and that for subjects without chronic kidney disease was 3.5 per 1000 person-years. Patients with chronic kidney disease (n = 2443) had a 1.5-fold (95% CI 1.2-1.9) increased risk of bleeding as compared with subjects without chronic kidney disease (n = 7904) after adjustment. Subjects with an eGFR of Chronic kidney disease is a risk factor for bleeding in patients with classic risk factors for arterial disease or with symptomatic arterial disease, especially in the presence of albuminuria. © 2017 University Medical Center Utrecht. Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis © 2017 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  3. Risk factor management in a contemporary Australian population at increased cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D J; Coller, J M; Gong, F F; McGrady, M; Prior, D L; Boffa, U; Shiel, L; Liew, D; Wolfe, R; Owen, A J; Krum, H; Reid, C M

    2017-11-14

    Effective management of cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease risk factors offers longer, healthier lives and savings in health care. We examined risk factor management in participants of the SCReening Evaluation of the Evolution of New Heart Failure (SCREEN-HF) study, a self-selected population at increased cardiovascular disease risk recruited from members of a health insurance fund in Melbourne and Shepparton, Australia. Inclusion criteria were age ≥60 years with one or more of self-reported ischaemic or other heart disease, irregular or rapid heart rhythm, cerebrovascular disease, renal impairment, or treatment for hypertension or diabetes for ≥2 years. Exclusion criteria were known heart failure or cardiac abnormality on echocardiography or other imaging. Medical history, clinical examination, full blood examination and biochemistry (without lipids and HbA1c) were performed for 3847 participants on enrolment, and blood pressure, lipids and HbA1c were measured 1-2 years after enrolment for 3202 participants. Despite 99% of 3294 participants with hypertension receiving antihypertensive medication, half had blood pressures >140/90 mmHg. Approximately 77% of participants were overweight or obese, with one third obese. Additionally, 74% of participants at high cardiovascular disease risk had low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels ≥2 mmol/l, one third of diabetic participants had HbA1c >7%, 22% had estimated glomerular filtration rate management of modifiable risk factors. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Risks of cardiovascular diseases evolvement and occupational stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.F. Gimaeva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to study how significant psychosocial factors are in occupational stress and cardiovascular diseases evolvement in workers employed at petrochemical production; we also intended to work out a set of preventive measures. Our hygienic and social-psychological research enabled us to detect factors causing stress evolvement in workers employed at petrochemical production. These factors included chemical impact, noise, unfavorable microclimate, labor hardness and labor intensity. High level of risk for their own lives and responsibility for safety of others, as well as work under time deficiency conditions with increased responsibility for the final results, were the most significant psychosocial factors for workers. In the course of questioning we detected that 74 % machine operators, 63 % tool men working with controllers and automatic devices, and 57 % repairmen mentioned having stress at work. Here 38 % workers gave a subjective estimation of their professional activity as having apparent "stress nature". The questioning revealed that 48 % workers with various occupations had increased parameters as per anxiety scale (HADS; 23 % workers had increased parameters as per depressions scale (HADS. Primary hypertension was the most widely spread nosologic form among chronic non-infectious diseases; it was found in 46.1 % operators and in 45.2 % repairmen dealing with processing stations repair. 30.1 % tool men working with controllers and automatic devices had average occupational causation of primary hypertension by production factors. We detected direct relation between hyperlipidemia and age and working period. We created foundation for preventive measures and worked out a program aimed at increasing resistance to stress at corporate and individual level. It will provide significant social effect and later on economic one. To overcome social stress we need to create safe working conditions at workplaces and to increase labor motivation

  5. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Among Latino Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, Sheila F.; Rosenbaum, René P.; Holscher, Jessica T.; Madanat, Hala; Talavera, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    Migrant and seasonal (MS) farmworkers are an important component of the US economy. Their unique occupational health concerns have garnered research, but chronic disease research in this population is lacking. It is unclear whether health differences exist between migrant (those who migrate to and travel a distance from the home environment and thus live in temporary housing for the purpose of employment) and seasonal workers (those who work in the agricultural industry on a seasonal basis, whose long-term home environments are often near work locations and thus may be considered more “settled”), since most research presents MS farmworkers as a homogenous group. This study explored potential differences in cardiovascular disease risk factors, (i.e., diabetes, current smoking, obesity, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia) by sex and MS status among a sample of 282 English- and Spanish- speaking Latino MS farmworkers in the Midwest using cross–sectional survey and clinical laboratory data. Results showed that in multivariate logistic regression analyses, migrant workers (odds ratio [OR] = 2.15) had a higher likelihood of being obese compared with seasonal workers (P < .05). MS farmworkers did not differ in likelihood of smoking, diabetes, hypertension, or hypercholesterolemia. In adjusted analyses, females were more likely to be obese (OR = 3.29) and have diabetes (OR = 4.74) compared with males (P < .05); and males were more likely to be current smokers (OR = 7.50) as compared with females (P < .05). This study provides insight into chronic health concerns among this predominantly Latino farmworker population and suggests that future prevention and intervention research may need to focus on sex differences rather than MS farmworker status. PMID:25906268

  6. Cigarette use and cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease: an unappreciated modifiable lifestyle risk factor.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stack, Austin G

    2012-01-31

    Tobacco use is a major modifiable cardiovascular risk factor in the general population and contributes to excess cardiovascular risk. Emerging evidence from large-scale observational studies suggests that continued tobacco use is also an independent cardiovascular risk factor among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The benefits of smoking cessation programs on improving the heath status of patients and reducing mortality are unequivocal in the general population. Despite this, there has been little effort in pursuing tobacco cessation programs in dialysis cohorts or those with lesser degrees of kidney impairment. Most of our attention to date has focused on the development of "kidney-specific" interventions that reduce rates of renal disease progression and improve dialysis outcomes. The purpose of this current review is to describe the epidemiology of tobacco use among patients with CKD, draw attention to its negative impact on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and finally highlight potential strategies for successful intervention. We hope that this study heightens the importance of tobacco use in CKD, stimulates renewed interest in the barriers and challenges that exist in achieving smoking cessation, and endorses the efficacy of intervention strategies and the immeasurable benefits of quitting on cardiovascular and noncardiovascular outcomes.

  7. Circulating Total Bilirubin and Risk of Incident Cardiovascular Disease in the General Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunutsor, Setor K.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Gansevoort, Ronald T.; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of circulating total bilirubin and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in a new prospective study and to determine whether adding information on total bilirubin values to established cardiovascular risk factors is associated with improvement in prediction of CVD

  8. Cardiovascular risk factors and diseases precede oral hypoglycaemic therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkens, JA; Herings, RMC; Stolk, RP; Spoelstra, JA; Grobbee, DE; Leufkens, HGM

    Although patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease share common risk factors, the link between these diseases remains largely unexplained. In this case-control study, the earlier use of cardiovascular drugs (before the diagnosis of diabetes) was investigated among cases with

  9. Are women with polycystic ovary syndrome at increased cardiovascular disease risk later in life?

    OpenAIRE

    Gunning, M. N.; Fauser, B. C.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    To date, the world’s leading cause of death amongst women is cardiovascular disease. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with an unfavorable cardiometabolic profile in early life. Apart from dyslipidemia, obesity and onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus, androgens are thought to influence cardiovascular health. The question rises whether women with PCOS are truly at risk for cardiovascular disease in later life. In this review paper, we aim to reflect on this assumed relation based on...

  10. Cardiovascular disease risk factors in persons with paraplegia: the Stockholm spinal cord injury study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahman, Kerstin; Nash, Mark S; Westgren, Ninni; Lewis, John E; Seiger, Ake; Levi, Richard

    2010-03-01

    To examine cardiovascular disease risk factors and risk clusters in Swedish persons with traumatic wheelchair-dependent paraplegia. Prospective examination. A total of 135 individuals aged 18-79 years with chronic (>or= 1 year) post-traumatic paraplegia. Cardiovascular disease risk factors; dyslipidemia, impaired fasting glucose, hypertension, overweight, smoking, and medication usage for dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus, were analyzed according to authoritative guidelines. Stepwise regression tested the effects of age, gender, and injury characteristics on cardiovascular disease risks. High-prevalence risk factors were dyslipidemia (83.1%), hypertension (39.3%), and overweight (42.2%) with pervasive clustering of these risks. Being older was related to increased cardiovascular disease risk, except for dyslipidemia. Hypertension was more common in low-level paraplegia. Prevalence of impaired fasting glucose was lower than previously reported after paraplegia. A high percentage of persons being prescribed drug treatment for dyslipidemia and hypertension failed to reach authoritative targets for cardiovascular disease risk reduction. Swedish persons with paraplegia are at high risk for dyslipidemia, hypertension, and overweight. Impaired fasting glucose was not as common as reported in some previous studies. Pharmacotherapy for dyslipidemia and hypertension often failed to achieve recommended targets. Population-based screening and therapeutic countermeasures to these cardiovascular disease risks are indicated.

  11. Family history of premature death and risk of early onset cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranthe, Mattis Flyvholm; Carstensen, Lisbeth; Oyen, Nina; Tfelt-Hansen, Jacob; Christiansen, Michael; McKenna, William J; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Melbye, Mads; Boyd, Heather A

    2012-08-28

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a family history of premature death, cardiovascular death in particular, on the risk of early cardiovascular disease. Studies suggest that fatal cardiovascular events and less severe cardiovascular diseases may co-occur in families. Consequently, a family history of premature death may indicate a familial cardiac frailty that predisposes to early cardiovascular disease. We ascertained family history of premature death (age Denmark from 1950 to 2008 and followed this cohort for early cardiovascular disease (age history of premature cardiovascular death in first-degree relatives were 1.72 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.68 to 1.77), 2.21 (95% CI: 2.11 to 2.31), and 1.94 (95% CI: 1.70 to 2.20), respectively. With ≥2 cardiovascular deaths in a family, corresponding IRRs were 3.30 (95% CI: 2.77 to 3.94), 5.00 (95% CI: 3.87 to 6.45), and 6.18 (95% CI: 3.32 to 11.50). The IRR for any early cardiovascular disease given a family history of premature noncardiovascular death was significantly lower, 1.12 (95% CI: 1.10 to 1.14) (p(cardiac vs. noncardiac) history of premature cardiovascular death was consistently and significantly associated with a risk of early cardiovascular disease, suggesting an inherited cardiac vulnerability. These results should be kept in mind when assessing cardiovascular disease risk in persons with a family history of premature cardiovascular death. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Socioeconomic status and risk factors for cardiovascular disease: Impact of dietary mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psaltopoulou, Theodora; Hatzis, George; Papageorgiou, Nikolaos; Androulakis, Emmanuel; Briasoulis, Alexandros; Tousoulis, Dimitris

    It is well known that cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in the western societies. A number of risk factors such as family history, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, diabetes, smoking and physical inactivity are responsible for a significant proportion of the overall cardiovascular risk. Interestingly, recent data suggest there is a gradient in the incidence, morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular disease across the spectrum of socioeconomic status, as this is defined by educational level, occupation or income. Additionally, dietary mediators seem to play significant role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, mediating some of the discrepancies in atherosclerosis among different socioeconomic layers. Therefore, in the present article, we aim to review the association between socioeconomic status and cardiovascular disease risk factors and the role of different dietary mediators. Copyright © 2017 Hellenic Society of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cardiovascular disease and hypertension in sub-Saharan Africa: burden, risk and interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Cappuccio, Francesco Paolo; Miller, Michelle Avril

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease, including stroke, heart failure and kidney disease, have been common in sub-Saharan Africa for many years and rapid urbanization is causing an upsurge of ischaemic heart disease and metabolic disorders. At least two thirds of cardiovascular deaths\\ud now occur in low-and-middle-income countries, bringing a double burden of disease to poor and developing world economies. High blood pressure (or hypertension) is by far the commonest underlying risk factor for cardiovascu...

  14. Physical Activity and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Among Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho-Jen Cheng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD represents a leading cause of mortality and morbidity especially among the elder people, and therefore the need of effective preventive strategies is imperative. Despite limited data among the elderly people, the majority of published studies have demonstrated that physically active elderly people have lower rates of CVD. In this article, we provide an overview of the epidemiology studies that investigate this association and analyze the relevant underlying biological mechanisms. We also discuss the types and amounts of physical activity recommended for the primary prevention of CVD in older adults.

  15. HIV and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Select a Language: Fact Sheet 652 HIV and Cardiovascular Disease HIV AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE WHY SHOULD PEOPLE WITH HIV CARE ABOUT CVD? ... OF CVD? WHAT ABOUT CHANGING MEDICATIONS? HIV AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE Cardiovascular disease (CVD) includes a group of problems ...

  16. An office-based approach to emotional and behavioral risk factor reduction for cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochman, Daniel M; Feinstein, Robert E; Stauter, Erinn C

    2013-01-01

    There are many psychological risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and the ability to reduce mortality depends on an ability to integrate care of these risk factors with traditional Framingham cardiovascular risk and use them both in routine practice. The aim of this article is to provide an update of all the major emotional and behavioral cardiovascular risk factors along with a practical treatment model for implementation. First, we provide a review of major emotional and behavioral cardiovascular risk factors, the associated primary effect, and proposed mechanism of action. Second, we provide an office-based approach to cardiovascular risk factor reduction and methods of reducing barriers to implementation, called Prevention Oriented Primary Care-Abridged. The approach integrates several forms of detection, assessment using the 3As (ask, assess, assist), and Stages of Change approaches, and subsequent efficient and targeted treatment with either Motivational Interviewing or further office intervention. A case example is provided to help illustrate this process.

  17. Cardiovascular disease risk factors in 5-year-old urban South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cardiovascular disease risk factors in 5-year-old urban South African children the birth to ten study. Krisela Steyn, Thea de Wet, Linda Richter, Noel Cameron, Naomi S Levitt, Christopher Morrell ...

  18. The contribution of classical risk factors to cardiovascular disease in familial hypercholesterolaemia: data in 2400 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A. C. M.; van Aalst-Cohen, E. S.; Tanck, M. W.; Trip, M. D.; Lansberg, P. J.; Liem, A. H.; van Lennep, H. W. O. Roeters; Sijbrands, E. J. G.; Kastelein, J. J. P.

    2004-01-01

    Objective. To determine the contribution of classical risk factors to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). Design. A retrospective, multi-centre, cohort study. Extensive data were collected by scrutinizing medical records

  19. [Prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and cardiovascular risk factors in older than 65 years persons in an urban area: DERIVA study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, Emiliano; García-Ortiz, Luis; Gómez-Marcos, Manuel A; Recio-Rodríguez, José I; Mora-Simón, Sara; Pérez-Arechaederra, Diana; Agudo-Conde, Cristina; Escribano-Hernández, Alfonso; Patino-Alonso, María C

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, cardiovascular risk factors, and the psychosocial characteristics associated with them in an urban population aged 65 years and older. Descriptive cross-sectional study of the population. City of Salamanca (Spain). A total of 480 participants aged 65 and older were selected using a stratified randomized sampling method. A health questionnaire was completed in the participants' homes. Weight, height, waist circumference, arterial pressure, blood glucose and cholesterol, were measured, and the standardized prevalence for a European population was estimated. A total of 327 participants were interviewed (68.10% of those selected), mean age of participants was 76 (SD: 7.33). Of the total, 64.5% were women and 20.2% (15.8-24.5) had some cardiovascular disease. In males, the most prevalent cardiovascular disease was ischemic heart disease (12.1% [6.1-18]), while in females it was heart failure (10.4% [6.3-14.6]). Hypertension was the most frequent cardiovascular risk factor for males (63.8% [53.2-70.9]) and females (69.7%.[63.5-75.9]), followed by diabetes in males (36.2% [27.5-45]), and sedentary lifestyle in females (36.0% [29.5-42.5]). Those with cardiovascular diseases were more dependent and had a worse prognosis (Charlson's Comorbility Index). Ischemic heart disease is the most prevalent heart disease in males, while heart failure is the most prevalent disease for females. Almost 80% of the population aged 65 and older did not suffer any of the three cardiovascular diseases that are the main causes of mortality in this group of age. Participants who had a CVD were more dependent for activities of daily living. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  20. MECHANISMS OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE RISKS IN WOMEN WITH POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    Katica Bajuk Studen; Janez Preželj; Tomaž Kocjan; Marija Pfeifer

    2009-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age. The main features of the syndrome are clinical and/or laboratory signs of hyperandrogenism and menstrual cycle irregularities, although several variants of the definition of the syndrome exist. Conclusions PCOS is clearly associated with increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors. However, long term risk of cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality ...

  1. Mercury exposure and risk of cardiovascular disease in two U.S. cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mozaffarian, Dariush; Shi, Peilin; Morris, J Steven

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to methylmercury from fish consumption has been linked to a potentially increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but evidence from prior studies is equivocal. Beneficial effects of the ingestion of fish and selenium may also modify such effects.......Exposure to methylmercury from fish consumption has been linked to a potentially increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but evidence from prior studies is equivocal. Beneficial effects of the ingestion of fish and selenium may also modify such effects....

  2. Risk of cardiovascular disease among teachers in Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of CVD risk factors was high and featured hypertension (48.5%), hypercholesterolaemia (20.5%), smoking (18.0%), diabetes (10.1%) and chronic kidney disease (10.4%), while 84.7% were overweight or obese. Of the participants, 18.7% were at high risk of a heart attack or stroke within 10 years.

  3. Cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, and diabetes mortality burden of cardiometabolic risk factors from 1980 to 2010: a comparative risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danaei, Goodarz; Lu, Yuan; Singh, Gitanjali M.; Carnahan, Emily; Stevens, Gretchen A.; Cowan, Melanie J.; Farzadfar, Farshad; Lin, John K.; Finucane, Mariel M.; Rao, Mayuree; Khang, Young-Ho; Riley, Leanne M.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Lim, Stephen S.; Ezzati, Majid; Aamodt, Geir; Abdeen, Ziad; Abdella, Nabila A.; Rahim, Hanan F. Abdul; Addo, Juliet; Aekplakorn, Wichai; Afifi, Mustafa M.; Agabiti-Rosei, Enrico; Salinas, Carlos A. Aguilar; Agyemang, Charles; Ali, Mohammed K.; Ali, Mohamed M.; Al-Nsour, Mohannad; Al-Nuaim, Abdul R.; Ambady, Ramachandran; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Aro, Pertti; Azizi, Fereidoun; Babu, Bontha V.; Bahalim, Adil N.; Barbagallo, Carlo M.; Barbieri, Marco A.; Barceló, Alberto; Barreto, Sandhi M.; Barros, Henrique; Bautista, Leonelo E.; Benetos, Athanase; Bjerregaard, Peter; Björkelund, Cecilia; Bo, Simona; Bobak, Martin; Bonora, Enzo; Botana, Manuel A.; Bovet, Pascal; Breckenkamp, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Background High blood pressure, blood glucose, serum cholesterol, and BMI are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and some of these factors also increase the risk of chronic kidney disease and diabetes. We estimated mortality from cardiovascular diseases, chronic kidney disease, and diabetes

  4. Cardiovascular Disease Prevalence and Risk Factors of Persons with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draheim, Christopher C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent literature on cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevalence, CVD-related mortality, physiological CVD risk factors, and behavioral CVD risk factors in adults with mental retardation (MR). The literature on the potential influences of modifiable behavioral CVD risk factors and the physiological CVD risk factors are also…

  5. Diabetes propels the risk for cardiovascular disease: sweet monocytes becoming aggressive?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepen, J.A. van; Thiem, K.; Stienstra, R.; Riksen, N.P.; Tack, C.J.; Netea, M.G.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes strongly predisposes to cardiovascular disease (CVD), the leading cause of mortality in these patients, as well as in the entire population. Hyperglycemia is an important cardiovascular risk factor as shown by the observation that even transient periods of hyperglycemia, despite return to

  6. Genetic determinants of LDL, lipoprotein(a), triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and HDL: concordance and discordance with cardiovascular disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate whether new and known genetic determinants of plasma levels of LDL cholesterol, lipoprotein(a), triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and HDL cholesterol associate with the risk of cardiovascular disease expected from the effect on lipoprotein levels. Concordance or discordance...... of such genetic determinants with cardiovascular disease risk will either favor or disfavor that these lipoproteins are causally related to cardiovascular disease....

  7. Triglycerides and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Varbo, Anette

    2014-01-01

    cholesterol might not cause cardiovascular disease as originally thought has now generated renewed interest in raised concentrations of triglycerides. This renewed interest has also been driven by epidemiological and genetic evidence supporting raised triglycerides, remnant cholesterol, or triglyceride......-rich lipoproteins as an additional cause of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Triglycerides can be measured in the non-fasting or fasting states, with concentrations of 2-10 mmol/L conferring increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and concentrations greater than 10 mmol/L conferring increased risk...... of acute pancreatitis and possibly cardiovascular disease. Although randomised trials showing cardiovascular benefit of triglyceride reduction are scarce, new triglyceride-lowering drugs are being developed, and large-scale trials have been initiated that will hopefully provide conclusive evidence...

  8. Cardiovascular Risk Stratification in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome Without Diabetes or Cardiovascular Disease: Usefulness of Metabolic Syndrome Severity Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Walter; Epstein, Teo; Huerín, Melina; Lobo, Lorenzo Martín; Molinero, Graciela; Angel, Adriana; Masson, Gerardo; Millán, Diana; De Francesca, Salvador; Vitagliano, Laura; Cafferata, Alberto; Losada, Pablo

    2017-09-01

    The estimated cardiovascular risk determined by the different risk scores, could be heterogeneous in patients with metabolic syndrome without diabetes or vascular disease. This risk stratification could be improved by detecting subclinical carotid atheromatosis. To estimate the cardiovascular risk measured by different scores in patients with metabolic syndrome and analyze its association with the presence of carotid plaque. Non-diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome (Adult Treatment Panel III definition) without cardiovascular disease were enrolled. The Framingham score, the Reynolds score, the new score proposed by the 2013 ACC/AHA Guidelines and the Metabolic Syndrome Severity Calculator were calculated. Prevalence of carotid plaque was determined by ultrasound examination. A Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis was performed. A total of 238 patients were enrolled. Most patients were stratified as "low risk" by Framingham score (64%) and Reynolds score (70.1%). Using the 2013 ACC/AHA score, 45.3% of the population had a risk ≥7.5%. A significant correlation was found between classic scores but the agreement (concordance) was moderate. The correlation between classical scores and the Metabolic Syndrome Severity Calculator was poor. Overall, the prevalence of carotid plaque was 28.2%. The continuous metabolic syndrome score used in our study showed a good predictive power to detect carotid plaque (area under the curve 0.752). In this population, the calculated cardiovascular risk was heterogenic. The prevalence of carotid plaque was high. The Metabolic Syndrome Severity Calculator showed a good predictive power to detect carotid plaque.

  9. Doença cardiovascular e fatores de risco cardiovascular em candidatos a transplante renal Cardiovascular disease and risk factors in candidates for renal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Henrique Wolff Gowdak

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência de doença cardiovascular (DCV e de fatores de risco tradicionais em portadores de insuficiência renal crônica em avaliação para inclusão em lista para transplante renal. MÉTODOS: Foram submetidos à avaliação clínica e exames complementares 195 pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica dialítica e comparados a grupo de 334 hipertensos pareados por idade. As equações de Framingham foram usadas para o cálculo do risco absoluto (RA; o risco relativo (RR foi calculado tendo como referência o risco absoluto da coorte de baixo risco de Framingham. RESULTADOS: Do total, 37% apresentaram algum tipo de doença cardiovascular na avaliação inicial, sendo que arteriopatia obstrutiva (23% foi a mais prevalente. Excluídos os pacientes com doença cardiovascular, em relação aos fatores de risco tradicionais, houve diferença significativa quanto à pressão arterial sistólica e colesterol total (maiores no grupo de hipertensos e às prevalências de homens, diabetes e tabagismo, maiores no grupo de insuficiência renal crônica, que apresentou maior grau de hipertrofia ventricular esquerda, menor pressão arterial diastólica e menor prevalência de história familiar de doença cardiovascular e obesidade. O risco relativo para doença cardiovascular dos pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica foi mais elevado em relação à população controle de Framingham porém não diferiu da observada no grupo de hipertensos. CONCLUSÃO: Em candidatos a transplante renal é significativa a prevalência de doença cardiovascular e de fatores de risco tradicionais; as equações de Framingham não quantificam adequadamente o risco cardiovascular real e outros fatores de risco específicos desta população devem contribuir para o maior risco cardiovascular.OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD and traditional risk factors in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing

  10. Audit of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Supported Adults with Intellectual Disability Attending an Ageing Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Robyn A.; Schluter, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor profile for older adults with intellectual disability (ID). As many CVD risk factors are treatable by lifestyle changes, confirmation of the risk factor profile for older adults with ID could substantially impact upon preventive health practices for this group. Method:…

  11. Coffee as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. A literature study

    OpenAIRE

    Rijal, Prashamsa

    2016-01-01

    Coffee is the most widely drunk beverage around the world, especially within Scandinavia.However, there have been conflicting evidence on the consumption of coffee as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The importance to explore the full effects of coffee related health problems, including brewing methods, is mainly due to the high consumption rate of coffee around the world. In the context of public health, knowing how a popular beverage such as coffee effects the cardiovascular risks...

  12. Asymptomatic Extracranial Artery Stenosis and the Risk of Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Dandan; Wang, Jing; Jin, Cheng; Ji, Ruijun; Wang, Anxin; Li, Xin; Gao, Xiang; Wu, Shouling; Zhou, Yong; Zhao, Xingquan

    2016-01-01

    Asymptomatic extracranial artery stenosis (ECAS) is a well-known risk factor for stroke events, but it remains unclear whether it has the same role in predicting cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, especially in China. We investigated the potential associations between ECAS, carotid plaque and carotid intima-media thickness and the new occurrence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in the study. Out of 5440 study participants, 364 showed an asymptomatic ECAS at baseline, a...

  13. Impact of Gut Microbiota on Obesity, Diabetes, and Cardiovascular Disease Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miele, Luca; Giorgio, Valentina; Alberelli, Maria Adele; De Candia, Erica; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Grieco, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Gut microbiota has been recently established to have a contributory role in the development of cardiometabolic disorders, such as atherosclerosis, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. Growing interest has focused on the modulation of gut microbiota as a therapeutic strategy in cardiovascular diseases and metabolic disorders. In this paper, we have reviewed the impact of gut microbiota on metabolic disorders and cardiovascular disease risk, focusing on the newest findings in this field.

  14. Laboratory-based and office-based risk scores and charts to predict 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease in 182 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ueda, Peter; Woodward, Mark; Lu, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Worldwide implementation of risk-based cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention requires risk prediction tools that are contemporarily recalibrated for the target country and can be used where laboratory measurements are unavailable. We present two cardiovascular risk scores, with and ...

  15. Distribution of Short-Term and Lifetime Predicted Risks of Cardiovascular Diseases in Peruvian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe, Renato; Bazo-Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Burroughs Peña, Melissa S; Poterico, Julio A; Gilman, Robert H; Checkley, William; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Huffman, Mark D; Miranda, J Jaime

    2015-08-07

    Short-term risk assessment tools for prediction of cardiovascular disease events are widely recommended in clinical practice and are used largely for single time-point estimations; however, persons with low predicted short-term risk may have higher risks across longer time horizons. We estimated short-term and lifetime cardiovascular disease risk in a pooled population from 2 studies of Peruvian populations. Short-term risk was estimated using the atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease Pooled Cohort Risk Equations. Lifetime risk was evaluated using the algorithm derived from the Framingham Heart Study cohort. Using previously published thresholds, participants were classified into 3 categories: low short-term and low lifetime risk, low short-term and high lifetime risk, and high short-term predicted risk. We also compared the distribution of these risk profiles across educational level, wealth index, and place of residence. We included 2844 participants (50% men, mean age 55.9 years [SD 10.2 years]) in the analysis. Approximately 1 of every 3 participants (34% [95% CI 33 to 36]) had a high short-term estimated cardiovascular disease risk. Among those with a low short-term predicted risk, more than half (54% [95% CI 52 to 56]) had a high lifetime predicted risk. Short-term and lifetime predicted risks were higher for participants with lower versus higher wealth indexes and educational levels and for those living in urban versus rural areas (PPeruvian adults were classified as low short-term risk but high lifetime risk. Vulnerable adults, such as those from low socioeconomic status and those living in urban areas, may need greater attention regarding cardiovascular preventive strategies. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  16. Distribution of Short-Term and Lifetime Predicted Risks of Cardiovascular Diseases in Peruvian Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe, Renato; Bazo-Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Burroughs Peña, Melissa S; Poterico, Julio A; Gilman, Robert H; Checkley, William; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Huffman, Mark D; Miranda, J Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Background Short-term risk assessment tools for prediction of cardiovascular disease events are widely recommended in clinical practice and are used largely for single time-point estimations; however, persons with low predicted short-term risk may have higher risks across longer time horizons. Methods and Results We estimated short-term and lifetime cardiovascular disease risk in a pooled population from 2 studies of Peruvian populations. Short-term risk was estimated using the atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease Pooled Cohort Risk Equations. Lifetime risk was evaluated using the algorithm derived from the Framingham Heart Study cohort. Using previously published thresholds, participants were classified into 3 categories: low short-term and low lifetime risk, low short-term and high lifetime risk, and high short-term predicted risk. We also compared the distribution of these risk profiles across educational level, wealth index, and place of residence. We included 2844 participants (50% men, mean age 55.9 years [SD 10.2 years]) in the analysis. Approximately 1 of every 3 participants (34% [95% CI 33 to 36]) had a high short-term estimated cardiovascular disease risk. Among those with a low short-term predicted risk, more than half (54% [95% CI 52 to 56]) had a high lifetime predicted risk. Short-term and lifetime predicted risks were higher for participants with lower versus higher wealth indexes and educational levels and for those living in urban versus rural areas (PPeruvian adults were classified as low short-term risk but high lifetime risk. Vulnerable adults, such as those from low socioeconomic status and those living in urban areas, may need greater attention regarding cardiovascular preventive strategies. PMID:26254303

  17. Cardiovascular risk prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Peter; Abildstrøm, Steen Z.; Jespersen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    Aim European society of cardiology (ESC) guidelines recommend that cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk stratification in asymptomatic individuals is based on the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) algorithm, which estimates individual 10-year risk of death from CVD. We assessed the potential...

  18. Are women with polycystic ovary syndrome at increased cardiovascular disease risk later in life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunning, M N; Fauser, B C J M

    2017-06-01

    To date, the world's leading cause of death amongst women is cardiovascular disease. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with an unfavorable cardiometabolic profile in early life. Apart from dyslipidemia, obesity and onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus, androgens are thought to influence cardiovascular health. The question rises whether women with PCOS are truly at risk for cardiovascular disease in later life. In this review paper, we aim to reflect on this assumed relation based on studies in different stages of life in women with PCOS. Cardiovascular risk factors (type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity and metabolic syndrome), surrogate outcomes (flow-mediated dilation, carotid intima-media thickness and coronary artery calcium) and clinical long-term outcomes (cardiovascular disease and mortality) will be summarized. Data on cardiovascular disease and mortality in peri- and postmenopausal women with PCOS appear to be controversial. Whether androgens have a protective or unfavorable influence on the manifestation of cardiovascular disease remains uncertain. The need for large, prospective, well-phenotyped cohort studies of women with PCOS is high. Only then will we be able to answer this research question.

  19. Nonfasting hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, B G; Langsted, A; Freiberg, J J

    2009-01-01

    , total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 all associate with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. These new data open the possibility that nonfasting rather than fasting lipid profiles can be used for cardiovascular risk prediction. If implemented, this would...... of cardiovascular disease and early death....

  20. Is the high-risk strategy to prevent cardiovascular disease equitable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallach Kildemoes, Helle; Diderichsen, Finn; Krasnik, Allan

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Statins are increasingly prescribed to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) in asymptomatic individuals. Yet, it is unknown whether those at higher CVD risk - i.e. individuals in lower socio-economic position (SEP) - are adequately reached by this high-risk strategy. Aim......: To examine whether the Danish implementation of the strategy to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) by initiating statin (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor) therapy in high-risk individuals is equitable across socioeconomic groups. METHODS: Design: Cohort study. Setting and participants: Applying individual...

  1. PGE2, Kidney Disease, and Cardiovascular Risk: Beyond Hypertension and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrallah, Rania; Hassouneh, Ramzi

    2016-01-01

    An important measure of cardiovascular health is obtained by evaluating the global cardiovascular risk, which comprises a number of factors, including hypertension and type 2 diabetes, the leading causes of illness and death in the world, as well as the metabolic syndrome. Altered immunity, inflammation, and oxidative stress underlie many of the changes associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome, and recent efforts have begun to elucidate the contribution of PGE2 in these events. This review summarizes the role of PGE2 in kidney disease outcomes that accelerate cardiovascular disease, highlights the role of cyclooxygenase-2/microsomal PGE synthase 1/PGE2 signaling in hypertension and diabetes, and outlines the contribution of PGE2 to other aspects of the metabolic syndrome, particularly abdominal adiposity, dyslipidemia, and atherogenesis. A clearer understanding of the role of PGE2 could lead to new avenues to improve therapeutic options and disease management strategies. PMID:26319242

  2. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and 10-year Risk for Coronary Heart Disease in Korean Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunjoo Boo, RN, PhD

    2012-03-01

    Conclusion: Modifiable cardiovascular risk factors are highly prevalent in Korean women, and the combination of risk factors is common. Development and implementation of multifaceted nursing interventions are required to confront the current epidemic rise of CHD in Korean women.

  3. Socio-demographic and cardiovascular disease risk factors associated with dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaaya, Monique; Phung, Kieu; Atweh, Samir

    2018-01-01

    Little evidence from the Arab region is available on dementia and its associated risk factors. This study is the first in Lebanon to examine the association between community older adults' socio-demographics and cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVDRF) and dementia in the aim of closing...

  4. C-reactive protein, insulin resistance and risk of cardiovascular disease: a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, T.W.; Olsen, M.H.; Rasmussen, S.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation, and insulin resistance (IR), a metabolic disorder, are closely related. CRP and IR have both been identified as significant risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) after adjustment for conventional CVD risk factors...

  5. Comparative effectiveness of personalized lifestyle management strategies for cardiovascular disease risk reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Chu (Paula); A. Pandya; J.A. Salomon (Joshua A); S.J. Goldie (Sue J); Hunink, M.G.M. (M.G. Myriam)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground-Evidence shows that healthy diet, exercise, smoking interventions, and stress reduction reduce cardiovascular disease risk. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of these lifestyle interventions for individual risk profiles and determine their rank order in reducing 10-year

  6. Systematic review of implementation strategies for risk tables in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenkiste, B.C. van; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Weijden, G.D.E.M. van der

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease prevention is guided by so-called risk tables for calculating individual's risk numbers. However, they are not widely used in routine practice and it is important to understand the conditions for their use. OBJECTIVES: Systematic review of the literature on

  7. Use of Repeated Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Measurements to Improve Cardiovascular Disease Risk Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paige, Ellie; Barrett, Jessica; Pennells, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    The added value of incorporating information from repeated blood pressure and cholesterol measurements to predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk has not been rigorously assessed. We used data on 191,445 adults from the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration (38 cohorts from 17 countries with data...

  8. Risk of death from cardiovascular disease following breast cancer : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gernaat, S. A.M.; Ho, P. J.; Rijnberg, N.; Emaus, M. J.; Baak, L. M.; Hartman, M.; Grobbee, D. E.; Verkooijen, H. M.

    Purpose: Breast cancer incidence and survival is high, which results in high prevalence of breast cancer survivors. The risk of (death from) cardiovascular disease (CVD) is higher in patients exposed to cardiotoxic treatments, in particular if they have pre-existing CVD risk factors. This study

  9. Associations between aerobic and muscular fitness and cardiovascular disease risk : the northern Ireland young hearts study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, T.; Boreham, Colin A; Murray, Liam J; Twisk, Jos W R

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is not clear what the relative contribution is of specific components of physical fitness (aerobic and muscular) to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. We investigated associations between aerobic fitness (endurance) and muscular fitness (power) and CVD risk factors. METHODS: Data were

  10. Is vitamin B12 deficiency a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in vegetarians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Roman

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to describe the role of vitamin B12 deficiency in cardiovascular disease development among vegetarians. Vegetarians have a high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency. Deficiency of this vitamin is associated with a variety of atherogenic processes that are mainly, but not exclusively, due to vitamin B12 deficiency-induced hyperhomocysteinemia. Each 5-μmol/L increase above 10 μmol/L of serum homocysteine is associated with a 20% increased risk of circulatory health problems. Mean homocysteine concentration >10 μmol/L among vegetarians was reported in 32 of 34 reports. Macrocytosis associated with vitamin B12 deficiency is also associated with fatal and non-fatal coronary disease, myocardial infarction, stroke, and other circulatory health problems. Compared with non-vegetarians, vegetarians have an improved profile of the traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors, including serum lipids, blood pressure, serum glucose concentration, and weight status. However, not all studies that assessed cardiovascular disease incidence among vegetarians reported a protective effect. Among studies that did show a lower prevalence of circulatory health problems, the effect was not as pronounced as expected, which may be a result of poor vitamin B12 status due to a vegetarian diet. Vitamin B12 deficiency may negate the cardiovascular disease prevention benefits of vegetarian diets. In order to further reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, vegetarians should be advised to use vitamin B12 supplements. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Association of TSH With Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Overweight and Obese Children During Lifestyle Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijks, Jesse M; Plat, Jogchum; Dorenbos, Elke; Penders, Bas; Gerver, Willem-Jan M; Vreugdenhil, Anita C E

    2017-06-01

    Overweight and obese children have an increased risk to develop cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in which thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) has been suggested as an intermediary factor. However, results of cross-sectional studies are inconclusive, and intervention studies investigating changes in TSH concentrations in association with changes in cardiovascular risk parameters in overweight and obese children are scarce. To gain insight in associations of circulating TSH concentrations and cardiovascular risk parameters in overweight and obese children. Nonrandomized lifestyle intervention. Centre for Overweight Adolescent and Children's Healthcare. Three hundred thirty euthyroid overweight and obese children. Long-term lifestyle intervention. TSH concentrations, pituitary TSH release in response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), and cardiovascular risk parameters. At baseline, serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triacylglycerol (TAG), and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 concentrations were significantly associated with serum TSH concentrations. TSH release by the pituitary in response to exogenous TRH was not associated with cardiovascular risk parameters. During lifestyle intervention, several cardiovascular risk parameters significantly improved. In children whose body mass index z score improved, changes in TSH concentrations were significantly associated with changes in TC, LDL-C, and TAG concentrations. In euthyroid overweight and obese children, circulating TSH concentrations are positively associated with markers representing increased CVD risk. Changes in TSH concentrations are also associated with changes in lipid concentrations in children with successful weight loss, which is consistent with TSH being an intermediary factor in modulating lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  12. Lifestyle Risk Factors and Cardiovascular Disease in Cubans and Cuban Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa S. Burroughs Peña

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in Cuba. Lifestyle risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD in Cubans have not been compared to risk factors in Cuban Americans. Articles spanning the last 20 years were reviewed. The data on Cuban Americans are largely based on the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES, 1982–1984, while more recent data on epidemiological trends in Cuba are available. The prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus remains greater in Cuban Americans than in Cubans. However, dietary preferences, low physical activity, and tobacco use are contributing to the rising rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and CHD in Cuba, putting Cubans at increased cardiovascular risk. Comprehensive national strategies for cardiovascular prevention that address these modifiable lifestyle risk factors are necessary to address the increasing threat to public health in Cuba.

  13. Race and ethnicity, obesity, metabolic health, and risk of cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, Michelle D; Hedlin, Haley; Mackey, Rachel H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether obesity unaccompanied by metabolic abnormalities is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk across racial and ethnic subgroups. METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified 14 364 postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative who had data on fasting...... serum lipids and serum glucose and no history of cardiovascular disease or diabetes at baseline. We categorized women by body mass index (in kg/m(2)) as normal weight (body mass index 18.5 to obese (body mass index ≥30) and by metabolic health, defined......, overweight women had similar risk to normal weight women (HR 0.92, interaction P=0.05). Obese black women without metabolic syndrome had higher adjusted risk (HR 1.95) than obese white women (HR 1.07; interaction P=0.02). Among women with only 2 metabolic abnormalities, cardiovascular risk was increased...

  14. Shorter height is related to lower cardiovascular disease risk – A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas T. Samaras

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous Western studies have shown a negative correlation between height and cardiovascular disease. However, these correlations do not prove causation. This review provides a variety of studies showing short people have little to no cardiovascular disease. When shorter people are compared to taller people, a number of biological mechanisms evolve favoring shorter people, including reduced telomere shortening, lower atrial fibrillation, higher heart pumping efficiency, lower DNA damage, lower risk of blood clots, lower left ventricular hypertrophy and superior blood parameters. The causes of increased heart disease among shorter people in the developed world are related to lower income, excessive weight, poor diet, lifestyle factors, catch-up growth, childhood illness and poor environmental conditions. For short people in developed countries, the data indicate that a plant-based diet, leanness and regular exercise can substantially reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  15. Relationships of different types of event to cardiovascular death in trials of antihypertensive treatment: an aid to definition of total cardiovascular disease risk in hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambon, Antonella; Arfè, Andrea; Corrao, Giovanni; Zanchetti, Alberto

    2014-03-01

    Guidelines for management of cardiovascular diseases stratify absolute cardiovascular risk into categories with a high-risk threshold defined at a 20% cardiovascular events risk in 10 years, but it is unclear whether only major events or the Framingham-extended definition should be considered. The 2013 ESH-ESC hypertension guidelines, instead, define cardiovascular risk as a risk of cardiovascular death in 10 years, as in the SCORE model, setting the threshold for high risk at the 5% level. It would be therefore convenient to know the quantitative relationship between the risks of the different outcomes adopted by the different guidelines, especially because some outcome definitions include serious nonfatal cardiovascular events relevant in cardiovascular prevention. We have therefore analysed these relationships in trials of antihypertensive therapy as an aid to defining total cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients. Sixty-one trials were identified, and 51 retained for analysis of the relationship of cardiovascular death to the incidence of all-cause death, major cardiovascular events and inclusive (Framingham) cardiovascular events. The relationship between cardiovascular death rates and each type of event rates was explored by fitting flexible regression models. The included trials provided 15164 cardiovascular deaths and 1674427 patient-years. The relation of each event rate to cardiovascular death rate was best explained by a model considering the logarithm of each event rate as a dependent variable and the logarithm of cardiovascular death rate as a predictor. Mean patients' age and treatment were also predictors, but to a minor extent. The increase of the incidence rates of all types of events was less steep the higher the CV death rate: the rate ratios of all-cause death to cardiovascular death were 2.2, 1.9 and 1.8 at low-moderate (cardiovascular death hypertensive patients whose cardiovascular death risk is calculated by the SCORE model.

  16. Frequency of subclinical thyroid dysfunction and risk factors for cardiovascular disease among women at a workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Olmos, Rodrigo; Nogueira, Antônio-Carlos; Penalva, Daniele Queirós Fucciolo; Lotufo, Paulo Andrade; Benseñor, Isabela Martins

    2010-01-01

    Subclinical thyroid dysfunction is very common in clinical practice and there is some evidence that it may be associated with cardiovascular disease. The aim here was to evaluate the frequencies of subclinical thyroid disease and risk factors for cardiovascular disease among women at a workplace, and to evaluate the association between subclinical thyroid disease and cardiovascular risk factors among them. Cross-sectional study on 314 women aged 40 years or over who were working at Universidade de São Paulo (USP). All the women answered a questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics and risk factors for cardiovascular disease and the Rose angina questionnaire. Anthropometric variables were measured and blood samples were analyzed for blood glucose, total cholesterol and fractions, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (free-T4) and anti-thyroperoxidase antibodies (anti-TPO). The frequencies of subclinical hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism were, respectively, 7.3% and 5.1%. Women with subclinical thyroid disease presented higher levels of anti-TPO than did women with normal thyroid function (P = 0.01). There were no differences in sociodemographic factors and cardiovascular risk factors according to thyroid function status, except for greater sedentarism among the women with subclinical hypothyroidism. Restricting the comparison to women with subclinical hypothyroidism (TSH > 10 mIU/l) did not change the results. In this sample of women, there was no association between poor profile of cardiovascular risk factors and presence of subclinical thyroid disease that would justify screening at the workplace.

  17. Frequency of subclinical thyroid dysfunction and risk factors for cardiovascular disease among women at a workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Diaz-Olmos

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Subclinical thyroid dysfunction is very common in clinical practice and there is some evidence that it may be associated with cardiovascular disease. The aim here was to evaluate the frequencies of subclinical thyroid disease and risk factors for cardiovascular disease among women at a workplace, and to evaluate the association between subclinical thyroid disease and cardiovascular risk factors among them. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study on 314 women aged 40 years or over who were working at Universidade de São Paulo (USP. METHODS: All the women answered a questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics and risk factors for cardiovascular disease and the Rose angina questionnaire. Anthropometric variables were measured and blood samples were analyzed for blood glucose, total cholesterol and fractions, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, free thyroxine (free-T4 and anti-thyroperoxidase antibodies (anti-TPO. RESULTS: The frequencies of subclinical hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism were, respectively, 7.3% and 5.1%. Women with subclinical thyroid disease presented higher levels of anti-TPO than did women with normal thyroid function (P = 0.01. There were no differences in sociodemographic factors and cardiovascular risk factors according to thyroid function status, except for greater sedentarism among the women with subclinical hypothyroidism. Restricting the comparison to women with subclinical hypothyroidism (TSH > 10 mIU/l did not change the results. CONCLUSION: In this sample of women, there was no association between poor profile of cardiovascular risk factors and presence of subclinical thyroid disease that would justify screening at the workplace.

  18. The Role of Statins in Disease Modification and Cardiovascular Risk in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stergios Soulaidopoulos

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is an autoimmune, inflammatory disorder associated with excess cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A complex interplay between traditional risk factors (dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, arterial hypertension, obesity, smoking and chronic inflammation is implicated in the development of premature atherosclerosis and consequently in the higher incidence of cardiovascular events observed in RA patients. Despite the acknowledgment of elevated cardiovascular risk among RA individuals, its management remains suboptimal. While statin administration has a crucial role in primary and secondary cardiovascular disease prevention strategies as lipid modulating factors, there are limited data concerning the precise benefit of such therapy in patients with RA. Systemic inflammation and anti-inflammatory treatments influence lipid metabolism, leading to variable states of dyslipidemia in RA. Hence, the indications for statin therapy for cardiovascular prevention may differ between RA patients and the general population and the precise role of lipid lowering treatment in RA is yet to be established. Furthermore, some evidence supports a potential beneficial impact of statins on RA disease activity, attributable to their anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. This review discusses existing data on the efficacy of statins in reducing RA-related cardiovascular risk as well as their potential beneficial effects on disease activity.

  19. Low doses of ionizing radiation and risk of cardiovascular disease: A review of epidemiological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz-Flamant, C.; Bonaventure, A.; Tirmarche, M.; Laurier, D.; Bernier, M.O.; Milliat, F.

    2009-01-01

    Background While cardiovascular risks associated with high level of ionizing radiation are well-established, long-term effects of low and medium levels of exposure, between 0 and 5 gray (Gy), on the cardiovascular system are debated. Methods Available literature was reviewed considering various populations, such as survivors of atomic bombs, nuclear workers, Chernobyl liquidators, radiologists and radiological technologists and patients exposed for medical reasons. Results A significant increased risk of cardiovascular diseases associated with low doses of ionizing radiation was observed in 13 studies among the 27 analyzed. The ischemic heart diseases risk was detailed in 16 studies and seven of them showed a significant increase. The cerebrovascular risk was significantly increased in five studies among the 12 considered. Conclusion Some epidemiological and experimental data are clearly in favour of an increased cardiovascular risk associated with exposure to low doses. However, given the multi-factorial origin of cardiovascular diseases and the lack of a clear pathophysiologic mechanism, epidemiological results have to be carefully interpreted. Further research should be conducted in this area. (authors)

  20. Evaluation of bad habits as risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in Sarajevo Canton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suada Branković

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases by its frequency, epidemic expenditure, socio-medical consequences and with high mortality are becoming the biggest problem of modern medicine. Mortality from cardiovascular diseases declines due to prevention measures in developed countries, in developing countries and countries in transition it increases. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of harmful habits and connection as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in economically active population in the Canton of Sarajevo.Methods: The study was conducted among the active population of Sarajevo Canton. Randomly selected 443 respondents from different groups of workers aged 18-65 years, who voluntarily joined the study. Weperformed a study intersection descriptive method of research. Instrument for conducting research was a set of questionnaires, designed for research purposes.Results: The results study showed that the study group, current smokers occupy 45%, 1.8% occasional smokers who smoke and the rest of nonsmokers. It was shown that subjects who consume alcohol in biggestpercentage 73.4% consumed the same day, while the smallest percentage 2.7% comprise the same subjects who consumed annually.Conclusions: The prevalence of harmful habits as risk factors for cardiovascular disease among subjects in the Sarajevo Canton is evident represented. It is a significant development of the country, because it affects the health promotion strategy, which consequently changes the behavior based on individual needs. Health education and promotion of health can be reduced or completely prevented by a number of risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

  1. Cardiovascular disease and hypertension in sub-Saharan Africa: burden, risk and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappuccio, Francesco Paolo; Miller, Michelle Avril

    2016-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease, including stroke, heart failure and kidney disease, has been common in sub-Saharan Africa for many years, and rapid urbanization is causing an upsurge of ischaemic heart disease and metabolic disorders. At least two-thirds of cardiovascular deaths now occur in low- and middle-income countries, bringing a double burden of disease to poor and developing world economies. High blood pressure (or hypertension) is by far the commonest underlying risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Its prevention, detection, treatment and control in sub-Saharan Africa are haphazard and suboptimal. This is due to a combination of lack of resources and health-care systems, non-existent effective preventive strategies at a population level, lack of sustainable drug therapy, and barriers to complete compliance with prescribed medications. The economic impact for loss of productive years of life and the need to divert scarce resources to tertiary care are substantial.

  2. Erratum to: Quantifying Socioeconomic and Lifestyle Related Health Risks: Burden of Cardiovascular Disease Among Indian Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neetu Purohit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the type-setting of the final version of the article,1 the title was misspelled on the website, page 2 of Word Document, and page 2 of PDF. The title was written as “Quantifying Socioeconomic and Lifestyle Related Health Risks: Burden of Cardiocascular Disease Among Indian Males” and the corrected title is “Quantifying Socioeconomic and Lifestyle Related Health Risks: Burden of Cardiovascular Disease Among Indian Males.”

  3. Space-Time Analysis to Identify Areas at Risk of Mortality from Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliany C. O. Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at identifying areas that were at risk of mortality due to cardiovascular disease in residents aged 45 years or older of the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande between 2009 and 2011. We conducted an ecological study of mortality rates related to cardiovascular disease. Mortality rates were calculated for each census tract by the Local Empirical Bayes estimator. High- and low-risk clusters were identified by retrospective space-time scans for each year using the Poisson probability model. We defined the year and month as the temporal analysis unit and the census tracts as the spatial analysis units adjusted by age and sex. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the socioeconomic and environmental variables by risk classification. High-risk clusters showed higher income ratios than low-risk clusters, as did temperature range and atmospheric particulate matter. Low-risk clusters showed higher humidity than high-risk clusters. The Eastern region of Várzea Grande and the central region of Cuiabá were identified as areas at risk of mortality due to cardiovascular disease in individuals aged 45 years or older. High mortality risk was associated with socioeconomic and environmental factors. More high-risk clusters were observed at the end of the dry season.

  4. The Veterans Affairs Cardiac Risk Score: Recalibrating the Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Score for Applied Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Jeremy B; Wiitala, Wyndy L; Zawistowski, Matthew; Hofer, Timothy P; Bentley, Douglas; Hayward, Rodney A

    2017-09-01

    Accurately estimating cardiovascular risk is fundamental to good decision-making in cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention, but risk scores developed in one population often perform poorly in dissimilar populations. We sought to examine whether a large integrated health system can use their electronic health data to better predict individual patients' risk of developing CVD. We created a cohort using all patients ages 45-80 who used Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) ambulatory care services in 2006 with no history of CVD, heart failure, or loop diuretics. Our outcome variable was new-onset CVD in 2007-2011. We then developed a series of recalibrated scores, including a fully refit "VA Risk Score-CVD (VARS-CVD)." We tested the different scores using standard measures of prediction quality. For the 1,512,092 patients in the study, the Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk score had similar discrimination as the VARS-CVD (c-statistic of 0.66 in men and 0.73 in women), but the Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease model had poor calibration, predicting 63% more events than observed. Calibration was excellent in the fully recalibrated VARS-CVD tool, but simpler techniques tested proved less reliable. We found that local electronic health record data can be used to estimate CVD better than an established risk score based on research populations. Recalibration improved estimates dramatically, and the type of recalibration was important. Such tools can also easily be integrated into health system's electronic health record and can be more readily updated.

  5. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the Ga-Rankuwa community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.Q. Li

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the most common and yet one of the most preventable causes of death in the world. Rapid urbanization in South Africa is accompanied by rapid changes in lifestyle and environmental exposure that increase the burden of chronic cardiovascular diseases. Risk factors, modifiable or nonmodifiable, exist that increases a person’s chances of developing cardiovascular disease. Though some knowledge is available about the prevalence of the risk factors in South Africa, no information is available regarding the community of Ga-Rankuwa. The purpose of the study was therefore to investigate the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease amongst the working-age people (18-40 years in Ga-Rankuwa community. A quantitative survey was done and the sample was selected from zone 1,2,4, and 16 of Ga-Rankuwa from July 2005 to October 2005. The sampling method was census sampling (n=604. The data-gathering was self-report using a structured questionnaire as well as physical measurement. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. The results indicated that risk factors, specifically obesity, physical inactivity and hypertension, were very prevalent in Ga-Rankuwa community. Different distributions of risk factors exist in the various sex and age groups. This finding again emphasises the importance of not developing health interventions with a single focus, for example hypertension or obesity. The risk factors are interwoven and affect each other. It is important to initiate a comprehensive health project to lower the risk factors of cardiovascular disease in the Ga-Rankuwa community.

  6. The effects of infographics and several quantitative versus qualitative formats for cardiovascular disease risk, including heart age, on people's risk understanding.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damman, Olga C; Vonk, Suzanne I; Van den Haak, Maaike J; van Hooijdonk, Charlotte M J; Timmermans, Danielle R M

    2018-01-01

    To study how comprehension of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is influenced by: (1) infographics about qualitative risk information, with/without risk numbers; (2) which qualitative risk dimension is emphasized; (3) heart age vs. traditional risk format.

  7. Risk factors for diseases of the cardiovascular system among Catholics living in areas of southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Majda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Cardiovascular diseases (CVD are the most frequent cause of mortality of Polish residents. In Poland, there are few publications regarding research on the influence of people’s religiosity on their health. Aim of the research : To determine some factors of cardiovascular risk and the risk of cardiovascular events among Catholics. Material and methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 134 randomly selected Catholics and based on the results of: questionnaire survey, anthropometric measurements, physical examination, the SCORE scale, laboratory tests (CRP, homocysteine. glucose, total cholesterol, HDL, and triglycerides and assessing the risk of cardiovascular events based on the SCORE scale. Statistical analysis was based on the χ 2 test. Founded significance level was 0.05. Results: More than half of the respondents were diagnosed delevated homocysteine level and gluteal-femoral obesity. A little more than half of those surveyed had elevated total cholesterol levels and increased blood pressure, a little more than one-quarter of the respondents had raised triglyceride levels, and one-tenth had heightened glucose and C-reactive protein levels. The higher the age of the respondents, the more often the results of their biochemical exceed standards. Over half of those examined were diagnosed with overweight or obesity. Among examined gynoid obesity prevailed over android obesity. The risk assessment of CVD Catholics revealed that among the modifiable factors, biochemical levels of homocysteine proved to be the most important new risk factor, but among the classic factors it was blood pressure value. More than half of the respondents had moderate risk of cardiovascular events in the study group. Conclusions : Nurses should promote pro-health attitudes, and should encourage the elimination of risk factors and biochemical testing and measurement among Catholics, who are a religious group at higher risk of cardiovascular

  8. [Strategies for cardiovascular disease prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabus, Vincent; Wuerzner, Grégoire; Saubade, Mathieu; Favre, Lucie; Jacot Sadowski, Isabelle; Nanchen, David

    2018-02-28

    Atherosclerosis is a disease which develops very gradually over decades. Under the influence of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, such as blood pressure, LDL-cholesterol level, smoking or lifestyle, clinical symptoms of atherosclerosis manifest more or less early in life. When cardiovascular risk factors accumulate, the risk of having a cardiovascular event increases and the benefits of prevention measures are greater. This article summarizes existing strategies for controlling modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in primary prevention. The physician can rely on an interprofessional network of cardiovascular prevention. Managing risk factors while respecting the autonomy and priorities of the patient will bring the greatest benefit.

  9. Burnout and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: Evidence, Possible Causal Paths, and Promising Research Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melamed, Samuel; Shirom, Arie; Toker, Sharon; Berliner, Shlomo; Shapira, Itzhak

    2006-01-01

    Burnout is characterized by emotional exhaustion, physical fatigue, and cognitive weariness, resulting from prolonged exposure to work-related stress. The authors review the accumulated evidence suggesting that burnout and the related concept of vital exhaustion are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and…

  10. Family-centered brief intervention for reducing obesity and cardiovascular disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duncan, Scott; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; McPhee, Julia

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of a family-centered, physical activity and nutrition "brief" intervention (time-limited contact) on body weight and related health outcomes in primary health care patients with an elevated 5-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. METHODS: This study implemented...

  11. Identifying Risk Factors for the Prediction of Hospital Readmission among Older Persons with Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Renee Annette

    Older persons (55 years and older) with cardiovascular disease are at increased risk for hospital readmission when compared to other subgroups of our population. This issue presents an economic problem, a concern for the quality and type of care provided, and an urgent need to implement innovative strategies designed to reduce the rising cost of…

  12. Drug-Gene Interactions of Antihypertensive Medications and Risk of Incident Cardiovascular Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bis, Joshua C; Sitlani, Colleen; Irvin, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a major risk factor for a spectrum of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), including myocardial infarction, sudden death, and stroke. In the US, over 65 million people have high blood pressure and a large proportion of these individuals are prescribed antihypertensive medica...

  13. Dietary fat and cholesterol and risk of cardiovascular disease in older adults: The Health ABC Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houston, D.K.; Ding, J.; Lee, J.S.; Garcia, M.; Kanaya, A.; Tylavsky, F.A.; Newman, A.B.; Visser, M.; Kritchevsky, S.B.

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims: Although dietary fats and cholesterol have previously been associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in middle-aged populations, less is known among older adults. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between dietary fats, cholesterol, and eggs

  14. The Age-Specific Quantitative Effects of Metabolic Risk Factors on Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Gitanjali M; Danaei, Goodarz; Farzadfar, Farshad

    2013-01-01

    The effects of systolic blood pressure (SBP), serum total cholesterol (TC), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and body mass index (BMI) on the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have been established in epidemiological studies, but consistent estimates of effect sizes by age and sex...

  15. Prospective study on dietary intakes of folate, betaine, and choline and cardiovascular disease risk in women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalmeijer, G.W.; Olthof, M.R.; Verhoef, P.; Bots, M.L.; van der Schouw, Y.T.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between dietary intakes of folate, betaine and choline and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Design: Prospective cohort study. Subjects: A total of 16165 women aged 49-70 years without prior CVD. Subjects were breast cancer screening participants in

  16. Effects of Probiotic Yogurt Consumption on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F mohammadi

    2015-02-01

    Conclusion: Consumption of probiotic yogurt improved lipid profile and some inflammatory biomarkers in patients with type 2 diabetes. Also, probiotic yogurt caused significant decrease in HbA1c. It is suggested that probiotic yogurt may be used as an adjunct therapy to reduce the cardiovascular disease risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

  17. The association between chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease risk factors in atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sera, Nobuko; Hida, Ayumi; Imaizumi, Misa; Nakashima, Eiji; Akahoshi, Masazumi

    2013-01-01

    Atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic CVD risk factors. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is also known to be a risk factor for CVD and little is known whether CKD is associated with A-bomb radiation. To examine whether CKD is associated with CVD risk factors or with A-bomb radiation in A-bomb survivors, we classified renal dysfunction in 1,040 A-bomb survivors who were examined in 2004-2007 as normal [n = 121; estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥ 90 ml/min/1.73 m(2)]; mild (n = 686; eGFR 60-89 ml/min/1.73 m(2)); moderate (n = 217; eGFR 30-59 ml/min/1.73 m(2)); or severe (n = 16; eGFR bomb radiation. Hypertension [odds ratio (OR), 1.57; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12-2.20, P = 0.009]; DM (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.23-2.61, P = 0.002); hyperlipidemia (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.12-2.14, P = 0.008); and MetS (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.32-2.63, P bomb survivors.

  18. Added Sugars and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Children: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Miriam B; Kaar, Jill L; Welsh, Jean A; Van Horn, Linda V; Feig, Daniel I; Anderson, Cheryl A M; Patel, Mahesh J; Cruz Munos, Jessica; Krebs, Nancy F; Xanthakos, Stavra A; Johnson, Rachel K

    2017-05-09

    Poor lifestyle behaviors are leading causes of preventable diseases globally. Added sugars contribute to a diet that is energy dense but nutrient poor and increase risk of developing obesity, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, obesity-related cancers, and dental caries. For this American Heart Association scientific statement, the writing group reviewed and graded the current scientific evidence for studies examining the cardiovascular health effects of added sugars on children. The available literature was subdivided into 5 broad subareas: effects on blood pressure, lipids, insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and obesity. Associations between added sugars and increased cardiovascular disease risk factors among US children are present at levels far below current consumption levels. Strong evidence supports the association of added sugars with increased cardiovascular disease risk in children through increased energy intake, increased adiposity, and dyslipidemia. The committee found that it is reasonable to recommend that children consume ≤25 g (100 cal or ≈6 teaspoons) of added sugars per day and to avoid added sugars for children added sugars most likely can be safely consumed in low amounts as part of a healthy diet, few children achieve such levels, making this an important public health target. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Mercury Exposure and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Two U.S. Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffarian, Dariush; Shi, Peilin; Morris, J. Steven; Spiegelman, Donna; Grandjean, Philippe; Siscovick, David S.; Willett, Walter C.; Rimm, Eric B.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Exposure to methylmercury from fish consumption has been linked to a potentially increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but evidence from prior studies is equivocal. Beneficial effects of the ingestion of fish and selenium may also modify such effects. METHODS Among subjects from two U.S. cohorts (a total of 51,529 men and 121,700 women) whose toenail clippings had been stored, we prospectively identified incident cases of cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease and stroke) in 3427 participants and matched them to risk-set–sampled controls according to age, sex, race, and smoking status. Toenail mercury and selenium concentrations were assessed with the use of neutron-activation analysis. Other demographic characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors, fish consumption, and lifestyle habits were assessed by means of validated questionnaires. Associations between mercury exposure and incident cardiovascular disease were evaluated with the use of conditional logistic regression. RESULTS Median toenail mercury concentrations were 0.23 µg per gram (interdecile range, 0.06 to 0.94) in the case participants and 0.25 µg per gram (interdecile range, 0.07 to 0.97) in the controls. In multivariate analyses, participants with higher mercury exposures did not have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. For comparisons of the fifth quintile of mercury exposure with the first quintile, the relative risks were as follows: coronary heart disease, 0.85 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69 to 1.04; P = 0.10 for trend); stroke, 0.84 (95% CI, 0.62 to 1.14; P = 0.27 for trend); and total cardiovascular disease, 0.85 (95% CI, 0.72 to 1.01; P = 0.06 for trend). Findings were similar in analyses of participants with low selenium concentrations or low overall fish consumption and in several additional sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS We found no evidence of any clinically relevant adverse effects of mercury exposure on coronary heart disease, stroke, or total

  20. Cardiovascular disease and risk factors in patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tobin, Anne-Marie

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) have an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome compared to the normal population. Patients with psoriasis and PsA may also have increased risk from nonconventional risk factors such as raised levels of homocysteine and excessive alcohol consumption. We conducted a comprehensive review of the literature on CVD and all cardiovascular risk factors in patients with psoriasis and PsA. METHODS: Data sources: All studies identified from a Medline (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) search pertaining to CVD, individual risk factors in psoriasis, and PsA were included. Study selection: Studies included a healthy reference population, were published between 1975 and 2009, and were written in English. RESULTS: Our search yielded 14 studies that documented rates of CVD in patients with psoriasis and PsA compared to controls. Substantial evidence points to elevated risk of CVD in patients with psoriasis and PsA. CONCLUSION: It remains difficult to conclude if risk factors are caused by psoriasis or share a common pathogenesis. Physicians treating patients with psoriasis and PsA must be aware of all potential cardiovascular risk factors in their patients.

  1. Target intervention against multiple-risk markers to reduce cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaede, Peter; Pedersen, Oluf

    2004-01-01

    The risk of cardiovascular disease is markedly increased in patients with type 2 diabetes with a prevalence twice as high compared to the background population. With the recognition of multiple concomitant risk factors for both microvascular as well as cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetic pa...

  2. Advanced age, cardiovascular risk burden, and timed up and go test performance in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotagal, Vikas; Albin, Roger L; Müller, Martijn L T M; Koeppe, Robert A; Studenski, Stephanie; Frey, Kirk A; Bohnen, Nicolaas I

    2014-12-01

    Cardiovascular comorbidities are a known risk factor for impaired mobility in elderly individuals. Motor impairments in Parkinson disease are conventionally ascribed to nigrostriatal dopaminergic denervation although progressive gait and balance impairments become more common with aging and often show limited response to dopaminergic replacement therapies. We explored the association between elevated cardiovascular risk factors and performance on the Timed Up and Go test in cross-sectional of Parkinson disease subjects (n = 83). Cardiovascular risk factor status was estimated using the Framingham General Cardiovascular Disease risk-scoring algorithm in order to dichotomize the cohort into those with and without elevated modifiable cardiovascular risk compared with normative scores for age and gender. All subjects underwent clinical and neuroimaging evaluations including a 3-m Timed Up and Go test, [(11)C]dihydrotetrabenazine positron emission tomography imaging to estimate nigrostriatal dopamine terminal loss, and an magnetic resonance imaging assessment of leukoaraiosis. A similar analysis was performed in 49 healthy controls. After adjusting for disease duration, leukoaraiosis, and nigrostriatal dopaminergic denervation, Parkinson disease subjects with elevated Framingham risk scores (n = 61) displayed slower Timed Up and Go test performance (β = 1.86, t = 2.41, p = .018) compared with subjects with normal range Framingham risk scores (n = 22). When age ≥65 was added to the model in a post hoc analysis, the strength of effect seen with older age (β = 1.51, t = 2.44, p = .017) was similar to that of elevated Framingham risk scoring (β = 1.87, t = 2.51, p = .014). In a multivariable regression model studying the healthy control population, advanced age (t = 2.15, p = .037) was a significant predictor of Timed Up and Go speed though striatal [(11)C]dihydrotetrabenazine (t = -1.30, p = .19) and elevated Framingham risk scores (t = 1.32, p = .19) were not

  3. Epigenetics and cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite advances in the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD), this group of multifactorial disorders remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide. CVD is associated with multiple genetic and modifiable risk factors; however, known environmental and genetic influences can only...

  4. Association of Educational Attainment With Lifetime Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Yasuhiko; Heiss, Gerardo; MacLehose, Richard F; Roetker, Nicholas S; Folsom, Aaron R

    2017-08-01

    Estimates of lifetime risk may help raise awareness of the extent to which educational inequalities are associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). To estimate lifetime risks of CVD according to categories of educational attainment. Participants were followed from 1987 through December 31, 2013. All CVD events (coronary heart disease, heart failure, and stroke) were confirmed by physician review and International Classification of Diseases codes. A total of 13 948 whites and African Americans who were 45 to 64 years old and free of CVD at baseline were included from 4 US communities (Washington County, Maryland; Forsyth County, North Carolina; Jackson, Mississippi; and suburbs of Minneapolis, Minnesota). The data analysis was performed from June 7 to August 31, 2016. Educational attainment. We used a life table approach to estimate lifetime risks of CVD from age 45 through 85 years according to educational attainment. We adjusted for competing risks of death from underlying causes other than CVD. The sample of 13 948 participants was 56% female and 27% African American. During 269 210 person-years of follow-up, we documented 4512 CVD events and 2401 non-CVD deaths. Educational attainment displayed an inverse dose-response relation with cumulative risk of CVD, which became evident in middle age, with the most striking gap between those not completing vs completing high school. In men, lifetime risks of CVD were 59.0% (95% CI, 54.0%-64.1%) for grade school, 52.5% (95% CI, 47.7%-56.8%) for high school education without graduation, 50.9% (95% CI, 47.3%-53.9%) for high school graduation, 47.2% (95% CI, 41.5%-52.5%) for vocational school, 46.4% (95% CI, 42.8%-49.6%) for college with or without graduation, and 42.2% (95% CI, 36.6%-47.0%) for graduate/professional school; in women, 50.8% (95% CI, 45.7%-55.8%), 49.3% (95% CI, 45.1%-53.1%), 36.3% (95% CI, 33.4%-39.1%), 32.2% (95% CI, 26.0%-37.3%), 32.8% (95% CI, 29.1%-35.9%), and 28.0% (95% CI, 21

  5. Cardiovascular risk factors and non-communicable diseases in Abia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    engaged in work involving sedentary activity. ... 80% of chronic diseases are now occurring ... The last survey on NCDs in Nigeria was in 1997 (15 years ago) and since then little attempt has ... These were adult men and women aged 18.

  6. Uric acid as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality in overweight/obese individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle Skak-Nielsen

    Full Text Available The predictive value of serum uric acid (SUA for adverse cardiovascular events among obese and overweight patients is not known, but potentially important because of the relation between hyperuricaemia and obesity.The relationship between SUA and risk of cardiovascular adverse outcomes (nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, resuscitated cardiac arrest or cardiovascular death and all-cause mortality, respectively, was evaluated in a post-hoc analysis of the Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes (SCOUT trial. Participants enrolled in SCOUT were obese or overweight with pre-existing diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease (CVD. Cox models were used to assess the role of SUA as an independent risk factor.9742 subjects were included in the study; 83.6% had diabetes, and 75.1% had CVD. During an average follow-up time of 4.2 years, 1043 subjects had a primary outcome (myocardial infarction, resuscitated cardiac arrest, stroke, or cardiovascular death, and 816 died. In a univariate Cox model, the highest SUA quartile was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular adverse outcomes compared with the lowest SUA quartile in women (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.20-2.10. In multivariate analyses, adjusting for known cardiovascular risk factors the increased risk for the highest SUA quartile was no longer statistically significant among women (HR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.72-1.36 nor was it among men. Analyses of all-cause mortality found an interaction between sex and SUA. In a multivariate Cox model including women only, the highest SUA quartile was associated with an increased risk in all-cause mortality compared to the lowest SUA quartile (HR: 1.51; 95% CI: 1.08-2.12. No relationship was observed in men (HR: 1.06; 95% CI: 0.82-1.36.SUA was not an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease and death in these high-risk overweight/obese people. However, our results suggested that SUA was an independent predictor of all

  7. Tobacco, illicit drugs use and risk of cardiovascular disease in patients living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposeiras-Roubín, Sergio; Abu-Assi, Emad; Iñiguez-Romo, Andrés

    2017-11-01

    There is a strong link between HIV, smoking and illicit drugs. This association could be clinically relevant as it may potentiate the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The purpose of this review is to bring readers up to date on issues concerning the cardiovascular risk associated with tobacco and illicit drugs in patients living with HIV (PLHIV), examining the studies related to this topic published in the last year. There is a strong association between smoking and atherosclerotic disease in PLHIV, reducing life expectancy secondary to CVD by up to 6 years. Illicit drugs were associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic problems but to a lesser extent than smoking. A significant association of drugs such as cocaine with subclinical coronary atherosclerosis been demonstrated. The relation of marijuana, heroin and amphetamines with atherosclerosis generates more controversy. However, those drugs are associated with cardiovascular morbidity, independently of smoking and other traditional risk factors. Tobacco and illicit drugs are linked to CVD in HIV patients. This leads to the need to create special programs to address the addiction to smoking and illicit drugs, in order to mitigate their consequences and reduce cardiovascular risk.

  8. Different anthropometric adiposity measures and their association with cardiovascular disease risk factors: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    van Dijk, S. B.; Takken, T.; Prinsen, E. C.; Wittink, H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate which anthropometric adiposity measure has the strongest association with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Caucasian men and women without a history of CVD. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods We searched databases for studies reporting correlations between anthropometric adiposity measures and CVD risk factors in Caucasian subjects without a history of CVD. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-height ra...

  9. Comparative Effectiveness of Personalized Lifestyle Management Strategies for Cardiovascular Disease Risk Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Paula; Pandya, Ankur; Salomon, Joshua A; Goldie, Sue J; Hunink, M G Myriam

    2016-03-29

    Evidence shows that healthy diet, exercise, smoking interventions, and stress reduction reduce cardiovascular disease risk. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of these lifestyle interventions for individual risk profiles and determine their rank order in reducing 10-year cardiovascular disease risk. We computed risks using the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Pooled Cohort Equations for a variety of individual profiles. Using published literature on risk factor reductions through diverse lifestyle interventions-group therapy for stopping smoking, Mediterranean diet, aerobic exercise (walking), and yoga-we calculated the risk reduction through each of these interventions to determine the strategy associated with the maximum benefit for each profile. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the robustness of the results. In the base-case analysis, yoga was associated with the largest 10-year cardiovascular disease risk reductions (maximum absolute reduction 16.7% for the highest-risk individuals). Walking generally ranked second (max 11.4%), followed by Mediterranean diet (max 9.2%), and group therapy for smoking (max 1.6%). If the individual was a current smoker and successfully quit smoking (ie, achieved complete smoking cessation), then stopping smoking yielded the largest reduction. Probabilistic and 1-way sensitivity analysis confirmed the demonstrated trend. This study reports the comparative effectiveness of several forms of lifestyle modifications and found smoking cessation and yoga to be the most effective forms of cardiovascular disease prevention. Future research should focus on patient adherence to personalized therapies, cost-effectiveness of these strategies, and the potential for enhanced benefit when interventions are performed simultaneously rather than as single measures. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  10. Slow breathing and cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Chaddha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women worldwide. Much emphasis has been placed on the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. While depression and anxiety increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular disease also increases the risk of developing anxiety and depression. Thus, promoting optimal mental health may be important for both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Like lowering blood pressure, lipids, and body weight, lowering anger and hostility and improving depression and anxiety may also be an important intervention in preventive cardiology. As we strive to further improve cardiovascular outcomes, the next bridge to cross may be one of offering patients nonpharmacologic means for combating daily mental stress and promoting mental health, such as yoga and pranayama. Indeed, the best preventive cardiovascular medicine may be a blend of both Western and Eastern medicine.

  11. Prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular and kidney disease in Brazilian healthy preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva, Adriana C?ndida; de Sousa Tavares, Marcelo; Penido, Maria Goretti Moreira Guimar?es

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the prevalence of nutritional parameters of risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and kidney diseases in healthy preschool children. METHODS This is an observational cross-sectional study with 60 healthy children, of both genders, aged two to six years old and 56 mothers, in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Preschool children and their families with regular activities at public schools were invited to paticipate in the study. The following characteristics were assessed...

  12. EXCESSIVE WEIGHT – MUSCLE DEPLETION PARADOX AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN OUTPATIENTS WITH INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Izabel Siqueira de ANDRADE

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Evidence suggests a nutritional transition process in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Obesity, which was once an uncommon occurrence in such patients, has grown in this population at the same prevalence rate as that found in the general population, bringing with it an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Objective The aim of the present study was to determine the nutritional status and occurrence of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Methods A case-series cross-sectional study was conducted involving male and female adult outpatients with inflammatory bowel disease. Data were collected on demographic, socioeconomic, clinical and anthropometric variables as well as the following cardiovascular risk factors: sedentary lifestyle, excess weight, abdominal obesity, medications in use, comorbidities, alcohol intake and smoking habits. The significance level for all statistical tests was set to 5% (P< 0.05. Results The sample comprised 80 patients with inflammatory bowel disease, 56 of whom (70.0% had ulcerative colitis and 24 of whom (30.0% had Crohn's disease. Mean age was 40.3±11 years and the female genre accounted for 66.2% of the sample. High frequencies of excess weight (48.8% and abdominal obesity (52.5% were identified based on the body mass index and waist circumference, respectively, in both groups, especially among those with ulcerative colitis. Muscle depletion was found in 52.5% of the sample based on arm muscle circumference, with greater depletion among patients with Crohn’s disease (P=0.008. The most frequent risk factors for cardiovascular disease were a sedentary lifestyle (83.8%, abdominal obesity (52.5% and excess weight (48.8%. Conclusion The results of the complete anthropometric evaluation draw one’s attention to a nutritional paradox, with high frequencies of both - muscle depletion, as well as excess weight and abdominal obesity.

  13. Burden of cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular disease in childhood cancer survivors: data from the German CVSS-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, J; Wingerter, A; Neu, M A; Henninger, N; Eckerle, S; Münzel, T; Lackner, K J; Beutel, M E; Blettner, M; Rathmann, W; Peters, A; Meisinger, C; Linkohr, B; Neuhauser, H; Kaatsch, P; Spix, C; Schneider, A; Merzenich, H; Panova-Noeva, M; Prochaska, J H; Wild, P S

    2018-05-01

    The cardiac and vascular late sequelae in long-term survivors of childhood cancer (CVSS)-study aimed to quantify the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in German childhood cancer survivors (CCS). In the CVSS-study (NCT02181049), 1002 CCS (age range 23-48 years) diagnosed with neoplasia prior to 15 years of age between 1980 and 1990 prospectively underwent a systematic, standardized clinical and laboratory cardiovascular screening, identical to the population-based Gutenberg Health Study (GHS) cohort. For 951 individuals, prevalences of CVRF and CVD were primarily compared to the GHS sample and to two further German population-based cohorts. Using log-binomial regression models, an increased risk for occurrence of arterial hypertension [relative risk (RR) 1.38, 95% confidence interval (95% CI 1.21-1.57)] and dyslipidaemia [RR 1.26 (95% CI 1.12-1.42)] was found. This indicates a premature occurrence compared to the general population of approximately 6 and 8 years, respectively [rate advancement period estimator, RAPhypertension 5.75 (95% CI 3.5-8.0) and RAPdyslipidaemia 8.16 (95% CI 4.4-11.9)]. Overall, no differences were observed for obesity and diabetes. Overt CVD was present in 4.5% (95% CI 3.0-6.6%) of CCS [RR 1.89 (95% CI 1.34-2.66), RAPCVD 7.9 (95% CI 4.1-11.7)], of which the most frequent entities were congestive heart failure and venous thromboembolism. Prevalences of CVRF and CVD increased with age without reaching a plateau over time. This large CCS screening examination revealed consistently in comparison to three population samples a considerably increased risk for premature CVD. The findings in these young adult CCS indicate a high burden of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the long term. NCT02181049.

  14. Factors associated with blue-collar workers' risk perception of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Won Ju; Hong, Oisaeng; Kim, Mi Ja

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of actual cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, as well as, individual, psychosocial, and work-related factors as predictors of CVD risk perception among Korean blue-collar workers. The participants were 238 Korean blue-collar workers who worked in small companies. Data were collected through a survey; anthropometric and blood pressure measures; and blood sampling for lipid levels. Blue-collar workers had high actual CVD risk and low CVD risk perception. The significant predictors of risk perception included perceived health status, alcohol consumption, knowledge of CVD risk, actual CVD risk, decision latitude, and shift work. The model explained 26% of the variance in CVD risk perception. The result suggests when occupational health nurses are giving routine health examination in small companies, they can enhance CVD risk perception in blue-collar workers by providing essential information about CVD risk factors and personal counseling on the individual worker's CVD risk status.

  15. Tea and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deka, Apranta; Vita, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for a protective effect of tea consumption against cardiovascular disease. This review summarizes the available epidemiological data providing evidence for and against such an effect. We also review observational and intervention studies that investigated an effect of tea and tea extracts on cardiovascular risk factors, including blood pressure, serum lipids, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. Finally, we review potential mechanisms of benefit, including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-proliferative effects, as well as favorable effects on endothelial function. Overall, the observational data suggest a benefit, but results are mixed and likely confounded by lifestyle and background dietary factors. The weight of evidence indicates favorable effects on risk factors and a number of plausible mechanisms have been elucidated in experimental and translational human studies. Despite the growing body evidence, it remains uncertain whether tea consumption should be recommended to the general population or to patients as a strategy to reduce cardiovascular risk. PMID:21477653

  16. Evaluation of risk factors and markers for cardiovascular disease in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The study was designed to investigate the lipid profile, C- reactive protein and urinary level of micro-albumin as part of routine risk assessment in diabetic patients. Subjects and Methods: Plasma levels of total cholesterol, low density liproprotein cholesterol (LDL – C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol

  17. Risk factors and assessment for cardiovascular disease among HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: this was a cross-sectional study of HIV-positive patients attending the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were performed; fasting lipid profile, plasma glucose, homocysteine and hsCRP were determined, as well as prevalences and risk assessments.

  18. Care for patients with an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boheemen, C. van; Geffen, K. van; Philbert, D.; Bos, M.; Dis, I. van; Strijbis, A.; Bouvy, M.; Dijk, L. van

    2010-01-01

    Background: In 2009, a national standard of care for vascular risk management (VRM) was developed. This standard, which was sent to all general practitioners (GPs), contains requirements for optimal care. One requirement is the formulation of a written individual-care plan which contains an extended

  19. Health status as a risk factor in cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mommersteeg, Paula M C; Denollet, Johan; Spertus, John A

    2009-01-01

    Patient-perceived health status is receiving increased recognition as a patient-centered outcome in chronic heart failure (CHF) and coronary artery disease (CAD), but poor health status is also associated with adverse prognosis. In this systematic review, we examined current evidence...... on the influence of health status on prognosis in CHF and CAD....

  20. Potatoes and risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in apparently healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Daniel; Juul-Hindsgaul, Nicole; Veller, Mette

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Potatoes have been related to increased risks of obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mainly because of their high glycemic index. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the relation between intake of potatoes and risks of obesity, T2D......, and measured adiposity (body weight, body mass index, or waist circumference), cases of T2D, cases of cardiovascular events, or risk markers thereof. RESULTS: In total, 13 studies were deemed eligible; 5 studies were related to obesity, 7 studies were related to T2D, and one study was related to CVD. Only....... CONCLUSIONS: The identified studies do not provide convincing evidence to suggest an association between intake of potatoes and risks of obesity, T2D, or CVD. French fries may be associated with increased risks of obesity and T2D although confounding may be present. In this systematic review, only...

  1. Understanding cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000759.htm Understanding cardiovascular disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... lead to heart attack or stroke. Types of Cardiovascular Disease Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common ...

  2. Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cardiovascular Disease & Diabetes Updated:Jan 29,2018 The following ... clear that there is a strong correlation between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. At least 68 percent ...

  3. Onset of Impaired Sleep and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Alice Jessie; Salo, Paula; Lange, Theis

    2016-01-01

    , and dyslipidemia). METHODS: In a longitudinal cohort study with 3 survey waves (2000, 2004, 2008) from the Finnish Public Sector study we used repeated information on sleep duration and disturbances to determine onset of impaired sleep. Information on development of CVD risk factors, as indicated by initiation...... of medication for hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia was derived from electronic medical records within 8 years of follow-up. Data on 45,647 participants was structured as two data-cycles to examine the effect of change in sleep (between two waves) on incident CVD events. We applied strict inclusion...... and exclusion criteria to determine temporality between changes in sleep and the outcomes. RESULTS: While we did not find consistent effects of onset of short or long sleep, we found onset of disturbed sleep to predict subsequent risk of hypertension (hazard ratio = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.04-1.44) and dyslipidemia (HR...

  4. Habitual chocolate consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease among healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Chun Shing; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Lentjes, Marleen A H; Loke, Yoon K; Luben, Robert N; Yeong, Jessica K; Wareham, Nicholas J; Myint, Phyo K; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2015-08-01

    To examine the association between chocolate intake and the risk of future cardiovascular events. We conducted a prospective study using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk cohort. Habitual chocolate intake was quantified using the baseline food frequency questionnaire (1993-1997) and cardiovascular end points were ascertained up to March 2008. A systematic review was performed to evaluate chocolate consumption and cardiovascular outcomes. A total of 20,951 men and women were included in EPIC-Norfolk analysis (mean follow-up 11.3±2.8 years, median 11.9 years). The percentage of participants with coronary heart disease (CHD) in the highest and lowest quintile of chocolate consumption was 9.7% and 13.8%, and the respective rates for stroke were 3.1% and 5.4%. The multivariate-adjusted HR for CHD was 0.88 (95% CI 0.77 to 1.01) for those in the top quintile of chocolate consumption (16-99 g/day) versus non-consumers of chocolate intake. The corresponding HR for stroke and cardiovascular disease (cardiovascular disease defined by the sum of CHD and stroke) were 0.77 (95% CI 0.62 to 0.97) and 0.86 (95% CI 0.76 to 0.97). The propensity score matched estimates showed a similar trend. A total of nine studies with 157,809 participants were included in the meta-analysis. Higher compared to lower chocolate consumption was associated with significantly lower CHD risk (five studies; pooled RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.92), stroke (five studies; pooled RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.70 to 0.87), composite cardiovascular adverse outcome (two studies; pooled RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.05), and cardiovascular mortality (three studies; pooled RR 0.55, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.83). Cumulative evidence suggests that higher chocolate intake is associated with a lower risk of future cardiovascular events, although residual confounding cannot be excluded. There does not appear to be any evidence to say that chocolate should be avoided in those who are concerned about

  5. Lifestyle modifies obesity-associated risk of cardiovascular disease in a genetically homogeneous population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marit E; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The association between obesity and cardiovascular disease risk differs across populations. Whether such differences in obesity-related risk factors exist within population groups of the same genetic origin but with differences in lifestyle remains to be determined. OBJECTIVE: The aim...... was to analyze whether obesity was associated with the same degree of metabolic disturbances in 2 groups of genetically homogeneous Inuit who were exposed to considerable differences in lifestyle. DESIGN: We studied obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in a cross-sectional population survey of 2311...... Inuit living in Denmark (n = 995) or Greenland (n = 1316). The participants received an oral-glucose-tolerance test. Blood tests were supplemented by structured interviews and anthropometric and blood pressure measurements. RESULTS: The trend in the association between obesity and metabolic effects...

  6. Assessment of cardiovascular risk.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2010-10-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of death worldwide. Usually atherosclerosis is caused by the combined effects of multiple risk factors. For this reason, most guidelines on the prevention of CVD stress the assessment of total CVD risk. The most intensive risk factor modification can then be directed towards the individuals who will derive the greatest benefit. To assist the clinician in calculating the effects of these multiple interacting risk factors, a number of risk estimation systems have been developed. This review address several issues regarding total CVD risk assessment: Why should total CVD risk be assessed? What risk estimation systems are available? How well do these systems estimate risk? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the current systems? What are the current limitations of risk estimation systems and how can they be resolved? What new developments have occurred in CVD risk estimation?

  7. Lipid profile, cardiovascular disease and mortality in a Mediterranean high-risk population: The ESCARVAL-RISK study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Beltran, Domingo; Gil-Guillen, Vicente F; Redon, Josep; Martin-Moreno, Jose M; Pallares-Carratala, Vicente; Navarro-Perez, Jorge; Valls-Roca, Francisco; Sanchis-Domenech, Carlos; Fernandez-Gimenez, Antonio; Perez-Navarro, Ana; Bertomeu-Martinez, Vicente; Bertomeu-Gonzalez, Vicente; Cordero, Alberto; Pascual de la Torre, Manuel; Trillo, Jose L; Carratala-Munuera, Concepcion; Pita-Fernandez, Salvador; Uso, Ruth; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Cooper, Richard; Sanz, Gines; Castellano, Jose M; Ascaso, Juan F; Carmena, Rafael; Tellez-Plaza, Maria

    2017-01-01

    The potential impact of targeting different components of an adverse lipid profile in populations with multiple cardiovascular risk factors is not completely clear. This study aims to assess the association between different components of the standard lipid profile with all-cause mortality and hospitalization due to cardiovascular events in a high-risk population. This prospective registry included high risk adults over 30 years old free of cardiovascular disease (2008-2012). Diagnosis of hypertension, dyslipidemia or diabetes mellitus was inclusion criterion. Lipid biomarkers were evaluated. Primary endpoints were all-cause mortality and hospital admission due to coronary heart disease or stroke. We estimated adjusted rate ratios (aRR), absolute risk differences and population attributable risk associated with adverse lipid profiles. 51,462 subjects were included with a mean age of 62.6 years (47.6% men). During an average follow-up of 3.2 years, 919 deaths, 1666 hospitalizations for coronary heart disease and 1510 hospitalizations for stroke were recorded. The parameters that showed an increased rate for total mortality, coronary heart disease and stroke hospitalization were, respectively, low HDL-Cholesterol: aRR 1.25, 1.29 and 1.23; high Total/HDL-Cholesterol: aRR 1.22, 1.38 and 1.25; and high Triglycerides/HDL-Cholesterol: aRR 1.21, 1.30, 1.09. The parameters that showed highest population attributable risk (%) were, respectively, low HDL-Cholesterol: 7.70, 11.42, 8.40; high Total/HDL-Cholesterol: 6.55, 12.47, 8.73; and high Triglycerides/HDL-Cholesterol: 8.94, 15.09, 6.92. In a population with cardiovascular risk factors, HDL-cholesterol, Total/HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides/HDL-cholesterol ratios were associated with a higher population attributable risk for cardiovascular disease compared to other common biomarkers.

  8. Nutritional habits & cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sampaio, Hélia; Capitão, Sandra; Ferro-Lebres, Vera

    2010-01-01

    An elevated predominance of the risk factors associated to the illnesses of the circulatory system, particurily hypercholesterolemia and arterial hypertension aim for a special attention to its prevention. This way, the composition of the digested food daily can influence the sprouting of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD), which has shown association between the risk factors and the things we consume. The present study had an objective to identify the influential factors of social economics...

  9. An Overview of NASA's Risk of Cardiovascular Disease from Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Zarana S.; Huff, Janice L.; Simonsen, Lisa C.

    2015-01-01

    The association between high doses of radiation exposure and cardiovascular damage is well established. Patients that have undergone radiotherapy for primary cancers of the head and neck and mediastinal regions have shown increased risk of heart and vascular damage and long-term development of radiation-induced heart disease [1]. In addition, recent meta-analyses of epidemiological data from atomic bomb survivors and nuclear industry workers has also shown that acute and chronic radiation exposures is strongly correlated with an increased risk of circulatory disease at doses above 0.5 Sv [2]. However, these analyses are confounded for lower doses by lifestyle factors, such as drinking, smoking, and obesity. The types of radiation found in the space environment are significantly more damaging than those found on Earth and include galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), solar particle events (SPEs), and trapped protons and electrons. In addition to the low-LET data, only a few studies have examined the effects of heavy ion radiation on atherosclerosis, and at lower, space-relevant doses, the association between exposure and cardiovascular pathology is more varied and unclear. Understanding the qualitative differences in biological responses produced by GCR compared to Earth-based radiation is a major focus of space radiation research and is imperative for accurate risk assessment for long duration space missions. Other knowledge gaps for the risk of radiation-induced cardiovascular disease include the existence of a dose threshold, low dose rate effects, and potential synergies with other spaceflight stressors. The Space Radiation Program Element within NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is managing the research and risk mitigation strategies for these knowledge gaps. In this presentation, we will review the evidence and present an overview of the HRP Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Other Degenerative Tissue Effects from Radiation Exposure.

  10. Total management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Katsuya

    2017-08-01

    Patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) often have multiple comorbid conditions that may interact with each other, confound the choice of treatments, and reduce mortality. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most important comorbidities of CVD, which causes serious consequences in patients with ischemic heart disease, stroke, arrhythmia, and heart failure. COPD shares common risk factors such as tobacco smoking and aging with CVD, is associated with less physical activity, and produces systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. Overall, patients with COPD have a 2-3-fold increased risk of CVD as compared to age-matched controls when adjusted for tobacco smoking. Chronic heart failure (HF) is a frequent and important comorbidity which has a significant impact on prognosis in COPD, and vice versa. HF overlaps in symptoms and signs and has a common comorbidity with COPD, so that diagnosis of COPD is difficult in patients with HF. The combination of HF and COPD presents many therapeutic challenges including beta-blockers (BBs) and beta-agonists. Inhaled long-acting bronchodilators including beta2-agonists and anticholinergics for COPD would not worsen HF. Diuretics are relatively safe, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are preferred to treat HF accompanied with COPD. BBs are only relatively contraindicated in asthma, but not in COPD. Low doses of cardioselective BBs should be aggressively initiated in clinically stable patients with HF accompanied with COPD combined with close monitoring for signs of airway obstruction and gradually up-titrated to the maximum tolerated dose. Encouraging appropriate and aggressive treatment for both HF and COPD should be recommended to improve quality of life and mortality in HF patients with COPD. Copyright © 2017 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evidence Report: Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Other Degenerative Tissue Effects from Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Zarana; Huff, Janice; Saha, Janapriya; Wang, Minli; Blattnig, Steve; Wu, Honglu; Cucinotta, Francis

    2015-01-01

    Occupational radiation exposure from the space environment may result in non-cancer or non-CNS degenerative tissue diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, cataracts, and respiratory or digestive diseases. However, the magnitude of influence and mechanisms of action of radiation leading to these diseases are not well characterized. Radiation and synergistic effects of radiation cause DNA damage, persistent oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and accelerated tissue aging and degeneration, which may lead to acute or chronic disease of susceptible organ tissues. In particular, cardiovascular pathologies such as atherosclerosis are of major concern following gamma-ray exposure. This provides evidence for possible degenerative tissue effects following exposures to ionizing radiation in the form of the GCR or SPEs expected during long-duration spaceflight. However, the existence of low dose thresholds and dose-rate and radiation quality effects, as well as mechanisms and major risk pathways, are not well-characterized. Degenerative disease risks are difficult to assess because multiple factors, including radiation, are believed to play a role in the etiology of the diseases. As additional evidence is pointing to lower, space-relevant thresholds for these degenerative effects, particularly for cardiovascular disease, additional research with cell and animal studies is required to quantify the magnitude of this risk, understand mechanisms, and determine if additional protection strategies are required.The NASA PEL (Permissive Exposure Limit)s for cataract and cardiovascular risks are based on existing human epidemiology data. Although animal and clinical astronaut data show a significant increase in cataracts following exposure and a reassessment of atomic bomb (A-bomb) data suggests an increase in cardiovascular disease from radiation exposure, additional research is required to fully understand and quantify these adverse outcomes at lower doses (less than 0.5 gray

  12. Established risk factors account for most of the racial differences in cardiovascular disease mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean O Henderson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD mortality varies across racial and ethnic groups in the U.S., and the extent that known risk factors can explain the differences has not been extensively explored. METHODS: We examined the risk of dying from acute myocardial infarction (AMI and other heart disease (OHD among 139,406 African-American (AA, Native Hawaiian (NH, Japanese-American (JA, Latino and White men and women initially free from cardiovascular disease followed prospectively between 1993-1996 and 2003 in the Multiethnic Cohort Study (MEC. During this period, 946 deaths from AMI and 2,323 deaths from OHD were observed. Relative risks of AMI and OHD mortality were calculated accounting for established CVD risk factors: body mass index (BMI, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, alcohol consumption, amount of vigorous physical activity, educational level, diet and, for women, type and age at menopause and hormone replacement therapy (HRT use. RESULTS: Established CVD risk factors explained much of the observed racial and ethnic differences in risk of AMI and OHD mortality. After adjustment, NH men and women had greater risks of OHD than Whites (69% excess, P<0.001 and 62% excess, P = 0.003, respectively, and AA women had greater risks of AMI (48% excess, P = 0.01 and OHD (35% excess, P = 0.007. JA men had lower risks of AMI (51% deficit, P<0.001 and OHD (27% deficit, P = 0.001, as did JA women (AMI, 37% deficit, P = 0.03; OHD, 40% deficit, P = 0.001. Latinos had underlying lower risk of AMI death (26% deficit in men and 35% in women, P = 0.03. CONCLUSION: Known risk factors explain the majority of racial and ethnic differences in mortality due to AMI and OHD. The unexplained excess in NH and AA and the deficits in JA suggest the presence of unmeasured determinants for cardiovascular mortality that are distributed unequally across these populations.

  13. CARDIO-VASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH DISEASES OF THE STOMATOGNATHIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botez C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The association between dental and cardio-vascular diseases is essential as both are highly prevalent. Finding a possible causal relation between cardiovascular disease and chronic periodontal pathology, known to cause tooth loss, is therefore essential. The existence of some risk factors, such as smoking, bacterial infections, malnutrition and nutritional deficiencies, may explain the associations observed between cardio-vascular and oral pathologies. In the case of dental diseases, acceleration of atherosclerosis is supported by the role played by infections. The study – performed between 2008-2009 – analyzed 45 cases, selected from the patients hospitalized in the Medical Clinics of the Military Hospital of Ia[i. The patients included in the study suffered from arterial hypertension (HTA, cardiac insufficiency, ischemic cardiopathy, pectoral angina and subacute infectious endocarditis. All were subjected to a stomatological examination, for establishing their dental hygiene, the stomatological diseases they had had and the treatments performed. There are several ways in which infections of the oral cavity lead to cardiovascular disease. These include: transitory bacteriemia; inflammation and vascular lesions; diet and smoking.

  14. Cardiovascular diseases and periodontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, R A; Preshaw, P M; Thomason, J M; Ellis, J S; Steele, J G

    2003-04-01

    Cardiovascular diseases represent a widespread heterogeneous group of conditions that have significant morbidity and mortality. The various diseases and their treatments can have an impact upon the periodontium and the delivery of periodontal care. In this paper we consider three main topics and explore their relationship to the periodontist and the provision of periodontal treatment. The areas reviewed include the effect of cardiovascular drugs on the periodontium and management of patients with periodontal diseases; the risk of infective endocarditis arising from periodontal procedures; the inter-relationship between periodontal disease and coronary artery disease. Calcium-channel blockers and beta-adrenoceptor blockers cause gingival overgrowth and tooth demineralisation, respectively. Evidence suggests that stopping anticoagulant therapy prior to periodontal procedures is putting patients at a greater risk of thromboembolic disorders compared to the risk of prolonged bleeding. The relationship between dentistry and infective endocarditis remains a controversial issue. It would appear that spontaneous bacteraemia arising from a patient's oral hygiene practices is more likely to be the cause of endocarditis than one-off periodontal procedures. The efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis is uncertain (and unlikely to be proven), and the risk of death from penicillin appears to be greater than the risk of death arising from infective endocarditis. Finally, the association between periodontal disease and coronary artery disease has been explored and there seem to be many issues with respect to data handling interpretation. Many putative mechanisms have been suggested; however, these only further highlight the need for intervention studies.

  15. Evaluation of cardiovascular disease risk factors in patients with mycosis fungoides*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Emiroglu, Nazan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Mycosis fungoides, the most common subtype of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, is more common in patients aged 45-55. OBJECTIVE Cardiovascular risk factors have been investigated in several skin diseases. However, the relation between cardiovascular diseases and mycosis fungoides remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess cardiovascular risk factors in patients with mycosis fungoides. METHODS 32 patients with mycosis fungoides and 26 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, homocystein, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, low-density lipoprotein – cholesterol, were measured in the sera of patients. RESULTS Patients had significantly higher high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, homocysteine, low-density lipoprotein - cholesterol, total cholesterol (p= 0.032) (phomocysteine and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein than healthy subjects. The present study has demonstrated an increased rate of cardiovascular risk in patients with mycosis fungoides. Even though the etiology of these associations is elusive, dermatologists should be sensitized to investigate metabolic derangements in patients with mycosis fungoides, in order to lessen mortality and comorbidity with a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:25672297

  16. Mobile Health Devices as Tools for Worldwide Cardiovascular Risk Reduction and Disease Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piette, John D.; List, Justin; Rana, Gurpreet K.; Townsend, Whitney; Striplin, Dana; Heisler, Michele

    2016-01-01

    We examined evidence on whether mobile health (mHealth) tools, including Interactive Voice Response (IVR) calls, short message service (SMS) or text messaging, and smartphones, can improve lifestyle behaviors and management related to cardiovascular diseases throughout the world. We conducted a state-of-the-art review and literature synthesis of peer-reviewed and grey literature published since 2004. The review prioritized randomized trials and studies focused on cardiovascular diseases and risk factors, but included other reports when they represented the best available evidence. The search emphasized reports on the potential benefits of mHealth interventions implemented in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). IVR and SMS interventions can improve cardiovascular preventive care in developed countries by addressing risk factors including weight, smoking, and physical activity. IVR and SMS-based interventions for cardiovascular disease management also have shown benefits with respect to hypertension management, hospital readmissions, and diabetic glycemic control. Multi-modal interventions including web-based communication with clinicians and mHealth-enabled clinical monitoring with feedback also have shown benefits. The evidence regarding the potential benefits of interventions using smartphones and social media is still developing. Studies of mHealth interventions have been conducted in more than 30 LMICs, and evidence to date suggests that programs are feasible and may improve medication adherence and disease outcomes. Emerging evidence suggests that mHealth interventions may improve cardiovascular-related lifestyle behaviors and disease management. Next generation mHealth programs developed worldwide should be based on evidence-based behavioral theories and incorporate advances in artificial intelligence for adapting systems automatically to patients’ unique and changing needs. PMID:26596977

  17. Mobile Health Devices as Tools for Worldwide Cardiovascular Risk Reduction and Disease Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piette, John D; List, Justin; Rana, Gurpreet K; Townsend, Whitney; Striplin, Dana; Heisler, Michele

    2015-11-24

    We examined evidence on whether mobile health (mHealth) tools, including interactive voice response calls, short message service, or text messaging, and smartphones, can improve lifestyle behaviors and management related to cardiovascular diseases throughout the world. We conducted a state-of-the-art review and literature synthesis of peer-reviewed and gray literature published since 2004. The review prioritized randomized trials and studies focused on cardiovascular diseases and risk factors, but included other reports when they represented the best available evidence. The search emphasized reports on the potential benefits of mHealth interventions implemented in low- and middle-income countries. Interactive voice response and short message service interventions can improve cardiovascular preventive care in developed countries by addressing risk factors including weight, smoking, and physical activity. Interactive voice response and short message service-based interventions for cardiovascular disease management also have shown benefits with respect to hypertension management, hospital readmissions, and diabetic glycemic control. Multimodal interventions including Web-based communication with clinicians and mHealth-enabled clinical monitoring with feedback also have shown benefits. The evidence regarding the potential benefits of interventions using smartphones and social media is still developing. Studies of mHealth interventions have been conducted in >30 low- and middle-income countries, and evidence to date suggests that programs are feasible and may improve medication adherence and disease outcomes. Emerging evidence suggests that mHealth interventions may improve cardiovascular-related lifestyle behaviors and disease management. Next-generation mHealth programs developed worldwide should be based on evidence-based behavioral theories and incorporate advances in artificial intelligence for adapting systems automatically to patients' unique and changing needs

  18. Acantosis nigricansis associated with risk factors related to cardiovascular disease in Mexican children with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Rojano, Hugo; Pizano-Zárate, María Luisa; Sánchez-Jiménez, Bernarda; Sámano, Reyna; López-Portillo, Armando

    2016-09-20

    The prevalence of obesity in Mexican children has increased during the last decade, as has the risk of early onset metabolic disorders and cardiovascular disease. To determine the association ofAcantosis nigricans (AN)with dyslipidemia, high blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), and risk factors related to eating behavior in overweight and obese children. This transverse analytical study, conducted in two Mexico City primary schools, included 300 boys and girls. Information was gathered on hereditary and perinatal background. A physical examination provided data on the presence/absence of AN, blood pressure, weight and height. The BMI and Z-score were calculated. The serum concentration of glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides was quantified and the lipoprotein profile determined. The prevalence of AN was 41.7%. An association was found between ANand risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including BMI (rS 0.432; p 48%) (RM: 3.591; p = 0.001). A high prevalence of ANwas found in overweight and obese children. There was an association between ANand risk factors of cardiovascular disease, including Z-score, BMI, dyslipidemia, and high blood pressure.

  19. THE LEVEL OF GRAMMAR SCHOOL STUDENTS' KNOWLEDGE ON CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE RISK FACTORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaraković, Milana; Mihajlović, Bojan; Ćemerlić, Snežana; Ađić, Filip; Sladojević, Miroslava; Mihajlović, Boaoliub

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The atherosclerotic process in the aorta starts in childhood, while atheroclerotic changes of coronary heart vessels start in adolescence. The aim of the study was to evaluate the knowledge of the students attending all four grades of grammar school about the risk factors for cardiovascular disease, with special attention to the risk factors that can be influenced by modification of life-style. Data from the entrance and exit tests were collected from 197 students attending a grammar school in Novi Sad. Chi-square test and Student T-test or Mann-Whitney U test were used to examine the statistical difference between categorized variables and the continuous variables, respectively. The difference between the number of correct answers for all the students on the entrance test and exit test was statistically significant (pgrammar school and after the lectures, the student's knowledge level was increased by 82.3% (p<0.0005). Children and adolescents from Vojvodina and Serbia should be well informed about the cardiovascular disease risk factors and their prevention with special attention paid to the risk factors that can be influenced by changing lifestyle habits.

  20. Circulating biomarkers for predicting cardiovascular disease risk : a systematic review and comprehensive overview of meta-analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holten, van T.C.; Waanders, L.F.; Groot, de P.G.; Vissers, J.; Hoefer, I.E.; Pasterkamp, G.; Prins, M.W.J.; Roest, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background : Cardiovascular disease is one of the major causes of death worldwide. Assessing the risk for cardiovascular disease is an important aspect in clinical decision making and setting a therapeutic strategy, and the use of serological biomarkers may improve this. Despite an overwhelming

  1. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šagud, Marina; Jakšić, Nenad; Vuksan-Ćusa, Bjanka; Lončar, Mladen; Lončar, Ivana; Peleš, Alma Mihaljević; Miličić, Davor; Jakovljević, Miro

    2017-12-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic condition related to severe stress and trauma. There is a mounting evidence about increased prevalence and mortality from cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in patients with PTSD. This review summarizes the current data on possible relations between PTSD and increased risks of CVD, including biological, psychological and behavioral factors. Biological factors refer to increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), hypertension, elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and homocysteine levels. Peripheral Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF), serum N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG) are promising surrogate markers of increased cardiovascular risk. Among psychological factors, some personality traits, such as neuroticism and trait impulsivity/hostility, contribute to the development of PTSD, and are associated with general cardiovascular distress. Recently, type-D (distressed) personality is usually investigated in relation to cardiovascular morbidity, but in populations other than PTSD patients. Behavioral factors refer to unhealthy life-styles, encompassing high smoking rate, drug substances abuse and addiction, physical inactivity and unhealthy diet. The relationships among all these factors are complex and yet incompletely taken into consideration. Because of a high prevalence of CVD in patients with PTSD, there is a strong need for a more intensive focus on this vulnerable population in both primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention as well as in effective treatment possibilities.

  2. Women-specific factors to consider in risk, diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Ronée E; Coffman, Kirsten E; Miller, Virginia M

    2015-03-01

    In the era of individualized medicine, gaps in knowledge remain about sex-specific risk factors, diagnostic and treatment options that might reduce mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and improve outcomes for both women and men. In this review, contributions of biological mechanisms involving the sex chromosomes and the sex hormones on the cardiovascular system will be discussed in relationship to the female-specific risk factors for CVD: hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, menopause and use of hormonal therapies for contraception and menopausal symptoms. Additionally, sex-specific factors to consider in the differential diagnosis and treatment of four prevalent CVDs (hypertension, stroke, coronary artery disease and congestive heart failure) will be reviewed with emphasis on areas where additional research is needed.

  3. Ideal cardiovascular health influences cardiovascular disease risk associated with high lipoprotein(a) levels and genotype: The EPIC-Norfolk prospective population study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perrot, Nicolas; Verbeek, Rutger; Sandhu, Manjinder; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Hovingh, G. Kees; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Arsenault, Benoit J.

    2017-01-01

    Lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) is a strong genetic risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The American Heart Association has prioritised seven cardiovascular health metrics to reduce the burden of CVD: body mass index, healthy diet, physical activity, smoking status, blood pressure, diabetes and

  4. Examining risk factors for cardiovascular disease among food bank members in Vancouver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Fowokan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Food banks provide supplemental food to low-income households, yet little is known about the cardiovascular health of food banks members. This study therefore described cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors among food bank members and explored associations between food insecurity and CVD risk.Adults ≥18 years (n = 77 from three food bank sites in metro Vancouver, British Columbia completed surveys and physical assessments examining a range of socio-demographic variables and CVD risk factors. A composite measure of myocardial infarction (MI risk called the INTERHEART score was assessed and household food insecurity was measured using the Household Food Security Survey Module. Regression models were used to explore associations between food insecurity and CVD risk measures, including the INTERHEART score.Ninety-seven percent of food bank members reported experiencing food insecurity, 65% were current smokers, 53% reported either chronic or several periods of stress in the past year, 55% reported low physical activity levels and 80% reported consuming fewer than five servings of fruit and vegetables daily. Prevalence of self-reported diabetes and hypertension were 13% and 29% respectively. Fifty-two percent of the sample were at high risk of non-fatal MI. No statistically significant associations were found between increased severity of food insecurity and CVD risk factors among this sample where both severe food insecurity and high CVD risks were prevalent.Food bank members were at elevated risk for CVD compared with the general population. Strategies are needed to reduce prevalence of food insecurity and CVD risk factors, both of which disproportionately affected food bank members. Keywords: Food insecurity, Food banks, Cardiovascular disease, Risk factors, Canada

  5. History of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Relation to Cardiovascular Disease and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in US Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shostrom, Derrick C V; Sun, Yangbo; Oleson, Jacob J; Snetselaar, Linda G; Bao, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Findings from previous studies examining the association between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and subsequent risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) have been inconsistent and inconclusive. We aimed to examine the associations of a previous history of GDM with risk of CVD and status of cardiovascular risk factors in a nationwide population-based study in the United States. This study included 8,127 parous women aged 20 years or older in the 2007-2014 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in the United States. The exposure was self-reported diagnostic history of GDM and the outcomes were self-reported diagnostic history of CVD and measurements of cardiovascular risk factors, including blood pressure and blood lipids. Regression models with sample weights were used to examine the associations of GDM with CVD and cardiovascular risk factors. Among women with a history of both GDM and CVD, CVD was diagnosed on average 22.9 years after the diagnosis of GDM. After adjustment for demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle factors, a history of GDM was associated with 63% higher odds of CVD [odds ratio (OR) 1.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02, 2.62, p -value = 0.04]. Further adjustment for body mass index (BMI) modestly attenuated the association (OR 1.52, 95% CI 0.95, 2.44, p -value = 0.08). A history of GDM was significantly associated with lower serum level of HDL-cholesterol (adjusted β-coefficient -3.33, 95% CI -5.17, -1.50, p -value ≤ 0.001), but not associated with total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, or systolic or diastolic blood pressure. Similarly, the association between a history of GDM and HDL cholesterol was attenuated after additional adjustment for BMI (adjusted β-coefficient -1.68, 95% CI -3.38, 0.03, p -value = 0.54). Women with a previous history of GDM have significantly higher risk for developing CVD and lower serum level of HDL cholesterol, compared to women without a history of

  6. APOE Genotyping, Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search APOE Genotyping, Cardiovascular Disease Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At a ... help understand the role of genetic factors in cardiovascular disease . However, the testing is sometimes used in clinical ...

  7. [Homocystein--an independent risk factor for cardiovascular and thrombotic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, B

    2005-09-01

    Over the last 20 years homocysteine has taken on increasing importance as an independent, potentially modifiable risk factor for various forms of vascular disease including peripheral and cerebral vascular disease, coronary heart disease and thrombosis. This association has been ascertained in many retrospective and prospective studies but the strength of risk is not yet firmly established although it is clearly dependent on several modifying factors such as other risk factors, nutrition and genetic polymorphisms. Generally it is estimated that hyperhomocysteinaemia is responsible for about 10% of all risks. Homocysteine is formed from the dietary amino acid methionine and plays a pivotal role in folate metabolism and methyl group transfer. Its concentrations in tissues and plasma are influenced by many genetic and environmental factors, especially vitamins such as folate, B12 and B6 as well as certain medications and even life style factors. Nowadays the measurement of plasma homocysteine is freely available although care has to be taken in sample handling and interpretation of results. Final proof that homocysteine is a causal agent and not just a marker for cardiovascular disease and that reduction of plasma homocysteine by vitamin treatment reduces risk of cardiovascular disease is still awaited. Therefore at the present time neither wide-scale screening for homocysteine levels nor general prophylaxis with high dose vitamins is justified. However most experts recommend homocysteine determination in individuals with existing or high risk for arterial or venous blood vessel disease and their relatives. Elevated homocysteine can be lowered in such cases with a combination of folic acid, vitamin B12 vitamin B6. The results of ongoing trials on the impact of such treatment on risk of vascular disease are awaited with great interest.

  8. Estimating risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases in non-atherosclerotic Pakistani patients: Study conducted at National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Karachi, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, T.; Achakzai, A.S.; Farooq, F.; Memon, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was carried out at the National Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, Karachi, from July 2014 to March 2015, and comprised male and female subjects with multi-ethnic background, aged 20-79 years and having non-atherosclerotic disease. SPSS 22 was used for data analysis. Results: Of the 437 participants, 174(39.8%) were men and 263(60.2%) were women. The overall mean age was 42.65+-11.45 years. The mean age of men was 43.3+-12.1 years and that of women was 42.2+-10.8 years. Moreover, ten-year and lifetime risk assessment rates were higher in men (50[28.2%] and 86[49.4%] respectively) compared to women (28[10.6%] and 84[31.9%], respectively). Conclusion: Urdu-speaking Pakistanis were found to be at higher risk from atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

  9. Cardiovascular Disease Risk in a Large, Population-Based Cohort of Breast Cancer Survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boekel, Naomi B.; Schaapveld, Michael [Epidemiology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gietema, Jourik A. [Medical Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Russell, Nicola S. [Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Poortmans, Philip [Radiation Oncology, Institute Verbeeten, Tilburg (Netherlands); Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Theuws, Jacqueline C.M. [Radiotherapy, Catharina Hospital Eindhoven, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Schinagl, Dominic A.X. [Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Rietveld, Derek H.F. [Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Versteegh, Michel I.M. [Steering Committee Cardiac Interventions Netherlands, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Visser, Otto [Registration and Research, Comprehensive Cancer Center The Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands); Rutgers, Emiel J.T. [Surgery, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Aleman, Berthe M.P. [Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Leeuwen, Flora E. van, E-mail: f.v.leeuwen@nki.nl [Epidemiology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-04-01

    Purpose: To conduct a large, population-based study on cardiovascular disease (CVD) in breast cancer (BC) survivors treated in 1989 or later. Methods and Materials: A large, population-based cohort comprising 70,230 surgically treated stage I to III BC patients diagnosed before age 75 years between 1989 and 2005 was linked with population-based registries for CVD. Cardiovascular disease risks were compared with the general population, and within the cohort using competing risk analyses. Results: Compared with the general Dutch population, BC patients had a slightly lower CVD mortality risk (standardized mortality ratio 0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88-0.97). Only death due to valvular heart disease was more frequent (standardized mortality ratio 1.28, 95% CI 1.08-1.52). Left-sided radiation therapy after mastectomy increased the risk of any cardiovascular event compared with both surgery alone (subdistribution hazard ratio (sHR) 1.23, 95% CI 1.11-1.36) and right-sided radiation therapy (sHR 1.19, 95% CI 1.04-1.36). Radiation-associated risks were found for not only ischemic heart disease, but also for valvular heart disease and congestive heart failure (CHF). Risks were more pronounced in patients aged <50 years at BC diagnosis (sHR 1.48, 95% CI 1.07-2.04 for left- vs right-sided radiation therapy after mastectomy). Left- versus right-sided radiation therapy after wide local excision did not increase the risk of all CVD combined, yet an increased ischemic heart disease risk was found (sHR 1.14, 95% CI 1.01-1.28). Analyses including detailed radiation therapy information showed an increased CVD risk for left-sided chest wall irradiation alone, left-sided breast irradiation alone, and internal mammary chain field irradiation, all compared with right-sided breast irradiation alone. Compared with patients not treated with chemotherapy, chemotherapy used ≥1997 (ie, anthracyline-based chemotherapy) increased the risk of CHF (sHR 1.35, 95% CI 1

  10. Cardiovascular Disease Risk in a Large, Population-Based Cohort of Breast Cancer Survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boekel, Naomi B.; Schaapveld, Michael; Gietema, Jourik A.; Russell, Nicola S.; Poortmans, Philip; Theuws, Jacqueline C.M.; Schinagl, Dominic A.X.; Rietveld, Derek H.F.; Versteegh, Michel I.M.; Visser, Otto; Rutgers, Emiel J.T.; Aleman, Berthe M.P.; Leeuwen, Flora E. van

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct a large, population-based study on cardiovascular disease (CVD) in breast cancer (BC) survivors treated in 1989 or later. Methods and Materials: A large, population-based cohort comprising 70,230 surgically treated stage I to III BC patients diagnosed before age 75 years between 1989 and 2005 was linked with population-based registries for CVD. Cardiovascular disease risks were compared with the general population, and within the cohort using competing risk analyses. Results: Compared with the general Dutch population, BC patients had a slightly lower CVD mortality risk (standardized mortality ratio 0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88-0.97). Only death due to valvular heart disease was more frequent (standardized mortality ratio 1.28, 95% CI 1.08-1.52). Left-sided radiation therapy after mastectomy increased the risk of any cardiovascular event compared with both surgery alone (subdistribution hazard ratio (sHR) 1.23, 95% CI 1.11-1.36) and right-sided radiation therapy (sHR 1.19, 95% CI 1.04-1.36). Radiation-associated risks were found for not only ischemic heart disease, but also for valvular heart disease and congestive heart failure (CHF). Risks were more pronounced in patients aged <50 years at BC diagnosis (sHR 1.48, 95% CI 1.07-2.04 for left- vs right-sided radiation therapy after mastectomy). Left- versus right-sided radiation therapy after wide local excision did not increase the risk of all CVD combined, yet an increased ischemic heart disease risk was found (sHR 1.14, 95% CI 1.01-1.28). Analyses including detailed radiation therapy information showed an increased CVD risk for left-sided chest wall irradiation alone, left-sided breast irradiation alone, and internal mammary chain field irradiation, all compared with right-sided breast irradiation alone. Compared with patients not treated with chemotherapy, chemotherapy used ≥1997 (ie, anthracyline-based chemotherapy) increased the risk of CHF (sHR 1.35, 95% CI 1

  11. Cardiovascular disease risk score prediction models for women and its applicability to Asians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh LGH

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Louise GH Goh,1 Satvinder S Dhaliwal,1 Timothy A Welborn,2 Peter L Thompson,2–4 Bruce R Maycock,1 Deborah A Kerr,1 Andy H Lee,1 Dean Bertolatti,1 Karin M Clark,1 Rakhshanda Naheed,1 Ranil Coorey,1 Phillip R Della5 1School of Public Health, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia; 2Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Perth, WA, Australia; 3School of Population Health, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia; 4Harry Perkins Institute for Medical Research, Perth, WA, Australia; 5School of Nursing and Midwifery, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia Purpose: Although elevated cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors are associated with a higher risk of developing heart conditions across all ethnic groups, variations exist between groups in the distribution and association of risk factors, and also risk levels. This study assessed the 10-year predicted risk in a multiethnic cohort of women and compared the differences in risk between Asian and Caucasian women. Methods: Information on demographics, medical conditions and treatment, smoking behavior, dietary behavior, and exercise patterns were collected. Physical measurements were also taken. The 10-year risk was calculated using the Framingham model, SCORE (Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation risk chart for low risk and high risk regions, the general CVD, and simplified general CVD risk score models in 4,354 females aged 20–69 years with no heart disease, diabetes, or stroke at baseline from the third Australian Risk Factor Prevalence Study. Country of birth was used as a surrogate for ethnicity. Nonparametric statistics were used to compare risk levels between ethnic groups. Results: Asian women generally had lower risk of CVD when compared to Caucasian women. The 10-year predicted risk was, however, similar between Asian and Australian women, for some models. These findings were

  12. What role does rheumatoid arthritis disease activity have in cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Huaranga, Marco Aurelio; Mínguez Sanchez, María Dolores; Zarca Diaz de la Espina, Miguel Ángel; Espinosa Prados, Pedro José; Romero Aguilera, Guillermo

    2017-04-21

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with a 1.3 to 3-fold increase in mortality, being the major cause of death from cardiovascular complications (40%-50%). Therefore, the initial approach should include cardiovascular risk (CVR) assessment using algorithms adapted for this population. Although, SCOREM is an important advance, there are data indicating that subclinical atherosclerosis may be underdiagnosed. To estimate the strength of association between carotid ultrasound and SCOREM in this population, as well as the implication of disease activity. Cross-sectional, observational, analytical study performed at the General Hospital of Ciudad Real, Spain, between June 2013 and May 2014. The evaluation of CVR was performed and, according to SCOREM, the population was divided into low and high (medium, high and very high) risk. We studied the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis in low-risk patients. Of the total of 119 RA patients, 73.1% had traditional risk factors. Thirty-eight patients were excluded because of a previous cardiovascular event, diabetes mellitus and/or nephropathy. Atheromatous plaque was observed in 14.63% of the low-risk population. The factor with the strongest association to the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis was a moderate or high activity of RA measured by the simplified disease activity index with an odds ratio of 4.95 (95% CI: 1.53-16.01). Although there was an acceptable correlation between the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis and SCOREM, there was a considerable proportion of atheromatous plaques in low-risk patients. Disease activity was the risk factor most closely associated with increased CVR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  13. Conflicts at work are associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Louis; Kostev, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Background: Only few authors have analyzed the impact of workplace conflicts and the resulting stress on the risk of developing cardiovascular disorders. The goal of this study was to analyze the association between workplace conflicts and cardiovascular disorders in patients treated by German general practitioners. Methods: Patients with an initial documentation of a workplace conflict experience between 2005 and 2014 were identified in 699 general practitioner practices (index date). We included only those who were between the ages of 18 and 65 years, had a follow-up time of at least 180 days after the index date, and had not been diagnosed with angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, coronary heart diseases, or stroke prior to the documentation of the workplace mobbing. In total, the study population consisted of 7,374 patients who experienced conflicts and 7,374 controls for analysis. The main outcome measure was the incidence of angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, and stroke correlated with workplace conflict experiences. Results: After a maximum of five years of follow-up, 2.9% of individuals who experienced workplace conflict were affected by cardiovascular diseases, while only 1.4% were affected in the control group (p-value <0.001). Workplace conflict was associated with a 1.63-fold increase in the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. Finally, the impact of workplace conflict was higher for myocardial infarction (OR=2.03) than for angina pectoris (OR=1.79) and stroke (OR=1.56). Conclusions: Overall, we found a significant association between workplace conflicts and cardiovascular disorders. PMID:28496397

  14. Conflicts at work are associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob, Louis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Only few authors have analyzed the impact of workplace conflicts and the resulting stress on the risk of developing cardiovascular disorders. The goal of this study was to analyze the association between workplace conflicts and cardiovascular disorders in patients treated by German general practitioners. Methods: Patients with an initial documentation of a workplace conflict experience between 2005 and 2014 were identified in 699 general practitioner practices (index date. We included only those who were between the ages of 18 and 65 years, had a follow-up time of at least 180 days after the index date, and had not been diagnosed with angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, coronary heart diseases, or stroke prior to the documentation of the workplace mobbing. In total, the study population consisted of 7,374 patients who experienced conflicts and 7,374 controls for analysis. The main outcome measure was the incidence of angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, and stroke correlated with workplace conflict experiences. Results: After a maximum of five years of follow-up, 2.9% of individuals who experienced workplace conflict were affected by cardiovascular diseases, while only 1.4% were affected in the control group Workplace conflict was associated with a 1.63-fold increase in the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. Finally, the impact of workplace conflict was higher for myocardial infarction (OR=2.03 than for angina pectoris (OR=1.79 and stroke (OR=1.56. Conclusions: Overall, we found a significant association between workplace conflicts and cardiovascular disorders.

  15. Educational inequality in cardiovascular diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Grethe; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: Educational inequality in diseases in the circulatory system (here termed cardiovascular disease) is well documented but may be confounded by early life factors. The aim of this observational study was to examine whether the associations between education and all cardiovascular diseases...... educational status was associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, ischaemic heart disease and stroke. All associations attenuated in the within-sibship analyses, in particular in the analyses on ischaemic heart disease before age 45 years. For instance, in the cohort analyses, the hazard rate...... factors shared by siblings explained the associations between education and the cardiovascular disease outcomes but to varying degrees. This should be taken into account when planning interventions aimed at reducing educational inequalities in the development of cardiovascular disease, ischaemic heart...

  16. Estimating 10-year cardiovascular disease risk in Asian patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekhi, Gurpreet; Khyne, Toe Toe; Lee, Jimmy

    This study aims to describe the cardiovascular risk profile of Asian patients with schizophrenia. Data was extracted from the databases of 139 patients with schizophrenia and 206 controls from two previous studies conducted at the Institute for Mental Health (IMH), Singapore. Their medical and smoking histories were obtained, and anthropometric parameters measured. Framingham risk score (FRS) calculator using body mass index was used to compute the 10-year cardiovascular disease risk (FRS BMI ) and the vascular age (VA BMI ) for each participant. Data on fasting lipids were available for 80 patients and all the controls; hence the FRS for lipids (FRS lipids ) and VA (VA lipids ) were also computed. The difference between VA and actual age was computed as VA diff . The 10-year CVD risk and VA diff based on lipids as well as BMI were significantly higher for patients compared to controls (all prisk of CVD in patients with schizophrenia as compared to controls; and conclude that patients with schizophrenia need regular physical health monitoring, especially for cardiovascular risk factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Skin autofluorescence as a marker of cardiovascular risk in children with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makulska, Irena; Szczepańska, Maria; Drożdż, Dorota; Polak-Jonkisz, Dorota; Zwolińska, Danuta

    2013-01-01

    We examined skin autofluorescence (sAF) in chronic kidney disease children (CKD) in relation to renal function and dialysis modality. Twenty children on hemodialysis (HD), 20 on peritoneal dialysis (PD), 36 treated conservatively, and 26 healthy subjects were enrolled into the study. In all children sAF, pulse-wave velocity indexed to height (PWV/ht), left ventricular mass index (LVMI), blood pressure (BP), serum lipid profile, phosphate (P), calcium (Ca), and homocysteine were measured. sAF was significantly elevated in CKD groups vs. controls and was significantly associated with PWV/ht, LVMI, BP, P, Ca × P product and homocysteine. sAF in HD and PD groups was positively correlated with dialysis vintage, and in the predialysis group negatively correlated with glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Multiple regression analysis showed significant association of sAF with LVMI and P in the CKD patient group, and with dialysis treatment duration and BP in dialyzed children. In CKD children, tissue accumulation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) was observed. This was aggravated as eGFR declined and was related to early cardiovascular changes and some biochemical cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers. sAF as a non-invasive method may be a useful tool for identification of a clinical risk factors of cardiovascular disease in CKD children.

  18. Commentary: Using Impedance Cardiography to Detect Asymptomatic Cardiovascular Disease in Prehypertensive Adults with Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarzo, Arthur P

    2018-06-01

    New guidelines on hypertension eliminated the classification of prehypertension and divided those blood pressure (BP) levels into elevated BP and stage 1 hypertension. For elevated BP, this study showed that cardiovascular (CV) abnormalities were prevalent in adults over 40 years of age with at least 2 CV risk factors. Detecting abnormalities of the CV system moves a patient from being at high risk to having earlystage cardiovascular disease (CVD) and supports a decision to treat. By redefining stage 1 and lowering the target BP, the new guidelines have set an ambitious goal for early intervention to prevent progression of CVD. Proper drug selection and titration are critical. Hypertensive patients have diverse CV abnormalities that can be quantified by impedance cardiography. By stratifying patients with ventricular, vascular, and hemodynamic abnormalities, treatment can be customized based on the abnormal underlying mechanisms to rapidly control BP and prevent progression of CVD.

  19. Inflammatory Markers and Clustered Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Danish Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugge, Anna; El-Naaman, Bianca; McMurray, Robert G

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the associations between inflammatory markers and clustering of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, and to examine how inflammatory markers and CVD risk are related to fatness and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO(2peak)) in adolescents. Methods: Body mass and height, skinfolds...... and blood pressure of 413 adolescents (mean age 13.4 ± 0.3 years) were measured. Circulating fasting levels of glucose, insulin, lipids, adiponectin, C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, soluble TNF receptor-1 (sTNFR1), interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) were...

  20. Risk stratification in cardiovascular disease primary prevention - scoring systems, novel markers, and imaging techniques.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zannad, Faiez

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to review and discuss current methods of risk stratification for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention, emerging biomarkers, and imaging techniques, and their relative merits and limitations. This report is based on discussions that took place among experts in the area during a special CardioVascular Clinical Trialists workshop organized by the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Drug Therapy in September 2009. Classical risk factors such as blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels remain the cornerstone of risk estimation in primary prevention but their use as a guide to management is limited by several factors: (i) thresholds for drug treatment vary with the available evidence for cost-effectiveness and benefit-to-risk ratios; (ii) assessment may be imprecise; (iii) residual risk may remain, even with effective control of dyslipidemia and hypertension. Novel measures include C-reactive protein, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) , genetic markers, and markers of subclinical organ damage, for which there are varying levels of evidence. High-resolution ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging to assess carotid atherosclerotic lesions have potential but require further validation, standardization, and proof of clinical usefulness in the general population. In conclusion, classical risk scoring systems are available and inexpensive but have a number of limitations. Novel risk markers and imaging techniques may have a place in drug development and clinical trial design. However, their additional value above and beyond classical risk factors has yet to be determined for risk-guided therapy in CVD prevention.

  1. Worksite Opportunities for Wellness (WOW): effects on cardiovascular disease risk factors after 1 year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racette, Susan B; Deusinger, Susan S; Inman, Cindi L; Burlis, Tamara L; Highstein, Gabrielle R; Buskirk, Trent D; Steger-May, Karen; Peterson, Linda R

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a worksite health promotion program on improving cardiovascular disease risk factors. In St Louis, Missouri from 2005 to 2006, 151 employees (134 F, 17 M, 81% overweight/obese) participated in a cohort-randomized trial comparing assessments + intervention (worksite A) with assessments only (worksite B) for 1 year. All participants received personal health reports containing their assessment results. The intervention was designed to promote physical activity and favorable dietary patterns using pedometers, healthy snack cart, WeightWatchers(R) meetings, group exercise classes, seminars, team competitions, and participation rewards. Outcomes included BMI, body composition, blood pressure, fitness, lipids, and Framingham 10-year coronary heart disease risk. 123 participants, aged 45+/-9 yr, with BMI 32.9+/-8.8 kg/m(2) completed 1 year. Improvements (P< or =0.05) were observed at both worksites for fitness, blood pressure, and total-, HDL-, and LDL-cholesterol. Additional improvements occurred at worksite A in BMI, fat mass, Framingham risk score, and prevalence of the metabolic syndrome; only the changes in BMI and fat mass were different between worksites. A multi-faceted worksite intervention promoted favorable changes in cardiovascular disease risk factors, but many of the improvements were achieved with worksite health assessments and personalized health reports in the absence of an intervention.

  2. Older adult awareness of the influence of cardiovascular disease risk factors on cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Regina S; Ford, Cassandra; Sniscak, Courtney R

    2017-03-01

    The aims of the current study were to (i) assess older people's awareness of the association between CVD risk factors and cognitive function; and (ii) examine whether awareness varies as a function of demographic factors. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors have been linked to subtle deficits in cognitive function. CVD risk factors increase the risk of cognitive decline and dementia. The association between cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and cognitive decrements has been well documented among older people; however, we are unaware of any studies that have measured older people's awareness of this relationship in an effort to assess educational needs. A descriptive, cross-sectional survey design was employed. Community-based older adults aged 60 and older completed a survey that assessed their knowledge of the association between CVD risk factors and cognitive function. One hundred fifty older adults, with a mean age of 72.88 years, completed the survey. Results showed that over 75% of the sample was aware that CVD risk factors affect cognitive function. White older adults and older adults with greater perceived financial well-being tended to be more aware of these relationships than non-White participants with less perceived financial well-being. Results suggest that many, but not all older people have awareness of this relationship. As such, there is a need for increased education about the cognitive effects of CVD risk factors, particularly among older people who are already at risk for developing CVD and those with lesser financial well-being. Appropriate educational strategies can expose older patients to the importance of healthy lifestyle and self-care to maintain cognitive function. Nurses can incorporate education into care by identifying patients that would benefit from tailored interventions and providing information to at-risk patients about how to maintain their cognitive function through management of specific CVD risk factors. © 2016

  3. Preeclampsia and long-term risk of cardiovascular disease: what do obstetrician-gynecologists know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Preeclampsia (PE), a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy affects 2-8% of women and is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk later in life. There is little information about the knowledge of obstetrician-gynecologists in German outpatient care setting regarding the future health risk of PE and knowledge of the current guidelines on treatment and counseling patients post PE. This study aimed to assess whether obstetrician-gynecologists are aware of PE’s association with maternal long-term adverse outcomes and providing appropriate counseling. Methods A random sample of 500 obstetrician-gynecologists in the federal state of Lower Saxony was mailed a survey and a reminder with a second copy of the survey. The questionnaire elicited both personal information, and knowledge on future disease risks, e.g. cardiovascular disease (CVD) and current guidelines as well as on counseling practice. Descriptive analysis was used to analyze the responses. Results A total of 212 obstetrician-gynecologists (42.4%) responded to the questionnaire. A large proportion of physicians stated that PE was associated with a higher risk for the development for hypertension (86.6%), stroke (78.5%) and kidney disease (78.0%). Of the participants 75.8% reported that women after PE have a shorter life expectancy. Respondents with knowledge of the current guidelines of the German Association of Obstetrics and Gynecology concerning follow up and risk management of PE (45.2%) were more often aware of the development of CVD and stroke and counseled patients on self -blood-pressure measurement, meaning and long-term-risks of PE and attached importance to family history of PE compared to physicians with no knowledge of the guidelines. Conclusion Although the majority of obstetrician-gynecologists were aware of higher CVD risk after PE, weaknesses exist in the follow up care and counseling of these patients. These deficiencies would be amendable to directed educational

  4. Long-term effects of earthquake experience of young persons on cardiovascular disease risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Wang, Yumei; Yu, Lulu; Song, Mei; Wang, Lan; Ji, Chunpeng

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to study the long-term effect on cardiovascular disease risk factors of stress from direct experience of an earthquake as a young person. Material and methods We selected workers born between July 1, 1958 and July 1, 1976 who were examined at Kailuan General Hospital between May and October of 2013. Data on cardiovascular events were taken during the workers’ annual health examination conducted between 2006 and 2007. All subjects were divided into three groups according to their experience of the Tangshan earthquake of July 28, 1976, as follows: control group; exposed group 1 and exposed group 2. We compared cardiovascular disease risk factors between the three groups as well as by gender and age. Results One thousand one hundred and ninety-six workers were included in the final statistical analysis. Among all subjects, resting heart rate (p = 0.003), total cholesterol (p earthquake compared with unexposed controls, but were unrelated to loss of relatives. No significant difference in triglyceride levels was observed between the three groups (p = 0.900). Further refinement showed that the effects were restricted to males 40 years of age or older at the time of analysis, but were due primarily to age at the time of earthquake exposure (p = 0.002, p Earthquake experience in the early years of life has long-term effects on adult resting heart rate, total cholesterol, and fasting plasma glucose, especially among men. PMID:28144258

  5. Knowledge and awareness of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the Ga-Rankuwa community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuqiu

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease causes 30% of deaths globally. By comparison, infectious disease accounts for 10% of global mortality. As these statistics indicate, cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in the world. In South Africa, through urbanisation and changes in lifestyle and dietary habits, the prevalence of risk factors and, by extension, the resulting morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease in black people, are expected to increase. Owing to the natural progression of the disease, the first ‘westernised illness’ is hypertension, which is very prevalent among the black population. Knowledge and awareness of risk factors are essential components of behaviour change; however, little is known about the knowledge and awareness of cardiovascular disease among the working-age people in the Ga-Rankuwa community. The purpose of the study was therefore to determine the knowledge and awareness of the identified risk factors among the working-age people (18-40 years old in the Ga-Rankuwa community. The design was a quantitative survey. The study sample (n=604 was selected from zones 1, 2, 4 and 16 of Ga-Rankuwa to determine the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Only people with an identified risk factor were included in the knowledge and awareness survey (n=551. Data was gathered from July to October 2005. The data gathering was self- reported with a structured questionnaire. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and statistical analysis. The results obtained from the knowledge and awareness survey indicate that knowledge and awareness of the risk factors for cardiovascular disease are low in the Ga-Rankuwa community. Opsomming Kardiovaskulêre siektes veroorsaak 30% van sterftes wêreldwyd. In vergelyking veroorsaak aansteeklike siektes net 10% van die sterftes wêreldwyd. Kardiovaskulêre siektes is dus die mees algemene oorsaak van sterftes. In Suid-Afrika, as gevolg van verstedeliking en

  6. Estrogen receptor alpha polymorphism and risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, Alisa D; Ellervik, Christina; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Background- We hypothesized that the estrogen receptor (ESR1) IVS1-397T/C polymorphism affects high-density lipoprotein cholesterol response to hormone replacement therapy and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer of reproductive organs, and hip fracture. Methods and Results- We studied...... thromboembolism, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism), cancer of reproductive organs (breasts, ovaries, uterus, and prostate), and hip fracture. We also studied patients with ischemic heart disease (n=2495), ischemic cerebrovascular disease (n=856), and breast cancer (n=1256) versus general population...... controls. The CC, CT, and TT genotypes had general population frequencies of 21%, 50%, and 29%, respectively. Cross-sectionally, genotype did not influence high-density lipoprotein cholesterol response to hormone replacement therapy. In the cohort study, there were no differences in risks of CVD, cancer...

  7. Physical activity patterns and biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk in hunter-gatherers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raichlen, David A; Pontzer, Herman; Harris, Jacob A; Mabulla, Audax Z P; Marlowe, Frank W; Josh Snodgrass, J; Eick, Geeta; Colette Berbesque, J; Sancilio, Amelia; Wood, Brian M

    2017-03-01

    Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is a strong predictor of cardiovascular health, yet few humans living in industrialized societies meet current recommendations (150 min/week). Researchers have long suggested that human physiological requirements for aerobic exercise reflect an evolutionary shift to a hunting and gathering foraging strategy, and a recent transition to more sedentary lifestyles likely represents a mismatch with our past in terms of physical activity. The goal of this study is to explore this mismatch by characterizing MVPA and cardiovascular health in the Hadza, a modern hunting and gathering population living in Northern Tanzania. We measured MVPA using continuous heart rate monitoring in 46 participants recruited from two Hadza camps. As part of a larger survey of health in the Hadza, we measured blood pressure (n = 198) and biomarkers of cardiovascular health (n = 23) including C-reactive protein, cholesterol (Total, HDL, and LDL), and triglycerides. We show that Hadza participants spend large amounts of time in MVPA (134.92 ± 8.6 min/day), and maintain these activity levels across the lifespan. In fact, the Hadza engage in over 14 times as much MVPA as subjects participating in large epidemiological studies in the United States. We found no evidence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in this population (low prevalence of hypertension across the lifespan, optimal levels for biomarkers of cardiovascular health). Our results provide evidence that the hunting and gathering foraging strategy involves high levels of MVPA, supporting the evolutionary medicine model for the relationship between MVPA and cardiovascular health. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Heart disease - risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart disease - prevention; CVD - risk factors; Cardiovascular disease - risk factors; Coronary artery disease - risk factors; CAD - risk ... a certain health condition. Some risk factors for heart disease you cannot change, but some you can. ...

  9. Risk Factors in the Initial Presentation of Specific Cardiovascular Disease Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-03

    Heart Diseases; Cardiovascular Diseases; Acute Myocardial Infarction; Unstable Angina; Chronic Stable Angina; Ischemic Stroke; Cerebrovascular Accident; Subarachnoid Hemorrhage; Transient Ischemic Attack; Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm; Peripheral Arterial Disease; Sudden Coronary Death; Ventricular Arrhythmia; Sudden Death; Cardiac Arrest; Heart Failure

  10. The Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Obesity in Firefighters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise L. Smith

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD mortality. CVD is the leading cause of duty-related death among firefighters, and the prevalence of obesity is a growing concern in the Fire Service. Methods. Traditional CVD risk factors, novel measures of cardiovascular health and a measurement of CVD were described and compared between nonobese and obese career firefighters who volunteered to participate in this cross-sectional study. Results. In the group of 116 men (mean age 43±8 yrs, the prevalence of obesity was 51.7%. There were no differences among traditional CVD risk factors or the coronary artery calcium (CAC score (criterion measure between obese and nonobese men. However, significant differences in novel markers, including CRP, subendocardial viability ratio, and the ejection duration index, were detected. Conclusions. No differences in the prevalence of traditional CVD risk factors between obese and nonobese men were found. Additionally, CAC was similar between groups. However, there were differences in several novel risk factors, which warrant further investigation. Improved CVD risk identification among firefighters has important implications for both individual health and public safety.

  11. Nontraditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease and visceral adiposity index among different body size phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, T; Zhang, J; Yuan, G; Zhang, M; Zhou, X; Liu, Z; Sun, X; Yu, X

    2015-01-01

    Increased cardiovascular disease and mortality risk in metabolically healthy obese (MHO) individuals remain highly controversial. Several studies suggested risk while others do not. The traditional cardiovascular risk factors may be insufficient to demonstrate the complete range of metabolic abnormalities in MHO individuals. Hence, we aimed to compare the prevalence of elevated lipoprotein (a), apolipoprotein B, and uric acid (UA) levels, apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio, and visceral adiposity index (VAI) scores, and low apolipoprotein A1 levels among 6 body size phenotypes (normal weight with and without metabolic abnormalities, overweight with and without metabolic abnormalities, and obese with or without metabolic abnormalities). We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 7765 Chinese adults using data from the nationwide China Health and Nutrition Survey 2009. MHO persons had intermediate prevalence of elevated apolipoprotein B and UA levels, apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio and VAI scores, and low apolipoprotein A1 levels between metabolically healthy normal-weight (MHNW) and metabolically abnormal obese individuals (P < 0.001 for all comparisons). Elevated apolipoprotein B and UA concentrations, apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio, and VAI scores were all strongly associated with the MHO phenotype (all P < 0.01). Prevalence of elevated apolipoprotein B and UA levels, apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio and VAI scores, and low levels of apolipoprotein A1 was higher among MHO persons than among MHNW individuals. The elevated levels of the nontraditional risk factors and VAI scores in MHO persons could contribute to the increased cardiovascular disease risk observed in long-term studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Perceived Preparedness of Health Care Students for Providing Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Zolezzi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Early assessment and management of risk factors is known to have significant impact in preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD and its associated burden. Cardiovascular disease risk assessment and management (CVDRAM is best approached by teamwork across health care professionals. This study aimed at assessing health care students’ (HCSs knowledge about the parameters needed for estimating CVD risk, their self-assessed preparedness/confidence and perceived barriers for the provision of CVDRAM services through a survey administered to third and fourth year pharmacy, medical, and nursing students in Qatar. Although all student cohorst achieved similar knowledge scores, less than half (n = 38, 47% were able to identify all of the six main risk factors necessary to estimate absolute CVD risk, and a third (32% were unable to identify total cholesterol as an independent risk factor necessary to estimate CVD risk. Training on the use of CVD risk assessment tools differed among the three student cohorts. All student cohorts also perceived similar levels of preparedness in CVDRAM. However, pharmacy students reported the highest preparedness/confidence with the use of the latest CVDRAM guidelines. The majority of statements listed under the barriers scale were perceived by the students as being moderate (median score = 3. Poor public acceptance or unawareness of importance of estimating CVD risk was the only barrier perceived as major by nursing students. Future integration of interprofessional educational (IPE activities in the CVDRAM curricula of HCSs may be a suitable strategy to minimize barriers and foster collaborative practice for the provision of CVDRAM services in Qatar.

  13. Perceived Preparedness of Health Care Students for Providing Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolezzi, Monica; Abdallah, Oraib; Aden, Suad; Major, Stella; White, Diana; El-Awaisi, Alla

    2017-02-21

    Early assessment and management of risk factors is known to have significant impact in preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its associated burden. Cardiovascular disease risk assessment and management (CVDRAM) is best approached by teamwork across health care professionals. This study aimed at assessing health care students' (HCSs) knowledge about the parameters needed for estimating CVD risk, their self-assessed preparedness/confidence and perceived barriers for the provision of CVDRAM services through a survey administered to third and fourth year pharmacy, medical, and nursing students in Qatar. Although all student cohorts achieved similar knowledge scores, less than half ( n = 38, 47%) were able to identify all of the six main risk factors necessary to estimate absolute CVD risk, and a third (32%) were unable to identify total cholesterol as an independent risk factor necessary to estimate CVD risk. Training on the use of CVD risk assessment tools differed among the three student cohorts. All student cohorts also perceived similar levels of preparedness in CVDRAM. However, pharmacy students reported the highest preparedness/confidence with the use of the latest CVDRAM guidelines. The majority of statements listed under the barriers scale were perceived by the students as being moderate (median score = 3). Poor public acceptance or unawareness of importance of estimating CVD risk was the only barrier perceived as a major by nursing students. Future integration of interprofessional educational (IPE) activities in the CVDRAM curricula of HCSs may be a suitable strategy to minimize barriers and foster collaborative practice for the provision of CVDRAM services in Qatar.

  14. High androgens in postmenopausal women and the risk for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease: the Rotterdam Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meun, Cindy; Franco, Oscar H; Dhana, Klodian; Jaspers, Loes; Muka, Taulant; Louwers, Yvonne; Ikram, M Arfan; Fauser, Bart C J M; Kavousi, Maryam; Laven, Joop S E

    2018-02-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is closely linked to hyperandrogenism. In PCOS, hyperandrogenism has been associated with metabolic disturbances which increase the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). To assess the association of high serum androgen levels, as a postmenopausal remnant of PCOS, with the prevalence of atherosclerosis and incidence of CVD in postmenopausal women. The Rotterdam Study, a prospective population-based cohort study. Median follow up was 11.36 years. General community. 2578 women aged over 55. Exclusion criteria were missing informed consent or follow-up data, perimenopausal status, menopause by surgical intervention or at an unnatural age (age 62). None. Linear, logistic, and cox regression models assessed the association of top quartiles (P75) of serum testosterone, free androgen index (FAI), dehydroepiandrosterone, and androstenedione and SHBG with coronary artery calcium, carotid intima media thickness (IMT), pulse wave velocity, peripheral artery disease and incidence of coronary heart disease, stroke, and CVD. Mean age (standard deviation) was 70.19 (8.71) years and average time since menopause 19.85 (9.94) years. Highest quartile FAI was associated with higher pulse wave velocity [β (95%CI): 0.009 (0.000;0.018)]. Highest quartile dehydroepiandrosterone [β (95%CI): -0.008 (-0.015;-0.001)] and androstenedione [β (95%CI): -0.010 (-0.017;-0.003)] levels were associated with a lower IMT. We found no association between high androgen levels and incident stroke, coronary heart disease, or cardiovascular disease. Postmenopausal high androgen levels were not associated with an increased risk for CVD. Cardiovascular health in women with PCOS might be better than was anticipated. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society

  15. Cardiovascular disease risk profile of NCAA Division III intercollegiate football athletes: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Cynthia J; Abbey, Elizabeth L; Brandon, Barbara A; Reisman, Edward J; Kirkpatrick, Christina M

    2017-09-01

    Concerns about the long-term cardiovascular health implications of American football participation have been investigated at the professional and Division I levels, but limited research is available at the less resourced Division III level. Therefore, the objective was to assess the cardiovascular disease risk profile of NCAA Division III intercollegiate football athletes. Eighty-nine varsity football athletes (age = 19.6 ± 1.7 years, height = 1.81 ± 0.07m, weight = 92.7 ± 16.2kg; n = 21 linemen, n = 68 non-linemen) at a private Division III university volunteered to participate. During a preseason pre-participation physical examination, all participants completed a health history screening form (to assess personal and family history of cardiac related pathologies), and were assessed for height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure (BP). Linemen only additionally gave a blood sample for fasting blood glucose and cholesterol analysis, and were assessed for waist and hip circumference, metabolic syndrome, and percent body fat (%BF). These measures were reported as averages and frequencies of elevated cardiovascular. Independent t-tests compared linemen to non-linemen, all other data was presented descriptively. On average, linemen were significantly taller, heavier, had a higher BMI and higher systolic BP than non-linemen (all P < 0.05); there was no difference in diastolic BP between the groups (P = 0.331). The average anthropometric and cardiac risk characteristics for linemen were largely within normal ranges, however analyzed individually, a substantial number of participants were at elevated risk (BMI ≥30 = 85.7%, %BF ≥25 = 71.4%, waist circumference ≥1 = 42.9%, hypertension = 9.5%, high density lipoproteins <40mg/dL = 42.9%, and triglycerides ≥150mg/dL = 6.7%; metabolic syndrome prevalence = 19%). Similar to research in elite athletics, linemen at a single Division III university have elevated

  16. Does Your Heart Forecast help practitioner understanding and confidence with cardiovascular disease risk communication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Sue; Kerr, Andrew; Broadbent, Elizabeth; MacKenzie, Craig; Cole, Karl; McLachlan, Andy

    2011-03-01

    Explaining what cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk means and engaging in shared decision-making regarding risk factor modification is challenging. An electronic CVD risk visualisation tool containing multiple risk communication strategies (Your Heart Forecast) was designed in 2009. To assess whether this tool facilitated explaining CVD risk to primary care patients. Health professionals who accessed a Primary Health Organisation website or who attended educational peer groups over a three-month period were invited to complete questionnaires before and after viewing a four-minute video about the tool. Respondents were asked to make an informed guess of the CVD risk of a 35-year-old patient (actual CVD risk 5%) and rate the following sentence as being true or false: 'If there were 100 people like Mr Andrews, five would go on to have a cardiac event in the next five years.' They also were asked to rank their understanding of CVD risk and confidence in explaining the concept to patients. Fifty health professionals (37 GPs, 12 practice nurses, one other) completed before and after questionnaires. Respondents' CVD risk estimates pre-video ranged from confidence in explaining risk reduced in range and shifted towards greater efficacy. Whether this tool facilitates discussions of CVD risk with patients and improves patient understanding and lifestyle behaviour needs to be evaluated in a randomised trial.

  17. Alopecia and its association with coronary heart disease and cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieu, Nelson; Eslick, Guy D

    2014-10-20

    Alopecia has been associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease as well as the following risk factors for cardiovascular disease: hyperinsulinaemia, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, dyslipidaemia, and hypertension. We performed a meta-analysis to quantitatively determine the level of risk of coronary heart disease and risk factors in individuals with alopecia. A systematic literature search was conducted using several databases. We calculated pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using a random effects model. In total, 31 studies comprising 29,254 participants with alopecia were eligible for the meta-analysis and showed that alopecia is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (OR 1.22, 95% CI: 1.07-1.39), hyperinsulinaemia (OR 1.97, 95% CI: 1.20-3.21), insulin resistance (OR 4.88, 95% CI: 2.05-11.64), and metabolic syndrome (OR 4.49, 95% CI: 2.36-8.53). Individuals with alopecia were also shown to be more likely compared to those without alopecia to have higher serum cholesterol levels (OR 1.60, 95% CI: 1.17-2.21), higher serum triglyceride levels (OR 2.07, 95% CI: 1.32-3.25), higher systolic blood pressures (OR 1.73, 95% CI: 1.29-2.33), and higher diastolic blood pressures (OR 1.59, 95% CI: 1.16-2.18). Alopecia is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease, and there appears to be a dose-response relationship with degree of baldness whereby the greater the severity of alopecia, the greater the risk of coronary heart disease. Alopecia is also associated with an increased risk of hypertension, hyperinsulinaemia, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and having elevated serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Circulating biomarkers for predicting cardiovascular disease risk; a systematic review and comprehensive overview of meta-analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thijs C van Holten

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is one of the major causes of death worldwide. Assessing the risk for cardiovascular disease is an important aspect in clinical decision making and setting a therapeutic strategy, and the use of serological biomarkers may improve this. Despite an overwhelming number of studies and meta-analyses on biomarkers and cardiovascular disease, there are no comprehensive studies comparing the relevance of each biomarker. We performed a systematic review of meta-analyses on levels of serological biomarkers for atherothrombosis to compare the relevance of the most commonly studied biomarkers. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Medline and Embase were screened on search terms that were related to "arterial ischemic events" and "meta-analyses". The meta-analyses were sorted by patient groups without pre-existing cardiovascular disease, with cardiovascular disease and heterogeneous groups concerning general populations, groups with and without cardiovascular disease, or miscellaneous. These were subsequently sorted by end-point for cardiovascular disease or stroke and summarized in tables. We have identified 85 relevant full text articles, with 214 meta-analyses. Markers for primary cardiovascular events include, from high to low result: C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, the apolipoprotein A/apolipoprotein B ratio, high density lipoprotein, and vitamin D. Markers for secondary cardiovascular events include, from high to low result: cardiac troponins I and T, C-reactive protein, serum creatinine, and cystatin C. For primary stroke, fibrinogen and serum uric acid are strong risk markers. Limitations reside in that there is no acknowledged search strategy for prognostic studies or meta-analyses. CONCLUSIONS: For primary cardiovascular events, markers with strong predictive potential are mainly associated with lipids. For secondary cardiovascular events, markers are more associated with ischemia. Fibrinogen is a

  19. Consumption of added sugars and indicators of cardiovascular disease risk among US adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Jean A; Sharma, Andrea; Cunningham, Solveig A; Vos, Miriam B

    2011-01-25

    Whereas increased carbohydrate and sugar consumption has been associated with higher cardiovascular disease risk among adults, little is known about the impact of high consumption of added sugars (caloric sweeteners) among US adolescents. In a cross-sectional study of 2157 US adolescents in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999 to 2004, dietary data from one 24-hour recall were merged with added sugar content data from the US Department of Agriculture MyPyramid Equivalents databases. Measures of cardiovascular disease risk were estimated by added sugar consumption level (added sugars averaged 21.4% of total energy. Added sugars intake was inversely correlated with mean high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (mmol/L) which were 1.40 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.36 to 1.44) among the lowest consumers and 1.28 (95% CI 1.23 to 1.33) among the highest (P trend = 0.001). Added sugars were positively correlated with low-density lipoproteins (P trend =0.01) and geometric mean triglycerides (P trend = 0.05). Among the lowest and highest consumers, respectively, low-density lipoproteins (mmol/L) were 2.24 (95% CI 2.12 to 2.37) and 2.44 (95% CI 2.34 to 2.53), and triglycerides (mmol/L) were 0.81 (95% CI 0.74, 0.88) and 0.89 (95% CI 0.83 to 0.96). Among those overweight/obese (≥ 85th percentile body-mass-index), added sugars were positively correlated with the homeostasis model assessment (P linear trend = 0.004). Consumption of added sugars among US adolescents is positively associated with multiple measures known to increase cardiovascular disease risk.

  20. Lipid measures and cardiovascular disease prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, D.F.; Stroes, E.S.G.; Kastelein, J.J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Traditional lipid measures are the cornerstone of risk assessment and treatment goals in cardiovascular prevention. Whereas the association between total, LDL-, HDL-cholesterol and cardiovascular disease risk has been generally acknowledged, the rather poor capacity to distinguish between patients

  1. Systematic review of palm oil consumption and the risk of cardiovascular disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Rasheeqa Ismail

    Full Text Available The high amount of saturated fatty acids (SFA coupled with the rising availability and consumption of palm oil have lead to the assumption that palm oil contributes to the increased prevalence of cardiovascular diseases worldwide. We aimed at systematically synthesising the association of palm oil consumption with cardiovascular disease risk and cardiovascular disease-specific mortality.We systematically searched Central, Medline and Embase databases up to June 2017 without restriction on setting or language. We performed separate searches based on the outcomes: coronary heart disease and stroke, using keywords related to these outcomes and palm oil. We searched for published interventional and observational studies in adults (Age: >18 years old. Two investigators extracted data and a consensus was reached with involvement of a third. Only narrative synthesis was performed for all of the studies, as the data could not be pooled.Our search retrieved 2,738 citations for stroke with one included study and 1,777 citations for coronary heart disease (CHD with four included studies. Palmitic acid was reported to be associated with risk of myocardial infarction (MI (OR 2.76; 95%CI = 1.39-5.47. Total SFA intake was reported to be not significant for risk of MI. Varying intake of fried foods, highest contributor to total SFA with 36% of households using palm oil for frying, showed no significant associations to risk of MI. Odds of developing first non-fatal acute MI was higher in palm oil compared to soybean oil with 5% trans-fat (OR = 1.33; 95%CI = 1.09-1.62 than palm oil compared to soybean oil with 22% trans-fat (OR = 1.16; 95%CI = 0.86-1.56. Nevertheless, these risk estimates were non-significant and imprecise. The trend amongst those taking staple pattern diet (characterised by higher palm oil, red meat and added sugar consumption was inconsistent across the factor score quintiles. During the years of 1980 and 1997, for every additional kilogram of

  2. Systematic review of palm oil consumption and the risk of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Sophia Rasheeqa; Maarof, Siti Khuzaimah; Siedar Ali, Syazwani; Ali, Azizan

    2018-01-01

    The high amount of saturated fatty acids (SFA) coupled with the rising availability and consumption of palm oil have lead to the assumption that palm oil contributes to the increased prevalence of cardiovascular diseases worldwide. We aimed at systematically synthesising the association of palm oil consumption with cardiovascular disease risk and cardiovascular disease-specific mortality. We systematically searched Central, Medline and Embase databases up to June 2017 without restriction on setting or language. We performed separate searches based on the outcomes: coronary heart disease and stroke, using keywords related to these outcomes and palm oil. We searched for published interventional and observational studies in adults (Age: >18 years old). Two investigators extracted data and a consensus was reached with involvement of a third. Only narrative synthesis was performed for all of the studies, as the data could not be pooled. Our search retrieved 2,738 citations for stroke with one included study and 1,777 citations for coronary heart disease (CHD) with four included studies. Palmitic acid was reported to be associated with risk of myocardial infarction (MI) (OR 2.76; 95%CI = 1.39-5.47). Total SFA intake was reported to be not significant for risk of MI. Varying intake of fried foods, highest contributor to total SFA with 36% of households using palm oil for frying, showed no significant associations to risk of MI. Odds of developing first non-fatal acute MI was higher in palm oil compared to soybean oil with 5% trans-fat (OR = 1.33; 95%CI = 1.09-1.62) than palm oil compared to soybean oil with 22% trans-fat (OR = 1.16; 95%CI = 0.86-1.56). Nevertheless, these risk estimates were non-significant and imprecise. The trend amongst those taking staple pattern diet (characterised by higher palm oil, red meat and added sugar consumption) was inconsistent across the factor score quintiles. During the years of 1980 and 1997, for every additional kilogram of palm oil

  3. Systematic review of palm oil consumption and the risk of cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Azizan

    2018-01-01

    Background The high amount of saturated fatty acids (SFA) coupled with the rising availability and consumption of palm oil have lead to the assumption that palm oil contributes to the increased prevalence of cardiovascular diseases worldwide. We aimed at systematically synthesising the association of palm oil consumption with cardiovascular disease risk and cardiovascular disease-specific mortality. Methods We systematically searched Central, Medline and Embase databases up to June 2017 without restriction on setting or language. We performed separate searches based on the outcomes: coronary heart disease and stroke, using keywords related to these outcomes and palm oil. We searched for published interventional and observational studies in adults (Age: >18 years old). Two investigators extracted data and a consensus was reached with involvement of a third. Only narrative synthesis was performed for all of the studies, as the data could not be pooled. Results Our search retrieved 2,738 citations for stroke with one included study and 1,777 citations for coronary heart disease (CHD) with four included studies. Palmitic acid was reported to be associated with risk of myocardial infarction (MI) (OR 2.76; 95%CI = 1.39–5.47). Total SFA intake was reported to be not significant for risk of MI. Varying intake of fried foods, highest contributor to total SFA with 36% of households using palm oil for frying, showed no significant associations to risk of MI. Odds of developing first non-fatal acute MI was higher in palm oil compared to soybean oil with 5% trans-fat (OR = 1.33; 95%CI = 1.09–1.62) than palm oil compared to soybean oil with 22% trans-fat (OR = 1.16; 95%CI = 0.86–1.56). Nevertheless, these risk estimates were non-significant and imprecise. The trend amongst those taking staple pattern diet (characterised by higher palm oil, red meat and added sugar consumption) was inconsistent across the factor score quintiles. During the years of 1980 and 1997, for every

  4. Chewing betel quid and the risk of metabolic disease, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Tomohide; Hara, Kazuo; Kadowaki, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Betel nut (Areca nut) is the fruit of the Areca catechu tree. Approximately 700 million individuals regularly chew betel nut (or betel quid) worldwide and it is a known risk factor for oral cancer and esophageal cancer. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the influence of chewing betel quid on metabolic diseases, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality. We searched Medline, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Science Direct for pertinent articles (including the references) published between 1951 and 2013. The adjusted relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval were calculated using the random effect model. Sex was used as an independent category for comparison. Of 580 potentially relevant studies, 17 studies from Asia (5 cohort studies and 12 case-control studies) covering 388,134 subjects (range: 94 to 97,244) were selected. Seven studies (N = 121,585) showed significant dose-response relationships between betel quid consumption and the risk of events. According to pooled analysis, the adjusted RR of betel quid chewers vs. non-chewers was 1.47 (PBetel quid chewing is associated with an increased risk of metabolic disease, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality. Thus, in addition to preventing oral cancer, stopping betel quid use could be a valuable public health measure for metabolic diseases that are showing a rapid increase in South-East Asia and the Western Pacific.

  5. Arterial properties in acromegaly: relation to disease activity and associated cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaron, Marianna; Izkhakov, Elena; Sack, Jessica; Azzam, Ibrahim; Osher, Etty; Tordjman, Karen; Stern, Naftali; Greenman, Yona

    2016-06-01

    Acromegaly is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality when inadequately treated, which may be secondary to associated comorbidities or to direct IGF-1 effects on the cardiovascular system. By using a control group carefully matched for traditional cardiovascular risk factors, we aimed to assess the direct contribution of disease activity and IGF-1 levels to arterial damage as assessed by measurements of arterial stiffness and endothelial function. Twenty-nine subjects with acromegaly (11 males, 52 ± 14 year; 15 active acromegaly) and 24 matched controls underwent evaluation of large and small artery compliance using applanation tonometry, pulse wave velocity (PWV), augmentation index (Alx), carotid ultrasonography intima-media thickness, (IMT) and flow-mediated dilatation (FMD). IGF-1 expressed as times the upper limit of the normal range (x ULN) was 2.2 ± 1.1 in patients with active disease versus 0.7 ± 0.2 in patients in remission. Irrespective of disease activity, FMD was lower in patients with acromegaly than in control subjects, (3.4 ± 2.7 % in active acromegaly, 4.4 ± 3.3 % in controlled acromegaly and 7.5 ± 3.8 % in controls; p = 0.004). There were no significant differences in PWV, Alx, and IMT between groups. A positive correlation was found between IGF-1× ULN and IMT (r = 0.4; P = 0.02). Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), a novel cardiovascular risk factor, was positively correlated to arterial stiffness (r = 0.46; p = 0.017) and negatively with small vessel compliance (r = -0.44, p = 0.02). Patients with acromegaly have significantly impaired endothelial function as assessed by FMD, but other tested vascular parameters were similar to a control group that was adequately matched for cardiovascular risk factors.

  6. Cardiovascular disease risk factors in HIV patients--association with antiretroviral therapy. Results from the DAD study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Møller, Nina; Weber, Rainer; Reiss, Peter

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among HIV-infected persons, and to investigate any association between such risk factors, stage of HIV disease, and use of antiretroviral therapies. DESIGN: Baseline data from 17,852 subjects enrolled in DAD, ...

  7. Examining risk factors for cardiovascular disease among food bank members in Vancouver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowokan, A O; Black, J L; Holmes, E; Seto, D; Lear, S A

    2018-06-01

    Food banks provide supplemental food to low-income households, yet little is known about the cardiovascular health of food banks members. This study therefore described cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among food bank members and explored associations between food insecurity and CVD risk. Adults ≥18 years (n = 77) from three food bank sites in metro Vancouver, British Columbia completed surveys and physical assessments examining a range of socio-demographic variables and CVD risk factors. A composite measure of myocardial infarction (MI) risk called the INTERHEART score was assessed and household food insecurity was measured using the Household Food Security Survey Module. Regression models were used to explore associations between food insecurity and CVD risk measures, including the INTERHEART score. Ninety-seven percent of food bank members reported experiencing food insecurity, 65% were current smokers, 53% reported either chronic or several periods of stress in the past year, 55% reported low physical activity levels and 80% reported consuming fewer than five servings of fruit and vegetables daily. Prevalence of self-reported diabetes and hypertension were 13% and 29% respectively. Fifty-two percent of the sample were at high risk of non-fatal MI. No statistically significant associations were found between increased severity of food insecurity and CVD risk factors among this sample where both severe food insecurity and high CVD risks were prevalent. Food bank members were at elevated risk for CVD compared with the general population. Strategies are needed to reduce prevalence of food insecurity and CVD risk factors, both of which disproportionately affected food bank members.

  8. Using impedance cardiography to detect asymptomatic cardiovascular disease in prehypertensive adults with risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarzo, Arthur P

    2013-06-01

    Early detection of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in prehypertension could initiate appropriate treatment and prevent progression. Impedance cardiography (ICG) is a noninvasive technology that can be used to assess cardiovascular function. This study used ICG waveform analysis with postural change to detect CVD in asymptomatic prehypertensive adults over 40 years of age with no history of CVD and at least 2 cardiovascular risk factors: cigarette smoking, poor diet, physical inactivity, central obesity, family history of premature CVD, elevated blood glucose, and dyslipidemia. A study group of 25 apparently healthy adults was tested by ICG in standing and supine positions. Criteria for an age-matched control group of 16 healthy subjects included an active lifestyle, no risk factor, and no history of CVD. In addition to hemodynamic measurements of systemic vascular resistance (SVR) and cardiac index (CI), ICG used SVR to assess vascular resistive load, an index of arterial compliance and a widening of the systolic waveform to assess vascular pulsatile load, and waveform analysis and measured wave amplitude to detect ventricular dysfunction. All subjects in the study group had some abnormal ICG data, with an average of 2.9 ± 1.5 abnormalities per person. ICG indicated that 24 (96%) had elevated vascular load, 13 (52%) had some type of ventricular dysfunction, and 12 (48%) had abnormal hemodynamics. For the control group, ICG showed none (0%) with elevated vascular load, none (0%) with ventricular dysfunction, and 7 (44%) with high CI. Prehypertensives over 40 years of age with multiple risk factors have different cardiovascular abnormalities. This ICG test could be used as part of a prevention program for early detection of CVD. An abnormal ICG test could expedite the initiation of customized treatment that targets the subclinical CVD.

  9. Chronic kidney disease in Spain: Prevalence and impact of accumulation of cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorostidi, Manuel; Sánchez-Martínez, Mercedes; Ruilope, Luis M; Graciani, Auxiliadora; de la Cruz, Juan J; Santamaría, Rafael; Del Pino, María D; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; de Álvaro, Fernando; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Banegas, José R

    2018-06-15

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a public health problem worldwide. We aimed to estimate the CKD prevalence in Spain and to examine the impact of the accumulation of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF). We performed a nationwide, population-based survey evaluating 11,505 individuals representative of the Spanish adult population. Information was collected through standardised questionnaires, physical examination, and analysis of blood and urine samples in a central laboratory. CKD was graded according to current KDIGO definitions. The relationship between CKD and 10CVRF was assessed (age, hypertension, general obesity, abdominal obesity, smoking, high LDL-cholesterol, low HDL-cholesterol, hypertriglyceridaemia, diabetes and sedentary lifestyle). Prevalence of CKD was 15.1% (95%CI: 14.3-16.0%). CKD was more common in men (23.1% vs 7.3% in women), increased with age (4.8% in 18-44 age group, 17.4% in 45-64 age group, and 37.3% in ≥65), and was more common in those with than those without cardiovascular disease (39.8% vs 14.6%); all P<.001. CKD affected 4.5% of subjects with 0-1CVRF, and then progressively increased from 10.4% to 52.3% in subjects with 2 to 8-10CVRF (P trend <.001). CKD affects one in seven adults in Spain. The prevalence is higher than previously reported and similar to that in the United States. CKD was particularly prevalent in men, older people and people with cardiovascular disease. Prevalence of CKD increased considerably with the accumulation of CVRF, suggesting that CKD could be considered as a cardiovascular condition. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Repeated superovulation increases the risk of osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases by accelerating ovarian aging in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinjin; Lai, Zhiwen; Shi, Liangyan; Tian, Yong; Luo, Aiyue; Xu, Zheyuan; Ma, Xiangyi; Wang, Shixuan

    2018-05-22

    Superovulation procedures and assisted reproductive technologies have been widely used to treat couples who have infertility problems. Although generally safe, the superovulation procedures are associated with a series of complications, such as ovarian hyper-stimulation syndrome, thromboembolism, and adnexal torsion. The role of long-term repeated superovulation in ovarian aging and especially in associated disorders such as osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases is still unclear. In this study, we sought to determine if repeated superovulation by ten cycles of treatment with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin/human chorionic gonadotropin could affect ovarian reserve, ovarian function, bone density and heart function. Ovarian reserve and function were reflected by the size of the primordial follicle pool, anti-Mullerian hormone expressions, hormone levels and fertility status. Furthermore, we examined bone density and heart function by microCT and cardiovascular ultrasonography, respectively. After repeated superovulation, the size of the primordial follicle pool and the expression of anti-mullerian hormone decreased, along with the concentrations of estrogen and progesterone. Mice exposed to repeated superovulation showed an obvious decrease in fertility and fecundity. Furthermore, both bone density and heart ejection fraction significantly decreased. These results suggest that repeated superovulation may increase the risk of osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases by accelerating ovarian aging.

  11. Dieta habitual e fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares Habitual diet and cardiovascular disease risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Cervato

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Estudo descritivo por amostragem em munícípio do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, em 1990, com objetivo de analisar, mediante entrevistas domiciliares, a dieta habitual e fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares em indivíduos maiores de 20 anos. METODOLOGIA: Foram entrevistados 557 indivíduos, de idade entre 20 e 88 anos, que fazem parte de subamostra de um estudo global na região. A dieta habitual, identificada pelo histórico alimentar foi comparada às recomendações da OMS e os fatores de risco estudados (obesidade, dislipidemias, diabetes melito diagnosticados pelo Índice de Massa Corpórea e dosagens bioquímicas. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: Observou-se que 60% da população consome dieta com energia total abaixo da estimativa das necessidades e que a contribuição calórica dos carboidratos foi de 56%, dos lipídios de 29% e das proteínas de 15%. Entretanto, na análise por percentil, a contribuição calórica dos lipídios e das proteínas encontra-se muito acima dos padrões recomendados em detrimento dos carboidratos. A energia, distribuição calórica e quantidade de colesterol foi adequada em apenas 5% das dietas. Dentre os fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares estudados observou-se a prevalência de obesidade em 38% dos indivíduos, de dislipidemias em 26% e de diabetes melito em 5%. A atividade física leve preponderante com dieta inadequada, tanto em termos de qualitativos quanto quantitativos, agravam ainda mais esse quadro.INTRODUCTION: A survey by sampling in a county of the State of S. Paulo in 1990 sought, by means of home interviews, to analyse the habitual diet and risk factors for cardiovascular disease of people over 20 years of age. METHODOLOGY: Of the sub-specimen of a comprehensive study population, 557 individuals, aged between 20 and 88, were interviewed. The habitual diet, characterized by the dietary history, was compared with the recommendations on energy and nutrients of the

  12. Relationship between occupational stress and cardiovascular diseases risk factors in drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglari, Hamed; Ebrahimi, Mohammad Hossein; Salehi, Maryam; Poursadeghiyan, Mohsen; Ahmadnezhad, Iman; Abbasi, Milad

    2016-11-18

    Of all work stressors, occupational stress is the leading cause of many disorders among workers. Drivers are classified as a high risk group for work related stress. This study set out to determine the relationship between risk factors of cardiovascular diseases and occupational stress among drivers. Two hundred and twenty two Ilam's intercity drivers were selected for the study. For measuring work stress, the Osipow work stress questionnaire was used. After a 10-h fasting period, systolic and diastolic blood pressure was recorded. Intravenous blood samples were taken to determine cholesterol, triglyceride and blood glucose levels. The independent samples t-test and Pearson's correlation test were used to assess the relationship between variables and occupational stress. Seventy-one percent of the intercity drivers suffered from average to acute stress, and 3.1% of them suffered from acute stress. There was no significant relationship between occupational stress and diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.254) among the drivers. Nevertheless, the Pearson's correlation test demonstrated a strong relationship between work stress and blood glucose (p stress were observed in the Ilam's intercity drivers. Occupational stress may have effect on blood glucose levels but the results did not suggest a considerable relationship between risk factors of cardiovascular diseases and occupational stress among intercity drivers. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(6):895-901. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  13. Genetic variants in novel pathways influence blood pressure and cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehret, Georg B; Munroe, Patricia B; Rice, Kenneth M; Bochud, Murielle; Johnson, Andrew D; Chasman, Daniel I; Smith, Albert V; Tobin, Martin D; Verwoert, Germaine C; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Pihur, Vasyl; Vollenweider, Peter; O'Reilly, Paul F; Amin, Najaf; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Teumer, Alexander; Glazer, Nicole L; Launer, Lenore; Zhao, Jing Hua; Aulchenko, Yurii; Heath, Simon; Sõber, Siim; Parsa, Afshin; Luan, Jian'an; Arora, Pankaj; Dehghan, Abbas; Zhang, Feng; Lucas, Gavin; Hicks, Andrew A; Jackson, Anne U; Peden, John F; Tanaka, Toshiko; Wild, Sarah H; Rudan, Igor; Igl, Wilmar; Milaneschi, Yuri; Parker, Alex N; Fava, Cristiano; Chambers, John C; Fox, Ervin R; Kumari, Meena; Go, Min Jin; van der Harst, Pim; Kao, Wen Hong Linda; Sjögren, Marketa; Vinay, D G; Alexander, Myriam; Tabara, Yasuharu; Shaw-Hawkins, Sue; Whincup, Peter H; Liu, Yongmei; Shi, Gang; Kuusisto, Johanna; Tayo, Bamidele; Seielstad, Mark; Sim, Xueling; Nguyen, Khanh-Dung Hoang; Lehtimäki, Terho; Matullo, Giuseppe; Wu, Ying; Gaunt, Tom R; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Cooper, Matthew N; Platou, Carl G P; Org, Elin; Hardy, Rebecca; Dahgam, Santosh; Palmen, Jutta; Vitart, Veronique; Braund, Peter S; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Palmas, Walter; Campbell, Harry; Ludwig, Barbara; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Palmer, Nicholette D; Aspelund, Thor; Garcia, Melissa; Chang, Yen-Pei C; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Steinle, Nanette I; Grobbee, Diederick E; Arking, Dan E; Kardia, Sharon L; Morrison, Alanna C; Hernandez, Dena; Najjar, Samer; McArdle, Wendy L; Hadley, David; Brown, Morris J; Connell, John M; Hingorani, Aroon D; Day, Ian N M; Lawlor, Debbie A; Beilby, John P; Lawrence, Robert W; Clarke, Robert; Hopewell, Jemma C; Ongen, Halit; Dreisbach, Albert W; Li, Yali; Young, J Hunter; Bis, Joshua C; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Adair, Linda S; Lee, Nanette R; Chen, Ming-Huei; Olden, Matthias; Pattaro, Cristian; Bolton, Judith A Hoffman; Köttgen, Anna; Bergmann, Sven; Mooser, Vincent; Chaturvedi, Nish; Frayling, Timothy M; Islam, Muhammad; Jafar, Tazeen H; Erdmann, Jeanette; Kulkarni, Smita R; Bornstein, Stefan R; Grässler, Jürgen; Groop, Leif; Voight, Benjamin F; Kettunen, Johannes; Howard, Philip; Taylor, Andrew; Guarrera, Simonetta; Ricceri, Fulvio; Emilsson, Valur; Plump, Andrew; Barroso, Inês; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Weder, Alan B; Hunt, Steven C; Sun, Yan V; Bergman, Richard N; Collins, Francis S; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Scott, Laura J; Stringham, Heather M; Peltonen, Leena; Perola, Markus; Vartiainen, Erkki; Brand, Stefan-Martin; Staessen, Jan A; Wang, Thomas J; Burton, Paul R; Soler Artigas, Maria; Dong, Yanbin; Snieder, Harold; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhu, Haidong; Lohman, Kurt K; Rudock, Megan E; Heckbert, Susan R; Smith, Nicholas L; Wiggins, Kerri L; Doumatey, Ayo; Shriner, Daniel; Veldre, Gudrun; Viigimaa, Margus; Kinra, Sanjay; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Tripathy, Vikal; Langefeld, Carl D; Rosengren, Annika; Thelle, Dag S; Corsi, Anna Maria; Singleton, Andrew; Forrester, Terrence; Hilton, Gina; McKenzie, Colin A; Salako, Tunde; Iwai, Naoharu; Kita, Yoshikuni; Ogihara, Toshio; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Umemura, Satoshi; Eyheramendy, Susana; Meitinger, Thomas; Wichmann, H-Erich; Cho, Yoon Shin; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Lee, Jong-Young; Scott, James; Sehmi, Joban S; Zhang, Weihua; Hedblad, Bo; Nilsson, Peter; Smith, George Davey; Wong, Andrew; Narisu, Narisu; Stančáková, Alena; Raffel, Leslie J; Yao, Jie; Kathiresan, Sekar; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Schwartz, Stephen M; Ikram, M Arfan; Longstreth, W T; Mosley, Thomas H; Seshadri, Sudha; Shrine, Nick R G; Wain, Louise V; Morken, Mario A; Swift, Amy J; Laitinen, Jaana; Prokopenko, Inga; Zitting, Paavo; Cooper, Jackie A; Humphries, Steve E; Danesh, John; Rasheed, Asif; Goel, Anuj; Hamsten, Anders; Watkins, Hugh; Bakker, Stephan J L; van Gilst, Wiek H; Janipalli, Charles S; Mani, K Radha; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Hofman, Albert; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U S; Oostra, Ben A; Demirkan, Ayse; Isaacs, Aaron; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Lakatta, Edward G; Orru, Marco; Scuteri, Angelo; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Kangas, Antti J; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Soininen, Pasi; Tukiainen, Taru; Würtz, Peter; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Dörr, Marcus; Kroemer, Heyo K; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lathrop, Mark; Zelenika, Diana; Deloukas, Panos; Mangino, Massimo; Spector, Tim D; Zhai, Guangju; Meschia, James F; Nalls, Michael A; Sharma, Pankaj; Terzic, Janos; Kumar, M V Kranthi; Denniff, Matthew; Zukowska-Szczechowska, Ewa; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Fowkes, F Gerald R; Charchar, Fadi J; Schwarz, Peter E H; Hayward, Caroline; Guo, Xiuqing; Rotimi, Charles; Bots, Michiel L; Brand, Eva; Samani, Nilesh J; Polasek, Ozren; Talmud, Philippa J; Nyberg, Fredrik; Kuh, Diana; Laan, Maris; Hveem, Kristian; Palmer, Lyle J; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Casas, Juan P; Mohlke, Karen L; Vineis, Paolo; Raitakari, Olli; Ganesh, Santhi K; Wong, Tien Y; Tai, E Shyong; Cooper, Richard S; Laakso, Markku; Rao, Dabeeru C; Harris, Tamara B; Morris, Richard W; Dominiczak, Anna F; Kivimaki, Mika; Marmot, Michael G; Miki, Tetsuro; Saleheen, Danish; Chandak, Giriraj R; Coresh, Josef; Navis, Gerjan; Salomaa, Veikko; Han, Bok-Ghee; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Kooner, Jaspal S; Melander, Olle; Ridker, Paul M; Bandinelli, Stefania; Gyllensten, Ulf B; Wright, Alan F; Wilson, James F; Ferrucci, Luigi; Farrall, Martin; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Pramstaller, Peter P; Elosua, Roberto; Soranzo, Nicole; Sijbrands, Eric J G; Altshuler, David; Loos, Ruth J F; Shuldiner, Alan R; Gieger, Christian; Meneton, Pierre; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Wareham, Nicholas J; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Rotter, Jerome I; Rettig, Rainer; Uda, Manuela; Strachan, David P; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Beckmann, Jacques S; Boerwinkle, Eric; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Boehnke, Michael; Larson, Martin G; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Psaty, Bruce M; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Elliott, Paul; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Levy, Daniel; Caulfield, Mark J; Johnson, Toby

    2011-09-11

    Blood pressure is a heritable trait influenced by several biological pathways and responsive to environmental stimuli. Over one billion people worldwide have hypertension (≥140 mm Hg systolic blood pressure or  ≥90 mm Hg diastolic blood pressure). Even small increments in blood pressure are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. This genome-wide association study of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, which used a multi-stage design in 200,000 individuals of European descent, identified sixteen novel loci: six of these loci contain genes previously known or suspected to regulate blood pressure (GUCY1A3-GUCY1B3, NPR3-C5orf23, ADM, FURIN-FES, GOSR2, GNAS-EDN3); the other ten provide new clues to blood pressure physiology. A genetic risk score based on 29 genome-wide significant variants was associated with hypertension, left ventricular wall thickness, stroke and coronary artery disease, but not kidney disease or kidney function. We also observed associations with blood pressure in East Asian, South Asian and African ancestry individuals. Our findings provide new insights into the genetics and biology of blood pressure, and suggest potential novel therapeutic pathways for cardiovascular disease prevention.

  14. Urinary magnesium excretion and risk of cardiovascular disease in the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Joosten

    2012-06-01

    We prospectively followed 7747 adults free of diagnosed cardiovascular diseases or cancer at baseline (1997-1998 from the community-based, observational PREVEND (Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease Study. Urinary magnesium excretion was estimated from two 24-h urine collections and was measured by a xylidyl blue method on a Modular analyzer (Roche. During a median follow-up of 10.5 year, 638 CVD events occurred. After adjustment for age, BMI, sex, smoking status, alcohol consumption and educational attainment, urinary magnesium excretion showed a nonlinear relationship with CVD risk. The hazard ratios (HR for CVD were significantly lower (PIn conclusion, low urinary magnesium excretion was associated with a higher risk of CVD, even after controlling for possible intermediates in the causal pathway such as blood pressure, diabetes and markers of inflammation and atherosclerosis. These results highlight the need to evaluate whether increasing the uptake of dietary magnesium could be effective for primary prevention of CVD.

  15. Does high sugar consumption exacerbate cardiometabolic risk factors and increase the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Laaksonen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of sugar has been relatively high in the Nordic countries; the impact of sugar intake on metabolic risk factors and related diseases has been debated. The objectives were to assess the effect of sugar intake (sugar-sweetened beverages, sucrose and fructose on association with type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and related metabolic risk factors (impaired glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, dyslipidemia, blood pressure, uric acid, inflammation markers, and on all-cause mortality, through a systematic review of prospective cohort studies and randomised controlled intervention studies published between January 2000 and search dates. The methods adopted were as follows: the first search was run in PubMed in October 2010. A second search with uric acid as risk marker was run in April 2011. The total search strategy was rerun in April 2011 in SveMed+. An update was run in PubMed in January 2012. Two authors independently selected studies for inclusion from the 2,743 abstracts according to predefined eligibility criteria. The outcome was that out of the 17 studies extracted, 15 were prospective cohort studies and two were randomised controlled crossover trials. All of the studies included only adults. With respect to incident type 2 diabetes (nine studies, four of six prospective cohort studies found a significant positive association for sugar-sweetened beverage intake. In general, larger cohort studies with longer follow-up more often reported positive associations, and BMI seemed to mediate part of the increased risk. For other metabolic or cardiovascular risk factors or outcomes, too few studies have been published to draw conclusions. In conclusion, data from prospective cohort studies published in the years 2000–2011 suggest that sugar-sweetened beverages probably increase the risk of type 2 diabetes. For related metabolic risk factors, cardiovascular disease or all-cause mortality and other types of sugars, too few studies

  16. Dog ownership and the risk of cardiovascular disease and death - a nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubanga, Mwenya; Byberg, Liisa; Nowak, Christoph; Egenvall, Agneta; Magnusson, Patrik K; Ingelsson, Erik; Fall, Tove

    2017-11-17

    Dogs may be beneficial in reducing cardiovascular risk in their owners by providing social support and motivation for physical activity. We aimed to investigate the association of dog ownership with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and death in a register-based prospective nation-wide cohort (n = 3,432,153) with up to 12 years of follow-up. Self-reported health and lifestyle habits were available for 34,202 participants in the Swedish Twin Register. Time-to-event analyses with time-updated covariates were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). In single- and multiple-person households, dog ownership (13.1%) was associated with lower risk of death, HR 0.67 (95% CI, 0.65-0.69) and 0.89 (0.87-0.91), respectively; and CVD death, HR 0.64 (0.59-0.70), and 0.85 (0.81-0.90), respectively. In single-person households, dog ownership was inversely associated with cardiovascular outcomes (HR composite CVD 0.92, 95% CI, 0.89-0.94). Ownership of hunting breed dogs was associated with lowest risk of CVD. Further analysis in the Twin Register could not replicate the reduced risk of CVD or death but also gave no indication of confounding by disability, comorbidities or lifestyle factors. In conclusion, dog ownership appears to be associated with lower risk of CVD in single-person households and lower mortality in the general population.

  17. Risk of cardiovascular disease? A qualitative study of risk interpretation among patients with high cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, P.; Edwards, A.; Risor, M. B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown the importance of paying attention to lay peoples' interpretations of risk of disease, in order to explain health-related behavior. However, risk interpretations interplay with social context in complex ways. The objective was to explore how asymptomatic...

  18. Cardiovascular risk profile of patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease during nilotinib therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondon-Guitton, E; Combret, S; Pérault-Pochat, M C; Stève-Dumont, M; Bagheri, H; Huguet, F; Despas, F; Pathak, A; Montastruc, J L

    2016-08-01

    Over the past few years, data have suggested that severe peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) is associated with nilotinib exposure. However, the characteristics of this adverse drug reaction are poorly described since its frequency is low. As far as we know, no study using a spontaneous adverse drug reactions reporting system was performed to describe the characteristics of cases of PAOD related to nilotinib. We performed a study to describe the cardiovascular risk profile of cases of PAOD in patients treated with nilotinib spontaneously reported to the French Pharmacovigilance Database (FPVD). We selected all cases of "vascular disorders," as the System Organ Class in MedDRA®, in which nilotinib was "suspected" and recorded in the French Pharmacovigilance Database between 2007 and 21 October 2014. We then identified cases of PAOD with a Low Level Term and through a detailed summary of the clinical description. We identified 25 cases of POAD. Most of the patients were older than 60 years (84 %) or had another cardiovascular risk factor such as hypercholesterolemia, arterial hypertension, overweight/obesity, smoking, or diabetes mellitus (72 %). Females (13 cases) and males (12 cases) were equally represented, but the presence of cardiovascular risk factors was more frequent in females than in males. The mean time from initiation of nilotinib to PAOD onset was 24 months and was significantly longer in patients aged less than 60 years compared with those aged over 60 years (33.8 ± 24.6 months vs. 22.6 ± 17.5 months, p = 0.002). Pre-existing cardiovascular risk factors, especially diabetes mellitus, also seem to accelerate its occurrence. The FPVD is a useful tool in describing the cardiovascular risk profile of patients with PAOD during nilotinib exposure. Physicians have to be particularly vigilant in patients older than 60 years of age; in patients younger than 60 years of age, long-term surveillance has to be maintained.

  19. Depression, anxiety and cardiovascular disease: which symptoms are associated with increased risk in community dwelling older adults?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gallagher, Damien

    2012-12-15

    Depression is a risk factor for Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). It has been reported that somatic symptoms of depression and not cognitive symptoms are associated with increased risk although findings have been inconsistent. Few studies have examined whether co-morbid anxiety confers additive risk.

  20. Quantifying the benefits of achieving or maintaining long-term low risk profile for cardiovascular disease: The Doetinchem Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsegge, Gerben; Smit, Henriëtte A; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Daviglus, Martha L; Verschuren, W M Monique

    2015-10-01

    Studies investigating the relation between risk profiles and cardiovascular disease have measured risk at baseline only. We investigated maintenance and changes of risk profiles over time and their potential impact on incident cardiovascular disease. Population-based cohort study. Risk factors were measured at baseline (1987-1991) among 5574 cardiovascular disease-free adults aged 20-59 years. They were classified into four risk categories according to smoking status, presence of diabetes and widely accepted cut-off values for blood pressure, total cholesterol/HDL-ratio and body mass index. Categories were subdivided (maintenance, deterioration, improvement) based on risk factor levels at six and 11 years of follow-up. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for cardiovascular disease incidence 5-10 years following the risk-change period were fitted using Cox proportional hazards models. Only 12% of participants were low risk at baseline, and only 7% maintained it. Participants who maintained a low risk profile over 11 years had seven times lower risk of cardiovascular disease (HR: 0.14, 95% CI: 0.05-0.41) than participants with long-term high risk profile, whereas those low risk at baseline whose profile deteriorated had three times lower risk (HR: 0.36, 95% CI: 0.18-0.71). Our results suggest that, within each baseline risk profile group, compared with a stable profile, improving profiles may be associated with up to two-fold lower HRs, and deteriorating profiles with about two-fold higher HRs. Our study, using long-term risk profiles, demonstrates the full benefits of low risk profile. These findings underscore the importance of achieving and maintaining low risk from young adulthood onwards. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  1. Philosophical and ethical perspectives on cardiovascular disease risk in low-wage workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Won Ju

    2011-01-01

    One of the overriding goals of Healthy People 2010 is to reduce the health disparities observed among Americans. Because workers in small businesses tend to have little or no access to health screening or preventive health education programs, they may be unaware of their unique risk factors and are thus more at risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Furthermore, occupational health nurses are more likely to be available in health programs to employees in large rather than small businesses. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how nursing values and philosophy might influence public health nurses' thinking about nursing science and ethical issues relating to the risk of CVD among low-wage workers. The following questions will guide the exploration of health disparities among low-wage workers: (a) What are the health disparities observed among low-wage workers with CVD risk? (b) What are the philosophical and ethical perspectives on the issues presented? (c) Based on these findings, how should limited resources be allocated? and (d) How does this affect nursing? These approaches will provide the foundation for developing a culturally sensitive ethical and philosophical perspective to prevent CVD and promote cardiovascular health among low-wage workers. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. [Hemodynamic component in glaucoma and its association with risk factors and cardiovascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz de Escalona-Rojas, José Enrique; Cantero-Hinojosa, Jesús; Garrido-Pareja, Fermín; García-Serrano, José Luis; Padilla-Torres, José Francisco

    2014-08-19

    We sought to study the association of glaucoma with vascular disease, with 2 independent pathways: the association of glaucoma with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the study of ocular hemodynamic variables (OHV) in glaucoma. Cross-sectional study consisting of 73 patients: 25 without glaucoma, 28 primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and 20 normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). OHV, cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) and CVD were determined. We found a greater number of CVRF and CVD in patients affected by POAG (P=.002 and P=.016) and NTG (P=.001 and P=.010) compared to the control group. With regard to OHV, in patients suffering from POAG, we found lower systolic and diastolic velocities and higher resistance index in the central retinal artery (P<.05). Moreover, in both types of glaucoma, we found higher resistance index in the posterior ciliary artery (P<.05). There is a statistically significant association between the presence of CVD and/or CVRF and glaucomatous disease, a finding that is supplemented with data from the OHV. These values indicate a worst ocular perfusion in patients with glaucomatous disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  3. Shared constitutional risks for maternal vascular-related pregnancy complications and future cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.L. Berends (Anne); C.J.M. de Groot (Christianne); E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric); M.P.S. Sie (Mark); S.H. Benneheij (Sofie); R. Pal (Richard); R. Heydanus (Rogier); B.A. Oostra (Ben); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractMaternal predisposition to vascular and metabolic disease may underlie both vascular-related pregnancy complications, such as preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction, as well as future maternal cardiovascular disease. We aimed to substantiate this hypothesis with biochemical and

  4. [Hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia prevalence in obese children: increased risk of cardiovascular disease?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcano, M; Solano, L; Pontiles, M

    2006-01-01

    In Venezuela, cardiovascular diseases have represented the first mortality cause since year 1967. Evidence have shown that early lesion of coronary atherosclerosis can be observed at infancy in close association to obesity and diabetes, suggesting that preventive measures should be initiated at that time. To study presence of hyperlipidemia or hyperglicemia in obese children as risk indicators. 121 children (aged 8.7 +/- 3.43 years), with body mass index above 90th percentile for age (Fundacredesa) were studied. Serum cholesterol and its fractions (HDL-C and LDL-C), triglycerides and fasting glucose by enzymatic-colorimetric methods were determined, Cut-off points from Fundacredesa were used for cholesterol and triglycerides, while from National Cholesterol Education Program and American Diabetes Association, were used for LDL-C and HDL-C, and glucose, respectively. Children were grouped by age: Group 1: 2-5.11 years (19%); Group 2: 6-8.11 years (28.1%); and Group 3: elder than 9 years (52.9%). Statistical analysis was performed considering gender and age. Mean values for cholesterol were at risk level in males Group 1. Mean values for HDL-c were at risk level for girls Group 1 and 3 and males Group 3. Mean values for triglycerides were at risk level for girls Group 1 and 3 and males Group 2; but high levels were found in males from Group 1 and 3. LDL-C was at aceptable values for all the groups. No hyperglicemia was found. Low and at risk HDL-c and high triglycerides as lipid profile in these obese children indicate a high risk for cardiovascular disease, being males the more affected. A high proportion of the children fulfilled three criteria for Metabolic Syndrome. Dietary control and modification on food pattern and physical activity should be implemented.

  5. Eating competence of elderly Spanish adults is associated with a healthy diet and a favorable cardiovascular disease risk profile.

    OpenAIRE

    Jordi Salas-Salvado; Barbara Lohse; Tricia Psota; Ramon Estruch; Itziar Zazpe; Jose V. Sorli; Merce Serra; Jodi Stotts Krall; Fabiola Ma´rquez; Emilio Ros; PREDIMED Study Investigators

    2010-01-01

    Eating competence of elderly Spanish adults is associated with a healthy diet and a favorable cardiovascular disease risk profile. Eating competence (EC), a bio-psychosocial model for intrapersonal approaches to eating and food-related behaviors, is associated with less weight dissatisfaction, lower BMI, and increased HDL-cholesterol in small U.S. studies, but its relationship to nutrient quality and overall cardiovascular risk have not been examined. Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PRE...

  6. Chronic Toxic Metal Exposure and Cardiovascular Disease: Mechanisms of Risk and Emerging Role of Chelation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneni, Ehimen C; Escolar, Esteban; Lamas, Gervasio A

    2016-12-01

    Over the last few decades, there has been a growing body of epidemiologic evidence linking chronic toxic metal exposure to cardiovascular disease-related morbidity and mortality. The recent and unexpectedly positive findings from a randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial of metal chelation for the secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (Trial to Assess Chelation Therapy (TACT)) have focused the discussion on the role of chronic exposure to toxic metals in the development and propagation of cardiovascular disease and the role of toxic metal chelation therapy in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. This review summarizes the most recent evidence linking chronic toxic metal exposure to cardiovascular disease and examines the findings of TACT.

  7. Application of cardiovascular disease risk prediction models and the relevance of novel biomarkers to risk stratification in Asian Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanjilal, S; Rao, V S; Mukherjee, M; Natesha, B K; Renuka, K S; Sibi, K; Iyengar, S S; Kakkar, Vijay V

    2008-01-01

    The increasing pressure on health resources has led to the emergence of risk assessment as an essential tool in the management of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Concern exists regarding the validity of their generalization to all populations. Existing risk scoring models do not incorporate emerging 'novel' risk factors. In this context, the aim of the study was to examine the relevance of British, European, and Framingham predictive CVD risk scores to the asymptomatic high risk Indian population. Blood samples drawn from the participants were analyzed for various 'traditional' and 'novel' biomarkers, and their CVD risk factor profiling was also done. The Framingham model defined only 5% of the study cohort to be at high risk, which appears to be an underestimation of CVD risk in this genetically predisposed population. These subjects at high risk had significantly elevated levels of lipid, pro-inflammatory, pro-thrombotic, and serological markers. It is more relevant to develop risk predictive scores for application to the Indian population. This study substantiates the argument that alternative approaches to risk stratification are required in order to make them more adaptable and applicable to different populations with varying risk factor and disease patterns.

  8. The prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases among Polish surgical patients over 65 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kołtuniuk A

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aleksandra Kołtuniuk, Joanna Rosińczuk Department of Nervous System Diseases, Faculty of Health Science, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are the leading cause of mortality among adults in Poland. A number of risk factors have significant influence on CVD incidence. Early identification of risk factors related to our lifestyle facilitates taking proper actions aiming at the reduction of their negative impact on health.Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence of CVD risk factors between patients aged over 65 years and patients of other age groups in surgical wards.Material and methods: The study was conducted for assessment and finding the distribution of major risk factors of CVD among 420 patients aged 18–84 years who were hospitalized in surgical wards. Interview, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, and fasting blood tests for biochemical analysis were conducted in all subjects. Statistical analysis of the material was performed using Student’s t-test, chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, Mann–Whitney U-test, and analysis of variance.Results: While abdominal obesity (83.3%, overweight and obesity (68%, hypertension (65.1%, hypercholesterolemia (33.3%, and low level of physical activity (29.1% were the most common CVD risk factors among patients over 65 years old, abdominal obesity (36.2%, overweight and obesity (36.1%, and current smoking were the most common CVD risk factors among patients up to the age of 35. In the age group over 65, the least prevalent risk factors for CVD were diabetes mellitus (14.8%, depressive episodes (13.6%, abuse of alcohol (11.4%, and smoking (7.8%. In the group under 35 years, we have not reported any cases of hypercholesterolemia and a lesser number of patients suffered from diabetes and HTN.Conclusion: Distribution of the major risk factors for CVD is quite high in the adult population, especially in the age group over 65

  9. Prevalence, risk awareness and health beliefs of behavioural risk factors for cardiovascular disease among university students in nine ASEAN countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2018-02-13

    Understanding behavioural risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is of great importance for CVD prevention and control. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence, risk awareness and health beliefs of behavioural risk factors of cardiovascular disease among university students in Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member states. In a cross-sectional survey 8806 (37.5% male and 62.5% female) university students (Mean age 20.6, SD = 2.0) from nine ASEAN countries responded to an anonymous questionnaire. Results indicate that across all nine countries, among men and women, 27.5% and 16.9%, respectively, were overweight or obese, 39.0% and 53.0% engaged in low physical activity, 6.9% and 2.5% were current tobacco users, 10.1% and 4.2% had engaged in binge drinking in the past month and 62.7% and 58.2%, respectively, did not avoid eating fat and cholesterol. After adjusting for socio-demographic factors, health status and health benefits, poor risk awareness was associated with tobacco use and binge drinking, and after adjusting for socio-demographic factors, health status and risk awareness, poorer health benefits beliefs predicted overweight, low physical activity, tobacco use, binge drinking and non-avoidance of fat and cholesterol. The study found a high prevalence of behavioural risk factors of CVD. Results may inform health promotion strategies among university students in ASEAN.

  10. Prevalence of Cardiovascular disease risk among Medical Students in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswajit Paul

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are global epidemic and contribute to double burden in developing countries. Individual’s dietary habits and risk behavior influence the onset and progression of CVDs. Medical students are future role models of the society and their knowledge, habits and behavior can influence their practice in prevention of CVDs in general population. Aims & Objectives: To assess the prevalence of common cardiovascular risk factors among a sample of medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among the medical students of the four professional years.  An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was used to assess the prevalent cardiovascular risk factors, dietary habits and risk behavior among the medical students. Results: Family history of CVD, obesity and hypertension were highly prevalent among the medical students. Majority of them took <5 servings of fruit or vegetables per day (97.6%, ate junk foods (91.3% and had long sedentary activity (47.6%. Taking red meat intake (OR 4.79, junk foods (Odds Ratio, OR 2.59, and snacking habit (OR 1.73 was observed more among male students; no physical activity or sports was significantly more in females. Logistic regression analysis showed that a family history of CVD was strongly associated with hypertension and obesity among medical students while exercise was protective against hypertension. Conclusion: The medical students had very poor compliance to recommended dietary intake and physical activity. Generating awareness, incorporating healthy habits and introducing structured educational programs into medical curriculum will help in changing lifestyle.

  11. Insulin resistance: an additional risk factor in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Tushar P; Rawal, Komal; Bagchi, Ashim K; Akolkar, Gauri; Bernardes, Nathalia; Dias, Danielle da Silva; Gupta, Sarita; Singal, Pawan K

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary life style and high calorie dietary habits are prominent leading cause of metabolic syndrome in modern world. Obesity plays a central role in occurrence of various diseases like hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, which lead to insulin resistance and metabolic derangements like cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) mediated by oxidative stress. The mortality rate due to CVDs is on the rise in developing countries. Insulin resistance (IR) leads to micro or macro angiopathy, peripheral arterial dysfunction, hampered blood flow, hypertension, as well as the cardiomyocyte and the endothelial cell dysfunctions, thus increasing risk factors for coronary artery blockage, stroke and heart failure suggesting that there is a strong association between IR and CVDs. The plausible linkages between these two pathophysiological conditions are altered levels of insulin signaling proteins such as IR-β, IRS-1, PI3K, Akt, Glut4 and PGC-1α that hamper insulin-mediated glucose uptake as well as other functions of insulin in the cardiomyocytes and the endothelial cells of the heart. Reduced AMPK, PFK-2 and elevated levels of NADP(H)-dependent oxidases produced by activated M1 macrophages of the adipose tissue and elevated levels of circulating angiotensin are also cause of CVD in diabetes mellitus condition. Insulin sensitizers, angiotensin blockers, superoxide scavengers are used as therapeutics in the amelioration of CVD. It evidently becomes important to unravel the mechanisms of the association between IR and CVDs in order to formulate novel efficient drugs to treat patients suffering from insulin resistance-mediated cardiovascular diseases. The possible associations between insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases are reviewed here.

  12. Risk perception of future cardiovascular disease in women diagnosed with a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traylor, Jessica; Chandrasekaran, Suchitra; Limaye, Meghana; Srinivas, Sindhu; Durnwald, Celeste P

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate a woman's risk perception for future cardiovascular disease (CVD) after being diagnosed with a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. A prospective cohort of women diagnosed with a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (HDP) was studied. Each woman completed two surveys, one prior to hospital discharge and one 2 weeks later, designed to assess knowledge of and risk perception for future CVD based on their recent diagnosis of a HDP. Rates of postpartum depression were also assessed. Of the 146 subjects included, 28% were diagnosed with preeclampsia with severe features, 52.1% with preeclampsia with mild features, and 19.9% had chronic hypertension. Women with severe features and those delivering preterm were more likely to report a perception of increased risk of both recurrent HDP in a future pregnancy (p = 0.004 and 0.005, respectively) and hypertension later in life (p = 0.01 and 0.03, respectively). Women delivering preterm were more likely to report an accurate perception of increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke compared to those delivering at term (p = 0.006 and 0.002, respectively). Disease severity and preterm delivery were associated with a higher likelihood of the perception of an increased risk for both recurrent HDP and hypertension in the future. Only preterm delivery was associated with a higher risk perception for stroke and myocardial infarction. Interventions targeted at improved health awareness in women diagnosed with HDP are warranted.

  13. Lycopene and risk of cardiovascular diseases: A meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bo; Liu, Kai; Gao, Yuan; Zhao, Lu; Fang, Hui; Li, Yusheng; Pei, Lulu; Xu, Yuming

    2017-09-01

    The aim of current meta-analysis was to investigate the relation between lycopene and risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Studies concerning about the association between lycopene and risk of CVD were searched on Pubmed, Embase, and Web of Science from inception to October 2016. A total of 14 eligible studies were identified. A significantly inverse association with a pooled risk ratio (RR) of 0.83 (95% CI: 0.76-0.90) was shown between lycopene exposure and risk of CVD. Findings were similar restricting to dietary studies (RR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.79-0.96) and biomarker studies (RR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0. 62-0.87).Dietary lycopene intake was statistically significant for coronary heart disease (CHD) (RR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.76-0.98) and stroke (RR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.69-0.96).The pooled risk estimate was generally similar for lycopene biomarker concentrations, but the association was only statistically significant for stroke (RR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.42-0.87). Subgroup analyses showed that retrospective and low quality studies were statistically significant sources of heterogeneity. Higher lycopene exposure is inversely associated with a lower risk of CVD. Further well-designed randomized clinical trials are required to assess the role of lycopene on CVD. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Body composition indices and predicted cardiovascular disease risk profile among urban dwellers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tin Tin; Amiri, Mohammadreza; Mohd Hairi, Farizah; Thangiah, Nithiah; Dahlui, Maznah; Majid, Hazreen Abdul

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to compare various body composition indices and their association with a predicted cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profile in an urban population in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, in 2012. Households were selected using a simple random-sampling method, and adult members were invited for medical screening. The Framingham Risk Scoring algorithm was used to predict CVD risk, which was then analyzed in association with body composition measurements, including waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, waist-height ratio, body fat percentage, and body mass index. Altogether, 882 individuals were included in our analyses. Indices that included waist-related measurements had the strongest association with CVD risk in both genders. After adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic variables, waist-related measurements retained the strongest correlations with predicted CVD risk in males. However, body mass index, waist-height ratio, and waist circumference had the strongest correlation with CVD risk in females. The waist-related indicators of abdominal obesity are important components of CVD risk profiles. As waist-related parameters can quickly and easily be measured, they should be routinely obtained in primary care settings and population health screens in order to assess future CVD risk profiles and design appropriate interventions.

  15. Body Composition Indices and Predicted Cardiovascular Disease Risk Profile among Urban Dwellers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tin Tin Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study aims to compare various body composition indices and their association with a predicted cardiovascular disease (CVD risk profile in an urban population in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, in 2012. Households were selected using a simple random-sampling method, and adult members were invited for medical screening. The Framingham Risk Scoring algorithm was used to predict CVD risk, which was then analyzed in association with body composition measurements, including waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, waist-height ratio, body fat percentage, and body mass index. Results. Altogether, 882 individuals were included in our analyses. Indices that included waist-related measurements had the strongest association with CVD risk in both genders. After adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic variables, waist-related measurements retained the strongest correlations with predicted CVD risk in males. However, body mass index, waist-height ratio, and waist circumference had the strongest correlation with CVD risk in females. Conclusions. The waist-related indicators of abdominal obesity are important components of CVD risk profiles. As waist-related parameters can quickly and easily be measured, they should be routinely obtained in primary care settings and population health screens in order to assess future CVD risk profiles and design appropriate interventions.

  16. Effectiveness of a national cardiovascular disease risk assessment program (NHS Health Check): results after one year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artac, Macide; Dalton, Andrew R H; Majeed, Azeem; Car, Josip; Millett, Christopher

    2013-08-01

    We aimed to assess whether the National Health Service (NHS) Health Check, a systematic cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment and management program, was associated with reduction in CVD risk in attendees after one year. We extracted data from patients aged 40-74 years, with high estimated CVD risk, who were registered with general practices in a deprived, culturally diverse setting in England. We included 4748 patients at baseline (July 2008-November 2009), with 3712 at follow-up (December 2009-March 2011). We used a pre-post study design to assess changes in global CVD risk, individual CVD risk factors and statin prescription in patients with a complete and partial Health Check. There were significant reductions in mean CVD risk score (28.2%; 95% confidence interval (CI)=27.3-29.1 to 26.2%; 95% CI, 25.4-27.1), diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol levels and lipid ratios after one year in patients with a complete Health Check. Statin prescription increased from 14.0% (95% CI=11.9-16.0) to 60.6% (95% CI=57.7-63.5). The introduction of NHS Health Check was associated with significant but modest reductions in CVD risk among screened high-risk individuals. Further cost-effectiveness analysis and work accounting for uptake is required to assess whether the program can make significant changes to population health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Association between Cardiovascular Disease Risk and Parental Educational Level in Portuguese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Duncan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine any differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD risk in Portuguese children split by parental educational level. A cross-sectional school-based study was conducted in 2011 on 359 Portuguese children (202 girls and 157 boys aged 10 to 17 years (mean age ± SD = 13.9 ± 1.98 years. Height and body mass were assessed to determine body mass index (BMI. Parental education level (PEL was used as a surrogate for socioeconomic status (SES. Capillary blood sampling was used to determine: Total Cholesterol (TC, Triglycerides (TG, Fasting Glucos (GLUC, High and Low Density Lipoprotein (HDL/LDL. These measurements were combined with measures of systolic blood pressure and cardiorespiratory fitness as z-scores. CVD risk was constructed by summing the z-scores. Analysis of covariance, controlling for BMI, indicated that CVD risk was significantly different across PEL groups (p = 0.01, with CVD risk score being significantly lower in low (p = 0.04 and middle (p = 0.008 PEL groups, compared to high PEL. Moreover, the covariate, BMI was also significant (p = 0.0001, β = 0.023, evidencing a significant positive association between BMI and CVD risk, with higher BMI associated with greater CVD risk. In Portuguese children, significantly greater CVD risk was found for children of high PEL, while higher BMI was associated with greater CVD risk.

  18. Exploring risk factors in Latino cardiovascular disease: the role of education, nativity, and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinwiddie, Gniesha Y; Zambrana, Ruth E; Garza, Mary A

    2014-09-01

    We examined 3 cardiovascular disease risk factors by nativity and gender, evaluating evidence for education and health behaviors in explaining the "Hispanic Health Paradox." We analyzed 2001-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data for adults (n = 6032) to compare hypertension, high waist circumference, and diabetes for US- and foreign-born Mexican men and women. We controlled for age, depression, and health insurance. Cardiovascular disease risk factors differed by education, nativity, and gender. Higher education was associated with higher odds of hypertension and high waist circumference for men and women regardless of nativity. As education increased, the odds of diabetes increased for US-born women, showing a gradient for this population. Finally, foreign-born Mexican women with 5 to 19 years in the United States conferred the highest odds of having diabetes, whereas foreign-born men with less than 5 years in the United States had the lowest odds for high waist circumference and presence of diabetes. Results contest assumptions of the Hispanic Health Paradox and suggest new approaches. New research can yield accurate information to ensure the development of appropriate interventions, decreasing health disparities endemic to a subgroup of Latinos.

  19. Cardiovascular risk factors in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2001-01-01

    Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross-sectional de......Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross...

  20. School burnout and heart rate variability: risk of cardiovascular disease and hypertension in young adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Ross W; Seibert, Gregory S; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos A; Fincham, Frank D

    2018-05-01

    Emerging research documents the relationship between school burnout and some indicators of increased cardiovascular risk. Indicators of cardiovascular functioning assessed via ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate variability (HRV) have not been thoroughly explored in this research domain. Therefore, the current study examined relationships between school burnout and indicators of cardiac functioning via 24 h ambulatory blood pressure (BP) and electrocardiogram monitoring in a sample of young adult female undergraduates (N = 88). Two hypotheses were tested: (1) that independent of related negative affective symptomology (depression and anxiety), increased school burnout would be related to greater systolic and diastolic BP, higher low frequency (LF) HRV and lower very low frequency (VLF) HRV, and (2) that lower VLF would be related to greater school burnout independently of LF HRV. Hierarchical multiple regression analyzes showed that school burnout was significantly related to elevated ambulatory BP (systolic and diastolic) and HRV markers of increased cardiac sympathovagal tone. These findings support the hypotheses and suggest that school burnout might be implicated in the development of pre-hypertension or early cardiovascular disease. Study limitations and the need for future longitudinal research are discussed.

  1. Knowledge and Attitude on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Their Relationship with Obesity and Biochemical Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Toupchian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to the high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs in developing countries as well as high treatment expenses for patients and health-care systems, CVDs prevention in such societies has a great importance. One of the most effective strategies is improvement of knowledge and attitude towards the CVDs risk factors. This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of females on CVDs risk factors and also the relationship between knowledge and attitude with obesity indices and biochemical parameters. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 89 women with the age range of 11 to 67 y old and body mass index (BMI of 24 to 51 kg/m2. Participants were interviewed face to face using a valid questionnaire in order to evaluate their knowledge and attitude on CVDs risk factors. Blood sampling was implemented after 12 h of overnight fasting. Fasting blood glucose (FBG and lipid profile were assessed by enzymatic methods. Anthropometric measurements were performed and obesity indices were calculated. Results: More than 70% of participants had moderate or good knowledge and attitude about CVDs risk factors. Participant's knowledge and attitude had a significant positive association with educational level and a significant reverse relationship with age, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and obesity indices. Conclusions: Results of this study indicated that knowledge and attitude levels on CVDs risk factors affect the obesity indices and metabolic profile. Hence, knowledge and attitude enhancement is the main target and initial step in improving life quality and preventing cardiovascular diseases.

  2. Incidence of prediabetes and risk of developing cardiovascular disease in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velija-Asimi, Zelija; Burekovic, Azra; Dujic, Tanja; Dizdarevic-Bostandzic, Amela; Semiz, Sabina

    2016-11-10

    Our aim was to determine the incidence of prediabetes and risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This prospective, observational study included 148 women with PCOS, without Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and CVD present at baseline. In the fasting blood samples, we measured lipids, glucose, and insulin levels during oral glucose tolerance test, levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), steroids, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and parathyroid hormone. The follow-up period was 3 years. At baseline, prevalent prediabetes was present in 18 (12%) of PCOS cases and it progressed to T2DM in 5 (3%) of the cases. Incident prediabetes during the follow-up was noted in 47 (32%) women or 4.7 per 1000 persons/year. Prediabetes was associated with elevated body mass index (BMI) (odds ratio [OR] = 1.089, confidence interval [CI]: 1.010; 1.174, p = 0.026), high baseline levels of CRP (OR = 3.286, CI: 1.299; 8.312, p = 0.012), homeostatic model assessment - insulin resistance (IR) (OR = 2.628, CI: 1.535; 4.498, p cardiovascular risk in PCOS women with prediabetes was high (hazard ratio = 1.092, CI: 1.036; 1.128, p PCOS women are considered as a high-risk population for prediabetes.

  3. Red meat consumption and risk of cardiovascular diseases-is increased iron load a possible link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana Pacheco, Daniel A; Sookthai, Disorn; Wittenbecher, Clemens; Graf, Mirja E; Schübel, Ruth; Johnson, Theron; Katzke, Verena; Jakszyn, Paula; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kühn, Tilman

    2018-01-01

    High iron load and red meat consumption could increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). As red meat is the main source of heme iron, which is in turn a major determinant of increased iron load, adverse cardiometabolic effects of meat consumption could be mediated by increased iron load. The object of the study was to assess whether associations between red meat consumption and CVD risk are mediated by iron load in a population-based human study. We evaluated relations between red meat consumption, iron load (plasma ferritin), and risk of CVD in the prospective EPIC-Heidelberg Study using a case-cohort sample including a random subcohort (n = 2738) and incident cases of myocardial infarction (MI, n = 555), stroke (n = 513), and CVD mortality (n = 381). Following a 4-step mediation analysis, associations between red meat consumption and iron load, red meat consumption and CVD risk, and iron load and CVD risk were assessed by multivariable regression models before finally testing to which degree associations between red meat consumption and CVD risk were attenuated by adjustment for iron status. Red meat consumption was significantly positively associated with ferritin concentrations and MI risk [HR per 50 g daily intake: 1.18 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.33)], but no significant associations with stroke risk and CVD mortality were observed. While direct associations between ferritin concentrations and MI risk as well as CVD mortality were significant in age- and sex-adjusted Cox regression models, these associations were substantially attenuated and no longer significant after multivariable adjustment for classical CVD risk factors. Strikingly, ferritin concentrations were positively associated with a majority of classical CVD risk factors (age, male sex, alcohol intake, obesity, inflammation, and lower education). Increased ferritin concentrations may be a marker of an overall unfavorable risk factor profile rather than a mediator of greater CVD risk due to meat

  4. RISK FACTORS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF CARDIOVASCULAR COMPLICATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC RENAL DISEASE AND DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataradžija, Amra; Resić, Halima; Rašić, Senija; Kukavica, Nihad; Masnić, Fahrudin

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases are the most frequent causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic renal disease. The aim of our paper is to evaluate the risk factors of cardiovascular complications in patients with various stages of chronic renal disease (CRD), with or without diabetes mellitus (DM). Patients and methods: The study included 98 patients with different stages of the CRD, with creatinine clearance homocysteine, BNP, cholesterol, LDL, HDL, HbA1c, Body Mass Index (BMI). First group comprised 49 patients with DM, age 50-82 years, M 28/F 21. Second group comprised 49 patients without DM, age 35-80 years, M 18/F 31. The IMT (intima media thickness) was measured by B-mode ultrasonography, and all patients had echocardiography examination done by 2D Doppler ultrasonography. Results: The IMT values in diabetic patients had statistically significant positive correlation with homocysteine values of r=0,9393, p0,05). 47,4% of diabetics had arteriosclerotic changes on carotid arteries, 8,5% had stenosis of ACC, and 22,0% had rhythm abnormalities on ECG. A positive correlation between IMT and BMI was found in diabetics, but was not statistically significant r=0,111, p>0,05. In the diabetics group a significantly higher (phomocystein, BNP and cholesterol. PMID:20433431

  5. Smoking and BMI as a risk factor of cardiovascular disease at a doctors in Tuzla canton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merisa Imamović Kuluglić

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases are becoming the leading social and medical problem of civilization, given the trend indicates an increase of morbidity, disability and mortality from this diseases. The aim ofour study was to determine the frequency of smoking and increased BMI, as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in doctors in the Tuzla Canton and correlate values of BMI by the doctor smokers and nonsmokers.Methods: The study was conducted in 13 medical centers in the area of Tuzla canton in the second quarter of 2009. Two groups were formed by randomization of 150 doctors non-smokers and 150 doctors smokersfrom a total of 366 doctors of both sexes, age over 25 years. The study involved doctors who smoke tobacco 5 or more years. The methods of anthropometric measurements and questionnaires were used in study.Results: The results showed that the total number of doctors surveyed, 44.81% were smokers, with more women smokers (28.7% than men (21.3% smokers (p=0.011. We found that there is a signifi cant statistical difference between subjects with BMI higher than 25 and subjects with normal weight, in the group of smokers (p = 0.0001.Conclusion: It can be concluded that the frequency of smoking in the total number of surveyed doctors, is signifi cant. The increased value of BMI (over 25 is present in large number of subjects (with the larger percentage subjects of smokers.

  6. Hypercholesterolemia Causes Circadian Dysfunction: A Potential Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Akashi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia is a well-known risk factor for a wide range of diseases in developed countries. Here, we report that mice lacking functional LDLR (low density lipoprotein receptor, an animal model of human familial hypercholesterolemia, show circadian abnormalities. In free running behavioral experiments in constant darkness, these mice showed a prolonged active phase and distinctly bimodal rhythms. Even when the circadian rhythms were entrained by light and dark cycles, these mice showed a significant attenuation of behavioral onset intensity at the start of the dark period. Further, we hypothesized that the combination of hypercholesterolemia and circadian abnormalities may affect cardiovascular disease progression. To examine this possibility, we generated LDLR-deficient mice with impaired circadian rhythms by simultaneously introducing a mutation into Period2, a core clock gene, and found that these mice showed a significant enlargement of artery plaque area with an increase in inflammatory cytokine IL-6 levels. These results suggest that circadian dysfunction may be associated with the development or progression of cardiovascular diseases.

  7. Cardiovascular disease risk factors for women. A life course-events perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Chander P.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD in women is the most common cause of death and in 2009 accounted for one third of all deaths. The purpose of this paper is to present what conditions during pregnancy and during the pre-menopause period lead to a greater risk of CVD. The early recognition and the application of interventions may decrease this risk. To emphasize this point we have taken a «Life course-events perspective». Current data suggests that genetic predisposition to disease in conjunction with behavior and environmental factors during fetal life is related to permanent changes in fetalplacental-maternal physiology and function, resulting in fetal programming characterizing the phenotype of the child which may persist into adulthood. Longitudinal studies have identified biological, behavioral and environmental factors related to childhood diseases such as hypertension, insulin resistance and mental health disorders. Gender differences have been identified and animal studies have suggested that estrogens in women are protective and when the risk of CVD in men is considered, the risk in women is delayed by 10 years. Thus, a normal pregnancy may be protective and reduce the risk of CVD in women. However, hypertension developing in women before or during pregnancy is a significant risk factor for women and diabetes further increases this risk of CVD, as does smoking. It is very clear that an «intervention action plan» must be developed. It is the current opinion of the authors that this action plan must be implemented early in life to decrease the risk for the development of CVS in women.

  8. The Role of Family in a Dietary Risk Reduction Intervention for Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy L. Schumacher

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Diet is an essential strategy for the prevention of primary and secondary cardiovascular disease (CVD events. The objectives were to examine: how families at increased risk of CVD perceived personal risk, their motivations to make dietary changes, their understanding of diet, and the influence of other family members. Individuals (>18 years who completed an Australian family-based CVD risk reduction program were invited to a semi-structured telephone interview. Responses were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a systematic deductive approach with coding derived from key concepts developed as part of the interview structure. Seventeen participants from eight families were interviewed (aged 18–70 years, 47% male, five with CVD diagnosis. Key themes indicated both intrinsic and extrinsic motivations to improve heart health, variations in risk perception, recognition of the role diet plays in heart health, and the extent of family influences on eating patterns. Discrepancies between perceived and actual CVD risk perception impacted on perceived “need” to modify current dietary patterns towards heart health recommendations. Therefore, strategies not reliant on risk perception are needed to engage those with low risk perception. This could involve identifying and accessing the family “ringleader” to influence involvement and capitalising on personal accountability to other family members.

  9. The Role of Family in a Dietary Risk Reduction Intervention for Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Tracy L; Burrows, Tracy L; Thompson, Deborah I; Callister, Robin; Spratt, Neil J; Collins, Clare E

    2016-09-30

    Diet is an essential strategy for the prevention of primary and secondary cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. The objectives were to examine: how families at increased risk of CVD perceived personal risk, their motivations to make dietary changes, their understanding of diet, and the influence of other family members. Individuals (>18 years) who completed an Australian family-based CVD risk reduction program were invited to a semi-structured telephone interview. Responses were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a systematic deductive approach with coding derived from key concepts developed as part of the interview structure. Seventeen participants from eight families were interviewed (aged 18-70 years, 47% male, five with CVD diagnosis). Key themes indicated both intrinsic and extrinsic motivations to improve heart health, variations in risk perception, recognition of the role diet plays in heart health, and the extent of family influences on eating patterns. Discrepancies between perceived and actual CVD risk perception impacted on perceived "need" to modify current dietary patterns towards heart health recommendations. Therefore, strategies not reliant on risk perception are needed to engage those with low risk perception. This could involve identifying and accessing the family "ringleader" to influence involvement and capitalising on personal accountability to other family members.

  10. Predicting readmission risk of patients with diabetes hospitalized for cardiovascular disease: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Daniel J; Golden, Sherita Hill; McDonnell, Marie E; Zhao, Huaqing

    2017-08-01

    To develop and validate a tool that predicts 30d readmission risk of patients with diabetes hospitalized for cardiovascular disease (CVD), the Diabetes Early Readmission Risk Indicator-CVD (DERRI-CVD™). A cohort of 8189 discharges was retrospectively selected from electronic records of adult patients with diabetes hospitalized for CVD. Discharges of 60% of the patients (n=4950) were randomly selected as a training sample and the remaining 40% (n=3219) were the validation sample. Statistically significant predictors of all-cause 30d readmission risk were identified by multivariable logistic regression modeling: education level, employment status, living within 5miles of the hospital, pre-admission diabetes therapy, macrovascular complications, admission serum creatinine and albumin levels, having a hospital discharge within 90days pre-admission, and a psychiatric diagnosis. Model discrimination and calibration were good (C-statistic 0.71). Performance in the validation sample was comparable. Predicted 30d readmission risk was similar in the training and validation samples (38.6% and 35.1% in the highest quintiles). The DERRI-CVD™ may be a valid tool to predict all-cause 30d readmission risk of patients with diabetes hospitalized for CVD. Identifying high-risk patients may encourage the use of interventions targeting those at greatest risk, potentially leading to better outcomes and lower healthcare costs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Managing Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Clinical Updates and Three Strategic Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodara, Ann M; Wattiaux, Aimée; Bartels, Christie M

    2017-04-01

    ᅟ: The increase in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is well known; however, appropriate management of this elevated risk in rheumatology clinics is less clear. By critically reviewing literature published within the past 5 years, we aim to clarify current knowledge and gaps regarding CVD risk management in RA. We examine recent guidelines, recommendations, and evidence and discuss three approaches: (1) RA-specific management including treat-to-target and medication management, (2) assessment of comprehensive individual risk, and (3) targeting traditional CVD risk factors (hypertension, smoking, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, obesity, and physical inactivity) at a population level. Considering that 75% of US RA visits occur in specialty clinics, further research is needed regarding evidence-based strategies to manage and reduce CVD risk in RA. This review highlights clinical updates including US cardiology and international professional society guidelines, successful evidence-based population approaches from primary care, and novel opportunities in rheumatology care to reduce CVD risk in RA.

  12. Pathways from childhood intelligence and socioeconomic status to late-life cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger-Johnson, Gareth; Mõttus, René; Craig, Leone C A; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

    2012-07-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute-phase marker of systemic inflammation and considered an established risk marker for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in old age. Previous studies have suggested that low childhood intelligence, lower socioeconomic status (SES) in childhood or in later life, unhealthy behaviors, poor wellbeing, and high body mass index (BMI) are associated with inflammation. Life course models that simultaneously incorporate all these risk factors can explain how CVD risks accumulate over time, from childhood to old age. Using the data from 1,091 Scottish adults (Lothian Birth Cohort Study, 1936), a path model was constructed to predict CRP at age 70 from concurrent health behaviors, self-perceived quality of life, and BMI and adulthood SES as mediating variables, and from parental SES and childhood intelligence as distal risk factors. A well-fitting path model (CFI = .92, SRMR = .05) demonstrated significant indirect effects from childhood intelligence and parental social class to inflammation via BMI, health behaviors and quality of life (all ps intelligence, unhealthy behaviors, and higher BMI were also direct predictors of CRP. The life course model illustrated how CVD risks may accumulate over time, beginning in childhood and being both direct and transmitted indirectly via low adult SES, unhealthy behaviors, impaired quality of life, and high BMI. Knowledge on the childhood risk factors and their pathways to poor health can be used to identify high-risk individuals for more intensive and tailored behavior change interventions, and to develop effective public health policies.

  13. Crossover effect of spouse weekly working hours on estimated 10-years risk of cardiovascular disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo-Yeol Kang

    Full Text Available To investigate the association between spouse weekly working hours (SWWH and the estimated 10-years risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD.This cross-sectional study was based on the data obtained from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2012. Data of 16,917 participants (8,330 husbands, 8,587 wives were used for this analysis. The participants' clinical data were collected to estimate the 10-years risk of CVD, as well as weekly working hours. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to investigate the association between SWWH and the estimated 10-years risk of CVD. We also performed a stratified analysis according to each participant's and their spouse's employment status.Compared to those whose spouses worked 30 hours per week, estimated 10-years risk of CVD was significantly higher as SWWH increase among those whose spouses worked >30 hours per week. After adjusting for covariates, the odds ratio for high CVD risk was found to increase as SWWH increased, up to 2.52 among husbands and 2.43 among wives. We also found that the association between SWWH and the estimated 10-years risk of CVD varied according to the employment status. Analysis of each component included in the CVD appraisal model showed that SWWH had close relationship with diabetes in men, and smoking habits in women.Spouse's long working hours are associated with individual's risk of CVD in future, especially among husbands.

  14. Types of Obesity and Its Association with the Clustering of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Jilin Province of China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Rui; Gao, Chunshi; Song, Yuanyuan; Lv, Xin; Jiang, Lingling; Yu, Yaqin; Wang, Yuhan; Li, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has become a serious public health problem in recent years in China. Aggregation of CVD risk factors in one individual increases the risk of CVD and the risk increases substantially with each additional risk factor. This study aims to explore the relationship between the number of clustered CVD risk factors and different types of obesity. A multistage stratified random cluster sampling design was used in this population-based cross-sectional study in 2012. Informa...

  15. Habitual chocolate consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease among healthy men and women

    OpenAIRE

    Kwok, Chun Shing; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Lentjes, Marleen A H; Loke, Yoon K; Luben, Robert N; Yeong, Jessica K; Wareham, Nicholas J; Myint, Phyo K; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between chocolate intake and the risk of future cardiovascular events. Methods: We conducted a prospective study using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk cohort. Habitual chocolate intake was quantified using the baseline food frequency questionnaire (1993–1997) and cardiovascular end points were ascertained up to March 2008. A systematic review was performed to evaluate chocolate consumption and cardiovascular out...

  16. Evaluation of cardiovascular risk in patients with Parkinson disease under levodopa treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günaydın, Zeki Yüksel; Özer, Fahriye Feriha; Karagöz, Ahmet; Bektaş, Osman; Karataş, Mehmet Baran; Vural, Aslı; Bayramoğlu, Adil; Çelik, Abdullah; Yaman, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Levodopa is the indispensable choice of medial therapy in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Since L-dopa treatment was shown to increase serum homocysteine levels, a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular disorders, the patients with PD under L-dopa treatment will be at increased risk for future cardiovascular events. The objective of this study is to evaluate cardiovascular risk in patients with PD under levodopa treatment. The study population consisted of 65 patients with idiopathic PD under L-dopa treatment. The control group included 32 age and gender matched individuals who had no cognitive decline. Echocardiographic measurements, serum homocysteine levels and elastic parameters of the aorta were compared between the patients with PD and controls. As an expected feature of L-dopa therapy, the Parkinson group had significantly higher homocystein levels (15.1 ± 3.9 µmol/L vs. 11.5 ± 3.2 µmol/L, P = 0.02). Aortic distensibility was significantly lower in the patients with PD when compared to controls (4.8 ± 1.5 dyn/cm(2) vs. 6.2 ± 1.9 dyn/cm(2), P = 0.016). Additionally, the patients with PD had higher aortic strain and aortic stiffness index (13.4% ± 6.4% vs. 7.4% ± 3.6%, P homocysteine levels were found to be positively correlated with aortic stiffness index and there was a negative correlation between aortic distensibility and levels of serum homocysteine (r = 0.674, P homocysteine levels may be a possible pathophysiological mechanism.

  17. Profile of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease, Normal and Impaired Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І.V. Cherniavska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of research was to conduct the comparative analysis of the profile of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD and normal either impaired carbohydrate metabolism. Materials and methods. One hundred and forty two patients were observed. In order to estimate the rate of different forms of CHD depending on the state of carbohydrate metabolism such groups were formed: the first group consisted of 83 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM, the second group involved 34 patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, the third group consisted of 25 patients with normal carbohydrate metabolism. The ischemic changes of myocardium were detected by ambulatory ECG monitoring with the obligatory achievement of submaximal heart rate during the research. Results. Silent myocardial ischemia was educed in 19 (22.9 % patients with type 2 DM, in 3 (8.8 % persons with IGT and in 2 (8.0 % patients with normal carbohydrate metabolism. Smoking, burdened heredity, violation in the haemostatic system more often occurred in the group of patients with type 2 DM and silent myocardial ischemia in comparison with the patients with type 2 DM without CHD. The profile of general population cardiovascular risk factors in patients with CHD and type 2 DM belongs to the most unfavorable. At the same time for patients with early violations of carbohydrate metabolism and normal carbohydrate metabolism such profile statistically does not differentiate meaningfully. Conclusions. Patients with type 2 DM and silent myocardial ischemia as compared to patients with type 2 DM without CHD have more expressed violations of indexes of general population cardiovascular risk factors for certain.

  18. C-reactive protein, insulin resistance and risk of cardiovascular disease: a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jørgen; Hansen, Tine Willum; Olsen, Michael H

    2008-01-01

    were recorded at baseline. CRP was determined by a high-sensitivity assay, and IR was determined by the homoeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) method. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 9.4 years, the incidence of the prespecified CV event, defined as the composite event of CV death, nonfatal...... and HOMA-IR, the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of a CV event was 1.33 (1.14-1.55; PHOMA-IR level. CONCLUSION......BACKGROUND: C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation, and insulin resistance (IR), a metabolic disorder, are closely related. CRP and IR have both been identified as significant risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) after adjustment for conventional CVD risk factors...

  19. RISK FACTORS OF THE ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION IN THE PATIENTS WITH CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Minakov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study erectile dysfunction prevalence among out-patients with arterial hypertension (HT and/or coronary heart disease (CHD as well as to study risk factors of erectile dysfunction.Material and methods. The anonymous poll was carried out among 103 male patients with HT and/or CHD. General information about patient, medical history, treatment was analyzed. All patients were examined by cardiologists. Erectile function was assessed with The International Index Erectile Function (IIEF questionnaire.Results. 86 (84% questionnaires were returned. 62 (72% patients from 86 responding had erectile dysfunction. Age, blood pressure level, abdominal obesity, beta-blocker therapy and chronic heart failure affected erectile function.Conclusion. The erectile dysfunction was common disorder among male patients with HT and/or CHD. Early erectile dysfunction diagnosis, prevention and therapy are necessary to provide high level of compliance in patients with cardiovascular diseases.

  20. Meta-analysis of psoriasis, cardiovascular disease, and associated risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Iben Marie; Ellervik, Christina; Yazdanyar, Shiva

    2013-01-01

    .2-1.9), peripheral vascular disease (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.2-1.8), atherosclerosis (OR 1.1; 95% CI 1.1-1.2), diabetes (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.5-2.5), hypertension (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.6-2.0), dyslipidemia (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.4-1.7), obesity by body mass index (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.4-2.2), obesity by abdominal fat (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1...... significant associations, with the exception of dyslipidemia. LIMITATIONS: The heterogeneity of the studies makes clinical interpretation challenging. CONCLUSIONS: In aggregate, psoriasis was associated with ischemic heart disease and cardiovascular risk factors. The association was only significant...... for hospital-based studies, except for dyslipidemia, which was also significant in population-based studies....

  1. Communicating cardiovascular disease risk: an interview study of General Practitioners' use of absolute risk within tailored communication strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Carissa; Jansen, Jesse; McKinn, Shannon; Irwig, Les; Doust, Jenny; Glasziou, Paul; McCaffery, Kirsten

    2014-05-29

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention guidelines encourage assessment of absolute CVD risk - the probability of a CVD event within a fixed time period, based on the most predictive risk factors. However, few General Practitioners (GPs) use absolute CVD risk consistently, and communication difficulties have been identified as a barrier to changing practice. This study aimed to explore GPs' descriptions of their CVD risk communication strategies, including the role of absolute risk. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 25 GPs in New South Wales, Australia. Transcribed audio-recordings were thematically coded, using the Framework Analysis method to ensure rigour. GPs used absolute CVD risk within three different communication strategies: 'positive', 'scare tactic', and 'indirect'. A 'positive' strategy, which aimed to reassure and motivate, was used for patients with low risk, determination to change lifestyle, and some concern about CVD risk. Absolute risk was used to show how they could reduce risk. A 'scare tactic' strategy was used for patients with high risk, lack of motivation, and a dismissive attitude. Absolute risk was used to 'scare' them into taking action. An 'indirect' strategy, where CVD risk was not the main focus, was used for patients with low risk but some lifestyle risk factors, high anxiety, high resistance to change, or difficulty understanding probabilities. Non-quantitative absolute risk formats were found to be helpful in these situations. This study demonstrated how GPs use three different communication strategies to address the issue of CVD risk, depending on their perception of patient risk, motivation and anxiety. Absolute risk played a different role within each strategy. Providing GPs with alternative ways of explaining absolute risk, in order to achieve different communication aims, may improve their use of absolute CVD risk assessment in practice.

  2. Clinical Validity, Understandability, and Actionability of Online Cardiovascular Disease Risk Calculators: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Carissa; Fajardo, Michael Anthony; Hui, Samuel; Stubbs, Renee; Trevena, Lyndal

    2018-02-01

    Online health information is particularly important for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention, where lifestyle changes are recommended until risk becomes high enough to warrant pharmacological intervention. Online information is abundant, but the quality is often poor and many people do not have adequate health literacy to access, understand, and use it effectively. This project aimed to review and evaluate the suitability of online CVD risk calculators for use by low health literate consumers in terms of clinical validity, understandability, and actionability. This systematic review of public websites from August to November 2016 used evaluation of clinical validity based on a high-risk patient profile and assessment of understandability and actionability using Patient Education Material Evaluation Tool for Print Materials. A total of 67 unique webpages and 73 unique CVD risk calculators were identified. The same high-risk patient profile produced widely variable CVD risk estimates, ranging from as little as 3% to as high as a 43% risk of a CVD event over the next 10 years. One-quarter (25%) of risk calculators did not specify what model these estimates were based on. The most common clinical model was Framingham (44%), and most calculators (77%) provided a 10-year CVD risk estimate. The calculators scored moderately on understandability (mean score 64%) and poorly on actionability (mean score 19%). The absolute percentage risk was stated in most (but not all) calculators (79%), and only 18% included graphical formats consistent with recommended risk communication guidelines. There is a plethora of online CVD risk calculators available, but they are not readily understandable and their actionability is poor. Entering the same clinical information produces widely varying results with little explanation. Developers need to address actionability as well as clinical validity and understandability to improve usefulness to consumers with low health literacy.

  3. Cardiovascular disease, risk factors and heart rate variability in the elderly general population: Design and objectives of the CARdiovascular disease, Living and Ageing in Halle (CARLA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuss Oliver

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD in the ageing population of industrialized nations requires an intensive search for means of reducing this epidemic. In order to improve prevention, detection, therapy and prognosis of cardiovascular diseases on the population level in Eastern Germany, it is necessary to examine reasons for the East-West gradient of CVD morbidity and mortality, potential causal mechanisms and prognostic factors in the elderly. Psychosocial and nutritional factors have previously been discussed as possible causes for the unexplained part of the East-West gradient. A reduced heart rate variability appears to be associated with cardiovascular disease as well as with psychosocial and other cardiovascular risk factors and decreases with age. Nevertheless, there is a lack of population-based data to examine the role of heart rate variability and its interaction with psychosocial and nutritional factors regarding the effect on cardiovascular disease in the ageing population. There also is a paucity of epidemiological data describing the health situation in Eastern Germany. Therefore, we conduct a population-based study to examine the distribution of CVD, heart rate variability and CVD risk factors and their associations in an elderly East German population. This paper describes the design and objectives of the CARLA Study. Methods/design For this study, a random sample of 45–80 year-old inhabitants of the city of Halle (Saale in Eastern Germany was drawn from the population registry. By the end of the baseline examination (2002–2005, 1750 study participants will have been examined. A multi-step recruitment strategy aims at achieving a 70 % response rate. Detailed information is collected on own and family medical history, socioeconomic, psychosocial, behavioural and biomedical factors. Medical examinations include anthropometric measures, blood pressure of arm and ankle, a 10-second and a 20

  4. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in migrants participating in the PEP family heart study, Nuremberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda-Maria Haas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in adults and their children from the 3 major groups of migrants participating in the PEP Family Heart Study [11] and to compare the cardio-metabolic risk profiles between migrants and German participants. Methods: In this community-based cross-sectional study, anthropometric data, blood pressure and lipid profiles of migrants (480 children, 363 adults from Turkey (TUR, Eastern Europe (EEU and German immigrants from the former Soviet Union (GFSU were compared with age and gender adjusted German (GER resi-dents (3253 children, 2491 adults. Results: The profile of risk factors differed considerably regarding specificity and frequency. The prevalence of ≥3 risk factors was as follows: in GFSU men 62%, women 36%, boys 19% and girls 17%; in TUR men 57%, women 30%, 15% boys and 6% girls; in GER men 48%, women 19%, boys 4% and girls 6%; for EEU men 38%, women 25% and 0% in children. No risk factor was present in GFSU men 13%, women 25%, boys 38% and girls 42%; TUR men 13%, women 28%, boys 27% and girls 22 %; GER men16%, women 45%, boys 46% and girls 41%; EEU men 17%, women 42 %, boys 29% and girls 27%. About 50% of the adults from Turkey and Eastern Europe were current smokers and one third of women and half of men from these two countries were over-weight. Conclusions: The implementation of primary care measures for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in migrants is necessary, and it should consider the ethnic differences and the heterogene-ous risk profiles.

  5. Diabetes and modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease: the prospective Million Women Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, Elizabeth A.; Pirie, Kirstin L.; Stevens, Richard J.; Beral, Valerie; Brown, Anna; Liu, Bette; Green, Jane; Reeves, Gillian K.

    2008-01-01

    To compare the effect of potentially modifiable lifestyle factors on the incidence of vascular disease in women with and without diabetes. In 1996-2001 over one million middle-aged women in the UK joined a prospective study, providing medical history, lifestyle and socio-demographic information. All participants were followed for hospital admissions and deaths using electronic record-linkage. Adjusted relative risks (RRs) and incidence rates were calculated to compare the incidence of coronary heart disease and stroke in women with and without diabetes and by lifestyle factors. At recruitment 25,915 women (2.1% of 1,242,338) reported current treatment for diabetes. During a mean follow-up of 6.1 years per woman, 21,928 had a first hospital admission or death from coronary heart disease (RR for women with versus without diabetes = 3.30, 95% CI 3.14-3.47) and 7,087 had a first stroke (RR = 2.47, 95% CI 2.24-2.74). Adjusted incidence rates of these conditions in women with diabetes increased with duration of diabetes, obesity, inactivity and smoking. The 5-year adjusted incidence rates for cardiovascular disease were 4.6 (95% CI 4.4-4.9) per 100 women aged 50-69 in non-smokers with diabetes, 5.9 (95% CI 4.6-7.6) in smokers with diabetes not using insulin and 11.0 (95% CI 8.3-14.7) in smokers with diabetes using insulin. Non-smoking women with diabetes who were not overweight or inactive still had threefold increased rate for coronary disease or stroke compared with women without diabetes. Of the modifiable factors examined in middle aged women with diabetes, smoking causes the greatest increase in cardiovascular disease, especially in those with insulin treated diabetes

  6. Environmental Factors and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Faruk Tekbas

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and clinical observations have led to the hypothesis that the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases is influenced not only by genetic, lifestyle and major risk factors, but also by environmental factors. Environmental factors are considered key determinants of cardiovascular diseases. Although lifestyle choices such as smoking, diet, and exercise are viewed as major environmental influences, the contribution of pollutants and environmental chemicals is less clear. Accumulating evidence suggests that exposure to physically and chemical pollutants could elevate the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Many epidemiological studies report that exposure to physically, biologically and socio-cultural environmental factors are associated with an increase in cardiovascular mortality. Relationships between environmental factors and coronary arter disease, arhythmias, and cardiomyopathies have been reported. Exposures to arsenic, lead, cadmium, pollutant gases, solvents, and pesticides have also been linked to increased incidence of cardiovascular disease. In this paper, I review that relationships between exposure to physically, chemical, biologically and socio-cultural environmental factors and cardiovascular diseases. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(5.000: 435-444

  7. Homocyst(e)ine and risk of cardiovascular disease in the multiple risk factor intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, R W; Shaten, B J; Hempel, J D; Cutler, J A; Kuller, L H

    2000-01-01

    A nested case-control study was undertaken involving men participating in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT). Serum samples from 712 men, stored for upto 20 years, were analysed for homocyst(e)ine. Cases involved non-fatal myocardial infractions, identified through the active phase of the study, which ended on February 28, 1982, and deaths due to coronary heart disease, monitored through 1990. The non-fatal myocardial infarction occurred within 7 years of sample collection, whereas the majority of coronary heart disease deaths occurred more than 11 years after sample collection. Mean homocyst(e)ine concentrations were in the expected range and did not differ significantly between case patients and control subjects: myocardial infarction cases, 12.6 micromol/L; myocardial infarction controls, 13.1 micromol/L; coronary heart disease death cases, 12.8 micromol/L; and coronary heart disease controls, 12.7 micromol/L. Odds ratios versus quartile 1 for coronary heart disease deaths and myocardial infarctions combined were as follows: quartile 2, 1.03; quartile 3, 0.84; and quartile 4, 0.92. Thus, in this prospective study, no association of homocyst(e)ine concentration with heart disease was detected. Homocyst(e)ine levels were weakly associated with the acute-phase (C-reactive) protein. These results are discussed with respect to the suggestion that homocyst(e)ine is an independent risk factor for heart disease.

  8. Cardiovascular risk in Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, Beatriz; Ferreira, Maria João

    2018-06-01

    Turner syndrome is a relatively common genetic disorder of female development, characterized by partial or complete absence of an X chromosome, with a variable clinical presentation. Congenital or acquired cardiovascular disease is highly prevalent and a major cause of early death in this syndrome. The most feared complication is aortic dissection, which can occur at a very young age and requires careful assessment of its risk factors. A systematic literature search identified sixty relevant publications. These were reviewed with regard to the increased risk of cardiovascular disease in women with Turner syndrome, especially in pregnancy. The most common congenital cardiovascular defects are presented and illustrated with appropriate iconography. The current recommendations regarding the screening and monitoring of cardiovascular disease in these patients are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Finkelstein

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Joseph Finkelstein1, Eunme Cha1, Steven M Scharf 21Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine at the Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USARationale: Recent studies described association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD. In their analysis none of these studies accounted for sociodemographic factors, health behaviors, and patient comorbidities simultaneously.Objective: To study whether COPD diagnosis is an independent risk factor for CVD. Methods: Subjects aged 40 years and older (N = 18,342 from the sample adult file of the 2002 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS were included in the analysis. Chi-squared tests and odds ratios (OR were utilized to compare the data. Multiple logistic regression was employed to analyze the association between COPD and CVD with simultaneous control for sociodemographic factors (age, gender, race, marital status, education, income, health behaviors (tobacco use, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and patient comorbidities (diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol, and obesity. The analysis employed NHIS sampling weights to generate data representative of the entire US population.Results: The COPD population had increased prevalence of CVD (56.5% vs 25.6%; P < 0.0001. Adjusted logistic regression showed that COPD patients (N = 958 were at higher risk of having coronary heart disease (OR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.5–2.5, angina (OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.6–2.7, myocardial infarction (OR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.7–2.8, stroke (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1–2.1, congestive heart failure (OR = 3.9, 95% CI: 2.8–5.5, poor circulation in lower extremities (OR = 2.5, 95% CI: 2.0–3.0, and arrhythmia (OR = 2.4, 95% CI: 2.0–2.8. Overall, the presence of COPD increased the odds of having CVD by a factor of

  10. Movement and circulation : population studies on physical activity and cardiovascular disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, G.B.M.

    1997-01-01

    The relationship of leisure-time physical activity with cardiovascular risk factors and mortality was determined using data from the German Cardiovascular Prevention Study, conducted from 1984-1991. Three nationally representative crosssectional samples, with a total of 7 689 men and 7 747

  11. The Burden of Cardiovascular Disease Attributable to Major Modifiable Risk Factors in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Akhtar Hussain

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Indonesia, coronary heart disease (CHD and stroke are estimated to cause more than 470 000 deaths annually. In order to inform primary prevention policies, we estimated the sex- and age-specific burden of CHD and stroke attributable to five major and modifiable vascular risk factors: cigarette smoking, hypertension, diabetes, elevated total cholesterol, and excess body weight. Methods: Population attributable risks for CHD and stroke attributable to these risk factors individually were calculated using summary statistics obtained for prevalence of each risk factor specific to sex and to two age categories (<55 and ≥55 years from a national survey in Indonesia. Age- and sex-specific relative risks for CHD and stroke associated with each of the five risk factors were derived from prospective data from the Asia-Pacific region. Results: Hypertension was the leading vascular risk factor, explaining 20%–25% of all CHD and 36%–42% of all strokes in both sexes and approximately one-third of all CHD and half of all strokes across younger and older age groups alike. Smoking in men explained a substantial proportion of vascular events (25% of CHD and 17% of strokes. However, given that these risk factors are likely to be strongly correlated, these population attributable risk proportions are likely to be overestimates and require verification from future studies that are able to take into account correlation between risk factors. Conclusions: Implementation of effective population-based prevention strategies aimed at reducing levels of major cardiovascular risk factors, especially blood pressure, total cholesterol, and smoking prevalence among men, could reduce the growing burden of CVD in the Indonesian population.

  12. Radiation Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases in the Cohort of Russian Emergency Workers of the Chernobyl Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashcheev, V V; Chekin, S Yu; Karpenko, S V; Maksioutov, M A; Menyaylo, A N; Tumanov, K A; Kochergina, E V; Kashcheeva, P V; Gorsky, A I; Shchukina, N V; Lovachev, S S; Vlasov, O K; Ivanov, V K

    2017-07-01

    This paper continues a series of publications that analyze the impact of radiation on incidence of circulatory system diseases in the cohort of Russian recovery operation workers (liquidators) and presents the results of the analysis of cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence. The studied cohort consists of 53,772 liquidators who arrived in the Chernobyl accident zone within the first year after the accident (26 April 1986 to 26 April 1987). The individual doses varied from 0.0001 Gy to 1.42 Gy, and the mean external whole body dose in the cohort was 0.161 Gy. A total of 27,456 cases of CVD were diagnosed during the follow-up period 1986-2012 as a result of annual health examinations. A Poisson regression model was applied to estimate radiation risks and other risk factors associated with CVD. The following factors were identified as risk factors for CVD: the dose, duration of the liquidators' work in the Chernobyl zone, and concomitant diseases (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, overweight, and alcohol dependence). The baseline incidence of CVD is statistically significantly (p Chernobyl zone; for those who stayed in the Chernobyl zone less than 6 wk, ERR/Gy = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.53; 1.08, p < 0.001.

  13. Different anthropometric adiposity measures and their association with cardiovascular disease risk factors: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, S B; Takken, T; Prinsen, E C; Wittink, H

    2012-05-01

    To investigate which anthropometric adiposity measure has the strongest association with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Caucasian men and women without a history of CVD. Systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched databases for studies reporting correlations between anthropometric adiposity measures and CVD risk factors in Caucasian subjects without a history of CVD. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-height ratio and body fat percentage were considered the anthropometric adiposity measures. Primary CVD risk factors were: systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides and fasting glucose. Two independent reviewers performed abstract, full text and data selection. Twenty articles were included describing 21,618 males and 24,139 females. Waist circumference had the strongest correlation with all CVD risk factors for both men and women, except for HDL and LDL in men. When comparing BMI with waist circumference, the latter showed significantly better correlations to CVD risk factors, except for diastolic blood pressure in women and HDL and total cholesterol in men. We recommend the use of waist circumference in clinical and research studies above other anthropometric adiposity measures, especially compared with BMI, when evaluating CVD risk factors.

  14. Incident diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease risk in exercising hypercholesterolemic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul T; Franklin, Barry A

    2015-11-15

    Exercise may be an important treatment for hypercholesterolemic patients, particularly in statin users who are at increased diabetes risk. We therefore used Cox proportional hazard analyses to compare running and walking dose (metabolic equivalent hours/day [MET-h/d]) to diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in hypercholesterolemic patients. There were 60 diabetic- and 373 CVD-related deaths during a 10.1-year mortality surveillance of 6,688 hypercholesterolemic patients. In addition, there were 177 incident nonfatal diabetes, 815 incident nonfatal hypertensions, and 323 incident nonfatal CVD events during a 6.4-year follow-up of 6,971 hypercholesterolemic patients who supplied follow-up questionnaires. Fatal and nonfatal diabetes risk decreased 26% (p = 0.002) and 19% (p ≤0.0001) per MET-h/d, respectively, and relative to hypertension risk decreased 4% (p = 0.01) per MET-h/d, and relative to diabetes, hypertension, and CVD risk in hypercholesterolemic patients and should more than compensate for the purported 9% increase in diabetes risk from statin use. By preventing morbidity and mortality for a specific existing medical condition, some exercise expenses may qualify for flexible spending account expenditures in hypercholesterolemic patients when prescribed by a physician. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Greater ability to express positive emotion is associated with lower projected cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, Natalie L; Adams, Kathryn S; Pressman, Sarah D; Consedine, Nathan S

    2017-12-01

    Positive emotion is associated with lower cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, yet some mechanisms remain unclear. One potential pathway is via emotional competencies/skills. The present study tests whether the ability to facially express positive emotion is associated with CVD risk scores, while controlling for potential confounds and testing for sex moderation. Eighty-two men and women underwent blood draws before completing self-report assessments and a performance test of expressive skill. Positive expressions were scored for degree of 'happiness' using expression coding software. CVD risk scores were calculated using established algorithms based on biological, demographic, and behavioral risk factors. Linear regressions revealed a main effect for skill, with skill in expressing positive emotion associated with lower CVD risk scores. Analyses also revealed a sex-by-skill interaction whereby links between expressive skill and CVD risk scores were stronger among men. Objective tests of expressive skill have methodological advantages, appear to have links to physical health, and offer a novel avenue for research and intervention.

  16. Prediction of cardiovascular disease risk among low-income urban dwellers in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tin Tin; Amiri, Mohammadreza; Mohd Hairi, Farizah; Thangiah, Nithiah; Bulgiba, Awang; Majid, Hazreen Abdul

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to predict the ten-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among low-income urban dwellers of metropolitan Malaysia. Participants were selected from a cross-sectional survey conducted in Kuala Lumpur. To assess the 10-year CVD risk, we employed the Framingham risk scoring (FRS) models. Significant determinants of the ten-year CVD risk were identified using General Linear Model (GLM). Altogether 882 adults (≥30 years old with no CVD history) were randomly selected. The classic FRS model (figures in parentheses are from the modified model) revealed that 20.5% (21.8%) and 38.46% (38.9%) of respondents were at high and moderate risk of CVD. The GLM models identified the importance of education, occupation, and marital status in predicting the future CVD risk. Our study indicated that one out of five low-income urban dwellers has high chance of having CVD within ten years. Health care expenditure, other illness related costs and loss of productivity due to CVD would worsen the current situation of low-income urban population. As such, the public health professionals and policy makers should establish substantial effort to formulate the public health policy and community-based intervention to minimize the upcoming possible high mortality and morbidity due to CVD among the low-income urban dwellers.

  17. Prediction of Cardiovascular Disease Risk among Low-Income Urban Dwellers in Metropolitan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tin Tin Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to predict the ten-year cardiovascular disease (CVD risk among low-income urban dwellers of metropolitan Malaysia. Participants were selected from a cross-sectional survey conducted in Kuala Lumpur. To assess the 10-year CVD risk, we employed the Framingham risk scoring (FRS models. Significant determinants of the ten-year CVD risk were identified using General Linear Model (GLM. Altogether 882 adults (≥30 years old with no CVD history were randomly selected. The classic FRS model (figures in parentheses are from the modified model revealed that 20.5% (21.8% and 38.46% (38.9% of respondents were at high and moderate risk of CVD. The GLM models identified the importance of education, occupation, and marital status in predicting the future CVD risk. Our study indicated that one out of five low-income urban dwellers has high chance of having CVD within ten years. Health care expenditure, other illness related costs and loss of productivity due to CVD would worsen the current situation of low-income urban population. As such, the public health professionals and policy makers should establish substantial effort to formulate the public health policy and community-based intervention to minimize the upcoming possible high mortality and morbidity due to CVD among the low-income urban dwellers.

  18. Genetic and environmental contributions to cardiovascular disease risk in American Indians: the strong heart family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Kari E; Howard, Barbara V; Welty, Thomas K; Best, Lyle G; Lee, Elisa T; Yeh, J L; Fabsitz, Richard R; Roman, Mary J; MacCluer, Jean W

    2003-02-15

    The aims of the Strong Heart Family Study are to clarify the genetic determinants of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in American Indians and to map and identify genes for CVD susceptibility. The authors describe the design of the Strong Heart Family Study (conducted between 1998 and 1999) and evaluate the heritabilities of CVD risk factors in American Indians from this study. In the first phase of the study, approximately 950 individuals, aged 18 years or more, in 32 extended families, were examined. The examination consisted of a personal interview, physical examination, laboratory tests, and an ultrasound examination of the carotid arteries. The phenotypes measured during the physical examination included anthropometry, lipoproteins, blood pressure, glycemic status, and clotting factors. Heritabilities for CVD risk factor phenotypes were estimated using a variance component approach and the program SOLAR. After accounting for the effects of covariates, the authors detected significant heritabilities for many CVD risk factor phenotypes (e.g., high density lipoprotein cholesterol (heritability = 0.50) and diastolic blood pressure (heritability = 0.34)). These results suggest that heredity explains a substantial proportion of the variability of CVD risk factors and that these heritabilities are large enough to warrant a search for major risk factor genes.

  19. Density of calcium in the ascending thoracic aorta and risk of incident cardiovascular disease events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Isac C; McClelland, Robyn L; Michos, Erin D; Allison, Matthew A; Forbang, Nketi I; Longstreth, W T; Post, Wendy S; Wong, Nathan D; Budoff, Matthew J; Criqui, Michael H

    2017-10-01

    The volume and density of coronary artery calcium (CAC) both independently predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) beyond standard risk factors, with CAC density inversely associated with incident CVD after accounting for CAC volume. We tested the hypothesis that ascending thoracic aorta calcium (ATAC) volume and density predict incident CVD events independently of CAC. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) is a prospective cohort study of participants without clinical CVD at baseline. ATAC and CAC were measured from baseline cardiac computed tomography (CT). Cox regression models were used to estimate the associations of ATAC volume and density with incident coronary heart disease (CHD) events and CVD events, after adjustment for standard CVD risk factors and CAC volume and density. Among 6811 participants, 234 (3.4%) had prevalent ATAC and 3395 (49.8%) had prevalent CAC. Over 10.3 years, 355 CHD and 562 CVD events occurred. One-standard deviation higher ATAC density was associated with a lower risk of CHD (HR 0.48 [95% CI 0.29-0.79], pdensity was inversely associated with incident CHD and CVD after adjustment for CVD risk factors and CAC volume and density. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A Path Analysis of a Randomized "Promotora de Salud" Cardiovascular Disease-Prevention Trial among At-Risk Hispanic Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heer, Hendrik Dirk; Balcazar, Hector G.; Castro, Felipe; Schulz, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed effectiveness of an educational community intervention taught by "promotoras de salud" in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among Hispanics using a structural equation modeling (SEM) approach. Model development was guided by a social ecological framework proposing CVD risk reduction through improvement of…

  1. Shared Genetic Aetiology between Cognitive Ability and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: Generation Scotland's Scottish Family Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Michelle; Batty, G. David; McGilchrist, Mark; Linksted, Pamela; Fitzpatrick, Bridie; Jackson, Cathy; Pattie, Alison; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Morris, Andrew D.; Smith, Blair H.; Porteous, David; Deary, Ian J.

    2010-01-01

    People with higher general cognitive ability in early life have more favourable levels of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in adulthood and CVD itself. The mechanism of these associations is not known. Here we examine whether general cognitive ability and CVD risk factors share genetic and/or environmental aetiology. In this large,…

  2. Management Status of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors for Dyslipidemia among Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongseok; Son, Heejeong; Ryu, Ohk Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes are well-established risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study investigated the prevalence and management status of these factors for dyslipidemia among Korean adults aged 30 years old and older. The prevalence and management status of dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes were analyzed among 12229 subjects (≥30 years) participating in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey 2010-2012. Dyslipidemia was defined according to treatment criteria rather than diagnostic criteria in Korea. Therefore, hyper-low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterolemia was defined if LDL cholesterol levels exceeded the appropriate risk-based threshold established by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. The age-standardized prevalence was highest for dyslipidemia (39.6%), followed by hypertension (32.8%) and diabetes (9.8%). The lowest patient awareness was found for dyslipidemia (27.9%). The treatment rate was 66.5% for diabetes and 57.3% for hypertension, but only 15.7% for dyslipidemia. The control rate among those undergoing treatment was highest for hypertension (64.2%), followed by dyslipidemia (59.2%) and diabetes (22.1%). The higher the risk levels of CVD were, the lower the control rate of dyslipidemia. While the prevalence of dyslipidemia was higher than hypertension and diabetes, awareness and treatment rates thereof were lower. Higher CVD-risk categories showed lower control rates of dyslipidemia. In order to improve awareness and control rates of dyslipidemia, diagnostic criteria should be reconciled with treatment targets based on cardiovascular risk in Korean populations.

  3. Knowledge and awareness of and perception towards cardiovascular disease risk in sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boateng, Daniel; Wekesah, Frederick; Browne, Joyce L.; Agyemang, Charles; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Aikins, Ama de-Graft; Smit, Henriette A.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the most common cause of non-communicable disease mortality in sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. Gaps in knowledge of CVD conditions and their risk factors are important barriers in effective prevention and treatment. Yet, evidence on the awareness and knowledge

  4. TP53 codon 72 polymorphism as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in a Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.C. Smith

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available TP53, a tumor suppressor gene, has a critical role in cell cycle, apoptosis and cell senescence and participates in many crucial physiological and pathological processes. Identification of TP53 polymorphism in older people and age-related diseases may provide an understanding of its physiology and pathophysiological role as well as risk factors for complex diseases. TP53 codon 72 (TP53:72 polymorphism was investigated in 383 individuals aged 66 to 97 years in a cohort from a Brazilian Elderly Longitudinal Study. We investigated allele frequency, genotype distribution and allele association with morbidities such as cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, obesity, neoplasia, low cognitive level (dementia, and depression. We also determined the association of this polymorphism with serum lipid fractions and urea, creatinine, albumin, fasting glucose, and glycated hemoglobin levels. DNA was isolated from blood cells, amplified by PCR using sense 5'-TTGCCGTCCCAAGCAATGGATGA-3' and antisense 5'-TCTGGGAAGGGACAGAAGATGAC-3' primers and digested with the BstUI enzyme. This polymorphism is within exon 4 at nucleotide residue 347. Descriptive statistics, logistic regression analysis and Student t-test using the multiple comparison test were used. Allele frequencies, R (Arg = 0.69 and P (Pro = 0.31, were similar to other populations. Genotype distributions were within Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. This polymorphism did not show significant association with any age-related disease or serum variables. However, R allele carriers showed lower HDL levels and a higher frequency of cardiovascular disease than P allele subjects. These findings may help to elucidate the physiopathological role of TP53:72 polymorphism in Brazilian elderly people.

  5. The Boehringer Ingelheim employee study (Part 2): 10-year cardiovascular diseases risk estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, K; Martin, S; Döhring, C; Dugi, K; Haastert, B; Schneider, M

    2016-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) may cause an economic burden to companies, but CVD risk estimations specific to working populations are lacking. To estimate the 10-year CVD risk in the Boehringer Ingelheim (BI) employee cohort and analyse the potential effect of hypothetical risk reduction interventions. We estimated CVD risk using the Framingham (FRS), PROCAM (PRS) and Reynolds (RRS) risk scores, using cross-sectional baseline data on BI Pharma employees collected from 2005 to 2011. Results were compared using Fisher's exact and Wilcoxon tests. The predictive ability of the score estimates was assessed using receiver-operating characteristics analyses. Among the 4005 study subjects, we estimated 10-year CVD risks of 35% (FRS), 9% (PRS) and 6% (RRS) for men and 10% (FRS), 4% (PRS) and 1% (RRS) for women. One hundred and thirty-four (6%) men and 111 (6%) women employees had current CVD. The best predictors of prevalent CVD were the FRS and the RRS for men [area-under-the-curve 0.62 (0.57-0.67) for both]. A hypothetical intervention that would improve systolic blood pressure, HbA1c (for diabetes), C-reactive protein, triglycerides and total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 10% each would potentially reduce expected CVD cases by 36-41% in men and 30-45% in women, and if smoking cessation is incorporated, by 39-45% and 30-55%, respectively, depending on the pre-intervention risk score. There was a substantial risk of developing CVD in this working cohort. Occupational health programmes with lifestyle interventions for high-risk individuals may be an effective risk reduction measure. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. A problem-solving intervention for cardiovascular disease risk reduction in veterans: Protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwsma, Jason A; Wray, Laura O; Voils, Corrine I; Gierisch, Jennifer M; Dundon, Margaret; Coffman, Cynthia J; Jackson, George L; Merwin, Rhonda; Vair, Christina; Juntilla, Karen; White-Clark, Courtney; Jeffreys, Amy S; Harris, Amy; Owings, Michael; Marr, Johnpatrick; Edelman, David

    2017-09-01

    Health behaviors related to diet, tobacco usage, physical activity, medication adherence, and alcohol use are highly determinative of risk for developing cardiovascular disease. This paper describes a study protocol to evaluate a problem-solving intervention that aims to help patients at risk for developing cardiovascular disease address barriers to adopting positive health behaviors in order to reduce cardiovascular risk. Eligible patients are adults enrolled in Veterans Affairs (VA) health care who have not experienced a cardiovascular event but are at elevated risk based on their Framingham Risk Score (FRS). Participants in this two-site study are randomized to either the intervention or care as usual, with a target of 400 participants. The study intervention, Healthy Living Problem-Solving (HELPS), consists of six group sessions conducted approximately monthly interspersed with individualized coaching calls to help participants apply problem-solving principles. The primary outcome is FRS, analyzed at the beginning and end of the study intervention (6months). Participants also complete measures of physical activity, caloric intake, self-efficacy, group cohesion, problem-solving capacities, and demographic characteristics. Results of this trial will inform behavioral interventions to change health behaviors in those at risk for cardiovascular disease and other health conditions. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01838226. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Trends in the risk of mortality due to cardiovascular diseases in five Brazilian geographic regions from 1979 to 1996

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    Maria de Fátima Marinho de Souza

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE - To analyze the trends in risk of death due to cardiovascular diseases in the northern, northeastern, southern, southeastern, and central western Brazilian geographic regions from 1979 to 1996. METHODS - Data on mortality due to cardiovascular, cardiac ischemic, and cerebrovascular diseases in 5 Brazilian geographic regions were obtained from the Ministry of Health. Population estimates for the time period from 1978 to 1996 in the 5 Brazilian geographic regions were calculated by interpolation with the Lagrange method, based on the census data from 1970, 1980, 1991, and the population count of 1996, for each age bracket and sex. Trends were analyzed with the multiple linear regression model. RESULTS - Cardiovascular diseases showed a declining trend in the southern, southeastern, and northern Brazilian geographic regions in all age brackets and for both sexes. In the northeastern and central western regions, an increasing trend in the risk of death due to cardiovascular diseases occurred, except for the age bracket from 30 to 39 years, which showed a slight reduction. This resulted from the trends of cardiac ischemic and cerebrovascular diseases. The analysis of the trend in the northeastern and northern regions was impaired by the great proportion of poorly defined causes of death. CONCLUSION - The risk of death due to cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and cardiac ischemic diseases decreased in the southern and southeastern regions, which are the most developed regions in the country, and increased in the least developed regions, mainly in the central western region.

  8. The Role of Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Stroke in Familial Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosto, Giuseppe; Bird, Thomas D; Bennett, David A; Boeve, Bradley F; Brickman, Adam M; Cruchaga, Carlos; Faber, Kelley; Foroud, Tatiana M; Farlow, Martin; Goate, Alison M; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Lantigua, Rafael; Manly, Jennifer; Ottman, Ruth; Rosenberg, Roger; Schaid, Daniel J; Schupf, Nicole; Stern, Yaakov; Sweet, Robert A; Mayeux, Richard

    2016-10-01

    The contribution of cardiovascular disease (CV) and cerebrovascular disease to the risk for late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) has been long debated. Investigations have shown that antecedent CV risk factors increase the risk for LOAD, although other investigations have failed to validate this association. To study the contribution of CV risk factors (type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease) and the history of stroke to LOAD in a data set of large families multiply affected by LOAD. The National Institute on Aging Late-Onset Alzheimer Disease/National Cell Repository for Alzheimer Disease family study (hereinafter referred to as NIA-LOAD study) is a longitudinal study of families with multiple members affected with LOAD. A multiethnic community-based longitudinal study (Washington Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project [WHICAP]) was used to replicate findings. The 6553 participants in the NIA-LOAD study were recruited from 23 US Alzheimer disease centers with ongoing data collection since 2003; the 5972 WHICAP participants were recruited at Columbia University with ongoing data collection since 1992. Data analysis was performed from 2003 to 2015. Generalized mixed logistic regression models tested the association of CV risk factors (primary association) with LOAD. History of stroke was used for the secondary association. A secondary model adjusted for the presence of an apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele. A genetic risk score, based on common variants associated with LOAD, was used to account for LOAD genetic risk beyond the APOE ε4 effect. Mediation analyses evaluated stroke as a mediating factor between the primary association and LOAD. A total of 6553 NIA-LOAD participants were included in the analyses (4044 women [61.7%]; 2509 men [38.3%]; mean [SD] age, 77.0 [9] years), with 5972 individuals from the WHICAP study included in the replication sample (4072 women [68.2%]; 1900 men [31.8%]; mean [SD] age, 76.5 [7.0] years). Hypertension was associated

  9. Fish consumption measured during pregnancy and risk of cardiovascular diseases later in life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Marin; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Henriksen, Tine B

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated a protective effect of long chain n-3 PUFAs against cardiovascular disease; however, the overall evidence remains uncertain, and there is a general lack of knowledge in the field of cardiovascular epidemiology in women. Therefore, the objective of this study...... was to explore the association between fish intake and cardiovascular disease among 7429 women from a prospective pregnancy cohort in Aarhus, Denmark, who were followed for 12-17 years. Exposure information derived from a questionnaire sent to the women in gestation week 16, and daily fish consumption...... was quantified based on assumptions of standard portion sizes and food tables. Information on admissions to hospital was obtained from the Danish National Patient Registry and diagnoses of hypertensive, cerebrovascular and ischaemic heart disease were used to define the outcome: cardiovascular disease. During...

  10. Cardiovascular disease biomarkers on cognitive function in older adults: Joint effects of cardiovascular disease biomarkers and cognitive function on mortality risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Crush, Elizabeth; Joyner, Chelsea

    2017-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates an inverse association between age and cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers with cognitive function; however, little is known about the combined associations of CVD risk factors and cognitive function with all-cause mortality in an older adult population, which was the purpose of this study. Data from the 1999-2002 NHANES were used (N=2,097; 60+yrs), with mortality follow-up through 2011. Evaluated individual biomarkers included mean arterial pressure (MAP), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), HDL-C, total cholesterol (TC), A1C, and measured body mass index (BMI). Cognitive function was assessed using the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST). Further, 4 groups were created based on CVD risk and cognitive function. Group 1: high cognitive function and low CVD risk; Group 2: high cognitive function and high CVD risk; Group 3: low cognitive function and low CVD risk; Group 4: low cognitive function and high CVD risk. An inverse relationship was observed where those with more CVD risk factors had a lower (worse) cognitive function score. Compared to those in Group 1, only those in Group 3 and 4 had an increase mortality risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Combined influence of healthy diet and active lifestyle on cardiovascular disease risk factors in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca-García, M; Ortega, F B; Ruiz, J R; González-Gross, M; Labayen, I; Jago, R; Martínez-Gómez, D; Dallongeville, J; Bel-Serrat, S; Marcos, A; Manios, Y; Breidenassel, C; Widhalm, K; Gottrand, F; Ferrari, M; Kafatos, A; Molnár, D; Moreno, L A; De Henauw, S; Castillo, M J; Sjöström, M

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the combined influence of diet quality and physical activity on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in adolescents, adolescents (n = 1513; 12.5-17.5 years) participating in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study were studied. Dietary intake was registered using a 24-h recall and a diet quality index was calculated. Physical activity was assessed by accelerometry. Lifestyle groups were computed as: healthy diet and active, unhealthy diet but active, healthy diet but inactive, and unhealthy diet and inactive. CVD risk factor measurements included cardiorespiratory fitness, adiposity indicators, blood lipid profile, blood pressure, and insulin resistance. A CVD risk score was computed. The healthy diet and active group had a healthier cardiorespiratory profile, fat mass index (FMI), triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C ratio (all P ≤ 0.05). Overall, active adolescents showed higher cardiorespiratory fitness, lower FMI, TC/HDL-C ratio, and homeostasis model assessment index and healthier blood pressure than their inactive peers with either healthy or unhealthy diet (all P ≤ 0.05). Healthy diet and active group had healthier CVD risk score compared with the inactive groups (all P ≤ 0.02). Thus, a combination of healthy diet and active lifestyle is associated with decreased CVD risk in adolescents. Moreover, an active lifestyle may reduce the adverse consequences of an unhealthy diet. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Association between metabolic syndrome and 10-year risk of developing cardiovascular disease in a Nigerian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oguoma, Victor M.; Nwose, Ezekiel U.; Skinner, Timothy C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and consequential cardiovascular disease (CVD) events are on the increase in Nigeria. The study aimed to identify the prevalence of 10-year CVD risk in a Nigerian population and assess its relationship with different indices of MetS. Method....... MetS was defined based on the Joint Scientific Statement on Harmonizing the MetS. Result: Of the 211 subjects, mean age was 51.3±17.3 years. Average risk of developing CVD in the next 10 years was 3.7±5.3%. Prevalence of low, moderate and high risk of developing CVD among study participants was 86.......3% (95% CI 82.0-91.3%), 11.8% (95% CI 6.9-16.1%) and 1.9% (95% CI 0.0-3.8%), respectively. Prevalence of MetS was 26.7% (95% CI 21.0-33.3%). There was poor agreement between MetS and the CVD risk scores (kappa=0.209, p=0.001) Conclusions: The results showed that complementary use of MetS and CVD risk...

  13. Relating Education, Brain Structure, and Cognition: The Role of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moyra E. Mortby

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The protective effect of education on cognitive and brain health is well established. While the direct effects of individual cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors (i.e., hypertension, smoking, diabetes, and obesity on cerebral structure have been investigated, little is understood about the possible interaction between the protective effect of education and the deleterious effects of CVD risk factors in predicting brain ageing and cognition. Using data from the PATH Through Life study (N=266, we investigated the protective effect of education on cerebral structure and function and tested a possible mediating role of CVD risk factors. Higher education was associated with larger regional grey/white matter volumes in the prefrontal cortex in men only. The association between education and cognition was mediated by brain volumes but only for grey matter and only in relation to information processing speed. CVD risk factors did not mediate the association between regional volumes and cognition. This study provides additional evidence in support for a protective effect of education on cerebral structures and cognition. However, it does not provide support for a mediating role of CVD risk factors in these associations.

  14. Associations between screen-based sedentary behavior and cardiovascular disease risk factors in Korean youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Wonwoo; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R

    2012-04-01

    The purposes of this study were to: 1) describe the patterns of screen-based sedentary behaviors, and 2) examine the association between screen-based sedentary behavior and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in representative Korean children and adolescents, aged 12 to 18 yr, in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Screen-based sedentary behavior was measured using self-report questionnaires that included items for time spent watching TV and playing PC/video games. Physical activity was measured using items for frequency and duration of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). CVD risk factors such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure were measured. Boys spent more time playing PC/video games, and girls spent more time watching TV. After adjusting for age, gender, annual household income, and MVPA, an additional hour of watching TV was significantly associated with the risk of overweight (OR 1.17 [95% CI 1.03-1.33]), high abdominal adiposity (OR 1.27 [1.06-1.51]), and low HDL cholesterol (OR 1.27 [1.10-1.47]). An additional hour spent playing PC/video games also increased the risk of high abdominal adiposity (OR 1.20 [1.03-1.40]). Prospective observations and interventions are needed to determine causal relationships between screen-based sedentary behavior and CVD risk profiles in Korean youth.

  15. Association between metabolic syndrome and 10-year risk of developing cardiovascular disease in a Nigerian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguoma, Victor M; Nwose, Ezekiel U; Skinner, Timothy C; Richards, Ross S; Digban, Kester A; Onyia, Innocent C

    2016-09-01

    Prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and consequential cardiovascular disease (CVD) events are on the increase in Nigeria. The study aimed to identify the prevalence of 10-year CVD risk in a Nigerian population and assess its relationship with different indices of MetS. A cross-sectional study was carried out on apparently healthy persons aged 18 years of age or older. Ten-year risk was calculated using the ATPIII/Framingham criteria. Subjects with risk score 20% at high risk of developing CVD in 10 years. MetS was defined based on the Joint Scientific Statement on Harmonizing the MetS. Of the 211 subjects, mean age was 51.3±17.3 years. Average risk of developing CVD in the next 10 years was 3.7±5.3%. Prevalence of low, moderate and high risk of developing CVD among study participants was 86.3% (95% CI 82.0-91.3%), 11.8% (95% CI 6.9-16.1%) and 1.9% (95% CI 0.0-3.8%), respectively. Prevalence of MetS was 26.7% (95% CI 21.0-33.3%). There was poor agreement between MetS and the CVD risk scores (kappa=0.209, p=0.001) CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that complementary use of MetS and CVD risk score is imperative, as there is indication of risk in individuals without MetS. Also a large proportion of the study population requires lifestyle intervention. These findings provide the evidence necessary to tailor public health interventions in this population, especially towards younger age groups. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Recreational physical activity as an independent predictor of multivariable cardiovascular disease risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satvinder S Dhaliwal

    Full Text Available The role of physical activity in preventing CVD has been highlighted by Professor Jerry Morris in the 1950's. We report outcome of a 15-year prospective study with the aim to identify whether physical activity showed cardiovascular benefit independent of common risk factors and of central obesity. Baseline data of 8662 subjects, with no previous history of heart disease, diabetes or stroke, were obtained from an age- and gender- stratified sample of adults in Australian capital cities and were linked with the National Death Index to determine the causes of death of 610 subjects who had died to 31 December 2004. The study consisted of 4175 males (age 42.3 ± 13.1 years and 4487 females (age 42.8 ± 13.2 years. Fasting serum lipid levels, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and smoking habits at baseline were recorded. The Framingham Risk Scores of 15-year mortality due to CHD and CVD were calculated using established equations. Subjects were also asked if they engaged in vigorous exercise, less vigorous exercise or walk for recreation and exercise in the past 2 weeks. Subjects in the high recreational physical activity category were 0.16 (0.06-0.43; p<0.001 and 0.12 (0.03-0.48; p = 0.003 times as likely as subjects in the low category for CVD and CHD mortality respectively. After adjusting for both the Framingham Risk Score and central obesity (Waist circumference to Hip circumference Ratio, those in the high recreational physical activity group were 0.35 (0.13-0.98 times less likely compared to the low category for CVD mortality. Recreational physical activity independently predicted reduced cardiovascular mortality over fifteen years. A public health focus on increased physical activity and preventing obesity is required to reduce the risk of CVD and CHD.

  17. Incidence of prediabetes and risk of developing cardiovascular disease in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelija Velija-Asimi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to determine the incidence of prediabetes and risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. This prospective, observational study included 148 women with PCOS, without Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and CVD present at baseline. In the fasting blood samples, we measured lipids, glucose, and insulin levels during oral glucose tolerance test, levels of C-reactive protein (CRP, steroids, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD, prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and parathyroid hormone. The follow-up period was 3 years. At baseline, prevalent prediabetes was present in 18 (12% of PCOS cases and it progressed to T2DM in 5 (3% of the cases. Incident prediabetes during the follow-up was noted in 47 (32% women or 4.7 per 1000 persons/year. Prediabetes was associated with elevated body mass index (BMI (odds ratio [OR] = 1.089, confidence interval [CI]: 1.010; 1.174, p = 0.026, high baseline levels of CRP (OR = 3.286, CI: 1.299; 8.312, p = 0.012, homeostatic model assessment - insulin resistance (IR (OR = 2.628, CI: 1.535; 4.498, p < 0.001, and high lipid accumulation product (LAP (OR = 1.009, CI: 1.003; 1.016, p = 0.005. Furthermore, prediabetes was associated with low 25-OHD (OR = 0.795, CI: 0.724; 0.880, p ≤ 0.05. In addition, cardiovascular risk in PCOS women with prediabetes was high (hazard ratio = 1.092, CI: 1.036; 1.128, p < 0.001. We showed association of prediabetes with high BMI, IR, markers of inflammation, LAP, and low serum 25-OHD concentration. IR appears to be more relevant than the other predictors of prediabetes risk in this study. PCOS women are considered as a high-risk population for prediabetes.

  18. Lifestyle in Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.O. Younge (John)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Globally, the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still increasing. However, in recent decades, better treatment modalities have led to less cardiovascular related deaths. After years of research, we now generally accept that lifestyle factors are the most

  19. Can genetic pleiotropy replicate common clinical constellations of cardiovascular disease and risk?

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    Omri Gottesman

    Full Text Available The relationship between obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, kidney disease and cardiovascular disease (CVD is established when looked at from a clinical, epidemiological or pathophysiological perspective. Yet, when viewed from a genetic perspective, there is comparatively little data synthesis that these conditions have an underlying relationship. We sought to investigate the overlap of genetic variants independently associated with each of these commonly co-existing conditions from the NHGRI genome-wide association study (GWAS catalog, in an attempt to replicate the established notion of shared pathophysiology and risk. We used pathway-based analyses to detect subsets of pleiotropic genes involved in similar biological processes. We identified 107 eligible GWAS studies related to CVD and its established comorbidities and risk factors and assigned genes that correspond to the associated signals based on their position. We found 44 positional genes shared across at least two CVD-related phenotypes that independently recreated the established relationship between the six phenotypes, but only if studies representing non-European populations were included. Seven genes revealed pleiotropy across three or more phenotypes, mostly related to lipid transport and metabolism. Yet, many genes had no relationship to each other or to genes with established functional connection. Whilst we successfully reproduced established relationships between CVD risk factors using GWAS findings, interpretation of biological pathways involved in the observed pleiotropy was limited. Further studies linking genetic variation to gene expression, as well as describing novel biological pathways will be needed to take full advantage of GWAS results.

  20. Migraine and risk of cardiovascular diseases: Danish population based matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelborg, Kasper; Szépligeti, Szimonetta Komjáthiné; Holland-Bill, Louise; Ehrenstein, Vera; Horváth-Puhó, Erzsébet; Henderson, Victor W; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2018-01-31

    To examine the risks of myocardial infarction, stroke (ischaemic and haemorrhagic), peripheral artery disease, venous thromboembolism, atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter, and heart failure in patients with migraine and in a general population comparison cohort. Nationwide, population based cohort study. All Danish hospitals and hospital outpatient clinics from 1995 to 2013. 51 032 patients with migraine and 510 320 people from the general population matched on age, sex, and calendar year. Comorbidity adjusted hazard ratios of cardiovascular outcomes based on Cox regression analysis. Higher absolute risks were observed among patients with incident migraine than in the general population across most outcomes and follow-up periods. After 19 years of follow-up, the cumulative incidences per 1000 people for the migraine cohort compared with the general population were 25 v 17 for myocardial infarction, 45 v 25 for ischaemic stroke, 11 v 6 for haemorrhagic stroke, 13 v 11 for peripheral artery disease, 27 v 18 for venous thromboembolism, 47 v 34 for atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter, and 19 v 18 for heart failure. Correspondingly, migraine was positively associated with myocardial infarction (adjusted hazard ratio 1.49, 95% confidence interval 1.36 to 1.64), ischaemic stroke (2.26, 2.11 to 2.41), and haemorrhagic stroke (1.94, 1.68 to 2.23), as well as venous thromboembolism (1.59, 1.45 to 1.74) and atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter (1.25, 1.16 to 1.36). No meaningful association was found with peripheral artery disease (adjusted hazard ratio 1.12, 0.96 to 1.30) or heart failure (1.04, 0.93 to 1.16). The associations, particularly for stroke outcomes, were stronger during the short term (0-1 years) after diagnosis than the long term (up to 19 years), in patients with aura than in those without aura, and in women than in men. In a subcohort of patients, the associations persisted after additional multivariable adjustment for body mass index and smoking

  1. A conceptual framework for managing modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, Trevor; Poudevigne, Melanie; Lambrick, Danielle M; Faulkner, James; Lucero, Adam A; Page, Rachel; Perry, Lane G; Tarrant, Michael A; Stoner, Lee

    2015-03-01

    The current review will look at modifiable lifestyle (physical inactivity, poor nutrition, risky alcohol behavior and cigarette smoking) and cardio-metabolic (obesity, diabetes mellitus, high cholesterol and high blood pressure) cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among Indigenous-Fijian and Indo-Fijian subgroups. A framework for monitoring and managing these risk factors will be presented. National health surveys were identified where available. Electronic databases identified sources for filling missing data. The most relevant data were identified, organized and synthesized. Compared to Indo-Fijians, Indigenous-Fijians have higher rates of obesity (17% vs 11%) and hypertension (21% vs 16%), but lower rates of diabetes mellitus (12% vs 21%) and high cholesterol (33% vs 39%). Indigenous-Fijians report higher rates of prescribed physical activity (25% vs 21%), but poorer recommended vegetable intake (48% vs 56%), greater risky alcohol behavior (17% vs 15%) and a much greater prevalence of cigarette smoking (45% vs 24%). Both Indigenous-Fijians and Indo-Fijians report a low prevalence of recommended fruit intake (17% vs 15%). Fiji is progressing through demographic and epidemiological transitions, including a decline in infectious diseases and improved life expectancy. However, in concert with other developing nations, 'modernization' is accompanied by increased mortality from non-communicable diseases, with CVD being the most prevalent. This transition has been associated with changes to socio-cultural aspects of Fiji, including poor lifestyle choices that may contribute to a cluster of cardio-metabolic conditions which precede CVD. © Royal Society for Public Health 2013.

  2. Risk of cardiovascular, cardiac and arrhythmic complications in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballestri, Stefano; Lonardo, Amedeo; Bonapace, Stefano; Byrne, Christopher D; Loria, Paola; Targher, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as a public health problem of epidemic proportions worldwide. Accumulating clinical and epidemiological evidence indicates that NAFLD is not only associated with liver-related morbidity and mortality but also with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), abnormalities of cardiac function and structure (e.g., left ventricular dysfunction and hypertrophy, and heart failure), valvular heart disease (e.g., aortic valve sclerosis) and arrhythmias (e.g., atrial fibrillation). Experimental evidence suggests that NAFLD itself, especially in its more severe forms, exacerbates systemic/hepatic insulin resistance, causes atherogenic dyslipidemia, and releases a variety of pro-inflammatory, pro-coagulant and pro-fibrogenic mediators that may play important roles in the pathophysiology of cardiac and arrhythmic complications. Collectively, these findings suggest that patients with NAFLD may benefit from more intensive surveillance and early treatment interventions to decrease the risk for CHD and other cardiac/arrhythmic complications. The purpose of this clinical review is to summarize the rapidly expanding body of evidence that supports a strong association between NAFLD and cardiovascular, cardiac and arrhythmic complications, to briefly examine the putative biological mechanisms underlying this association, and to discuss some of the current treatment options that may influence both NAFLD and its related cardiac and arrhythmic complications. PMID:24587651

  3. Risk of death from cardiovascular disease following breast cancer in Southeast Asia : a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gernaat, S A M; Ho, P J; Rijnberg, N; Lee, Soo-Chin; Lim, S H; Yap, Y S; Grobbee, D E; Hartman, M; Verkooijen, H M

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer incidence and survival is high in Southeast Asia. As such, many women diagnosed with breast cancer are at risk of dying of other causes. Given the increased risk of cardiotoxicity induced by breast cancer treatments, it is important to identify patients at high risk of cardiovascular

  4. Genetic determinants of LDL, lipoprotein(a), triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and HDL: concordance and discordance with cardiovascular disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate whether new and known genetic determinants of plasma levels of LDL cholesterol, lipoprotein(a), triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and HDL cholesterol associate with the risk of cardiovascular disease expected from the effect on lipoprotein levels. Concordance or discordance of such gene......To evaluate whether new and known genetic determinants of plasma levels of LDL cholesterol, lipoprotein(a), triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and HDL cholesterol associate with the risk of cardiovascular disease expected from the effect on lipoprotein levels. Concordance or discordance...

  5. Screening for risk of cardiovascular disease is not associated with mental distress: the Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Torben; Ladelund, Steen; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze mental distress in relation to participation in lifestyle intervention. METHODS: In 2000-2001 a total of 1948 consecutive participants, living in the suburbs of Copenhagen, were asked to complete a short version of SCL-90-R (anxiety, depression, and somatization) before scre...... reached the pre-screening level (except for anxiety). CONCLUSION: Screening for risk of cardiovascular disease followed by health counselling does not give rise to mental distress, but has a temporary beneficial effect.......OBJECTIVE: To analyze mental distress in relation to participation in lifestyle intervention. METHODS: In 2000-2001 a total of 1948 consecutive participants, living in the suburbs of Copenhagen, were asked to complete a short version of SCL-90-R (anxiety, depression, and somatization) before...

  6. Developing a research agenda for cardiovascular disease prevention in high-risk rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Cathy L; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Kumanyika, Shiriki K; Pratt, Charlotte A; Nelson, Cheryl; Walker, Evelyn R; Ammerman, Alice; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Best, Lyle G; Cherrington, Andrea L; Economos, Christina D; Green, Lawrence W; Harman, Jane; Hooker, Steven P; Murray, David M; Perri, Michael G; Ricketts, Thomas C

    2013-06-01

    The National Institutes of Health convened a workshop to engage researchers and practitioners in dialogue on research issues viewed as either unique or of particular relevance to rural areas, key content areas needed to inform policy and practice in rural settings, and ways rural contexts may influence study design, implementation, assessment of outcomes, and dissemination. Our purpose was to develop a research agenda to address the disproportionate burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and related risk factors among populations living in rural areas. Complementary presentations used theoretical and methodological principles to describe research and practice examples from rural settings. Participants created a comprehensive CVD research agenda that identified themes and challenges, and provided 21 recommendations to guide research, practice, and programs in rural areas.

  7. RSR' pattern and the risk of mortality in men and women free of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Wesley T; Qureshi, Waqas; Li, Yabing; Soliman, Elsayed Z

    2015-01-01

    This study included 6,398 participants (mean age 55 ± 0.34 years; 54% female; 49% white; 22% black; 24% Mexican; 4.3% other) free of clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) and major ECG abnormalities. Cox regression was used to examine the association between the RSR' (incomplete right bundle branch block (RBBB) or right ventricular conduction delay) pattern and CVD and all-cause mortalities. The RSR' pattern was not associated with an increased risk of CVD (HR=1.10; 95%CI=0.63, 1.91) mortality or all-cause (HR=0.95; 95%CI=0.66, 1.35) mortality. The results were similar when the RSR' pattern was further separated into incomplete RBBB and right ventricular conduction delay. In conclusion, the RSR' pattern is a benign finding in older adults free of clinical CVD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Psychosocial perspectives in cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; von Känel, Roland; Tully, Phillip J

    2017-01-01

    Adaptation to living with cardiovascular disease may differ from patient to patient and is influenced not only by disease severity and limitations incurred by the disease but also by socioeconomic factors (e.g. health literacy), the patients' psychological make-up and susceptibility to distress. Co......-morbid depression and/or anxiety is prevalent in 20% of patients with cardiovascular disease, which may be either transient or chronic. Distress, such as depression, reduces adherence, serves as a barrier to behaviour change and the adoption of a healthy lifestyle, and increases the risk that patients drop out...

  9. Predictive Accuracy of a Cardiovascular Disease Risk Prediction Model in Rural South India – A Community Based Retrospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah N Fathima

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identification of individuals at risk of developing cardiovascular diseases by risk stratification is the first step in primary prevention. Aims & Objectives: To assess the five year risk of developing a cardiovascular event from retrospective data and to assess the predictive accuracy of the non laboratory based National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES risk prediction model among individuals in a rural South Indian population. Materials & Methods: A community based retrospective cohort study was conducted in three villages where risk stratification was done for all eligible adults aged between 35-74 years at the time of initial assessment using the NHANES risk prediction charts. Household visits were made after a period of five years by trained doctors to determine cardiovascular outcomes. Results: 521 people fulfilled the eligibility criteria of whom 486 (93.3% could be traced after five years. 56.8% were in low risk, 36.6% were in moderate risk and 6.6% were in high risk categories. 29 persons (5.97% had had cardiovascular events over the last five years of which 24 events (82.7% were nonfatal and five (17.25% were fatal. The mean age of the people who developed cardiovascular events was 57.24 ± 9.09 years. The odds ratios for the three levels of risk showed a linear trend with the odds ratios for the moderate risk and high risk category being 1.35 and 1.94 respectively with the low risk category as baseline. Conclusion: The non laboratory based NHANES charts did not accurately predict the occurrence of cardiovascular events in any of the risk categories.

  10. Risk Factors for Development of Cardiovascular Complications in Patients with Chronic Renal Disease and Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amra Mataradžija

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Cardiovascular diseases are the most frequent causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic renal disease. The aim of our paper is to evaluate the risk factors of cardiovascular complications in patients with various stages of chronic renal disease (CRD, with or without diabetes mellitus (DM.Patients and methods:The study included 98 patients with different stages of the CRD, with creatinine clearance <60 ml/min/1,73m2, and laboratory parameters monitored: homocysteine, BNP, cholesterol, LDL, HDL, HbA1c, Body Mass Index (BMI. First group comprised 49 patients with DM, age 50-82 years, M 28/F 21. Second group comprised 49 patients without DM, age 35-80 years, M 18/F 31. The IMT (intima media thickness was measured by B-mode ultrasonography, and all patients had echocardiography examination done by 2D Doppler ultrasonography.Results:The IMT values in diabetic patients had statistically significant positive correlation with homocysteine values of r=0,9393, p<0,034, and cholesterol r=0,289, p<0,05, compared to non-diabetics. A significant negative correlation was found between the ejection fraction (EF and BMI in both groups, more prominent in non-diabetics r=0,289, p<0,044 (diabetics r=0,162, p>0,05. 47,4% of diabetics had arteriosclerotic changes on carotid arteries, 8,5% had stenosis of ACC, and 22,0% had rhythm abnormalities on ECG. A positive correlation between IMT and BMI was found in diabetics, but was not statistically significant r=0,111, p>0,05. In the diabetics group a significantly higher (p<0,05 values of BNP, HbA1c, proteinuria, BMI, and cholesterol were found, and significantly lowered EF (p<0,0001.Conclusion:Risk factors for cardiovascular complications in patients with DM are various, and the most pronounced significance was found in the values of homocystein, BNP and cholesterol.

  11. Lipoprotein(a) and the risk of cardiovascular disease in the European population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldeyer, Christoph; Makarova, Nataliya; Zeller, Tanja

    2017-01-01

    Aims: As promising compounds to lower Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) are emerging, the need for a precise characterization and comparability of the Lp(a)-associated cardiovascular risk is increasing. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the distribution of Lp(a) concentrations across the European population......, to characterize the association with cardiovascular outcomes and to provide high comparability of the Lp(a)-associated cardiovascular risk by use of centrally determined Lp(a) concentrations. Methods and results: Based on the Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Europe (BiomarCaRE)-project, we......-Meier curves showed the highest event rate of MCE and CVD events for Lp(a) levels≥90th percentile (log-rank test: Prisk factors revealed a significant association of Lp(a) levels with MCE and CVD with a hazard ratio (HR...

  12. Do the wealthy have a health advantage? Cardiovascular disease risk factors and wealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajat, A; Kaufman, J S; Rose, K M; Siddiqi, A; Thomas, J C

    2010-12-01

    The use of wealth as a measure of socioeconomic status (SES) remains uncommon in epidemiological studies. When used, wealth is often measured crudely and at a single point in time. Our study explores the relationship between wealth and three cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors (smoking, obesity and hypertension) in a US population. We improve upon existing literature by using a detailed and validated measure of wealth in a longitudinal setting. We used four waves of data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) collected between 1999 and 2005. Inverse probability weights were employed to control for time-varying confounding and to estimate both relative (risk ratio) and absolute (risk difference) measures of effect. Wealth was defined as inflation-adjusted net worth and specified as a six category variable: one category for those with less than or equal to zero wealth and quintiles of positive wealth. After adjusting for income and other time-varying confounders, as well as baseline covariates, the risk of becoming obese was inversely related to wealth. There was a 40%-89% higher risk of becoming obese among the less wealthy relative to the wealthiest quintile and 11 to 25 excess cases (per 1000 persons) among the less wealthy groups over six years of follow up. Smoking initiation had similar but more moderate effects; risk ratios and differences both revealed a smaller magnitude of effect compared to obesity. Of the three CVD risk factors examined here, hypertension incidence had the weakest association with wealth, showing a smaller increased risk and fewer excess cases among the less wealthy groups. In conclusion, this study found a strong inverse association between wealth and obesity incidence, a moderate inverse association between wealth and smoking initiation and a weak inverse association between wealth and hypertension incidence after controlling for income and other time-varying confounders. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Shift Work and the Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases and Metabolic Syndrome Among Jordanian Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Abu Farha

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We sought to evaluate the effect of night shift working on increasing the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD using three different predictors. Methods: One hundred and forty adult Jordanian employees were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Demographic data, anthropometric parameters, and working patterns information were documented. Metabolic syndrome (MetS was diagnosed, and atherogenic index of the plasma (AIP and Framingham risk score were calculated. Results: Night shift workers had a significantly higher AIP ratio compared to daytime workers (p = 0.024. No significant association was observed between the two groups in term of 30-year Framingham risk score (p = 0.115. However, the duration of night shifts and the number of night shifts per months were found to significantly increase the 30-year Framingham risk (p = 0.000 and 0.012, respectively. Furthermore, the incidence of MetS among night shift workers was 15.9% (13/82 compared to 10.3% (6/58 among daytime workers (p = 0.484. Conclusions: This is the first study to assess the association between night shift work and AIP as well as the 30-year Framingham risk score as predictors of CVDs. Night shift work was associated with an increase in AIP score compared to daytime work. Also, the duration of night shifts and the number of night shifts per month significantly increased the 30-year Framingham risk among night shift workers. These findings suggest an association between night shift work and the risk of CVD and atherosclerosis. Our results highlight the need for interventional strategies to diminish the risk of CVD in night shift workers.

  14. Increased serum renalase in peritoneal dialysis patients: Is it related to cardiovascular disease risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gok Oguz, Ebru; Akoglu, Hadim; Ulusal Okyay, Gulay; Karaveli Gursoy, Guner; Yildirim, Tolga; Merhametsiz, Ozgur; Cimen, Tolga; Canbakan, Basol; Yeter, Ekrem; Ayli, M Deniz

    Renalase, with possible monoamine oxidase activity, is implicated in degradation of catecholamines; which suggests novel mechanisms of cardiovascular complications in patients with chronic kidney diseases. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) has been found to correlate with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in dialysis patients. The present study aimed to evaluate the association of serum renalase levels with EAT thickness and other CVD risk factors in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. The study included 40 PD patients and 40 healthy controls. All subjects underwent blood pressure and anthropometric measurements. Serum renalase was assessed by using a commercially available assay. Transthoracic echocardiography was used to measure EAT thickness and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) in all subjects. The median serum renalase level was significantly higher in the PD patients than in the control group [176.5 (100-278.3) vs 122 (53.3-170.0)ng/ml] (p=0.001). Renalase was positively correlated with C-reactive protein (r=0.705, p<0.001) and negatively correlated with RRF (r=-0.511, p=0.021). No correlation was observed between renalase and EAT thickness or LVMI. There was a strong correlation between EAT thickness and LVMI in both the PD patients and the controls (r=0.848, p<0.001 and r=0.640, p<0.001 respectively). This study indicates that renalase is associated with CRP and residual renal function but not with EAT thickness as CVD risk factors in PD patients. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Trends in Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factor Prevalence and Estimated 10-Year Cardiovascular Risk Scores in a Large Untreated French Urban Population: The CARVAR 92 Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carma Karam

    Full Text Available Surveys measuring effectiveness of public awareness campaigns in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD incidence have yielded equivocal findings. The aim of this study was to describe cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs changes over the years in an untreated population-based study.Between 2007 and 2012, we conducted a screening campaign for CVRFs in men aged 40 to 65 yrs and women aged 50 to 70 yrs in the western suburbs of Paris. Data were complete for 20,324 participants of which 14,709 were untreated.The prevalence trend over six years was statistically significant for hypertension in men from 25.9% in 2007 to 21.1% in 2012 (p=0.002 and from 23% in 2007 to 12.7% in 2012 in women (p<0.0001. The prevalence trend of tobacco smoking decreased from 38.6% to 27.7% in men (p=0.0001 and from 22.6% to 16.8% in women (p=0.113. The Framingham 10-year risk for CVD decreased from 13.3 ± 8.2 % in 2007 to 11.7 ± 9.0 % in 2012 in men and from 8.0 ± 4.1 % to 5.9 ± 3.4 % in women. The 10-year risk of fatal CVD based on the European Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE decreased in men and in women (p <0.0001.Over a 6-year period, several CVRFs have decreased in our screening campaign, leading to decrease in the 10-year risk for CVD and the 10-year risk of fatal CVD. Cardiologists should recognize the importance of community prevention programs and communication policies, particularly tobacco control and healthier diets to decrease the CVRFs in the general population.

  16. Mindfulness and Cardiovascular Disease Risk: State of the Evidence, Plausible Mechanisms, and Theoretical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuman-Olivier, Zev; Britton, Willoughby B.; Fresco, David M.; Desbordes, Gaelle; Brewer, Judson A.; Fulwiler, Carl

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide (1) a synopsis on relations of mindfulness with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and major CVD risk factors, and (2) an initial consensus-based overview of mechanisms and theoretical framework by which mindfulness might influence CVD. Initial evidence, often of limited methodological quality, suggests possible impacts of mindfulness on CVD risk factors including physical activity, smoking, diet, obesity, blood pressure, and diabetes regulation. Plausible mechanisms include (1) improved attention control (e.g., ability to hold attention on experiences related to CVD risk, such as smoking, diet, physical activity, and medication adherence), (2) emotion regulation (e.g., improved stress response, self-efficacy, and skills to manage craving for cigarettes, palatable foods, and sedentary activities), and (3) self-awareness (e.g., self-referential processing and awareness of physical sensations due to CVD risk factors). Understanding mechanisms and theoretical framework should improve etiologic knowledge, providing customized mindfulness intervention targets that could enable greater mindfulness intervention efficacy. PMID:26482755

  17. Decreasing sedentary behavior by 30 minutes per day reduces cardiovascular disease risk factors in rural Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Zyad T; Lennie, Terry A; Mudd-Martin, Gia; Bailey, Alison L; Novak, Michael J; Biddle, Martha; Khalil, Amani A; Darawad, Muhammad; Moser, Debra K

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity has been associated with reduced cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors; however, a decrease in the amount of time spent during the remainder of the day in sedentary behavior may be equally important. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a decrease in sedentary behavior on CVD risk factors among 205 individuals living in rural Appalachia. All participants received a comprehensive CVD risk reduction life-style intervention and measurement of major CVD risk factors and physical activity levels. Participants were divided into: 1) Adopters: those who decreased their sedentary behavior by 30 min or more per day post-intervention and 2) Non-adopters: those who did not. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant group by time interaction showing that Adopters had a greater reduction in body weight and BMI than Non-adopters. These findings demonstrate that decreasing sedentary behavior is important for achieving optimal body weight. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Efficacy of anthropometric measures for identifying cardiovascular disease risk in adolescents: review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenauer, Michael; Wheatley, Sean D; Martyn-St James, Marrissa; Duncan, Michael J; Cobayashi, Fernanda; Berg, Gabriela; Musso, Carla; Graffigna, Mabel; Soutelo, Jimena; Bovet, Pascal; Kollias, Anastasios; Stergiou, George S; Grammatikos, Evangelos; Griffiths, Claire; Ingle, Lee; Jung, Christian

    2018-04-12

    To compare the ability of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) to estimate cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk levels in adolescents. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed after a database search for relevant literature (Cochrane, Centre for Review and Dissemination, PubMed, British Nursing Index, CINAHL, BIOSIS citation index, ChildData, metaRegister). 117 records representing 96 studies with 994,595 participants were included in the systematic review, 14 of which (13 studies, n=14,610) were eligible for the meta-analysis. The results of the meta-analysis showed that BMI was a strong indicator of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and insulin; but not total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein or glucose. Few studies were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis considering WC or WHtR (n≤2). The narrative synthesis found measures of central adiposity to be consistently valid indicators of the same risk factors as BMI. BMI was an indicator of CVD risk. WC and WHtR were efficacious for indicating the same risk factors BMI performed strongly for, though there was insufficient evidence to judge the relative strength of each measure possibly due to heterogeneity in the methods for measuring and classifying WC.

  19. Cardiovascular disease risk factor patterns and their implications for intervention strategies in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quang Ngoc; Pham, Son Thai; Do, Loi Doan; Nguyen, Viet Lan; Wall, Stig; Weinehall, Lars; Bonita, Ruth; Byass, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background. Data on cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVDRFs) in Vietnam are limited. This study explores the prevalence of each CVDRF and how they cluster to evaluate CVDRF burdens and potential prevention strategies. Methods. A cross-sectional survey in 2009 (2,130 adults) was done to collect data on behavioural CVDRF, anthropometry and blood pressure, lipidaemia profiles, and oral glucose tolerance tests. Four metabolic CVDRFs (hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes, and obesity) and five behavioural CVDRFs (smoking, excessive alcohol intake, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, and stress) were analysed to identify their prevalence, cluster patterns, and social predictors. Framingham scores were applied to estimate the global 10-year CVD risks and potential benefits of CVD prevention strategies. Results. The age-standardised prevalence of having at least 2/4 metabolic, 2/5 behavioural, or 4/9 major CVDRF was 28%, 27%, 13% in women and 32%, 62%, 34% in men. Within-individual clustering of metabolic factors was more common among older women and in urban areas. High overall CVD risk (≥20% over 10 years) identified 20% of men and 5% of women-especially at higher ages-who had coexisting CVDRF. Conclusion. Multiple CVDRFs were common in Vietnamese adults with different clustering patterns across sex/age groups. Tackling any single risk factor would not be efficient.

  20. Dietary inflammatory potential is linked to cardiovascular disease risk burden in the US adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Koyanagi, Ai; Kotsakis, Georgios A; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Shivappa, Nitin; Wirth, Michael D; Hébert, James R; Haro, Josep Maria

    2017-08-01

    Dietary guidelines are a key tool in the public health quiver. Single nutrients have been linked to cardiovascular diseases, but existing metrics do not capture the overall effect of diet on inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the association between dietary inflammatory potential and cardiovascular diseases risk factors (CVD-RFs) in a nationally-representative sample of non-institutionalized US adults using data from the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (2007-2012). A sample of 7880 non-institutionalized US adults aged ≥20years provided data on dietary habits and CVD-RFs (obesity; diabetes mellitus; hypertension; hypercholesterolemia). The total number of CVD-RFs was summed for each individual to create a CVD-RF morbidity index (range 0-4) as the outcome variable, used both as ordinal and dichotomous (no CVD-RFs versus at least one CVD-RF) variables. The association between the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) and at least one CVD-RF was dose-dependent, with participants in the 3rd and 4th quartile of DII (i.e., more pro-inflammatory dietary habits) being 1.37 (95%CI=1.11-1.68) and 1.50 (95%CI=1.19-1.90) times more likely, respectively, to have at least one CVD-RF, as compared to participants in the 1st quartile of DII scores. Similar results were obtained for the ordinal logistic regression using the CVD-RF morbidity index as the outcome. Among US adults aged ≥20years, pro-inflammatory dietary patterns, as assessed by the DII, were associated with increased odds for CVD-RFs. Dietary guidelines aimed at lowering the DII may reduce the CVD-RF burden in US adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Association of Vasomotor and Other Menopausal Symptoms with Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taulant Muka

    Full Text Available Vasomotor symptoms (hot flushes and night sweats and other symptoms, including depression, anxiety and panic attacks, are commonly experienced by menopausal women and have been associated with an unfavourable cardiovascular risk profile.To investigate whether presence of menopausal symptoms is associated with the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD.Five electronic databases (Medline, EMBASE and Web of Science were search until February 17th, 2015 to identify relevant studies. Observational cohort studies or randomised intervention studies were eligible for inclusion if they followed participants prospectively (at least 1 year of follow-up, and reported relevant estimates on the association of any vasomotor symptoms, or other menopausal symptoms, with risk of CVD, coronary heart disease (CHD, or stroke in perimenopausal, menopausal, or postmenopausal women. Data were extracted by two independent reviewers using a pre-designed data collection form. Separate pooled relative risks (RRs for age and non-established cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., education, ethnicity adjusted data and for established cardiovascular risk factors and potential mediators-adjusted data (e.g., smoking, body mass index, and hypertension were calculated.Out of 9,987 initially identified references, ten studies were selected, including 213,976 women with a total of 10,037 cardiovascular disease outcomes. The age and non-established cardiovascular risk factors adjusted RRs [95% confidence intervals] for development of CHD, Stroke and CVD comparing women with and without any menopausal symptoms were 1.34 [1.13-1.58], 1.30 [0.99-1.70], 1.48 [1.21-1.80] respectively, and the corresponding RRs adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors and potential mediators were 1.18 [1.03-1.35], 1.08 [0.89-1.32], 1.29 [0.98-1.71]. However, these analyses were limited by potential unmeasured confounding and the small number of studies on this topic.Presence of vasomotor symptoms and

  2. Cardiovascular Disease in Acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Morali D; Nguyen, Anh V; Brown, Spandana; Robbins, Richard J

    2017-01-01

    In patients with acromegaly, chronic excess of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) leads to the development of acromegalic cardiomyopathy. Its main features are biventricular hypertrophy, diastolic dysfunction, and in later stages, systolic dysfunction and congestive heart failure. Surgical and/or pharmacological treatment of acromegaly and control of cardiovascular risk factors help reverse some of these pathophysiologic changes and decrease the high risk of cardiovascular complications.

  3. Health behavior and health-related quality of life in patients with a high risk of cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petek Davorina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Health-related quality of life (HRQoL is measuring a patient’s experience of his health status and represents an outcome of medical interventions. Existing data proves that a healthy lifestyle is positively associated with HRQoL in all age groups. Patients with a high risk for cardiovascular disease typically led an unhealthy lifestyle combined with risk diseases. We aimed to analyse these characteristics and their reflection in HRQoL.

  4. Lowering Cardiovascular Disease Risk for People with Severe Mental Illnesses in Primary Care: A Focus Group Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Burton

    Full Text Available People with severe mental illnesses die early from cardiovascular disease. Evidence is lacking regarding effective primary care based interventions to tackle this problem.To identify current procedures for, barriers to, and facilitators of the delivery of primary care based interventions for lowering cardiovascular risk for people with severe mental illnesses.75 GPs, practice nurses, service users, community mental health staff and carers in UK GP practice or community mental health settings were interviewed in 14 focus groups which were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using Framework Analysis.Five barriers to delivering primary care based interventions for lowering cardiovascular risk in people with severe mental illnesses were identified by the groups: negative perceptions of people with severe mental illnesses amongst some health professionals, difficulties accessing GP and community-based services, difficulties in managing a healthy lifestyle, not attending appointments, and a lack of awareness of increased cardiovascular risk in people with severe mental illnesses by some health professionals. Identified facilitators included involving supportive others, improving patient engagement with services, continuity of care, providing positive feedback in consultations and goal setting.We identified a range of factors which can be incorporated in to the design, delivery and evaluation of services to reduce cardiovascular risk for people with severe mental illnesses in primary care. The next step is determining the clinical and cost effectiveness of primary care based interventions for lowering cardiovascular risk in people with severe mental illnesses, and evaluating the most important components of such interventions.

  5. Lowering Cardiovascular Disease Risk for People with Severe Mental Illnesses in Primary Care: A Focus Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Alexandra; Osborn, David; Atkins, Lou; Michie, Susan; Gray, Ben; Stevenson, Fiona; Gilbert, Hazel; Walters, Kate

    2015-01-01

    People with severe mental illnesses die early from cardiovascular disease. Evidence is lacking regarding effective primary care based interventions to tackle this problem. To identify current procedures for, barriers to, and facilitators of the delivery of primary care based interventions for lowering cardiovascular risk for people with severe mental illnesses. 75 GPs, practice nurses, service users, community mental health staff and carers in UK GP practice or community mental health settings were interviewed in 14 focus groups which were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using Framework Analysis. Five barriers to delivering primary care based interventions for lowering cardiovascular risk in people with severe mental illnesses were identified by the groups: negative perceptions of people with severe mental illnesses amongst some health professionals, difficulties accessing GP and community-based services, difficulties in managing a healthy lifestyle, not attending appointments, and a lack of awareness of increased cardiovascular risk in people with severe mental illnesses by some health professionals. Identified facilitators included involving supportive others, improving patient engagement with services, continuity of care, providing positive feedback in consultations and goal setting. We identified a range of factors which can be incorporated in to the design, delivery and evaluation of services to reduce cardiovascular risk for people with severe mental illnesses in primary care. The next step is determining the clinical and cost effectiveness of primary care based interventions for lowering cardiovascular risk in people with severe mental illnesses, and evaluating the most important components of such interventions.

  6. Cardiovascular risk calculation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    James A. Ker

    2014-08-20

    Aug 20, 2014 ... smoking and elevated blood sugar levels (diabetes mellitus). These risk ... These are risk charts, e.g. FRS, a non-laboratory-based risk calculation, and ... for hard cardiovascular end-points, such as coronary death, myocardial ...

  7. Gut Microbiome Associates With Lifetime Cardiovascular Disease Risk Profile Among Bogalusa Heart Study Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Tanika N; Bazzano, Lydia A; Ajami, Nadim J; He, Hua; Zhao, Jinying; Petrosino, Joseph F; Correa, Adolfo; He, Jiang

    2016-09-30

    Few studies have systematically assessed the influence of gut microbiota on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. To examine the association between gut microbiota and lifetime CVD risk profile among 55 Bogalusa Heart Study participants with the highest and 57 with the lowest lifetime burdens of CVD risk factors. 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing was conducted on microbial DNA extracted from stool samples of the Bogalusa Heart Study participants. α Diversity, including measures of richness and evenness, and individual genera were tested for associations with lifetime CVD risk profile. Multivariable regression techniques were used to adjust for age, sex, and race (model 1), along with body mass index (model 2) and both body mass index and diet (model 3). In model 1, odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for each SD increase in richness, measured by the number of observed operational taxonomic units, Chao 1 index, and abundance-based coverage estimator, were 0.62 (0.39-0.99), 0.61 (0.38-0.98), and 0.63 (0.39-0.99), respectively. Associations were consistent in models 2 and 3. Four genera were enriched among those with high versus low CVD risk profile in all models. Model 1 P values were 2.12×10(-3), 7.95×10(-5), 4.39×10(-4), and 1.51×10(-4) for Prevotella 2, Prevotella 7, Tyzzerella, and Tyzzerella 4, respectively. Two genera were depleted among those with high versus low CVD risk profile in all models. Model 1 P values were 2.96×10(-6) and 1.82×10(-4) for Alloprevotella and Catenibacterium, respectively. The current study identified associations of overall microbial richness and 6 microbial genera with lifetime CVD risk. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Effects of Tea and Coffee Consumption on Cardiovascular Diseases and Relative Risk Factors: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Curti, Valeria; Tenore, Gian C; Nabavi, Seyed M; Daglia, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Tea and coffee are the second and third most consumed beverages after water, respectively. The high consumption of these beverages is due to the sensorial properties and effects on psychological and physiological functions, induced by caffeine and many other bioactive components responsible for the protective effects on human health generally ascribed to these beverages. The goal of this review article is to collect the scientific data obtained from clinical trials published in the last five years on the role of tea and coffee consumption against cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and CVD risk factors such as hypertension, hyperglicemia, and hyperlipidaemia. In normal weight subjects, clinical trials showed that the consumption of tea is inversely associated to CVD risk factors or no association was found. Differently, in overweight subjects, the clinical trials and the metaanalyses showed an inverse correlation between tea consumption and CVDs. As regards coffee, it has long been suspected to be associated to high risk of CVDs. Nevertheless, some recent investigations reported that moderate coffee consumption have no effect or even protective effects against CVDs risk factors. The results of the metaanalyses confirm this trend suggesting that moderate coffee drinkers could be associated to a lower risk of CVDs than non- or occasional coffee drinkers or no association can be demonstrated between coffee consumption and CVDs. Literature data on tea consumption and CVD risk factors support that tea consumption reduces some risk factors especially in overweight people and obese subjects. Therefore, these results seem to suggest that tea could exert a protective effects against CVD development. As regards coffee, the results are controversial and did not allow to draw conclusions. Therefore, further research is needed before definitive recommendations for coffee consumption against CVD development can be made. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please

  9. Dietary patterns and the risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, asthma, and neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Remón, Alexander; Kirwan, Richard; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M; Estruch, Ramón

    2018-01-22

    Diet and lifestyle play a significant role in the development chronic diseases; however the full complexity of this relationship is not yet understood. Dietary pattern investigation, which reflects the complexity of dietary intake, has emerged as an alternative and complementary approach for examining the association between diet and chronic diseases. Literature on this association has largely focused on individual nutrients, with conflicting outcomes, but individuals consume a combination of foods from many groups that form dietary patterns. Our objective was to systematically review the current findings on the effects of dietary patterns on chronic diseases. In this review, we describe and discuss the relationships between dietary patterns, such as the Mediterranean, the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension, Prudent, Seventh-day Adventists, and Western, with risk of obesity, type-2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, asthma, and neurodegenearive diseases. Evidence is increasing from both observational and clinical studies that plant-based dietary patterns, which are rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, are valuable in preventing various chronic diseases, whereas a diet high in red and processed meat, refined grains and added sugar seems to increase said risk. Dietary pattern analysis might be especially valuable to the development and evaluation of food-based dietary guidelines.

  10. Association of chest pain and risk of cardiovascular disease with coronary atherosclerosis in patients with inflammatory joint diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eRollefstad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The relation between chest pain and coronary atherosclerosis (CA in patients with inflammatory joint diseases (IJD has not been explored previously. Our aim was to evaluate the associations of the presence of chest pain and the predicted 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD by use of several CVD risk algorithms, with multi-detector computer tomography (MDCT coronary angiography verified CA. Methods: Detailed information concerning chest pain and CVD risk factors was obtained in 335 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA and ankylosing spondylitis (AS. In addition, 119 of these patients underwent MDCT coronary angiography.Results: Thirty-one percent of the patients (104/335 reported chest pain. Only 6 patients (1.8% had atypical angina pectoris (pricking pain at rest. In 69 patients without chest pain, two thirds had CA, while in those who reported chest pain (n=50, CA was present in 48.0%. In a logistic regression analysis, chest pain was not associated with CA (dependent variable (p=0.43. About 30% (Nagelkerke R2 of CA was explained by any of the CVD risk calculators: SCORE, Framingham Risk Score or Reynolds Risk Score.Conclusion: The presence of chest pain was surprisingly infrequently reported in patients with IJD who were referred for a CVD risk evaluation. However, when present, chest pain was weakly associated with CA, in contrast to the predicted CVD risk by several risk calculators which was highly associated with the presence of CA. These findings suggest that clinicians treating patients with IJD should be alert of coronary atherosclerotic disease also in absence of chest pain symptoms.

  11. Longitudinal Patterns of Change in Systolic Blood Pressure and Incidence of Cardiovascular Disease: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruski-Ivleva, Natalia; Viera, Anthony J; Shimbo, Daichi; Muntner, Paul; Avery, Christy L; Schneider, Andrea L C; Couper, David; Kucharska-Newton, Anna

    2016-06-01

    Elevated blood pressure in midlife contributes significantly to the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, patterns of blood pressure increase may differ among individuals and may result in differential risk. Our goal was to examine the contribution of longitudinal patterns of blood pressure change to incidence of heart failure, coronary heart disease, stroke, and cardiovascular disease mortality. Latent class growth models were used to identify patterns of change in blood pressure across 4 clinical examinations (1987-1998) among 9845 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort participants (mean age, 53.7 [SD 5.7] years). Patterns of change in systolic blood pressure included slowly and steeply increasing, a decreasing and a sustained elevated blood pressure. Changes in diastolic and mid-blood pressure (½ systolic+½ diastolic) were less pronounced. The association of blood pressure pattern group membership with incidence of clinical outcomes was examined in follow-up from the fourth clinical examination (1996-1998) to December 31, 2011, using Poisson regression models adjusted for demographic and metabolic characteristics, and hypertension medication use. A gradient of rates of all events was observed across the identified patterns. Associations were attenuated after adjustment for covariates. Cumulative systolic blood pressure load, rather than the temporal pattern of change in systolic blood pressure itself, plays a role in determining the risk of cardiovascular disease, in particular, of heart failure and cardiovascular disease mortality, independent of blood pressure level measured at one point in time. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Gender and Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Ruijter, Hester M.; Pasterkamp, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    More women than men die of cardiovascular disease (CVD) each year in every major developed country and most emerging economies. Nonetheless, CVD has often been considered as men’s disease due to the higher rates of coronary artery disease (CAD) of men at younger age. This has led to the

  13. Effects of improved fat meat products consumption on emergent cardiovascular disease markers of male volunteers at cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celada, Paloma; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J; Delgado-Pando, Gonzalo; Bastida, Sara; Rodilla, Manuel Espárrago; Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco; Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña

    2016-12-01

    High meat-product consumption has been related to cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, previous results suggest the benefits of consuming improved fat meat products on lipoprotein-cholesterol and anthropometric measurements. Present study aims to assess the effect of consuming different Pâté and Frankfurter formulations on emergent CVD biomarkers in male volunteers at increased CVD risk. Eighteen male volunteers with at least two CVD risk factors were enrolled in a sequentially controlled study where different pork-products were tested: reduced-fat (RF), omega-3-enriched-RF (n-3RF), and normal-fat (NF). Pork-products were consumed during 4-week periods separated by 4-week washout. The cardiometabolic index (CI), oxidized low density lipoproteins (oxLDL), apolipoproteins (Apo) A1 and B, homocysteine (tHcys), arylesterase (AE), C-reactive Protein (CRP), tumor necrotic factor-alpha (TNFα), and lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) were tested and some other related ratios calculated. AE, oxLDL and Lp(a), AE/HDLc, LDLc/Apo B, and AE/oxLDL rate of change were differently affected (P<0.01) by pork-products consumption. RF increased (P < 0.05) AE, AE/HDLc and AE/oxLDL ratios and decreased TNFα, tHcys; n-3RF increased (P < 0.001) AE, AE/HDLc and AE/oxLDL ratios and decreased (P < 0.05) Lp(a); while NF increased (P<0.05) oxLDL and Lp(a) levels. In conclusion, RF and n-3RF products affected positively the level of some emergent CVD markers. The high regular consumption of NF-products should be limited as significantly increased Lp(a) and oxLDL values. The high variability in response observed for some markers suggests the need to perform more studies to identify targets for RF- and n-3RF-products. Graphical Abstract Emergent CVD markers.

  14. Association between job strain (high demand-low control and cardiovascular disease risk factors among petrochemical industry workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Poorabdian

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: One of the practical models for assessment of stressful working conditions due to job strain is "job demand and control" or Karasek's job strain model. This model explains how adverse physical and psychological effects including cardiovascular disease risk factors can be established due to high work demand. The aim was to investigate how certain cardiovascular risk factors including body mass index (BMI, heart rate, blood pressure, serum total cholesterol levels, and cigarette smoking are associated with job demand and control in workers. Materials and Methods: In this cohort study, 500 subjects completed "job demand and control" questionnaires. Factor analysis method was used in order to specify the most important "job demand and control" questions. Health check-up records of the workers were applied to extract data about cardiovascular disease risk factors. Ultimately, hypothesis testing, based on Eta, was used to assess the relationship between separated working groups and cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension and serum total cholesterol level. Results: A significant relationship was found between the job demand-control model and cardiovascular risk factors. In terms of chisquared test results, the highest value was assessed for heart rate (Chi2 = 145.078. The corresponding results for smoking and BMI were Chi2 = 85.652 and Chi2 = 30.941, respectively. Subsequently, Eta result for total cholesterol was 0.469, followed by hypertension equaling 0.684. Moreover, there was a significant difference between cardiovascular risk factors and job demand-control profiles among different working groups including the operational group, repairing group and servicing group. Conclusion: Job control and demand are significantly related to heart disease risk factors including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and cigarette smoking.

  15. Gender aspects of the role of the metabolic syndrome as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regitz-Zagrosek, Vera; Lehmkuhl, Elke; Mahmoodzadeh, Shokufeh

    2007-01-01

    The interaction of the risk factors of abdominal obesity, disturbed glucose homeostasis, dyslipidemia, and hypertension is believed to represent a distinct entity, termed the metabolic syndrome (MetS), that leads to a greater increase in cardiovascular risk than does the sum of its components. We reviewed currently available information regarding gender differences in the role of the MetS as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Using the search terms women, men, sex, gender, sex differences, and gender differences in combination with the metabolic syndrome, we conducted a systematic review of the available literature on sex differences in the MetS. The National Institutes of Health, PubMed, and MEDLINE databases were searched retrospectively from 2007 to 1987. Reference lists of identified articles were also used as a source, and articles were not restricted to the English language. In recent years, the MetS has been more prevalent in men than in women but has risen particularly in young women, where it is mainly driven by obesity. Diagnostic criteria for the MetS vary for the cutoff points and definition of its components in a gender-specific manner. Based on the definition of impaired glucose homeostasis and pathologic abdominal circumference or waist/hip ratio, more or fewer women are included. Glucose and lipid metabolism are directly modulated by estrogen and testosterone, with a lack of estrogen or a relative increase in testosterone inducing insulin resistance and a proatherogenic lipid profile. Hypertension is a strong risk factor in both sexes, but the prevalence of hypertension increases more rapidly in aging women than in men. Menopause and polycystic ovary syndrome contribute to the development of MetS by the direct effects of sex hormones. Some components of the MetS (eg, diabetes and hypertension) carry a greater risk for CVD in women. Future gender-related clinical and research activities should focus on the identification of sex- and

  16. Chocolate consumption in relation to blood pressure and risk of cardiovascular disease in German adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijsse, Brian; Weikert, Cornelia; Drogan, Dagmar; Bergmann, Manuela; Boeing, Heiner

    2010-07-01

    To investigate the association of chocolate consumption with measured blood pressure (BP) and the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Dietary intake, including chocolate, and BP were assessed at baseline (1994-98) in 19 357 participants (aged 35-65 years) free of myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke and not using antihypertensive medication of the Potsdam arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Incident cases of MI (n = 166) and stroke (n = 136) were identified after a mean follow-up of approximately 8 years. Mean systolic BP was 1.0 mmHg [95% confidence interval (CI) -1.6 to -0.4 mmHg] and mean diastolic BP 0.9 mmHg (95% CI -1.3 to -0.5 mmHg) lower in the top quartile compared with the bottom quartile of chocolate consumption. The relative risk of the combined outcome of MI and stroke for top vs. bottom quartiles was 0.61 (95% CI 0.44-0.87; P linear trend = 0.014). Baseline BP explained 12% of this lower risk (95% CI 3-36%). The inverse association was stronger for stroke than for MI. Chocolate consumption appears to lower CVD risk, in part through reducing BP. The inverse association may be stronger for stroke than for MI. Further research is needed, in particular randomized trials.

  17. Increased risk for cardiovascular mortality among malnourished end-stage renal disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Frank; Sherrard, Donald J; Gillen, Daniel L; Wong, Craig; Kestenbaum, Bryan; Seliger, Steven; Ball, Adrianne; Stehman-Breen, Catherine

    2002-08-01

    Studies have shown that protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is a strong predictor of total mortality among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between nutritional indices and cardiovascular (CV) mortality among patients with ESRD by using data from the US Renal Data System (USRDS) Dialysis Morbidity and Mortality Study Wave I (DMMS-1). Demographic and medical data were abstracted from 5,058 patients who participated in the USRDS DMMS-1. Nutritional measurements of interest included subjective assessment of malnutrition, serum albumin level, body mass index (BMI), and cholesterol level. The USRDS provided follow-up data on mortality through July 1998. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the risk for CV death associated with nutritional markers. The risk for CV death was 39% greater for each 1-g/dL (10-g/L) decrement in serum albumin level (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20 to 1.60; P history of CVD at the study start. Both PEM at baseline and worsening PEM over time are associated with a greater risk for CV death. This finding persists among dialysis patients without preexisting CVD at baseline. Copyright 2002 by the National Kidney Foundation, Inc.

  18. Comparison of three lifecourse models of poverty in predicting cardiovascular disease risk in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakinami, Lisa; Séguin, Louise; Lambert, Marie; Gauvin, Lise; Nikiema, Béatrice; Paradis, Gilles

    2013-08-01

    Childhood poverty heightens the risk of adulthood cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the underlying pathways are poorly understood. Three lifecourse models have been proposed but have never been tested among youth. We assessed the longitudinal association of childhood poverty with CVD risk factors in 10-year-old youth according to the timing, accumulation, and mobility models. The Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development birth cohort was established in 1998 (n = 2120). Poverty was defined as annual income below the low-income thresholds defined by Statistics Canada. Multiple imputation was used for missing data. Multivariable linear regression models adjusted for gender, pubertal stage, parental education, maternal age, whether the household was a single parent household, whether the child was overweight or obese, the child's physical activity in the past week, and family history. Approximately 40% experienced poverty at least once, 16% throughout childhood, and 25% intermittently. Poverty was associated with significantly elevated triglycerides and insulin according to the timing and accumulation models, although the timing model was superior for predicting insulin and the accumulation model was superior for predicting triglycerides. Early and prolonged exposure to poverty significantly increases CVD risk among 10-year-old youth. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cardiovascular disease risk in young Indian women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guleria, A K; Syal, S K; Kapoor, A; Kumar, S; Tiwari, P; Dabadghao, P

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with significant risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) like insulin resistance, hyperinsulinism, hypertension and dyslipidemia. We studied CVD risk in young women (18-35 years age) with PCOS using carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) and brachial artery flow mediated dilation (FMD) which are markers of subclinical atherosclerosis. Fifty women with PCOS (age: 24.3 ± 4 years; body mass index [BMI]: 24.6 ± 4 kg/m(2)) were compared with 50 age and BMI matched healthy controls (age: 24.6 ± 5 years; BMI: 23.9 ± 4 kg/m(2)). CIMT was significantly higher (0.55 ± 0.09 mm versus 0.40 ± 0.1 mm, p value PCOS versus obese controls and non obese PCOS versus non-obese controls. In stepwise linear regression PCOS was associated with CIMT and FMD independent of age, BMI and blood pressure. Young women with PCOS irrespective of their BMI have evidence for increased CVD risk as shown by increased CIMT and a lower FMD.

  20. Development and psychometric evaluation of a cardiovascular risk and disease management knowledge assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosneck, James S; Hughes, Joel; Gunstad, John; Josephson, Richard; Noe, Donald A; Waechter, Donna

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the systematic construction and psychometric analysis of a knowledge assessment instrument for phase II cardiac rehabilitation (CR) patients measuring risk modification disease management knowledge and behavioral outcomes derived from national standards relevant to secondary prevention and management of cardiovascular disease. First, using adult curriculum based on disease-specific learning outcomes and competencies, a systematic test item development process was completed by clinical staff. Second, a panel of educational and clinical experts used an iterative process to identify test content domain and arrive at consensus in selecting items meeting criteria. Third, the resulting 31-question instrument, the Cardiac Knowledge Assessment Tool (CKAT), was piloted in CR patients to ensure use of application. Validity and reliability analyses were performed on 3638 adults before test administrations with additional focused analyses on 1999 individuals completing both pretreatment and posttreatment administrations within 6 months. Evidence of CKAT content validity was substantiated, with 85% agreement among content experts. Evidence of construct validity was demonstrated via factor analysis identifying key underlying factors. Estimates of internal consistency, for example, Cronbach's α = .852 and Spearman-Brown split-half reliability = 0.817 on pretesting, support test reliability. Item analysis, using point biserial correlation, measured relationships between performance on single items and total score (P knowledge instrument specifically designed for an adult CR population was systematically developed and tested in a large representative patient population, satisfying psychometric parameters, including validity and reliability.

  1. Ethnic variability in adiposity and cardiovascular risk: the variable disease selection hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jonathan C K

    2009-02-01

    Evidence increasingly suggests that ethnic differences in cardiovascular risk are partly mediated by adipose tissue biology, which refers to the regional distribution of adipose tissue and its differential metabolic activity. This paper proposes a novel evolutionary hypothesis for ethnic genetic variability in adipose tissue biology. Whereas medical interest focuses on the harmful effect of excess fat, the value of adipose tissue is greatest during chronic energy insufficiency. Following Neel's influential paper on the thrifty genotype, proposed to have been favoured by exposure to cycles of feast and famine, much effort has been devoted to searching for genetic markers of 'thrifty metabolism'. However, whether famine-induced starvation was the primary selective pressure on adipose tissue biology has been questioned, while the notion that fat primarily represents a buffer against starvation appears inconsistent with historical records of mortality during famines. This paper reviews evidence for the role played by adipose tissue in immune function and proposes that adipose tissue biology responds to selective pressures acting through infectious disease. Different diseases activate the immune system in different ways and induce different metabolic costs. It is hypothesized that exposure to different infectious disease burdens has favoured ethnic genetic variability in the anatomical location of, and metabolic profile of, adipose tissue depots.

  2. Differences in cardiovascular disease risk factor management in primary care by sex of physician and patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabenkin, Hava; Eaton, Charles B; Roberts, Mary B; Parker, Donna R; McMurray, Jerome H; Borkan, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in the management of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors based upon the sex of the patient and physician and their interaction in primary care practice. We evaluated CVD risk factor management in 4,195 patients cared for by 39 male and 16 female primary care physicians in 30 practices in southeastern New England. Many of the sex-based differences in CVD risk factor management on crude analysis are lost once adjusted for confounding factors found at the level of the patient, physician, and practice. In multilevel adjusted analyses, styles of CVD risk factor management differed by the sex of the physician, with more female physicians documenting diet and weight loss counseling for hypertension (odds ratio [OR] = 2.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-4.40) and obesity (OR = 2.14; 95% CI, 1.30-3.51) and more physical activity counseling for obesity (OR = 2.03; 95% CI, 1.30-3.18) and diabetes (OR = 6.55; 95% CI, 2.01-21.33). Diabetes management differed by the sex of the patient, with fewer women receiving glucose-lowering medications (OR = 0.49; 95% CI, 0.25-0.94), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy (OR = 0.39; 95% CI, 0.22-0.72), and aspirin prophylaxis (OR = 0.30; 95% CI, 0.15-0.58). Quality of care as measured by patients meeting CVD risk factors treatment goals was similar regardless of the sex of the patient or physician. Selected differences were found in the style of CVD risk factor management by sex of physician and patient.

  3. Osteoporosis - a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases: A follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasić Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cardiovascular (CV diseases and bone fractures due to osteoporosis are the leading causes of death in the elderly. Objective. The aim of this study was to demonstrate a correlation between the overall risk for CV events, and low bone density in postmenopausal women, and its impact on the incidence of serious CV events. Methods. Our prospective study involved 300 postmenopausal women. All the examinees were divided into three groups based on their measured bone density: Group I - 84 examinees with osteoporosis; Group II - 115 examinees with osteopenia; and Group III - 101 examinees with normal bone density. In all examinees the overall ten-year risk for a fatal CV event was calculated using the SCORE system tables. Results. After a 36-month follow-up, CV events occurred in 19 (6.3% examinees. Significant differences in the incidence of CV events were demonstrated between the patients with osteoporosis, osteopenia, and normal bone density (χ2=28.7; p<0.001, as well as between those with a high and low CV risk (χ2=22.6; p<0.001. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that smoking (OR: 2.23; 95% CI: 1.02 to 6.19; p=0.035, and increase of overall CV score (OR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.17 to 1.58; p<0.001 are associated with increased CV event risk, while the increase of T score value is associated with decreased risk of CV event (OR: 0.42; 95% CI: 0.25 to 0.73; p=0.002. Conclusion. Measurement of bone density with a standard assessment of the total CV risk could be useful for selecting women who need intensive prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis.

  4. The metabolic syndrome: validity and utility of clinical definitions for cardiovascular disease and diabetes risk prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Adrian

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of clinical definitions of the metabolic syndrome is frequently misunderstood. While the metabolic syndrome as a physiological process describes a clustering of numerous age-related metabolic abnormalities that together increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, clinical definitions include obesity which is thought to be a cause rather than a consequence of metabolic disturbance, and several elements that are routinely measured in clinical practice, including high blood pressure, high blood glucose and dyslipidaemia. Obesity is frequently a central player in the development of the metabolic syndrome and should be considered a key component of clinical definitions. Previous clinical definitions have differed in the priority given to obesity. Perhaps more importantly than its role in a clinical definition, however, is obesity in isolation before the hallmarks of metabolic dysfunction that typify the syndrome have developed. This should be treated seriously as an opportunity to prevent the consequences of the global diabetes epidemic now apparent. Clinical definitions were designed to identify a population at high lifetime CVD and type 2 diabetes risk, but in the absence of several major risk factors for each condition, are not optimal risk prediction devices for either. Despite this, the metabolic syndrome has several properties that make it a useful construct, in conjunction with short-term risk prediction algorithms and sound clinical judgement, for the identification of those at high lifetime risk of CVD and diabetes. A recently published consensus definition provides some much needed clarity about what a clinical definition entails. Even this, however, remains a work in progress until more evidence becomes available, particularly in the area of ethnicity-specific waist cut-points. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Built Environment, Selected Risk Factors and Major Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasmore Malambo

    Full Text Available Built environment attributes have been linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. Therefore, identifying built environment attributes that are associated with CVD risk is relevant for facilitating effective public health interventions.To conduct a systematic review of literature to examine the influence of built environmental attributes on CVD risks.Multiple database searches including Science direct, CINAHL, Masterfile Premier, EBSCO and manual scan of reference lists were conducted.Studies published in English between 2005 and April 2015 were included if they assessed one or more of the neighborhood environmental attributes in relation with any major CVD outcomes and selected risk factors among adults.Author(s, country/city, sex, age, sample size, study design, tool used to measure neighborhood environment, exposure and outcome assessments and associations were extracted from eligible studies.Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Most studies used both cross-sectional design and Geographic Information System (GIS to assess the neighborhood environmental attributes. Neighborhood environmental attributes were significantly associated with CVD risk and CVD outcomes in the expected direction. Residential density, safety from traffic, recreation facilities, street connectivity and high walkable environment were associated with physical activity. High walkable environment, fast food restaurants, supermarket/grocery stores were associated with blood pressure, body mass index, diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. High density traffic, road proximity and fast food restaurants were associated with CVDs outcomes.This study confirms the relationship between neighborhood environment attributes and CVDs and risk factors. Prevention programs should account for neighborhood environmental attributes in the communities where people live.

  6. Cardiovascular disease risk factor clustering among rural adult population in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Tanmay; Ghosh, Arnab

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to find out the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor clustering in a rural adult population of West Bengal, India. This cross-sectional study was carried out among 1007 participants (645 males and 362 females) aged ≥20 years in a rural community. All participants were grouped: Group I (20-39 years); Group II (40-59 years); Group III (≥60 years). Anthropometric measures were collected using standard techniques. Metabolic profiles and blood pressure were also measured. Mean of minimum waist circumference (MWC), waist-hip ratio (WHR), trunk-extremity ratio (TER), fat free mass (FFM), basal metabolic rate (BMR), intra-abdominal visceral fat (IVF) and arm muscle area (AMA) was found to be higher among males in comparison to females, whereas, the mean of body mass index (BMI), maximum hip circumference (MHC), waist-height ratio (WHtR), sum of four skinfolds (∑SF4), percentage of body fat (%BF), fat mass (FM), insulin, HOMA-IR and arm fat area (AFA) was higher in females. 37% of individuals (males 25% and females 49%) with high triglyceride (TG) also had low high density lipoprotein (HDL), whereas, 25% individuals (males 25% and females 24%) with overweight also had high fasting blood glucose (FBG). The prevalence of high systolic blood pressure (SBP) among individuals having high %BF was higher in the age groups of 40-59 years for both sexes. The study showed that prevalence of CVD risk factor clustering is high in the study population and warranted early intervention to safeguard the cardiovascular health of the nation. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The work of nurse case managers in a cancer and cardiovascular disease risk screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Jacqueline; Schutt, Russell K; Gall, Gail B; Cruz, Elizabeth Riley; Woodford, Mary Lou

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this conceptual model of nursing and health policy-based study was to identify the frequency and correlates of activities performed by nurse case managers. Massachusetts Women's Health Network (WHN) contracting organization sites for breast and cervical cancer and cardiovascular disease risk screening. Twenty nurse case managers were interviewed. More time was spent performing client service activities than bureaucratic activities. Frequently performed client service activities were tracking test results, finding/connecting with clients, assessing client needs, and educating clients. The most frequently performed activity was documenting services; the least, discharging clients. Client service activity frequency was correlated with client caseload size, social barriers, overall workload, satisfaction with the way activities are carried out in the WHN, special training in WHN policies and procedures, and contracting organization service delivery arrangements. Bureaucratic activity frequency was correlated with caseload size, workload, months as a WHN case manager, system barriers, satisfaction with the way activities were carried out in the WHN, and special training. Documentation requires a great deal of WHN nurse case managers' time, which perhaps could be more productively spent with clients. Thus, more efficient ways to document services need to be identified. Additional research is needed to determine similarities and differences in activities performed by WHN nurse case managers and other case managers working in cancer and cardiovascular disease screening programs. Strategies need to be identified to remove all barriers that interfere with performance of case manager practice activities. Strategies are needed to reduce client fear of bills, overcome scheduling constraints, and improve translation services to lessen language barriers to effective communication.

  8. Eating habits and the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with recurrent depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefańska, Ewa; Wendołowicz, Agnieszka; Cwalina, Urszula; Konarzewska, Beata; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Ostrowska, Lucyna

    2016-12-23

    The aim of the research was to assess the fatty acid content and atherogenicity of daily food rations in patients with recurrent depressive disorders in the aspect of risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The study included 126 persons (62 persons with diagnosed recurrent depressive disorders and 64 healthy volunteers). A 24-hour recall was used in the quantitative assessment of the diet. Anthropometric and chemical measurements as well as body composition analysis were used to assess the nutritional status. The diets of 40% of tested women and 55% of men were atherogenic, according to an assessment using Keys'index. The proportion between the PUFA and SFA content was 0.3 (women) and 0.2 (men) with recommended values of . 1. In the group of women there were no significant correlations between the selected clinical features of the illness and components of diet and biochemical data of nutritional status. It was only observed that a higher intensity of depressive symptoms had a significantly negative effect on the glucose concentration in the women's blood. It was also observed that in the group of women suffering from depression, the total consumption of fats and cholesterol content in the food decreased with age. No statistically significant correlations between the assessed variables were observed in the group of men taking part in the study. The improper energy structure and the composition of the subjects' food rations may contribute to the development of the cardiovascular system diseases in the future and make it difficult to maintain mental health at the same time.

  9. Milk and dairy consumption and risk of cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Jing; Astrup, Arne; Lovegrove, Julie A.; Gijsbers, Lieke; Givens, David I.; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S.

    2017-01-01

    With a growing number of prospective cohort studies, an updated dose–response meta-analysis of milk and dairy products with all-cause mortality, coronary heart disease (CHD) or cardiovascular disease (CVD) have been conducted. PubMed, Embase and Scopus were searched for articles published up to

  10. 74. Cardiovascular risk assessment for Saudi university employees and their families: Developing a framework for provision of an evidence-based cardiovascular disease preventative programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Alzeidan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are the primary cause of death among adults, representing 46% of total mortality in 2014. This study’s objectives were to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs, and calculate the cardiovascular risk (CVR among King Saud University employees and their families. Moreover, it aimed at assessing the possible effects of living in KSA on the heart health of expatriate employees and their families. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 4500 university employees and their families aged ⩾18 years old, using the World Health Organization STEPwise approach to surveillance of CVRFs. CVR was then calculated for participants using the Framingham Coronary Heart Risk Score calculator. The mean age of participants was 39.3 ± 13.4 years. The prevalence of CVRFs was as follows: low fruit/vegetable consumption of 10% risk to develop CVD within the following 10-years. Furthermore, this study showed that expatriates had significant negative effects on behavioural risk factors after residing in KSA, namely: high rate of physical inactivity, high consumption of fast food, low consumption of fruit and vegetable. However, there was no effect on the pattern of tobacco use. The prevalence of CVRFs is substantially high among the study population. To combat the future expected burden of CVDs, a proposed prevention programme for employees’ cardiovascular wellness is designed and recommended to be implemented and institutionalized within the university.

  11. 26. Cardiovascular risk assessment for Saudi university employees and their families: developing a framework for provision of an evidence-based cardiovascular disease preventative programme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Alzeidan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are the primary cause of death among adults, representing 46% of total mortality in 2014. This study’s objectives were to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs, and calculate the cardiovascular risk (CVR among King Saud University employees and their families. Moreover, it aimed at assessing the possible effects of living in KSA on the heart health of expatriate employees and their families.A cross-sectional study was conducted on 4500 university employees and their families aged ⩾18 years old, using the World Health Organization STEPwise approach to surveillance of CVRFs. CVR was then calculated for participants using the Framingham Coronary Heart Risk Score calculator. The mean age of participants was 39.3±13.4 years. The prevalence of CVRFs was as follows: low fruit/vegetable consumption of 10% risk to develop CVD within the following 10-years. Furthermore, this study showed that expatriates had significant negative effects on behavioural risk factors after residing in KSA, namely: high rate of physical inactivity, high consumption of fast food, low consumption of fruit and vegetable. However, there was no effect on the pattern of tobacco use. The prevalence of CVRFs is substantially high among the study population. To combat the future expected burden of CVDs, a proposed prevention programme for employees’ cardiovascular wellness is designed and recommended to be implemented and institutionalized within the university.

  12. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Perception and Knowledge: A Comparison of Hispanic and White College Students in a Hispanic-Serving Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahan, Shari; Cathorall, Michelle; Romero, Devan R.

    2007-01-01

    There are clear health conditions that disproportionately affect the Hispanic population. One hundred twenty-four (45%) Hispanic and 153 (55%) White college students completed a questionnaire on cardiovascular disease (CVD) awareness, knowledge, and perceptions of risk. Results indicated that Hispanic students rated themselves as poorer in health,…

  13. Lifestyle-focused interventions at the workplace to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease - A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, I.F.; Proper, K.I.; Beek, A.J. van der; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Mechelen, W.V.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this review was to summarize the evidence for an effect of lifestyle-targeted interventions at the workplace on the main biological risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods: We performed an extensive systematic literature search for randomized controlled trials

  14. Lifestyle-focused interventions at the workplace to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease--a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, Iris F.; Proper, Karin I.; van der Beek, Allard J.; Hildebrandt, Vincent H.; van Mechelen, Willem

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this review was to summarize the evidence for an effect of lifestyle-targeted interventions at the workplace on the main biological risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We performed an extensive systematic literature search for randomized controlled trials (RCT) that met the

  15. Cardiovascular disease, diabetes and established risk factors among populations of sub-Saharan African descent in Europe: a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyemang, Charles; Addo, Juliet; Bhopal, Raj; de-Graft Aikins, Ama; Stronks, Karien

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Most European countries are ethnically and culturally diverse. Globally, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death. The major risk factors for CVD have been well established. This picture holds true for all regions of the world and in different ethnic groups.

  16. The effects of diabetes on the risks of major cardiovascular diseases and death in the Asia-Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, M; Zhang, X; Barzi, F; Pan, W; Ueshima, H; Rodgers, A; MacMahon, S

    2003-02-01

    To provide reliable age- and region-specific estimates of the associations between diabetes and major cardiovascular diseases and death in populations from the Asia-Pacific region. Twenty-four cohort studies from Asia, Australia, and New Zealand (median follow-up, 5.4 years) provided individual participant data from 161,214 people (58% from Asia) of whom 4,873 had a history of diabetes at baseline. The associations of diabetes with the risks of coronary heart disease, stroke, and cause-specific mortality during follow-up were estimated using time-dependent Cox models, stratified by study cohort and sex and adjusted for age at risk. In all, 9,277 deaths occurred (3,635 from cardiovascular disease). The hazard ratio (95% CI) associated with diabetes was 1.97 (1.72-2.25) for fatal cardiovascular disease; there were similar hazard ratios for fatal coronary heart disease, fatal stroke, and composites of fatal and nonfatal outcomes. For all cardiovascular outcomes, hazard ratios were similar in Asian and non-Asian populations and in men and women, but were greater in younger than older individuals. For noncardiovascular death, the hazard ratio was 1.56 (1.38-1.77), with separately significant increases in the risks of death from renal disease, cancer, respiratory infections, and other infective causes. The hazard ratio for all-causes mortality was 1.68 (1.55-1.84), with similar ratios in Asian and non-Asian populations, but with significantly higher ratios in younger than older individuals. The relative effect of diabetes on the risks of cardiovascular disease and death in Asian populations is much the same as that in the largely Caucasian populations of Australia and New Zealand. Hazard ratios were severalfold greater in younger people than older people. The rapidly growing prevalence of diabetes in Asia heralds a large increase in the incidence of diabetes-related death in the coming decades.

  17. Associations of adversity in childhood and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in mid-adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Emma L; Fraser, Abigail; Caleyachetty, Rishi; Hardy, Rebecca; Lawlor, Debbie A; Howe, Laura D

    2018-02-01

    Studies assessing associations of childhood psychosocial adversity (e.g. sexual abuse, physical neglect, parental death), as opposed to socioeconomic adversity, with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in adulthood are scarce. The aim of this study is to assess associations of various types of psychosocial adversity and cumulative adversity in childhood, with multiple CVD risk factors in mid-life. At study enrolment, women from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (N=3612) retrospectively reported: lack of maternal care, maternal overprotection, parental mental illness, household dysfunction, sexual abuse, physical and emotional abuse, and neglect in childhood. Approximately 23 years later, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, plasma glucose, insulin, triglycerides, low and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and arterial distensibility were assessed (mean age 51 years). We examined associations of each specific type of psychosocial adversity and cumulative adversity with CVD risk factors. No specific type of psychosocial adversity was consistently associated with the CVD risk factors. There was evidence that a one standard deviation greater cumulative psychosocial adversity was associated with 0.51cm greater waist circumference (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.02cm, 1.00cm, p=0.04) and a lower arterial distensibility, even after adjustment for age, ethnicity and childhood and adult socioeconomic position. We found no consistent evidence that any specific type of psychosocial adversity, or cumulative psychosocial adversity in childhood, is associated with CVD risk factors in adult women. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of obesity on cardiovascular disease risk factors in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry-Okafor, Queen; Cowan, Patricia A; Wicks, Mona N; Rice, Muriel; Husch, Donna S; Khoo, Michelle S C

    2012-04-01

    Obesity is a growing health care concern with implications for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Obesity and CVD morbidity and mortality are highly prevalent among African American women. This pilot study examined the association between obesity and the traditional and emerging CVD risk factors in a sample of African American women. Participants comprised 48 women (27 obese, 21 normal weight) aged 18-45. with no known history of CVD. The women completed demographic and 7-day physical activity recall questionnaires. Height and weight were used to determine body mass index (BMI). Hypertension risk was assessed using the average of two resting blood pressure (BP) measurements. Lipid profile, blood glucose, fibrinogen, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and E-selectin (eSel) levels were assessed using fasting blood samples. Laboratory findings were interpreted using the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III reference guidelines as well as manufacturers' reference ranges for the novel CVD risk factors. The most common traditional risk factors were physical inactivity (72.9%), positive family history of CVD (58.3%), and obesity (56.3%). Obese individuals had elevated systolic BP (p = .0002), diastolic BP (p = .0007) and HDL-cholesterol (p = .01), triglyceride (p = .02), hs-CRP (p = .002), and fibrinogen (p = .01), when compared with normal-weight women. The findings suggest an association between obesity and higher prevalence of both traditional and emerging CVD risk factors in young African American women.

  19. Ethnicity and skin autofluorescence-based risk-engines for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Saeed Ahmad

    Full Text Available Skin auto fluorescence (SAF is used as a proxy for the accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs and has been proposed to stratify patients into cardiovascular disease (CVD and diabetes mellitus (DM risk groups. This study evaluates the effects of seven different ethnicities (Arab, Central-East African, Eastern Mediterranean, European, North African, South Asian and Southeast Asian and gender on SAF as well as validating SAF assessment as a risk estimation tool for CVD and DM in an Arabian cohort. SAF data from self-reported healthy 2,780 individuals, collated from three independent studies, has been linear modelled using age and gender as a covariate. A cross-study harmonized effect size (Cohens'd is provided for each ethnicity. Furthermore, new data has been collected from a clinically well-defined patient group of 235 individuals, to evaluate SAF as a clinical tool for DM and CVD-risk estimation in an Arab cohort. In an Arab population, SAF-based CVD and/or DM risk-estimation can be improved by referencing to ethnicity and gender-specific SAF values. Highest SAF values were observed for the North African population, followed by East Mediterranean, Arab, South Asian and European populations. The South Asian population had a slightly steeper slope in SAF values with age compared to other ethnic groups. All ethnic groups except Europeans showed a significant gender effect. When compared with a European group, effect size was highest for Eastern Mediterranean group and lowest for South Asian group. The Central-East African and Southeast Asian ethnicity matched closest to the Arab and Eastern Mediterranean ethnicities, respectively. Ethnic and gender-specific data improves performance in SAF-based CVD and DM risk estimation. The provided harmonized effect size allows a direct comparison of SAF in different ethnicities. For the first time, gender differences in SAF are described for North African and East Mediterranean populations.

  20. Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Migrants Participating in the PEP Family Heart Study, Nuremberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda-Maria Haas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of cardiovascularrisk factors in adults and their children from the 3 majorgroups of migrants participating in the PEP Family Heart Study 11 andto compare the cardio-metabolic risk profiles between migrants andGerman participants.Methods: In this community-based cross-sectional study, anthropometricdata, blood pressure and lipid profiles of migrants (480 children,363 adults from Turkey (TUR, Eastern Europe (EEU and Germanimmigrants from the former Soviet Union (GFSU were comparedwith age- and gender adjusted German (GER residents (3253 children,2491 adults.Results: The profile of risk factors differed considerably regardingspecificity and frequency. The prevalence of ≥3 risk factors was asfollows: in GFSU men 62%, women 36%, boys 19% and girls 17%; inTUR men 57%, women 30%, 15% boys and 6% girls; in GER men48%, women 19%, boys 4% and girls 6%; for EEU men 38%, women25% and 0% in children. No risk factor was present in GFSU men13%, women 25%, boys 38% and girls 42%; TUR men 13%, women28%, boys 27% and girls 22 %; GER men16%, women 45%, boys 46%and girls 41%; EEU men 17%, women 42 %, boys 29% and girls 27%.About 50% of the adults from Turkey and Eastern Europe were currentsmokers and one third of women and half of men from these twocountries were overweight.Conclusions: The implementation of primary care measures for theprevention of cardiovascular disease in migrants is necessary, and itshould consider the ethnic differences and the heterogeneous risk profiles

  1. Framingham risk score for estimation of 10-years of cardiovascular diseases risk in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangiry, Leila; Farhangi, Mahdieh Abbasalizad; Rezaei, Fatemeh

    2017-11-13

    There are a few studies evaluating the predictive value of Framingham risk score (FRS) for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment in patients with metabolic syndrome in Iran. Because of the emerging high prevalence of CVD among Iranian population, it is important to predict its risk among populations with potential predictive tools. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to evaluate the FRS and its determinants in patients with metabolic syndrome. In the current cross-sectional study, 160 patients with metabolic syndrome diagnosed according to the National Cholesterol Education Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III criteria were enrolled. The FRS was calculated using a computer program by a previously suggested algorithm. Totally, 77.5, 16.3, and 6.3% of patients with metabolic syndrome were at low, intermediate, and high risk of CVD according to FRS categorization. The highest prevalence of all of metabolic syndrome components were in low CVD risk according to the FRS grouping (P metabolic syndrome and different FRS categorization among patients with metabolic syndrome were identified. High SBP and FSG were associated with meaningfully increased risk of CVD compared with other parameters. The study is not a trial; the registration number is not applicable.

  2. Gastric Bypass Surgery Produces a Durable Reduction in Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Reduces the Long-Term Risks of Congestive Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benotti, Peter N; Wood, G Craig; Carey, David J; Mehra, Vishal C; Mirshahi, Tooraj; Lent, Michelle R; Petrick, Anthony T; Still, Christopher; Gerhard, Glenn S; Hirsch, Annemarie G

    2017-05-23

    Obesity and its association with reduced life expectancy are well established, with cardiovascular disease as one of the major causes of fatality. Metabolic surgery is a powerful intervention for severe obesity, resulting in improvement in comorbid diseases and in cardiovascular risk factors. This study investigates the relationship between metabolic surgery and long-term cardiovascular events. A cohort of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) patients was tightly matched by age, body mass index, sex, Framingham Risk Score, smoking history, use of antihypertension medication, diabetes mellitus status, and calendar year with a concurrent cohort of nonoperated control patients. The primary study end points of major cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, stroke, and congestive heart failure) were evaluated using Cox regression. Secondary end points of longitudinal cardiovascular risk factors were evaluated using repeated-measures regression. The RYGB and matched controls (N=1724 in each cohort) were followed for up to 12 years after surgery (overall median of 6.3 years). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a statistically significant reduction in incident major composite cardiovascular events ( P =0.017) and congestive heart failure (0.0077) for the RYGB cohort. Adjusted Cox regression models confirmed the reductions in severe composite cardiovascular events in the RYGB cohort (hazard ratio=0.58, 95% CI=0.42-0.82). Improvements of cardiovascular risk factors (eg, 10-year cardiovascular risk score, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, systolic blood pressure, and diabetes mellitus) were observed within the RYGB cohort after surgery. Gastric bypass is associated with a reduced risk of major cardiovascular events and the development of congestive heart failure. © 2017 The Authors and Geisinger Clinic. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  3. Cardiovascular Diseases in HIV-infected Subjects (HIV-HEART Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    Detection of Frequency, Severity and Progression of Cardiovascular Diseases in Patients With HIV-infection.; Effect on Cardiovascular Risk and Life Quality by Age, Gender, Classic Cardiovascular Risk Factors,; HIV-specific Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Cardiovascular Medication, Antiretroviral Medication

  4. Effects of Chinese Liquors on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Healthy Young Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Sheng Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To elucidate whether consumption of two Chinese liquors, tea-flavor liquor (TFL and traditional Chinese liquor (TCL have protective effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors in healthy human subjects. Methods. Forty-five healthy subjects (23 men, 22 women, aged 23–28, were recruited and randomized into two groups: TFL and TCL, and consumed 30 mL/day (45% (v/v alcohol of either liquor for 28 days. Results. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol/low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C/LDL-C and apolipoprotein A1 were significantly increased, and total cholesterol (TC and TC/HDL-C were significantly decreased after the intervention in both groups (P<0.05. Serum uric acid (P=0.004 for TFL, P=0.001 for TCL, glucose (P<0.001 for TFL, P<0.001 for TCL and endothelial adhesion molecules (P<0.05 were significantly decreased after the intervention. ADP-induced whole blood platelet aggregation was also significantly decreased after the intervention in both TFL and TCL groups (P<0.05. Conclusions. TFL and TCL consumption had protective effects on CVD risk factors in young humans. However, the results were valid only for 28 days, and that the possibility of adverse effect (liver, kidney of chronic alcohol consumption should be considered.

  5. Volunteering and Cardiovascular Disease Risk: Does Helping Others Get "Under the Skin?".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Jeffrey A; Han, Sae Hwang; Tavares, Jane L

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated whether volunteering was related to 5 risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) among middle-aged and older adults. Data from the 2004 and 2006 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (N = 7,803) were examined. Logistic regression was used to describe the relationships among volunteering and central adiposity, hypertension, lipid dysregulation, elevated blood glucose levels, and high inflammation, along with 2 indexes of the MetS. Among middle-aged adults, results showed that volunteers were less likely to have high central adiposity, lipid dysregulation, elevated blood glucose levels, and MetS compared with non-volunteers. For older adults, results showed volunteers were less likely to be hypertensive and more likely to have lipid dysregulation than their non-volunteer counterparts. These results supported findings from other studies that formal volunteering is beneficial for middle-aged adults, and to a lesser degree, older adults. Further research is required to determine what factors may mediate the volunteer-CVD risk relationships. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The importance of continuing surveillance of risk factors for prevention of cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Lanza

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available After peaking in the 1960s’, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs have shown a consistent decline in western countries in recent decades [1].Despite this,CVDs remain the major cause of mortality and morbidity in industrialized populations, with relevant associated socio-economical issues, while their incidence is increasing in developing countries. Several factors have likely contributed to the reduced incidence of CVDs in industrialized societies, including an increase in education and attention to health issues, lifestyle changes and improvement in diagnostic facilities and therapeutic tools. Epidemiologic studies have played an outstanding role in the decline of CVDs. Indeed, they have allowed for the identification of habits and conditions which expose healthy subjects to an increased risk of development of atherosclerosis and its complications They have also led to the implementation of appropriate programs and campaigns aimed at fighting the identified risk factors by means of changes in diet and lifestyle and the use of specific drug treatments. In particular, tight control and prevention of hypertension, smoking and hypercholesterolemia has largely contributed to the reduction of CVDs, accounting for more than 50% of the reduction of mortality from the 1960s’ to the 1990s’ [2].This approach was also crucial in improving the clinical outcomes of secondary prevention for CVDs.

  7. Environmental determinants of cardiovascular diseases risk factors: a qualitative directed content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabzmakan, Leila; Mohammadi, Eesa; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Afaghi, Ahmad; Naseri, Mohammad Hassan; Mirzaei, Masoud

    2014-05-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the number one cause of death in the world. In most analyses of health problems, environment plays a significant and modifiable role in causing the problem either directly or indirectly through behavior. This study aims to understand the patients and healthcare providers' experiences about the environmental determinants of CVD risk factors based on the Precede Model. This qualitative study conducted over six months in 2012 at Diabetes Units of Health Centers associated with Alborz University of Medical Sciences and Health Services which is located in Karaj, Iran. The data were collected based on individual semi-structured interviews with 50 patients and 12 healthcare providers. Data analysis was performed simultaneous with data collection using the content analysis directed method. Lack of behaviors like stress control, healthy eating and physical activity were the roots of the risk factors for CVD. The environmental factor is one of the barriers for conducting these behaviors. The environmental barriers included of structural environment including "availability and accessibility of health resources", "new skills", and "law and policies" which are located in enabling category and social environment including "social support", "motivation to comply" and "consequences of behavior" which are located in reinforcing category. The most barriers to performing health behaviors were often structural. The environmental factors were barriers for doing healthy behaviors. These factors need to be considered to design health promotion interventions. Policymakers should not only focus on patients' education but also should provide specific facilities to enhance economic, social and cultural status.

  8. Behavioral determinants of cardiovascular diseases risk factors: A qualitative directed content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabzmakan, Leila; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Mohammadi, Eesa; Mazloomy-Mahmoodabad, Seid Saied; Rabiei, Katayoun; Naseri, Mohammad Hassan; Shakibazadeh, Elham; Mirzaei, Masoud

    2014-03-01

    The PRECEDE model is a useful tool for planers to assess health problems, the behavioral and environmental causes of the problems, and their determinants. This study aims to understand the experiences of patients and health care providers about the behavioral causes of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) risk factors and their determinants. This qualitative study utilized content analysis approach based on the PRECEDE model. The study was conducted for over 6 months in 2012 at the diabetes units of health centers associated with Alborz University of Medical Sciences, which is located in Karaj, Iran. Data were collected using individual semi-structured interviews with 50 patients and 12 health care providers. Data analysis was performed simultaneously with data collection using the content analysis directed method. Stress, unhealthy eating, and physical inactivity were the behaviors, which predict the risk factors for CVD. Most of the patients considered stress as the most important underlying cause of their illness. In this study, 110 of the primary codes were categorized into seven subcategories, including knowledge, attitude, perceived susceptibility, severity, perceived benefits, barriers, and self-efficacy, which were located in the predisposing category of the PRECEDE model. Among these determinants, perceived barriers and self-efficacy for the mentioned behaviors seemed to be of great importance. Identifying behavioral determinants will help the planners design future programs and select the most appropriate methods and applications to address these determinants in order to reduce risky behaviors.

  9. South Asians and risk of cardiovascular disease: current insights and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalmurti, Sandeep S; Paley, Ari; Gany, Francesca; Fisher, Edward A; Hochman, Judith S

    2010-01-01

    Patients from the Indian subcontinent have a distinct cardiovascular risk profile with profound health consequences. South Asians tend to develop more severe coronary artery disease at a younger age, and may also suffer from earlier myocardial infarction and heart failure. The genesis of this risk is multi-factorial. One important culprit is increased insulin resistance, possibly due to recently identified genetic polymorphisms. Another possible explanation is subclinical inflammation and a prothrombotic environment, as evidenced by increased levels of homocysteine, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and fibrinogen. The lipid profile of South Asians may play a role, as this population is known to have elevated levels of lipoprotein (a), as well as lower levels of HDL. In addition, this HDL may be dysfunctional, as this population may have a higher prevalence of low levels of HDL2b, as well as an increased preponderance of smaller HDL. Current guidelines for primary and secondary prevention have not reflected our growing insight into the unique characteristics of the South Asian population, and may need to evolve to reflect our knowledge.

  10. Risk factors for cardiovascular diseases among male workers of building construction site in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta Parashar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is mainly attributable to a combination of risk factors (RFs: tobacco use, alcohol use, high blood pressure, diabetes, unhealthy diet, and obesity which are amenable to interventions. Building construction workers are poor and vulnerable. They are also the victims of adverse working environmental conditions and subjected to health hazards of occupational origin. Objective: The aim was to study the RFs and associated sociodemographics for CVD among construction site workers. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among construction site workers. A total of 172 male workers over the age of 18 years were included in the study. Modified World Health Organization Step-wise approach to chronic disease RF surveillance was used to collect data. The data were analyzed in SPSS version 17 and the Chi-square test was applied to analyze the qualitative data. Results: At least one RF for CVD was present in all the subjects, with majority (93.6% of them having at least two RFs. The presence of the RFs (moderate to high, 3–11 was found to be significantly associated with lower income group, unskilled workers, migration year <1, alcoholics, personal tobacco use, family history of tobacco use, and the low knowledge score regarding tobacco use (0–2. Conclusions: Community-based comprehensive behavioral and life style communication package should be established for workers to reduce the modifiable RFs of CVD.

  11. Genetic Sharing with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Diabetes Reveals Novel Bone Mineral Density Loci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjur Reppe

    Full Text Available Bone Mineral Density (BMD is a highly heritable trait, but genome-wide association studies have identified few genetic risk factors. Epidemiological studies suggest associations between BMD and several traits and diseases, but the nature of the suggestive comorbidity is still unknown. We used a novel genetic pleiotropy-informed conditional False Discovery Rate (FDR method to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with BMD by leveraging cardiovascular disease (CVD associated disorders and metabolic traits. By conditioning on SNPs associated with the CVD-related phenotypes, type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, triglycerides and waist hip ratio, we identified 65 novel independent BMD loci (26 with femoral neck BMD and 47 with lumbar spine BMD at conditional FDR < 0.01. Many of the loci were confirmed in genetic expression studies. Genes validated at the mRNA levels were characteristic for the osteoblast/osteocyte lineage, Wnt signaling pathway and bone metabolism. The results provide new insight into genetic mechanisms of variability in BMD, and a better understanding of the genetic underpinnings of clinical comorbidity.

  12. Does IQ predict total and cardiovascular disease mortality as strongly as other risk factors? Comparison of effect estimates using the Vietnam Experience Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batty, G D; Shipley, M J; Gale, C R

    2008-01-01

    To compare the strength of the relation of two measurements of IQ and 11 established risk factors with total and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality.......To compare the strength of the relation of two measurements of IQ and 11 established risk factors with total and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality....

  13. Sociocultural tailoring of a healthy lifestyle intervention to reduce cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes risk among Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudd-Martin, Gia; Martinez, Maria C; Rayens, Mary Kay; Gokun, Yevgeniya; Meininger, Janet C

    2013-11-27

    Suboptimal lifestyle factors in combination with genetic susceptibility contribute to cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes risk among Latinos. We describe a community-academic collaboration that developed and explored the feasibility of implementing a socioculturally tailored, healthy lifestyle intervention integrating genomics and family history education to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes among Latinos. The community-based participatory research was conducted with communities in Kentucky, which has a rapidly growing Latino population. This growth underscores the need for socioculturally appropriate health resources. Su Corazon, Su Vida (Your Heart, Your Life) is a Spanish-language, healthy lifestyle educational program to reduce cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes risk among Latinos. Twenty natural leaders from an urban Latino community in Kentucky participated in sociocultural tailoring of the program and development of a genomics and family history module. The tailored program was presented to 22 participants to explore implementation feasibility and assess appropriateness for community use. Preintervention and postintervention assessments of genomic knowledge and lifestyle behaviors and qualitative postintervention evaluations were conducted. Postintervention improvements in health-promoting lifestyle choices and genomic knowledge specific to cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes suggested that the program may be effective in reducing risk. Feedback indicated the program was socioculturally acceptable and responsive to community needs. These findings indicated that a tailored healthy lifestyle program integrating genomics and family history education was socioculturally appropriate and may feasibly be implemented to reduce cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes risk in a Latino community with limited health care resources. The project highlights contributions of community-based processes in tailoring

  14. Oxidative stress is increased in sarcopenia and associated with cardiovascular disease risk in sarcopenic obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellanti, Francesco; Romano, Antonino D; Lo Buglio, Aurelio; Castriotta, Valeria; Guglielmi, Giuseppe; Greco, Antonio; Serviddio, Gaetano; Vendemiale, Gianluigi

    2018-03-01

    To define whether circulating markers of oxidative stress correlate with sarcopenia in terms of glutathione balance and oxidative protein damage, and whether these biomarkers are associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Population-based cross-sectional study. 115 out of 347 elderly subjects were classified as non-sarcopenic non-obese (NS-NO), sarcopenic non-obese (S-NO), non-sarcopenic obese (NS-O), and sarcopenic obese (S-O). Sarcopenia was defined as a relative skeletal muscle mass index (RASM) 27 for men or >38 for women. The CVD risk was estimated by the carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and the Framingham score. Blood reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), plasma malondialdehyde-(MDA) and 4-hydroxy-2,3-nonenal-(HNE) protein adducts were analyzed. Significantly greater blood GSSG/GSH ratio and plasma MDA/HNE protein adducts were observed in sarcopenic than in non-sarcopenic patients. A logistic regression model showed a close relationship between serum HNE and MDA adducts and sarcopenia (OR=1.133, 95% CI 1.057-1.215, and OR=1.592, 95% CI 1.015-1.991, respectively). Linear and logistic regression analysis evidenced strong associations between the IMT or the Framingham CVD risk category and blood GSSG/GSH or serum HNE protein adducts in the S-O group. Circulating markers of oxidative stress are increased in sarcopenia and related to CVD risk in sarcopenic obesity, suggesting that redox balance analysis would be a useful part of a multidimensional evaluation in aging. Further research is encouraged to support interventional strategies to correct redox imbalance, which might contribute to the prevention or at least limitation of sarcopenia and its co-morbidities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Plant protein and animal proteins: do they differentially affect cardiovascular disease risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Chesney K; Skulas-Ray, Ann C; Champagne, Catherine M; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2015-11-01

    Proteins from plant-based compared with animal-based food sources may have different effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Numerous epidemiologic and intervention studies have evaluated their respective health benefits; however, it is difficult to isolate the role of plant or animal protein on CVD risk. This review evaluates the current evidence from observational and intervention studies, focusing on the specific protein-providing foods and populations studied. Dietary protein is derived from many food sources, and each provides a different composite of nonprotein compounds that can also affect CVD risk factors. Increasing the consumption of protein-rich foods also typically results in lower intakes of other nutrients, which may simultaneously influence outcomes. Given these complexities, blanket statements about plant or animal protein may be too general, and greater consideration of the specific protein food sources and the background diet is required. The potential mechanisms responsible for any specific effects of plant and animal protein are similarly multifaceted and include the amino acid content of particular foods, contributions from other nonprotein compounds provided concomitantly by the whole food, and interactions with the gut microbiome. Evidence to date is inconclusive, and additional studies are needed to further advance our understanding of the complexity of plant protein vs. animal protein comparisons. Nonetheless, current evidence supports the idea that CVD risk can be reduced by a dietary pattern that provides more plant sources of protein compared with the typical American diet and also includes animal-based protein foods that are unprocessed and low in saturated fat. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Are cardiovascular disease risk assessment and management programmes cost effective? A systematic review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, John Tayu; Lawson, Kenny D; Wan, Yizhou; Majeed, Azeem; Morris, Stephen; Soljak, Michael; Millett, Christopher

    2017-06-01

    The World Health Organization recommends that countries implement population-wide cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment and management programmes. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review to evaluate whether this recommendation is supported by cost-effectiveness evidence. Published economic evaluations were identified via electronic medical and social science databases (including Medline, Web of Science, and the NHS Economic Evaluation Database) from inception to March 2016. Study quality was evaluated using a modified version of the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards. Fourteen economic evaluations were included: five studies based on randomised controlled trials, seven studies based on observational studies and two studies using hypothetical modelling synthesizing secondary data. Trial based studies measured CVD risk factor changes over 1 to 3years, with modelled projections of longer term events. Programmes were either not, or only, cost-effective under non-verified assumptions such as sustained risk factor changes. Most observational and hypothetical studies suggested programmes were likely to be cost-effective; however, study deigns are subject to bias and subsequent empirical evidence has contradicted key assumptions. No studies assessed impacts on inequalities. In conclusion, recommendations for population-wide risk assessment and management programmes lack a robust, real world, evidence basis. Given implementation is resource intensive there is a need for robust economic evaluation, ideally conducted alongside trials, to assess cost effectiveness. Further, the efficiency and equity impact of different delivery models should be investigated, and also the combination of targeted screening with whole population interventions recognising that there multiple approaches to prevention. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Elevated uric acid and obesity-related cardiovascular disease risk factors among hypertensive youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, Lauren D; Miller, Edgar R; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J; Loeffler, Lauren F; Holmes, Kathryn W; Appel, Lawrence J; Brady, Tammy M

    2015-12-01

    Uric acid (UA) is associated with high blood pressure in adolescents and with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adults. We sought to determine if UA is independently associated with CVD risk factors and left ventricular mass (LVM) over time in hypertensive youth. This was a 1-year prospective observational study of hypertensive children aged 3-19 years. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of serum UA with CVD risk factors and LVM were explored. Of the 49 children who completed both the baseline and 12-month assessments, at baseline the mean age was 13.8 years and mean UA was 5.5 mg/dL; 24% had elevated UA, 51% were overweight/obese and 39% had LVH. Measures of adiposity, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, LVM and LVH were all significantly associated with elevated UA at baseline, but not with change over time. Each 1 mg/dL increase in baseline UA was associated with a 2.5 g/m(2.7) increase in the LVM index at follow-up (95% confidence interval 0.64, 4.39; p = 0.01); after adjustment for age, sex, race, body mass index z-score, change in UA, time, blood pressure and medication use, this association was no longer significant. Hypertensive children with elevated UA have a higher prevalence of obesity-related CVD risk factors. Among hypertensive children, UA may be a marker of adiposity and not an independent CVD risk factor.

  18. Is the association between optimistic cardiovascular risk perceptions and lower rates of cardiovascular disease mortality explained by biomarkers of systemic inflammation or endothelial function? A case-cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gramling Robert

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More optimistic perceptions of cardiovascular disease risk are associated with substantively lower rates of cardiovascular death among men. It remains unknown whether this association represents causality (i.e. perception leads to actions/conditions that influence cardiovascular disease occurrence or residual confounding by unmeasured factors that associate with risk perceptions and with physiological processes that promote cardiovascular disease (i.e. inflammation or endothelial dysfunction. Purpose To evaluate whether previously unmeasured biological markers of inflammation or endothelial dysregulation confound the observed association between cardiovascular disease risk perceptions and cardiovascular disease outcomes; Methods We conducted a nested case-cohort study among community-dwelling men from Southeastern New England (USA who were interviewed between 1989 and 1990 as part of the Pawtucket Heart Health Program. We measured C-reactive protein (CRP and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF levels from stored sera for a random sample of the parent cohort (control sample, n = 127 and all cases of cardiovascular death observed through 2005 (case sample, n = 44. We evaluated potential confounding using stratified analyses and logistic regression modeling. Results Optimistic ratings of risk associated with lower odds of dying from cardiovascular causes among men (OR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.17, 0.91. Neither CRP nor VEGF confounded these findings. Conclusions The strong cardio-protective association between optimistic ratings of cardiovascular disease risk and lower rates of cardiovascular mortality among men is not confounded by baseline biomarkers of systemic inflammation or endothelial dysfunction.

  19. Effects of tibolone on the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremić Katarina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Tibolone is a preparation that belongs to the group of steroidal substances. The effects of the use of the use of tibolone are the consequence of the activities of its metabolities, considering that their hormonal activity depends on the type of tissue in which they develop. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the use of tibolone on risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases in postmenopausal women. Methods. A prospective observational stady included 94 patients who had the concentration of l7ß estradiol < 50 pg/ml, and who was in menopause more than a year. Out of the total number of patients, 63 accepted to receive tibolone 2.5 mg daily (tibolone group, while 31 of the patients refused to take tibolone (control group. We measured the concentration of lipids (cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglicerides, antitrombin III, fibrinogen, and C-reactive protein, before and after the treatment within a 6-month period. Then, we compared the difference between the values of concentrations and tested the statistical significance of the difference. We also evaluated the changes of values in the concentrations of the examinated parameters inside a 6-month period in the control group. Results. In 31 patients of the control group, from the control group there were no significant changes in the values of the defined parameters as compared to their initial values after six months. But there were changes of statistical significance (p < 0.001 in values of the concentrations of the exeminated parameters before and after the treatment in the tibolone group. In fact, we recorded decreases in the total cholesterol by 17.8%, HDL cholesterol by 27%, LDL cholesterol by 4% (without statistical significance p > 0.05 and triglicerids by 35%. There were no statistical differences in the concentrations of antitrombin III, fibrionogen, and C-reactive proteine in the tibolone group before and after the

  20. Prevalence of 10-Year Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases and Associated Risks in Canadian Adults: The Contribution of Cardiometabolic Risk Assessment Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solmaz Setayeshgar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death in adult Canadians. Cardiometabolic risk (CMR derived from 10-year risk of cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome (MetS needs to be evaluated in Canadian adults. Objective. To determine CMR among Canadian adults by sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics. Subjects and Methods. Data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS, Cycle 1, 2007–2009, was used. Framingham Risk Score (FRS was implemented to predict 10-year risk of CVD, and metabolic syndrome was identified using the most recent criteria. The 10-year risk of CVD was multiplied by 1.5 in individuals with MetS to obtain CMR. Data were weighted and bootstrapped to be able to generalize the results nationally. Results and Conclusion. CMR gave more accurate estimation of 10-year risk of CVD in Canadian adults from 30 to 74 years than using only FRS. The 10-year risk of CVD in Canadian adults significantly increased when CMR was taken into account from 8.10% to 9.86%. The CVD risk increased by increase in age, decrease in education, and decrease in physical activity and in smokers. Canadians with medium risk of CVD consumed significantly less fruit and vegetable juice compared to Canadians with low risk. No other dietary differences were found.

  1. Cardiovascular disease after cancer therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aleman, Berthe M P; Moser, Elizabeth C; Nuver, Janine

    2014-01-01

    Improvements in treatment and earlier diagnosis have both contributed to increased survival for many cancer patients. Unfortunately, many treatments carry a risk of late effects including cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), possibly leading to significant morbidity and mortality. In this paper we......, and the mechanisms involved, as well as the extent to which treatments may increase CVD indirectly by increasing cardiovascular risk factors is also important. Systematic collection of data relating treatment details to late effects is needed, and great care is needed to obtain valid and generalisable results...

  2. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors among pharmacy students from Wroclaw Medical University (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilow, Rafał; Różańska, Dorota; Regulska-Ilow, Bożena

    2017-08-01

    Atherosclerotic processes begin in childhood and their development worsens during adolescence. Early prevention of CVD risk factors may have an important impact on the future health of young people. It can be also helpful in reducing the costs of treating CVD later in life. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of selected cardiovascular disease risk factors among pharmacy students. The study group consisted of 1,168 pharmacy students (892 women and 276 men) from Wroclaw Medical University. The average age was 22.9 years among women and 23.2 years among men. This cross-sectional study was conducted between 2004-2012. 27.5% of men and 7.1% of women were found to be overweight, while visceral obesity was found in 15.2% and in 10.1% of students, respectively. Hypertension was diagnosed in 27.2% of men and in 7.8% of women. Low physical activity was declared by 41.9% of women and by 31.9% of men. There were 22.1% of men and 10% of women who were current smokers. The majority of the study group did not consume enough fruits and vegetables (women 61.8%, men 75%). Body mass index (BMI) was positively associated with waist and hip measurements, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and body fat percentage, while blood pressure was positively associated with BMI and waist circumference. It was found that men with high physical activity had lower BMIs, body fat percentage, waist and hip circumferences, WHR, diastolic blood pressure and heart rate than those who declared low physical activity. Comparing women with high physical activity to those with low physical activity, only lower heart rate was observed. A higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors was found more often among men than women. Preventive actions which promote proper nutrition, more physical activity, smoking cessation and regular blood pressure checks and lipid profile tests should be implemented for the students.

  3. [Smoking and other risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, connected with arteriosclerosis among youth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel-Połeć, Zdzisława; Cybulska, Idalia

    2008-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) conference on a "second wave" epidemic of cardiovascular diseases connected with arterial sclerosis (AS) foresee that in 2020 cardiovascular diseases will most likely be the leading cause of death in the world. The development of AS begins in youth and progresses with age. It's intensity depends on the risk factors involved, such as: smoking, hypertension, obesity and fat and sugar disorder in a body. Many of these risk factors, manifesting themselves as diseases in adults, can be found during adolescence. The aim of this study was to establish the spread of smoking and other risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, like: hereditary and increasing incidence hypertension and body mass index (BMI), among youth of upper gymnasium school in Podkarpacie. The research was conducted between November 2007 and March 2008, using 193 volunteer students from upper and lower gymnasium schools, aged between 16-20 years. Our research methods included: diagnostic questionnaire, measurement of blood pressure (BP) through the use of sphygmomanometer, as well as anthropometric measurements including high, weight and body mass estimation. BP was established by obtaining an average between two measurements taken under normal conditions. The results were statistically analyzed, in with the in dependent test chi-Parson square, the level of changes a = 0.05--was used. The research showed that 23.31% of respondents smoke, that's 64.44% girls, and 35.56% boys. 12.41% of the girls and 15.09% of boys smoke on regular basis. And 8.57% girls and 15.09% boys smoke from time to time. More than half of young smokers (51.10%) smoked for longer than 2 years, and the initiations of smoking starts at the age of 15 (26.67%) and the age of 16 (26.67%). 10 and more cigarettes a day smoke 26.67% of boys and 13.79% girls. 75.74% of respondents agree that they are victims of passive smoking. Through 17.61% of respondents (mostly boys 64.70%) we found increasing incidence

  4. Habitual chocolate consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease among healthy men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwok, Chun Shing; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Lentjes, Marleen A. H.; Loke, Yoon K.; Luben, Robert N.; Yeong, Jessica K.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Myint, Phyo K.; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2015-01-01

    To examine the association between chocolate intake and the risk of future cardiovascular events. We conducted a prospective study using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk cohort. Habitual chocolate intake was quantified using the baseline food frequency

  5. Assessing the impact of the heart of New Ulm Project on cardiovascular disease risk factors: A population-based program to reduce cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidebottom, Abbey C; Sillah, Arthur; Vock, David M; Miedema, Michael D; Pereira, Raquel; Benson, Gretchen; Lindberg, Rebecca; Boucher, Jackie L; Knickelbine, Thomas; VanWormer, Jeffrey J

    2018-04-07

    The Heart of New Ulm Project (HONU), is a population-based project designed to reduce modifiable cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in the rural community of New Ulm, MN. HONU interventions address multiple levels of the social-ecological model. The community is served by one health system, enabling the use of electronic health record (EHR) data for surveillance. The purpose of this study was to assess if trends in CVD risk factors and healthcare utilization differed between a cohort of New Ulm residents age 40-79 and matched controls selected from a similar community, using EHR data from baseline (2008-2009) through three follow up time periods (2010-2011, 2012-2013, 2014-2015). Matching, using covariate balance sparse technique, yielded a sample of 4077 New Ulm residents and 4077 controls. We used mixed effects longitudinal models to examine trends over time between the two groups. Blood pressure, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides showed better management in New Ulm over time compared to the controls. The proportion of residents in New Ulm with controlled blood pressure increased by 6.2 percentage points compared to an increase of 2 points in controls (p risk scores increased less in New Ulm (5.1) than the comparison community (5.9). The intervention and control community did not differ with regard to inpatient stays, smoking, or glucose. Findings suggest efficacy for the HONU project interventions for some outcomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Intervention Fidelity for a Complex Behaviour Change Intervention in Community Pharmacy Addressing Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, K. P.; O'Reilly, S. L.; George, J.; Peterson, G. M.; Jackson, S. L.; Duncan, G.; Howarth, H.; Dunbar, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Delivery of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention programs by community pharmacists appears effective and enhances health service access. However, their capacity to implement complex behavioural change processes during patient counselling remains largely unexplored. This study aims to determine intervention fidelity by pharmacists…

  7. Models to Predict the Burden of Cardiovascular Disease Risk in a Rural Mountainous Region of Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Thi Phuong Lan; Schuiling-Veninga, Nynke; Nguyen, Thi Bach Yen; Hang, Vu Thi Thu; Wright, E. Pamela; Postma, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare and identify the most appropriate model to predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a rural area in Northern Vietnam, using data on hypertension from the communities. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted including all residents in selected communities, aged 34 to 65

  8. Cardiovascular Disease Risk in a Large, Population-Based Cohort of Breast Cancer Survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekel, Naomi B.; Schaapveld, Michael; Gietema, Jourik A.; Russell, Nicola S.; Poortmans, Philip; Theuws, Jacqueline C. M.; Schinagl, Dominic A. X.; Rietveld, Derek H. F.; Versteegh, Michel I. M.; Visser, Otto; Rutgers, Emiel J. T.; Aleman, Berthe M. P.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct a large, population-based study on cardiovascular disease (CVD) in breast cancer (BC) survivors treated in 1989 or later. Methods and Materials: A large, population-based cohort comprising 70,230 surgically treated stage I to III BC patients diagnosed before age 75 years between

  9. Cardiovascular disease - risk benefits of clean fuel technology and policy. A statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Paul; Fischer, Amelia [Economics Department, 481 Heady Hall, Iowa State University, Ames Iowa 50011 (United States); Lazarus, William; Bachewe, Fantu [Applied Economics Department, 253 COB, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55455 (United States); Shapouri, Hosein; Conway, Roger [Office of Energy Policy and New Uses, 400 Independence Avenue, SW (Rm.4059 So. Bldg), United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC 20250 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    The hypothesis of this study is that there is a statistical relationship between the cardiovascular disease mortality rate and the intensity of fuel consumption (measured in gallons/square mile) at a particular location. We estimate cross-sectional regressions of the mortality rate due to cardiovascular disease against the intensity of fuel consumption using local data for the entire US, before the US Clean Air Act (CAA) in 1974 and after the most recent policy revisions in 2004. The cardiovascular disease rate improvement estimate suggests that up to 60 cardiovascular disease deaths per 100,000 residents are avoided in the largest urban areas with highest fuel consumption per square mile. In New York City, for instance, the mortality reduction may be worth about $30.3 billion annually. Across the US, the estimated Value of Statistical Life (VSL) benefit is $202.7 billion annually. There are likely three inseparable reasons that contributed importantly to this welfare improvement. First, the CAA regulations banned leaded gasoline, and mandated reduction in specific chemicals and smog components. Second, technologies such as the Catalytic Converter (CC) for the automobile and the low particulate diesel engine were adopted. Third, biofuels have had important roles, making the adoption of clean air technology possible and substituting for high emission fuels. (author)

  10. Cardiovascular disease-risk benefits of clean fuel technology and policy: A statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Paul, E-mail: paulg@iastate.ed [Economics Department, 481 Heady Hall, Iowa State University, Ames Iowa 50011 (United States); Lazarus, William [Applied Economics Department, 253 COB, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55455 (United States); Shapouri, Hosein; Conway, Roger [Office of Energy Policy and New Uses, 400 Independence Avenue, SW (Rm.4059 So. Bldg), United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC 20250 (United States); Bachewe, Fantu [Applied Economics Department, 253 COB, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55455 (United States); Fischer, Amelia [Economics Department, 481 Heady Hall, Iowa State University, Ames Iowa 50011 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    The hypothesis of this study is that there is a statistical relationship between the cardiovascular disease mortality rate and the intensity of fuel consumption (measured in gallons/square mile) at a particular location. We estimate cross-sectional regressions of the mortality rate due to cardiovascular disease against the intensity of fuel consumption using local data for the entire US, before the US Clean Air Act (CAA) in 1974 and after the most recent policy revisions in 2004. The cardiovascular disease rate improvement estimate suggests that up to 60 cardiovascular disease deaths per 100,000 residents are avoided in the largest urban areas with highest fuel consumption per square mile. In New York City, for instance, the mortality reduction may be worth about $30.3 billion annually. Across the US, the estimated Value of Statistical Life (VSL) benefit is $202.7 billion annually. There are likely three inseparable reasons that contributed importantly to this welfare improvement. First, the CAA regulations banned leaded gasoline, and mandated reduction in specific chemicals and smog components. Second, technologies such as the Catalytic Converter (CC) for the automobile and the low particulate diesel engine were adopted. Third, biofuels have had important roles, making the adoption of clean air technology possible and substituting for high emission fuels.

  11. Stress, behavior, and biology: Risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psychological stress is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) pathogenesis during childhood. Stress promotes atherogenic behaviors in children including snacking of energy dense foods and reduced physical activity; and it also increases adiposity. Stress-induced CV reactivity may also be athe...

  12. Are women with polycystic ovary syndrome at increased cardiovascular disease risk later in life?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunning, M. N.; Fauser, B. C.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    To date, the world’s leading cause of death amongst women is cardiovascular disease. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with an unfavorable cardiometabolic profile in early life. Apart from dyslipidemia, obesity and onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus, androgens are thought to influence

  13. Cardiovascular disease-risk benefits of clean fuel technology and policy: A statistical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, Paul; Lazarus, William; Shapouri, Hosein; Conway, Roger; Bachewe, Fantu; Fischer, Amelia

    2010-01-01

    The hypothesis of this study is that there is a statistical relationship between the cardiovascular disease mortality rate and the intensity of fuel consumption (measured in gallons/square mile) at a particular location. We estimate cross-sectional regressions of the mortality rate due to cardiovascular disease against the intensity of fuel consumption using local data for the entire US, before the US Clean Air Act (CAA) in 1974 and after the most recent policy revisions in 2004. The cardiovascular disease rate improvement estimate suggests that up to 60 cardiovascular disease deaths per 100,000 residents are avoided in the largest urban areas with highest fuel consumption per square mile. In New York City, for instance, the mortality reduction may be worth about $30.3 billion annually. Across the US, the estimated Value of Statistical Life (VSL) benefit is $202.7 billion annually. There are likely three inseparable reasons that contributed importantly to this welfare improvement. First, the CAA regulations banned leaded gasoline, and mandated reduction in specific chemicals and smog components. Second, technologies such as the Catalytic Converter (CC) for the automobile and the low particulate diesel engine were adopted. Third, biofuels have had important roles, making the adoption of clean air technology possible and substituting for high emission fuels.

  14. Sleep duration, snoring habits, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in an ethnically diverse population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, Matthew; Aggarwal, Brooke

    2012-01-01

    Lack of sleep has been associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. Prior research has often been conducted in select populations and has not consistently adjusted for confounders, especially psychosocial factors. The aims of this study were to assess the association between sleep habits and established risk factors for CVD and to evaluate potential interactions by race and gender. Participants were part of a CVD screening and educational outreach program in New York City. Free-living men older than 40 years and women older than 50 years (n = 371, mean age = 60 years, 57% women, 60% racial/ethnic minorities) were systematically assessed for CVD risk (including traditional, lifestyle, and psychosocial risk factors) and completed a standardized questionnaire regarding sleep habits (including sleep duration and snoring). Lipids were analyzed by validated finger-stick technology. Stress at work and at home was assessed using a validated screening tool from the INTERHEART study. Associations between participants' sleep habits and CVD risk factors/demographic factors were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. The proportion of participants who reported sleeping less than 6 hours per night on average was 28%, and 52% of participants reported snoring. Sleeping less than 6 hours per night was significantly (P stress at home, increased financial stress, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level. Gender modified the association between sleep duration and LDL-C level (P = .04): Sleeping less than 6 hours per night was significantly associated with reduced LDL-C level among women and increased LDL-C level among men. Snoring was significantly associated with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level (stress at work and at home, less than 30 minutes of exercise per day, less than 5 servings of fruits and vegetables per day, and being overweight

  15. Depression and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elderon, Larkin; Whooley, Mary A

    2013-01-01

    Approximately one out of every five patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) suffers from major depressive disorder (MDD). Both MDD and depressive symptoms are risk factors for CVD incidence, severity and outcomes. Great progress has been made in understanding potential mediators between MDD and CVD, particularly focusing on health behaviors. Investigators have also made considerable strides in the diagnosis and treatment of depression among patients with CVD. At the same time, many research questions remain. In what settings is depression screening most effective for patients with CVD? What is the optimal screening frequency? Which therapies are safe and effective? How can we better integrate the care of mental health conditions with that of CVD? How do we motivate depressed patients to change health behaviors? What technological tools can we use to improve care for depression? Gaining a more thorough understanding of the links between MDD and heart disease, and how best to diagnose and treat depression among these patients, has the potential to substantially reduce morbidity and mortality from CVD. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Excessive TV viewing and cardiovascular disease risk factors in adolescents. The AVENA cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Luis A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive television (TV viewing might play an important role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD. The aim of this study was to examine the independent associations between TV viewing and CVD risk factors in adolescents. Methods A sample of 425 adolescents, aged 13- to 18.5-year-old, was included in this study. Body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein (apo A-1, apo B-100, and lipoprotein(a levels were determined. A composite CVD risk score was computed based on age-, sex-, sexual maturation- and race-standardized triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and glucose. TV viewing was self-reported. Results Two hundred and twenty-five adolescents (53% who spent >3 hrs/day watching TV were considered as the "high TV viewing" group. Ninety-nine adolescents (23% from the total sample were classified as overweight according to International age- and sex-specific BMI values. The high TV viewing group had significantly less favorable values of HDL-cholesterol, glucose, apo A1 and CVD score, independent of age, sex, sexual maturation, race and weight status. There was a significant interaction effect of TV viewing × weight status (P = 0.002 on WC, and the negative influence of TV viewing on WC persisted in the overweight group (P = 0.031 but was attenuated in non-overweight adolescents (P > 0.05. Conclusion Excessive TV viewing seems to be related to an unfavorable CVD risk factors profile in adolescence. Reducing TV viewing in overweight adolescents might be beneficial to decrease abdominal body fat.

  17. Environmental and societal influences acting on cardiovascular risk factors and disease at a population level: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Clara Kayei; Lock, Karen; Teo, Koon; Subramanian, S V; McKee, Martin; Yusuf, Salim

    2009-12-01

    It has long been known that cardiovascular disease (CVD) rates vary considerably among populations, across space and through time. It is now apparent that most of the attributable risk for myocardial infarction 'within' populations from across the world can be ascribed to the varying levels of a limited number of risk factors among individuals in a population. Individual risk factors (e.g. blood pressure) can be modified with resulting health gains. Yet, the persistence of large international variations in cardiovascular risk factors and resulting CVD incidence and mortality indicates that there are additional factors that apply to 'populations' that are important to understand as part of a comprehensive approach to CVD control. This article reviews the evidence on why certain populations are more at risk than others.

  18. Primary prevention of stroke and cardiovascular disease in the community (PREVENTS): Methodology of a health wellness coaching intervention to reduce stroke and cardiovascular disease risk, a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Susan; Krishnamurthi, Rita; Vandal, Alain; Witt, Emma; Barker-Collo, Suzanne; Parmar, Priya; Theadom, Alice; Barber, Alan; Arroll, Bruce; Rush, Elaine; Elder, Hinemoa; Dyer, Jesse; Feigin, Valery

    2018-02-01

    Rationale Stroke is a major cause of death and disability worldwide, yet 80% of strokes can be prevented through modifications of risk factors and lifestyle and by medication. While management strategies for primary stroke prevention in high cardiovascular disease risk individuals are well established, they are underutilized and existing practice of primary stroke prevention are inadequate. Behavioral interventions are emerging as highly promising strategies to improve cardiovascular disease risk factor management. Health Wellness Coaching is an innovative, patient-focused and cost-effective, multidimensional psychological intervention designed to motivate participants to adhere to recommended medication and lifestyle changes and has been shown to improve health and enhance well-being. Aims and/or hypothesis To determine the effectiveness of Health Wellness Coaching for primary stroke prevention in an ethnically diverse sample including Māori, Pacific Island, New Zealand European and Asian participants. Design A parallel, prospective, randomized, open-treatment, single-blinded end-point trial. Participants include 320 adults with absolute five-year cardiovascular disease risk ≥ 10%, calculated using the PREDICT web-based clinical tool. Randomization will be to Health Wellness Coaching or usual care groups. Participants randomized to Health Wellness Coaching will receive 15 coaching sessions over nine months. Study outcomes A substantial relative risk reduction of five-year cardiovascular disease risk at nine months post-randomization, which is defined as 10% relative risk reduction among those at moderate five-year cardiovascular disease risk (10-15%) and 25% among those at high risk (>15%). Discussion This clinical trial will determine whether Health Wellness Coaching is an effective intervention for reducing modifiable risk factors, and hence decrease the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease.

  19. [Association between risk factors of cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis in postmenopausal Chinese women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Wen-qiong; Deng, Juan; Li, Jing-jing; Liu, Jing; He, Li-ping; Chen, Zong-qiu; Chen, Yu-ming

    2011-06-01

    To assess the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and osteoporosis. 2202 women aged 50 - 73 years were included in this cross-sectional study from the communities in Guangzhou, from July 2008 to January 2010. Cardiovascular risk factors including age, years since menopause, physical activity, anthropometrics, body composition, blood pressure, fasting serum lipids, glucose and uric acid, intima-media thickness (IMT) of carotid artery were assessed. Ultrasonic bone density (speed of sound) at the radius and tibia were determined. Osteoporosis was defined as T-score ≤ -2.5. Common factors for the cardiovascular risk factors were extracted using the factor analysis method. Eight common factors representing obesity, lean mass, blood triglycerides and uric acid, cholesterol, age, blood pressure, IMT and physical activity were extracted. Data from the Multivariate logistic regression showed a dose-dependent association of greater scores of age and IMT factors and lower score of lean mass factor with the increased risk of osteoporosis at the radius and tibia. As compared with the bottom quartile, the OR (95%CI) of radius and tibia osteoporosis were 0.62 (0.44 - 0.88) and 0.62 (0.48 - 0.80) for lean mass factor, 4.02 (2.72 - 5.94) and 3.68 (2.81 - 4.82) for age factor, 1.41 (1.00 - 2.00) and 1.54 (1.19 - 2.00) for IMT factors, respectively. Moreover, greater blood pressure score was associated with higher risk of radius osteoporosis while the higher obese score, was correlated with the increased risk of tibia osteoporosis. The cardiovascular-related risk factors of greater IMT, obesity, blood pressure and lower lean mass scores were associated with increased osteoporosis risks while called for more concern among the Chinese women.

  20. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease: What is important for primary care physicians?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is emerging as the most common chronic liver condition in Western World and across the globe. NAFLD prevalence is estimated to be around one-third of the total population. There are no published data that project the future prevalence of NAFLD, but with an increase in epidemic of diabetes and obesity, it is possible to suggest an increase in a number of individuals with NAFLD. NAFLD is associated with insulin resistance and occurs with an increase in cluster of features of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, it is important to exclude the possibility of diabetes in those individuals with evidence of fatty liver. The global diabetes epidemic continues to grow, and it is estimated that the number of people with diabetes will double by year 2030. NAFLD is also a risk factor for an increase in cardiovascular incidence independent of age, sex, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, smoking, and cluster of metabolic syndromes. It is expected that NAFLD will be an important challenge for health providers in the near future. Taking all these factors into consideration, we believe that increasing awareness of metabolic and cardiovascular impact of NAFLD among general practitioners and health authorities may decrease the serious consequences of late diagnosis of NAFLD. Importantly, the collaboration between medical specialties is vital in decreasing the impact of the epidemic of NAFLD. The focus of this review is in the role of primary care physician in diagnosis, treatment and prevention of NAFLD and patients education.

  1. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) event rates in HIV-positive persons at high predicted CVD and CKD risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Mark A; Mocroft, Amanda; Ryom, Lene

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) study has developed predictive risk scores for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD, defined as confirmed estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ≤ 60 ml/min/1.73 m2) events in HIV...

  2. Business travel and self-rated health, obesity, and cardiovascular disease risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Catherine A; Rundle, Andrew G

    2011-04-01

    To assess associations between extent of travel for business and health. Associations between business travel and cardiovascular disease risk factors were assessed using medical record data from 13,057 patients provided by EHE International, Inc. Compared with light travelers (1 to 6 nights per month), nontravelers were more likely to report poor/fair health (odds ratio = 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.33 to 1.87) and the odds ratios increased with increasing travel, reaching 2.61 (95% CI: 1.57 to 4.33) among extensive travelers (>20 nights per month). Compared with light travelers, the odds ratios for obesity were highest among nontravelers (odds ratio = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.18 to 1.50) and extensive travelers (odds ratio = 1.92; 95% CI: 1.25 to 2.94). Although the differences were small, nontravelers and extensive travelers had the highest diastolic blood pressure and lowest high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Poor self-rated health and obesity are associated with extensive business travel.

  3. Novel Study on N-Nitrosamines as Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah A. Sheweita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Millions of people are exposed daily to N-nitrosamines from different environmental sources. The present study aims at investigating the role of N-nitrosamines in the alteration of homocysteine, lipid profile, oxidative stress, paraoxonase activity, antioxidant enzymes, and free radicals which are important risk factors for CVD. In addition, biomarkers of cardiovascular diseases such as creatine kinase MB activity (CK-MB and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH as well as protein expression of both glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase π isozyme were assayed after treatment of rats with 0.2 mg/kg body weight of N-nitrosodibutylamine (NDBA, N-nitrosoethylbutylamine (NEBA, N-nitrosobutylpropylamine (NBPA, N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA, and N-nitrosodiphenylamine (NDPA as a daily dose for two weeks. LDL levels, paraoxonase activity, reduced glutathione levels, and glutathione reductase activities were increased, whereas HDL levels decreased after treatment of rats with most of N-nitrosamines compared to control group. Moreover, levels of free radicals and catalase activity increased, whereas protein expression of both glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase decreased after treatment of rats with some N-nitrosamines. The data showed that most N-nitrosamines increased CK-MB and LDH activities. It is concluded that N-nitrosamines increased levels of free radicals, and decreased the activity of antioxidant enzymes which may consequently increase the incidence of CVDs.

  4. Unhealthy nutritional habits in university students are a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Megeid, Fadia Y; Abdelkarem, Hala M; El-Fetouh, Aisha M

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the relationship between the nutritional habits of university students with health parameters related to cardiovascular risk. Three hundred and twelve students (180 females and 132 males; mean age 21.1 +/- 2.8 years) attending King Saud University, Riyadh, KSA were randomly selected from the university register and invited to participate in the study during 2008-2009. Students who consented to participate completed a self-reported questionnaire including: nutritional screen, health habits, and lifestyle practice. Daily food consumption was recorded, and nutritional analysis was performed. Blood pressure (BP) was also measured. A quarter of students was found to be overweight (21%) or obese (6.5%). The percentage of overweight and obese male students was 23% and 7% compared with female students who were 19% overweight and 6% obese. There was a positive correlation between fat consumption and BMI as well as BP in both genders, between economical status and BMI (p=0.05), and between salty food and BP (p=0.05). There was a negative correlation between consumption of fiber, grains, vegetables, fruits, beans, and BMI as well as BP in both genders (p=0.05). Our findings suggest that lifestyle modification is important especially in young age groups. The preventive interventions should focus not only on obesity, but also on related diseases. There is a need for strategies and coordinated efforts to reduce the tendency of overweight and obesity among college students.

  5. Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Death in Individuals With Prediabetes Defined by Different Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Dorte; Witte, Daniel R; Brunner, Eric J

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We compared the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in subgroups of prediabetes defined by fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose (2hPG), or HbA1c. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In the Whitehall II cohort, 5,427 participants aged 50-79 years, without...... diabetes, were followed for a median of 11.5 years. A total of 628 (11.6%) had prediabetes by the World Health Organization (WHO)/International Expert Committee (IEC) criteria (FPG 6.1-6.9 mmol/L and/or HbA1c6.0-6.4%), and 1,996 (36.8%) by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria (FPG 5.6-6.9 mmol....../L and/or HbA1c5.7-6.4%). In a subset of 4,730 individuals with additional measures of 2hPG, 663 (14.0%) had prediabetes by 2hPG. Incidence rates of a major event (nonfatal/fatal CVD or all-cause mortality) were compared for different definitions of prediabetes, with adjustment for relevant confounders...

  6. Dietary phosphorus excess: a risk factor in chronic bone, kidney, and cardiovascular disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribarri, Jaime; Calvo, Mona S

    2013-09-01

    There is growing evidence in the nephrology literature supporting the deleterious health effect of excess dietary phosphorus intake. This issue has largely escaped the attention of nutrition experts until this symposium, which raised the question of whether the same health concerns should be extended to the general population. The potential hazard of a high phosphorus intake in the healthy population is illustrated by findings from acute and epidemiologic studies. Acute studies in healthy young adults demonstrate that phosphorus intakes in excess of nutrient needs may significantly disrupt the hormonal regulation of phosphorus contributing to disordered mineral metabolism, vascular calcification, bone loss, and impaired kidney function. One of the hormonal factors acutely affected by dietary phosphorus loading is fibroblast growth factor-23, which may be a key factor responsible for many of the cardiovascular disease (CVD) complications of high phosphorus intake. Increasingly, large epidemiological studies suggest that mild elevations of serum phosphorus within the normal range are associated with CVD risk in healthy populations. Few population studies link high dietary phosphorus intake to mild changes in serum phosphorus due to study design issues specific to phosphorus and inaccurate nutrient composition databases. The increasing phosphorus intake due to the use of phosphorus-containing ingredients in processed food and the growing consumption of processed convenience and fast foods is an important factor that needs to be emphasized.

  7. Increased cardiovascular disease risk in Swedish persons with paraplegia: The Stockholm spinal cord injury study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahman, Kerstin; Nash, Mark S; Lewis, John E; Seiger, Ake; Levi, Richard

    2010-05-01

    Comparison of prevalence of cardiovascular disease risks in persons with chronic traumatic paraplegia with those in the general population. Cross-sectional comparative study. A total of 135 individuals, age range 18-79 years, with chronic (> or = 1 year) traumatic paraplegia. The prevalences of diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, overweight, and smoking, were assessed in the study population and were compared with an age- and gender-matched sample of the general population in the region under study. History of myocardial infarction and medication for dyslipidaemia, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus were also recorded. chi2 tests were used to compare the paraplegic cohort with the general population sample. Significantly more persons with paraplegia reported a history of myocardial infarction (5.9%) than those in the comparison group (0.7%). The prevalences of diabetes mellitus (5.9%), dyslipidaemia (11.1%), and hypertension (14.1%) were also significantly higher in the paraplegic group, as were drug treatment for these disorders. Persons with paraplegia report increased prevalences of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidaemia, in particular, compared with the general population. Population-based screening and therapeutic counter-measures for these conditions may therefore be particularly indicated for this patient group.

  8. Cardiovascular disease: Risk factors and applicability of a risk model in a Greek cohort of renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasopoulos, Nikolaos-Andreas; Dounousi, Evangelia; Papachristou, Evangelos; Pappas, Charalampos; Leontaridou, Eleni; Savvidaki, Eirini; Goumenos, Dimitrios; Mitsis, Michael

    2017-02-24

    To investigate the incidence and the determinants of cardiovascular morbidity in Greek renal transplant recipients (RTRs) expressed as major advance cardiac event (MACE) rate. Two hundred and forty-two adult patients with a functioning graft for at least three months and available data that were followed up on the August 31, 2015 at two transplant centers of Western Greece were included in this study. Baseline recipients' data elements included demographics, clinical characteristics, history of comorbid conditions and laboratory parameters. Follow-up data regarding MACE occurrence were collected retrospectively from the patients' records and MACE risk score was calculated for each patient. The mean age was 53 years (63.6% males) and 47 patients (19.4%) had a pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD) before transplantation. The mean estimated glomerular filtration rate was 52 ± 17 mL/min per 1.73 m 2 . During follow-up 36 patients (14.9%) suffered a MACE with a median time to MACE 5 years (interquartile range: 2.2-10 years). Recipients with a MACE compared to recipients without a MACE had a significantly higher mean age (59 years vs 52 years, P Greek database of RTRs was good with an area under the receiver operating characteristics curve of 0.68 (95%CI: 0.58-0.78). In this Greek cohort of RTRs, MACE occurred in 14.9% of the patients, pre-existing CVD was the main risk factor, while MACE risk model was proved a dependable utility in predicting CVD post RT.

  9. Prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular and kidney disease in Brazilian healthy preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Adriana Cândida; de Sousa Tavares, Marcelo; Penido, Maria Goretti Moreira Guimarães

    2016-11-06

    To investigate the prevalence of nutritional parameters of risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and kidney diseases in healthy preschool children. This is an observational cross-sectional study with 60 healthy children, of both genders, aged two to six years old and 56 mothers, in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Preschool children and their families with regular activities at public schools were invited to paticipate in the study. The following characteristics were assessed: Socio-demographic condictions, clinical health, anthropometric, biochemical, lifestyle and data on food consumption. The 56 healthy children were divided into two groups, overweight (C1) and non-overweight (C2), as well as their mothers, respectively, in overweight (M1) and non-overweight (M2). Nutritional status was defined according to results obtained through the Anthro ® Software for nutritional analysis. Thirty-five children were male, with mean age of 4.44 ± 1.0 years old. Eighty-nine percent of them were eutrophic, 86.7% were sedentary and they had five meals a day. Body mass index (BMI) for age and total cholesterol (TC) was higher on C1 ( P = 0.0001) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) was higher on C2. Mothers were 32.5 ± 7.1 years old, mostly married and employed. Eighty-six percent of them were sedentary and 62.5% were overweight with BMI = 26.38 ± 5.07 kg/m 2 . Eighteen percent of the overweight mothers had isolated total hypercholesterolemia (TC levels elevated) and 12.5% had low HDL-c levels. The present study showed an association between overweight and obesity during the preschool years and the correspondent mothers' nutritional status of overweight and obesity (OR = 4.96; 95%CI: 0.558-44.17). There was a positive correlation between the food risk associated with CVD by children and mothers when their consumption was 4 times/wk ( P = 0.049; r = 0.516) or daily ( P = 0.000008; r = 0.892). Analyzed children showed high rates of physical inactivity, high

  10. Associations of Fitness, Physical Activity, Strength, and Genetic Risk With Cardiovascular Disease: Longitudinal Analyses in the UK Biobank Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikkanen, Emmi; Gustafsson, Stefan; Ingelsson, Erik

    2018-04-09

    Background -Observational studies have shown inverse associations among fitness, physical activity, and cardiovascular disease. However, little is known about these associations in individuals with elevated genetic susceptibility for these diseases. Methods -We estimated associations of grip strength, objective and subjective physical activity, and cardiorespiratory fitness with cardiovascular events and all-cause death in a large cohort of 502635 individuals from the UK Biobank (median follow-up, 6.1 years; interquartile range, 5.4-6.8 years). Then we further examined these associations in individuals with different genetic burden by stratifying individuals based on their genetic risk scores for coronary heart disease and atrial fibrillation. We compared disease risk among individuals in different tertiles of fitness, physical activity, and genetic risk using lowest tertiles as reference. Results -Grip strength, physical activity, and cardiorespiratory fitness showed inverse associations with incident cardiovascular events (coronary heart disease: hazard ratio [HR], 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77- 0.81; HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.93-0.97; and HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.63-0.74, per SD change, respectively; atrial fibrillation: HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.73- 0.76; HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.91-0.95; and HR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.56-0.65, per SD change, respectively). Higher grip strength and cardiorespiratory fitness were associated with lower risk of incident coronary heart disease and atrial fibrillation in each genetic risk score group ( P trend fitness were associated with 49% lower risk for coronary heart disease (HR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.38-0.69) and 60% lower risk for atrial fibrillation (HR, 0.40; 95%, CI 0.30-0.55) among individuals at high genetic risk for these diseases. Conclusions - Fitness and physical activity demonstrated inverse associations with incident cardiovascular disease in the general population, as well as in individuals with elevated genetic risk for these diseases.

  11. Cardiovascular Risk and Disease Among Masters Endurance Athletes: Insights from the Boston MASTER (Masters Athletes Survey To Evaluate Risk) Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapero, Kayle; Deluca, James; Contursi, Miranda; Wasfy, Meagan; Weiner, Rory B; Lewis, Gregory D; Hutter, Adolph; Baggish, Aaron L

    2016-12-01

    Masters athletes (MAs), people over the age of 35 that participate in competitive sports, are a rapidly growing population that may be uniquely at risk for cardiovascular (CV) disease. The objective of this study was to develop a comprehensive clinical CV profile of MA. An electronic Internet-based survey (survey response rate = 66 %) was used to characterize a community cohort of MAs residing in Eastern Massachusetts, USA. Clinical and lifestyle factors associated with prevalent CV disease were determined using logistic regression. Among 591 MAs (66 % men, age = 50 ± 9 years) with 21.3 ± 5.5 years of competitive endurance sport exposure, at least one CV risk factor was present in 64 % including the following: family history of premature atherosclerosis (32 %), prior/current tobacco exposure (23 %), hypertension (12.0 %), and dyslipidemia (7.4 %). There was a 9 % (54/591) prevalence of established CV disease which was accounted for largely by atrial fibrillation (AF) and coronary atherosclerosis (CAD). Prevalent AF was associated with years of exercise exposure [adjusted odds ratio, OR (95 % confidence intervals); OR = 1.10 (1.06, 1.21)] and hypertension [OR = 1.05 (1.01, 1.10)] while CAD was associated with dyslipidemia [OR = 9.09 (2.40, 34.39)] and tobacco use [OR = 1.78 (1.34, 3.10)] but was independent of exercise exposure. Among MAs, AF is associated with prior exercise exposure whereas CAD is associated with typical risk factors including dyslipidemia and prior tobacco use. These findings suggest that there are numerous opportunities to improve disease prevention and clinical care in this population.

  12. Work and diet-related risk factors of cardiovascular diseases: comparison of two occupational groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Danielle; Stadeler, Martina; Grieshaber, Romano; Keller, Sylvia; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2010-03-22

    Although work related risk factors associated with Cardiovascular Diseases (CD) have been well researched, there is no detailed knowledge regarding disparate occupational groups each with a different risk exposition. Therefore, two occupational groups (chefs and office workers) were compared with a focus on nutritional and psychosocial factors. Two groups of subjects were tested for work and diet-related risks of CD (45 chefs and 48 office workers). The groups matched both for gender (male) and age (30 to 45 years). The study included a medical check-up, bioelectrical impedance analysis as well as an evaluation of questionnaires on health, nutritional behaviour and coping capacity. In addition, volunteers were required to compile a 7-day-dietary-record and collect their urine 24 h prior to their check-up. Blood samples drawn were analysed for glucose and lipid metabolism, homocysteine, vitamin B12, folic acid; C-reactive protein, uric acid, red blood cell fatty acids, plant sterols, antioxidative capacity and oxidative stress. On average, the chefs showed one risk factor more compared to the office workers. The most frequent risk factors in both groups included overweight/obesity (chef group [CG]: 62.2%; office group [OG]: 58.3%) and elevated TC (CG: 62.2%; OG: 43.8%]. Moreover, although the chefs often had higher CRP-concentrations (40.0%), more office workers suffered from hypertension (37.5%).Chefs showed significant higher concentrations of saturated fatty acids and oleic acid, whereas docosahexaenoic acid, Omega-6- and trans fatty acids were found more frequently in the red blood cell membranes of office workers. While there were no significant differences in analysed plant sterols between the two occupational groups, 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine was significantly increased in office workers.Concerning the work-related psychosocial factors, the chefs were characterised by a stronger subjective importance of work, a greater degree of professional

  13. The impact of physical activity on cumulative cardiovascular disease risk factors among Malaysian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasiah, Rajah; Thangiah, Govindamal; Yusoff, Khalid; Manikam, Rishya; Chandrasekaran, Sankara Kumar; Mustafa, Rujhan; Bakar, Najmin Binti Abu

    2015-12-16

    Numerous studies have shown the importance of physical activity in reducing the morbidity and mortality rates caused by cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, most of these studies emphasise little on the cumulative effect of CVD risk factors. Hence, this study investigates the association between physical exercise and cumulative CVD risk factors among adults in three different age groups. Using a sample of 7276 respondents drawn from community centers, the REDISCOVER team gathered information on physical activity, CVD risk factors (obesity, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, tobacco use) and socioeconomic and demographic variables in Malaysia. Because the study required medical examination, a convenience sampling frame was preferred in which all volunteers were included in the study. Fasting blood samples and anthropometric (height, weight and more) measurements were collected by trained staffs. Socio-demographic and physical activity variables were recorded through questionnaires. A Chi-square test was performed to identify the bivariate association between the covariates (socioeconomic variables, demographic variables and physical activity) and outcome variable. The association between the main exposure, physical activity, and the outcome variable, cumulative CVD risk factors, was assessed using an ordinal logistic regression model, controlling for socioeconomic status and demographic influences in three different age groups, 35-49, 50-64 and 65 and above. The mean age of participants is 51.8 (SD = 9.4). Respondents in the age groups of 35-49 (aORmoderate = 0.12; 95 % CI: 0.02 - 0.53 ) and 65 and above (aORhigh = 0.58; 95 % CI: 0.24, 0.78) showed a statistically significant inverse relationship between physical activity and cumulative CVD risk factors. However, this relationship was not significant among respondents in the 50-64 age group suggesting the possible influence of other variables, such as stress and environment. The

  14. Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer: Student Awareness Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, James H., Comp.

    Awareness activities pertaining to cancer and cardiovascular disease are presented as a supplement for high school science classes. The exercises can be used to enrich units of study dealing with the circulatory system, the cell, or human diseases. Eight activities deal with the following topics: (1) cardiovascular disease risk factors; (2)…

  15. Cardiovascular risk in lupus nephritis: Do renal disease-related and other traditional risk factors play a role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inoshi Atukorala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of thickened carotid intima media thickness (CIMT in a Sri Lankan cohort of lupus nephritis (LN patients and to identify associations between traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD and LN-related risk factors with increased CIMT. Consecutive patients with biopsy-proven LN were evaluated for conventional CVD risk factors, renal parameters and extent of organ involvement in this cross-sectional study. Current disease activity and damage were assessed by the British Isles Lupus Activity Group (BILAG score and the Systemic Lupus International Collaborative Clinics/American College of Rheumatology (SLICC/ACR damage index, respectively. CIMT was assessed by B Mode grey scale ultrasonography. Increased CIMT was defined as CIMT more than the 75th percentile based on cutoffs from the "Carotid Atherosclerosis Progression Study." Forty patients (98% female, with a mean age of 38 years (age range of 20-50 and of South Asian descent, were evaluated. The mean duration of disease of 6.15 years (SD = 4.66. The overall prevalence of cardiovascular events was low and included previous acute coronary syndromes in 7.5%, stable angina in 5%, cerebrovascular accidents in 7.5% and transient ischemic attacks in 2.5% of the patients; 72.5% had hypertension (HTN [mean blood pressure (BP 140/80 mm Hg]; 32.5% had dyslipidemias (mean serum cholesterol 5.9; SD = 5.6 and 25% had diabetes (mean blood sugar 103.7; SD = 15.6. Forty percent were obese and 20% were overweight (Asian cutoffs. Increased CIMT (57.5% and atherosclerotic plaques (15.36% indicated a high CVD risk in this cohort. Diabetes (P = 0.016, HTN (P = 0.002, dyslipidemia (P = 0.002 and obesity (P = 0.048 were associated with thickened CIMT. The only LN-related risk factor associated with thickened CIMT (P <0.05 was the SLICC/ACR damage index. The independent predictors of thickened CIMT determined by logistic regression analysis were HTN and dyslipidemia.

  16. Laser therapy in cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindge, David

    2009-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death worldwide. It is broadly defined to include anything which adversely affects the heart or blood vessels. One-third of Americans have one or more forms of it. By one estimate, average human life expectancy would increase by seven years if it were eliminated. The mainstream medical model seeks mostly to "manage" cardiovascular disease with pharmaceuticals or to surgically bypass or reopen blocked vessels via angioplasty. These methods have proven highly useful and saved countless lives. Yet drug therapy may be costly and ongoing, and it carries the risk of side effects while often doing little or nothing to improve underlying health concerns. Similarly, angioplasty or surgery are invasive methods which entail risk. Laser therapy1 regenerates tissue, stimulates biological function, reduces inflammation and alleviates pain. Its efficacy and safety have been increasingly well documented in cardiovascular disease of many kinds. In this article we will explore the effects of laser therapy in angina, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, myocardial infarction, stroke and other conditions. The clinical application of various methods of laser therapy, including laserpuncture and transcutaneous, supravascular and intravenous irradiation of blood will be discussed. Implementing laser therapy in the treatment of cardiovascular disease offers the possibility of increasing the health and wellbeing of patients while reducing the costs and enhancing safety of medical care.

  17. Cardiovascular disease risk factors in Caxias do Sul-RS, Brazil adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Giordani Vasques

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite most part of cardiovascular diseases occur in adult life, the process frequently initiate in adolescence. The purpose was to analyze cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents from Caxias do Sul-RS. In this cross-sectional epidemiological study, 1.675 adolescents aged 11 to 17 years were analyzed selected in a proportional randomized conglomerates method by city sector, type of school, and school grade. Risk factors prevalences were: family history (82.4%, athrogenic diet (74.7%, low cardiorespiratory fitness (61.6%, sedentariness (55.8%, elevated blood pressure (28.4%, high waist circumference (27.7%, excess of body fat (26.5%, etilism (22.3%, overweight (19.7%, smoking (6.2%, and alcohol abusive use (4.3%. Boys presented higher prevalence of atherogenic diet (79.4%>70.7%, while girls of sedentariness (66.8%>43.2%, low cardiorespiratory fitness (69.4%>53.0%, smoking (7.9%>4.3%, high waist circumference (32.9%>21.7%, and excess of fat (32.5%>19.7%. In girls, it was associated to sedentariness the age of 15-17y (PR=1.30, living until four people at home (PR=1.17, and to present sedentary behaviours more than 14 hours/week (PR=1.21, to present atherogenic diet (PR=1.12 and low fitness (PR=1.21. In boys, sedentariness was associated to low fitness (PR=1.21. Low cardiorespiratory fitness was associated in girls to the age of 15-17y (PR=1.43, and to mother sedentariness (PR=1.13, and in boys to passive transport to school (PR=1.18. To girls and boys, respectively, sedentariness (PR=1.19 and PR=1.17, overweight (PR=1.16 and PR=1.24, and excess of body fat (PR=1.14 and PR=1.51 were associated to low fitness. Physical activity interventions must be focused on girls, aged 15 to 17 years, living until four people, and exposed to sedentary behaviours. It is recommended more attention to girls in interventions on physical activity, smoking, and excess of weight, and to boys, in food habits

  18. Effect of Baseline Nutritional Status on Long-term Multivitamin Use and Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautiainen, Susanne; Gaziano, J. Michael; Christen, William G.; Bubes, Vadim; Kotler, Gregory; Glynn, Robert J.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Buring, Julie E.

    2017-01-01

    Importance Long-term multivitamin use had no effect on risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the Physicians’ Health Study II. Baseline nutritional status may have modified the lack of effect. Objective To investigate effect modification by various baseline dietary factors on CVD risk in the Physicians’ Health Study II. Design, Setting, and Participants The Physicians’ Health Study II was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial testing multivitamin use (multivitamin [Centrum Silver] or placebo daily) among US male physicians. The Physicians’ Health Study II included 14 641 male physicians 50 years or older, 13 316 of whom (91.0%) completed a baseline 116-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire and were included in the analyses. This study examined effect modification by baseline intake of key foods, individual nutrients, dietary patterns (Alternate Healthy Eating Index and Alternate Mediterranean Diet Score), and dietary supplement use. The study began in 1997, with continued treatment and follow-up through June 1, 2011. Interventions Multivitamin or placebo daily. Main Outcomes and Measures Major cardiovascular events, including nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, and CVD mortality. Secondary outcomes included myocardial infarction, total stroke, CVD mortality, and total mortality individually. Results In total, 13 316 male physicians (mean [SD] age at randomization, 64.0 [9.0] years in those receiving the active multivitamin and 64.0 [9.1] years in those receiving the placebo) were observed for a mean (SD) follow-up of 11.4 (2.3) years. There was no consistent evidence of effect modification by various foods, nutrients, dietary patterns, or baseline supplement use on the effect of multivitamin use on CVD end points. Statistically significant interaction effects were observed between multivitamin use and vitamin B6 intake on myocardial infarction, between multivitamin use and vitamin D intake on CVD mortality

  19. Cardiovascular disease risk profiles among 'healthy' siblings of patients with early-onset cardiovascular disease: application of the new SCORE system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, Paul G; Kamaruddin, Muhammad S; Moore, Michael J; McCarty, David; Spence, Mark S; McGlinchey, Paul G; Murphy, Gillian; Jardine, Tracy C L; Patterson, Chris C; McKeown, Pascal P

    2007-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) occurs more frequently in individuals with a family history of premature CVD. Within families the demographics of CVD are poorly described. We examined the risk estimation based on the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) system and the Joint British Guidelines (JBG) for older unaffected siblings of patients with premature CVD (onset siblings. Siblings were screened for clinically overt CVD by a standard questionnaire and 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG). A total of 790 siblings was identified and full demographic details were available for 645. The following siblings were excluded: 41 with known diabetes mellitus; seven with random plasma glucose of 11.1 mmol/l or greater; and eight with ischaemic ECG. Data were analysed for 589 siblings from 405 families. The mean age was 55.0 years, 43.1% were men and 28.7% were smokers. The mean total serum cholesterol was 5.8 mmol/l and hypertension was present in 49.4%. Using the SCORE system, when projected to age 60 years, 181 men (71.3%) and 67 women (20.0%) would be eligible for risk factor modification. Using JBG with a 10-year risk of 20% or greater, 42 men (16.5%) and four women (1.2%) would be targeted. Large numbers of these asymptomatic individuals meet both European and British guidelines for the primary prevention of CVD and should be targeted for risk factor modification. The prevalence of individuals defined as eligible for treatment is much higher when using the SCORE system.

  20. Cardiovascular disease risk factors in a Nigerian population with impaired fasting blood glucose level and diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oguoma, Victor M.; Nwose, Ezekiel U.; Ulasi, Ifeoma I.

    2017-01-01

    Background Diabetes is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and there are reports of increasing prevalence of prediabetes in Nigeria. This study therefore characterised CVDs risk factors in subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and diabetes. Methods Data from 4 population......-based cross-sectional studies on 2447 apparently healthy individuals from 18 - 89 years were analysed. Anthropometric, blood pressure and biochemical parameters were collected and classified. Individuals with IFG (prediabetes) and diabetes were merged each for positive cases of dyslipidaemia, high blood...... the need for risk assessment models for prediabetes and education of individuals at risk about factors that mitigate development of diabetes and CVDs....